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Sample records for ephemeral fever

  1. Bovine ephemeral fever in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Wang, F I; Hsu, A M; Huang, K J

    2001-11-01

    Bovine ephemeral fever (BEF) is a vector-borne disease of cattle, spanning tropical and subtropical zones of Asia, Australia, and Africa, caused by Ephemerovirus of the Rhabdoviridae. Taiwan has had 3 BEF epizootics, occurring in 1989, 1996, and 1999, since the vaccination regimen was initiated in 1984, given once a year in the spring with a single-dose formaldehyde-inactivated vaccine using the 1983 isolate as the seed virus. This study evaluated the 1999 population immunity against BEF virus in Taiwanese dairy cows with a neutralization test and whether the recent BEF virus isolates have mutated significantly from the vaccine virus. In March 1999, before vaccination, 94% of the animals studied were already seropositive, suggestive of an endemic or persistent infection from the previous year. By June 1999, when 51% of herds had been vaccinated, the antibody level rose, and by September 1999, the serum-neutralizing antibody (SNA) level fell to a minimum, preceding the outbreak of BEF in October 1999, during which the antibody levels of vaccinated cows continued to decline while those of unvaccinated cows rose sharply. The results suggest that, in 1999, vaccine-induced immunity was partially protective against BEE Because the current single-dose vaccination regimen resulted in minimal population immunity by September, a booster vaccination given in late summer may be advisable for future disease control. Analysis of the glycoprotein gene of Taiwanese isolates between 1983 and 1999 showed a 97.4-99.6% homology, with an alteration of 4 amino acids in antigenic sites G1, G3b, and G3c. Phylogenetic analysis of Taiwanese isolates revealed at least 2 distinct clusters: the 1983-1989 isolates and the 1996-1999 isolates. Both were distinct from 2 Japanese strains and the Australian BB7721 strain. Thus, at least 2 distinct BEF viruses, which had diverged before 1983, existed in Taiwanese dairy cows. PMID:11724135

  2. Epidemiology and control of bovine ephemeral fever.

    PubMed

    Walker, Peter J; Klement, Eyal

    2015-01-01

    Bovine ephemeral fever (or 3-day sickness) is an acute febrile illness of cattle and water buffaloes. Caused by an arthropod-borne rhabdovirus, bovine ephemeral fever virus (BEFV), the disease occurs seasonally over a vast expanse of the globe encompassing much of Africa, the Middle East, Asia and Australia. Although mortality rates are typically low, infection prevalence and morbidity rates during outbreaks are often very high, causing serious economic impacts through loss of milk production, poor cattle condition at sale and loss of traction power at harvest. There are also significant impacts on trade to regions in which the disease does not occur, including the Americas and most of Europe. In recent years, unusually severe outbreaks of bovine ephemeral fever have been reported from several regions in Asia and the Middle East, with mortality rates through disease or culling in excess of 10-20%. There are also concerns that, like other vector-borne diseases of livestock, the geographic distribution of bovine ephemeral fever could expand into regions that have historically been free of the disease. Here, we review current knowledge of the virus, including its molecular and antigenic structure, and the epidemiology of the disease across its entire geographic range. We also discuss the effectiveness of vaccination and other strategies to prevent or control infection. PMID:26511615

  3. Epidemiology and control of bovine ephemeral fever.

    PubMed

    Walker, Peter J; Klement, Eyal

    2015-01-01

    Bovine ephemeral fever (or 3-day sickness) is an acute febrile illness of cattle and water buffaloes. Caused by an arthropod-borne rhabdovirus, bovine ephemeral fever virus (BEFV), the disease occurs seasonally over a vast expanse of the globe encompassing much of Africa, the Middle East, Asia and Australia. Although mortality rates are typically low, infection prevalence and morbidity rates during outbreaks are often very high, causing serious economic impacts through loss of milk production, poor cattle condition at sale and loss of traction power at harvest. There are also significant impacts on trade to regions in which the disease does not occur, including the Americas and most of Europe. In recent years, unusually severe outbreaks of bovine ephemeral fever have been reported from several regions in Asia and the Middle East, with mortality rates through disease or culling in excess of 10-20%. There are also concerns that, like other vector-borne diseases of livestock, the geographic distribution of bovine ephemeral fever could expand into regions that have historically been free of the disease. Here, we review current knowledge of the virus, including its molecular and antigenic structure, and the epidemiology of the disease across its entire geographic range. We also discuss the effectiveness of vaccination and other strategies to prevent or control infection.

  4. Serological and biochemical factors in bovine ephemeral fever.

    PubMed

    St George, T D; Cybinski, D H; Murphy, G M; Dimmock, C K

    1984-01-01

    Clinical signs of ephemeral fever, which were observed in individual cattle during two successive epidemics in 1973 and 1976, were related to biochemical, cellular and serological changes in the blood. The rise in peripheral blood neutrophil counts in samples collected from 12 sentinel cattle on a daily basis before, during and after natural disease in the two epidemics to mean peaks of 9.6-12.5 X 10(9) per litre, and fall in counts of lymphocytes to a trough of 5-7 X 10(9) per litre was found to occur on the same day as the fever peak. A fall in serum calcium levels from a normal mean of 2.55 mmol/l to 2.0 mmol/l occurred on the day clinical signs were most pronounced. Serum magnesium levels were affected to only a minor degree. Plasma fibrinogen rose from a normal mean of 5.0 milligrams to a peak of 18 milligrams on the second day of disease and fell towards normal in the week after recovery. Neutralizing antibodies to bovine ephemeral fever virus were detected up to 63 days prior to clinical disease, and the rise of antibody after recovery was secondary in pattern. Serological evidence of a prior infection with an antigenically related virus, Kimberley virus, was found in these animals. In more severe clinical cases of ephemeral fever serum calcium levels were as low as 1.95 mmol/l. Treatment of cattle showing clinical signs of the disease with phenylbutazone and calcium borogluconate was favourable.

  5. The epizootiology of bovine ephemeral fever in Australia and Papua-New Guinea.

    PubMed

    George, T D; Standfast, H A; Christie, D G; Knott, S G; Morgan, I R

    1977-01-01

    The epizootiology of ephemeral fever in Australia from its first recognition until 1968 was reviewed. Since 1968, ephemeral fever often in a silent form has been shown to be enzootic in northern Australia, by the use of sentinel cattle. The major epizootics which occured in 1970-1971, 1972-1974 and 1974-1975 are described. These epizootics were characterised by an apparently rapid movement of disease in a general north-south direction in summer months. Ephemeral fever antibody was detected in 11% of 1009 domesticated and feral water buffaloes.

  6. Bovine ephemeral fever in Australia and the world.

    PubMed

    Walker, P J

    2005-01-01

    Bovine ephemeral fever (BEF) is a disabling viral disease of cattle and water buffaloes. It can cause significant economic impact through reduced milk production in dairy herds, loss of condition in beef cattle and loss of draught animals at the time of harvest. Available evidence indicates clinical signs of BEF, which include bi-phasic fever, anorexia, muscle stiffness, ocular and nasal discharge, ruminal stasis and recumbency, are due primarily to a vascular inflammatory response. In Australia, between 1936 and 1976, BEF occurred in sweeping epizootics that commenced in the tropical far north and spread over vast cattle grazing areas of the continent. In the late 1970s, following several epizootics in rapid succession, the disease became enzootic in most of northern and eastern Australia. In Africa, the Middle East and Asia, BEF occurs as also epizootics which originate in enzootic tropical areas and sweep north or south to sub-tropical and temperate zones. The causative virus is transmitted by haematophagous insects that appear to be borne on the wind, allowing rapid spread of the disease. Bovine ephemeral fever virus (BEFV) has been classified as the type species of the genus Ephemerovirus in the Rhabdoviridae. It has a complex genome organization which includes two glycoprotein genes that appear to have arisen by gene duplication. The virion surface glycoprotein (G protein) contains four major antigenic sites that are targets for neutralizing antibody. An analysis of a large number of BEFV isolates collected in Australia between 1956 and 1992 has indicated remarkable stability in most neutralization sites. However, epitope shifts have occurred in the major conformational site G3 and these have been traced to specific mutations in the amino acid sequence. BEFV isolates from mainland China and Taiwan are closely related to Australian isolates, but some variations have been detected. Natural BEFV infection induces a strong neutralizing antibody response and

  7. Bovine Ephemeral Fever in Iran: Diagnosis, Isolation and Molecular Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Bakhshesh, Mehran; Abdollahi, Darab

    2015-01-01

    Background: Bovine ephemeral fever (BEFV) is an arthropod-borne disease of cattle and water buffaloes. BEFV occurs seasonally in tropical, subtropical and temperate regions of Africa, Asia and Australia. It has been known for the past decades in Iran based on clinical signs but lack of an accurate diagnosis has made the real feature of disease obscured. This is the first scientific report on isolation and identification of the agent in which molecular diagnosis of BEFV was also set up with high sensitivity and specificity. Methods: The viral agent was successfully isolated through serial passages in brain of suckling mice and cell culture. In addition, the circulating virus during the autumn 2012 in Iran was molecularly characterized based on partial G gene. Results: Alignment of 3 virus sequences from different parts of Iran revealed that they are identical suggesting that the circulating viruses were most likely the same in this period. Phylogenetic analysis of the Iranian sequences with 17 sequences in the GenBank from the world showed that it is identical to the virus circulated in Turkey during the same period suggesting that the virus was circulated in a large geographic region. Conclusion: These results offer primary information about BEFV in Iran. To better understanding the epidemiology of the virus, further studies based on seroepidemiology, molecular epidemiology, entomology and meteorology together with finding the model of animal transportation in the region are necessary. PMID:26623431

  8. Evolution of Bovine Ephemeral Fever Virus in the Australian Episystem

    PubMed Central

    Trinidad, Lee; Blasdell, Kim R.; Joubert, D. Albert; Davis, Steven S.; Melville, Lorna; Kirkland, Peter D.; Coulibaly, Fasséli; Holmes, Edward C.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bovine ephemeral fever virus (BEFV) is an arthropod-borne rhabdovirus that causes a debilitating disease of cattle in Africa, Asia, and Australia; however, its global geodynamics are poorly understood. An evolutionary analysis of G gene (envelope glycoprotein) ectodomain sequences of 97 BEFV isolates collected from Australia during 1956 to 2012 revealed that all have a single common ancestor and are phylogenetically distinct from BEFV sampled in other geographical regions. The age of the Australian clade is estimated to be between 56 and 65 years, suggesting that BEFV has entered the continent on few occasions since it was first reported in 1936 and that the 1955-1956 epizootic was the source of all currently circulating viruses. Notably, the Australian clade has evolved as a single genetic lineage across the continent and at a high evolutionary rate of ∼10−3 nucleotide substitutions/site/year. Screening of 66 isolates using monoclonal antibodies indicated that neutralizing antigenic sites G1, G2, and G4 have been relatively stable, although variations in site G3a/b defined four antigenic subtypes. A shift in an epitope at site G3a, which occurred in the mid-1970s, was strongly associated with a K218R substitution. Similarly, a shift at site G3b was associated primarily with substitutions at residues 215, 220, and 223, which map to the tip of the spike on the prefusion form of the G protein. Finally, we propose that positive selection on residue 215 was due to cross-reacting neutralizing antibody to Kimberley virus (KIMV). IMPORTANCE PMID:24227855

  9. Epidemiological Investigation of Bovine Ephemeral Fever Outbreaks in Israel

    PubMed Central

    Yeruham, Israel; Van Ham, Michael; Stram, Yehuda; Friedgut, Orly; Yadin, Hagai; Mumcuoglu, Kosta Y.; Braverman, Yehuda

    2010-01-01

    Outbreaks of bovine ephemeral fever (BEF) occurred in Israel in 1990, 1999, and 2004. The main patterns of BEF spread were similar in the 1990 and in 1999 epidemics, and the BEF virus was probably carried in vectors transported by air streams across the Rift Valley and the Red Sea. In the 2004 outbreak, the primary focus of the disease was the southern Mediterranean coastal plain and the disease agent was apparently brought by infected mosquitoes carried from their breeding site in the Nile Delta by the south-western winds. The disease broke out under optimal ecological conditions, among a vulnerable cattle population and spread rapidly; it showed essentially a spring-summer herd incidence and terminated soon after the night average ambient temperature fell below 16°C in late autumn. The herd incidence of the disease reached 78.4%, 97.7%, and 100% in 1990, 1999, and 2004, respectively. The highest herd incidence, morbidity, and case fatality rates were noted in dairy cattle herds in the Jordan Valley, with morbidity of 20%, 38.6%, and 22.2%, and case fatality rate among affected animals of 2%, 8.6%, and 5.4% in 1990, 1999, and 2004, respectively. The average sero-positivity to BEF in 1999 was 39.5%, which matched the morbidity rate. Comparison among the various age groups showed that the lowest morbidity rates were observed in the youngest age group, that is, heifers up to 1 year, with 3.2%, 3.6%, and 4.2% in 1990, 1999, and 2004, respectively. In heifers from 1 year to calving, the morbidity rates were 13.8%, 14.9%, and 28%, respectively, in first calvers 30.8%, 31.6%, and 28.3%, respectively, and in cows 34.3%, 35.7%, and 27.2%, respectively. All affected cattle were over the age of 3 months. It is hypothesized that mosquitoes and not Culicoides spp. are the vectors of the BEF virus in Israel. PMID:20814543

  10. Studies on the pathogenesis of bovine ephemeral fever. IV: A comparison with the inflammatory events in milk fever of cattle.

    PubMed

    St George, T D; Murphy, G M; Burren, B; Uren, M F

    1995-09-01

    The study of ephemeral fever in cattle has defined a range of haematological and biochemical changes in blood which are characteristic of an inflammatory response. One of the clinical signs of ephemeral fever, a temporary paralysis reversible by treatment with calcium borogluconate, is similar to that in milk fever (parturient paresis), a disease of multiparous dairy cows. Three separate groups of cows were studied. Four multiparous cows were observed and sampled repeatedly during calving, three similar cows and one cow calving for the first time in a dairy herd were sampled daily before and after calving; and, in other dairy herds, seven cows with milk fever were sampled during illness. One of the cows under repeated observation during calving developed milk fever. The results showed that all the inflammatory indicators in blood were present in the multiparous cows at calving and that these were essentially similar to those established in ephemeral fever. The similarities in the four cows sampled repeatedly during the periparturient period were: a rectal temperature rise of 1 to 1.2 degrees C; rise in circulating neutrophils to peaks between 5700 and 11200 l-6; disappearance of eosinophils for 1 day; hypocalcaemia (plasma Ca < 2.0 mM l-1); fall of plasma zinc to low levels immediately after calving (plasma Zn < 500 micrograms l-1); fall of inorganic phosphate (plasma P < 0.9 mM l-1); rises in copper (plasma Cu > 1000 micrograms l-1) and plasma fibrin to > 8.75 g l-1. Plasma glucose peaked at calving between 5.7 and 8.9 mM l-1 then fell to levels ranging between 3.4 and 3.8 mM l-1. Plasma iron rose in one cow to 1220 micrograms l-1, was unchanged in one cow and fell in the other two to 440 and 860 micrograms l-1 respectively. The three multiparous cows which were sampled daily and calved normally showed similar haematological, macro and micromineral changes and fibrin response as did the seven milk fever cases. In the periparturient period, milk fever cows differed

  11. Large-scale serological survey of bovine ephemeral fever in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi; Zheng, Fuying; Gao, Shandian; Wang, Suyan; Wang, Jidong; Liu, Zhijie; Du, Junzheng; Yin, Hong

    2015-03-23

    Bovine ephemeral fever (BEF) is caused by the arthropod-borne bovine ephemeral fever virus (BEFV), which is classified in the family Rhabdoviridae and the genus Ephemerovirus. A debilitating and sometimes fatal viral disease, BEF affects cattle and water buffalo. The epizootiology of BEF among cattle in China has not been fully determined. We examined the seroprevalence of the BEFV among cattle in China between January 2012 and June 2014. Among the 2822 serum samples collected from various cattle breeds in 26 provinces in China, the seropositive rate for the BEFV ranged from 0% to 81% between regions and species. Our findings show that BEFV was prevalent in the all of the regions tested in our study and provide the first reliable reference regarding BEF surveillance in China.

  12. Preliminary observations on the epidemiology of bovine ephemeral fever in China.

    PubMed

    Bai, W B; Jiang, C L; Davis, S S

    1991-02-01

    Bovine ephemeral fever (BEF) is a viral disease of cattle and water buffalo recognised for the first time in China in 1955. The disease has been endemic in south China with 13 epidemics since 1955, seven epidemics reaching central China and one extending into north-east China (40 degrees N). The outbreaks have been seasonal with all occurring in the warmer summer/autumn months of June to October when possible insect vectors are active. Reports of clinical disease were confirmed as BEF by the detection of virus-neutralising antibody. The economic impact of the disease includes loss of milk production, late-term abortions and the loss of draught animal power.

  13. Experimental infection with bovine ephemeral fever virus and analysis of its antibody response cattle.

    PubMed

    Zheng, F Y; Chen, Q W; Li, Z; Gong, X W; Wang, J D; Yin, H

    2016-02-01

    Bovine ephemeral fever (BEF) is an arthropod-borne viral disease that occurs throughout mainland China. LS11 obtained in the 2011 BEF epidemic was a wild strain, and its virulence and antibody response have never been studied in China. Therefore, the issues were investigated in this work. Experimental cattle were intravenously infected with different doses of BEF virus, and some non-infected cattle were simultaneously monitored. Blood and serum samples were collected from all animals over the course of our study. Infected cattle were challenged for a second time with BEF virus to determine protective period of the antibodies. BEF virus was detected in blood samples from infected cattle, but not in monitored cattle. The neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) against BEFV were easier to be detected and persisted for longer periods in cattle infected with higher doses of BEFV than in those infected with lower doses. When the titer of nAbs was equal to 5 or 6, re-infected cattle still could mount a challenge against BEFV. However, after 3 or 6months, when nAbs were no longer apparent, re-infected cattle displayed typical symptoms of BEF. Our findings indicated that vaccination should be performed once the titer of nAb decreased to 5 or 6.

  14. Occurrence of bovine ephemeral fever in Okinawa Prefecture, Japan, in 2012 and development of a reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction assay to detect bovine ephemeral fever virus gene.

    PubMed

    Niwa, Tsuyoshi; Shirafuji, Hiroaki; Ikemiyagi, Kazufumi; Nitta, Yoshiki; Suzuki, Moemi; Kato, Tomoko; Yanase, Tohru

    2015-04-01

    In September 2012, several cows and a calf showed decreased activity, anorexia and fever on Ishigaki Island, Okinawa Prefecture, Japan, and the cases were diagnosed as bovine ephemeral fever (BEF). We isolated BEF virus (BEFV) from one of the affected cows and then determined the complete genome sequence of the G gene, which encodes a class I transmembrane glycoprotein of BEFV. The BEFV isolate in this case, ON-3/E/12, was sorted into the same cluster as other BEFV isolates in Japan, Taiwan and China obtained in 1996-2004 and was most closely related to a 2002 Chinese isolate, JT02L, according to the phylogenetic analysis of the complete G gene. Since inactivated vaccines for BEF available in Japan are considered effective against the ON-3/E/12 isolate as well as other isolates in East Asia from 1996-2004, annual vaccination should be conducted to prevent BEF in Okinawa. Additionally, in this study, we developed an RT-PCR assay to detect the BEFV gene in Japan and neighboring countries. Our assay was able to amplify target sequences in all of the tested BEFV isolates, including 18 isolates in Japan and another isolate in Australia. The assay was found to be useful also for testing RNA samples extracted from bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and the detection limit of the assay was 10 copies per tube. We believe that our assay would be an important tool for the screening of BEFV infection and the diagnosis of BEF.

  15. Risk analysis and seroprevalence of bovine ephemeral fever virus in cattle in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Zaghawa, Ahmed; Housawi, Fadhel Mohamed Taher; Al-Naeem, Abdulmohsen; Al-Nakhly, Hassan; Kamr, Ahmed; Toribio, Ramiro

    2016-03-01

    Bovine ephemeral fever virus (BEFV) is an arthropod-borne rhabdovirus that causes disabling clinical signs and major economic losses in cattle and water buffalo. The disease is well documented in Asia, Africa, and the Middle East; however, the seroprevalence of BEFV in different regions and bovine breeds in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) is unknown. The aim of this study was to analyze risk factors which affect the prevalence of antibodies against BEFV in small herds of cattle in four geographical regions of KSA. A total of 1480 serum samples from non-BEFV vaccinated small herds of cattle were collected from the Eastern, Jizan, Qasim, and Riyadh regions (370 samples per region) during the summer of 2010. Serum neutralization test was used to detect antibodies against BEFV. There was a significant effect of region, breed, sex, and age on the seroprevalence of BEFV. Seropositive ratios were 18, 18, 26, and 12 % for the Eastern, Jizan, Qasim, and Riyadh regions, respectively (P = 0.00002); 23.2 % for dairy and 13.7 % for non-dairy breeds (P = 0.00004); 24.4 % for males and 14.6 % for females (P = 0.00004); and 15.4, 29.1, and 11.4 % for animals <1 year, 1-3 years, and >3 years, respectively (P < 0.001). Risk analysis showed a significant effect of different regions of KSA on the seroprevalence of BEFV. Host risk factors (age, sex, and breed) showed also a significant effect on the seroprevalence of BEFV. This indicates active circulation of this virus in small herds of cattle. Insect control strategies and BEFV vaccination programs during the spring are recommended to reduce the spread of BEFV and minimize subsequent economic losses as this is adopted in many enzootic countries. PMID:26676243

  16. Risk analysis and seroprevalence of bovine ephemeral fever virus in cattle in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Zaghawa, Ahmed; Housawi, Fadhel Mohamed Taher; Al-Naeem, Abdulmohsen; Al-Nakhly, Hassan; Kamr, Ahmed; Toribio, Ramiro

    2016-03-01

    Bovine ephemeral fever virus (BEFV) is an arthropod-borne rhabdovirus that causes disabling clinical signs and major economic losses in cattle and water buffalo. The disease is well documented in Asia, Africa, and the Middle East; however, the seroprevalence of BEFV in different regions and bovine breeds in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) is unknown. The aim of this study was to analyze risk factors which affect the prevalence of antibodies against BEFV in small herds of cattle in four geographical regions of KSA. A total of 1480 serum samples from non-BEFV vaccinated small herds of cattle were collected from the Eastern, Jizan, Qasim, and Riyadh regions (370 samples per region) during the summer of 2010. Serum neutralization test was used to detect antibodies against BEFV. There was a significant effect of region, breed, sex, and age on the seroprevalence of BEFV. Seropositive ratios were 18, 18, 26, and 12 % for the Eastern, Jizan, Qasim, and Riyadh regions, respectively (P = 0.00002); 23.2 % for dairy and 13.7 % for non-dairy breeds (P = 0.00004); 24.4 % for males and 14.6 % for females (P = 0.00004); and 15.4, 29.1, and 11.4 % for animals <1 year, 1-3 years, and >3 years, respectively (P < 0.001). Risk analysis showed a significant effect of different regions of KSA on the seroprevalence of BEFV. Host risk factors (age, sex, and breed) showed also a significant effect on the seroprevalence of BEFV. This indicates active circulation of this virus in small herds of cattle. Insect control strategies and BEFV vaccination programs during the spring are recommended to reduce the spread of BEFV and minimize subsequent economic losses as this is adopted in many enzootic countries.

  17. A Report on Bovine Ephemeral Fever Virus in Turkey: Antigenic Variations of Different Strains of EFV in the 1985 and 2012 Outbreaks Using Partial Glycoprotein Gene Sequences.

    PubMed

    Oğuzoğlu, T Ç; Ertürk, A; Çizmeci, Ş G; Koç, B T; Akça, Y

    2015-10-01

    We described the aetiological agents of outbreaks of bovine ephemeral fever (BEF) that occurred in 1985 and 2012 in Turkey, and identify mutations in the viruses from both outbreaks. Outbreaks have emerged periodically every 4-5 years in the same regions in Turkey. Because these regions are located in a subtropical climatic zone, good conditions for vector populations exist. The results of this study show that the BEFVs from outbreaks in Turkey vary significantly. Effective prevention will require a vaccine that contains BEFVs from different genetic clusters.

  18. Bovine ephemeral fever rhabdovirus α1 protein has viroporin-like properties and binds importin β1 and importin 7.

    PubMed

    Joubert, D Albert; Blasdell, Kim R; Audsley, Michelle D; Trinidad, Lee; Monaghan, Paul; Dave, Keyur A; Lieu, Kim G; Amos-Ritchie, Rachel; Jans, David A; Moseley, Gregory W; Gorman, Jeffrey J; Walker, Peter J

    2014-02-01

    Bovine ephemeral fever virus (BEFV) is an arthropod-borne rhabdovirus that is classified as the type species of the genus Ephemerovirus. In addition to the five canonical rhabdovirus structural proteins (N, P, M, G, and L), the large and complex BEFV genome contains several open reading frames (ORFs) between the G and L genes (α1, α2/α3, β, and γ) encoding proteins of unknown function. We show that the 10.5-kDa BEFV α1 protein is expressed in infected cells and, consistent with previous predictions based on its structure, has the properties of a viroporin. Expression of a BEFV α1-maltose binding protein (MBP) fusion protein in Escherichia coli was observed to inhibit cell growth and increase membrane permeability to hygromycin B. Increased membrane permeability was also observed in BEFV-infected mammalian cells (but not cells infected with an α1-deficient BEFV strain) and in cells expressing a BEFV α1-green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion protein, which was shown by confocal microscopy to localize to the Golgi complex. Furthermore, the predicted C-terminal cytoplasmic domain of α1, which contains a strong nuclear localization signal (NLS), was translocated to the nucleus when expressed independently, and in an affinity chromatography assay employing a GFP trap, the full-length α1 was observed to interact specifically with importin β1 and importin 7 but not with importin α3. These data suggest that, in addition to its function as a viroporin, BEFV α1 may modulate components of nuclear trafficking pathways, but the specific role thereof remains unclear. Although rhabdovirus accessory genes occur commonly among arthropod-borne rhabdoviruses, little is known of their functions. Here, we demonstrate that the BEFV α1 ORF encodes a protein which has the structural and functional characteristics of a viroporin. We show that α1 localizes in the Golgi complex and increases cellular permeability. We also show that BEFV α1 binds importin β1 and importin 7

  19. Seroprevalence of bovine ephemeral fever virus in domesticated and wildlife species during epidemic and inter-epidemic periods (2000-2009) in Israel.

    PubMed

    Aziz-Boaron, O; Brettschneider, S; King, R; Gelman, B; Klement, E

    2015-04-01

    Bovine ephemeral fever (BEF) is an economically important vector-borne viral disease of cattle and buffalo. It has been reported from most of the world's tropical and subtropical regions. In the last few decades, outbreaks of BEF have occurred in Israel almost every other year. Several serological studies have demonstrated a wide range of wild animal species that are positive for BEF virus (BEFV) antibodies. However, the question of whether wild animals and domesticated species other than cattle also play an important role in the maintenance and transmission of BEFV in Israel remains. Here, we examined the prevalence of anti-BEFV antibodies in 942 samples collected from various wild, semi-captive and domesticated animal species during the years 2000-2009 using the serum neutralization (SN) method. SN test revealed the presence of BEFV-neutralizing antibodies in nine samples (0.96%), from three species: Bubalus bubalis (4/29, 13.79%), Gazella g. gazella (3/68, 4.44%) and Dama d. mesopotamica (2/296, 0.68%). All positive samples were collected in areas of earlier outbreaks. The low prevalence of positive animals and the solid correlation with prior outbreaks indicate that the tested species probably do not serve as virus reservoirs and may play only a minor role in the maintenance of BEFV in the Middle East.

  20. Kinetics of pro-inflammatory cytokines, interleukin-10, and virus neutralising antibodies during acute ephemeral fever virus infections in Brahman cattle.

    PubMed

    Barigye, R; Melville, L F; Davis, S; Walsh, S; Hunt, N; Hunt, R; Elliot, N

    2015-12-15

    While fever and inflammation are hallmark features of bovine ephemeral fever (BEF), the cytokine networks that underlie the acute phase of the disease have not been empirically defined in cattle. This study characterised the plasma kinetics of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α) and IL-10 during acute BEF and elucidated on the relationship between the onset of the virus neutralizing antibody response and resolution of viraemia in natural BEF virus (BEFV) infections in cattle. Plasma from three BEFV-infected and three uninfected cattle was tested for the study cytokines by a cELISA, viraemia monitored by qRT-PCR, and virus neutralizing antibody titres determined using a standard protocol. Unlike the negative controls, plasma concentrations of IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-10 were consistently increased in the three virus-infected animals. Two of the infected heifers were recumbent and pyrexic on the first day of monitoring and increased cytokine production was already in progress by the time viraemia was detected in all the three infected animals. In all the virus-infected heifers, IL-1β was the most strongly expressed cytokine, IL-6 and IL-10 manifested intermediate plasma concentrations while TNF-α was the least expressed and demonstrated bi-phasic peaks three and five days after the onset of pyrexia. In two of the BEFV-infected heifers, viraemia resolved on the day of seroconversion while in the other infected animal, viral RNA was detectable up to three days after seroconversion. The present data document variable increase in plasma IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-10 during natural BEFV infections and the fact that upregulation of all but TNF-α precedes seroconversion. In addition to virus neutralising antibodies, it is likely that cytokine-mediated cellular mechanisms may be required for resolution of viraemia in BEF. Considering the anti-inflammatory properties of IL-10, its upregulation may potentially antagonise the fever response in BEFV

  1. Kinetics of selected plasma cytokines during innate-adaptive immune response transition in adult cattle infected with the bovine ephemeral fever virus.

    PubMed

    Barigye, R; Melville, L F; Davis, S; Walsh, S; Hunt, N; Hunt, R

    2016-04-15

    While virus neutralizing antibodies are known to be variably protective against bovine ephemeral fever (BEF) virus (BEFV) infections, the cytokine events that mediate the nascent adaptive immune response have not been defined in cattle. This study determined the plasma kinetics of IL-2, IFN-γ, IL-6, and IL-10 during the period of innate-immune response transition and evaluated the relationship between the virus neutralizing antibody response and viraemia in BEFV-infected cattle. Plasma from four virus-infected and uninfected negative control animals was tested by cytokine-specific immunoenzymatic assays, viraemia monitored by qRT-PCR, and virus neutralizing antibody titres determined using a standard protocol. Unlike the negative controls, plasma IL-6 and IL-10 were increased in all the virus-infected animals starting several days prior to initiation of viraemia. In one animal, plasma IL-2 and IFN-γ were consistently higher than in the other three virus-infected animals and the negative control mean. The animal with the strongest IL-2 and IFN-γ responses had the shortest viraemia while the heifer with the lowest IL-2/IFN-γ indices demonstrated the longest viraemia. Evidently, increase in plasma IL-6 and IL-10 precedes seroconversion during BEFV infections in cattle suggesting the two cytokines may influence immunological events that pave way to B-cell activation and seroconversion. While there is remarkable variability in IL-2 and IFN-γ expression amongst BEFV-infected animals, increased plasma levels of the two cytokines appear to be associated with a shorter viraemia. Ongoing studies will help define the precise role of T cells in anti-BEFV adaptive immune responses. PMID:27016765

  2. Ephemeral regions versus pseudo ephemeral regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, S. F.; Livi, S. H. B.; Wang, J.; Shi, Z.

    1985-01-01

    New studies of the quiet Sun reveal that ephemeral active regions constitute minority rather than a majority of all the short lived, small scale bipolar features on the Sun. In contrast to the recognized patterns of growth and decay of ephemeral regions, various examples of the creation of other temporary bipoles nicknamed pseudo ephemeral regions are illustrated. The pseudo ephemeral regions are the consequence of combinations of small scale dynamic processes of the quiet Sun including: (1) fragmentation of network magnetic fields, (2) the separation of opposite polarity halves of ephemeral regions as they grow and evolve, and (3) the coalescence of weak network or intranetwork magnetic fields. New observations offer the possibility of resolving the discrepancies that have arisen in the association of ephemeral regions with X-ray bright points. Many X-ray bright points may be related to those pseudo ephemeral regions which have begun to exhibit magnetic flux loss.

  3. Fever

    MedlinePlus

    A fever is a body temperature that is higher than normal. It is not an illness. It is part of your body's defense against infection. Most bacteria ... cause infections do well at the body's normal temperature (98.6 F). A slight fever can make ...

  4. Fever

    MedlinePlus

    ... of charts. A fever is defined as a temperature 1° or more above the normal 98.6°. Minor infections may cause mild or short-term temperature elevations. Temperatures of 103° and above are considered ...

  5. Discontinuous ephemeral streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bull, William B.

    1997-07-01

    Many ephemeral streams in western North America flowed over smooth valley floors before transformation from shallow discontinuous channels into deep arroyos. These inherently unstable streams of semiarid regions are sensitive to short-term climatic changes, and to human impacts, because hillslopes supply abundant sediment to infrequent large streamflow events. Discontinuous ephemeral streams appear to be constantly changing as they alternate between two primary modes of operation; either aggradation or degradation may become dominant. Attainment of equilibrium conditions is brief. Disequilibrium is promoted by channel entrenchment that causes the fall of local base level, and by deposition of channel fans that causes the rise of local base level. These opposing base-level processes in adjacent reaches are maintained by self-enhancing feedback mechanisms. The threshold between erosion and deposition is crossed when aggradational or degradational reaches shift upstream or downstream. Extension of entrenched reaches into channel fans tends to create continuous arroyos. Upvalley migration of fan apexes tends to create depositional valley floors with few stream channels. Less than 100 years is required for arroyo cutting, but more than 500 years is required for complete aggradation of entrenched stream channels and valley floors. Discontinuous ephemeral streams have a repetitive sequence of streamflow characteristics that is as distinctive as sequences of meander bends or braided gravel bars in perennial rivers. The sequence changes from degradation to aggradation — headcuts concentrate sheetflow, a single trunk channel conveys flow to the apex of a channel fan, braided distributary channels end in an area of diverging sheetflow, and converging sheetflow drains to headcuts. The sequence is repeated at intervals ranging from 15 m for small streams to more than 10 km for large streams. Lithologic controls on the response of discontinuous ephemeral streams include: (1

  6. Monitoring inundation on ephemeral lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryant, R. G.

    2003-04-01

    Ephemeral lakes have been recognized as being among the most sensitive of closed hydrological systems to regional changes in rainfall patterns, and in some cases, due to their inhospitable nature and isolation, they can also be unaffected by the level of contemporary human interference or management that characterizes perennial catchments. By monitoring and modelling inundation patterns for large ephemeral lakes we can begin to understand and quantify the effects of forecast changes in precipitation (P) and evaporation (E) on the hydrology of a number of dryland systems. Examples are taken from North Africa and the Zone of Chotts (Tunisia and Algeria). Gross changes in the hydrology of ephemeral lakes (or the balance of P-E) can lead to extreme changes in regional dust emissions. Monitoring and modelling changes in the frequency and extent of inundation may lead to a greater understanding of fluctuations in regional dust loadings. Examples of the effects of inundation on dust emissions from large northern and southern-hemisphere dust sources are discussed.

  7. Desert potholes: Ephemeral aquatic microsystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chan, M.A.; Moser, K.; Davis, J.M.; Southam, G.; Hughes, K.; Graham, T.

    2005-01-01

    An enigma of the Colorado Plateau high desert is the "pothole", which ranges from shallow ephemeral puddles to deeply carved pools. The existence of prokaryotic to eukaryotic organisms within these pools is largely controlled by the presence of collected rainwater. Multivariate statistical analysis of physical and chemical limnologic data variables measured from potholes indicates spatial and temporal variations, particularly in water depth, manganese, iron, nitrate and sulfate concentrations and salinity. Variation in water depth and salinity are likely related to the amount of time since the last precipitation, whereas the other variables may be related to redox potential. The spatial and temporal variations in water chemistry affect the distribution of organisms, which must adapt to daily and seasonal extremes of fluctuating temperature (0-60 ??C), pH changes of as much as 5 units over 12 days, and desiccation. For example, many species become dormant when potholes dry, in order to endure intense heat, UV radiation, desiccation and freezing, only to flourish again upon rehydration. But the pothole organisms also have a profound impact on the potholes. Through photosynthesis and respiration, pothole organisms affect redox potential, and indirectly alter the water chemistry. Laboratory examination of dried biofilm from the potholes revealed that within 2 weeks of hydration, the surface of the desiccated, black biofilm became green from cyanobacterial growth, which supported significant growth in heterotrophic bacterial populations. This complex biofilm is persumably responsible for dissolving the cement between the sandstone grains, allowing the potholes to enlarge, and for sealing the potholes, enabling them to retain water longer than the surrounding sandstone. Despite the remarkable ability of life in potholes to persist, desert potholes may be extremely sensitive to anthropogenic effects. The unique limnology and ecology of Utah potholes holds great scientific

  8. Intermittent ephemeral river-breaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reniers, A. J.; MacMahan, J. H.; Gallagher, E. L.; Shanks, A.; Morgan, S.; Jarvis, M.; Thornton, E. B.; Brown, J.; Fujimura, A.

    2012-12-01

    In the summer of 2011 we performed a field experiment in Carmel River State Beach, CA, at a time when the intermittent natural breaching of the ephemeral Carmel River occurred due to an unusually rainy period prior to the experiment associated with El Nino. At this time the river would fill the lagoon over the period of a number of days after which a breach would occur. This allowed us to document a number of breaches with unique pre- and post-breach topographic surveys, accompanying ocean and lagoon water elevations as well as extremely high flow (4m/s) velocities in the river mouth during the breaching event. The topographic surveys were obtained with a GPS-equipped backpack mounted on a walking human and show the evolution of the river breaching with a gradually widening and deepening river channel that cuts through the pre-existing beach and berm. The beach face is qualified as a steep with an average beach slope of 1:10 with significant reflection of the incident waves (MacMahan et al., 2012). The wave directions are generally shore normal as the waves refract over the deep canyon that is located offshore of the beach. The tide is mixed semi-diurnal with a range on the order of one meter. Breaching typically occurred during the low-low tide. Grain size is highly variable along the beach with layers of alternating fine and coarse material that could clearly be observed as the river exit channel was cutting through the beach. Large rocky outcroppings buried under the beach sand are also present along certain stretches of the beach controlling the depth of the breaching channel. The changes in the water level measured within the lagoon and the ocean side allows for an estimate of the volume flux associated with the breach as function of morphology, tidal elevation and wave conditions as well as an assessment of the conditions and mechanisms of breach closure, which occurred on the time scale of O(0.5 days). Exploratory model simulations will be presented at the

  9. Yellow Fever

    MedlinePlus

    ... tropical and subtropical areas in South America and Africa. The virus is transmitted to people by the ... fever Maps of Yellow fever endemic areas in Africa and South America Yellow fever vaccination Prevention Vaccine ...

  10. Tools for Ephemeral Gully Erosion Process Research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Techniques to quantify ephemeral gully erosion have been identified by USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) as one of gaps in current erosion assessment tools. One reason that may have contributed to this technology gap is the difficulty to quantify changes in channel geometry to asses...

  11. Rheumatic fever

    MedlinePlus

    ... an ASO test) Complete blood count (CBC) Electrocardiogram (EKG) Sedimentation rate (ESR -- a test that measures inflammation ... criteria include: Fever High ESR Joint pain Abnormal EKG You'll likely be diagnosed with rheumatic fever ...

  12. Dengue Fever

    MedlinePlus

    ... away from areas that have a dengue fever epidemic, the risk of contracting dengue fever is small for international travelers./p> Reviewed by: Elana Pearl Ben-Joseph, ... Nile Virus First Aid: Vomiting Are Insect Repellents With DEET ...

  13. Dengue Fever

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search Button Leading research to understand, treat, and prevent infectious, immunologic, and allergic diseases NIAID Home Health & ... NIAID News & Events Volunteer NIAID > Health & Research Topics > Dengue Fever > Understanding Dengue Fever Understanding Cause Transmission Symptoms ...

  14. Yellow fever

    MedlinePlus

    ... against yellow fever. Some countries require proof of vaccination to gain entry. If you will be traveling to an area where yellow fever is common: Sleep in screened housing Use mosquito repellents Wear ...

  15. Hemorrhagic Fevers

    MedlinePlus

    ... by four families of viruses. These include the Ebola and Marburg, Lassa fever, and yellow fever viruses. ... Some VHFs cause mild disease, but some, like Ebola or Marburg, cause severe disease and death. VHFs ...

  16. AnnAGNPS Ephemeral Gully Erosion Simulation Technology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sheet and rill erosion conservation management technologies, such as the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE), have provided valuable tools in reducing cropland erosion, but have not considered the impact of ephemeral gully erosion. Tillage-induced ephemeral gully erosion has been shown to ...

  17. [Dengue fever].

    PubMed

    Pick, N; Potasman, I

    1995-07-01

    Dengue fever is a viral disease, transmitted to man via mosquito bites. It is endemic in tropical regions (10 million infected annually) and is characterized by high fever, headache, myalgia, lethargy, vomiting, rash and neutropenia. The upward trend in the number of young Israelis visiting tropical countries increases the number of those potentially exposed to this disease. We present 4 Israelis who returned with dengue fever from Thailand.

  18. Yellow fever.

    PubMed

    Monath, Thomas P; Vasconcelos, Pedro F C

    2015-03-01

    Yellow fever, a mosquito-borne flavivirus disease occurs in tropical areas of South America and Africa. It is a disease of major historical importance, but remains a threat to travelers to and residents of endemic areas despite the availability of an effective vaccine for nearly 70 years. An important aspect is the receptivity of many non-endemic areas to introduction and spread of yellow fever. This paper reviews the clinical aspects, pathogenesis, and epidemiology of yellow fever, with an emphasis on recent changes in the distribution and incidence of the disease. Recent knowledge about yellow fever 17D vaccine mechanism of action and safety are discussed.

  19. Saturn ring particles as dynamic ephemeral bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, D. R.; Weidenschilling, S. J.; Chapman, C. R.; Greenberg, R.

    1984-01-01

    Although Saturn's rings are within the Roche zone, the accretion of centimeter-sized particles into large aggregates many meters in diameter occurs readily, on a time scale of weeks. These aggregates are disrupted when tidal stresses exceed their very low strengths; thus most of the mass of the ring system is continually processed through a population of large 'dynamic ephemeral bodies', which are continually forming and disintegrating. These large aggregates are not at all like the idealized ice spheres often used in modeling Saturn's ring dynamics. Their coefficient of restitution is low, hence they form a monolayer in the ring plane. The optically observable characteristics of the rings are dominated by the swarm of centimeter-sized particles.

  20. Saturn ring particles as dynamic ephemeral bodies.

    PubMed

    Davis, D R; Weidenschilling, S J; Chapman, C R; Greenberg, R

    1984-05-18

    Although Saturn's rings are within the Roche zone, the accretion of centimeter-sized particles into large aggregates many meters in diameter occurs readily, on a time scale of weeks. These aggregates are disrupted when tidal stresses exceed their very low strengths; thus most of the mass of the ring system is continually processed through a population of large "dynamic ephemeral bodies," which are continually forming and disintegrating. These large aggregates are not at all like the idealized ice spheres often used in modeling Saturn's ring dynamics. Their coefficient of restitution is low, hence they form a monolayer in the ring plane. The optically observable characteristics of the rings are dominated by the swarm of centimeter-sized particles.

  1. [Yellow fever].

    PubMed

    Sabbatani, Sergio; Fiorino, Sirio

    2007-06-01

    After the discovery of the New World, yellow fever proved to be an important risk factor of morbidity and mortality for Caribbean populations. In the following centuries epidemic risk, expanded by sea trade and travel, progressively reached the settlements in North America and Brazil as well as the Atlantic seaboard of tropical and equatorial Africa. In the eighteenth century and the first half of the nineteenth century epidemics of yellow fever were reported in some coastal towns in the Iberian peninsula, French coast, Great Britain and Italy, where, in 1804 at Leghorn, only one epidemic was documented. Prevention and control programs against yellow fever, developed at the beginning of the twentieth century in Cuba and in Panama, were a major breakthrough in understanding definitively its aetiology and pathogenesis. Subsequently, further advances in knowledge of yellow fever epidemiology were obtained when French scientists, working in West and Central Africa, showed that monkeys were major hosts of the yellow fever virus (the wild yellow fever virus), besides man. In addition, advances in research, contributing to the development of vaccines against the yellow fever virus in the first half of the nineteenth century, are reported in this paper. PMID:17599002

  2. Q Fever.

    PubMed

    Shishido, Akira A; Letiaia, Andrew G; Hartzell, Joshua D

    2016-01-01

    Q fever is a significant infectious disease threat to US military personnel deployed in the Middle East. Its environmental stability, aerosol transmission, and animal reservoir make it a considerable risk for deployed troops due to its potential for weaponization and risk of natural infection. It presents as a flu-like illness that responds promptly to antimicrobial therapy. Q fever should be suspected in patients presenting with a compatible febrile illness in an endemic area and especially if the individual has been exposed to livestock. Diagnosis is confirmed with serologic blood tests, but empiric therapy should be initiated when Q fever is considered. If left untreated, patients with acute Q fever can develop severe complications as well as chronic disease manifesting several months after the initial infection.

  3. Rheumatic Fever

    MedlinePlus

    ... always tell your doctor or dentist about your history of rheumatic fever before you have a surgical or dental procedure. Such procedures may cause bacteria to enter the bloodstream and infect your heart ...

  4. Q Fever.

    PubMed

    Shishido, Akira A; Letiaia, Andrew G; Hartzell, Joshua D

    2016-01-01

    Q fever is a significant infectious disease threat to US military personnel deployed in the Middle East. Its environmental stability, aerosol transmission, and animal reservoir make it a considerable risk for deployed troops due to its potential for weaponization and risk of natural infection. It presents as a flu-like illness that responds promptly to antimicrobial therapy. Q fever should be suspected in patients presenting with a compatible febrile illness in an endemic area and especially if the individual has been exposed to livestock. Diagnosis is confirmed with serologic blood tests, but empiric therapy should be initiated when Q fever is considered. If left untreated, patients with acute Q fever can develop severe complications as well as chronic disease manifesting several months after the initial infection. PMID:26874100

  5. Lassa Fever

    MedlinePlus

    ... an acute viral illness that occurs in west Africa. The illness was discovered in 1969 when two ... Lassa fever is endemic in parts of west Africa including Sierra Leone, Liberia, Guinea and Nigeria; however, ...

  6. Dengue fever.

    PubMed

    Payling, K J

    1997-04-01

    Dengue fever, and its more serious haemorrhagic form, is increasingly being found among UK travellers to tropical and sub-tropical countries. This Update examines transmission, the main symptoms and nursing care of affected people.

  7. Dengue fever

    MedlinePlus

    ... and netting can help reduce the risk of mosquito bites that can spread dengue fever and other infections. Limit outdoor activity during mosquito season, especially when they are most active, at ...

  8. Q Fever

    PubMed Central

    Maurin, M.; Raoult, D.

    1999-01-01

    Q fever is a zoonosis with a worldwide distribution with the exception of New Zealand. The disease is caused by Coxiella burnetii, a strictly intracellular, gram-negative bacterium. Many species of mammals, birds, and ticks are reservoirs of C. burnetii in nature. C. burnetii infection is most often latent in animals, with persistent shedding of bacteria into the environment. However, in females intermittent high-level shedding occurs at the time of parturition, with millions of bacteria being released per gram of placenta. Humans are usually infected by contaminated aerosols from domestic animals, particularly after contact with parturient females and their birth products. Although often asymptomatic, Q fever may manifest in humans as an acute disease (mainly as a self-limited febrile illness, pneumonia, or hepatitis) or as a chronic disease (mainly endocarditis), especially in patients with previous valvulopathy and to a lesser extent in immunocompromised hosts and in pregnant women. Specific diagnosis of Q fever remains based upon serology. Immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG antiphase II antibodies are detected 2 to 3 weeks after infection with C. burnetii, whereas the presence of IgG antiphase I C. burnetii antibodies at titers of ≥1:800 by microimmunofluorescence is indicative of chronic Q fever. The tetracyclines are still considered the mainstay of antibiotic therapy of acute Q fever, whereas antibiotic combinations administered over prolonged periods are necessary to prevent relapses in Q fever endocarditis patients. Although the protective role of Q fever vaccination with whole-cell extracts has been established, the population which should be primarily vaccinated remains to be clearly identified. Vaccination should probably be considered in the population at high risk for Q fever endocarditis. PMID:10515901

  9. How phenology influences physiology in deciduous forest spring ephemerals.

    PubMed

    Lapointe, Line

    2001-10-01

    Spring ephemerals of deciduous forest are adapted to take advantage of the high-light period available in early spring. They appear shortly after snow melt and complete their aboveground growth, including fruit production, within 2 months. After they produce new buds, they senesce and enter dormancy. Dormancy is not very deep in spring ephemerals and during summer differentiation occurs in the bud of the apparently resting organ. Low soil temperatures release dormancy, and the shoots and roots then grow slowly over autumn and winter. The goal of this paper is to show how this characteristic phenology influences many aspects of spring ephemerals' physiology, and the influences these different physiological parameters have on each other. Spring ephemerals have high photosynthetic rates that allow them to rapidly accumulate carbohydrates and complete their aboveground growth in a few weeks. To sustain high photosynthetic rates in early spring, the plants must be able to absorb water efficiently at low soil temperatures and to allocate large amounts of nutrients to the shoot to compensate for lower enzymatic activity at low temperatures. Nutrients are mainly absorbed in spring, although the root system is established in autumn. This means that a large amount of both carbohydrates and nutrients is translocated from the perennial organ to the developing shoot starting in autumn through early spring. Spring ephemerals have low nutrient absorption rates, but high resorption efficiency during leaf senescence. Nevertheless, their high nutrient needs restrict them to rich forest soils. The annual growth rate of spring ephemerals is very slow and this is more likely related to the inherent slow growth rate of the perennial organ than to their short leaf life. As soon as carbohydrate reserves are replenished in spring, sink limitation apparently builds up and induces leaf senescence. A better understanding of the factors controlling the growth rate of spring ephemerals is

  10. Dengue fever (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Dengue fever, or West Nile fever, is a mild viral illness transmitted by mosquitoes which causes fever, ... second exposure to the virus can result in Dengue hemorrhagic fever, a life-threatening illness.

  11. Towards reliable seasonal ensemble streamflow forecasts for ephemeral rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, James; Wang, Qj; Li, Ming; Robertson, David

    2016-04-01

    Despite their inherently variable nature, ephemeral rivers are an important water resource in many dry regions. Water managers are likely benefit considerably from even mildly skilful ensemble forecasts of streamflow in ephemeral rivers. As with any ensemble forecast, forecast uncertainty - i.e., the spread of the ensemble - must be reliably quantified to allow users of the forecasts to make well-founded decisions. Correctly quantifying uncertainty in ephemeral rivers is particularly challenging because of the high incidence of zero flows, which are difficult to handle with conventional statistical techniques. Here we apply a seasonal streamflow forecasting system, the model for generating Forecast Guided Stochastic Scenarios (FoGSS), to 26 Australian ephemeral rivers. FoGSS uses post-processed ensemble rainfall forecasts from a coupled ocean-atmosphere prediction system to force an initialised monthly rainfall runoff model, and then applies a staged hydrological error model to describe and propagate hydrological uncertainty in the forecast. FoGSS produces 12-month streamflow forecasts; as forecast skill declines with lead time, the forecasts are designed to transit seamlessly to stochastic scenarios. The ensemble rainfall forecasts used in FoGSS are known to be unbiased and reliable, and we concentrate here on the hydrological error model. The FoGSS error model has several features that make it well suited to forecasting ephemeral rivers. First, FoGSS models the error after data is transformed with a log-sinh transformation. The log-sinh transformation is able to normalise even highly skewed data and homogenise its variance, allowing us to assume that errors are Gaussian. Second, FoGSS handles zero values using data censoring. Data censoring allows streamflow in ephemeral rivers to be treated as a continuous variable, rather than having to model the occurrence of non-zero values and the distribution of non-zero values separately. This greatly simplifies parameter

  12. Orchid Fever

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Phillip

    2004-01-01

    Exotic, captivating, and seductive, orchids have long fascinated plant lovers. They first attracted the attention of Westerners in the 17th century, when explorers brought back samples from South America and Asia. By the mid-1800s, orchid collecting had reached a fever pitch, not unlike that of the Dutch tulip craze of the 1630s, with rich (and…

  13. Scarlet fever.

    PubMed

    2016-04-27

    Essential facts Scarlet fever is characterised by a rash that usually accompanies a sore throat and flushed cheeks. It is mainly a childhood illness. While this contagious disease rarely poses a danger to life today, outbreaks in the past led to many deaths.

  14. Dengue Fever

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    “Dengue Fever” will be included in “Health Information for International Travel, 2007-2008” which will be published by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever are viral diseases transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. The disease is found in tropical and s...

  15. Predicting and generalizing the refuge function of intermittent and ephemeral streams

    EPA Science Inventory

    Intermittent and ephemeral streams can provide important functions within stream networks. For fish, intermittent and ephemeral streams can contribute energy and materials to downstream perennial waters, serve as seasonal habitats, and/or provide refuge functions. Understanding t...

  16. Boutonneuse fever.

    PubMed Central

    Moraga, F A; Martinez-Roig, A; Alonso, J L; Boronat, M; Domingo, F

    1982-01-01

    Sixty children, aged between 2 and 10 years, had boutonneuse fever during the summer months of 1979 and 1980. They presented with fever and a generalised maculopapular rash. The tàche noire could be seen at the site of the tick bite in 38 (63%) of them. The antibody response, assayed nonspecifically, by the Weil-Felix reaction was positive in 52. A singe titre of more than 1:80 or a 4-fold increase between two paired specimens separated by a 7-day interval was considered diagnostic. Maximum titres were reached at the end of the second week of convalescence in 81% of patients. Treatment with oral oxytetracycline was effective in all cases. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:7065712

  17. Zika fever.

    PubMed

    Martínez de Salazar, Pablo; Suy, Anna; Sánchez-Montalvá, Adrián; Rodó, Carlota; Salvador, Fernando; Molina, Israel

    2016-04-01

    Zika fever is an arboviral systemic disease that has recently become a public health challenge of global concern after its spread through the Americas. This review highlights the current understanding on Zika virus epidemiology, its routes of transmission, clinical manifestations, diagnostic tests, and the current management, prevention and control strategies. It also delves the association between Zika infection and complications, such as microencephaly or Guillem-Barré syndrome. PMID:26993436

  18. Zika fever.

    PubMed

    Martínez de Salazar, Pablo; Suy, Anna; Sánchez-Montalvá, Adrián; Rodó, Carlota; Salvador, Fernando; Molina, Israel

    2016-04-01

    Zika fever is an arboviral systemic disease that has recently become a public health challenge of global concern after its spread through the Americas. This review highlights the current understanding on Zika virus epidemiology, its routes of transmission, clinical manifestations, diagnostic tests, and the current management, prevention and control strategies. It also delves the association between Zika infection and complications, such as microencephaly or Guillem-Barré syndrome.

  19. Typhoid fever.

    PubMed

    Wain, John; Hendriksen, Rene S; Mikoleit, Matthew L; Keddy, Karen H; Ochiai, R Leon

    2015-03-21

    Control of typhoid fever relies on clinical information, diagnosis, and an understanding for the epidemiology of the disease. Despite the breadth of work done so far, much is not known about the biology of this human-adapted bacterial pathogen and the complexity of the disease in endemic areas, especially those in Africa. The main barriers to control are vaccines that are not immunogenic in very young children and the development of multidrug resistance, which threatens efficacy of antimicrobial chemotherapy. Clinicians, microbiologists, and epidemiologists worldwide need to be familiar with shifting trends in enteric fever. This knowledge is crucial, both to control the disease and to manage cases. Additionally, salmonella serovars that cause human infection can change over time and location. In areas of Asia, multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S Typhi) has been the main cause of enteric fever, but now S Typhi is being displaced by infections with drug-resistant S enterica serovar Paratyphi A. New conjugate vaccines are imminent and new treatments have been promised, but the engagement of local medical and public health institutions in endemic areas is needed to allow surveillance and to implement control measures.

  20. [Typhoid fever].

    PubMed

    Marchou, B

    1996-01-15

    Endemic in regions with poor hygienic conditions, Enteric fevers are imported in France by returning travellers. They are caused by Salmonella strains, mainly S. Typhi, transmitted via fecal-oral route. Salmonella reach the blood stream after proliferating in mesenteric lymph nodes. At an initial stage blood and bone marrow cultures, later on Widal-Felix serology permit diagnosis. Antibiotics have rendered death exceptional. Quinolones and ceftriaxone allow treatments shorter than 10 days. Immunization (Typhim Vi) and improvement of hygienic standards are the cornerstone of prevention.

  1. Dengue hemorrhagic fever

    MedlinePlus

    Hemorrhagic dengue; Dengue shock syndrome; Philippine hemorrhagic fever; Thai hemorrhagic fever; Singapore hemorrhagic fever ... and sweaty. These symptoms are followed by a shock -like state. Bleeding appears as tiny spots of ...

  2. Runoff generation through ephemeral streams in south-east Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doglioni, A.; Simeone, V.; Giustolisi, O.

    2012-04-01

    Ephemeral streams are morphological elements, typical of karst areas, characterized by relatively large and flat bottom transects (Camarasa & Tilford, 2002). These occasionally drain runoff generated by extreme rainfall events, characterized by high return periods. The activation of these streams was investigated by several authors for the Mediterranean regions, and in particular for south Spain and north Africa (Camarasa & Segura, 2001; De Vera, 1984). However, there are few analyses for karst areas of south-east of Italy (Cotecchia, 2006; Polemio, 2010). South-east of Italy, in particular the central part of Apulia, is characterized by a karst morphology, with a moderately elevated plateau, namely Murgia, which is drained by a network of ephemeral streams. These are normally dry, relatively short-length and straights, and their main outlets are on the coast. They normally drain water after extraordinary rainfall events, which can generate very high discharges, which can potentially flood the areas close to the streams. For this reason, the definition of an activation threshold for ephemeral streams is a paramount problem, even if this constitutes a complex problem, since the dynamics of the catchment drained by these streams in highly non-linear and biased by multiple variables (e.g. urbanization, land use, etc.). The main problem affecting the analysis and prediction of flood events in karst semi-arid regions is the almost complete absence of discharge time-series, measured at the outlets of the ephemeral streams. This prevents from the identification of accurate statistics of flood events and on the determination of rainfall events, which may potentially generate floods. Indeed, floods and in general flash floods are relatively rare events for semi-arid karst regions, however they can be really severe and disruptive, causing serious damages to people and infrastructures. This work presents an analysis of the ephemeral stream activation in karst semi-arid areas

  3. Chikungunya fever.

    PubMed

    Kucharz, Eugene J; Cebula-Byrska, Ilona

    2012-06-01

    Chikungunya fever (CF) is an acute illness caused by Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) belonging to the alphavirus genus of the Alphaviruses (Togaviridae) family. The virus is transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. CF is primarily tropical disease occurring in Africa, Asia and Indian Ocean islands but in the last decade an outbreak of CHIKV autochthonous infections were reported in Italy and France. It is associated with viral genome mutations facilitating transmission of the disease by Aedes albopictus, a mosquito occurring in several European countries. The CF is highly symptomatic, characterized by fever, cutaneuos rash and severe athralgia and arthritis. In some patients severe neurological or hemorrhagic manifestations occur. The disease is self-limiting but a part of the patients suffers from a long-lasting arthritis akin to rheumatoid arthritis. Treatment is only symptomatic. Prevention includes reduction of mosquito bite (mosquito net, repellent) or application of measures against mosquito larvae. Vaccination is not currently available but investigations are in progress. CF presents a significant worldwide health problem affecting in the last decade millions of person, and currently dangerous also for European countries.

  4. [Viral hemorrhagic fever].

    PubMed

    Kager, P A

    1998-02-28

    Viral haemorrhagic fevers, such as Lassa fever and yellow fever, cause tens of thousands of deaths annually outside the Netherlands. The viruses are mostly transmitted by mosquitoes, ticks or via excreta of rodents. Important to travellers are yellow fever, dengue and Lassa and Ebola fever. For yellow fever there is an efficacious vaccine. Dengue is frequently observed in travellers; prevention consists in avoiding mosquito bites, the treatment is symptomatic. Lassa and Ebola fever are extremely rare among travellers; a management protocol can be obtained from the Netherlands Ministry of Health, Welfare and Sports. Diagnostics of a patient from the tropics with fever and haemorrhagic diathesis should be aimed at treatable disorders such as malaria, typhoid fever, rickettsiosis or bacterial sepsis, because the probability of such a disease is much higher than that of Lassa or Ebola fever.

  5. [Rheumatic fever].

    PubMed

    Cherkashin, D V; Kumchin, A N; Shchulenin, S N; Svistov, A S

    2013-01-01

    This lecture-style paper highlights all major problems pertinent to rheumatic fever Definition of acute RF and chronic rheumatic heart disease is proposed and desirability of the use of these terms in clinical practice is explained. Present-day epidemiology of RF is described with reference to marked differences in its prevalence in developed and developing countries. Modern classification of acute RF is described as adopted by the Russian Association of Rheumatologists and recommended for the use in Russian medical facilities. Discussion of etiological issues is focused on such virulence factors as beta-hemolytic streptococcus A and genetic predisposition confirming hereditary nature of RE Its clinical features are described along with laboratory and instrumental methods applied for its diagnostics. Large and small diagnostic criteria of RF are considered. Special attention is given to the treatment of RF and its complications (antibiotic, pathogenetic, and drug therapy). Its primary and secondary prophylaxis is discussed in detail, preparations for the purpose are listed (with doses and duration of application). In conclusion, criteria for the efficacy of therapy are presented along with indications for hospitalization and emergency treatment. PMID:24437162

  6. Suspended sediment transport in an ephemeral stream following wildfire

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Malmon, D.V.; Reneau, S.L.; Katzman, D.; Lavine, A.; Lyman, J.

    2007-01-01

    We examine the impacts of a stand-clearing wildfire on the characteristics and magnitude of suspended sediment transport in ephemeral streams draining the burn area. We report the results of a monitoring program that includes 2 years of data prior to the Cerro Grande fire in New Mexico, and 3 years of postfire data. Suspended sediment concentration (SSC) increased by about 2 orders of magnitude following the fire, and the proportion of silt and clay increased from 50% to 80%. For a given flow event, SSC is highest at the flood bore and decreases monotonically with time, a pattern evident in every flood sampled both before and after the fire. We propose that the accumulation of flow and wash load at the flow front is an inherent characteristic of ephemeral stream flows, due to amplified momentum losses at the flood bore. We present a new model for computing suspended sediment transport in ephemeral streams (in the presence or absence of wildfire) by relating SSC to the time following the arrival of the flood bore, rather than to instantaneous discharge. Using this model and a rainfall history, we estimate that in the 3 years following the fire, floods transported in suspension a mass equivalent to about 3 mm of landscape lowering across the burn area, 20% of this following a single rainstorm. We test the model by computing fine sediment delivery to a small reservoir in an adjacent watershed, where we have a detailed record of postfire sedimentation based on repeat surveys. Systematic discrepancies between modeled and measured sedimentation rates in the reservoir suggest rapid reductions in suspended sediment delivery in the first several years after the fire.

  7. Arid ephemeral stream classification using channel geometry and basin characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutfin, N. A.; Wohl, E. E.; Shaw, J.

    2011-12-01

    Because understanding of ephemeral stream characteristics is limited and many stream classifications do not adequately describe them, it is necessary to develop a better understanding of these dryland fluvial systems and develop more precise terminology to discuss their physical attributes. In addition to development of a geomorphic classification system, we examine relationships between basin characteristics and channel geometry that will indicate where these ephemeral stream types might occur. Our conceptual model includes five geomorphic ephemeral stream types; 1) braided washes, 2) incised alluvium, 3) bedrock with alluvium, 4) bedrock, and 5) piedmont headwater channels. Preliminary watershed classification and cluster analysis of the U.S. Sonoran Desert was conducted using NHD 10-digit Hydrologic Unit Boundaries, PRISM precipitation data, state geologic survey lithology, and data derived from 30m DEMs. A total of 85 reaches were surveyed on the U.S. Army Yuma Proving Ground in southwestern Arizona representing the five stream types within three watershed categories. Following delineation of small-scale watershed characteristics using 10m DEMs for each reach location, statistical analysis will be performed to examine correlations and significant relationships among stream type, basin and channel characteristics. We hope to identify physical drivers resulting in the development of distinct geomorphic stream types and predict where the relative abundance of those stream types are likely to exist in arid environments of the southwestern U.S. We posit that locations and relative distributions of the five stream types will correlate significantly to local basin characteristics. Initial findings verify that composition of confining material dictates the level of confinement and largely influences occurrence of the five channel types. Additionally, we expect to see significant differences in width/depth ratios, grain size, stream gradient, basin hillslope gradient

  8. Colorado tick fever

    MedlinePlus

    ... immediately by using tweezers, pulling carefully and steadily. Insect repellent may be helpful. Alternative Names Mountain tick fever; ... chap 51. Read More Acute Encephalitis Fever Incidence Insect bites and stings Update Date 12/7/2014 Updated by: Jatin ...

  9. Haemorrhagic Fevers, Viral

    MedlinePlus

    ... fever, dengue, Omsk haemorrhagic fever, Kyasanur forest disease). Ebola virus disease outbreak in West Africa in 2014-2015 All information on Ebola virus disease Ebola features map Dashboard - Progress update ...

  10. Rocky Mountain spotted fever

    MedlinePlus

    ... Mountain spotted fever is caused by the bacteria Rickettsia rickettsii (R. Rickettsii) , which is carried by ticks. ... Saunders; 2014:chap 212. Walker DH, Blaton LS. Rickettsia rickettsii and other spotted fever group rickettsiae (Rocky ...

  11. Rat-bite fever

    MedlinePlus

    ... infection. Symptoms due to Streptobacillus moniliformis may include: Chills Fever Joint pain, redness, or swelling Rash Symptoms due to Spirillum minus may include: Chills Fever Open sore at the site of the ...

  12. Fever: is it beneficial?

    PubMed

    Blatteis, C M

    1986-01-01

    Data obtained in lizards infected with live bacteria suggest that fever may be beneficial to their survival. An adaptive value of fever has also been inferred in mammals, but the results are equivocal. Findings that certain leukocyte functions are enhanced in vitro at high temperatures have provided a possible explanation for the alleged benefits of fever. However, serious questions exist as to whether results from experiments in ectotherms and in vitro can properly be extrapolated to in vivo endothermic conditions. Indeed, various studies have yielded results inconsistent with the survival benefits attributed to fever, and fever is not an obligatory feature of all infections under all conditions. Certainly, the widespread use of antipyretics, without apparent adverse effects on the course of disease, argues against fever having great benefit to the host. In sum, although fever is a cardinal manifestation of infection, conclusive evidence that it has survival value in mammals is still lacking.

  13. HRTS II EUV observations of a solar ephemeral region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roussel-Dupre, R.; Wrathall, J.; Nicolas, K. R.; Bartoe, J. D. F.; Brueckner, G. E.

    1984-01-01

    HRTS II has been used to observe the EUV emission of a small bipolar magnetic feature or ephemeral region, where strong EUV line enhancement exhibits contrasts (measured relative to the quiet sun) which range from 10 to 70. The substantiality of the Lyman-alpha and C II-O V emission, and the absence of any measurable emission in coronal forbidden lines, sets a temperature range for the loop's active part of the order of 16,000-300,000 K. The use of the ratios of allowed lines as temperature diagnostics yields temperatures that are very near ionization equilibrium temperatures, and the use of chromospheric lines to form a wavelength standard yields absolute velocities ranging in magnitude from zero to 12 km/sec for C IV, N IV, and O V. This flow is interpreted as a siphon flow.

  14. Remote sensing of ephemeral water bodies in western Niger

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Verdin, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    Research was undertaken to evaluate the feasibility of monitoring the small ephemeral water bodies of the Sahel with the 1.1 km resolution data of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR). Twenty-one lakes of western Niger with good ground observation records were selected for examination. Thematic Mapper images from 1988 were first analysed to determine surface areas and temperature differences between water and adjacent land. Six AVHRR scenes from the 1988-89 dry season were then studied. It was found that a lake can be monitored until its surface area drops below 10 ha, in most cases. Furthermore, with prior knowledge of the location and shape of a water body, its surface area can be estimated from AVHRR band 5 data to within about 10 ha. These results are explained by the sharp temperature contrast between water and land, on the order of 13?? C.

  15. Fissurelike features in ephemeral channels, Trans-Pecos Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, M.L.W. . Bureau of Economic Geology)

    1993-02-01

    Active and relict ephemeral channels in the Eagle Flat basin west of Van Horn contain abundant fissurelike features, which are being studied as part of the geologic characterization of a proposed site for the Texas low-level radioactive waste repository. Tensional cracks are absent in excavations of fissurelike features in Eagle Flat, so the term fissurelike' is used instead of fissure'. Fissurelike features in active channels are characterized by curvilinear patterns of holes, pipes, and collapse structures developed at the surface within silt and fine sand basin-fill sediments. Typical single depressions range from 20 to 40 cm in depth and 0.4 to 2 m in length and form clusters as much as 2,000 m in length. Relict channel deposits exhibit filled burrows and sandy crossbedded deposits. Linear fissurelike features, located in silts and clays at the surface, may have been the loci for shallow infiltration of surface waters, which caused dissolution and reprecipitation of calcic soils. Ground-water withdrawal, a cause of fissure development elsewhere in the southwest, is an unlikely origin for fissures at this location because pumpage from nearby wells is minimal. Fissurelike features, where excavated, are not underlain by tensional cracks. In addition, the features are located in low-gradient ephemeral channel areas, and are most abundant gown gradient from a railroad embankment where water ponds relatively frequently. Localized wetting and soil-collapse processes, rather than basinal-scale tensional stresses produced by ground-water withdrawal, may have caused most of the fissurelike features in northern Eagle Flat basin.

  16. Environmental controls on drainage behavior of an ephemeral stream

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blasch, K.W.; Ferre, T. P. A.; Vrugt, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    Streambed drainage was measured at the cessation of 26 ephemeral streamflow events in Rillito Creek, Tucson, Arizona from August 2000 to June 2002 using buried time domain reflectometry (TDR) probes. An unusual drainage response was identified, which was characterized by sharp drainage from saturation to near field capacity at each depth with an increased delay between depths. We simulated the drainage response using a variably saturated numerical flow model representing a two-layer system with a high permeability layer overlying a lower permeability layer. Both the observed data and the numerical simulation show a strong correlation between the drainage velocity and the temperature of the stream water. A linear combination of temperature and the no-flow period preceding flow explained about 90% of the measured variations in drainage velocity. Evaluation of this correlative relationship with the one-dimensional numerical flow model showed that the observed temperature fluctuations could not reproduce the magnitude of variation in the observed drainage velocity. Instead, the model results indicated that flow duration exerts the most control on drainage velocity, with the drainage velocity decreasing nonlinearly with increasing flow duration. These findings suggest flow duration is a primary control of water availability for plant uptake in near surface sediments of an ephemeral stream, an important finding for estimating the ecological risk of natural or engineered changes to streamflow patterns. Correlative analyses of soil moisture data, although easy and widely used, can result in erroneous conclusions of hydrologic cause—effect relationships, and demonstrating the need for joint physically-based numerical modeling and data synthesis for hypothesis testing to support quantitative risk analysis.

  17. [Dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever].

    PubMed

    Fonsmark, L; Poulsen, A; Heegaard, E D

    2000-09-18

    Dengue virus is transmitted by mosquitoes and causes dengue fever/dengue haemorrhagic fever throughout the tropical areas of the world. There is an increasing incidence of dengue infections. Because of increasing travel activity, infection among Danes travelling abroad as well as imported cases are expected to be seen more frequently. In this review we describe the clinical manifestations, diagnosis, pathogenesis, treatment and prevention of the disease.

  18. Hydrologic landscape regions for predicting and generalizing the refuge function of intermittent and ephemeral streams

    EPA Science Inventory

    Intermittent and ephemeral (IE) streams can provide important functions within stream networks. Understanding the relative benefit provided to downstream waters is needed to better inform watershed management. Although the potential functions of IE streams are relatively well kn...

  19. Spring Ephemerals Adapt to Extremely High Light Conditions via an Unusual Stabilization of Photosystem II

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Wenfeng; Li, Yang; Liu, Wu; Wu, Lishuan; Xie, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Yuanming; Wilhelm, Christian; Yang, Chunhong

    2016-01-01

    Ephemerals, widely distributed in the Gobi desert, have developed significant characteristics to sustain high photosynthetic efficiency under high light (HL) conditions. Since the light reaction is the basis for photosynthetic conversion of solar energy to chemical energy, the photosynthetic performances in thylakoid membrane of the spring ephemerals in response to HL were studied. Three plant species, namely two C3 spring ephemeral species of Cruciferae: Arabidopsis pumila (A. pumila) and Sisymbrium altissimum (S. altissimum), and the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana (A. thaliana) were chosen for the study. The ephemeral A. pumila, which is genetically close to A. thaliana and ecologically in the same habitat as S. altissimum, was used to avoid complications arising from the superficial differences resulted from comparing plants from two extremely contrasting ecological groups. The findings manifested that the ephemerals showed significantly enhanced activities of photosystem (PS) II under HL conditions, while the activities of PSII in A. thaliana were markedly decreased under the same conditions. Detailed analyses of the electron transport processes revealed that the increased plastoquinone pool oxidization, together with the enhanced PSI activities, ensured a lowered excitation pressure to PSII of both ephemerals, and thus facilitated the photosynthetic control to avoid photodamage to PSII. The analysis of the reaction centers of the PSs, both in terms of D1 protein turnover kinetics and the long-term adaptation, revealed that the unusually stable PSs structure provided the basis for the ephemerals to carry out high photosynthetic performances. It is proposed that the characteristic photosynthetic performances of ephemerals were resulted from effects of the long-term adaptation to the harsh environments. PMID:26779223

  20. [Hemorrhagic fever viruses in Madagascar].

    PubMed

    Fontenille, D; Mathiot, C; Coulanges, P

    1988-01-01

    The authors remind, what are the viral haemorrhagic fevers, and explain the situation in Madagascar. The viruses of Crimée-Congo haemorrhagic fever, Rift valley fever and haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome are present in Madagascar. There is no real proof about the presence of Dengue viruses. The yellow fever viruses have never been stown off. It seems that there was not diagnosed outbreak of haemorrhagic fever, since the beginning of our century.

  1. Q Fever in Greenland

    PubMed Central

    Svendsen, Claus Bo; Christensen, Jens Jørgen; Bundgaard, Henning; Vindfeld, Lars; Christiansen, Claus Bohn; Kemp, Michael; Villumsen, Steen

    2010-01-01

    We report a patient with Q fever endocarditis in a settlement in eastern Greenland (Isortoq, Ammassalik area). Likely animal sources include sled dogs and seals. Q fever may be underdiagnosed in Arctic areas but may also represent an emerging infection. PMID:20202433

  2. Rift Valley Fever Virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a mosquito-transmitted virus or arbovirus that is endemic in sub-Saharan Africa. In the last decade, Rift Valley fever (RVF) outbreaks have resulted in loss of human and animal life, as well as had significant economic impact. The disease in livestock is primarily a...

  3. Rat Bite Fever

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issues Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Rat Bite Fever Page Content Article Body Rat-bite fever is a disease that occurs in humans who have been bitten by an infected rat or, in some cases, squirrels, mice, cats, and ...

  4. Annual flow duration curves assessment in ephemeral small basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pumo, D.; Viola, F.; La Loggia, G.; Noto, L. V.

    2014-11-01

    Flow duration curve (FDC) represents a comprehensive signature of temporal runoff variability often used to synthesize catchment rainfall-runoff responses. A new model, the ModABa (MODel for Annual flow duration curves assessment in ephemeral small BAsins), is here introduced. It can be thought as a wide mosaic whose tesserae are frameworks, models or conceptual schemes separately developed in different studies and harmoniously interconnected with the final aim of reproducing the annual FDC in intermittent small catchments. Two separated seasons within the hydrological year are distinguished: a dry season, characterized by absence of streamflow, and a non-zero season. Streamflow is disaggregated into a subsurface component and a surface component that, in turn, is considered formed by two different contributions: impervious runoff and surface runoff from permeable areas induced by heavy rains. The FDCs of the two streamflow components are first separately and differently computed, and then combined to obtain the non-zero FDC. This last, together with the estimated probability of null streamflow, allows the annual FDC assessment through the theory of total probability. The ModABa is here tested on a small Italian catchment and the results show how the model, once calibrated, is able to accurately reproduce the empirical FDC for the analyzed case, starting from easily derivable parameters and commonly available climatic data. In this sense, the model reveals itself as a valid tool, potentially suitable for predictions at ungauged basins in a regionalization framework.

  5. Ephemerality of discrete methane vents in lake sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scandella, Benjamin P.; Pillsbury, Liam; Weber, Thomas; Ruppel, Carolyn; Hemond, Harold F.; Juanes, Ruben

    2016-01-01

    Methane is a potent greenhouse gas whose emission from sediments in inland waters and shallow oceans may both contribute to global warming and be exacerbated by it. The fraction of methane emitted by sediments that bypasses dissolution in the water column and reaches the atmosphere as bubbles depends on the mode and spatiotemporal characteristics of venting from the sediments. Earlier studies have concluded that hot spots—persistent, high-flux vents—dominate the regional ebullitive flux from submerged sediments. Here the spatial structure, persistence, and variability in the intensity of methane venting are analyzed using a high-resolution multibeam sonar record acquired at the bottom of a lake during multiple deployments over a 9 month period. We confirm that ebullition is strongly episodic, with distinct regimes of high flux and low flux largely controlled by changes in hydrostatic pressure. Our analysis shows that the spatial pattern of ebullition becomes homogeneous at the sonar's resolution over time scales of hours (for high-flux periods) or days (for low-flux periods), demonstrating that vents are ephemeral rather than persistent, and suggesting that long-term, lake-wide ebullition dynamics may be modeled without resolving the fine-scale spatial structure of venting.

  6. Ephemerality of discrete methane vents in lake sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scandella, Benjamin P.; Pillsbury, Liam; Weber, Thomas; Ruppel, Carolyn; Hemond, Harold F.; Juanes, Ruben

    2016-05-01

    Methane is a potent greenhouse gas whose emission from sediments in inland waters and shallow oceans may both contribute to global warming and be exacerbated by it. The fraction of methane emitted by sediments that bypasses dissolution in the water column and reaches the atmosphere as bubbles depends on the mode and spatiotemporal characteristics of venting from the sediments. Earlier studies have concluded that hot spots—persistent, high-flux vents—dominate the regional ebullitive flux from submerged sediments. Here the spatial structure, persistence, and variability in the intensity of methane venting are analyzed using a high-resolution multibeam sonar record acquired at the bottom of a lake during multiple deployments over a 9 month period. We confirm that ebullition is strongly episodic, with distinct regimes of high flux and low flux largely controlled by changes in hydrostatic pressure. Our analysis shows that the spatial pattern of ebullition becomes homogeneous at the sonar's resolution over time scales of hours (for high-flux periods) or days (for low-flux periods), demonstrating that vents are ephemeral rather than persistent, and suggesting that long-term, lake-wide ebullition dynamics may be modeled without resolving the fine-scale spatial structure of venting.

  7. Size differences in migrant sandpiper flocks: ghosts in ephemeral guilds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eldridge, J.L.; Johnson, D.H.

    1988-01-01

    Scolopacid sandpipers were studied from 1980 until 1984 during spring migration in North Dakota. Common species foraging together in mixed-species flocks differed in bill length most often by 20 to 30 percent (ratios from 1.2:1 to 1.3:1). Observed flocks were compared to computer generated flocks drawn from three source pools of Arctic-nesting sandpipers. The source pools included 51 migrant species from a global pool, 33 migrant species from a Western Hemisphere pool, and 13 species that migrated through North Dakota. The observed flocks formed randomly from the available species that used the North Dakota migration corridor but the North Dakota species were not a random selection from the Western Hemisphere and global pools of Arctic-nesting scolopacid sandpipers. In short, the ephemeral, mixed-species foraging flocks that we observed in North Dakota were random mixes from a non-random pool. The size-ratio distributions were consistent with the interpretation that use of this migration corridor by sandpipers has been influenced by some form of size-related selection such as competition.

  8. Tropical fevers: Management guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Singhi, Sunit; Chaudhary, Dhruva; Varghese, George M.; Bhalla, Ashish; Karthi, N.; Kalantri, S.; Peter, J. V.; Mishra, Rajesh; Bhagchandani, Rajesh; Munjal, M.; Chugh, T. D.; Rungta, Narendra

    2014-01-01

    Tropical fevers were defined as infections that are prevalent in, or are unique to tropical and subtropical regions. Some of these occur throughout the year and some especially in rainy and post-rainy season. Concerned about high prevalence and morbidity and mortality caused by these infections, and overlapping clinical presentations, difficulties in arriving at specific diagnoses and need for early empiric treatment, Indian Society of Critical Care Medicine (ISCCM) constituted an expert committee to develop a consensus statement and guidelines for management of these diseases in the emergency and critical care. The committee decided to focus on most common infections on the basis of available epidemiologic data from India and overall experience of the group. These included dengue hemorrhagic fever, rickettsial infections/scrub typhus, malaria (usually falciparum), typhoid, and leptospira bacterial sepsis and common viral infections like influenza. The committee recommends a ‘syndromic approach’ to diagnosis and treatment of critical tropical infections and has identified five major clinical syndromes: undifferentiated fever, fever with rash / thrombocytopenia, fever with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), fever with encephalopathy and fever with multi organ dysfunction syndrome. Evidence based algorithms are presented to guide critical care specialists to choose reliable rapid diagnostic modalities and early empiric therapy based on clinical syndromes. PMID:24678147

  9. Yellow fever: an update.

    PubMed

    Monath, T P

    2001-08-01

    Yellow fever, the original viral haemorrhagic fever, was one of the most feared lethal diseases before the development of an effective vaccine. Today the disease still affects as many as 200,000 persons annually in tropical regions of Africa and South America, and poses a significant hazard to unvaccinated travellers to these areas. Yellow fever is transmitted in a cycle involving monkeys and mosquitoes, but human beings can also serve as the viraemic host for mosquito infection. Recent increases in the density and distribution of the urban mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti, as well as the rise in air travel increase the risk of introduction and spread of yellow fever to North and Central America, the Caribbean and Asia. Here I review the clinical features of the disease, its pathogenesis and pathophysiology. The disease mechanisms are poorly understood and have not been the subject of modern clinical research. Since there is no specific treatment, and management of patients with the disease is extremely problematic, the emphasis is on preventative vaccination. As a zoonosis, yellow fever cannot be eradicated, but reduction of the human disease burden is achievable through routine childhood vaccination in endemic countries, with a low cost for the benefits obtained. The biological characteristics, safety, and efficacy of live attenuated, yellow fever 17D vaccine are reviewed. New applications of yellow fever 17D virus as a vector for foreign genes hold considerable promise as a means of developing new vaccines against other viruses, and possibly against cancers. PMID:11871403

  10. Mania in dengue fever

    PubMed Central

    Jhanjee, Anurag; Bhatia, M. S.; Srivastava, Shruti

    2011-01-01

    Dengue fever, also known as break bone fever, is a mosquito-borne infection that causes a severe flu-like illness. During the last few years, there had been increasing reports of dengue fever with unusual manifestations, primarily with neurological symptoms. Psychiatric morbidity during acute dengue infection has rarely been reported. There has not been any systemic study mentioning the prevalence and pattern of psychiatric sequelae. We report a 28-year-old male who after an acute dengue infection developed an episode of mania which was successfully treated. PMID:22969182

  11. Acute rheumatic fever

    PubMed Central

    Cumming, Gordon R.

    1974-01-01

    While rheumatic fever is relatively uncommon except where there are poor and crowded living conditions, sporadic acute attacks continue to occur in a family or pediatric medical practice. The physician's role in management of the sore throat in the diagnosis of suspected cases of rheumatic fever and in follow-up for continued prophylaxis is discussed. The frequency of admissions and presenting features of 159 patients with acute rheumatic fever is reviewed. Continued surveillance is required if we are to achieve a further reduction in attack rate and complications. PMID:4419123

  12. Physiological changes accompanying senescence in the ephemeral daylily flower.

    PubMed

    Bieleski, R L; Reid, M S

    1992-03-01

    The daylily flower, Hemerocallis hybrid cv Cradle Song, develops from the opening bud to full senescence in 36 hours. Unlike other ephemeral flowers studied to date, it does not respond to ethylene, but other senescence phenomena are similar. There was a small respiration climacteric coinciding with early flower senescence, and it was also observed in isolated petals and petal slices. Cycloheximide abolished the climacteric and delayed senescence in all three systems. Petal apparent free space increased from 30% at bud opening to 38% at the onset of senescence, and sugar efflux increased from 0.2 to 2.8 milligrams per gram of fresh weight per hour during the same period. A sharp increase in ion efflux from 0.8 to 4.0 micromoles of NaCl equivalents per gram of fresh weight per hour, coinciding with the climacteric, was abolished by cycloheximide. Uptake of radiolabeled inorganic phosphate by petal slices from 100 micromolar solution increased during onset of senescence from 6 to 10 nmoles per gram of fresh weight per hour. Half was esterified; of this, 14% went into ATP, and the cellular energy charge remained high at 0.86 during senescence. The proportion incorporated into phospholipid (2.2%) did not change during senescence, but the proportion in phosphatidyl choline increased and in phosphatidyl glycerol decreased during senescence. The general phosphate ester pattern in presenescent slices closely resembled that in other plant tissues except that phospholipid precursors were more prominent (approximately 20% of total organic (32)P versus 5%). In senescent slices, the proportion of hexose phosphates decreased from 40 to 15% of total organic (32)P and that of phospholipid precursors increased to approximately 50%, suggesting that phospholipid synthesis was blocked early in senescence. PMID:16668725

  13. Bacterial succession within an ephemeral hypereutrophic mojave desert playa lake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Navarro, J.B.; Moser, D.P.; Flores, A.; Ross, C.; Rosen, Michael R.; Dong, H.; Zhang, G.; Hedlund, B.P.

    2009-01-01

    Ephemerally wet playas are conspicuous features of arid landscapes worldwide; however, they have not been well studied as habitats for microorganisms. We tracked the geochemistry and microbial community in Silver Lake playa, California, over one flooding/desiccation cycle following the unusually wet winter of 2004-2005. Over the course of the study, total dissolved solids increased by 10-fold and pH increased by nearly one unit. As the lake contracted and temperatures increased over the summer, a moderately dense planktonic population of 1 ?????106 cells ml-1 of culturable heterotrophs was replaced by a dense population of more than 1????????109 cells ml-1, which appears to be the highest concentration of culturable planktonic heterotrophs reported in any natural aquatic ecosystem. This correlated with a dramatic depletion of nitrate as well as changes in the microbial community, as assessed by small subunit ribosomal RNA gene sequencing of bacterial isolates and uncultivated clones. Isolates from the early-phase flooded playa were primarily Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, and Bacteroidetes, yet clone libraries were dominated by Betaproteobacteria and yet uncultivated Actinobacteria. Isolates from the late-flooded phase ecosystem were predominantly Proteobacteria, particularly alkalitolerant isolates of Rhodobaca, Porphyrobacter, Hydrogenophaga, Alishwenella, and relatives of Thauera; however, clone libraries were composed almost entirely of Synechococcus (Cyanobacteria). A sample taken after the playa surface was completely desiccated contained diverse culturable Actinobacteria typically isolated from soils. In total, 205 isolates and 166 clones represented 82 and 44 species-level groups, respectively, including a wide diversity of Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Gemmatimonadetes, Acidobacteria, and Cyanobacteria. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  14. Rift Valley Fever (RVF)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Outbreak resources, VHF information for specific groups, virus ecology, references... RVF Distribution Map Rift Valley Fever Transmission ... Outbreaks Outbreak Summaries RVF Distribution Map Resources Virus Ecology File Formats Help: How do I view different ...

  15. Scarlet Fever (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are Reading Upsetting News Reports? What to Say Vaccines: Which Ones & When? Smart School Lunches Emmy-Nominated Video "Cerebral Palsy: Shannon's Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Scarlet Fever KidsHealth > ...

  16. Yellow Fever Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    ... to any component of the vaccine, including eggs, chicken proteins, or gelatin, or who has had a ... any unusual condition, such as a high fever, behavior changes, or flu-like symptoms that occur 1 ...

  17. Hay Fever Medications

    MedlinePlus

    ... and fall hay fever symptoms. While avoiding the allergens that trigger symptoms is the best way to ... before you first come into contact with spring allergens, the medication can prevent the release of histamine ...

  18. Hay fever in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Wiseberg, Max

    2014-05-01

    Spring and summer can bring misery to millions who suffer from allergic reactions to pollen. Hay fever can cause runny noses, streaming eyes and sore throats. Sadly, many treatments for this distressing condition are not recommended during pregnancy because of fears surrounding the effect on the unborn child. This article presents the causes and treatments of hay fever and explores the alternatives for use during pregnancy which may be able to relieve or minimise the unpleasant symptoms without harming the baby.

  19. Potential transition from seasonal to ephemeral snow in Great Lakes watersheds in a warming climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durand, M. T.; Rine, M.

    2013-12-01

    Snow cover in many regions is a primary contributor to the hydrologic cycle and has significant surface energy balance, biogeochemical, ecological, and societal impacts. This study uses weather stations in Canada (using Environment Canada (EC) data) and the United States (using the Midwest Regional Climate Center (MRCC) data) to characterize climatological snow cover in the Great Lakes basins, and its sensitivity to future winter temperature increases. Much of this region is dominated by an ephemeral snow cover, where snow comes and goes throughout the winter months, having no significant seasonal duration. We defined "expected duration" as the uninterrupted number of days with snow cover on the ground in a typical winter. The number of days of snow cover (as opposed to the expected duration) are also analyzed; the expected duration is a better metric of whether a snowcover is ephemeral or seasonal, since it ties more directly to snowpack residence times and seasonality of runoff. We estimated the snowcover expected duration at 448 weather stations throughout the Great Lakes basins. We defined ephemeral snowcover to have an expected duration of 60 days or greater per winter, which corresponds to a latitude north of approximately 44°, in this area. We found that average winter temperature can be used to predict duration of snowcover expected duration, to first order. The ephemeral snow line in the Great Lakes basins corresponds to an average winter temperature of approximately -4 to -5° C. The statistical model relating snowcover expected duration and average winter air temperature indicates approximately a 22 day decrease in snowcover expected duration with an increase of 2° degree C. This estimate of duration sensitivity to temperature was used to identify seasonal and ephemeral watershed changes for 2° C increase in temperature. Our analysis shows that approximately 25 percent of the snow cover in the Great Lakes Basins will shift from a seasonal to an

  20. Neurophysiology of fever.

    PubMed

    Stitt, J T

    1981-12-01

    Fever is a primary disorder of thermoregulation and a common clinical sign in many diseases. It is characterized by an upward displacement in the level at which body temperature is regulated. Early attempts to study hypothalamic neuronal activity in relation to fever described the behavior of isolated single units after intravenous injections of endotoxin pyrogen. It was concluded that the thermosensitivity of many warm-sensitive units was depressed after pyrogen injections, but due to the indirect technique employed, it is not possible to distinguish whether this observation is the cause or result of fever. A decrease in hypothalamic thermosensitivity is contrary to observations made during fever in conscious animals. More specific applications of pyrogenic stimuli such as prostaglandin E1 onto individual hypothalamic neurons using the technique of microelectrophoresis have not borne out these earlier observations. A major obstacle to studying the neurophysiology of thermoregulation and fever is the absence of any obvious correlation between neuroanatomy and function in the hypothalamus. Present methods of identifying and classifying hypothalamic cells as participants in thermoregulation are patently inadequate. Until a more specific correlation between anatomy and function is established, the neurophysiological mechanisms of fever will remain obscure.

  1. Typhoid fever in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Beyene, Getenet; Asrat, Daniel; Mengistu, Yohannes; Aseffa, Abrham; Wain, John

    2008-12-01

    This review focuses on the reports of salmonellosis by investigators in different parts of Ethiopia, in particular focusing on the levels of typhoid fever. Many of the reports are published in local journals that are not available online. There have been seven studies which diagnosed typhoid fever by laboratory culture and there is no coordinated epidemiological surveillance. All conducted research and reports from different health institutions in Ethiopia indicate that typhoid fever was still a common problem up to the most recent study in 2000 and that the extensive use of first-line drugs has led to the development of multiple drug resistance. In the sites covered by this review, the total number of published cases of typhoid fever dropped over time reflecting the decline in research capacity in the country. Data on the proportion of patients infected by different serovars of Salmonella suggest that the non-Typhi serovars of Salmonella are increasing. The published evidence suggests that typhoid fever is a current public health problem in Ethiopia although population based surveys, based on good microbiological diagnosis, are urgently needed. Only then can the true burden of enteric fever be estimated and the benefit of public health control measures, such as health education, safe water provision, improved food hygienic practices and eventually vaccination, be properly assessed.

  2. [Dengue fever: clinical features].

    PubMed

    Dellamonica, P

    2009-10-01

    The vector for dengue fever and chikungunya, Aedes albopictus, was recently identified in Southeastern France, although the usual vector for dengue fever is Aedes aegypti, raising the possibility of cases occurring among the local population via viraemic individuals returning from endemic areas. Dengue fever is usually transmitted by Aedes aegypti. It is due to an arbovirus-flavivirus of which four different serotypes are known: Den 1 to 4. Each serotype is responsible for specific prolonged immunity but no cross-reactivity exists between serotypes. Clinically, the onset is abrupt with frontal headache, retro-orbital pain, myalgia, joint pain, prostration and, in many cases, a macular rash usually sparing the face and extremities. Haemorrhagic signs may occur, such as petechiae, purpura, epistaxis or bleeding gingivae. Two severe forms of dengue fever, particularly among children below 3 years of age, include dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) and DHF with shock (dengue shock syndrome). If a case is suspected in metropolitan France, the diagnosis should be systematically confirmed by positive specific IgM, RT-PCR or viral isolation. Treatment of dengue fever, whether in its uncomplicated form or with hemorrhagic manifestations or shock, remains symptomatic. There is no specific anti-viral treatment. A case should be notified to allow French health authorities to take the appropriate measures for vector control.

  3. Analysis of streambed temperatures in ephemeral channels to determine streamflow frequency and duration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Constantz, J.; Stonestrom, D.; Stewart, A.E.; Niswonger, R.; Smith, T.R.

    2001-01-01

    Spatial and temporal patterns in streamflow are rarely monitored for ephemeral streams. Flashy, erosive streamflows common in ephemeral channels create a series of operational and maintenance problems, which makes it impractical to deploy a series of gaging stations along ephemeral channels. Streambed temperature is a robust and inexpensive parameter to monitor remotely, leading to the possibility of analyzing temperature patterns to estimate streamflow frequency and duration along ephemeral channels. A simulation model was utilized to examine various atmospheric and hydrological upper boundary conditions compared with a series of hypothetical temperature-monitoring depths within the streambed. Simulation results indicate that streamflow events were distinguished from changing atmospheric conditions with greater certainty using temperatures at shallow depths (e.g., 10-20 cm) as opposed to the streambed surface. Three ephemeral streams in the American Southwest were instrumented to monitor streambed temperature for determining the accuracy of using this approach to ascertain the long-term temporal and spatial extent of streamflow along each stream channel. Streambed temperature data were collected at the surface or at shallow depth along each stream channel, using thermistors encased in waterproof, single-channel data loggers tethered to anchors in the channel. On the basis of comparisons with site information, such as direct field observations and upstream flow records, diurnal temperature variations successfully detected the presence and duration of streamflow for all sites.

  4. Carbon and nutrient cycling in ephemeral streams in the American Southwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lohse, K. A.; Meixner, T.

    2012-12-01

    Ephemeral streams are an important but little studied resource in the American Southwest. Ephemeral streams receive a subsidy of organic matter and nutrients in addition to water from their surrounding upland ecosystems. Given the hydrologic variability and additional water present in ephemeral stream systems, the upland subsidy to these systems might either lead to elevated organic matter and nutrient concentrations or more rapid processing and thus lower organic matter and nutrient states than surrounding uplands. Here we examine how carbon and nutrient pools and process rates vary across a range of ephemeral, intermittent to perennial streams in Arizona. We compare soil pools and process rates in the ephemeral wash relative to riparian and upland position along three lateral transects at each of the stream reaches (n=13 sites) prior to and post-monsoon rains. We also compared rates of litter decomposition at all sites with two types of litter, oak and sycamore. Nitrogen pools and process rates varied with position and season. Phosphorus availability was high across sites and relatively invariable. Resin exchange bags showed high availability of ammonium, nitrate, and phosphorus with the onset of the monsoon season. Rates of decomposition were higher in washes than riparian and upland positions and slower for oak compared to sycamore leaves. Eighty-six of the oak compared to seventy four percent of the sycamore mass was remaining after 180 days. Our findings suggest that upland subsidies lead to more rapid processing and lower organic matter in washes than surrounding uplands.

  5. [Relationship between ephemeral plants distribution and soil moisture on longitudinal dune surface in Gurbantonggut desert].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xueqin; Jiang, Jin; Lei, Jiaqiang; Zhao, Congju

    2004-04-01

    Ephemeral plant is a particular group of desert flora only distributed in northern Xinjiang, China. In this study, field surveys of vegetation and soil moisture were conducted in the southern area of the Gurbantonggut desert from March to August 2002. The species number, coverage and growth of ephemerals and soil moisture were measured in 7 quadrats at different geomorphic positions on the longitudinal dune surface. The results showed that soil moisture in a depth of 0-30 cm affected ephemeral plants distribution significantly. In early spring, the soil moisture was 4.62% on the intredune, 3.98% on the plinth, and 2.01% on the crest. Consequently, the average coverage of ephemeral plants reached 51.8%, 38.2% and 4.4%, respectively. The existence of ephemeral plants distribution influenced soil moisture as well. In later May, there was an increase of surface soil moisture from the interdune to the crest. The soil moisture was 1.00% on the intredune, 1.90% on the plinth, and 2.45% on the crest.

  6. Ephemeral disturbances have long-lasting impacts on forest invasion dynamics.

    PubMed

    Eschtruth, Anne K; Battles, John J

    2014-07-01

    Ephemeral disturbances are common in many systems. Often, these brief events are assumed to be a nuisance with little long-term ecological impact. We quantified the impact of the ephemeral forest disturbance caused by gypsy moth canopy defoliation on exotic plant invasion in eight hardwood forests in the Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area, USA. Six years following the gypsy moth disturbance, we were able to predict 59% of the increase in Alliaria petiolata abundance and 42% of the increase in Microstegium vimineum abundance with models incorporating an interaction between disturbance severity and propagule pressure. In addition, we found that the disturbance timing had substantial impacts on the invasion dynamics of Alliaria petiolata. Our results suggest that ephemeral disturbances can have important and long-lasting impacts on plant communities, and highlight the need to account for variations in disturbance characteristics and the role of propagule pressure in determining the disturbance-invasion relationship.

  7. Ephemeral disturbances have long-lasting impacts on forest invasion dynamics.

    PubMed

    Eschtruth, Anne K; Battles, John J

    2014-07-01

    Ephemeral disturbances are common in many systems. Often, these brief events are assumed to be a nuisance with little long-term ecological impact. We quantified the impact of the ephemeral forest disturbance caused by gypsy moth canopy defoliation on exotic plant invasion in eight hardwood forests in the Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area, USA. Six years following the gypsy moth disturbance, we were able to predict 59% of the increase in Alliaria petiolata abundance and 42% of the increase in Microstegium vimineum abundance with models incorporating an interaction between disturbance severity and propagule pressure. In addition, we found that the disturbance timing had substantial impacts on the invasion dynamics of Alliaria petiolata. Our results suggest that ephemeral disturbances can have important and long-lasting impacts on plant communities, and highlight the need to account for variations in disturbance characteristics and the role of propagule pressure in determining the disturbance-invasion relationship. PMID:25163111

  8. Analysis of temperature profiles for investigating stream losses beneath ephemeral channels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Constantz, J.; Stewart, A.E.; Niswonger, R.; Sarma, L.

    2002-01-01

    Continuous estimates of streamflow are challenging in ephemeral channels. The extremely transient nature of ephemeral streamflows results in shifting channel geometry and degradation in the calibration of streamflow stations. Earlier work suggests that analysis of streambed temperature profiles is a promising technique for estimating streamflow patterns in ephemeral channels. The present work provides a detailed examination of the basis for using heat as a tracer of stream/groundwater exchanges, followed by a description of an appropriate heat and water transport simulation code for ephemeral channels, as well as discussion of several types of temperature analysis techniques to determine streambed percolation rates. Temperature-based percolation rates for three ephemeral stream sites are compared with available surface water estimates of channel loss for these sites. These results are combined with published results to develop conclusions regarding the accuracy of using vertical temperature profiles in estimating channel losses. Comparisons of temperature-based streambed percolation rates with surface water-based channel losses indicate that percolation rates represented 30% to 50% of the total channel loss. The difference is reasonable since channel losses include both vertical and nonvertical component of channel loss as well as potential evapotranspiration losses. The most significant advantage of the use of sediment-temperature profiles is their robust and continuous nature, leading to a long-term record of the timing and duration of channel losses and continuous estimates of streambed percolation. The primary disadvantage is that temperature profiles represent the continuous percolation rate at a single point in an ephemeral channel rather than an average seepage loss from the entire channel.

  9. Recurrent Fever in Children

    PubMed Central

    Torreggiani, Sofia; Filocamo, Giovanni; Esposito, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Children presenting with recurrent fever may represent a diagnostic challenge. After excluding the most common etiologies, which include the consecutive occurrence of independent uncomplicated infections, a wide range of possible causes are considered. This article summarizes infectious and noninfectious causes of recurrent fever in pediatric patients. We highlight that, when investigating recurrent fever, it is important to consider age at onset, family history, duration of febrile episodes, length of interval between episodes, associated symptoms and response to treatment. Additionally, information regarding travel history and exposure to animals is helpful, especially with regard to infections. With the exclusion of repeated independent uncomplicated infections, many infective causes of recurrent fever are relatively rare in Western countries; therefore, clinicians should be attuned to suggestive case history data. It is important to rule out the possibility of an infectious process or a malignancy, in particular, if steroid therapy is being considered. After excluding an infectious or neoplastic etiology, immune-mediated and autoinflammatory diseases should be taken into consideration. Together with case history data, a careful physical exam during and between febrile episodes may give useful clues and guide laboratory investigations. However, despite a thorough evaluation, a recurrent fever may remain unexplained. A watchful follow-up is thus mandatory because new signs and symptoms may appear over time. PMID:27023528

  10. Fever of unknown origin.

    PubMed

    Shah, Nayan; Johnson, Karlon; Ghaly, Sabry

    2003-11-01

    This is a case study of a 26-year-old Hispanic male who presented with an initial complaint of fevers, chills and generalized weakness for three weeks. Patient reported a classical history of diurnal fever with temperature spikes as high as 105.8F after returning from a trip to Guatemala. His symptoms had waxed and waned for 3 weeks. This case study will focus on the initial presentation, value of complete history and physical exam, use of laboratory data and use of specialized diagnostic procedures in the outpatient setting. This case proves to be highly relevant to primary care in the context of treating patients with fevers of unknown etiology. Primary care physicians should be alert for unusual diseases in patients who are returning from foreign travel. Malaria is a potentially fatal disease that can be acquired by travelers to certain areas of the world, primarily developing nations. Transmitted through the bite of the Anopheles mosquito, malaria usually presents with fever and a vague systemic illness. The disease is diagnosed by demonstration of Plasmodium organisms on a specially prepared blood film. This case study speaks to the importance of prompt work up and treatment of fever of unknown origin that presents in an unusual clinical picture or that is not readily explainable.

  11. 37 CFR 380.12 - Royalty fees for the public performance of sound recordings and for ephemeral recordings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Royalty fees for the public performance of sound recordings and for ephemeral recordings. 380.12 Section 380.12 Patents, Trademarks, and... EPHEMERAL REPRODUCTIONS Broadcasters § 380.12 Royalty fees for the public performance of sound...

  12. 37 CFR 380.22 - Royalty fees for the public performance of sound recordings and for ephemeral recordings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... performance of sound recordings and for ephemeral recordings. 380.22 Section 380.22 Patents, Trademarks, and... performance of sound recordings and for ephemeral recordings. (a) Minimum fee. Each Noncommercial Educational... on the assumption that the number of sound recordings performed is 12 per hour. The Collective...

  13. Vaccines against typhoid fever.

    PubMed

    Guzman, Carlos A; Borsutzky, Stefan; Griot-Wenk, Monika; Metcalfe, Ian C; Pearman, Jon; Collioud, Andre; Favre, Didier; Dietrich, Guido

    2006-05-01

    Because of high infectivity and significant disease burden, typhoid fever constitutes a major global health problem. Implementation of adequate food handling practices and establishment of safe water supplies are the cornerstone for the development of an effective prevention program. However, vaccination against typhoid fever remains an essential tool for the effective management of this disease. Currently, there are two well tolerated and effective licensed vaccines. One is based on defined subunit virulence (Vi) polysaccharide antigen and can be administered either intramuscularly or subcutaneously and the other is based on the use of live attenuated bacteria for oral administration. The advantages and disadvantages of the various approaches taken in the development of a vaccine against typhoid fever are discussed, along with the potential for future vaccine candidates.

  14. [Q Fever in Tunisia].

    PubMed

    Kaabia, N; Letaief, A

    2009-07-01

    Q fever is a common zoonosis with almost a worldwide distribution caused by Coxiella burnetii. Farm animals and pets are the main reservoirs of infection and transmission to humans is usually via inhalation of contaminated aerosols. Infection in humans is often asymptomatic, but it can manifest as an acute disease (usually a self-limited flu-like illness, pneumonia or hepatitis) or as a chronic form (mainly endocarditis, but also hepatitis and chronic-fatigue syndrome). In Tunisia, although prevalence of anti-Coxiella burnetii was high among blood donors, Q fever was rarely reported and frequently miss diagnosed by physicians. This study is a review of epidemiological and clinical particularities of Q fever in Tunisia.

  15. Fever in honeybee colonies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starks, P. T.; Blackie, Caroline A.; Seeley, Thomas D.

    Honeybees, Apis spp., maintain elevated temperatures inside their nests to accelerate brood development and to facilitate defense against predators. We present an additional defensive function of elevating nest temperature: honeybees generate a brood-comb fever in response to colonial infection by the heat-sensitive pathogen Ascosphaera apis. This response occurs before larvae are killed, suggesting that either honeybee workers detect the infection before symptoms are visible, or that larvae communicate the ingestion of the pathogen. This response is a striking example of convergent evolution between this "superorganism" and other fever-producing animals.

  16. [Acute fever in children].

    PubMed

    Gras-Le Guen, Christèle; Launay, Élise

    2015-05-01

    Fever in children is a very common symptom associated most of the time with a viral infection. However, in 7% of children, fever without source is the first symptom of a serious bacterial infection such as pneumonia, meningitis, pyelonephritis or bacteremia. The key point in clinical examination of these children is the early identification of toxic signs. Because SBI prevalence is higher in very young children (1-3 month-aged), they required a specific management with some systematic complementary investigations and a broad indication of probabilistic antibiotherapy treatment.

  17. Chikungunya fever from Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Kouta; Matumoto, Kentaro; Lim, Chang-Kweng; Moi, Meng Ling; Kotaki, Akira; Takasaki, Tomohiko

    2010-01-01

    An adult Malaysian woman returned to Japan from Kuala Lumpur and had onset of dengue fever-like symptoms including high fever, malaise and arthritis in early January 2009. Serum obtained on the following day was tested at the National Institute of Infectious Diseases in Tokyo, where it was determined to be positive for chikungunya virus (CHIKV) RNA. IgM antibody against CHIKV was negative on January 6 and sero-converted to be positive on January 14, confirming a recent CHIKV infection. Except for arthralgia, all her symptoms resolved uneventfully within 10 days.

  18. Treatment for Valley Fever (Coccidioidomycosis)

    MedlinePlus

    ... National Institutes of Health (NIH) is sponsoring a randomized controlled trial to learn more about the best ... recently called attention to Valley fever and this randomized controlled trial . How is Valley fever treated? For ...

  19. SIMULATING SUB-DECADAL CHANNEL MORPHOLOGIC CHANGE IN EPHEMERAL STREAM NETWORKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A distributed watershed model was modified to simulate cumulative channel morphologic
    change from multiple runoff events in ephemeral stream networks. The model incorporates the general design of the event-based Kinematic Runoff and" Erosion Model (KINEROS), which describes t...

  20. The Role of Preferential Flow Through Soil-Pipes on Ephemeral Gully Erosion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Estimates by the USDA for 17 States suggest that ephemeral gully erosion ranges from 18 to 73% of the total erosion with a median of 35%. Concentrated flow is generally considered the controlling process and subsurface flow is often overlooked. Pipe-erosion may occur with no visible evidence until p...

  1. Life span and structure of ephemeral root modules of different functional groups from a desert system.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bo; He, Junxia; Zeng, Fanjiang; Lei, Jiaqiang; Arndt, Stefan K

    2016-07-01

    The terminal branch orders of plant root systems have been proposed as short-lived 'ephemeral' modules specialized for resource absorption. The occurrence of ephemeral root modules has so far only been reported for a temperate tree species and it is unclear if the concept also applies to other woody (shrub, tree) and herb species. Fine roots of 12 perennial dicotyledonous herb, shrub and tree species were monitored for two growing seasons using a branch-order classification, sequential sampling and rhizotrons in the Taklamakan desert. Two root modules existed in all three plant functional groups. Among the first five branch orders, the first two (perennial herbs, shrubs) or three (trees) root orders were ephemeral and had a primary anatomical structure, high nitrogen (N) concentrations, high respiration rates and very short life spans of 1-4 months, whereas the last two branch orders in all functional groups were perennial, with thicker diameters, no or collapsed cortex, distinct secondary growth, low N concentrations, low respiration rates, but much longer life spans. Ephemeral, short-lived root modules and long-lived, persistent root modules seem to be a general feature across many plant functional groups and could represent a basic root system design.

  2. Evaluating ephemeral gully erosion impact on Zea mays L. yield and economics using AnnAGNPS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ephemeral gully erosion causes serious water quality and economic problems in the Midwest United States. A critical barrier to soil conservation practice adoption is often the implementation cost, although it is recognized that erosion reduces farm income. Yet few, if any, understand the relationshi...

  3. Q Fever Update, Maritime Canada

    PubMed Central

    Marrie, Thomas J.; Campbell, Nancy; McNeil, Shelly A.; Webster, Duncan

    2008-01-01

    Since the 1990s, reports of Q fever in Nova Scotia, Canada, have declined. Passive surveillance for Q fever in Nova Scotia and its neighboring provinces in eastern Canada indicates that the clinical manifestation of Q fever in the Maritime provinces is pneumonia and that incidence of the disease may fluctuate. PMID:18258080

  4. Varicella complicated by scarlet fever.

    PubMed

    Yavuz, Taner; Parlak, Ali Haydar; Kocabay, Kenan

    2003-10-01

    We report a 3-year-old boy with varicella complicated by cellulitis and scarlet fever. He developed a typical rash of scarlet fever following the onset of varicella. Streptococcus pyogenes was isolated from the ulcers due to varicella. The present case suggests that scarlet fever may rarely develop following varicella and should be considered in children with complicated varicella.

  5. Metal fume fever

    SciTech Connect

    Offermann, P.V.; Finley, C.J. )

    1992-07-01

    Metal fume fever is an ancient occupational disease still encountered among metal workers. The delay between exposure and onset of non-specific symptoms makes this an elusive diagnosis. We present the case of a patient who developed symptoms several hours after welding. The historical background, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, and self-limited course of this common, yet frequently unrecognized illness are discussed.

  6. Concepts of fever.

    PubMed

    Mackowiak, P A

    1998-09-28

    If asked to define fever, most physicians would offer a thermal definition, such as "fever is a temperature greater than...." In offering their definition, many would ignore the importance of the anatomic site at which temperature measurements are taken, as well as the diurnal oscillations that characterize body temperature. If queried about the history of clinical thermometry, few physicians could identify the source or explain the pertinacity of the belief that 98.6 degrees F (37.0 degrees C) has special meaning vis-à-vis normal body temperature. Fewer still could cite the origin of the thermometer or trace the evolution of modern concepts of clinical thermometry. Although many would have some knowledge of the fundamentals of thermoregulation and the role played by exogenous and endogenous pyrogens in the induction of fever, few would have more than a superficial knowledge of the broad biological activities of pyrogenic cytokines or know of the existence of an equally complex and important system of endogenous cryogens. A distinct minority would appreciate the obvious paradoxes inherent in an enlarging body of data concerned with the question of fever's adaptive value. The present review considers many of these issues in the light of current data. PMID:9759682

  7. Rift Valley Fever Review

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a disease of animals and humans that occurs in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. A Phlebovirus in the family Bunyaviridae causes the disease that is transmitted by mosquitoes. Epidemics occur during years of unusually heavy rainfall that assessment models are being develo...

  8. Rainfall Threshold For Ephemeral Gully Erosion In Foothill Cultivated Lands (Wiśnicz Foothills, Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Święchowicz, Jolanta

    2016-04-01

    The paper presents the results of ephemeral gullies studies carried out in hydrological years 1998-2009 on the Jagiellonian University's farm, which is located in the village of Łazy (Southern Poland). The farm covers an area of 103 ha. The dominant relief type is low hills. Soil erosion hardly ever occurs on the whole area of slopes in the catchment, and transport of eroded material is irregular and not simultaneous. The formation of ephemeral gullies happens once a year or once in a few years. The events are occasional and happen locally. Ephemeral gullies most frequently form and develop on cultivated slopes in natural drainage lines or they are associated with man-made agricultural activities like field borders, furrows, tractor traces and cart roads. The research carried out in Wiśnicz Foothills shows that the development of ephemeral gullies was limited both by extrinsic (erosivity of rain) and intrinsic thresholds (the length of slope, the presence (or lack of) Bt horizon, soil moisture, type and calendar of crops and farming activities). Ephemeral gullies usually form and develop during single rain or several subsequent rains of high erosivity (of several hundred MJmmha-1h-1) on long cultivated slopes, particularly at the beginning of vegetation period, when most slopes are devoid of vegetation cover or plants are in the initial stage of growth. The process of enlarging and deepening of ephemeral gullies slows down when the incision of a gully reaches Bt horizon. Then the effectiveness of even high erosivity rainfall is much smaller. Similarly, very high erosivity of rainfall in the middle of the vegetation season is not able to cause such serious effect and the intensity of deepening of ephemeral gullies is much smaller. The process of intensified linear water erosion is more significant on commercial farms with a large acreage of crops. As a result all the mapped erosion forms were disposed of by farmers (e.g. by ploughing or filling up). If these forms

  9. Identifying Critical Ephemeral Streams and Reducing Impacts Associated with Utility-Scale Solar Energy Development in the Southwest United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connor, B. L.; Carr, A.; Patton, T.; Hamada, Y.

    2011-12-01

    The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and the Department of Energy are preparing a joint programmatic environmental impact statement (PEIS) assessing the potential impacts of utility-scale solar energy development on BLM-administered lands in six southwestern states. One of the alternatives considered in the PEIS involves development within identified solar energy zones (SEZs) that individually cover approximately 10 to 1,000 km2, located primarily in desert valleys of the Basin and Range physiographic region. Land-disturbing activities in these alluvium-filled valleys have the potential to adversely affect ephemeral streams with respect to their hydrologic, geomorphic, and ecologic functions. Regulation and management of ephemeral streams typically falls under the spectrum of federal, state, and local programs, but scientifically based guidelines for protecting ephemeral streams with respect to land-development activities are largely nonexistent. The PEIS analysis attempts to identify critical ephemeral streams by evaluating the integral functions of flood conveyance, sediment transport, groundwater recharge, and supporting ecological habitats. The initial approach to classifying critical ephemeral streams involved identifying large, erosional features using available flood hazards mapping, historical peak discharges, and aerial photographs. This approach identified ephemeral features not suitable for development (based primarily on the likelihood of damaging floods and debris flows) to address flood conveyance and sediment transport functions of ephemeral streams. Groundwater recharge and the maintenance of riparian vegetation and wildlife habitats are other functions of ephemeral streams. These functions are typically associated with headwater reaches rather than large-scale erosional features. Recognizing that integral functions of ephemeral streams occur over a range of spatial scales and are driven by varying climatic-hydrologic events, the PEIS analysis

  10. A geomorphic classification of ephemeral channels in a mountainous, arid region, southwestern Arizona, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutfin, Nicholas A.; Shaw, Jeremy; Wohl, Ellen E.; Cooper, David

    2014-09-01

    Despite the global abundance of arid-region ephemeral streams, hydrologic and geomorphic data for these systems are limited compared to their perennial counterparts. High spatial and temporal variability in flow makes hydrologic and geomorphic aspects of dryland ephemeral channels difficult to characterize. Perennial stream classifications have been extended to dryland ephemeral streams but do not adequately describe observed differences in channel geometry and characteristics of ephemeral channels in desert environments. We present a geomorphic classification for ephemeral streams in mountainous regions based on planform, degree of confinement, and composition of confining material. Five stream types were identified in the Sonoran desert of southwestern Arizona: (1) piedmont headwater, (2) bedrock, (3) bedrock with alluvium, (4) incised alluvium, and (5) braided channels. Nonparametric permutational multivariate analysis of variance for 101 surveyed reaches indicated differences (p < 0.001) in channel geometry and hydraulics among the five stream types. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling ordination identified the strongest channel geometry and hydraulic variables capable of distinguishing the five channel types, and a classification tree determined relative importance of these variables in the following order: width-to-depth ratio (W/D), stream gradient (S), stream power (Ω), and shear stress (τ). A classification tree and discriminant analysis used W/D, S, Ω, and τ for 86 study reaches on the U.S. Army Yuma Proving Ground (77% and 77% internal validation hit rate, respectively) to predict stream type of 15 separate study reaches on Barry Goldwater Air Force Range with 67% and 73% external validation hit rates, respectively. Differences in channel geometry among the five stream types reflect likely differences in hydrology, hydraulics, and sediment transport with implications for disturbance regime, channel adjustment to disturbance, and ecological sensitivity.

  11. Ebola haemorrhagic fever.

    PubMed

    Feldmann, Heinz; Geisbert, Thomas W

    2011-03-01

    Ebola viruses are the causative agents of a severe form of viral haemorrhagic fever in man, designated Ebola haemorrhagic fever, and are endemic in regions of central Africa. The exception is the species Reston Ebola virus, which has not been associated with human disease and is found in the Philippines. Ebola virus constitutes an important local public health threat in Africa, with a worldwide effect through imported infections and through the fear of misuse for biological terrorism. Ebola virus is thought to also have a detrimental effect on the great ape population in Africa. Case-fatality rates of the African species in man are as high as 90%, with no prophylaxis or treatment available. Ebola virus infections are characterised by immune suppression and a systemic inflammatory response that causes impairment of the vascular, coagulation, and immune systems, leading to multiorgan failure and shock, and thus, in some ways, resembling septic shock.

  12. [Investigating fever after travel].

    PubMed

    D'Acremont, Valérie; Jaquérioz, Frédérique; Genton, Blaise

    2003-02-01

    Two questions are crucial in the evaluation of fever in returning travellers, i.e. "Where have you been?" and "When did you go and when did you return from your trip?". Prior to establishing practice guidelines for fever in returning travellers and migrants, we did a systematic review of the geographical distribution of all infectious diseases in the tropical and subtropical countries. In the present paper, results are summarized by disease per continent. We also reviewed the extreme ranges for the incubation of the same diseases. Results are expressed graphically. Detailed information on space and time should help the practitioner to do an appropriate differential diagnosis, in particular to exclude diseases that are absent in the country visited or diseases with an incubation period that is incompatible with the travel history and symptoms occurrence dates.

  13. Dengue fever: natural management.

    PubMed

    Qadir, Muhammad Imran; Abbas, Khizar; Tahir, Madeha; Irfan, Muhammad; Raza Bukhari, Syeda Fiza; Ahmed, Bilal; Hanif, Muhammad; Rasul, Akhtar; Ali, Muhammad

    2015-03-01

    Dengue fever is caused by the mosquito-borne dengue virus (DENV) serotypes 1-4, and is the most common arboviral infection of humans in subtropical and tropical regions of the world. Dengue virus infections can present with a spacious range of clinical signs, from a mild feverish illness to a life-threatening shock syndrome. Till now, there is no approved vaccine or drug against this virus. Therefore, there is an urgent need of development of alternative solutions for dengue. Several plant species have been reported with anti-dengue activity. Many herbal/natural drugs, most of which are commonly used as nutritional components, have been used as antiviral, larvicidal, mosquitocidal and mosquito repellents that may be used against dengue. The objective of this review article was to provide current approaches for the treatment and management/prevention of dengue fever by targeting viral proteins involved in replication cycle of the virus and different developmental stages of mosquito.

  14. [Dengue as haemorrhagic fever].

    PubMed

    Olszyńska-Krowicka, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Dengue virus is distributed in tropical and subtropical regions and transmitted by mosquitoes of the genus Aedes. In September 2010 two cases of indigenous dengue fever were diagnosed in metropolitan France for the first time and next DENV infection was diagnosed in a German traveler returning from a trip to Croatia. The Aedes albopictus mosquitoes were found in several European countries (for example in greenhouses in Netherlands). The indigenous DENV infections in Europe are rare diseases, probably acquired after bites of infected mosquitoes imported by airplanes from endemic areas. Nonspecific symptoms including: fever (up to 39 degrees C), chills, arthralagia, headache, myalgia and abnormalities in laboratory tests such as: thrombocytopaenia, leukopaenia and liver tests cause problems with differential diagnosis ofhematologic and hepatologic syndromes. The most serious complications are associated with dengue shock syndrome with mortality rate of 50%.

  15. Understanding rheumatic fever.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Pedro Ming; Pereira, Rosa Rodrigues; Guilherme, Luiza

    2012-05-01

    Through a comprehensive review of the recent findings on rheumatic fever, we intend to propose a new physiopathologic model for this disease. A Medline search was performed for all articles containing the terms rheumatic fever or rheumatic heart disease in title or abstract from 1970 to 2011. Best evidence qualitative technique was used to select the most relevant. The scientific interest on rheumatic fever has notably diminished throughout the twentieth century as evidenced by the comparison of the proportion of articles in which RF was a subject in 1950 (0.26%) and today (0.03%) [Pubmed]. However, RF remains a major medical and social problem in the developing world and in the so-called hotspots, where it still causes around 500.000 deaths each year, not too different from the pre-antibiotic era. The role of genetic factors in RF susceptibility is discussed. Familiar aggregation, similarity of disease patterns between siblings, identical twin, and HLA correlation studies are evidence for a genetic influence on RF susceptibility. The suspect-involved genes fall mainly into those capable of immunologic mediation. Molecular mimicry explains the triggering of RF, but an intense and sustained inflammation is needed to cause sequels. Also, RF patients vary greatly in terms of symptoms. It is likely that a genetic background directing immune response towards a predominantly Th1 or Th2 pattern contributes to these features. The recent findings on rheumatic fever provide important insight on its physiopathology that helps understanding this prototype post-infectious autoimmune disease giving insights on other autoimmune conditions. PMID:21953302

  16. Poisons and fever.

    PubMed

    Gordon, C J; Rowsey, P J

    1998-02-01

    1. Dysfunction of the thermoregulatory system is one of many pathologies documented in experimental animals and humans exposed to toxic chemicals. The mechanism of action responsible for many types of poison-induced fevers is not understood. Some elevations in body temperature are attributed to the peripheral actions of some poisons that stimulate metabolic rate and cause a forced hyperthermia. Exposure to organophosphate (OP) pesticides and certain metal fumes appears to cause a prolonged, regulated elevation in body temperature (Tb). 2. Activation of cyclo-oxygenase (COX) and the production of prostaglandin (PG)E2 in central nervous system (CNS) thermoregulatory centres is required to elicit a fever. Activating the COX-PGE2 pathway by a poison may occur by one of three mechanisms: (i) induction of cell-mediated immune responses and the subsequent release of cytokines; (ii) induction of lipid peroxidation in the CNS; and (iii) direct neurochemical activation. 3. Radiotelemetric monitoring of core temperature in unstressed rodents has led to an experimental animal model of poison-induced fever. Rats administered the OP agents chlorpyrifos and diisopropyl fluorophosphate display an initial hypothermic response lasting approximately 24 h, followed by an elevation in diurnal core temperature for 24-72 h after exposure. The hyperthermia is apparently a result of the activation of the COX-PGE2 pathway because it is blocked by the anti-pyretic sodium salicylate. Overall, the delayed hyperthermia resulting from OP exposure involves activation of thermoregulatory pathways that may be similar to infection-mediated fever. PMID:9493505

  17. Ebola hemorrhagic Fever.

    PubMed

    Burnett, Mark W

    2014-01-01

    Ebola hemorrhagic fever is an often-fatal disease caused by a virus of the Filoviridae family, genus Ebolavirus. Initial signs and symptoms of the disease are nonspecific, often progressing on to a severe hemorrhagic illness. Special Operations Forces Medical Providers should be aware of this disease, which occurs in sporadic outbreaks throughout Africa. Treatment at the present time is mainly supportive. Special care should be taken to prevent contact with bodily fluids of those infected, which can transmit the virus to caregivers.

  18. Effects of ephemeral gully erosion on soil degradation in a cultivated area in Sicily

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Spada, Carmelo; Capra, Antonina; Gelsomino, Antonio; Ollobarren del Barrio, Paul

    2015-04-01

    Water erosion is the main cause of soil degradation on cultivated lands under Mediterranean climate. In this conditions, gully erosion is a major contributor to loss of soil productivity due to the big amounts of soil removed from the most productive top-layer. However, only few studies on the effects of gully erosion and artificial controlling measures on soil degradation are available. The study analyzes the effects of the ephemeral gully erosion and infilling by tillage operations on several physical-chemical soil properties influencing the soil productivity. The study area is located in the center of Sicily, in an agricultural context characterized by ephemeral gully erosion. Five fields with different crops and soil characteristics affected by this type of erosion were selected. Currently, local farmers adopt the artificial measure to gully filling activities to control gully erosion and continue the same agricultural management practice. Therefore, the studied ephemeral gullies show a cyclic behavior. They appear during the rainy season, are erased from July to October by soil infill from areas adjacent to the channel using ordinary tillage equipment, and, in most years, they reappear in the same position during the following rainy season. For each situation, 20 samples were taken, located on 5 transects in the direction perpendicular to the ephemeral gully, in specific positions: 2 outside the erosive channel (one in the valley-deposit area and one upstream of the basin in the undisturbed area), and 3 along the same. For each transect, the samples were collected in 4 different positions: one inside the ephemeral gully, the other 3 in external points spaced to represent the areas affected by the annual process of erosion and infilling of the gully. For each sample, a set of the main chemical and physical soil characteristics which influence the soil fertility were determined: particle size, pH, electrical conductivity, total content of carbonates, nitrates

  19. [Rift Valley fever].

    PubMed

    Pépin, M

    2011-06-01

    Rift Valley Fever (RVF) is a zoonotic arbovirosis. Among animals, it mainly affects ruminants, causing abortions in gravid females and mortality among young animals. In humans, RVF virus infection is usually asymptomatic or characterized by a moderate fever. However, in 1 to 3% of cases, more severe forms of the disease (hepatitis, encephalitis, retinitis, hemorrhagic fever) can lead to the death of infected individuals or to major sequels. The RVF virus (Bunyaviridae, genus Phlebovirus) was identified for the first time in the 1930s in Kenya. It then spread over almost all African countries, sometimes causing major epizootics/epidemics. In 2000, the virus was carried out of Africa, in the Middle East Arabian Peninsula. In 2007-2008, Eastern-African countries, including Madagascar, reported significant episodes of RVF virus, this was also the case for the Comoros archipelago and the French island of Mayotte. This ability to spread associated with many vectors, including in Europe, and high viral loads in infected animals led the health authorities worldwide to warn about the potential emergence of RVF virus in areas with a temperate climate. The awareness has increased in recent years with climate changes, which may possibly modify the vector distribution and competence, and prompted many RVF virus-free countries to better prepare for a potential implantation of RVF.

  20. Epidemiology of hemorrhagic fever viruses.

    PubMed

    LeDuc, J W

    1989-01-01

    Twelve distinct viruses associated with hemorrhagic fever in humans are classified among four families: Arenaviridae, which includes Lassa, Junin, and Machupo viruses; Bunyaviridae, which includes Rift Valley fever, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, and Hantaan viruses; Filoviridae, which includes Marburg and Ebola viruses; and Flaviviridae, which includes yellow fever, dengue, Kyasanur Forest disease, and Omsk viruses. Most hemorrhagic fever viruses are zoonoses, with the possible exception of the four dengue viruses, which may continually circulate among humans. Hemorrhagic fever viruses are found in both temperate and tropical habitats and generally infect both sexes and all ages, although the age and sex of those infected are frequently influenced by the possibility of occupational exposure. Transmission to humans is frequently by bite of an infected tick or mosquito or via aerosol from infected rodent hosts. Aerosol and nosocomial transmission are especially important with Lassa, Junin, Machupo, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, Marburg, and Ebola viruses. Seasonality of hemorrhagic fever among humans is influenced for the most part by the dynamics of infected arthropod or vertebrate hosts. Mammals, especially rodents, appear to be important natural hosts for many hemorrhagic fever viruses. The transmission cycle for each hemorrhagic fever virus is distinct and is dependent upon the characteristics of the primary vector species and the possibility for its contact with humans.

  1. AnnAGNPS GIS-based tool for watershed-scale identification and mapping of cropland potential ephemeral gullies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The formation of ephemeral gullies in agricultural fields has been recognized as an important source of sediment contributing to environmental degradation and compromising crop productivity. Methodologies are being developed for assessing gully formation and gully sediment yield. The Annualized Agri...

  2. 37 CFR 382.12 - Royalty fees for the public performance of sound recordings and the making of ephemeral recordings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT ROYALTY BOARD, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS RATES AND TERMS FOR STATUTORY LICENSES RATES AND TERMS FOR DIGITAL TRANSMISSIONS OF SOUND RECORDINGS AND THE REPRODUCTION OF EPHEMERAL RECORDINGS BY PREEXISTING SUBSCRIPTION SERVICES AND PREEXISTING SATELLITE DIGITAL AUDIO RADIO...

  3. 37 CFR 382.12 - Royalty fees for the public performance of sound recordings and the making of ephemeral recordings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT ROYALTY BOARD, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS RATES AND TERMS FOR STATUTORY LICENSES RATES AND TERMS FOR DIGITAL TRANSMISSIONS OF SOUND RECORDINGS AND THE REPRODUCTION OF EPHEMERAL RECORDINGS BY PREEXISTING SUBSCRIPTION SERVICES AND PREEXISTING SATELLITE DIGITAL AUDIO RADIO...

  4. 37 CFR 383.3 - Royalty fees for public performances of sound recordings and the making of ephemeral recordings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT ROYALTY BOARD, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS RATES AND TERMS FOR STATUTORY... eligible digital transmissions made over a Service pursuant to 17 U.S.C. 114, and for ephemeral...

  5. 37 CFR 382.12 - Royalty fees for the public performance of sound recordings and the making of ephemeral recordings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT ROYALTY BOARD, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS RATES AND TERMS FOR STATUTORY LICENSES RATES AND TERMS FOR DIGITAL TRANSMISSIONS OF SOUND RECORDINGS AND THE REPRODUCTION OF EPHEMERAL RECORDINGS BY PREEXISTING SUBSCRIPTION SERVICES AND PREEXISTING SATELLITE DIGITAL AUDIO RADIO...

  6. 37 CFR 383.3 - Royalty fees for public performances of sound recordings and the making of ephemeral recordings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT ROYALTY BOARD, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS RATES AND TERMS FOR STATUTORY... eligible digital transmissions made over a Service pursuant to 17 U.S.C. 114, and for ephemeral...

  7. 37 CFR 383.3 - Royalty fees for public performances of sound recordings and the making of ephemeral recordings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT ROYALTY BOARD, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS RATES AND TERMS FOR STATUTORY... eligible digital transmissions made over a Service pursuant to 17 U.S.C. 114, and for ephemeral...

  8. 37 CFR 382.12 - Royalty fees for the public performance of sound recordings and the making of ephemeral recordings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT ROYALTY BOARD, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS RATES AND TERMS FOR STATUTORY LICENSES RATES AND TERMS FOR DIGITAL TRANSMISSIONS OF SOUND RECORDINGS AND THE REPRODUCTION OF EPHEMERAL RECORDINGS BY PREEXISTING SUBSCRIPTION SERVICES AND PREEXISTING SATELLITE DIGITAL AUDIO RADIO...

  9. 37 CFR 383.3 - Royalty fees for public performances of sound recordings and the making of ephemeral recordings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT ROYALTY BOARD, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS RATES AND TERMS FOR STATUTORY... eligible digital transmissions made over a Service pursuant to 17 U.S.C. 114, and for ephemeral...

  10. 37 CFR 382.12 - Royalty fees for the public performance of sound recordings and the making of ephemeral recordings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT ROYALTY BOARD, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS RATES AND TERMS FOR STATUTORY LICENSES RATES AND TERMS FOR DIGITAL TRANSMISSIONS OF SOUND RECORDINGS AND THE REPRODUCTION OF EPHEMERAL RECORDINGS BY PREEXISTING SUBSCRIPTION SERVICES AND PREEXISTING SATELLITE DIGITAL AUDIO RADIO...

  11. Q fever — a review

    PubMed Central

    Marrie, Thomas J.

    1990-01-01

    Q or “query” fever is a zoonosis caused by the organism Coxiella burnetii. Cattle, sheep and goats are the most common reservoirs of this organism. The placenta of infected animals contains high numbers (up to 109/g) of C. burnetii. Aerosols occur at the time of parturition and man becomes infected following inhalation of the microorganism. The spectrum of illness in man is wide and consists of acute and chronic forms. Acute Q fever is most often a self-limited flu-like illness but may include pneumonia, hepatitis, or meningoencephalitis. Chronic Q fever almost always means endocarditis and rarely osteomyelitis. Chronic Q fever is not known to occur in animals other than man. An increased abortion and stillbirth rate are seen in infected domestic ungulates. Four provinces (Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Ontario and Alberta) reported cases of Q fever in 1989. A vaccine for Q fever has recently been licensed in Australia. ImagesFigure 1. PMID:17423643

  12. Chikungunya fever presenting with protracted severe pruritus.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Burke A; Leonichev, Victoria B; Raza, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    Travelers returning from the tropics often present with rash/fever. Those with rash/fever and myalgias/arthralgias are most likely due to chikungunya fever, dengue fever, or Zika virus. In these arthropod viral transmitted infections, the rash may be pruritic. The case presented here is that of chikungunya fever remarkable for the intensity and duration of her pruritis.

  13. Chikungunya fever presenting with protracted severe pruritus.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Burke A; Leonichev, Victoria B; Raza, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    Travelers returning from the tropics often present with rash/fever. Those with rash/fever and myalgias/arthralgias are most likely due to chikungunya fever, dengue fever, or Zika virus. In these arthropod viral transmitted infections, the rash may be pruritic. The case presented here is that of chikungunya fever remarkable for the intensity and duration of her pruritis. PMID:27679755

  14. The Influence of Ephemeral Beaches on Alongshore Variability of Hard-rock Cliff Erosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vann Jones, E. C.; Rosser, N. J.; Brain, M.; Varley, S. J.

    2015-12-01

    The role of abrasion of rock cliffs is typically considered in the long-term presence of a beach. During monthly monitoring of hard rock cliff erosion along the North Yorkshire coast, UK, we have observed a number of small ephemeral beaches of highly variable duration and extent. The erosive significance of the temporary presence of sediment at the cliffs is unknown and we set out to examine whether observed alongshore variability in erosion can be linked to the presence of ephemeral beaches. We explore the temporal and spatial variability in sediment deposition and transport along a low-sediment rock coast foreshore, the controlling marine conditions and the effects on cliff erosion. We focus on a 500 m wide embayment set into 70 m high hard rock cliffs consisting of horizontally bedded Jurassic mudstone, shale, siltstone and sandstone. The bay has a wide, shallow gradient foreshore up to 300 m wide with highly variable topography. With the exception of an ephemeral beach (of widths up to approximately 150 m alongshore and 10 m cross-shore) the rock foreshore is typically sand-free, with failed material from the cliffs quickly removed from the cliff toe by the sea leaving only boulders. The high tidal range (6 m) and storm wave environment of the North Sea result in variable marine conditions at the site. We use magnetic sand tracers and a grid of foreshore and cliff face magnets to examine the sand transport across the foreshore and to identify the vertical extent of cliff face impacted by sand. We monitor the driving marine conditions on the foreshore using a network of current meters and wave pressure sensors. Erosion of the cliff face across the whole bay is monitored at high-resolution using terrestrial laser scanning to examine the spatial distribution of abrasion and the influence of the ephemeral beach.

  15. Typhoid Fever, Below the Belt

    PubMed Central

    Raveendran, Kamakshi Mahadevan

    2016-01-01

    Genital ulcers occur due to infective, inflammatory, malignant and drug-related causes. In tropical countries such as India, such ulcers are due to parasitic, tubercular, rickettsial and bacterial (sexually transmitted infections) aetiologies. Typhoid fever is endemic in the tropics. Except “rose spots”, skin manifestations in typhoid fever are unusual, and they are missed due to pigmented skin. Patients do not often complain of genital ulcers due to shame or fear. Genital examination is not routinely performed in typhoid fever. We describe scrotal ulcers as the presenting symptom of typhoid fever, which subsided with appropriate therapy. PMID:26894114

  16. Typhoid Fever, Below the Belt.

    PubMed

    Raveendran, Kamakshi Mahadevan; Viswanathan, Stalin

    2016-01-01

    Genital ulcers occur due to infective, inflammatory, malignant and drug-related causes. In tropical countries such as India, such ulcers are due to parasitic, tubercular, rickettsial and bacterial (sexually transmitted infections) aetiologies. Typhoid fever is endemic in the tropics. Except "rose spots", skin manifestations in typhoid fever are unusual, and they are missed due to pigmented skin. Patients do not often complain of genital ulcers due to shame or fear. Genital examination is not routinely performed in typhoid fever. We describe scrotal ulcers as the presenting symptom of typhoid fever, which subsided with appropriate therapy.

  17. Dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever.

    PubMed

    Gubler, D J

    1998-07-01

    Dengue fever, a very old disease, has reemerged in the past 20 years with an expanded geographic distribution of both the viruses and the mosquito vectors, increased epidemic activity, the development of hyperendemicity (the cocirculation of multiple serotypes), and the emergence of dengue hemorrhagic fever in new geographic regions. In 1998 this mosquito-borne disease is the most important tropical infectious disease after malaria, with an estimated 100 million cases of dengue fever, 500,000 cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever, and 25,000 deaths annually. The reasons for this resurgence and emergence of dengue hemorrhagic fever in the waning years of the 20th century are complex and not fully understood, but demographic, societal, and public health infrastructure changes in the past 30 years have contributed greatly. This paper reviews the changing epidemiology of dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever by geographic region, the natural history and transmission cycles, clinical diagnosis of both dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever, serologic and virologic laboratory diagnoses, pathogenesis, surveillance, prevention, and control. A major challenge for public health officials in all tropical areas of the world is to develop and implement sustainable prevention and control programs that will reverse the trend of emergent dengue hemorrhagic fever.

  18. Behavior and identification of ephemeral sand dunes at the backshore zone using video images.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Pedro V; Pereira, Pedro S; Calliari, Lauro J; Ellis, Jean T

    2016-09-01

    The backshore zone is transitional environment strongly affected by ocean, air and sand movements. On dissipative beaches, the formation of ephemeral dunes over the backshore zone plays significant contribution in the beach morphodynamics and sediment budget. The aim of this work is to describe a novel method to identify ephemeral dunes in the backshore region and to discuss their morphodynamic behavior. The beach morphology is identified using Argus video imagery, which reveals the behavior of morphologies at Cassino Beach, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Daily images from 2005 to 2007, topographic profiles, meteorological data, and sedimentological parameters were used to determine the frequency and pervasiveness of these features on the backshore. Results indicated that coastline orientation relative to the dominant NE and E winds and the dissipative morphological beach state favored aeolian sand transport towards the backshore. Prevailing NE winds increase sand transportation to the backshore, resulting in the formation of barchans, transverse, and barchanoid-linguiod dunes. Precipitation inhibits aeolian transport and ephemeral dune formation and maintains the existing morphologies during strong SE and SW winds, provided the storm surge is not too high.

  19. Hydrologic influences on soil properties along ephemeral rivers in the Namib Desert

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jacobson, P.J.; Jacobson, K.M.; Angermeier, P.L.; Cherry, D.S.

    2000-01-01

    Soils were examined along three ephemeral rivers in the Namib Desert to assess the influence of their hydrologic characteristics on soil properties. Soils consisted of layers of fluvially deposited, organic-rich silts, interstratified with fluvial and aeolian sands. The most significant influence of the ephemeral hydrologic regime upon soils was related to the downstream alluviation associated with hydrologic decay. This alluviation increased the silt proportion of soils in the lower reaches of the rivers. Organic carbon, nitrogen and phosphorous were correlated with silt content, and silt deposition patterns influenced patterns of moisture availability and plant rooting, creating and maintaining micro-habitats for various organisms. Localized salinization occurred in association with wetland sites and soluble salt content tended to increase downstream. Because of the covariance between silt and macronutrients, and the influence of silt upon moisture availability and habitat suitability, alluviation patterns associated with the hydrologic regime strongly influence the structure, productivity, and spatial distribution of biotic communities in ephemeral river ecosystems. (C) 2000 Academic Press.

  20. Behavior and identification of ephemeral sand dunes at the backshore zone using video images.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Pedro V; Pereira, Pedro S; Calliari, Lauro J; Ellis, Jean T

    2016-09-01

    The backshore zone is transitional environment strongly affected by ocean, air and sand movements. On dissipative beaches, the formation of ephemeral dunes over the backshore zone plays significant contribution in the beach morphodynamics and sediment budget. The aim of this work is to describe a novel method to identify ephemeral dunes in the backshore region and to discuss their morphodynamic behavior. The beach morphology is identified using Argus video imagery, which reveals the behavior of morphologies at Cassino Beach, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Daily images from 2005 to 2007, topographic profiles, meteorological data, and sedimentological parameters were used to determine the frequency and pervasiveness of these features on the backshore. Results indicated that coastline orientation relative to the dominant NE and E winds and the dissipative morphological beach state favored aeolian sand transport towards the backshore. Prevailing NE winds increase sand transportation to the backshore, resulting in the formation of barchans, transverse, and barchanoid-linguiod dunes. Precipitation inhibits aeolian transport and ephemeral dune formation and maintains the existing morphologies during strong SE and SW winds, provided the storm surge is not too high. PMID:27598845

  1. Experimentally Isolating the Contributions of a Disturbed Ephemeral Drainage to a Headwater Stream in the Southern Appalachians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gannon, J. P.; Lord, M.; Kinner, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests contributions to runoff from ephemeral channels during events can exhibit significant control over water quality in higher order streams. Furthermore, field observations from a steep Appalachian catchment influenced by human activity suggest these disturbed ephemeral drainages exhibit significant control over turbidity, water temperature, and conductivity levels downstream. High turbidity during stormflow is a water quality problem in many areas of the Southern Appalachians. However, upland ephemeral channels are not included in the jurisdiction of the Clean Water Act. This offers little recourse if their contributions degrade the water quality of larger-scale streams and highlights the need for robust evidence of the potential impacts of ephemeral drainages. The aim of this research is to isolate the contribution of a disturbed ephemeral drainage by diverting its flow from the study stream network. Spatially and temporally distributed stream water samples taken during storms, when the channel is diverted or allowed to flow normally, will allow us to assess its contribution. In this poster, we present initial spatial and temporal streamwater chemistry and turbidity data as well as a detailed description of the stream network, study design, and diversion construction. We anticipate the findings of this study will be relevant to describing the environmental impact of disturbed ephemeral channels and to describing their potential influence on other water chemistry parameters downstream.

  2. Familial Mediterranean Fever

    PubMed Central

    Migita, Kiyoshi; Agematsu, Kazunaga; Yazaki, Masahide; Nonaka, Fumiaki; Nakamura, Akinori; Toma, Tomoko; Kishida, Dai; Uehara, Ritei; Nakamura, Yoshikazu; Jiuchi, Yuka; Masumoto, Junya; Furukawa, Hiroshi; Ida, Hiroaki; Terai, Chihiro; Nakashima, Yoshikazu; Kawakami, Atsushi; Nakamura, Tadashi; Eguchi, Katsumi; Yasunami, Michio; Yachie, Akihiro

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is an autoinflammatory disease caused by MEditerranean FeVer gene (MEFV) mutations. In Japan, patients with FMF have been previously reported, including a mild or incomplete form. Several factors are presumed to contribute to the variable penetrance and to the phenotypic variability of FMF. We conducted the current study to investigate the correlation of variable clinical presentations and MEFV genotypic distributions in Japanese FMF patients. We analyzed demographic, clinical, and genetic data for 311 FMF patients enrolled in the study. Clinically, we classified FMF into 2 phenotypes: 1) the “typical” form of FMF, and 2) the “atypical” form of FMF according to the Tel Hashomer criteria. Patients with the typical FMF phenotype had a higher frequency of febrile episodes, a shorter duration of febrile attacks, more frequent thoracic pain, abdominal pain, a family history of FMF, and MEFV exon 10 mutations. Conversely, patients with the atypical FMF phenotype had a lower frequency of fever episodes and more frequent arthritis in atypical distribution, myalgia, and MEFV exon 3 mutations. Multivariate analysis showed that the variable associated with typical FMF presentation was the presence of MEFV exon 10 mutations. Typical FMF phenotype frequencies were decreased in patients carrying 2 or a single low-penetrance mutations compared with those carrying 2 or a single high-penetrance mutations (M694I), with an opposite trend for the atypical FMF phenotype. In addition, patients having more than 2 MEFV mutations had a younger disease onset and a higher prevalence of thoracic pain than those carrying a single or no mutations. Thus, MEFV exon 10 mutations are associated with the more typical FMF phenotype. In contrast, more than half of the Japanese FMF patients without MEFV exon 10 mutations presented with an atypical FMF phenotype, indicating that Japanese FMF patients tend to be divided into 2 phenotypes by a variation

  3. Treatment of hay fever.

    PubMed Central

    Wood, S F

    1989-01-01

    The range of treatments for hay fever available to the general practitioner has changed considerably in recent years. New antihistamines have addressed the problem of sedation and moved towards one daily dose; nasally applied corticosteroids avoid the need for systemic steroid therapy and its potential adverse effect; and regulatory decisions have set a trend away from immunotherapy in general practice. However, knowledge about the mechanism of action of immunotherapy is increasing and new developments with improved safety profiles include allergen polymers, allergoids, oral immunotherapy and nasal immunotherapy. Choice of treatment depends, as always, on the individual circumstances of the patient and his or her disease. PMID:2556545

  4. Vegetation Structure and Function along Ephemeral Streams in the Sonoran Desert

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stromberg, J. C.; Katz, G.

    2011-12-01

    Despite being the most prevalent stream type in the American Southwest, far less is known about riparian ecosystems associated with ephemeral streams than with perennial streams. Patterns of plant composition and structure reflect complex environmental gradients, including water availability and flood intensity, which in turn are related to position in the stream network. A survey of washes in the Sonoran Desert near Tucson, Arizona showed species composition of small ephemeral washes to be comprised largely of upland species, including large seeded shrubs such as Acacia spp. and Larrea tridentata. Small seeded disturbance adapted xerophytic shrubs, such as Baccharis sarothroides, Hymenoclea monogyra and Isocoma tenuisecta, were common lower in the stream network on the larger streams that have greater scouring forces. Because ephemeral streams have multiple water sources, including deep (sometimes perched) water tables and seasonally variable rain and flood pulses, multiple plant functional types co-exist within a stream segment. Deep-rooted phreatophytes, including Tamarix and nitrogen-fixing Prosopis, are common on many washes. Such plants are able to access not only water, but also pools of nutrients, several meters below ground thereby affecting nutrient levels and soil moisture content in various soil strata. In addition to the perennial plants, many opportunistic and shallow-rooted annual species establish during the bimodal wet seasons. Collectively, wash vegetation serves to stabilize channel substrates and promote accumulation of fine sediments and organic matter. In addition to the many streams that are ephemeral over their length, ephemeral reaches also occupy extensive sections of interrupted perennial rivers. The differences in hydrologic conditions that occur over the length of interrupted perennial rivers influence plant species diversity and variability through time. In one study of three interrupted perennial rivers, patterns of herbaceous species

  5. Mosquito-borne hemorrhagic fevers.

    PubMed

    Lupi, Omar

    2011-01-01

    Arboviruses continue to be a significant source of disease, especially in regions where their insect hosts are endemic. This article highlights these diseases, with particular focus on dengue, yellow fever, and viral hemorrhagic fever. A general background is provided, as well information concerning diagnosis and treatment.

  6. Dengue hemorrhagic fever.

    PubMed

    Rosen, L

    1996-01-01

    Dengue has been known for more than 200 years. The first dengue viruses were isolated about 50 years ago. Prior to the 1950's, dengue was considered a mild febrile disease, though rare hemorrhagic and fatal cases were known to occur. After that date, the first epidemics of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) appeared in Southeast Asia, and DHF became the most important cause of childhood morbidity and mortality in the region. The emergence of DHF epidemics was first explained by mutations affecting dengue viruses, making them more virulent, but this hypothesis was not retained. Then, the "secondary infection" or "immune enhancement" theory was proposed to explain the increased virulence of dengue viruses when children had a secondary infection. This second hypothesis is still actually favoured. However, observations in Southeast Asia, some Pacific islands, and Americas do not agree with the "secondary infection" hypothesis, which consequently has been modified several times. Recent advances in molecular biology have led to the recognition that some viral strains are more virulent than others. Another hypothesis is the selection of more virulent dengue strains by the new vector Ae. aegypti, replacing the local vector Ae. albopictus, when urbanization and modern transportation increased in Southeast Asia after the last war. Comparisons between epidemics are very difficult, because of the distinction between DHF cases according to WHO criteria and dengue fever (DF) cases with hemorrhages. This distinction has no pathogenic or prognostic grounds, and makes the task of clinicians more difficult. The actual situation in countries facing dengue epidemics makes clear that this disease will continue to be a public health problem for some time to come.

  7. Monitoring Physicochemical and Nutrient Dynamics Along a Development Gradient in Maine Ephemeral Wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podzikowski, L. Y.; Capps, K. A.; Calhoun, A.

    2014-12-01

    Vernal pools are ephemeral wetlands in forested landscapes that fill with snowmelt, precipitation, and/or groundwater in the spring, and characteristically dry down through the summer months. Typically, vernal pool research has focused on the population and community ecology of pool-breeding organisms (amphibians and macroinvertebrates) conducted during their relatively short breeding season. Yet, little is known about the temporal variability of biogeochemical processes within and among vernal pools in urbanizing landscapes. In this study, we monitored physicochemical characteristics and nutrient dynamics in 22 vernal pools in central Maine post thaw in 2014. Four pristine pools were sampled weekly in five locations within the pool for ambient nutrient concentrations (SRP, NH4, NOx) and at three locations for physicochemical characteristics (DO, pH, temperature, conductivity). In the remaining 18 pools, we sampled one location for nutrients and three locations for physicochemical characteristics at least monthly to estimate the influence of increasing urbanization on the physical and chemical environment. Our data suggest most pools found in urbanizing areas have higher conductivity (developed sites ranging 18.52 - 1238 μS cm-1 compared to pristine between 14.08 - 58.4 μS cm-1). Previous work suggests forested pools exhibit dystrophic conditions with high coloration from DOC limiting primary production due to increased light attenuation in pools. However, both pristine and urban pools experienced spikes in DO (>100% saturation) throughout the day, suggesting that high productivity is not a reliable indicator of the effects of urbanization on vernal pools. We argue that continued monitoring of vernal pools along a gradient of urbanization could give insight into the role of ephemeral wetlands as potential biogeochemical hotspots and may also indicate how human development may alter biogeochemical cycling in ephemeral wetlands.

  8. Variation in material transport and water chemistry along a large ephemeral river in the Namib Desert

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jacobson, P.J.; Jacobson, K.M.; Angermeier, P.L.; Cherry, D.S.

    2000-01-01

    1. The chemical characteristics of floodwaters in ephemeral rivers are little known, particularly with regard to their organic loads. These rivers typically exhibit a pronounced downstream hydrological decay but few studies have documented its effect on chemical characteristics and material transport. To develop a better understanding of the dynamics of floods and associated material transport in large ephemeral rivers, floods of the ephemeral Kuiseb River in south-western Africa were tracked and repeatedly sampled at multiple points along the river's lower 220 km. 2. We quantified the composition and transport of solute and sediment loads in relation to longitudinal hydrological patterns associated with downstream hydrological decay. Source and sink areas for transported materials were identified, and the composition and transport dynamics of the organic matter load were compared to those described from more mesic systems. 3. Concentrations of sediments and solutes transported by floods in the Kuiseb River tended to increase downstream in association with pronounced hydrological decay. The contribution of particulate organic matter to total organic load is among the highest recorded, despite our observation of unusually high levels of dissolved organic matter. Hydrological decay resulted in deposition of all transported material within the lower Kuiseb River, with no discharge of water or materials to the Atlantic Ocean. 4. Our results suggest that longitudinal variation in surface flow and associated patterns of material transport renders the lower Kuiseb River a sink for materials transported from upstream. The downstream transport and deposition of large amounts of labile organic matter provides an important carbon supplement to heterotrophic communities within the river's lower reaches.

  9. How Direct Flux Measurements Can Improve Infiltration Estimates in Ephemeral Streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batlle-Aguilar, J.; Xie, Y.; Cook, P. G.

    2015-12-01

    In arid and semi-arid areas replenishment of groundwater resources is strongly dependent on surface water infiltration from ephemeral streams and creeks. An accurate estimation of water infiltration and aquifer recharge from these surface water features is paramount, but this task is subject to physical (streambed heterogeneity) and transient (flow variability) challenges of these watercourses. Although several methods are available to estimate stream infiltration, only a handful of them are suitable for ephemeral streams, all of which are indirect methods. In this study we performed an infiltration experiment at the transect scale in an ephemeral stream at the time it was dry, thereby obtaining direct estimates of stream infiltration. Groundwater heads measured in a transect of piezometers orthogonal to the stream identified the development of a groundwater mound laterally displaced several meters into the streambank. The experiment was modelled using the two-dimensional integrated surface-subsurface model HydroGeosphere® and calibrated with PEST using different combinations of groundwater heads and infiltration volume data. Although the model can be calibrated to produce a good match to measured groundwater heads, accurate predictions of stream infiltration can be made only if the heads used for model calibration capture the groundwater mound. The use of infiltration flux or volume during model calibration, instead, provides the best calibration results, and does not require knowledge of the position of the groundwater mound. Given that heterogeneity of streambed and streambank sediments leads to the possibility that the groundwater mound developed during flow events will be poorly characterised or perhaps missed altogether, we demonstrate that incorporating infiltration flux or volume data into the model calibration increases the ability of a model to simulate accurate estimates of stream infiltration during natural flow events.

  10. Ordinary High Water Mark in ephemeral and intermittent channels in the arid southwestern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curtis, K. E.; Lichvar, R.; Dixon, L.

    2010-12-01

    The Ordinary High Water Mark (OHWM) is important for regulating stream channels, as it defines the lateral extent of non-wetland waters, as defined under Waters of the United States in the Clean Water Act (33 CFR Part 328.3). Prior to this study, little was known about the OHWM and geomorphically effective events in arid southwest ephemeral and intermittent channels. The hydrogeomorphic floodplain features and flow dynamics are challenging to identify in these channels because of the unstable channel morphology, flashy flood events, and lack of gage data. Through field surveys, LiDAR high-resolution topography data collection, HEC-RAS flow modeling, analysis of aerial photography, and determination of recurrence intervals using gage data, we have developed a methodology to identify the hydrogeomorphic floodplain units and delineate the OHWM. The hydrogeomorphic floodplain units include a migratory low-flow channel, an active floodplain associated with low to moderate discharge events, and a low terrace inundated by moderate to high floods. We identified primary OHWM indicators such as a break in slope, a change in sediment texture, and a change in vegetation characteristics that create a repeatable and reliable signature in the channel morphology that is associated with the OHW boundary between the active floodplain and the low terrace. Secondary indicators such as drift, ripples, and silt deposits are randomly distributed throughout the channel and cannot be linked to a particular inundation extent. In an analysis of 14 gaged ephemeral and intermittent channels, we determined that the recurrence intervals varied from <1 to 15.5 yr. Lower recurrence intervals were typically associated with more stable channels, while channels with a sandy, erodable substrate had higher recurrence intervals. A more complete understanding of the channel morphology and the highly variable OHW recurrence intervals allows more reliable and repeatable delineations in southwest ephemeral

  11. A Comparison of Satellite-Derived Snow Maps with a Focus on Ephemeral Snow in North Carolina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Fuhrmann, Christopher M.; Perry, L. Baker; Riggs, George A.; Robinson, David A.; Foster, James L.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we focus on the attributes and limitations of four commonly-used daily snowcover products with respect to their ability to map ephemeral snow in central and eastern North Carolina. We show that the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) fractional snow-cover maps can delineate the snow-covered area very well through the use of a fully-automated algorithm, but suffer from the limitation that cloud cover precludes mapping some ephemeral snow. The semi-automated Interactive Multi-sensor Snow and ice mapping system (IMS) and Rutgers Global Snow Lab (GSL) snow maps are often able to capture ephemeral snow cover because ground-station data are employed to develop the snow maps, The Rutgers GSL maps are based on the IMS maps. Finally, the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for EOS (AMSR-E) provides some good detail of snow-water equivalent especially in deeper snow, but may miss ephemeral snow cover because it is often very thin or wet; the AMSR-E maps also suffer from coarse spatial resolution. We conclude that the southeastern United States represents a good test region for validating the ability of satellite snow-cover maps to capture ephemeral snow cover,

  12. The Allure of Privacy or the Desire for Self-Expression? Identifying Users' Gratifications for Ephemeral, Photograph-Based Communication.

    PubMed

    Waddell, T Franklin

    2016-07-01

    Temporary messaging programs continue to rise in popularity, due in large part to the perceived privacy that they afford. However, recent controversies have revealed that messages shared on ephemeral messaging services are persistent and potentially retrieval, thus undermining the privacy they are assumed to provide. Given this paradox, why are temporary messaging services so popular? Does the allure of privacy still motivate the use of temporary messaging programs? Or, if privacy is no longer afforded by ephemeral messaging, what other psychological gratifications do these applications fulfill that might account for their continued use? Informed by the Modality-Agency-Interactivity-Navigability (MAIN) model and the uses and gratifications tradition, the current study conducted qualitative interviews to identify the gratifications that individuals derive from the popular ephemeral messaging application, Snapchat. Study results show that the visual affordances of ephemeral messaging have legitimized photographic communication, providing self-expression and relational gratifications that are unfulfilled by text-based applications. By comparison, users report low levels of trust in the privacy affordances of ephemeral messaging, and instead projecting negative effects of temporary messaging on other users rather than self. Theoretical and practical implications of these results are discussed. PMID:27428032

  13. The Allure of Privacy or the Desire for Self-Expression? Identifying Users' Gratifications for Ephemeral, Photograph-Based Communication.

    PubMed

    Waddell, T Franklin

    2016-07-01

    Temporary messaging programs continue to rise in popularity, due in large part to the perceived privacy that they afford. However, recent controversies have revealed that messages shared on ephemeral messaging services are persistent and potentially retrieval, thus undermining the privacy they are assumed to provide. Given this paradox, why are temporary messaging services so popular? Does the allure of privacy still motivate the use of temporary messaging programs? Or, if privacy is no longer afforded by ephemeral messaging, what other psychological gratifications do these applications fulfill that might account for their continued use? Informed by the Modality-Agency-Interactivity-Navigability (MAIN) model and the uses and gratifications tradition, the current study conducted qualitative interviews to identify the gratifications that individuals derive from the popular ephemeral messaging application, Snapchat. Study results show that the visual affordances of ephemeral messaging have legitimized photographic communication, providing self-expression and relational gratifications that are unfulfilled by text-based applications. By comparison, users report low levels of trust in the privacy affordances of ephemeral messaging, and instead projecting negative effects of temporary messaging on other users rather than self. Theoretical and practical implications of these results are discussed.

  14. Fever in the returned traveler.

    PubMed

    Strickland, G T

    1992-11-01

    Febrile infections can be fatal in travelers to tropical countries unless the patient seeks medical care in a timely manner and the physician takes the time and has the skill to make a rapid diagnosis and prescribe appropriate therapy. In addition to the usual febrile illnesses present in temperate climates, the patient may have an "exotic" infection, e.g., malaria, infectious hepatitis, enteric fever, or dengue fever. The potential causes of fever in travelers are extensive. This article provides practical clues to assist the physician in making the correct diagnosis--by using exposure information, symptoms and signs, and concomitant symptom complexes.

  15. Tuffaceous ephemeral lake deposits on an alluvial plain, Middle Tertiary of central California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartow, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    The Oligocene and Miocene Valley Springs Formation represents a large fluvial depositional system that extended westward from sediment-filled palaeovalleys in the high Sierra Nevada to a piedmont alluvial plain under the present Central Valley. The Valley Springs Formation consists largely of tuffaceous mudrocks, tuffaceous sandstone, polymict conglomerate and rhyodacitic tuff. The tuffaceous mudrock lithofacies probably represents a complex of ephemeral lake and marsh environments on a low gradient alluvial plain. The inferred abundance of shallow lakes, ponds and marshes implies a climate that was wetter than the semi-arid climate of the region today. -from Author

  16. Discriminating fever behavior in house flies.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Robert D; Blanford, Simon; Jenkins, Nina E; Thomas, Matthew B

    2013-01-01

    Fever has generally been shown to benefit infected hosts. However, fever temperatures also carry costs. While endotherms are able to limit fever costs physiologically, the means by which behavioral thermoregulators constrain these costs are less understood. Here we investigated the behavioral fever response of house flies (Musca domestica L.) challenged with different doses of the fungal entomopathogen, Beauveria bassiana. Infected flies invoked a behavioral fever selecting the hottest temperature early in the day and then moving to cooler temperatures as the day progressed. In addition, flies infected with a higher dose of fungus exhibited more intense fever responses. These variable patterns of fever are consistent with the observation that higher fever temperatures had greater impact on fungal growth. The results demonstrate the capacity of insects to modulate the degree and duration of the fever response depending on the severity of the pathogen challenge and in so doing, balance the costs and benefits of fever.

  17. Ephemeral Presence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levitt, Nina

    2007-01-01

    For the past seven years, the author has been researching the representations of women who were engaged in a range of espionage activities during World War II. It seems much of people's knowledge about women spies is formed by popular representations, which are often, and intriguingly, full of stereotypes and half-truths. The skilled and heroic…

  18. Dengue fever among Swedish tourists.

    PubMed

    Wittesjö, B; Eitrem, R; Niklasson, B

    1993-01-01

    Serologically confirmed cases of dengue fever among Swedish tourists were studied retrospectively. Dengue fever was found to be the most commonly diagnosed imported arbovirus disease in Sweden during the period December 1989-November 1990. 24 cases were diagnosed. The geographical epidemiology showed that 17/23 who answered a questionnaire were infected in Thailand, most often during spring and early summer. 17 patients were admitted to hospital. All patients had high fever. Other common symptoms were myalgia, headache, fatigue/prostration and erythema. All patients but 1 with a long-standing ataxia recovered without sequelae. Low white blood cell and platelet counts were registered in all sampled patients. Depressed sodium levels and elevated liver enzymes were seen regularly. Dengue virus type 1 was isolated from 2 patients who suffered from dengue haemorrhagic fever grade II in the course of their primary dengue virus infection.

  19. Dengue haemorrhagic fever in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Wong, H B

    1981-01-01

    The history of dengue haemorrhagic fever as distinct from dengue fever in South-East Asia is traced. The epidemiology of the disease in the various countries is contrasted with that in Singapore since DHF first appeared on the scene in South-East Asia. From this survey, it is concluded that the dengue haemorrhagic fever is a new disease presentation, and its fate in SE Asia depends on the immunological state of the community, attempts at vector control, and probably antigenic variation in the various types of dengue virus. The pathogenetic mechanisms are discussed in detail. Diagnosis is presented with a detailed discussion of diagnosis of the pre-shock stage. Finally, the management of dengue haemorrhagic fever is discussed.

  20. Fever in Infants and Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... later? Yes Slightly larger bumps may be from MEASLES. Small "sandpaper" bumps may be from SCARLET FEVER, ... in the treatment of viral infections such as measles. If your child has measles, make sure he ...

  1. Q fever in French Guiana.

    PubMed

    Eldin, Carole; Mahamat, Aba; Demar, Magalie; Abboud, Philippe; Djossou, Félix; Raoult, Didier

    2014-10-01

    Coxiella burnetii, the causative agent of Q fever, is present worldwide. Recent studies have shown that this bacterium is an emerging pathogen in French Guiana and has a high prevalence (24% of community-acquired pneumonia). In this review, we focus on the peculiar epidemiology of Q fever in French Guiana. We place it in the context of the epidemiology of the disease in the surrounding countries of South America. We also review the clinical features of Q fever in this region, which has severe initial presentation but low mortality rates. These characteristics seem to be linked to a unique genotype (genotype 17). Finally, we discuss the issue of the animal reservoir of C. burnetii in French Guiana, which is still unknown. Further studies are necessary to identify this reservoir. Identification of this reservoir will improve the understanding of the Q fever epidemic in French Guiana and will provide new tools to control this public health problem.

  2. Imported chikungunya fever in Madrid.

    PubMed

    Richi Alberti, Patricia; Steiner, Martina; Illera Martín, Óscar; Alcocer Amores, Patricia; Cobo Ibáñez, Tatiana; Muñoz Fernández, Santiago

    2016-01-01

    Chikungunya Fever is a mosquito-transmitted viral disease that causes fever, rash and musculoskeletal complaints. The latest may persist for several months, or even years or developed a relapsing course, that deserve an adequate treatment. Due to the large outbreak declared in the Caribbean in 2013, imported cases of Chikungunya as well as the risk of autochthonous transmission in case of available vectors have increased in non-endemic countries, like Spain. We described four cases of Chikungunya treated in our clinic.

  3. Atypical manifestations of dengue fever.

    PubMed

    Pawaria, Arti; Mishra, Devendra; Juneja, Monica; Meena, Jagdish

    2014-06-01

    We reviewed case records of 40 in-patients (22 boys) with serologically confirmed dengue fever between 1st October and 30th November, 2013. Severe dengue was seen in 30, out of which 12 (30%) had compensated shock. Splenomegaly (6,15%) and encephalopathy (4,10%) were the commonest atypical features. Atypical manifestations of dengue fever were more common than that reported in the past.

  4. Relative contributions of transient and steady state infiltration during ephemeral streamflow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blasch, K.W.; Ferre, T. P. A.; Hoffmann, J.P.; Fleming, J.B.

    2006-01-01

    Simulations of infiltration during three ephemeral streamflow events in a coarse-grained alluvial channel overlying a less permeable basin-fill layer were conducted to determine the relative contribution of transient infiltration at the onset of streamflow to cumulative infiltration for the event. Water content, temperature, and piezometric measurements from 2.5-m vertical profiles within the alluvial sediments were used to constrain a variably saturated water flow and heat transport model. Simulated and measured transient infiltration rates at the onset of streamflow were about two to three orders of magnitude greater than steady state infiltration rates. The duration of simulated transient infiltration ranged from 1.8 to 20 hours, compared with steady state flow periods of 231 to 307 hours. Cumulative infiltration during the transient period represented 10 to 26% of the total cumulative infiltration, with an average contribution of approximately 18%. Cumulative infiltration error for the simulated streamflow events ranged from 9 to 25%. Cumulative infiltration error for typical streamflow events of about 8 hours in duration in is about 90%. This analysis indicates that when estimating total cumulative infiltration in coarse-grained ephemeral stream channels, consideration of the transient infiltration at the onset of streamflow will improve predictions of the total volume of infiltration that may become groundwater recharge. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  5. Ephemeral clonal integration in Calathea marantifolia (Marantaceae): Evidence of diminished integration over time.

    PubMed

    Matlaga, David P; da S L Sternberg, Leonel

    2009-02-01

    A major advantage of clonal growth forms is the intergenerational transfer of resources through vascular connections (clonal integration). Connections linking ramets can be persistent or ephemeral. For species with ephemeral connections, whether the extent of clonal integration changes over time is unclear. To address this issue, we tracked water movement using an isotopic label and assessed the demographic performance of parent and offspring ramets over time in a severing experiment. Our study system was the understory herb Calathea marantifolia, which has parent ramets that produce vegetative bulbils (clonal offspring) that pass through distinct pre- and post-rooting stages. Little water was transported between parents and offspring, and the direction of movement was primarily from parent to pre-rooting offspring. Anatomical observations of inter-ramet connections showed that vascular bundles were twice as abundant in parent stems compared to inter-ramet connections. Severing inter-ramet connections reduced the growth of offspring ramets but not parents. Survival of pre-rooting offspring was reduced by 10% due to severing, but post-rooting offspring were not affected. Our results suggest that offspring ramets of C. marantifolia are weaned from their parent as they progress from pre- to post-rooting stages. PMID:21628198

  6. Ephemeral Fe(II)/Fe(III) layered double hydroxides in hydromorphic soils: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vodyanitskii, Yu. N.; Shoba, S. A.

    2015-03-01

    Ephemeral green rust is formed seasonally in some hydromorphic soils. It consists of Fe(II)/Fe(III) layered double hydroxides with different types of interlayer anions and different oxidation degrees of iron ( x). In synthetized stoichiometric green rust, x = 0.25-0.33; in soil fougerite, it may reach 0.50-0.66. The mineral stability is provided by the partial substitution of Mg2+ for Fe2+. The ephemeral properties of the green rust are manifested in the high sensitivity to the varying redox regime in hydromorphic soils. Green rust disappears during oxidation stages, which complicates its diagnostics in soils. For green rust formation, excessively moist mineral soil needs organic matter as a source of energy for the vital activity of iron-reducing bacteria. In a gleyed Cambisol France, where fougerite is formed in the winter, the index of hydrogen partial pressure rH2 is 7.0-8.2, which corresponds to highly reducing conditions; upon the development of oxidation, fougerite is transformed into lepidocrocite. In the mineral siderite horizon of peatbogs in Belarus, where green rust is formed in the summer, rH2 is 11-14, which corresponds to the lower boundary of reducing conditions ( rH2 = 10-18); magnetite is formed in these soils in the winter season upon dehydration of the soil mass.

  7. Classification of ephemeral, intermittent, and perennial stream reaches using a TOPMODEL-based approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williamson, Tanja N.; Agouridis, Carmen T.; Barton, Christopher D.; Villines, Jonathan A.; Lant, Jeremiah G.

    2015-01-01

    Whether a waterway is temporary or permanent influences regulatory protection guidelines, however, classification can be subjective due to a combination of factors, including time of year, antecedent moisture conditions, and previous experience of the field investigator. Our objective was to develop a standardized protocol using publically available spatial information to classify ephemeral, intermittent, and perennial streams. Our hypothesis was that field observations of flow along the stream channel could be compared to results from a hydrologic model, providing an objective method of how these stream reaches can be identified. Flow-state sensors were placed at ephemeral, intermittent, and perennial stream reaches from May to December 2011 in the Appalachian coal basin of eastern Kentucky. This observed flow record was then used to calibrate the simulated saturation deficit in each channel reach based on the topographic wetness index used by TOPMODEL. Saturation deficit values were categorized as flow or no-flow days, and the simulated record of streamflow was compared to the observed record. The hydrologic model was more accurate for simulating flow during the spring and fall seasons. However, the model effectively identified stream reaches as intermittent and perennial in each of the two basins.

  8. Ephemeral clonal integration in Calathea marantifolia (Marantaceae): Evidence of diminished integration over time.

    PubMed

    Matlaga, David P; da S L Sternberg, Leonel

    2009-02-01

    A major advantage of clonal growth forms is the intergenerational transfer of resources through vascular connections (clonal integration). Connections linking ramets can be persistent or ephemeral. For species with ephemeral connections, whether the extent of clonal integration changes over time is unclear. To address this issue, we tracked water movement using an isotopic label and assessed the demographic performance of parent and offspring ramets over time in a severing experiment. Our study system was the understory herb Calathea marantifolia, which has parent ramets that produce vegetative bulbils (clonal offspring) that pass through distinct pre- and post-rooting stages. Little water was transported between parents and offspring, and the direction of movement was primarily from parent to pre-rooting offspring. Anatomical observations of inter-ramet connections showed that vascular bundles were twice as abundant in parent stems compared to inter-ramet connections. Severing inter-ramet connections reduced the growth of offspring ramets but not parents. Survival of pre-rooting offspring was reduced by 10% due to severing, but post-rooting offspring were not affected. Our results suggest that offspring ramets of C. marantifolia are weaned from their parent as they progress from pre- to post-rooting stages.

  9. Productivity of ephemeral headwater riparian forests impacted by sedimentation in the southeastern United States coastal plain.

    PubMed

    Jolley, Rachel L; Lockaby, B Graeme; Cavalcanti, Guadalupe G

    2009-01-01

    Riparian forests serve an essential function in improving water quality through the filtering of sediments and nutrients from surface runoff. However, little is known about the impact of sediment deposition on productivity of riparian forests. Sediment inputs may act as a subsidy to forest productivity by providing additional nutrients for plant uptake or may act as a stress by creating anoxic soil conditions. This study determined how sediment deposition affected riparian forests along ephemeral headwater streams at Ft. Benning, Georgia, USA. Above- and belowground productivity, leaf-area index (LAI), and standing crop biomass for fine roots, shrubs, and trees were compared along a gradient of present sedimentation rates in 17 riparian forests. Annual litterfall production was determined from monthly collections using 0.25- m(2) traps; woody biomass was determined from annual diameter at breast height (DBH) measurements using species-specific allometric equations; fine root productivity was determined using sequential coring; LAI was measured by expanding specific leaf area by annual litterfall production; and shrub biomass was determined using species-specific biomass equations based on height and root collar diameter. Significant declines in litterfall, woody biomass production, fine root production, LAI, and shrub biomass were found with as little as 0.1 to 0.4 cm yr(-2) sedimentation. We conclude that the levels of sedimentation in this study do not subsidize growth in ephemeral headwater riparian forests but instead create a stress similar to that found under flooded conditions.

  10. Treatment of dengue fever.

    PubMed

    Rajapakse, Senaka; Rodrigo, Chaturaka; Rajapakse, Anoja

    2012-01-01

    The endemic area for dengue fever extends over 60 countries, and approximately 2.5 billion people are at risk of infection. The incidence of dengue has multiplied many times over the last five decades at an alarming rate. In the endemic areas, waves of infection occur in epidemics, with thousands of individuals affected, creating a huge burden on the limited resources of a country's health care system. While the illness passes off as a simple febrile episode in many, a few have a severe illness marked by hypovolemic shock and bleeding. Iatrogenic fluid overload in the management may further complicate the picture. In this severe form dengue can be fatal. Tackling the burden of dengue is impeded by several issues, including a lack of understanding about the exact pathophysiology of the infection, inability to successfully control the vector population, lack of specific therapy against the virus, and the technical difficulties in developing a vaccine. This review provides an overview on the epidemiology, natural history, management strategies, and future directions for research on dengue, including the potential for development of a vaccine.

  11. Quantifying the sensitivity of ephemeral streams to land disturbance activities in arid ecosystems at the watershed scale.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Ben L; Hamada, Yuki; Bowen, Esther E; Grippo, Mark A; Hartmann, Heidi M; Patton, Terri L; Van Lonkhuyzen, Robert A; Carr, Adrianne E

    2014-11-01

    Large areas of public lands administered by the Bureau of Land Management and located in arid regions of the southwestern United States are being considered for the development of utility-scale solar energy facilities. Land-disturbing activities in these desert, alluvium-filled valleys have the potential to adversely affect the hydrologic and ecologic functions of ephemeral streams. Regulation and management of ephemeral streams typically falls under a spectrum of federal, state, and local programs, but scientifically based guidelines for protecting ephemeral streams with respect to land-development activities are largely nonexistent. This study developed an assessment approach for quantifying the sensitivity to land disturbance of ephemeral stream reaches located in proposed solar energy zones (SEZs). The ephemeral stream assessment approach used publicly-available geospatial data on hydrology, topography, surficial geology, and soil characteristics, as well as high-resolution aerial imagery. These datasets were used to inform a professional judgment-based score index of potential land disturbance impacts on selected critical functions of ephemeral streams, including flow and sediment conveyance, ecological habitat value, and groundwater recharge. The total sensitivity scores (sum of scores for the critical stream functions of flow and sediment conveyance, ecological habitats, and groundwater recharge) were used to identify highly sensitive stream reaches to inform decisions on developable areas in SEZs. Total sensitivity scores typically reflected the scores of the individual stream functions; some exceptions pertain to groundwater recharge and ecological habitats. The primary limitations of this assessment approach were the lack of high-resolution identification of ephemeral stream channels in the existing National Hydrography Dataset, and the lack of mechanistic processes describing potential impacts on ephemeral stream functions at the watershed scale. The

  12. [Ebola and Marburg fever--outbreaks of viral haemorrhagic fever].

    PubMed

    Chlíbek, R; Smetana, J; Vacková, M

    2006-12-01

    With an increasing frequency of traveling and tourism to exotic countries, a new threat-import of rare, very dangerous infections-emerges in humane medicine. Ebola fever and Marburg fever, whose agents come from the same group of Filoviridae family, belong among these diseases. The natural reservoir of these viruses has not yet been precisely determined. The pathogenesis of the diseases is not absolutely clear, there is neither a possibility of vaccination, nor an effective treatment. Fever and haemorrhagic diathesis belong to the basic symptoms of the diseases. Most of the infected persons die, the death rate is 70-88 %. The history of Ebola fever is relatively short-30 years, Marburg fever is known almost 40 years. Hundreds of people have died of these diseases so far. The study involves epidemics recorded in the world and their epidemiological relations. Not a single case has been recorded in the Czech Republic, nevertheless a sick traveler or infected animals are the highest risk of import these diseases. In our conditions, the medical staff belong to a highly endangered group of people because of stringent isolation of patients, strict rules of barrier treatment regime and high infectivity of the diseases. For this reason, the public should be prepared for possible contact with these highly virulent infections.

  13. Typhoid fever vaccination strategies.

    PubMed

    Date, Kashmira A; Bentsi-Enchill, Adwoa; Marks, Florian; Fox, Kimberley

    2015-06-19

    Typhoid vaccination is an important component of typhoid fever prevention and control, and is recommended for public health programmatic use in both endemic and outbreak settings. We reviewed experiences with various vaccination strategies using the currently available typhoid vaccines (injectable Vi polysaccharide vaccine [ViPS], oral Ty21a vaccine, and injectable typhoid conjugate vaccine [TCV]). We assessed the rationale, acceptability, effectiveness, impact and implementation lessons of these strategies to inform effective typhoid vaccination strategies for the future. Vaccination strategies were categorized by vaccine disease control strategy (preemptive use for endemic disease or to prevent an outbreak, and reactive use for outbreak control) and vaccine delivery strategy (community-based routine, community-based campaign and school-based). Almost all public health typhoid vaccination programs used ViPS vaccine and have been in countries of Asia, with one example in the Pacific and one experience using the Ty21a vaccine in South America. All vaccination strategies were found to be acceptable, feasible and effective in the settings evaluated; evidence of impact, where available, was strongest in endemic settings and in the short- to medium-term. Vaccination was cost-effective in high-incidence but not low-incidence settings. Experience in disaster and outbreak settings remains limited. TCVs have recently become available and none are WHO-prequalified yet; no program experience with TCVs was found in published literature. Despite the demonstrated success of several typhoid vaccination strategies, typhoid vaccines remain underused. Implementation lessons should be applied to design optimal vaccination strategies using TCVs which have several anticipated advantages, such as potential for use in infant immunization programs and longer duration of protection, over the ViPS and Ty21a vaccines for typhoid prevention and control.

  14. Transport, retention, and ecological significance of woody debris within a large ephemeral river

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jacobson, P.J.; Jacobson, K.M.; Angermeier, P.L.; Cherry, D.S.

    1999-01-01

    The spatiotemporal patterns and ecological significance of the retention of coarse particulate organic matter and large woody debris have been intensively studied in perennial rivers and streams but are virtually unknown in ephemeral systems. We examined the influence of 2 features characteristic of ephemeral systems, downstream hydrologic decay and in-channel tree growth, on the distribution, transport, and retention of woody debris following a flood having a ~2.6-y recurrence interval in the ephemeral Kuiseb River in southwestern Africa. A total of 2105 pieces of wood were painted at 8 sites along the river channel to measure retention patterns. The flood had a peak discharge of 159 m3/s at the upper end of the study area, decaying to <1 m3/s by 200 km downstream. Downstream export of wood from marking sites totaled 59.5% (n = 1253). Transport distances ranged from 1 to 124 km, and 34.8% (n = 436) of the exported wood was recovered. Marked wood retained within marking sites was significantly longer than exported wood (p < 0.001, t-test). Once in transport, there was little correlation between wood length and distance traveled (r = 0.11, correlation analysis, n = 369). Length influenced the site of retention; material retained on debris piles was significantly longer than that stranded on channel sediments (p < 0.001, t-test). In-channel growth of Faidherbia trees significantly influenced wood retention; 83.7% of marked wood not moved by the flood was associated with debris piles on Faidherbia trees. Similarly, 65% of the exported wood retained within downstream debris piles was associated with Faidherbia trees. In contrast to many perennial systems, we observed a general increase in wood retention downstream, peaking in the river's lower reaches in response to hydrologic decay. Debris piles induced sediment deposition and the formation of in-channel islands. Following flood recession, debris piles and their associated sediments provided moist, organic

  15. Assessment of the Compound Topographic Index CTI to predict Potential Ephemeral Gullies in Navarre (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chahor, Y.; Casalí, J.; Giménez, R.

    2012-04-01

    Ephemeral gullies are relatively small (susceptible of being obliterated by conventional tillage operation) eroded channels that are able to generate however important in-site and off-site damages (removal of top soil and nutrients, degradation of drinking water quality, contamination of aquatic ecosystems, siltation, etc.). Gully initiation and development in a watershed is greatly driven by topographic factors. Precisely, several topographic indexes have been used to identify areas with risk of gully erosion. Among them, the Compound Topographic Index (CTI= A.S.PLANC; A: upstream drainage area, S: local slope, PLANC: planform curvature) is an approach recently implemented in the AnnAGNPS (Annualized Agricultural Nonpoint Source Pollution) model. It allows defining the location of potential ephemeral gullies (PEG). The aim of this work was to assess the capability of CTI for predicting PEG mouths (potential headcut) location in an agricultural field of Navarre (Spain) through AnnAGNPS. The study was carried out in a 450 ha area cultivated with wheat and located in Pitillas (southern Navarre). The climate is continental Mediterranean with a mean temperature of 13°C and annual rainfall of 500 mm. Top soil textures are mostly loamy and silt-loam. The 3 topographic components of the CTI were computed by TOPAZ program implemented in AnnAGNPS 5.10 using a digital elevation model of 5-m resolution. The CTI is computed for each raster grid. Then all the values are arranged from the smallest to the largest and then percentiles are calculated (for example, the 95th percentile is the threshold CTI value below which 95% of the CTI values may be found). Grid cells whose values correspond to a percentile lower than 90% are discarded by the model by default. On the other hand, 31 ephemeral gullies located within the studied agricultural field were selected from orthophotos (1:5,000). Natural drainage channels located in abandoned, steep pieces of terrain were not considered in

  16. Lessons learned from integrated hydrological modeling of ephemeral catchments with different land uses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camporese, Matteo; Dean, Joshua; Daly, Edoardo

    2016-04-01

    Land use, in particular tree cover, has a strong influence on evapotranspiration (ET) and thus a large effect on the water budget of ephemeral catchments in arid and semi-arid climates. Unfortunately, the dearth of medium to long-term experimental observations in such areas limits the understanding of the interplay between catchment geology, land use, and climate in driving catchment water balance. Here we use four years (2011-2014) of rainfall, streamflow, and groundwater level measurements to estimate the water balance components in two small, adjacent, ephemeral catchments in a semi-arid region of south-eastern Australia; one catchment was predominantly covered with a eucalypt plantation established in July 2008 and the other was dedicated to grazing pasture. The integrated hydrological model CATHY (CATchment HYdrology) was calibrated against the data in the two catchments using streamflow and groundwater level observations in 2011; the data in the following years (2012-2014) were used for the model validation. The model was able to adequately reproduce the periods of flow in both catchments in all years, although streamflow and groundwater levels were better reproduced in the pasture than in the plantation. This can partly be attributed to the root growth of the trees, which is difficult to estimate; the declining water storage in the eucalypt catchment could only be obtained when including a simple model of root growth dynamics. Other sources of uncertainty could be due to an imperfect description of the surface topography and bedrock geology, which prevent us from accurately reproducing the effects of the tree furrows and subsurface wetness connectivity. The water balances estimated from both data and model showed a significant increase in ET in the eucalypt plantation catchment at the expense of groundwater storage: ET accounted for 95-104% of rainfall in the pasture catchment and 104-119% in the eucalypt catchment across the four years studied. However, the

  17. Distinctive channel geometry and riparian vegetation: A geomorphic classification for arid ephemeral streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutfin, N.; Shaw, J. R.; Wohl, E. E.; Cooper, D.

    2012-12-01

    Interactions between hydrology, channel form, and riparian vegetation along arid ephemeral streams are not thoroughly understood and current stream classifications do not adequately represent variability in channel geometry and associated riparian communities. Relatively infrequent hydrologic disturbances in dryland environments are responsible for creation and maintenance of channel form that supports riparian communities. To investigate the influence of channel characteristics on riparian vegetation in the arid southwestern United States, we develop a geomorphic classification for arid ephemeral streams based on the degree of confinement and the composition of confining material that provide constraints on available moisture. Our conceptual model includes five stream types: 1) bedrock channels entirely confined by exposed bedrock and devoid of persistent alluvium; 2) bedrock with alluvium channels at least partially confined by bedrock but containing enough alluvium to create bedforms that persist through time; 3) incised alluvium channels bound only by unconsolidated alluvial material into which they are incised; 4) braided washes that exhibit multi-thread, braided characteristics regardless of the composition of confining material; and 5) piedmont headwater 0-2nd order streams (Strahler) confined only by unconsolidated alluvium and which initiate as secondary channels on piedmont surfaces. Eighty-six study reaches representing the five stream types were surveyed on the U.S. Army Yuma Proving Ground in the Sonoran Desert of southwestern Arizona. Non-parametric multivariate analysis of variance (PERMANOVA) indicates significant differences between the five stream types with regards to channel geometry (i.e., stream gradient, width-to-depth ratio, the ratio between valley width and channel width (Wv/Wc), shear stress, and unit stream power) and riparian vegetation (i.e., presence and canopy coverage by species, canopy stratum, and life form). Discriminant analysis

  18. Identifying ephemeral and perennial stream reaches using apparent thermal inertia for an ungauged basin: The Rio Salado, Central New Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Night and day temperature images from Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) remote sensing images are used to identify ephemeral and perennial stream reaches for use in the calibration of an integrated hydrologic model of an ungauged basin. The concept is based on a...

  19. THE ECOLOGICAL AND HYDROLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF EPHEMERAL AND INTERMITTENT STREAMS IN THE ARID AND SEMI-ARID AMERICAN SOUTHWEST

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report represents a state-of-the-art synthesis of current knowledge of the ecology and hydrology of ephemeral (dry washes) and intermittent streams in the American Southwest, and may have important bearing on establishing nexus to traditional navigable waters (TNW) and defin...

  20. 37 CFR 260.2 - Royalty fees for the digital performance of sound recordings and the making of ephemeral...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Royalty fees for the digital.... 260.2 Section 260.2 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS... SERVICES' DIGITAL TRANSMISSIONS OF SOUND RECORDINGS AND MAKING OF EPHEMERAL PHONORECORDS § 260.2...

  1. 37 CFR 261.3 - Royalty fees for public performances of sound recordings and for ephemeral recordings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES AND PROCEDURES... the period October 28, 1998, through December 31, 2002, royalty rates and fees for eligible digital... Broadcaster licensed to make eligible digital transmissions and/or ephemeral recordings pursuant to...

  2. 37 CFR 260.2 - Royalty fees for the digital performance of sound recordings and the making of ephemeral...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Royalty fees for the digital.... 260.2 Section 260.2 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights U.S. COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS... SERVICES' DIGITAL TRANSMISSIONS OF SOUND RECORDINGS AND MAKING OF EPHEMERAL PHONORECORDS § 260.2...

  3. 37 CFR 261.3 - Royalty fees for public performances of sound recordings and for ephemeral recordings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES AND PROCEDURES... the period October 28, 1998, through December 31, 2002, royalty rates and fees for eligible digital... Broadcaster licensed to make eligible digital transmissions and/or ephemeral recordings pursuant to...

  4. 37 CFR 260.2 - Royalty fees for the digital performance of sound recordings and the making of ephemeral...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Royalty fees for the digital.... 260.2 Section 260.2 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS... SERVICES' DIGITAL TRANSMISSIONS OF SOUND RECORDINGS AND MAKING OF EPHEMERAL PHONORECORDS § 260.2...

  5. 37 CFR 261.3 - Royalty fees for public performances of sound recordings and for ephemeral recordings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES AND PROCEDURES... the period October 28, 1998, through December 31, 2002, royalty rates and fees for eligible digital... Broadcaster licensed to make eligible digital transmissions and/or ephemeral recordings pursuant to...

  6. 37 CFR 260.2 - Royalty fees for the digital performance of sound recordings and the making of ephemeral...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Royalty fees for the digital.... 260.2 Section 260.2 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS... SERVICES' DIGITAL TRANSMISSIONS OF SOUND RECORDINGS AND MAKING OF EPHEMERAL PHONORECORDS § 260.2...

  7. 37 CFR 260.2 - Royalty fees for the digital performance of sound recordings and the making of ephemeral...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Royalty fees for the digital.... 260.2 Section 260.2 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS... SERVICES' DIGITAL TRANSMISSIONS OF SOUND RECORDINGS AND MAKING OF EPHEMERAL PHONORECORDS § 260.2...

  8. 37 CFR 261.3 - Royalty fees for public performances of sound recordings and for ephemeral recordings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES AND PROCEDURES... the period October 28, 1998, through December 31, 2002, royalty rates and fees for eligible digital... Broadcaster licensed to make eligible digital transmissions and/or ephemeral recordings pursuant to...

  9. Degradation of soil physicochemical quality by ephemeral gully erosion on sloping cropland of the hilly Loess Plateau, China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ephemeral gully erosion (EGE) is a common type of shallow linear erosion that exerts a major threat to the productivity and sustainability of agricultural systems. The objective was to evaluate the impact of EGE on soil physicochemical properties that determine soil quality. It was hypothesized that...

  10. 37 CFR 262.3 - Royalty fees for public performances of sound recordings and for ephemeral recordings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... MAKING OF EPHEMERAL REPRODUCTIONS § 262.3 Royalty fees for public performances of sound recordings and... Recordings. The royalty payable under 17 U.S.C. 112(e) for any reproduction of a phonorecord made by a... royalty payable under 17 U.S.C. 112(e) for the reproduction of phonorecords by a Business...

  11. 37 CFR 262.3 - Royalty fees for public performances of sound recordings and for ephemeral recordings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... MAKING OF EPHEMERAL REPRODUCTIONS § 262.3 Royalty fees for public performances of sound recordings and... Recordings. The royalty payable under 17 U.S.C. 112(e) for any reproduction of a phonorecord made by a... royalty payable under 17 U.S.C. 112(e) for the reproduction of phonorecords by a Business...

  12. 37 CFR 262.3 - Royalty fees for public performances of sound recordings and for ephemeral recordings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... MAKING OF EPHEMERAL REPRODUCTIONS § 262.3 Royalty fees for public performances of sound recordings and... Recordings. The royalty payable under 17 U.S.C. 112(e) for any reproduction of a phonorecord made by a... royalty payable under 17 U.S.C. 112(e) for the reproduction of phonorecords by a Business...

  13. Management of acute childhood fevers.

    PubMed

    Teuten, Polly; Paul, Siba Prosad; Heaton, Paul Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Feverish illnesses commonly affect children and are the second most frequent reason for a child to be admitted to hospital. Most cases are viral in origin, usually with a good prognosis. Fever can be caused by severe and rapidly progressive illness which needs urgent referral to hospital for potentially life-saving treatment, and community practitioners must be able to identify such cases showing 'red flag'features. The fear of serious disease among parents and carers may result in 'fever phobia' leading to minor illnesses being managed inappropriately. Community practitioners are well placed to reassure and support families, and to provide education regarding the facts about fever, the appropriate use of antipyretic medication, how to avoid dehydration, and the beneficial role of immunisation in preventing infection.

  14. Update on acute rheumatic fever

    PubMed Central

    Madden, Sharen; Kelly, Len

    2009-01-01

    Abstract OBJECTIVE To remind physicians who work with aboriginal populations of the ongoing prevalence of acute rheumatic fever and to review the recent evidence on presentation, treatment, and secondary prophylaxis. SOURCES OF INFORMATION The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, MEDLINE, and EMBASE were searched from 1996 to 2007 with a focus on prevention, epidemiology, and disease management. Case series data from medical records at the Sioux Lookout Meno Ya Win Health Centre in Ontario were also used. MAIN MESSAGE Acute rheumatic fever is still a clinical entity in aboriginal communities in northwest Ontario. Identification, treatment, and secondary prophylaxis are necessary. CONCLUSION Acute rheumatic fever is not a forgotten disease and still exists in remote areas of Canada. PMID:19439697

  15. Sadfly fever: two case reports

    PubMed Central

    Özkale, Yasemin; Özkale, Murat; Kiper, Pinar; Çetinkaya, Bilin; Erol, İlknur

    2016-01-01

    Sandfly fever, also known as ‘three-day fever’ or ‘pappataci fever’ or ‘Phlebotomus fever’ is a viral infection that causes self-limited influenza-like symptoms and characterized by a rapid onset. The disease occurs commonly in endemic areas in summer months and especially in August during which sandflies are active. In this article, two siblings who presented with high fever, redness in the eyes, headache, weakness, malaise and inability to walk, who were found to have increased liver function tests and creatine kinase levels and who were diagnosed with sadfly fever with positive sadfly IgM and IgG antibodies are reported because of the rarity of this disease. PMID:27489469

  16. Management of acute childhood fevers.

    PubMed

    Teuten, Polly; Paul, Siba Prosad; Heaton, Paul Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Feverish illnesses commonly affect children and are the second most frequent reason for a child to be admitted to hospital. Most cases are viral in origin, usually with a good prognosis. Fever can be caused by severe and rapidly progressive illness which needs urgent referral to hospital for potentially life-saving treatment, and community practitioners must be able to identify such cases showing 'red flag'features. The fear of serious disease among parents and carers may result in 'fever phobia' leading to minor illnesses being managed inappropriately. Community practitioners are well placed to reassure and support families, and to provide education regarding the facts about fever, the appropriate use of antipyretic medication, how to avoid dehydration, and the beneficial role of immunisation in preventing infection. PMID:26387247

  17. Dengue fever outbreak in Lahore.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Usman; Loya, Asif; Mehmood, Muhammad Tariq; Nazeer, Hammad; Sultan, Faisal

    2013-03-01

    Dengue fever has now affected all the major cities of country. About 41,354 patients underwent antibody screening for dengue fever from Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital, Lahore, during the epidemic period (October 1st 2010 to December 20th 2010). Out of them, 1294 (3.1%) patients were positive for IgM antibodies, and 124 (0.3%) for IgG antibodies. A total of 722 (1.7%) patients were borderline positive for IgM antibodies and 108 (0.26%) were borderline positive for IgG antibodies. Dengue fever has emerged as a global problem over the last 5 years. It has also hit Lahore badly especially after the floods in 2010. High index of suspicion should be there in case of related symptoms.

  18. Evidence for a Noachian-Aged Ephemeral Lake in Gusev Crater, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruff, S. W.; Niles, P. B.; Alfano, F.; Clarke, A. B.

    2014-01-01

    Gusev crater was selected as the landing site for the Spirit rover because of the likelihood that it contained an ancient lake. Although outcrops rich in Mg-Fe carbonate dubbed Comanche were discovered in the Noachian-aged Columbia Hills, they were inferred to result from volcanic hydrothermal activity. Spirit encountered other mineral and chemical indicators of aqueous activity, but none was recognized as definitive evidence for a former lake in part because none was associated with obvious lacustrine sedimentary deposits. However, water discharge into Martian crater basins like Gusev may have been episodic, producing only small amounts of sediment and shallow ephemeral lakes. Evaporative precipitation from such water bodies has been suggested as a way of producing the Mg- and Fe-rich carbonates found in ALH84001 and carbonates and salts in some nakhlites a hypothesis we examine for the Comanche carbonate.

  19. A LANDSAT study of ephemeral and perennial rangeland vegetation and soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bentley, R. G., Jr. (Principal Investigator); Salmon-Drexler, B. C.; Bonner, W. J.; Vincent, R. K.

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Several methods of computer processing were applied to LANDSAT data for mapping vegetation characteristics of perennial rangeland in Montana and ephemeral rangeland in Arizona. The choice of optimal processing technique was dependent on prescribed mapping and site condition. Single channel level slicing and ratioing of channels were used for simple enhancement. Predictive models for mapping percent vegetation cover based on data from field spectra and LANDSAT data were generated by multiple linear regression of six unique LANDSAT spectral ratios. Ratio gating logic and maximum likelihood classification were applied successfully to recognize plant communities in Montana. Maximum likelihood classification did little to improve recognition of terrain features when compared to a single channel density slice in sparsely vegetated Arizona. LANDSAT was found to be more sensitive to differences between plant communities based on percentages of vigorous vegetation than to actual physical or spectral differences among plant species.

  20. Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Machine: Protecting Privacy with Ephemeral Channels

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, Alan M.; Lee, Michael Z.; Jana, Suman; Kim, Sangman; Silberstein, Mark; Xu, Yuanzhong; Shmatikov, Vitaly; Witchel, Emmett

    2014-01-01

    Modern systems keep long memories. As we show in this paper, an adversary who gains access to a Linux system, even one that implements secure deallocation, can recover the contents of applications’ windows, audio buffers, and data remaining in device drivers—long after the applications have terminated. We design and implement Lacuna, a system that allows users to run programs in “private sessions.” After the session is over, all memories of its execution are erased. The key abstraction in Lacuna is an ephemeral channel, which allows the protected program to talk to peripheral devices while making it possible to delete the memories of this communication from the host. Lacuna can run unmodified applications that use graphics, sound, USB input devices, and the network, with only 20 percentage points of additional CPU utilization. PMID:24755709

  1. Compositional variations of dolomite from a chain of ephemeral lakes in Coorong region, South Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen, M.R.; Miser, D.E.; Warren, J.K.

    1988-01-01

    A chain of four shallow ephemeral lakes (Halite, Dolomite, Pellet, and North Stromatolite Lakes) in the Coorong region (Australia) shows three mineralogically, chemically, and isotopically distinct dolomite units in various stratigraphic positions. Type I, a basal dolomite which forms small centimeter-size concretions and lightly cements a siliciclastic sand, is present in all four lakes in the chain and is chemically similar to the dolomite found in the upper 20 cm of Dolomite Lake. Type 2, a dolomite layer associated with hydromagnesite, is found in the upper 20 to 60 cm of Pellet Lake. Type 3, dolomite found along the margin of Pellet Lake, forms in association with aragonite and magnesium calcite. Detailed x-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses of samples containing more than 80% dolomite demonstrate that all dolomite types have ordering reflections, however, the degree of ordering between individual samples is highly variable.

  2. Inorganic nitrogen cycling in ephemeral urban waterways of the semi-arid Southwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallo, E. L.; Lohse, K. A.; Brooks, P. D.; Meixner, T.; Pavao-zuckerman, M.

    2012-12-01

    Non-point source inorganic nitrogen (N) pollution in urban runoff is a major water quality concern in water and N limited regions such as the semi-arid Southwestern US. Although ephemeral streams in drylands have long been recognized as biogeochemical hotspots, it is unclear how inorganic N cycling varies across ephemeral urban streams of distinct substrates in response to episodic wetting. We performed wetting experiments using an isotopic label (15N as K15NO3) to identify N-processing pathway differences in 3 ephemeral urban streams of distinct substrates in Tucson, AZ: 1) sand, 2) sandy loam and 3) loam. We applied the 15N label at a rate of 1.3 kg ha-1, and wetted the experimental plots to 25% volumetric water content. We monitored soil moisture, CO2 and N2O gas fluxes for 6 hours and soil inorganic and microbial N pools before and after the experiment. Fluxes of CO2 were significantly (α = 0.05) lower in the sand (1.05 ± 0.21 SD g CO2-C m-2 hr-1) than in the sandy loam and loam streams (1.77 ± 0.75 and 1.86 ± 0.87 g CO2-C m-2 hr-1, respectively); and varied with soil temperature, % soil C, % soil N and soil moisture at the loam site. Surprisingly, N2O fluxes in the sand and sandy loam sites (6.91 ± 5.06 and 8.42 ± 7.17 mg N2O-N m-2 hr-1, respectively) were significantly higher than N2O fluxes in the loam site (3.03 ± 2.49 mg N2O-N m-2 hr-1). Similarly, δ15N of N2O was significantly higher in the sand and sandy loam (4652 ± 4685 ‰ and 7280 ± 7191 ‰, respectively) than in the loam stream (794 ± 2577 ‰); indicating that a greater fraction of NO3-N is lost to denitrification in the sand and sandy loam sites. Surprisingly, post-experimental exchangeable inorganic δ15N was significantly higher in the sand and sandy loam sites (1014 ± 740 ‰ and 2840 ± 2686 ‰, respectively) than in the loam site (315 ± 238 ‰). Microbial biomass N did not significantly increase at the sand and sandy loam sites. However, it significantly increased in the deep

  3. Method for estimating spatially variable seepage loss and hydraulic conductivity in intermittent and ephemeral streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Niswonger, R.G.; Prudic, D.E.; Fogg, G.E.; Stonestrom, D.A.; Buckland, E.M.

    2008-01-01

    A method is presented for estimating seepage loss and streambed hydraulic conductivity along intermittent and ephemeral streams using streamflow front velocities in initially dry channels. The method uses the kinematic wave equation for routing streamflow in channels coupled to Philip's equation for infiltration. The coupled model considers variations in seepage loss both across and along the channel. Water redistribution in the unsaturated zone is also represented in the model. Sensitivity of the streamflow front velocity to parameters used for calculating seepage loss and for routing streamflow shows that the streambed hydraulic conductivity has the greatest sensitivity for moderate to large seepage loss rates. Channel roughness, geometry, and slope are most important for low seepage loss rates; however, streambed hydraulic conductivity is still important for values greater than 0.008 m/d. Two example applications are presented to demonstrate the utility of the method. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  4. The hydrology of riparian buffer zones; two case studies in an ephemeral and a perennial stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rassam, David W.; Fellows, Christine S.; De Hayr, Robert; Hunter, Heather; Bloesch, Philip

    2006-06-01

    Riparian zones can provide a protective buffer between streams and adjacent land-based activities by removing nitrate from shallow groundwater flowing through them. Hydrological factors are an important influence on the effectiveness of riparian buffer zones in reducing pollutant loads delivered to streams. In this paper, we present results from a study of the hydrology of two riparian buffers belonging to an ephemeral and a perennial stream, which are part of a research project to study nitrogen transport and transformation processes in shallow groundwater in South-East Queensland, Australia. The investigation at the ephemeral site has shown that a shallow perched water table forms shortly after stream flow commences as a result of lateral flow from the stream to floodplain; it resides within the carbon-rich root zone and drains off after stream flow ceases. The low head gradient of 1% results in a low flow rate of about 6 cm/day along the floodplain, slow enough to allow effective removal of nitrate via denitrification to occur. The investigation at the perennial site has shown that water table dynamics within the floodplain are dissociated from the up-slope area except during over-bank flood events. During non-event conditions, there is low streamward gradient that results in a base flow component to the stream; the water table depth is about 3.5 m, hence missing most of the carbon-rich soils located close to the soil surface. During flood events, a reverse gradient towards the floodplain is formed; the streamward gradient is re-established after the flood wave passes. The water table fluctuates between 1.8 and 3.5 m under these conditions thus having a higher chance of interacting with more active floodplain sediments. Water stored in the floodplain has a residence time of 2-10 days, providing an opportunity for denitrification to reduce nitrate concentrations prior to water draining back to the stream.

  5. Recent human impacts and change in dynamics and morphology of ephemeral rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega, J. A.; Razola, L.; Garzón, G.

    2014-03-01

    Ephemeral streams induce flash-flood events, which cause dramatic morphological changes and impacts on population, mainly because they are intermittent and less predictable. Human pressures on the basin modify load and discharge relationships, inducing dormant instability on the fluvial system that will manifest abruptly during flood events. The flash-flood response of two ephemeral streams affected by load supply modification due to land use changes is discussed in a combination of geomorphic and hydraulic approaches. During the Rivillas flash flood, intensive clearing on the basin led to high rates of sediment flowing into an artificially straightened and inefficient channel. The stream evolved from a sinuous single channel into a shallow braiding occupying the entire width of the valley floor. Misfits and unsteady channel conditions increased velocity, stream power and sediment entrainment capacity and considerably magnified flood damage. Resulting morphosedimentary features revealed a close relationship with the valley floor post-flood hydraulic model, and pre-event awareness would have made it possible to predict risk-sensitive areas. In the second case, the Azohía stream, modelling of current pre-flood channel conditions make it possible to determine channel narrowing and entrenchment in the lower alluvial fan stretch. Abandonment of intensive agriculture, basin reforestation and urbanization diminish load contribution and trigger channel incision. This induces an increase in slope and velocity in the bankfull channel, producing renewed erosive energy and thus activating upstream propagation of incision and bank undermining. The absence of water-spreading dynamics on the alluvial fan in favour of confinement in a single channel produces an unstable dynamic in the system, also offering a false sense of stability, as long as no large magnitude floods occur. When modelling flood-prone areas and analysing hydraulic variables, it is important to detect possible

  6. Variations in climate and ephemeral channel recharge in southeastern Arizona, United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pool, D.R.

    2005-01-01

    [1] Significant variations in interannual and decadal recharge rates are likely in alluvial basins of the semiarid southwestern United States on the basis of decadal variations in climate and precipitation and correlation of El Nin??o with high rates of winter precipitation and streamflow. A better understanding of the magnitude of recharge variations in semiarid and arid regions would reduce water budget uncertainty. Variability of ephemeral channel recharge with climate in southeastern Arizona was investigated through analysis of hydrologic monitoring near three ephemeral streams in southeastern Arizona during the middle to late 1990s and by relating the results to long-term hydrologic and climatic trends. The analysis used precipitation, streamflow, water levels in wells, estimates of groundwater storage change from repeat gravity surveys, and two climatic indicators of El Nin??o-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Southern Oscillation index, and Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). Results indicate that variations in winter recharge are related to ENSO. El Nin??o conditions correspond with a greater probability of high rates of winter precipitation, streamflow, and recharge. La Nin??a conditions are almost exclusively associated with below-average recharge. Rates of recharge along Rillito Creek near Tucson during 1977-1998, a period of frequent El Nin??o conditions and positive PDO values, were 3 times recharge rates during 1941-1957, a period dominated by La Nin??a conditions and low PDO values. Quantification of recharge variability with decadal climate cycles should improve estimates of rates of aquifer drainage and replenishment in the region. Similar methods are applicable to other regions where thick unsaturated zones can accept significant periodic recharge.

  7. Ephemeral-streamflow Induced Focused Recharge in the Desert Southwest (US)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constantz, J. E.; Stonestrom, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    Multiyear studies examined meteorologic and hydrogeologic controls on ephemeral streamflow and focused groundwater recharge at 8 sites across arid and semiarid southwestern regions of the US. Intensive data collection targeted the Great Basin, Mojave Desert, Sonoran Desert, Rio Grande Rift, and Colorado Plateau physiographic areas (USGS Prof. Pap. 1703-C). During the study period (1997-2002), the region went from wetter than normal conditions associated with a strong El Niño climatic pattern (1997-1998) to drier than normal conditions associated with a La Niña climatic pattern. The 1997-1998 El Niño, the strongest in the modern instrumental record, roughly doubled precipitation at the Great Basin, Mojave Desert, and Colorado Plateau study sites. Precipitation at all sites thereafter trended sharply lower, producing moderate- to severe-drought conditions by the end of the study. Streamflow in regional rivers indicated diminishing groundwater recharge, with annual-flow volumes declining to levels of only 10-46% of their respective long-term averages by 2002. Local streamflows showed higher variability, reflecting smaller scales of integration (in time and space) within study-site watersheds. Toward the end of study, extended periods (9-15 months) of zero or negligible flow were observed at half the sites. Summer monsoonal rains generated the majority of streamflow and associated recharge in the Sonoran Desert sites and the more southerly Rio Grande Rift site, whereas winter storms and spring snowmelt dominated the northern and westernmost sites. Proximity to moisture sources and meteorologic fluctuations, in concert with orography, largely control the generation of focused groundwater recharge from ephemeral streamflow, although other aspects (geology, soil, and vegetation) were also identified as factors. Estimates of annual focused infiltration for the research sites ranged from about 105-107 cubic meters from contributing areas that ranged from 26-2,260 square

  8. Rain and channel flow supplements to subsurface water beneath hyper-arid ephemeral stream channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kampf, Stephanie K.; Faulconer, Joshua; Shaw, Jeremy R.; Sutfin, Nicholas A.; Cooper, David J.

    2016-05-01

    In hyper-arid regions, ephemeral stream channels are important sources of subsurface recharge and water supply for riparian vegetation, but few studies have documented the subsurface water content dynamics of these systems. This study examines ephemeral channels in the hyper-arid western Sonoran Desert, USA to determine how frequently water recharges the alluvial fill and identify variables that affect the depth and persistence of recharge. Precipitation, stream stage, and subsurface water content measurements were collected over a three-year study at six channels with varying contributing areas and thicknesses of alluvial fill. All channels contain coarse alluvium composed primarily of sands and gravels, and some locations also have localized layers of fine sediment at 2-3 m depth. Rain alone contributed 300-400 mm of water input to these channels over three years, but water content responses were only detected for 36% of the rain events at 10 cm depth, indicating that much of the rain water was either quickly evaporated or taken up by plants. Pulses of water from rain events were detected only in the top meter of alluvium. The sites each experienced ⩽5 brief flow events, which caused transient saturation that usually lasted only a few hours longer than flow. These events were the only apparent source of water to depths >1 m, and water from flow events quickly percolated past the deepest measurement depths (0.5-3 m). Sustained saturation in the shallow subsurface only developed where there was a near-surface layer of finer consolidated sediments that impeded deep percolation.

  9. Tick-borne relapsing fever.

    PubMed

    Dworkin, Mark S; Schwan, Tom G; Anderson, Donald E; Borchardt, Stephanie M

    2008-09-01

    Each year, many residents of and visitors to endemic regions of the western United States are exposed to the tick vectors of tick-borne relapsing fever (TBRF), Ornithodoros hermsi, Ornithodoros turicata, or Ornithodoros parkeri. This disease is remarkable because the human host is unaware of the tick bite, usually becomes very ill, may experience an exacerbation of symptoms rather than improvement shortly after beginning appropriate treatment, and, despite often high numbers of the etiologic organism in the blood, rarely dies as a result of the illness. Although relapsing fever is acquired in many parts of the world, this article focuses primarily on knowledge about TBRF in North America. PMID:18755384

  10. Cutaneous manifestations of chikungunya fever.

    PubMed

    Seetharam, K A; Sridevi, K; Vidyasagar, P

    2012-01-01

    Chikungunya fever, a re-emerging RNA viral infection produces different cutaneous manifestations in children compared to adults. 52 children with chikungunya fever, confirmed by positive IgM antibody test were seen during 2009-2010. Pigmentary lesions were common (27/52) followed by vesiculobullous lesions (16/52) and maculopapular lesions (14/52). Vesiculobullous lesions were most common in infants, although rarely reported in adults. Psoriasis was exacerbated in 4 children resulting in more severe forms. In 2 children, guttate psoriasis was observed for the first time.

  11. The ethnoecology of dengue fever.

    PubMed

    Whiteford, L M

    1997-06-01

    This article employs an ethnoecological analysis to link indigenous, ethnomedical, and Western biomedical ideas of infectious disease causation/prevention. The ethnoecological analysis is expanded to include the cultural and historical context of political will and community participation in dengue fever control activities in an urban neighborhood in the Dominican Republic. Findings indicate that a key source of dengue fever transmission has been overlooked because it falls between established gender-role boundaries, and that mala union, an explanatory concept central to the failure of previous community-based interventions, emerges from local views of national political history. Data were generated through a neighborhood household survey, key respondent interviews, and participant-observation.

  12. Overview of Classical Swine Fever (Hog Cholera, Classical Swine fever)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Classical swine fever is a contagious often fatal disease of pigs clinically characterized by high body temperature, lethargy, yellowish diarrhea, vomits and purple skin discoloration of ears, lower abdomen and legs. It was first described in the early 19th century in the USA. Later, a condition i...

  13. Scarlet Fever and hepatitis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Gidaris, D; Zafeiriou, D; Mavridis, P; Gombakis, N

    2008-07-01

    Scarlet fever is a streptococcal infection with a good prognosis. Complications are well described. Hepatitis is a rare complication. We describe a 6-year old boy with scarlet fever, jaundice and elevated liver transaminases.

  14. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) [PDF - 2 pages] Virus Ecology Viral Hemorrhagic Fever (VHF) Information for Specific Groups ... Diagnosis Treatment Prevention Outbreak Distribution Map Resources Virus Ecology File Formats Help: How do I view different ...

  15. Fever and Taking Your Child's Temperature

    MedlinePlus

    ... About Zika & Pregnancy Fever and Taking Your Child's Temperature KidsHealth > For Parents > Fever and Taking Your Child's ... a mercury thermometer.) previous continue Tips for Taking Temperatures As any parent knows, taking a squirming child's ...

  16. [Dengue fever in the Primorye Territory].

    PubMed

    Popov, A F; Simakova, A I; Kiriakov, V Iu; Petukhova, S A; Dadalova, O B; Sokotun, S A; Shapovalenko, A M

    2014-01-01

    Eighteen cases of dengue fever were imported to the Primorye Territory in 2012-2013. The cases were related to visits to Thailand, Indonesia, and Vietnam. Of the 18 patients, 17 and 1 had classic and hemorrhagic dengue fever, respectively.

  17. Viral hemorrhagic fevers of South America.

    PubMed

    Tesh, Robert B

    2002-09-01

    This paper reviews the epidemiology and distinguishing features of three viral hemorrhagic fevers (dengue hemorrhagic fever, yellow fever and arenaviral hemorrhagic fever) that have emerged as important public health problems in South America. Although the etiology, natural history and control of the three diseases are different, their clinical manifestations and histopathology findings are similar and can be difficult to differentiate. Consequently, early recognition and correct diagnosis are essential for effective control measures to be initiated.

  18. Hepatitis and hematuria in scarlet fever.

    PubMed

    Güven, Ayla

    2002-11-01

    Scarlet fever is a common and usually benign course when treated properly. Hepatitis due to scarlet fever has been described mostly in adults. A 2 1/2-year-old boy presented with scarlet fever and jaundice, hematuria and elevated liver enzymes.

  19. First report of Q fever in Oman.

    PubMed Central

    Scrimgeour, E. M.; Johnston, W. J.; Al Dhahry, S. H.; El-Khatim, H. S.; John, V.; Musa, M.

    2000-01-01

    Although serologic evidence suggests the presence of Q fever in humans and animals in Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates, acute Q fever has not been reported on the Arabian Peninsula. We report the first two cases of acute Q fever in Oman. PMID:10653575

  20. First outbreak of dengue hemorrhagic fever, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Mahbubur; Rahman, Khalilur; Siddque, A K; Shoma, Shereen; Kamal, A H M; Ali, K S; Nisaluk, Ananda; Breiman, Robert F

    2002-07-01

    During the first countrywide outbreak of dengue hemorrhagic fever in Bangladesh, we conducted surveillance for dengue at a hospital in Dhaka. Of 176 patients, primarily adults, found positive for dengue, 60.2% had dengue fever, 39.2% dengue hemorrhagic fever, and 0.6% dengue shock syndrome. The Dengue virus 3 serotype was detected in eight patients.

  1. Behavioral fever in newborn rabbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Satinoff, E.; Mcewen, G. N., Jr.; Williams, B. A.

    1976-01-01

    New Zealand white rabbit pups aged 12 to 72 hr were divided into three groups and given an intraperitoneal injection of Pseudomonas polysaccharide, a saline vehicle alone, and no treatment, respectively. The animals injected with pyrogen and maintained at an ambient temperature of 32 C for 2 hr did not develop fever. When placed in a thermally graded alleyway, the animals injected with pyrogen selected gradient positions that represented significantly higher temperatures than controls injected with saline. Further stay at selected positions for 5 min caused a considerable increase in the rectal temperature of the pyrogen-injected pups but not that of controls. The results support the hypothesis that newborn rabbits will develop a fever by behavioral means after a single injection of an exogenous pyrogen if the opportunity for thermoregulatory behavior is present. No fever develops if the pups must rely solely on internal thermoregulatory mechanisms. The behavioral system for producing a fever is mature at birth, but an adequate system of internal reflexes does not appear to develop for some days.

  2. Monoacylglycerol Lipase Regulates Fever Response

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez-Alavez, Manuel; Nguyen, William; Mori, Simone; Moroncini, Gianluca; Viader, Andreu; Nomura, Daniel K.; Cravatt, Benjamin F.; Conti, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Cyclooxygenase inhibitors such as ibuprofen have been used for decades to control fever through reducing the levels of the pyrogenic lipid transmitter prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). Historically, phospholipases have been considered to be the primary generator of the arachidonic acid (AA) precursor pool for generating PGE2 and other eicosanoids. However, recent studies have demonstrated that monoacyglycerol lipase (MAGL), through hydrolysis of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol, provides a major source of AA for PGE2 synthesis in the mammalian brain under basal and neuroinflammatory states. We show here that either genetic or pharmacological ablation of MAGL leads to significantly reduced fever responses in both centrally or peripherally-administered lipopolysaccharide or interleukin-1β-induced fever models in mice. We also show that a cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist does not attenuate these anti-pyrogenic effects of MAGL inhibitors. Thus, much like traditional nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, MAGL inhibitors can control fever, but appear to do so through restricted control over prostaglandin production in the nervous system. PMID:26287872

  3. Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lee, H W; van der Groen, G

    1989-01-01

    Hantaviruses, the causative agents of HFRS, have become more widely recognized. Epidemiologic evidence indicates that these pathogens are distributed worldwide. People who come into close contact with infected rodents in urban, rural and laboratory environments are at particular risk. Transmission to man occurs mainly via the respiratory tract. The epidemiology of the hantaviruses is intimately linked to the ecology of their principal vertebrate hosts. Four distinct viruses are now recognized within the hantavirus genus and that number is likely to increase to six very soon; however, further investigations are necessary. Much more work is still needed before we fully understand the wide spectrum of clinical signs and symptoms of HFRS as well as the pathogenicity of the different viruses in the hantavirus genus of the Bunyaviridae family. HFRS is difficult to diagnose on clinical grounds alone and serological evidence is often needed. A fourfold rise in IgG antibody titer in a 1-week interval, and the presence of the IgM type of antibodies against hantaviruses are good evidence for an acute hantavirus infection. Physicians should be alert for HFRS each time they deal with patients with acute febrile flu-like illness, renal failure of unknown origin and sometimes hepatic dysfunction. Especially the mild form of HFRS is difficult to diagnose. Acute onset, headache, fever, increased serum creatinine, proteinuria and polyuria are signs and symptoms compatible with a mild form of HFRS. Differential diagnosis should be considered for the following diseases in the endemic areas of HFRS: acute renal failure, hemorrhagic scarlet fever, acute abdomen, leptospirosis, scrub typhus, murine typhus, spotted fevers, non-A, non-B hepatitis, Colorado tick fever, septicemia, dengue, heartstroke and DIC. Treatment of HFRS is mainly supportive. Recently, however, treatment of HFRS patients with ribavirin in China and Korea, within 7 days after onset of fever, resulted in a reduced

  4. A critical discussion on the applicability of Compound Topographic Index (CTI) for predicting ephemeral gully erosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casalí, Javier; Chahor, Youssef; Giménez, Rafael; Campo-Bescós, Miguel

    2016-04-01

    The so-called Compound Topographic Index (CTI) can be calculated for each grid cell in a DEM and be used to identify potential locations for ephemeral gullies (e. g.) based on land topography (CTI = A.S.PLANC, where A is upstream drainage area, S is local slope and PLANC is planform curvature, a measure of the landscape convergence) (Parker et al., 2007). It can be shown that CTI represents stream power per unit bed area and it considers the major parameters controlling the pattern and intensity of concentrated surface runoff in the field (Parker et al., 2007). However, other key variables controlling e.g. erosion (e. g. e.) such as soil characteristics, land-use and management, are not had into consideration. The critical CTI value (CTIc) "represents the intensity of concentrated overland flow necessary to initiate erosion and channelised flow under a given set of circumstances" (Parker et al., 2007). AnnAGNPS (Annualized Agriculture Non-Point Source) pollution model is an important management tool developed by (USDA) and uses CTI to locate potential ephemeral gullies. Then, and depending on rainfall characteristics of the period simulated by AnnAGNPS, potential e. g. can become "actual", and be simulated by the model accordingly. This paper presents preliminary results and a number of considerations after evaluating the CTI tool in Navarre. CTIc values found are similar to those cited by other authors, and the e. g. networks that on average occur in the area have been located reasonably well. After our experience we believe that it is necessary to distinguish between the CTIc corresponding to the location of headcuts whose migrations originate the e. g. (CTIc1); and the CTIc necessary to represent the location of the gully networks in the watershed (CTIc2), where gully headcuts are located in the upstream end of the gullies. Most scientists only consider one CTIc value, although, from our point of view, the two situations are different. CTIc1 would represent the

  5. Fever of unknown origin: a clinical approach.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Burke A; Lortholary, Olivier; Cunha, Cheston B

    2015-10-01

    Fevers of unknown origin remain one of the most difficult diagnostic challenges in medicine. Because fever of unknown origin may be caused by over 200 malignant/neoplastic, infectious, rheumatic/inflammatory, and miscellaneous disorders, clinicians often order non-clue-based imaging and specific testing early in the fever of unknown origin work-up, which may be inefficient/misleading. Unlike most other fever-of-unknown-origin reviews, this article presents a clinical approach. Characteristic history and physical examination findings together with key nonspecific test abnormalities are the basis for a focused clue-directed fever of unknown origin work-up.

  6. ModABa Model: Annual Flow Duration Curves Assessment in Ephemeral Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pumo, Dario; Viola, Francesco; Noto, Leonardo V.

    2013-04-01

    A representation of the streamflow regime for a river basin is required for a variety of hydrological analyses and engineering applications, from the water resource allocation and utilization to the environmental flow management. The flow duration curve (FDC) represents a comprehensive signature of temporal runoff variability often used to synthesize catchment rainfall-runoff responses. Several models aimed to the theoretical reconstruction of the FDC have been recently developed under different approaches, and a relevant scientific knowledge specific to this topic has been already acquired. In this work, a new model for the probabilistic characterization of the daily streamflows in perennial and ephemeral catchments is introduced. The ModABa model (MODel for Annual flow duration curves assessment in intermittent BAsins) can be thought as a wide mosaic whose tesserae are frameworks, models or conceptual schemes separately developed in different recent studies. Such tesserae are harmoniously placed and interconnected, concurring together towards a unique final aim that is the reproduction of the FDC of daily streamflows in a river basin. Two separated periods within the year are firstly identified: a non-zero period, typically characterized by significant streamflows, and a dry period, that, in the cases of ephemeral basins, is the period typically characterized by absence of streamflow. The proportion of time the river is dry, providing an estimation of the probability of zero flow occurring, is empirically estimated. Then, an analysis concerning the non-zero period is performed, considering the streamflow disaggregated into a slow subsuperficial component and a fast superficial component. A recent analytical model is adopted to derive the non zero FDC relative to the subsuperficial component; this last is considered to be generated by the soil water excess over the field capacity in the permeable portion of the basin. The non zero FDC relative to the fast

  7. Monitoring Potential Transport of Radioactive Contaminants in Shallow Ephemeral Channels: FY 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Julianne J.; Mizell, Steve A.; McCurdy, Greg; Campbell, Scott A.

    2012-09-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Nevada Site Office (NSO), Environmental Management’s Soils Activity has authorized the Desert Research Institute (DRI) to conduct field assessments of potential sediment transport of contaminated soil from Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 550, Smoky Contamination Area (CA), during precipitation runoff events. CAU 550 includes Corrective Action Sites (CASs) 08-23-03, 08-23-04, 08-23-06, and 08-23-07; these CASs are associated with tests designated Ceres, Smoky, Oberon, and Titania, respectively. Field measurements at the T-4 Atmospheric Test Site, CAU 370, suggest that radioactive material may have migrated along a shallow ephemeral drainage that traverses the site (NNSA/NSO, 2009). (It is not entirely clear how contaminated soils got into their present location at the T-4 Site, but flow to the channel has been redirected and the contamination does not appear to be migrating at present.) Although DRI initially looked at the CAU 370 site, given that it could not be confirmed that migration of contamination into the channel was natural, an alternate study site was selected at CAU 550. Aerial surveys in selected portions of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) also suggest that radioactivity may be migrating along ephemeral channels in Areas 3, 8, 11, 18, and 25 (Colton, 1999). Figure 1 shows the results of a low-elevation aerial survey (Colton, 1999) in Area 8. The numbered markers in Figure 1 identify ground zero for three safety experiments conducted in 1958 [Oberon (number 1), Ceres (number 2), and Titania (number 4)] and a weapons effects test conducted in 1964, Mudpack (number 3). This survey suggests contaminants may be migrating down the ephemeral channels that traverse CAU 550. Note particularly the lobe of higher concentration extending southeastward at the south end of the high concentration area marked as number 3 in Figure 1. CAU 550 in Area 8 of the NNSS was selected for

  8. Q fever in Bulgaria and Slovakia.

    PubMed Central

    Serbezov, V. S.; Kazár, J.; Novkirishki, V.; Gatcheva, N.; Kovácová, E.; Voynova, V.

    1999-01-01

    As a result of dramatic political and economic changes in the beginning of the 1990s, Q-fever epidemiology in Bulgaria has changed. The number of goats almost tripled; contact between goat owners (and their families) and goats, as well as goats and other animals, increased; consumption of raw goat milk and its products increased; and goats replaced cattle and sheep as the main source of human Coxiella burnetii infections. Hundreds of overt, serologically confirmed human cases of acute Q fever have occurred. Chronic forms of Q fever manifesting as endocarditis were also observed. In contrast, in Slovakia, Q fever does not pose a serious public health problem, and the chronic form of infection has not been found either in follow-ups of a Q-fever epidemic connected with goats imported from Bulgaria and other previous Q-fever outbreaks or in a serologic survey. Serologic diagnosis as well as control and prevention of Q fever are discussed. PMID:10341175

  9. Hindcasting Historical Breeding Conditions for an Endangered Salamander in Ephemeral Wetlands of the Southeastern USA: Implications of Climate Change.

    PubMed

    Chandler, Houston C; Rypel, Andrew L; Jiao, Yan; Haas, Carola A; Gorman, Thomas A

    2016-01-01

    The hydroperiod of ephemeral wetlands is often the most important characteristic determining amphibian breeding success, especially for species with long development times. In mesic and wet pine flatwoods of the southeastern United States, ephemeral wetlands were a common landscape feature. Reticulated flatwoods salamanders (Ambystoma bishopi), a federally endangered species, depend exclusively on ephemeral wetlands and require at least 11 weeks to successfully metamorphose into terrestrial adults. We empirically modeled hydroperiod of 17 A. bishopi breeding wetlands by combining downscaled historical climate-model data with a recent 9-year record (2006-2014) of observed water levels. Empirical models were subsequently used to reconstruct wetland hydrologic conditions from 1896-2014 using the downscaled historical climate datasets. Reconstructed hydroperiods for the 17 wetlands were highly variable through time but were frequently unfavorable for A. bishopi reproduction (e.g., only 61% of years, using a conservative estimate of development time [12 weeks], were conducive to larval development and metamorphosis). Using change-point analysis, we identified significant shifts in average hydroperiod over the last century in all 17 wetlands. Mean hydroperiods were shorter in recent years than at any other point since 1896, and thus less suitable for A. bishopi reproduction. We suggest that climate change will continue to impact the reproductive success of flatwoods salamanders and other ephemeral wetland breeders by reducing the number of years these wetlands have suitable hydroperiods. Consequently, we emphasize the importance of conservation and management for mitigating other forms of habitat degradation, especially maintenance of high quality breeding sites where reproduction can occur during appropriate environmental conditions.

  10. Hindcasting Historical Breeding Conditions for an Endangered Salamander in Ephemeral Wetlands of the Southeastern USA: Implications of Climate Change

    PubMed Central

    Chandler, Houston C.; Rypel, Andrew L.; Jiao, Yan; Haas, Carola A.; Gorman, Thomas A.

    2016-01-01

    The hydroperiod of ephemeral wetlands is often the most important characteristic determining amphibian breeding success, especially for species with long development times. In mesic and wet pine flatwoods of the southeastern United States, ephemeral wetlands were a common landscape feature. Reticulated flatwoods salamanders (Ambystoma bishopi), a federally endangered species, depend exclusively on ephemeral wetlands and require at least 11 weeks to successfully metamorphose into terrestrial adults. We empirically modeled hydroperiod of 17 A. bishopi breeding wetlands by combining downscaled historical climate-model data with a recent 9-year record (2006–2014) of observed water levels. Empirical models were subsequently used to reconstruct wetland hydrologic conditions from 1896–2014 using the downscaled historical climate datasets. Reconstructed hydroperiods for the 17 wetlands were highly variable through time but were frequently unfavorable for A. bishopi reproduction (e.g., only 61% of years, using a conservative estimate of development time [12 weeks], were conducive to larval development and metamorphosis). Using change-point analysis, we identified significant shifts in average hydroperiod over the last century in all 17 wetlands. Mean hydroperiods were shorter in recent years than at any other point since 1896, and thus less suitable for A. bishopi reproduction. We suggest that climate change will continue to impact the reproductive success of flatwoods salamanders and other ephemeral wetland breeders by reducing the number of years these wetlands have suitable hydroperiods. Consequently, we emphasize the importance of conservation and management for mitigating other forms of habitat degradation, especially maintenance of high quality breeding sites where reproduction can occur during appropriate environmental conditions. PMID:26910245

  11. The evolution of an ephemeral river during the rising and receding phases of medium and low magnitude discharge events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lotsari, E. S.; Calle, M.; Benito-Ferrandez, G.; Kaartinen, H.; Kukko, A.; Hyyppä, J.; Hyyppä, H.; Alho, P.

    2015-12-01

    In addition to great flash floods, medium and low magnitude discharge events can also cause great morphological changes in ephemeral river channels. Despite the advances in measurement techniques, such as laser scanning, and simulation approaches, the channel evolution during the different phases of discharge events is still not well known in gravelly ephemeral rivers, such as Rambla de la Viuda (Spain). The aim is to detect the temporal evolution of the ephemeral river channel during consecutive medium (March 2013) and low (May 2013) magnitude discharge events. The study is based on both accurate topographical measurements (laser scanning) and morphodynamic simulations (Delft 2D). Before the final analysis, the model's performance was tested with different parameterizations. When compared to the observed channel changes, the transport equation had crucial role in simulation results. Engelund-Hansen equation succeeded the best. It was important to use spatially varying grain sizes. Erosion and deposition (m3) were the greatest during the first hours of the rising phase of the discharge events. After this, erosion and deposition amounts, which were detected hourly, started declining. Thus, this occurred before the peak discharge, and erosion slowed down more than deposition. After the discharge peak, changes in deposition and erosion amounts were slightly more gradual than changes in discharge. The deposition during the receding phase was due to the advancing bar lobe frontier. River bed changes followed temporally the changes in discharges during the receding phase. This was different to the rising phase, when temporal differences occurred between changes in discharges and changes in deposition and erosion. This study shows that both rising and receding phases of discharge events are important for bar movement and channel evolution of the gravelly ephemeral river.

  12. Hindcasting Historical Breeding Conditions for an Endangered Salamander in Ephemeral Wetlands of the Southeastern USA: Implications of Climate Change.

    PubMed

    Chandler, Houston C; Rypel, Andrew L; Jiao, Yan; Haas, Carola A; Gorman, Thomas A

    2016-01-01

    The hydroperiod of ephemeral wetlands is often the most important characteristic determining amphibian breeding success, especially for species with long development times. In mesic and wet pine flatwoods of the southeastern United States, ephemeral wetlands were a common landscape feature. Reticulated flatwoods salamanders (Ambystoma bishopi), a federally endangered species, depend exclusively on ephemeral wetlands and require at least 11 weeks to successfully metamorphose into terrestrial adults. We empirically modeled hydroperiod of 17 A. bishopi breeding wetlands by combining downscaled historical climate-model data with a recent 9-year record (2006-2014) of observed water levels. Empirical models were subsequently used to reconstruct wetland hydrologic conditions from 1896-2014 using the downscaled historical climate datasets. Reconstructed hydroperiods for the 17 wetlands were highly variable through time but were frequently unfavorable for A. bishopi reproduction (e.g., only 61% of years, using a conservative estimate of development time [12 weeks], were conducive to larval development and metamorphosis). Using change-point analysis, we identified significant shifts in average hydroperiod over the last century in all 17 wetlands. Mean hydroperiods were shorter in recent years than at any other point since 1896, and thus less suitable for A. bishopi reproduction. We suggest that climate change will continue to impact the reproductive success of flatwoods salamanders and other ephemeral wetland breeders by reducing the number of years these wetlands have suitable hydroperiods. Consequently, we emphasize the importance of conservation and management for mitigating other forms of habitat degradation, especially maintenance of high quality breeding sites where reproduction can occur during appropriate environmental conditions. PMID:26910245

  13. Experimental therapies for yellow fever

    PubMed Central

    Julander, Justin G.

    2013-01-01

    A number of viruses in the family Flaviviridae are the focus of efforts to develop effective antiviral therapies. Success has been achieved with inhibitors for the treatment of hepatitis C, and there is interest in clinical trials of drugs against dengue fever. Antiviral therapies have also been evaluated in patients with Japanese encephalitis and West Nile encephalitis. However, no treatment has been developed against the prototype flavivirus, yellow fever virus (YFV). Despite the availability of the live, attenuated 17D vaccine, thousands of cases of YF continue to occur each year in Africa and South America, with a significant mortality rate. In addition, a small number of vaccinees develop severe systemic infections with the 17D virus. This paper reviews current efforts to develop antiviral therapies, either directly targeting the virus or blocking detrimental host responses to infection. PMID:23237991

  14. Familial Mediterranean fever: current perspectives.

    PubMed

    Sönmez, Hafize Emine; Batu, Ezgi Deniz; Özen, Seza

    2016-01-01

    Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is the most frequent monogenic autoinflammatory disease, and it is characterized by recurrent attacks of fever and polyserositis. The disease is associated with mutations in the MEFV gene encoding pyrin, which causes exaggerated inflammatory response through uncontrolled production of interleukin 1. The major long-term complication of FMF is amyloidosis. Colchicine remains the principle therapy, and the aim of treatment is to prevent acute attacks and the consequences of chronic inflammation. With the evolution in the concepts about the etiopathogenesis and genetics of the disease, we have understood that FMF is more complicated than an ordinary autosomal recessive monogenic disorder. Recently, recommendation sets have been generated for interpretation of genetic testing and genetic diagnosis of FMF. Here, we have reviewed the current perspectives in FMF in light of recent recommendations. PMID:27051312

  15. Dengue and dengue haemorrhagic fever.

    PubMed

    Rigau-Pérez, J G; Clark, G G; Gubler, D J; Reiter, P; Sanders, E J; Vorndam, A V

    1998-09-19

    The incidence and geographical distribution of dengue have greatly increased in recent years. Dengue is an acute mosquito-transmitted viral disease characterised by fever, headache, muscle and joint pains, rash, nausea, and vomiting. Some infections result in dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF), a syndrome that in its most severe form can threaten the patient's life, primarily through increased vascular permeability and shock. The case fatality rate in patients with dengue shock syndrome can be as high as 44%. For decades, two distinct hypotheses to explain the mechanism of DHF have been debated-secondary infection or viral virulence. However, a combination of both now seems to be the plausible explanation. The geographical expansion of DHF presents the need for well-documented clinical, epidemiological, and virological descriptions of the syndrome in the Americas. Biological and social research are essential to develop effective mosquito control, medications to reduce capillary leakage, and a safe tetravalent vaccine.

  16. Familial Mediterranean fever: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Sönmez, Hafize Emine; Batu, Ezgi Deniz; Özen, Seza

    2016-01-01

    Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is the most frequent monogenic autoinflammatory disease, and it is characterized by recurrent attacks of fever and polyserositis. The disease is associated with mutations in the MEFV gene encoding pyrin, which causes exaggerated inflammatory response through uncontrolled production of interleukin 1. The major long-term complication of FMF is amyloidosis. Colchicine remains the principle therapy, and the aim of treatment is to prevent acute attacks and the consequences of chronic inflammation. With the evolution in the concepts about the etiopathogenesis and genetics of the disease, we have understood that FMF is more complicated than an ordinary autosomal recessive monogenic disorder. Recently, recommendation sets have been generated for interpretation of genetic testing and genetic diagnosis of FMF. Here, we have reviewed the current perspectives in FMF in light of recent recommendations. PMID:27051312

  17. Maintenance of Ecosystem Nitrogen Limitation by Ephemeral Forest Disturbance: An Assessment using MODIS, Hyperion, and Landsat ETM+

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McNeil, Brenden E.; deBeurs, Kirsten M.; Eshleman, Keith N.; Foster, Jane R.; Townsend, Philip A.

    2007-01-01

    Ephemeral disturbances, such as non-lethal insect defoliations and crown damage from meteorological events, can significantly affect the delivery of ecosystem services by helping maintain nitrogen (N) limitation in temperate forest ecosystems. However, the impacts of these disturbances are difficult to observe across the broad-scales at which they affect ecosystem function. Using remotely sensed measures and field data, we find support for the hypothesis that ephemeral disturbances help maintain landscape-wide ecosystem N limitation. Specifically, a phenology-based defoliation index derived from daily MODIS satellite imagery predicts three ecosystem responses from oak-dominated forested watersheds: elevated stream water N export (R(exp 2) = 0.48), decreased foliar N (R(exp 2) = 0.69, assessed with Hyperion imagery), and reduced vegetation growth vigor (R(exp 2) = 0.49, assessed with Landsat ETM+ imagery). The results indicate that ephemeral disturbances and other forest stressors may sustain N limitation by reducing the ability of trees to compete for--and retain--soil available N.

  18. Maintenance of ecosystem nitrogen limitation by ephemeral forest disturbance: An assessment using MODIS, Hyperion, and Landsat ETM+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNeil, Brenden E.; de Beurs, Kirsten M.; Eshleman, Keith N.; Foster, Jane R.; Townsend, Philip A.

    2007-10-01

    Ephemeral disturbances, such as non-lethal insect defoliations and crown damage from meteorological events, can significantly affect the delivery of ecosystem services by helping maintain nitrogen (N) limitation in temperate forest ecosystems. However, the impacts of these disturbances are difficult to observe across the broad-scales at which they affect ecosystem function. Using remotely sensed measures and field data, we find support for the hypothesis that ephemeral disturbances help maintain landscape-wide ecosystem N limitation. Specifically, a phenology-based defoliation index derived from daily MODIS satellite imagery predicts three ecosystem responses from oak-dominated forested watersheds: elevated stream water N export (R2 = 0.48), decreased foliar N (R2 = 0.69, assessed with Hyperion imagery), and reduced vegetation growth vigor (R2 = 0.49, assessed with Landsat ETM+ imagery). The results indicate that ephemeral disturbances and other forest stressors may sustain N limitation by reducing the ability of trees to compete for -and retain- soil available N.

  19. [West Nile fever/encephalitis].

    PubMed

    Takasaki, Tomohiko

    2007-12-01

    West Nile virus (WNV), a member of the family Flaviviridae (genus Flavivirus), is a mosquito-borne virus first isolated in 1937 in the West Nile district of Uganda. The disease in humans is characterized by a dengue-like illness with fever, and a more severe form is characterized by central nervous system involvement, including encephalitis, meningitis, and myelitis. WN encephalitis was first reported in the Western Hemisphere in the summer of 1999, there was an outbreak in New York City. Epidemic WNV strains in North America are severely pathogenic, however, attenuated WNV strains were found in Texas and Mexico in 2003. The principal vectors of WNV transmission in North America are Culex. pipiens, Cx. Quinquefasciatus, Cx. restuans, Cx salinarius and Cx talsalis. The number of WN fever case has exceeded 27,000 since 1999 in the United States and 4,600 since 2002 in Canada. The first imported case of West Nile fever in Japan was confirmed in September, 2005. The patient had returned to Japan from the United States and developed symptoms the next day. There is currently no WN vaccine for use in humans. An inactivated WNV vaccine for use in horses has been available since 2001. A DNA vaccine, a chimeric live attenuated vaccine, and a recombinant vaccine have also been licensed for use in horses.

  20. Species traits predict assemblage dynamics at ephemeral resource patches created by carrion.

    PubMed

    Barton, Philip S; Cunningham, Saul A; Macdonald, Ben C T; McIntyre, Sue; Lindenmayer, David B; Manning, Adrian D

    2013-01-01

    Carrion is an ephemeral and spatially patchy resource that supports a diverse subset of species linked to nutrient cycling and the decomposition process. A number of studies have separately documented changes in the diversity of plants, arthropods and vertebrates at individual carcasses, but there are few studies that have examined how functional traits of different groups of organisms underpin their responses to carrion patches. We used a carrion addition experiment to compare changes in composition and functional traits of insect and plant assemblages at carcasses compared with control sites. We found that significant changes in insect assemblage evenness and heterogeneity was associated with species' dispersal traits, and that plant assemblage responses to subsequent soil nitrogen changes was most apparent among graminoids and exotic species. Beetles at carcasses were twice as large as their counterparts at control sites during the first week of carrion decomposition, and also had higher wing loadings. Plants with high specific leaf area responded faster to the carcass addition, and twice as many species recolonised the centre of carcasses in exotic-dominated grassland compared with carcasses in native-dominated grassland. These results provide an example of how traits of opportunist species enable them to exploit patchy and dynamic resources. This increases our understanding of how carcasses can drive biodiversity dynamics, and has implications for the way carrion might be managed in ecosystems, such as appropriate consideration of spatial and temporal continuity in carrion resources to promote heterogeneity in nutrient cycling and species diversity within landscapes.

  1. Microbial communities reflect temporal changes in cyanobacterial composition in a shallow ephemeral freshwater lake.

    PubMed

    Woodhouse, Jason Nicholas; Kinsela, Andrew Stephen; Collins, Richard Nicholas; Bowling, Lee Chester; Honeyman, Gordon L; Holliday, Jon K; Neilan, Brett Anthony

    2016-06-01

    The frequency of freshwater cyanobacterial blooms is at risk of increasing as a consequence of climate change and eutrophication of waterways. It is increasingly apparent that abiotic data are insufficient to explain variability within the cyanobacterial community, with biotic factors such as heterotrophic bacterioplankton, viruses and protists emerging as critical drivers. During the Australian summer of 2012-2013, a bloom that occurred in a shallow ephemeral lake over a 6-month period was comprised of 22 distinct cyanobacteria, including Microcystis, Dolichospermum, Oscillatoria and Sphaerospermopsis. Cyanobacterial cell densities, bacterial community composition and abiotic parameters were assessed over this period. Alpha-diversity indices and multivariate analysis were successful at differentiating three distinct bloom phases and the contribution of abiotic parameters to each. Network analysis, assessing correlations between biotic and abiotic variables, reproduced these phases and assessed the relative importance of both abiotic and biotic factors. Variables possessing elevated betweeness centrality included temperature, sodium and operational taxonomic units belonging to the phyla Verrucomicrobia, Planctomyces, Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria. Species-specific associations between cyanobacteria and bacterioplankton, including the free-living Actinobacteria acI, Bacteroidetes, Betaproteobacteria and Verrucomicrobia, were also identified. We concluded that changes in the abundance and nature of freshwater cyanobacteria are associated with changes in the diversity and composition of lake bacterioplankton. Given this, an increase in the frequency of cyanobacteria blooms has the potential to alter nutrient cycling and contribute to long-term functional perturbation of freshwater systems. PMID:26636552

  2. Species Traits Predict Assemblage Dynamics at Ephemeral Resource Patches Created by Carrion

    PubMed Central

    Barton, Philip S.; Cunningham, Saul A.; Macdonald, Ben C. T.; McIntyre, Sue; Lindenmayer, David B.; Manning, Adrian D.

    2013-01-01

    Carrion is an ephemeral and spatially patchy resource that supports a diverse subset of species linked to nutrient cycling and the decomposition process. A number of studies have separately documented changes in the diversity of plants, arthropods and vertebrates at individual carcasses, but there are few studies that have examined how functional traits of different groups of organisms underpin their responses to carrion patches. We used a carrion addition experiment to compare changes in composition and functional traits of insect and plant assemblages at carcasses compared with control sites. We found that significant changes in insect assemblage evenness and heterogeneity was associated with species’ dispersal traits, and that plant assemblage responses to subsequent soil nitrogen changes was most apparent among graminoids and exotic species. Beetles at carcasses were twice as large as their counterparts at control sites during the first week of carrion decomposition, and also had higher wing loadings. Plants with high specific leaf area responded faster to the carcass addition, and twice as many species recolonised the centre of carcasses in exotic-dominated grassland compared with carcasses in native-dominated grassland. These results provide an example of how traits of opportunist species enable them to exploit patchy and dynamic resources. This increases our understanding of how carcasses can drive biodiversity dynamics, and has implications for the way carrion might be managed in ecosystems, such as appropriate consideration of spatial and temporal continuity in carrion resources to promote heterogeneity in nutrient cycling and species diversity within landscapes. PMID:23326549

  3. Life cycle assessment of wood wastes: A case study of ephemeral architecture.

    PubMed

    Rivela, Beatriz; Moreira, María Teresa; Muñoz, Iván; Rieradevall, Joan; Feijoo, Gumersindo

    2006-03-15

    One of the most commonly used elements in ephemeral architecture is a particleboard panel. These types of wood products are produced from wood wastes and they are used in temporary constructions such as trade fairs. Once the event is over, they are usually disposed into landfills. This paper intends to assess the environmental effects related to the use of these wood wastes in the end-of-life stage. The Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of two scenarios was performed, considering the recycling of wood waste for particleboard manufacture and energy generation from non-renewable resources (Scenario 1) versus the production of energy from the combustion of wood waste and particleboard manufacture with conventional wooden resources (Scenario 2). A sensitive analysis was carried out taking into account the influence of the percentage of recycled material and the emissions data from wood combustion. According to Ecoindicator 99 methodology, Damage to Human Health and Ecosystem Quality are more significant in Scenario 2 whereas Scenario 1 presents the largest contribution to Damage to Resources. Between the two proposed alternatives, the recycling of wood waste for particleboard manufacture seems to be more favorable under an environmental perspective. PMID:15922411

  4. A critical discussion on the applicability of Compound Topographic Index (CTI) for predicting ephemeral gully erosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casalí, Javier; Chahor, Youssef; Giménez, Rafael; Campo-Bescós, Miguel

    2016-04-01

    The so-called Compound Topographic Index (CTI) can be calculated for each grid cell in a DEM and be used to identify potential locations for ephemeral gullies (e. g.) based on land topography (CTI = A.S.PLANC, where A is upstream drainage area, S is local slope and PLANC is planform curvature, a measure of the landscape convergence) (Parker et al., 2007). It can be shown that CTI represents stream power per unit bed area and it considers the major parameters controlling the pattern and intensity of concentrated surface runoff in the field (Parker et al., 2007). However, other key variables controlling e.g. erosion (e. g. e.) such as soil characteristics, land-use and management, are not had into consideration. The critical CTI value (CTIc) "represents the intensity of concentrated overland flow necessary to initiate erosion and channelised flow under a given set of circumstances" (Parker et al., 2007). AnnAGNPS (Annualized Agriculture Non-Point Source) pollution model is an important management tool developed by (USDA) and uses CTI to locate potential ephemeral gullies. Then, and depending on rainfall characteristics of the period simulated by AnnAGNPS, potential e. g. can become "actual", and be simulated by the model accordingly. This paper presents preliminary results and a number of considerations after evaluating the CTI tool in Navarre. CTIc values found are similar to those cited by other authors, and the e. g. networks that on average occur in the area have been located reasonably well. After our experience we believe that it is necessary to distinguish between the CTIc corresponding to the location of headcuts whose migrations originate the e. g. (CTIc1); and the CTIc necessary to represent the location of the gully networks in the watershed (CTIc2), where gully headcuts are located in the upstream end of the gullies. Most scientists only consider one CTIc value, although, from our point of view, the two situations are different. CTIc1 would represent the

  5. Mixed-Valent Fe Films ('Schwimmeisen') on the Surface of Reduced Ephemeral Pools

    SciTech Connect

    Grathoff, Georg H.; Baham, John E.; Easterly, Heather R.; Gassman, Paul L.; Hugo, Rick C.

    2007-12-01

    Floating, mixed-valent Fe films have been observed worldwide in wetlands, ferrous iron rich seeps, and in seasonally reduced soils, but are usually misidentified as oil or biofilms. Little characterization or explanation to their formation has taken place. Along the Oregon coast such films were found on ephemeral pools where Fe(II) rich groundwater (~ 100 μM Fe) discharged at the base of Pleistocene sand dunes. Fe(II) oxidized to Fe(III) at the air-water interface to form ~ 100 to 300nm thick films. Analyses indicated that the films contained both Fe(III) and Fe(II) in a ratio of 3:1. Si was the other main cation, OH was the main anion and some C was identified as well. The film morphology was flat, under optical and electron microscopy with some attached floccules having a stringlike morphology. Energy filtered electron diffraction patterns (EFED) showed three diffraction rings at 4.5, 2.6, and 1.4 Å in some places and 2 rings (2.6 and 1.4 Å) in others. Upon further oxidation the films became 2-line ferrihydrite. We are proposing the name „Schwimmeisen“ for the floating, mixed-valent Fe film.

  6. Arroyo channel head evolution in a flash-flood-dominated discontinuous ephemeral stream system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeLong, Stephen B.; Johnson, Joel P.L.; Whipple, Kelin X.

    2014-01-01

    We study whether arroyo channel head retreat in dryland discontinuous ephemeral streams is driven by surface runoff, seepage erosion, mass wasting, or some combination of these hydrogeomorphic processes. We monitored precipitation, overland flow, soil moisture, and headcut migration over several seasonal cycles at two adjacent rangeland channel heads in southern Arizona. Erosion occurred by headward retreat of vertical to overhanging faces, driven dominantly by surface runoff. No evidence exists for erosion caused by shallow-groundwater–related processes, even though similar theater-headed morphologies are sometimes attributed to seepage erosion by emerging groundwater. At our field site, vertical variation in soil shear strength influenced the persistence of the characteristic theater-head form. The dominant processes of erosion included removal of grains and soil aggregates during even very shallow (1–3 cm) overland flow events by runoff on vertical to overhanging channel headwalls, plunge-pool erosion during higher-discharge runoff events, immediate postrunoff wet mass wasting, and minor intra-event dry mass wasting on soil tension fractures developing subparallel to the headwall. Multiple stepwise linear regression indicates that the migration rate is most strongly correlated with flow duration and total precipitation and is poorly correlated with peak flow depth or time-integrated flow depth. The studied channel heads migrated upslope with a self-similar morphologic form under a wide range of hydrological conditions, and the most powerful flash floods were not always responsible for the largest changes in landscape form in this environment. 

  7. Life cycle assessment of wood wastes: A case study of ephemeral architecture.

    PubMed

    Rivela, Beatriz; Moreira, María Teresa; Muñoz, Iván; Rieradevall, Joan; Feijoo, Gumersindo

    2006-03-15

    One of the most commonly used elements in ephemeral architecture is a particleboard panel. These types of wood products are produced from wood wastes and they are used in temporary constructions such as trade fairs. Once the event is over, they are usually disposed into landfills. This paper intends to assess the environmental effects related to the use of these wood wastes in the end-of-life stage. The Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of two scenarios was performed, considering the recycling of wood waste for particleboard manufacture and energy generation from non-renewable resources (Scenario 1) versus the production of energy from the combustion of wood waste and particleboard manufacture with conventional wooden resources (Scenario 2). A sensitive analysis was carried out taking into account the influence of the percentage of recycled material and the emissions data from wood combustion. According to Ecoindicator 99 methodology, Damage to Human Health and Ecosystem Quality are more significant in Scenario 2 whereas Scenario 1 presents the largest contribution to Damage to Resources. Between the two proposed alternatives, the recycling of wood waste for particleboard manufacture seems to be more favorable under an environmental perspective.

  8. Downstream hydraulic geometry and channel adjustment during a flood along an ephemeral, arid-region drainage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merritt, David M.; Wohl, Ellen E.

    2003-06-01

    In September 1997, a dissipating tropical storm caused a flood with an estimated maximum discharge of 240 m 3/s along Yuma Wash, an ephemeral braided system draining 186 km 2 in southwest Arizona. Older high-water marks that record a flood peak of 1280 m 3/s provide a reasonable estimate for the probable maximum flood along the wash. Detailed channel cross-sectional surveys during 1995 and again in 1998, <6 months after the 1997 flood, facilitated examination of downstream hydraulic geometry and channel adjustment during the flood. Channel width increased substantially downstream (exponent of 0.78), presumably because of low bank resistance, whereas hydraulic depth and velocity had modest downstream increases (0.15 and 0.14, respectively). Channel aggradation generally occurred along wider, braided reaches; moreover, degradation occurred in narrow reaches with fewer channels. Aggradation and degradation also appeared to be governed by a threshold relationship between flow depth and vegetated bars. Degradation occurred where flow was confined within a channel or subchannel. At discharges sufficiently high to overtop vegetated bars, greater roughness facilitated sediment deposition and channels aggraded. A discriminant function correctly classified nearly 90% of the cross-sections as scoured or filled using a single hydraulic variable, maximum depth of flow during the dissipating tropical storm.

  9. Diverse and highly active diazotrophic assemblages inhabit ephemerally wetted soils of the Antarctic Dry Valleys.

    PubMed

    Niederberger, Thomas D; Sohm, Jill A; Tirindelli, Joëlle; Gunderson, Troy; Capone, Douglas G; Carpenter, Edward J; Cary, Stephen C

    2012-11-01

    Eolian transport of biomass from ephemerally wetted soils, associated with summer glacial meltwater runoffs and lake edges, to low-productivity areas of the Antarctic Dry Valleys (DV) has been postulated to be an important source of organic matter (fixed nitrogen and fixed carbon) to the entire DV ecosystem. However, descriptions and identification of the microbial members responsible for N(2) fixation within these wetted sites are limited. In this study, N(2) fixers from wetted soils were identified by direct nifH gene sequencing and their in situ N(2) fixation activities documented via acetylene reduction and RNA-based quantitative PCR assays. Shannon-index nifH diversity levels ranged between 1.8 and 2.6 and included the expected cyanobacterial signatures and a large number of phylotypes related to the gamma-, beta-, alpha-, and delta-proteobacteria. N(2) fixation rates ranged between approximately 0.5 and 6 nmol N cm(-3) h(-1) with measurements indicating that approximately 50% of this activity was linked with sulfate reduction at some sites. Comparisons with proximal dry soils also suggested that these communities are not ubiquitously distributed, and conditions unrelated to moisture content may define the composition, diversity, or habitat suitability of the microbial communities within wetted soils of the DVs.

  10. Microbial communities reflect temporal changes in cyanobacterial composition in a shallow ephemeral freshwater lake.

    PubMed

    Woodhouse, Jason Nicholas; Kinsela, Andrew Stephen; Collins, Richard Nicholas; Bowling, Lee Chester; Honeyman, Gordon L; Holliday, Jon K; Neilan, Brett Anthony

    2016-06-01

    The frequency of freshwater cyanobacterial blooms is at risk of increasing as a consequence of climate change and eutrophication of waterways. It is increasingly apparent that abiotic data are insufficient to explain variability within the cyanobacterial community, with biotic factors such as heterotrophic bacterioplankton, viruses and protists emerging as critical drivers. During the Australian summer of 2012-2013, a bloom that occurred in a shallow ephemeral lake over a 6-month period was comprised of 22 distinct cyanobacteria, including Microcystis, Dolichospermum, Oscillatoria and Sphaerospermopsis. Cyanobacterial cell densities, bacterial community composition and abiotic parameters were assessed over this period. Alpha-diversity indices and multivariate analysis were successful at differentiating three distinct bloom phases and the contribution of abiotic parameters to each. Network analysis, assessing correlations between biotic and abiotic variables, reproduced these phases and assessed the relative importance of both abiotic and biotic factors. Variables possessing elevated betweeness centrality included temperature, sodium and operational taxonomic units belonging to the phyla Verrucomicrobia, Planctomyces, Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria. Species-specific associations between cyanobacteria and bacterioplankton, including the free-living Actinobacteria acI, Bacteroidetes, Betaproteobacteria and Verrucomicrobia, were also identified. We concluded that changes in the abundance and nature of freshwater cyanobacteria are associated with changes in the diversity and composition of lake bacterioplankton. Given this, an increase in the frequency of cyanobacteria blooms has the potential to alter nutrient cycling and contribute to long-term functional perturbation of freshwater systems.

  11. Ephemeral active regions and coronal bright points: A solar maximum Mission 2 guest investigator study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, K. L.; Tang, F. Y. C.; Gaizauskas, V.; Poland, A. I.

    1986-01-01

    A dominate association of coronal bright points (as seen in He wavelength 10830) was confirmed with the approach and subsequent disappearance of opposite polarity magnetic network. While coronal bright points do occur with ephemeral regions, this association is a factor of 2 to 4 less than with sites of disappearing magnetic flux. The intensity variations seen in He I wavelength 10830 are intermittent and often rapid, varying over the 3 minute time resolution of the data; their bright point counterparts in the C IV wavelength 1548 and 20 cm wavelength show similar, though not always coincident time variations. Ejecta are associated with about 1/3 of the dark points and are evident in the C IV and H alpha data. These results support the idea that the anti-correlation of X-ray bright points with the solar cycle can be explained by the correlation of these coronal emission structures with sites of cancelling flux, indicating that, in some cases, the process of magnetic flux removal results in the release of energy. That the intensity variations are rapid and variable suggests that this process works intermittently.

  12. Why Fever Phobia Is Still Common?

    PubMed Central

    Gunduz, Suzan; Usak, Esma; Koksal, Tulin; Canbal, Metin

    2016-01-01

    Background Fever is a reliable sign of illness, but it also evokes fear and anxiety. It is not the fever itself but the fear of possible complications and accompanying symptoms that is important for pediatricians and parents. Objectives We aimed to investigate maternal understanding of fever, its potential consequences, and impacts on the treatment of children. Patients and Methods A questionnaire was use to explore the attitudes, knowledge, and practices of mothers of 861 children brought to four medical centers in different regions of Turkey in 2012, with fever being the chief complaint. All the children were aged 3 months - 15 years. Results Among the 861 mothers, 92.2% favored antipyretics for fever, either alone or in addition to external cooling measures. Most favored paracetamol or ibuprofen. In this study, the appropriate use of antipyretics was 75.2%, which was higher than that reported in the literature. In common with previous reports, seizures and brain damage were perceived as the most frightening and harmful effects of fever. All the mothers expressed concerns about fever, but they were most common among the highly educated or those with one child. Conclusions Fever phobia remains common, not only among low socioeconomic status mothers but also among those of high socioeconomic status. Healthcare providers should take fever phobia into account and provide correct information to caregivers about fever at all visits. PMID:27781110

  13. Q fever--selected issues.

    PubMed

    Bielawska-Drózd, Agata; Cieślik, Piotr; Mirski, Tomasz; Bartoszcze, Michał; Knap, Józef Piotr; Gaweł, Jerzy; Żakowska, Dorota

    2013-01-01

    Q fever is an infectious disease of humans and animals caused by Gram-negative coccobacillus Coxiella burnetii, belonging to the Legionellales order, Coxiellaceae family. The presented study compares selected features of the bacteria genome, including chromosome and plasmids QpH1, QpRS, QpDG and QpDV. The pathomechanism of infection--starting from internalization of the bacteria to its release from infected cell are thoroughly described. The drugs of choice for the treatment of acute Q fever are tetracyclines, macrolides and quinolones. Some other antimicrobials are also active against C. burnetii, namely, telitromycines and tigecyclines (glicylcycline). Q-VAX vaccine induces strong and long-term immunity in humans. Coxevac vaccine for goat and sheep can reduce the number of infections and abortions, as well as decrease the environmental transmission of the pathogen. Using the microarrays technique, about 50 proteins has been identified which could be used in the future for the production of vaccine against Q fever. The routine method of C. burnetii culture is proliferation within cell lines; however, an artificial culture medium has recently been developed. The growth of bacteria in a reduced oxygen (2.5%) atmosphere was obtained after just 6 days. In serology, using the IF method as positive titers, the IgM antibody level >1:64 and IgG antibody level >1:256 (against II phase antigens) has been considered. In molecular diagnostics of C. burnetii infection, the most frequently used method is PCR and its modifications; namely, nested PCR and real time PCR which detect target sequences, such as htpAB and IS1111, chromosome genes (com1), genes specific for different types of plasmids and transposase genes. Although Q fever was diagnosed in Poland in 1956, the data about the occurrence of the disease are incomplete. Comprehensive studies on the current status of Q fever in Poland, with special focus on pathogen reservoirs and vectors, the sources of infection and

  14. Fever of unknown origin in returning travellers.

    PubMed

    Korzeniewski, Krzysztof; Gaweł, Bartłomiej; Krankowska, Dagny; Wasilczuk, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the article is to discuss issues associated with the occurrence of febrile illnesses in leisure and business travellers, with a particular emphasis on fevers of unknown origin (FUO). FUO, apart from diarrhoeas, respiratory tract infections and skin lesions, are one of the most common health problems in travellers to tropical and subtropical countries. FUO are manifestations of various diseases, typically of infectious or invasive aetiology. In one out of 3 cases, the cause of a fever in travellers returning from the hot climate zone is malaria, and therefore diagnostic tests should first aim at ruling out this specific disease entity. Other illnesses with persistent fever include dengue, enteric fever, viral hepatitis A, bacterial diarrhoeas and rickettsioses. Fever may also occur in travellers suffering from diseases of non-tropical origin, e.g. cosmopolitan respiratory tract or urinary tract infections, also, fever may coexist with other illnesses or injuries (skin rashes, bites, burns).

  15. Typhoid fever: case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Sanhueza Palma, Natalia Carolina; Farías Molina, Solange; Calzadilla Riveras, Jeannette; Hermoso, Amalia

    2016-01-01

    Typhoid fever remains a major health problem worldwide, in contrast to Chile, where this disease is an isolated finding. Clinical presentation is varied, mainly presenting with fever, malaise, abdominal discomfort, and nonspecific symptoms often confused with other causes of febrile syndrome. We report a six-year-old, male patient presenting with fever of two weeks associated with gastrointestinal symptoms, malaise, hepatomegaly and elevated liver enzymes. Differential diagnoses were considered and a Widal reaction and two blood cultures were requested; both came back positive, confirming the diagnosis of typhoid fever caused by Salmonella typhi. Prior to diagnosis confirmation, empirical treatment was initiated with ceftriaxone and metronidazole, with partial response; then drug therapy was adjusted according to ciprofloxacin susceptibility testing with a favorable clinical response. We discuss diagnostic methods and treatment of enteric fever with special emphasis on typhoid fever. PMID:27392073

  16. Typhoid fever: case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Sanhueza Palma, Natalia Carolina; Farías Molina, Solange; Calzadilla Riveras, Jeannette; Hermoso, Amalia

    2016-06-21

    Typhoid fever remains a major health problem worldwide, in contrast to Chile, where this disease is an isolated finding. Clinical presentation is varied, mainly presenting with fever, malaise, abdominal discomfort, and nonspecific symptoms often confused with other causes of febrile syndrome. We report a six-year-old, male patient presenting with fever of two weeks associated with gastrointestinal symptoms, malaise, hepatomegaly and elevated liver enzymes. Differential diagnoses were considered and a Widal reaction and two blood cultures were requested; both came back positive, confirming the diagnosis of typhoid fever caused by Salmonella typhi. Prior to diagnosis confirmation, empirical treatment was initiated with ceftriaxone and metronidazole, with partial response; then drug therapy was adjusted according to ciprofloxacin susceptibility testing with a favorable clinical response. We discuss diagnostic methods and treatment of enteric fever with special emphasis on typhoid fever.

  17. Environmental impacts on the hydrology of ephemeral streams and alluvial aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuells, C.; Marx, V.; Bittner, A.; Ellmies, R.; Seely, M.

    2009-04-01

    In arid and semi-arid regions alluvial groundwater resources of ephemeral streams are highly important for water supplies and ecosystems. Recent projects have studied processes of indirect recharge in situ and in detail (Dahan et al., 2008; Klaus et al., 2008). Still, little is known about the vulnerability of these aquifers to environmental impacts like surface dam constructions, land-use changes and climatic conditions as well as the time and type of response to such external impacts. With a catchment size of about 30.000 km² the Swakop River in Namibia is the largest of the country's twelve major ephemeral streams draining westwards into the Atlantic Ocean. The alluvial groundwater resources have been affected by the construction of two major surface water dams in the upper catchment as well as by abstractions for rural water supply, farming and mining downstream of the constructed dams (referred to as lower catchment). The determination of environmental impacts in the Swakop River catchment is difficult due to scarce hydrometric and water quality data. In order to obtain a better understanding of the hydrological system under changing environmental conditions a spatially distributed environmental tracer approach was applied. A longitudinal profile of groundwater samples was taken within a field study along the alluvial aquifer of the Swakop River. The samples were analysed for stable isotopes (18O, 2H), major ions and trace elements as well as for the residence time indicators CFC and SF6. The combined application of groundwater residence time analysis, stable isotope measurements and hydrochemical characterisation was used in order to associate a time scale with groundwater quality data. This method provides dated information on recharge and water quality before and after dam construction and can be used to detect environmental impacts on the hydrological system. CFC-12 analysis resulted in recharge years ranging from 1950 (0.01 pmol/l) to 1992 (1.4 pmol

  18. Vertical Stability of Ephemeral Step-Pool Streams Largely Controlled By Tree Roots, Central Kentucky, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macmannis, K. R.; Hawley, R. J.

    2013-12-01

    The mechanisms controlling stability on small streams in steep settings are not well documented but have many implications related to stream integrity and water quality. For example, channel instability on first and second order streams is a potential source of sediment in regulated areas with Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) on water bodies that are impaired for sedimentation, such as the Chesapeake Bay. Management strategies that preserve stream integrity and protect channel stability are critical to communities that may otherwise require large capital investments to meet TMDLs and other water quality criteria. To contribute to an improved understanding of ephemeral step-pool systems, we collected detailed hydrogeomorphic data on 4 steep (0.06 - 0.12 meter/meter) headwater streams draining to lower relief alluvial valleys in Spencer County, Kentucky, USA. The step-pool streams (mean step height of 0.47 meter, mean step spacing of 4 meters) drained small undeveloped catchments dominated by early successional forest. Data collection for each of the 4 streams included 2 to 3 cross section surveys, bed material particle counts at cross section locations, and profile surveys ranging from approximately 125 to 225 meters in length. All survey data was systematically processed to understand geometric parameters such as cross sectional area, depth, and top width; bed material gradations; and detailed profile measurements such as slope, pool and riffle lengths, pool spacing, pool depth, step height, and step length. We documented the location, frequency, and type of step-forming materials (i.e., large woody debris (LWD), rock, and tree roots), compiling a database of approximately 130 total steps. Lastly, we recorded a detailed tree assessment of all trees located within 2 meters of the top of bank, detailing the species of tree, trunk diameter, and approximate distance from the top of bank. Analysis of geometric parameters illustrated correlations between channel

  19. Describing the Breakbone Fever: IDODEN, an Ontology for Dengue Fever

    PubMed Central

    Mitraka, Elvira; Topalis, Pantelis; Dritsou, Vicky; Dialynas, Emmanuel; Louis, Christos

    2015-01-01

    Background Ontologies represent powerful tools in information technology because they enhance interoperability and facilitate, among other things, the construction of optimized search engines. To address the need to expand the toolbox available for the control and prevention of vector-borne diseases we embarked on the construction of specific ontologies. We present here IDODEN, an ontology that describes dengue fever, one of the globally most important diseases that are transmitted by mosquitoes. Methodology/Principal Findings We constructed IDODEN using open source software, and modeled it on IDOMAL, the malaria ontology developed previously. IDODEN covers all aspects of dengue fever, such as disease biology, epidemiology and clinical features. Moreover, it covers all facets of dengue entomology. IDODEN, which is freely available, can now be used for the annotation of dengue-related data and, in addition to its use for modeling, it can be utilized for the construction of other dedicated IT tools such as decision support systems. Conclusions/Significance The availability of the dengue ontology will enable databases hosting dengue-associated data and decision-support systems for that disease to perform most efficiently and to link their own data to those stored in other independent repositories, in an architecture- and software-independent manner. PMID:25646954

  20. Dengue fever and dengue haemorrhagic fever in adolescents and adults.

    PubMed

    Tantawichien, Terapong

    2012-05-01

    Dengue fever (DF) is endemic in tropical and subtropical zones and the prevalence is increasing across South-east Asia, Africa, the Western Pacific and the Americas. In recent years, the spread of unplanned urbanisation, with associated substandard housing, overcrowding and deterioration in water, sewage and waste management systems, has created ideal conditions for increased transmission of the dengue virus in tropical urban centres. While dengue infection has traditionally been considered a paediatric disease, the age distribution of dengue has been rising and more cases have been observed in adolescents and adults. Furthermore, the development of tourism in the tropics has led to an increase in the number of tourists who become infected, most of whom are adults. Symptoms and risk factors for dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) and severe dengue differ between children and adults, with co-morbidities and incidence in more elderly patients associated with greater risk of mortality. Treatment options for DF and DHF in adults, as for children, centre round fluid replacement (either orally or intravenously, depending on severity) and antipyretics. Further data are needed on the optimal treatment of adult patients.

  1. Morphological impacts of flow events of varying magnitude on ephemeral channels in a semiarid region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hooke, J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Flows in ephemeral channels in semiarid areas are only occasional, and channel changes are episodic; but the flash floods can be devastating and have major geomorphological impacts. Data on morphological impacts of flows in semiarid areas are needed to increase understanding of the dynamics and variability of geomorphic responses in such channels. For this purpose nine reaches of river channel in three catchments in SE Spain - the Nogalte, Torrealvilla, and Salada - have been sites for measurement of flows and their effects over the period 1997-2012. The sites encompass a range of channel size, channel morphology, substrate, vegetation, and position within the catchments. A major difference is between schist and marl bedrock areas. Peak flow stage has been recorded and topography surveyed at frequent intervals and after major flow events. Over the 16-year period, an average of 0.5 flow events per year has been recorded at the schist sites, and an average of one per year at the marl sites; but occurrence has been highly variable from year to year. Threshold daily rainfall for channel flow is mostly 15-20 mm, but higher rainfalls do not always produce flow. One to two major floods have occurred in each of the catchments in the period, including the extreme flood event of September 2012 in the Nogalte catchment. Measured morphological changes have occurred between 2 and 10 times at the monitored sites. The same size flow can have differing effects depending on the state of the system. Low flow can mobilise sediment without producing much morphological change. The long-term trajectory of the reaches and the sediment substrate has a major influence on response to events. Channel change is governed by threshold values of hydraulic conditions. The measurements provide an indication of the scale of maximum erosion and deposition that occurs within the channels and on the floodplains over a range of flow magnitudes and the flow impacts that need to be considered in

  2. Specialist pollinators deplete pollen in the spring ephemeral wildflower Claytonia virginica.

    PubMed

    Parker, Alison J; Williams, Neal M; Thomson, James D

    2016-08-01

    Pollinators that collect pollen - and specifically, pollen-specialist bees - are often considered to be the best pollinators of a (host) plant. Although pollen collectors and pollen specialists often benefit host plants, especially in the pollen that they deliver (their pollination "effectiveness"), they can also exact substantial costs because they are motivated to collect as much pollen as possible, reducing the proportion of pollen removed that is subsequently delivered to stigmas (their pollination "efficiency"). From the plant perspective, pollen grains that do not pollinate conspecific stigmas are "wasted", and potentially costly. We measured costs and benefits of nectar-collecting, pollen-collecting, and pollen-specialist pollinator visitation to the spring ephemeral Claytonia virginica. Visits by the pollen-specialist bee Andrena erigeniae depleted pollen quickly and thoroughly. Although all pollinators delivered roughly the same number of grains, the pollen specialist contributed most to C. virginica pollen delivery because of high visitation rates. However, the pollen specialist also removed a large number of grains; this removal may be especially costly because it resulted in the depletion of pollen grains in C. virginica populations. While C. virginica appears to rely on pollen transfer by the pollen specialist in these populations, nectar-collecting visitors could provide the same benefit at a lower cost if their visitation rates increased. Pollen depletion affects a pollinator's value to plants, but is frequently overlooked. If they lower the effectiveness of future floral visitors, visits by A. erigeniae females to C. virginica may be more detrimental than beneficial compared to other pollinators and may, in some circumstances, reduce plant fitness rather than increase it. Therefore, A. erigeniae and C. virginica may vary in their degree of mutualism depending on the ecological context. PMID:27551374

  3. Optimal placement of off-stream water sources for ephemeral stream recovery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rigge, Matthew B.; Smart, Alexander; Wylie, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Uneven and/or inefficient livestock distribution is often a product of an inadequate number and distribution of watering points. Placement of off-stream water practices (OSWP) in pastures is a key consideration in rangeland management plans and is critical to achieving riparian recovery by improving grazing evenness, while improving livestock performance. Effective OSWP placement also minimizes the impacts of livestock use radiating from OSWP, known as the “piosphere.” The objective of this study was to provide land managers with recommendations for the optimum placement of OSWP. Specifically, we aimed to provide minimum offset distances of OSWP to streams and assess the effective range of OSWP using Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) values, an indicator of live standing crop. NDVI values were determined from a time-series of Satellite Pour l'Observation de la Terre (SPOT) 20-m images of western South Dakota mixed-grass prairie. The NDVI values in ephemeral stream channels (in-channel) and uplands were extracted from pre- and post-OSWP images taken in 1989 and 2010, respectively. NDVI values were normalized to a reference imagine and subsequently by ecological site to produce nNDVI. Our results demonstrate a significant (P 2 = 0.49, P = 0.05) and increased with average distance to OSWP in a pasture (R2 = 0.43, P = 0.07). Piospheric reduction in nNDVI was observed within 200 m of OSWP, occasionally overlapping in-channel areas. The findings of this study suggest placement of OSWP 200 to 1 250 m from streams to achieve optimal results. These results can be used to increase grazing efficiency by effectively placing OSWP and insure that piospheres do not overlap ecologically important in-channel areas.

  4. Hyperspectral Mapping of Iron-bearing Minerals Associated with Dry and Ephemeral Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrand, W. H.; Bowen, B. B.

    2014-12-01

    This research project is utilizing data from the Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean (HICO) on the International Space Station (ISS) to examine a set of playas and ephemeral lakes in Australia and in the southwestern United States. HICO collects hyperspectral data from 0.35 to 1.08 μm thus excluding the SWIR vibrational overtone region of clays and carbonates. We are assessing the utility of HICO for detecting iron-bearing minerals and materials associated with playas and mapping their fractional abundance outside of the playa boundaries. Sites being investigated include the clastics-dominated Railroad Valley and Lunar Lake playas of Nevada, the evaporite-dominated Bonneville Salt Flats, and the acid-saline Lake Tyrrell of northwest Victoria, Australia. HICO, and supporting airborne hyperspectral datasets (AVIRIS and HyMap), are being converted from at-sensor radiance to surface reflectance using the FLAASH radiance transfer-based atmospheric correction software. Fe-bearing minerals and materials are determined through a standardized endmember detection approach using the commercial ENVI software and mapped using a variety of approaches including linear spectral mixture analysis, constrained energy minimization, and spectral feature fitting. Interpretations of remote data are guided by field-based observations and mapping. We are using the remote sensing data to assess the surface state of the playa (wet vs. dry, soft vs. hard). These factors have bearing in that dusts stripped from playa surfaces can affect nearby human communities and agricultural fields. Playas are also used for recreation and sometimes as transportation corridors and their physical state has important bearing for those functions. Assessing the types of minerals present has relevance for their impact as wind-entrained particulates that could have adverse effects on the health of humans, crops, or livestock.

  5. Dengue fever complicated by hemophagocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Koshy, Maria; Mishra, Ajay Kumar; Agrawal, Bhumi; Kurup, Akhil Rajendra; Hansdak, Samuel George

    2016-01-01

    Dengue is a common acute viral febrile illness in the tropics. Although the usual presentation is that of a self-limiting illness, its complications are protean. We report a 29-year-old man who presented with an acute febrile illness and was diagnosed with dengue hemorrhagic fever. Despite appropriate supportive therapy, the patient initially improved, but subsequently had clinical deterioration. Evaluation revealed features of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. He was successfully treated with glucocorticoids and had an uneventful recovery. This case adds to the limited adult cases of virus-associated hemophagocytic syndrome in the literature and the need for prompt recognition and treatment of this rare complication. PMID:27274854

  6. Dengue fever in international travelers.

    PubMed

    Jelinek, T

    2000-07-01

    Dengue virus infection is becoming increasingly recognized as one of the world's major emerging infectious diseases. Although only a few systematic studies have been conducted to assess the incidence and clinical course of dengue fever in travelers, it is now possible to estimate risk factors for travelers to areas of endemicity. Dengue virus and its vector, Aedes mosquitoes, benefit from human habitation and travel-related aspects of human behavior. Thus, travelers serve an important double role as potential victims of the disease and as vehicles for further spread of dengue.

  7. Dengue fever complicated by hemophagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Koshy, Maria; Mishra, Ajay Kumar; Agrawal, Bhumi; Kurup, Akhil Rajendra; Hansdak, Samuel George

    2016-01-01

    Dengue is a common acute viral febrile illness in the tropics. Although the usual presentation is that of a self-limiting illness, its complications are protean. We report a 29-year-old man who presented with an acute febrile illness and was diagnosed with dengue hemorrhagic fever. Despite appropriate supportive therapy, the patient initially improved, but subsequently had clinical deterioration. Evaluation revealed features of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. He was successfully treated with glucocorticoids and had an uneventful recovery. This case adds to the limited adult cases of virus-associated hemophagocytic syndrome in the literature and the need for prompt recognition and treatment of this rare complication. PMID:27274854

  8. Fever

    MedlinePlus

    ... much fruit juice or apple juice and avoid sports drinks in younger children. Although eating is fine, ... trouble with the immune system (because of chronic steroid therapy, a bone marrow or organ transplant, spleen ...

  9. [Q fever: a cause of fever of unknown origin in Switzerland].

    PubMed

    Fischer, L; Garin, N; Péter, O; Praz, G

    2012-10-10

    We describe two cases of Q fever in previously healthy women presenting with fever of unknown origin. The diagnosis was made after several days of investigations. Symptoms and signs of acute or chronic Coxiella burnetii infection are protean and non-specific. Q fever should be included in the differential diagnosis of fever of unknown origin and appropriate serologic studies should be done. We review the clinical presentation of Q fever. Use of serology for the diagnosis and the follow-up is discussed. PMID:23130422

  10. Fever, immunity, and molecular adaptations.

    PubMed

    Hasday, Jeffrey D; Thompson, Christopher; Singh, Ishwar S

    2014-01-01

    The heat shock response (HSR) is an ancient and highly conserved process that is essential for coping with environmental stresses, including extremes of temperature. Fever is a more recently evolved response, during which organisms temporarily subject themselves to thermal stress in the face of infections. We review the phylogenetically conserved mechanisms that regulate fever and discuss the effects that febrile-range temperatures have on multiple biological processes involved in host defense and cell death and survival, including the HSR and its implications for patients with severe sepsis, trauma, and other acute systemic inflammatory states. Heat shock factor-1, a heat-induced transcriptional enhancer is not only the central regulator of the HSR but also regulates expression of pivotal cytokines and early response genes. Febrile-range temperatures exert additional immunomodulatory effects by activating mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades and accelerating apoptosis in some cell types. This results in accelerated pathogen clearance, but increased collateral tissue injury, thus the net effect of exposure to febrile range temperature depends in part on the site and nature of the pathologic process and the specific treatment provided. PMID:24692136

  11. Dengue haemorrhagic fever in Burma.

    PubMed

    Thaung, U; Ming, C K; Thein, M

    1975-12-01

    Although sporadic from 1965 to 1969, a major outbreak of dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) occurred for the first time in Rangoon in 1970. Since then the disease has occurred every year in Rangoon and is now observed to be expanding to other urban areas in the country. The clinical diagnosis of DHF was confused by concurrent outbreaks of influenza A in 1971 and influenza A and B in 1972. A laboratory study of 3,447 clinically diagnosed haemorrhagic fever cases showed that 1643 cases (47.8%) were due to dengue and chikungunya, 296 (8.6%) to influenza A, 85(2.5%) to influenza B, 12(0.3%) to measles and 1411(40.8%) were of unknown aetiology during the 5 year period 1970-1974. Ae. aegypti mosquitoes are widely distributed in the country up to and including 900 meters above sea level but breeding is not found above that altitude. The absolute larval population which is highest in July as well as landing rate correlated with the peak incidence of DHF cases.

  12. Dengue hemorrhagic fever in infants.

    PubMed

    Hongsiriwon, Suchat

    2002-03-01

    A report of 19 cases of serologically-proven dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) in infants aged 3-12 months who were admitted to the Department of Pediatrics, Chon Buri Regional Hospital, Thailand, during 1995 to 1998. Subjects were 8 males and 11 females, with the peak age of 8 months. Four cases (21%) had DHF and other common co-infections ie pneumonia (2 cases), Staphylococcus aureus sepsis (1 case) and Haemophilus influenzae meningitis (1 case). The clinical manifestations of the 15 DHF cases were high fever (100%), coryza (93.3%), hepatomegaly (80%), drowsiness (53.3 %), and vomiting (46.7%); rash was observed in only 27%; one-fifth developed febrile convulsions. Sites of bleeding were the skin (petechiae) 58%, gastrointestinal system (melena) 16%, and mucous membrane (epistaxis) 5%; thrombocytopenia and increased hematocrit (> or =20%) were noted in 95% and 84% respectively. The majority of the patients (18 cases, 95%) had primary infection; only one (5%) had secondary infection. The clinical severity of the DHF was Grade I, II, and III (dengue shock syndrome) in 21%, 47% and 32% of cases respectively. After appropriate and effective management, all the infants recovered fully.

  13. [Yellow fever epidemiology in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Mondet, B

    2001-08-01

    We have carried out a meticulous time-space-analysis of the incidence of yellow fever in humans in Brazil from 1954 to 1972 and especially from 1973 to 1999. This study has added to our knowledge of the epidemiology of yellow fever and enabled us to redefine epidemiological zones and determine their geographical limits. The endemic area is located within the Amazon basin; here cases are scattered and generally limited in number. However, there are also "foci of endemic emergence" within this area, where cases are less rare, although occurrence remains irregular. The epidemic area is for the most part situated outside the Amazon basin, to the north east and particularly to the south. It has been divided into two parts according to whether the occurrence of yellow fever is cyclic or sporadic. The epidemics, which are all sylvatic, follow either a circular path (in the forest area) or a linear path (in forest-galleries of the savannah area). The study of the development of the 3 main epidemics (1972-74; 1979-82; 1986-92) in the cyclic emergence area showed that, on each occasion, the yellow fever virus appeared at a particularly active outbreak site located in the "serra dos Carajás", and from there, it followed the courses of the Tocantins and Araguaia rivers upstream, moving southwards during the "pre-epidemic phase" which may be visible due to the occurrence of a few cases, or may remain invisible. Subsequently the virus reached the emergence area, where it appeared in the form of epidemics. In this zone, it also followed privileged south-western pathways, moving from one hydraulic basin to another along the upstream courses of the rivers. Almost exactly the same pathways have been identified for each of the 3 epidemics studied. The distances travelled by the virus over a period of one year--when it goes rapidly--can reach several hundred kilometers. On the other hand, it may be stationary for a period of one or two consecutive years, occasionally three, remaining

  14. Rocky Mountain spotted fever in Argentina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cases of epidemic typhus have been documented in Argentina since 1919; however, no confirmed reports of spotted fever rickettsiosis were described in this country until 1999. We describe the first molecular confirmation of Rickettsia rickettsii, the etiologic agent of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (R...

  15. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever in Argentina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We describe the first molecular confirmation of Rickettsia rickettsii, the cause of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF), from a tick vector, Amblyomma cajennense, and from a cluster of fatal spotted fever cases in Argentina. Questing A. cajennense ticks were collected at or near sites of presumed or...

  16. Detection and Response for Rift Valley fever

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rift Valley fever is a viral disease that impacts domestic livestock and humans in Africa and the Middle East, and poses a threat to military operations in these areas. We describe a Rift Valley fever Risk Monitoring website, and its ability to predict risk of disease temporally and spatially. We al...

  17. Ask Dr. Sue: "Children and Fevers."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aronson, Susan S.

    1989-01-01

    Considers aspects of children's fevers. Answers questions concerning: (1) the temperature at which a fever is infectious; (2) the point at which a feverish child in care should be sent home; (3) the length of time a parent should wait before returning the child to day care; and (4) the way to take a child's temperature. (RJC)

  18. Q Fever Chronic Osteomyelitis in Two Children.

    PubMed

    Costa, Beatriz; Morais, Andreia; Santos, Ana Sofia; Tavares, Delfin; Seves, Graça; Gouveia, Catarina

    2015-11-01

    We report 2 cases of chronic Q fever osteomyelitis in 10- and 5-year-old girls who presented with distal right femoral and left parasternal granulomatous osteomyelitis, respectively. Both were treated with ciprofloxacin and rifampin with good response. Q fever osteomyelitis is a challenging diagnosis in children, and the choice of antimicrobial treatment is difficult because of limited available data. PMID:26226441

  19. Mothers’ perceptions of fever in children

    PubMed Central

    Ravanipour, Maryam; Akaberian, Sherafat; Hatami, Gissou

    2014-01-01

    Background: Fever is one of the most common symptoms for children. Most fevers are not dangerous; parents, especially mothers, nevertheless experience severe anxiety confronting children's fevers. This study aimed to explore the mothers’ perceptions of fever in their children. Materials and Methods: Mothers of hospitalized febrile children were selected by purposeful sampling method from two hospitals in Bushehr in 2012. Data saturation was reached after in-depth semi structured interviews with 12 participants. Data analysis was done by conventional content analysis method. Findings: Sense of concern, the necessity for quick action and the need for protection emerged from mothers’ views. Sense of concern came from concerns over cause of fever, child's hospitalization and possible side-effects of fever. The necessity for quick action resulted from gathering information, self-medication and referring to healthcare centres; the need for spiritual and emotional protection created the need to protect in mothers. Conclusion: Findings showed that mothers need educational, emotional and spiritual protection in order to overcome their concerns and managing their children's fever. It is recommended that an empowering model based on these findings be developed in order to strengthen mothers in dealing with fevers in order to prevent excessive concern and anxiety. PMID:25250363

  20. Rocky Mountain spotted fever in children.

    PubMed

    Woods, Charles R

    2013-04-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever is typically undifferentiated from many other infections in the first few days of illness. Treatment should not be delayed pending confirmation of infection when Rocky Mountain spotted fever is suspected. Doxycycline is the drug of choice even for infants and children less than 8 years old.

  1. [Haemorrhagic fever viruses, possible bioterrorist use].

    PubMed

    Rigaudeau, Sophie; Bricaire, François; Bossi, Philippe

    2005-01-29

    The majority of haemorrhagic fever viruses are responsible for various clinical manifestations, the mutual characteristics of which are fever and haemorrhage in 5 to 70% of cases. All degrees of severity can be observed, ranging from isolated fever to multi-organ failure and death. These viruses belong to one of the following families: filoviridae, arenaviridae, bunyaviridae, and flaviviridae. They must be considered as dangerous biological weapons that could potentially be used. Most of the viruses responsible for haemorrhagic fever can be transmitted to humans through the air in spray form, except the dengue virus and the agents of haemorrhagic fever from the Congo Crimea and the haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome that are difficult to handle in cell culture. In the event of a bioterrorist act, the management of persons infected or suspected of being so will be made by the referent departments of infectious diseases, defined by the French Biotox plan. Management includes isolation, confirmation or invalidation of the diagnosis and rapid initiation of treatment with ribavirin. Ribavirin is recommended for the treatment and prophylaxis of arenavirus and bunyavirus infections; it is not effective for the other families of virus. Except for yellow fever, there is no vaccination for the other forms of viral haemorrhagic fever. PMID:15687968

  2. Prolonged and recurrent fevers in children.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Gary S

    2014-01-01

    Some children referred for prolonged fever are actually not having elevated temperatures; the approach here requires dissection of the history and correction of health misperceptions. Others have well-documented fevers associated with clinical, laboratory, or epidemiologic findings that should point to a specific diagnosis. "Fever-of-Unknown-Origin" (FUO) is the clinical scenario of daily fever for ≥ 14 days that defies explanation after a careful history, physical examination, and basic laboratory tests. The diagnostic approach requires a meticulous fever diary, serial clinical and laboratory evaluations, vigilance for the appearance of new signs and symptoms, and targeted investigations; the pace of the work-up is determined by the severity of the illness. Approximately half of children with FUO will have a self-limited illness and will never have a specific diagnosis made; the other half will ultimately be found to have, in order, infectious, inflammatory, or neoplastic conditions. Irregular, intermittent, recurrent fevers in the well-appearing child are likely to be sequential viral illnesses. Monogenic autoinflammatory diseases should be considered in those who do not fit the picture of recurrent infections and who do not have hallmarks of immune deficiency. Stereotypical febrile illnesses that recur with clockwork periodicity should raise the possibilities of cyclic neutropenia, if the cycle is approximately 21 days, or periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, and adenitis (PFAPA) syndrome, the most common periodic fever in childhood. PMID:24120354

  3. [Haemorrhagic fever viruses, possible bioterrorist use].

    PubMed

    Rigaudeau, Sophie; Bricaire, François; Bossi, Philippe

    2005-01-29

    The majority of haemorrhagic fever viruses are responsible for various clinical manifestations, the mutual characteristics of which are fever and haemorrhage in 5 to 70% of cases. All degrees of severity can be observed, ranging from isolated fever to multi-organ failure and death. These viruses belong to one of the following families: filoviridae, arenaviridae, bunyaviridae, and flaviviridae. They must be considered as dangerous biological weapons that could potentially be used. Most of the viruses responsible for haemorrhagic fever can be transmitted to humans through the air in spray form, except the dengue virus and the agents of haemorrhagic fever from the Congo Crimea and the haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome that are difficult to handle in cell culture. In the event of a bioterrorist act, the management of persons infected or suspected of being so will be made by the referent departments of infectious diseases, defined by the French Biotox plan. Management includes isolation, confirmation or invalidation of the diagnosis and rapid initiation of treatment with ribavirin. Ribavirin is recommended for the treatment and prophylaxis of arenavirus and bunyavirus infections; it is not effective for the other families of virus. Except for yellow fever, there is no vaccination for the other forms of viral haemorrhagic fever.

  4. Widespread dieback of riparian trees on a dammed ephemeral river and evidence of local mitigation by tributary flows

    PubMed Central

    Mulligan, Mark; Harrison, Xavier A.; Henschel, Joh R.; Pettorelli, Nathalie; Cowlishaw, Guy

    2016-01-01

    Ephemeral rivers act as linear oases in drylands providing key resources to people and wildlife. However, not much is known about these rivers’ sensitivities to human activities. We investigated the landscape-level determinants of riparian tree dieback along the Swakop River, a dammed ephemeral river in Namibia, focusing on the native ana tree (Faidherbia albida) and the invasive mesquite (Prosopis spp.). We surveyed over 1,900 individual trees distributed across 24 sites along a 250 km stretch of the river. General linear mixed models were used to test five hypotheses relating to three anthropogenic threats: river flow disruption from damming, human settlement and invasive species. We found widespread dieback in both tree populations: 51% mortality in ana tree, with surviving trees exhibiting 18% canopy death (median); and 26% mortality in mesquite, with surviving trees exhibiting 10% canopy death. Dieback in the ana tree was most severe where trees grew on drier stretches of the river, where tributary flow was absent and where mesquite grew more abundantly. Dieback in the mesquite, a more drought-tolerant taxon, did not show any such patterns. Our findings suggest that dieback in the ana tree is primarily driven by changes in river flow resulting from upstream dam creation and that tributary flows provide a local buffer against this loss of main channel flow. The hypothesis that the invasive mesquite may contribute to ana tree dieback was also supported. Our findings suggest that large dams along the main channels of ephemeral rivers have the ability to cause widespread mortality in downstream riparian trees. To mitigate such impacts, management might focus on the maintenance of natural tributary flows to buffer local tree populations from the disruption to main channel flow. PMID:27812420

  5. The evolution of an annual life cycle in killifish: adaptation to ephemeral aquatic environments through embryonic diapause.

    PubMed

    Furness, Andrew I

    2016-08-01

    An annual life cycle is characterized by growth, maturity, and reproduction condensed into a single, short season favourable to development, with production of embryos (seeds, cysts, or eggs) capable of surviving harsh conditions which juveniles or adults cannot tolerate. More typically associated with plants in desert environments, or temperate-zone insects exposed to freezing winters, the evolution of an annual life cycle in vertebrates is fairly novel. Killifish, small sexually dimorphic fishes in the Order Cyprinodontiformes, have adapted to seasonally ephemeral water bodies across much of Africa and South America through the independent evolution of an annual life history. These annual killifish produce hardy desiccation-resistant eggs that undergo diapause (developmental arrest) and remain buried in the soil for long periods when fish have perished due to the drying of their habitat. Killifish are found in aquatic habitats that span a continuum from permanent and stable to seasonal and variable, thus providing a useful system in which to piece together the evolutionary history of this life cycle using natural comparative variation. I first review adaptations for life in ephemeral aquatic environments in killifish, with particular emphasis on the evolution of embryonic diapause. I then bring together available evidence from a variety of approaches and provide a scenario for how this annual life cycle evolved. There are a number of features within Aplocheiloidei killifish including their inhabitation of marginal or edge aquatic habitat, their small size and rapid attainment of maturity, and egg properties that make them particularly well suited to the colonization of ephemeral waters. PMID:25969869

  6. Water balance complexities in ephemeral catchments with different land uses: Insights from monitoring and distributed hydrologic modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dean, J. F.; Camporese, M.; Webb, J. A.; Grover, S. P.; Dresel, P. E.; Daly, E.

    2016-06-01

    Although ephemeral catchments are widespread in arid and semiarid climates, the relationship of their water balance with climate, geology, topography, and land cover is poorly known. Here we use 4 years (2011-2014) of rainfall, streamflow, and groundwater level measurements to estimate the water balance components in two adjacent ephemeral catchments in south-eastern Australia, with one catchment planted with young eucalypts and the other dedicated to grazing pasture. To corroborate the interpretation of the observations, the physically based hydrological model CATHY was calibrated and validated against the data in the two catchments. The estimated water balances showed that despite a significant decline in groundwater level and greater evapotranspiration in the eucalypt catchment (104-119% of rainfall) compared with the pasture catchment (95-104% of rainfall), streamflow consistently accounted for 1-4% of rainfall in both catchments for the entire study period. Streamflow in the two catchments was mostly driven by the rainfall regime, particularly rainfall frequency (i.e., the number of rain days per year), while the downslope orientation of the plantation furrows also promoted runoff. With minimum calibration, the model was able to adequately reproduce the periods of flow in both catchments in all years. Although streamflow and groundwater levels were better reproduced in the pasture than in the plantation, model-computed water balance terms confirmed the estimates from the observations in both catchments. Overall, the interplay of climate, topography, and geology seems to overshadow the effect of land use in the study catchments, indicating that the management of ephemeral catchments remains highly challenging.

  7. Rat Bite Fever Resembling Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Akter, Ripa; Boland, Paul; Daley, Peter; Rahman, Proton; Al Ghanim, Nayef

    2016-01-01

    Rat bite fever is rare in Western countries. It can be very difficult to diagnose as blood cultures are typically negative and a history of rodent exposure is often missed. Unless a high index of suspicion is maintained, the associated polyarthritis can be mistaken for rheumatoid arthritis. We report a case of culture-positive rat bite fever in a 46-year-old female presenting with fever and polyarthritis. The clinical presentation mimicked rheumatoid arthritis. Infection was complicated by discitis, a rare manifestation. We discuss the diagnosis and management of this rare zoonotic infection. We also review nine reported cases of rat bite fever, all of which had an initial presumptive diagnosis of a rheumatological disorder. Rat bite fever is a potentially curable infection but can have a lethal course if left untreated. PMID:27366177

  8. Rat Bite Fever Resembling Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Akter, Ripa; Boland, Paul; Daley, Peter; Rahman, Proton; Al Ghanim, Nayef

    2016-01-01

    Rat bite fever is rare in Western countries. It can be very difficult to diagnose as blood cultures are typically negative and a history of rodent exposure is often missed. Unless a high index of suspicion is maintained, the associated polyarthritis can be mistaken for rheumatoid arthritis. We report a case of culture-positive rat bite fever in a 46-year-old female presenting with fever and polyarthritis. The clinical presentation mimicked rheumatoid arthritis. Infection was complicated by discitis, a rare manifestation. We discuss the diagnosis and management of this rare zoonotic infection. We also review nine reported cases of rat bite fever, all of which had an initial presumptive diagnosis of a rheumatological disorder. Rat bite fever is a potentially curable infection but can have a lethal course if left untreated. PMID:27366177

  9. Fever management: Evidence vs current practice

    PubMed Central

    El-Radhi, A Sahib Mehdi

    2012-01-01

    Fever is a very common complaint in children and is the single most common non-trauma-related reason for a visit to the emergency department. Parents are concerned about fever and it’s potential complications. The biological value of fever (i.e., whether it is beneficial or harmful) is disputed and it is being vigorously treated with the belief of preventing complications such as brain injury and febrile seizures. The practice of alternating antipyretics has become widespread at home and on paediatric wards without supporting scientific evidence. There is still a significant contrast between the current concept and practice, and the scientific evidence. Why is that the case in such a common complaint like fever The article will discuss the significant contrast between the current concepts and practice of fever management on one hand, and the scientific evidence against such concepts and practice. PMID:25254165

  10. The geographical distribution of Q fever

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, Martin M.; Bertagna, P.

    1955-01-01

    The results of a WHO-assisted survey of the distribution of Q fever in 32 countries and an analysis of reports published to date indicate that Q fever exists in 51 countries on five continents. Q-fever infection was most often reported in man and the domestic ruminants, such as cattle, sheep, and goats. The disease was found to exist in most countries where investigations were carried out. Notable exceptions were Ireland, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Poland, and the Scandinavian countries. With the exception of Poland, where the results were inconclusive, all these countries import relatively few domestic ruminants—the most important animal reservoirs of human Q-fever infection. It seems, therefore, that the traffic of infected ruminants may be one of the most important, if not the most important, means for the geographical spread of Q fever. The importance, if any, of ticks associated with such traffic needs to be defined. PMID:13284560

  11. DENGUE FEVER AND DENGUE HEMORRHAGIC FEVER IN ADULTS.

    PubMed

    Tantawichien, Terapong

    2015-01-01

    Dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever are re-emerging diseases that are endemic in the Tropics. The global prevalence of dengue cases has increased in South-East Asia, Africa, the Western Pacific, and the Americas. The increasingly widespread distribution and the rising incidence of dengue virus infections are related to increased distribution of Aedes aegypti, an increasingly urban population, and increasing air travel. Several Southeast Asian countries show that the age of the reported dengue cases has increased from 5-9 years, to older children and young adults. Dengue infection in adolescents and adults has also been recognized as a potential hazard to international travelers returning from endemic areas, especially SoutheastAsia. Dengue is one disease entity with different clinical presentations; often with unpredictable clinical evolutions and outcomes. Bleeding manifestations in adult patients, including petechiae and menorrhagia were also frequently found; however, massive hematemesis may occur in adult patients because of peptic ulcer disease and may not be associated with profound shock as previously reported in children. Although shock and plasma leakage seem to be more prevalent as age decreases, the frequency of internal hemorrhage rises as age increases. Increase in liver enzymes found in both children and adults indicated liver involvement during dengue infections. Pre-existing liver diseases in adults such as chronic hepatitis, alcoholic cirrhosis, and hemoglobinopathies may aggravate the liver impairment in dengue infection. Fulminant hepatitis is a rare but well described problem in adult patients with dengue infection. Currently, no specific therapeutic agent exists for dengue. The early recognition of dengue infection, bleeding tendency, and signs of circulatory collapse would reduce mortality rates in adult patients with dengue infection.

  12. Integrated and adaptive management for sustainable water use along ephemeral rivers under severe uncertainty of future flood regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, Sven; Attinger, Sabine; Frank, Karin; Baxter, Peter; Hildebrandt, Anke

    2010-05-01

    Ephemeral rivers are located throughout the world's arid regions. They are characterised by temporary surface flow that strongly varies between seasons and years. Along the river course often a coupled eco-hydrological vegetation-groundwater system has established, which is referred to as linear oasis, reflecting the ecological and socio-economic importance of ephemeral rivers in otherwise dry areas. The Kuiseb River denotes such a linear oasis and is one of the most diversely used environments among the ephemeral rivers in Namibia. Along the entire river course surface runoff and ground water are exploited for drinking, farming, and mining. The middle section of the Kuiseb River is characterised by strong eco-hydrological feedbacks between the vegetation and the ground water resource. Temporary floods infiltrate into sediments, which are accumulated in geological pools of impermeable bedrocks. This enables the formation of shallow ground water. The low depth to ground water allows root water uptake by plants and the establishment of a thriving ecosystem. The sustainable use of ecological and hydrological resources along ephemeral rivers is crucial to preserve the natural ecosystem. However, the investigation of management strategies that consider both the regulation of water extraction and vegetation structure requires models that explicitly consider the feedbacks between the water resource and the ecosystem structure. Further, uncertainties arise from stochastic hydrologic drivers such as flash flood events. Particularly in the face of climate change, the management strategies have to be applicable to a wide range of possible flood regimes, i.e. they have to be robust to the uncertainty of future flood regimes. In this study we assess a variety of management strategies regarding their robustness under different theoretical ecosystems and under uncertainty in the future stochastic flood regimes along the Kuiseb River. We consider the trade-off between ecological

  13. Beyond Intuition: Patient Fever Symptom Experience

    PubMed Central

    Ames, Nancy J.; Peng, Claudia; Powers, John H.; Leidy, Nancy Kline; Miller-Davis, Claiborne; Rosenberg, Alice; VanRaden, Mark; Wallen, Gwenyth R.

    2013-01-01

    Context Fever is an important sign of inflammation recognized by health care practitioners and family caregivers. However, few empirical data obtained directly from patients exist to support many of the long-standing assumptions about the symptoms of fever. Many of the literature-cited symptoms, including chills, diaphoresis, and malaise, have limited scientific bases, yet they often represent a major justification for antipyretic administration. Objectives To describe the patient experience of fever symptoms for the preliminary development of a fever assessment questionnaire. Methods Qualitative interviews were conducted with 28 inpatients, the majority (86%) with cancer diagnoses, who had a recorded temperature of ≥38°C within approximately 12 hours before the interview. A semi-structured interview guide was used to elicit patient fever experiences. Thematic analyses were conducted by three independent research team members, and the data were verified through two rounds of consensus building. Results Eleven themes emerged. The participants reported experiences of feeling cold, weakness, warmth, sweating, nonspecific bodily sensations, gastrointestinal symptoms, headaches, emotional changes, achiness, respiratory symptoms, and vivid dreams/hallucinations. Conclusion Our data not only confirm long-standing symptoms of fever but also suggest new symptoms and a level of variability and complexity not captured by the existing fever literature. Greater knowledge of patients’ fever experiences will guide more accurate assessment of symptoms associated with fever and the impact of antipyretic treatments on patient symptoms in this common condition. Results from this study are contributing to the content validity of a future instrument that will evaluate patient outcomes related to fever interventions. PMID:23742739

  14. Recharge of shallow aquifers through two ephemeral-stream channels in northeastern Wyoming, 1982-1983

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lenfest, L.W.

    1987-01-01

    Quantifying the recharge from ephemeral streams to alluvial and bedrock aquifers will help evaluate the effects of surface mining on alluvial valley floors in Wyoming. Two stream reaches were chosen for study in the Powder River basin. One reach was located along the North Fork Dry Fork Cheyenne River near Glenrock, Wyoming, and the other reach was located along Black Thunder Creek near Hampshire, Wyoming. The reach along the North Fork Dry Fork Cheyenne River was instrumented with 3 gaging stations to measure streamflow and with 6 observation wells to measure groundwater level fluctuations in alluvial and bedrock aquifers in response to streamflow. The 3 streamflow gaging stations were located within the 2.5-mi study reach to measure the approximate gain or loss of discharge along the reach. Computed streamflow losses ranged from 0.43 acre-ft/mi on July 9 , 1982, to 1.44 acre-ft/mi on August 9, 1982. The observation wells completed only in the alluvial aquifer were dry during flow in the North Fork Dry Fork Cheyenne River, whereas water levels in half of the observation wells completed in the bedrock aquifers or the alluvial and bedrock aquifers rose in response to flow in the North Fork Dry Fork Cheyenne River. Groundwater recharge on August 9, 1982, was calculated using a convolution technique using groundwater levels at the upstream site and was estimated to be 26.5 acre-ft/mi. The reach along Black Thunder Creek was instrumented with one gaging station to measure streamflow and with 4 observation wells to measure water level response in alluvial and bedrock aquifers to streamflow. Recharge to the alluvial aquifer from flow in Black Thunder Creek ranged from 3.56 to 12.4 acre-ft/mi. The recharge was estimated using the convolution technique using water level measurements in the observation wells completed in the alluvial aquifer. Water level measurements in the observation wells indicated water level rises in the alluvial and bedrock aquifers in response to

  15. Supply-limited horizontal sand drift at an ephemerally crusted, unvegetated saline playa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gillette, Dale A.; Niemeyer, T.C.; Helm, P.J.

    2001-01-01

    A site at Owens Dry Lake was observed for more than 4 years. The site was a vegetation-free saline playa where the surface formed "ephemeral crusts," crusts that form after rainfall. Sometimes these crusts were destroyed and often a layer of particles on the crust would engage in vigorous aeolian activity. Three "phases" of active sand drifting are defined as almost no movement (extreme supply limitation), loose particles on crust with some degree of sand drift (moderate supply limitation), and unlimited source movement corresponding to a destroyed surface crust (unlimited supply). These "phases" occurred 45, 49, and 6% of the time, respectively. The accumulation of loose particles on the crust was mostly the result of in situ formation. Crusted sediments with loose particles on top can exhibit mass flux rates about the same as for noncrusted sediments. Crusted sediments limit or eliminate sand drift in two conditions: for rough crusts that effect a sufficiently high threshold friction velocity (above the wind friction velocity) and for limited amounts of loose particles on the crust where particle supply is less than would be transported in normal saltation for a thick sandy surface. These "supply-limited" cases are similar to wind erosion of limited spilled material on a hard concrete surface. We quantified "supply limitation" by defining a "potential" or "supply unlimited" sand drift function Q = AG where A represents supply limitation that decreases as the particle source is depleted. Here Q is the mass of sand transported through a surface perpendicular to the ground and to the wind and having unit width during time period t, and G = ??? u*(u*2 - u*t2) dt for u* > u*t. G is integrated for the same time period t as for Q, u* is the friction velocity of the wind, and u*t is the threshold friction velocity of the wind. Hard crusts (usually formed in the summer) tended to show almost no change of threshold friction velocity with time and often gave total

  16. Geophysical Imaging of Near Surface Hydrostratigraphy in Arid Ephemeral Stream Systems Near Yuma, AZ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harry, D. L.; Sutfin, N. A.; Shaw, J. R.; Faulconer, J.; Genco, A. J.; Wohl, E.; Kampf, S. K.; Cooper, D. J.

    2014-12-01

    Ground penetrating radar and DC electrical resistivity profiles image the upper 4 m of the subsurface beneath ephemeral streams in Yuma and Mohave Washes in the Sonoran Desert, 30 km northeast of Yuma, Arizona. The geophysical data are tied to trenches to establish a lithostratigraphic interpretation. Archie's Law, calibrated to resistivity measurements on soil samples from each site, is used to estimate in-situ soil pore saturation. Three different stream types are surveyed. Increasing in stream order, these are incised bedrock with alluvium fill, incised alluvium, and braided streams. Three radar facies are identified on the basis of reflection amplitude, continuity, and dip. Near the surface, RF1 (0.5-1.5 m thick) contains laterally continuous sheetlike deposits interpreted to be active channel gravel, sand, and cobble deposits reworked during floods. Below, RF2 contains moderately continuous downlapping and onlapping reflections interpreted to be partially lithified Pleistocene gravel and cobble valley fill deposits. The underlying facies RF3 is nearly reflection free, but at the larger washes contains weak reflection similar in character to RF2. In the smaller washes, RF3 contains abundant diffractions. Two electrofacies are identified. The shallowest, EF1, extends from the surface to ~2.5 m deep. EF1 encompasses radar facies RF1 and RF2, with resistivity ranging from 250-1500 ohm-m. Estimated soil moisture in this facies ranges from 2-40%, and varies up to 20% laterally over 2-5 m distances in the smallest washes. Facies EF2 coincides with radar facies RF3, with resistivity ranging from 10-300 ohm-m and estimated pore saturation is estimated to exceed 70%. Electrofacies EF1 is inferred to represent a relatively dry surficial layer that includes the modern channel deposits and the upper ~1 m of the Pleistocene strata. At the larger washes, EF2 is interpreted to be Pleistocene valley fill, distinguishable from the overlying lithologically equivalent Pleistocene

  17. Ephemeral-Stream Channel and Basin-Floor Infiltration and Recharge in the Sierra Vista Subwatershed of the Upper San Pedro Basin, Southeastern Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coes, A.L.; Pool, D.R.

    2007-01-01

    The timing and location of streamflow in the San Pedro River are partially dependent on the aerial distribution of recharge in the Sierra Vista subwatershed. Previous investigators have assumed that recharge in the subwatershed occurs only along the mountain fronts by way of stream-channel infiltration near the contact between low-permeability rocks of the mountains and the basin fill. Recent studies in other alluvial basins of the Southwestern United States, however, have shown that significant recharge can occur through the sediments of ephemeral stream channels at locations several kilometers distant from the mountains. The purpose of this study was to characterize the spatial distribution of infiltration and subsequent recharge through the ephemeral channels in the Sierra Vista subwatershed. Infiltration fluxes in ephemeral channels and through the basin floor of the subwatershed were estimated by using several methods. Data collected during the drilling and coring of 16 boreholes included physical, thermal, and hydraulic properties of sediments; chloride concentrations of sediments; and pore-water stable-isotope values and tritium activity. Surface and subsurface sediment temperatures were continuously measured at each borehole. Twelve boreholes were drilled in five ephemeral stream channels to estimate infiltration within ephemeral channels. Active infiltration was verified to at least 20 meters at 11 of the 12 borehole sites on the basis of low sediment-chloride concentrations, high soil-water contents, and pore-water tritium activity similar to present-day precipitation. Consolidated sediments at the twelfth site prevented core recovery and estimation of infiltration. Analytical and numerical methods were applied to determine the surface infiltration flux required to produce the observed sediment-temperature fluctuations at six sites. Infiltration fluxes were determined for summer ephemeral flow events only because no winter flows were recorded at the sites

  18. A clinicopathological study of human yellow fever*

    PubMed Central

    Francis, T. I.; Moore, D. L.; Edington, G. M.; Smith, J. A.

    1972-01-01

    During an epidemic of yellow fever in the Jos Plateau area of Nigeria, 9 adult males with clinically diagnosed yellow fever were studied by haematological, biochemical, virological, serological, and liver biopsy methods. The ages of the patients ranged from 20 to 55 years and the duration of illness was 3-62 days. No virus was isolated from any patient but all patients should biochemical evidence of severe hepatocellular damage. Leucopenia was a feature of the late acute stage of the disease. Five sera had antibodies to yellow fever at titres greater than 1: 32, 3 of them being monospecific for yellow fever. The classical histological features of yellow fever were present only in the acute or late acute stages, when complement-fixation tests may be negative. With convalescence and the production of complement-fixing antibodies in high titres, the histological features resembled those of a persisting nonspecific hepatitis. In an endemic area, the histological features of yellow fever will depend on the stage of the disease and a picture of nonspecific hepatitis would not exclude yellow fever in the absence of confirmation from serological tests. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2AFig. 2BFig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6 PMID:4538039

  19. Freshwater seepages and ephemeral macroalgae proliferation in an intertidal bay: I Effect on benthic community structure and food web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouisse, Vincent; Riera, Pascal; Migné, Aline; Leroux, Cédric; Davoult, Dominique

    2011-01-01

    Freshwater seepages and ephemeral Enteromorpha spp. proliferation create heterogeneity at small spatial scale in intertidal sediment. Macrobenthic community diversity was compared between these two disturbances and their respective control points throughout the year 2007 at the Roscoff Aber Bay (Western English Channel, France). In March and September 2007, trophic community pathways of characteristic species were additionally studied using stable isotope ratios of carbon and nitrogen. The low salinity recorded at the freshwater seepage induced the exclusion of the main bioturbator and the presence of omnivores which modified the community composition by biotic pressure. Moreover, food web analyses clearly highlighted a separation at small spatial scale between the two trophic pathways of the impacted area and its control. On the contrary, little differences were observed owning to the ephemeral Enteromorpha spp. proliferation. This suggested a progressive and diffusive disturbance which was applied from the algal mat to the nearby area. However, seasonal changes were observed. First, the algal expansion phase increased the macrofauna diversity and foraminifers' abundance (meiofauna) and then acted as a physical barrier decreasing sediment and water column exchanges and decreasing the fauna diversity. This study highlights the need to take into account small spatial heterogeneity to avoid misinterpretations in intertidal ecology studies.

  20. How do sink and source activities influence the reproduction and vegetative growth of spring ephemeral herbs under different light conditions?

    PubMed

    Sunmonu, Ninuola; Kudo, Gaku

    2014-07-01

    Spring ephemeral herbs inhabiting deciduous forests commonly complete reproduction and vegetative growth before canopy closure in early summer. Effects of shading by early canopy closure on reproductive output and vegetative growth, however, may vary depending on the seasonal allocation patterns of photosynthetic products between current reproduction and storage for future growth in each species. To clarify the effects of sink-source balance on seed production and bulb growth in a spring ephemeral herb, Gagea lutea, we performed a bract removal treatment (source reduction) and a floral-bud removal treatment (sink reduction) under canopy and open conditions. Leaf carbon fixations did not differ between the forest and open sites and among treatments. Bract carbon fixations were also similar between sites but tended to decrease when floral buds were removed. Seed production was higher under open condition but decreased by the bract-removal treatment under both light conditions. In contrast, bulb growth was independent of light conditions and the bract-removal treatment but increased greatly by the bud-removal treatment. Therefore, leaves and bracts acted as specialized source organs for vegetative and reproductive functions, respectively, but photosynthetic products by bracts were flexibly used for bulb growth when plants failed to set fruits. Extension of bright period was advantageous for seed production (i.e., source limited) but not for vegetative growth (i.e., sink limited) in this species.

  1. Fatal dengue hemorrhagic fever imported into Germany.

    PubMed

    Schmidt-Chanasit, J; Tenner-Racz, K; Poppert, D; Emmerich, P; Frank, C; Dinges, C; Penning, R; Nerlich, A; Racz, P; Günther, S

    2012-08-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is an arthropod-borne virus (family Flaviviridae) causing dengue fever or dengue hemorrhagic fever. Here, we report the first fatal DENV infection imported into Germany. A female traveler was hospitalized with fever and abdominal pain after returning from Ecuador. Due to a suspected acute acalculous cholecystitis, cholecystectomy was performed. After cholecystectomy, severe spontaneous bleeding from the abdominal wound occurred and the patient died. Postmortem analysis of transudate and tissue demonstrated a DENV secondary infection of the patient and a gallbladder wall thickening (GBWT) due to an extensive edema.

  2. [Viral haemorrhagic fevers--evolution of the epidemic potential].

    PubMed

    Markin, V A; Markov, V I

    2002-01-01

    In this review modern data on dangerous and particularly dangerous viral haemorrhagic fevers caused by a group of viruses belonging to the families of phylo-, arena-, flavi-, bunya- and togaviruses are presented. Morbidity rates and epidemics caused by Marburg virus, Ebola fever virus, Lassa fever virus, Argentinian and Bolivian haemorrhagic fever viruses, dengue haemorrhagic fever virus, Crimean haemorrhagic fever virus, Hantaviruses are analyzed. Mechanisms of the evolution of the epidemic manifestation of these infections are considered. The importance of the development of tools and methods of diagnosis, rapid prevention and treatment of exotic haemorrhagic fevers is emphasized.

  3. Tick-borne relapsing fever in children.

    PubMed

    Le, C T

    1980-12-01

    Three cases of tick-borne fever diagnosed during the summer of 1979 are reported and the ecoepidemiology, clinical manifestations, and treatment of this infection are reviewed. Although challenging, the diagnosis can be made easily if specific historical clues are sought and the patient's blood smear is carefully examined. The diagnosis of this condition early in its course can save clinicians and patients the anxiety and cost of the work-up of a "fever of unknown origin." Since vacationing in the national parks and forests has become increasingly popular among many American families, tick-borne relapsing fever should be considered in any patient with an acute or recurrent fever of unknown origin who exhibits nonspecific symptoms of an undifferentiated "viral illness," and who gives a history of sleeping overnight in log cabins in the coniferous forests of the Western mountains of the United States.

  4. Treating Allergies, Hay Fever, and Hives

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hay Fever, and Hives: Comparing Effectiveness, Safety, and Price There are newer antihistamines. Antihistamines are drugs that ... prescription only, monthly costs reflect nationwide retail average prices for February 2013, rounded to the nearest dollar. ...

  5. The problem of compliance in rheumatic fever.

    PubMed

    Walker, K G; Human, D G; De Moor, M M; Sprenger, K J

    1987-12-01

    During a 12-month period 115 patients defaulted from a rheumatic fever clinic, so a study was undertaken to identify factors related to non-compliance by comparing defaulters with a group of 50 regular attenders. Those defaulting were significantly more likely to be coloured, male, and over 12 years old. They lived 10-99 km from the hospital, were on several drugs and despite more frequent appointments, usually had a record of poor attendance. The severity of the underlying heart disease and use of parenteral penicillin did not affect compliance. Since the use of regular penicillin prophylaxis for the secondary prevention of rheumatic fever is an essential step in reducing the prevalence of rheumatic heart disease, rheumatic fever clinics should be structured to address the needs of adolescents. Furthermore, the use of neighbourhood clinics for routine therapy between visits to a rheumatic fever clinic is essential to improve compliance.

  6. Transfusion support in patients with dengue fever.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Paramjit; Kaur, Gagandeep

    2014-09-01

    Dengue fever has emerged as a global public health problem in the recent decades. The clinical spectrum of the disease ranges from dengue fever to dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome. The disease is characterized by increased capillary permeability, thrombocytopenia and coagulopathy. Thrombocytopenia with hemorrhagic manifestations warrants platelet transfusions. There is lack of evidence-based guidelines for transfusion support in patients with dengue fever. This contributes to inappropriate use of blood components and blood centers constantly face the challenge of inventory management during dengue outbreaks. The current review is aimed to highlight the role of platelets and other blood components in the management of dengue. The review was performed after searching relevant published literature in PubMed, Science Direct, Google scholar and various text books and journal articles.

  7. A Physician's Nightmare: Fever of Unknown Origin.

    PubMed

    Din, Sana; Anwer, Farrukh; Beg, Mirza

    2016-01-01

    Fever of unknown origin (FUO) remains to be a challenge despite advancement in diagnostic technologies and procedures. FUO is considered when fever presents intermittently without an explanation. It has been linked to various etiologies, which makes it difficult to diagnose. We present the case of 18-month-old female with recurrent fever, splenomegaly, abdominal pain, and constipation. The workup for her symptoms revealed wandering spleen. Wandering spleen is a result from excessive laxity or absence of splenic ligaments. The patient underwent splenectomy and was advised to continue on Senna, Miralax, and high fiber diet. Her mother reported that the fever is no longer present and there is marked improvement in her constipation and abdominal pain after splenectomy. PMID:27433363

  8. A case of ADEM following Chikungunya fever.

    PubMed

    Maity, Pranab; Roy, Pinaki; Basu, Arindam; Das, Biman; Ghosh, U S

    2014-05-01

    Chikungunya most often is a self-limiting febrile illness with polyarthritis and the virus is not known to be neurotropic. We are reporting a case of chikugunya fever presenting as acute demyelinating encephalomyelitis(ADEM) which is very rare.

  9. Hepatic Dysfunction in Typhoid Fever During Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Hasbun H., Jorge; Osorio, Raúl; Hasbun, Andrea

    2006-01-01

    We described the hepatic dysfunction found in 10 cases out of 32 women with typhoid fever during pregnancy. This was associated with late diagnosis and maternal and perinatal complications. PMID:17485807

  10. Osteolysis in cat-scratch fever

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.F.; Lehman, R.M.; Shiels, W.E.; Blaney, S.M.

    1985-08-01

    The osteolysis associated with cat-scratch fever resembles more ominous conditions. The combination of osteolysis and unilateral regional adenopathy in a child or adolescent should suggest cat-scratch disease. Bone scans and CT verified the diagnosis.

  11. A Physician's Nightmare: Fever of Unknown Origin

    PubMed Central

    Anwer, Farrukh

    2016-01-01

    Fever of unknown origin (FUO) remains to be a challenge despite advancement in diagnostic technologies and procedures. FUO is considered when fever presents intermittently without an explanation. It has been linked to various etiologies, which makes it difficult to diagnose. We present the case of 18-month-old female with recurrent fever, splenomegaly, abdominal pain, and constipation. The workup for her symptoms revealed wandering spleen. Wandering spleen is a result from excessive laxity or absence of splenic ligaments. The patient underwent splenectomy and was advised to continue on Senna, Miralax, and high fiber diet. Her mother reported that the fever is no longer present and there is marked improvement in her constipation and abdominal pain after splenectomy. PMID:27433363

  12. Airborne Dust Models in Valley Fever Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sprigg, W. A.; Galgiani, J. N.; Vujadinovic, M.; Pejanovic, G.; Vukovic, A. J.; Prasad, A. K.; Djurdjevic, V.; Nickovic, S.

    2011-12-01

    Dust storms (haboobs) struck Phoenix, Arizona, in 2011 on July 5th and again on July 18th. One potential consequence: an estimated 3,600 new cases of Valley Fever in Maricopa County from the first storm alone. The fungi, Coccidioides immitis, the cause of the respiratory infection, Valley Fever, lives in the dry desert soils of the American southwest and southward through Mexico, Central America and South America. The fungi become part of the dust storm and, a few weeks after inhalation, symptoms of Valley Fever may appear, including pneumonia-like illness, rashes, and severe fatigue. Some fatalities occur. Our airborne dust forecast system predicted the timing and extent of the storm, as it has done with other, often different, dust events. Atmosphere/land surface models can be part of public health services to reduce risk of Valley Fever and exacerbation of other respiratory and cardiovascular illness.

  13. Causes of Fever in Rural Southern Laos.

    PubMed

    Mayxay, Mayfong; Sengvilaipaseuth, Onanong; Chanthongthip, Anisone; Dubot-Pérès, Audrey; Rolain, Jean-Marc; Parola, Philippe; Craig, Scott B; Tulsiani, Suhella; Burns, Mary-Anne; Khanthavong, Maniphone; Keola, Siamphay; Pongvongsa, Tiengkham; Raoult, Didier; Dittrich, Sabine; Newton, Paul N

    2015-09-01

    The etiology of fever in rural Lao People's Democratic Republic (Laos) has remained obscure until recently owing to the lack of laboratory facilities. We conducted a study to determine the causes of fever among 229 patients without malaria in Savannakhet Province, southern Laos; 52% had evidence of at least one diagnosis (45% with single and 7% with apparent multiple infections). Among patients with only one diagnosis, dengue (30.1%) was the most common, followed by leptospirosis (7.0%), Japanese encephalitis virus infection (3.5%), scrub typhus (2.6%), spotted fever group infection (0.9%), unspecified flavivirus infection (0.9%), and murine typhus (0.4%). We discuss the empirical treatment of fever in relation to these findings.

  14. Infectious causes of fever of unknown origin.

    PubMed

    McGregor, Alastair C; Moore, David A

    2015-06-01

    The causes of fever of unknown origin (FUO) are changing because advances in clinical practice and diagnostics have facilitated the identification of some infections. A variety of bacterial infections can cause FUO, and these can be divided into those that are easy to identify using culture and those that require serological or molecular tests for identification. A number of viral, parasitic and fungal infections can also cause prolonged fever. This article summarises the clinical features and diagnostic strategy of these infections.

  15. [Dengue hemorrhagic fever. Experiences from Thailand].

    PubMed

    Sørensen, E

    1992-06-30

    Increased incidence of dengue haemorrhagic fever has been observed in South East Asia. The etiology, clinical features and epidemiology of dengue virus infections are presented, with special emphasis on experience from Thailand. Reduction of sources, in terms of eliminating breeding sites for mosquitos, is the major approach in controlling dengue haemorrhagic fever, an approach which can succeed only through participation by the local community. The involvement of schools has proven to be successful in campaigns to reduce mosquito breeding sites in Thailand.

  16. Dengue hemorrhagic fever: clinical manifestations and management.

    PubMed

    Kabra, S K; Jain, Y; Singhal, T; Ratageri, V H

    1999-01-01

    Dengue virus infection may remain asymptomatic or manifest as nonspecific viral infection to life threatening dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF)/dengue shock syndrome (DSS). Patients with DHF/DSS have fever, hemorrhagic manifestations along with thrombocytopenia and hemoconcentration. Thrombocytopenia and hemoconcentration are distinguishing features between DHF/DSS and dengue fever (DF). Some patients with dengue fever may have significant bleed and mild thrombocytopenia but no hemoconcentration. These patients are labelled to have dengue fever with unusual bleeds. Laboratory findings in DHF/DSS include rising hematocrit, thrombocytopenia and transformed lymphocytes on peripheral smear. There may be increased transaminases, hyponatremia, transient increase in blood urea nitrogen and creatinine. In severe disease there may be lab evidence of dissemination intravascular coagulation. X-ray film of the chest may show pleural-effusion. Ultrasonogram of abdomen may detect thickened gall bladder wall with hepatomegaly and ascitis. In some patients there may be abnormality in electrocardiogram and echocardiogram. The diagnosis of DHF/DSS is based on typical clinical findings. For confirmation of dengue virus infection viral culture can be done on blood obtained from patients during early phase of illness. In later part of illness antibodies against dengue virus can be demonstrated by various techniques. The treatment of DF is symptomatic. For control of fever nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs should be avoided. DHF/DSS are managed by intravenous fluid infusion with repeated monitoring of vital parameters and packed cell volume (PCV).

  17. [Clinical observations of dengue fever among children].

    PubMed

    Hwang, K P; Su, S C; Chiang, C H

    1989-01-01

    From November 1987 to October 1988, seventy-seven cases diagnosed as dengue fever and confirmed by viral culture or serological examination in the Pediatric Department of Kaohsiung Medical College Hospital were studied. In nearly two thirds (64.9%) of the total cases, the ages were between 10 and 14 years old. No significant sexual difference could be found in this study. Two peaks of cases distribution occurred at November 1987 and October 1988. The major clinical manifestations of Dengue Fever were fever, headache, skin rash and cough. Nearly half of the total cases had nausea, vomiting, myalgia and skin itching. 29 cases (37.7%) had hemorrhagic complications during the course of disease. The most common features of hemorrhage was petechiae followed by epistaxis. Two cases were confirmed as hemorrhagic dengue fever and one was also dengue shock syndrome. Most (92.5%) of the cases had body temperatures over 38.5 degrees C at the onset of the disease. The mean duration of fever was 5.9 days. No fatality was found. It is concluded that eradication of vectors in the school environment might be one of the major points of disease control according to the age distribution of this study. The appearance of hemorrhagic dengue fever is a major problem and should be closely followed by clinicians and workers of public health in Taiwan.

  18. [Dengue fever in mainland France].

    PubMed

    Paty, M-C

    2014-11-01

    Dengue fever is the most widespread distributed vector borne viral disease. It is transmitted through the bites of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes. With the expansion of Aedes albopictus and increasing travel exchange, it is no longer limited to the tropical zone and transmission has been documented in temperate areas. In mainland France, where Aedes albopictus has been present and disseminating since 2004, 2 episodes of autochthonous transmission occurred in 2010 and in 2013. Control measures against dengue and chikungunya, which shares the same vector, are implemented every year since 2006, in the areas where the vector is present. They aim at preventing or limiting local transmission of these diseases. They are based on epidemiological and entomological surveillance and vector control measures. The diagnosis of dengue, and chikungunya should be considered in case of suggestive symptoms in patients returning from an area of virus circulation. It should also be considered for patients living or having stayed in areas of mainland France where Aedes albopictus is present, during its activity period from May 1 to November 30. The prevention and control system, including vector control measures and the notification of cases to the local health authority should be known, as the risk of autochthonous transmission increases every year. PMID:25080833

  19. Ebola and Marburg haemorrhagic fever.

    PubMed

    Rougeron, V; Feldmann, H; Grard, G; Becker, S; Leroy, E M

    2015-03-01

    Ebolaviruses and Marburgviruses (family Filoviridae) are among the most virulent pathogens for humans and great apes causing severe haemorrhagic fever and death within a matter of days. This group of viruses is characterized by a linear, non-segmented, single-stranded RNA genome of negative polarity. The overall burden of filovirus infections is minimal and negligible compared to the devastation caused by malnutrition and other infectious diseases prevalent in Africa such as malaria, dengue or tuberculosis. In this paper, we review the knowledge gained on the eco/epidemiology, the pathogenesis and the disease control measures for Marburg and Ebola viruses developed over the last 15 years. The overall progress is promising given the little attention that these pathogen have achieved in the past; however, more is to come over the next decade given the more recent interest in these pathogens as potential public and animal health concerns. Licensing of therapeutic and prophylactic options may be achievable over the next 5-10 years.

  20. Humidifier lung and humidifier fever.

    PubMed

    Baur, X; Behr, J; Dewair, M; Ehret, W; Fruhmann, G; Vogelmeier, C; Weiss, W; Zinkernagel, V

    1988-01-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate clinical diagnoses in symptomatic persons exposed to aerosols from humidifiers or air conditioners. In addition, we tried to identify the causative antigens. Results of clinical investigations, including inhalation challenge tests, demonstrated a typical hypersensitivity pneumonitis (humidifier lung) in 9 persons and isolated systemic symptoms without significant changes in lung function and chest x-rays (humidifier fever) in 3 persons. Microbiological studies revealed a variety of fungi and bacteria in the water supplies of humidifiers and air conditioners at patients' workplaces. The detection of 4 members of the order Sphaeropsidales (Deuteromycotina), not previously associated with humidifier-induced diseases, is of special interest. By means of an improved polystyrene tube-immunoradiometric assay, high concentrations of IgG antibodies against extracts prepared from water of patients' humidifier systems were found in all cases. In addition, patients demonstrated low concentrations of IgG antibodies against thermophilic Actinomycetes, and usually also against various fungi, such as Alternaria tenuis, Aureobasidium pullulans, Penicillium notatum, Aspergilli, and fungi of the order Sphaeropsidales, which were isolated and cultured from humidifier water supplies. The much higher concentrations of antibodies against humidifier/air conditioner water extracts seem to result from sensitization to a variety of antigens from different fungi and bacteria. For in vivo and in vitro diagnostic tests in humidifier-induced lung diseases, we especially recommend using extracts from water systems installed at the corresponding workplaces. PMID:3130530

  1. Humidifier lung and humidifier fever.

    PubMed

    Baur, X; Behr, J; Dewair, M; Ehret, W; Fruhmann, G; Vogelmeier, C; Weiss, W; Zinkernagel, V

    1988-12-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate clinical diagnoses in symptomatic persons exposed to aerosols from humidifiers or air conditioners. In addition, we tried to identify the causative antigens. Results of clinical investigations, including inhalation challenge tests, demonstrated a typical hypersensitivity pneumonitis (humidifier lung) in 9 persons and isolated systemic symptoms without significant changes in lung function and chest x-rays (humidifier fever) in 3 persons. Microbiological studies revealed a variety of fungi and bacteria in the water supplies of humidifiers and air conditioners at patients' workplaces. The detection of 4 members of the orderSphaeropsidales (Deuteromycotina), not previously associated with humidifier-induced diseases, is of special interest. By means of an improved polystyrene tube-immunoradiometric assay, high concentrations of IgG antibodies against extracts prepared from water of patients' humidifier systems were found in all cases. In addition, patients demonstrated low concentrations of IgG antibodies against thermophilicActinomycetes, and usually also against various fungi, such asAlternaria tenuis, Aureobasidium pullulans, Penicillium notatum, Aspergilli, and fungi of the orderSphaeropsidales, which were isolated and cultured from humidifier water supplies. The much higher concentrations of antibodies against humidifier/air conditioner water extracts seem to result from sensitization to a variety of antigens from different fungi and bacteria. For in vivo and in vitro diagnostic tests in humidifier-induced lung diseases, we especially recommend using extracts from water systems installed at the corresponding workplaces. PMID:27519372

  2. [Dengue fever in mainland France].

    PubMed

    Paty, M-C

    2014-11-01

    Dengue fever is the most widespread distributed vector borne viral disease. It is transmitted through the bites of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes. With the expansion of Aedes albopictus and increasing travel exchange, it is no longer limited to the tropical zone and transmission has been documented in temperate areas. In mainland France, where Aedes albopictus has been present and disseminating since 2004, 2 episodes of autochthonous transmission occurred in 2010 and in 2013. Control measures against dengue and chikungunya, which shares the same vector, are implemented every year since 2006, in the areas where the vector is present. They aim at preventing or limiting local transmission of these diseases. They are based on epidemiological and entomological surveillance and vector control measures. The diagnosis of dengue, and chikungunya should be considered in case of suggestive symptoms in patients returning from an area of virus circulation. It should also be considered for patients living or having stayed in areas of mainland France where Aedes albopictus is present, during its activity period from May 1 to November 30. The prevention and control system, including vector control measures and the notification of cases to the local health authority should be known, as the risk of autochthonous transmission increases every year.

  3. Fertilisation of the Southern Atlantic: Ephemeral River Valleys as a replenishing source of nutrient-enriched mineral aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dansie, Andrew; Wiggs, Giles; Thomas, David

    2016-04-01

    Oceanic dust deposition provides biologically important iron and macronutrients (Phosphorus (P) and Nitrogen-based (N) compounds) that contribute to phytoplankton growth, marine productivity and oceanic atmospheric CO2 uptake. Research on dust emission sources to date has largely focused on the northern hemisphere and on ephemeral lakes and pans. Our work considers the ephemeral river valleys of the west coast of Namibia as an important yet overlooked source of ocean-fertilizing dust. Dust plumes are frequently emitted from the river valleys by strong easterly winds during the Southern Hemisphere winter, when the upwelling of the Benguela Current is at its weakest. We present field data from dust emission source areas along the main river channels near the coastal termini of the Huab, Kuiseb and Tsauchab river valleys. Collected data include erodible surface sediment, wind-blown flux, and associated meteorological data. Extensive surface sediment sampling was also undertaken throughout the combined 34,250 km2 extent of each river valley catchment with samples collected from within the main river channels, the main branches of each river system, selected tributaries, and into the upper watersheds. Geochemical data show valley sediment and wind-blown flux material have high concentrations of bioavailable Fe, P and N, exceeding that measured at the major dry lake basin dust sources in southern Africa. The contribution of fertilising deposition material is enhanced by both the spatial proximity of the source areas to the ocean and enrichment of source material by ephemeral fluvial accumulation and desiccation. Results show that geographical factors within each watershed play a key role in the nutrient composition of the emitting fluvial deposits in the river valleys. Analysis explores potential relationships between land use, geology, climate and precipitation in the upper watersheds and their influence on bioavailability of Fe, P and N compounds in wind

  4. Field assessment of flood event suspended sediment transport from ephemeral streams in the tropical semi-arid catchments.

    PubMed

    Ondieki, C M

    1995-03-01

    An assessment of suspended sediment transport was carried out in a number of semiarid catchments during flood events in order to quantify the degradation rates. In order to quantify these, a systematic sampling procedure of the episodic flood events was proposed for representative catchments. The procedure allows for an integration over the whole run-off episode using both the rising and falling limbs of the run-off hydrograph to compute the sediment quantities for each individual flood event.Higher sediment concentrations occurred in the rising limb than those at the recession for any stage of flow. The maximum suspended sediment concentration was observed at the peak of the flood hydrograph. An integration of the sediment concentration over its duration gave the total sediment yield from the flood event. For the ephemeral channels, only a small number of flood events were observed over a three-year experimental period each with a duration of the order of 3-6 h. It is notable that high sediment loads were associated with high flow volumes which were effectively the result of the catchment characteristics and incident rainfall causing the flood events in the respective catchments. A large percentage of the annual sediment yield from a catchment is transported by the ephemeral streams during a small number of flood events. The correct determination of the total sediment yield from any of the flood events depends entirely on the accuracy of the measurements.The understanding of run-off and sediment loss for the representative catchments aims at assisting planning, management and control of water and land resources for sustainable development in the semi-arid parts of the tropics. The sediment rates reveal the degradation of catchments which have repercussions on the crop and pasture production and this has a bearing on the soil and water conservation programmes in the delicate ecological balance of the semi-arid areas. Further, these rates will determine the lifespan

  5. Changes in subtidal assemblages in a scenario of warming: proliferations of ephemeral benthic algae in the Canary Islands (eastern Atlantic Ocean).

    PubMed

    Sangil, Carlos; Sansón, Marta; Afonso-Carrillo, Julio; Herrera, Rogelio; Rodríguez, Adriana; Martín-García, Laura; Díaz-Villa, Tania

    2012-06-01

    The present work analysed the main changes in subtidal algal assemblages in the last decade in an oceanic archipelago (Canary Islands--eastern Atlantic Ocean). Changes result from increases in cover of ephemeral benthic algae, such as the non-native chlorophyte Pseudotetraspora marina and the native cyanophytes Blennothrix lyngbyacea, Schizothrix calcicola and Schizothrix mexicana. Ephemeral algae overgrow subtidal assemblages which are extensively dominated by Lobophora variegata, but competitively do not exclude other species. Increases in the abundance of species coincided with a warming of about 2 °C in surface seawater temperature (SST) linked to the weakening of the Cold Canary Current and the Northwestern African upwelling. Shifts in the distribution and cover of ephemeral species follow the SST gradient from warmer waters in the western islands to colder waters in the eastern ones. While in the warmest western islands, species have spread quickly colonizing all type of substrates in just a few years (2005-2008), the occurrence of ephemerals towards the coldest eastern islands is yet inconspicuous.

  6. Modeling the Contribution of Ephemeral Gully Erosion Under Different Soil Management in An Olive Orchard Microcatchment Using AnnAGNPS Model

    EPA Science Inventory

    In Spain, few studies have been carried out to explore the erosion caused by processes other than interrill and rill erosion, such as gully and ephemeral gully erosion, especially because most of the available studies have evaluated the erosion at plot scale. A study about the en...

  7. Estimating average dissolved-solids yield from basins drained by ephemeral and intermittent streams, Green River basin, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeLong, L.L.; Wells, D.K.

    1988-01-01

    A method was developed to determine the average dissolved-solids yield contributed by small basins characterized by ephemeral and intermittent streams in the Green River basin in Wyoming. The method is different from that commonly used for perennial streams. Estimates of dissolved-solids discharge at eight water quality sampling stations operated by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Bureau of Land Management range from less than 2 to 95 tons/day. The dissolved-solids yield upstream from the sampling stations ranges from 0.023 to 0.107 tons/day/sq mi. However, estimates of dissolved solids yield contributed by drainage areas between paired stations on Bitter, Salt Wells, Little Muddy, and Muddy creeks, based on dissolved-solids discharge versus drainage area, range only from 0.081 to 0.092 tons/day/sq mi. (USGS)

  8. Use of the continuous slope-area method to estimate runoff in a network of ephemeral channels, southeast Arizona, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, Anne M.; Callegary, James B.; Smith, Christopher F.; Gupta, Hoshin V.; Leenhouts, James M.; Fritzinger, Robert A.

    2012-11-01

    SummaryThe continuous slope-area (CSA) method is an innovative gaging method for indirect computation of complete-event discharge hydrographs that can be applied when direct measurement methods are unsafe, impractical, or impossible to apply. This paper reports on use of the method to produce event-specific discharge hydrographs in a network of sand-bedded ephemeral stream channels in southeast Arizona, USA, for water year 2008. The method provided satisfactory discharge estimates for flows that span channel banks, and for moderate to large flows, with about 10-16% uncertainty, respectively for total flow volume and peak flow, as compared to results obtained with an alternate method. Our results also suggest that the CSA method may be useful for estimating runoff of small flows, and during recessions, but with increased uncertainty.

  9. Use of the continuous slope-area method to estimate runoff in a network of ephemeral channels, southeast Arizona, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stewart, Anne M.; Callegary, James B.; Smith, Christopher F.; Gupta, Hoshin V.; Leenhouts, James M.; Fritzinger, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    The continuous slope-area (CSA) method is an innovative gaging method for indirect computation of complete-event discharge hydrographs that can be applied when direct measurement methods are unsafe, impractical, or impossible to apply. This paper reports on use of the method to produce event-specific discharge hydrographs in a network of sand-bedded ephemeral stream channels in southeast Arizona, USA, for water year 2008. The method provided satisfactory discharge estimates for flows that span channel banks, and for moderate to large flows, with about 10–16% uncertainty, respectively for total flow volume and peak flow, as compared to results obtained with an alternate method. Our results also suggest that the CSA method may be useful for estimating runoff of small flows, and during recessions, but with increased uncertainty.

  10. Acute Q fever in southern Taiwan: atypical manifestations of hyperbilirubinemia and prolonged fever.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ko; Lee, Nan-Yao; Chen, Yen-Hsu; Lee, Hsin-Chun; Lu, Po-Liang; Chang, Chia-Ming; Wu, Chi-Jung; Chen, Tun-Chieh; Hsieh, Hsiao-Chen; Ko, Wen-Chien

    2008-02-01

    The clinical information of acute Q fever in Taiwan was limited. A clinical study of 109 adults with serologically documented acute Q fever in the past decade (1994-2005) at 3 referral hospitals in southern Taiwan was reported. Their clinical manifestations, laboratory findings, and clinical outcomes were analyzed. Males predominated (98, 90%). There is a significant correlation between monthly average temperature and case numbers of acute Q fever (r = 0.74, P = 0.006). Fever (99%), chills (69%), and headache (45%) were the common symptoms, and relative bradycardia (44/60, 73 %) was often noted. Acute hepatitis, defined as either serum aspartate aminotransferase >or=60 IU/L or alanine aminotransferase >or=78 IU/L, was found in 88 (85%) cases, and more than one-third (31/87, 36%) had hyperbilirubinemia (serum total bilirubin >or=1.4 mg/dL) at initial presentation. The intervals between initiation of appropriate therapy to defervescence were longer in patients with hyperbilirubinemia than those without hyperbilirubinemia, irrespective of tetracycline or fluoroquinolone therapy. Of note, 8 (7.3%) cases experienced a prolonged period of fever (>28 days). In southern Taiwan, the predominant presentation of acute Q fever is acute febrile illness with hepatitis with or without jaundice. Acute Q fever should be added to the list of differential diagnoses of patients with fever, headache, relative bradycardia, elevated serum aminotransferase levels, or prolongation of activated partial thromboplastin time, irrespective of jaundice. PMID:17949935

  11. African swine fever virus serotype-specific proteins are significant protective antigens for African swine fever

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    African swine fever (ASF) is an emerging disease threat for the swine industry worldwide. No ASF vaccine is available and progress is hindered by lack of knowledge concerning the extent of African swine fever virus (ASFV) strain diversity and the viral antigens conferring type specific protective im...

  12. High pH microbial ecosystems in a newly discovered, ephemeral, serpentinizing fluid seep at Yanartaş (Chimera), Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Meyer-Dombard, D'Arcy R.; Woycheese, Kristin M.; Yargıçoğlu, Erin N.; Cardace, Dawn; Shock, Everett L.; Güleçal-Pektas, Yasemin; Temel, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Gas seeps emanating from Yanartaş (Chimera), Turkey, have been documented for thousands of years. Active serpentinization produces hydrogen and a range of carbon gases that may provide fuel for life. Here we report a newly discovered, ephemeral fluid seep emanating from a small gas vent at Yanartaş. Fluids and biofilms were sampled at the source and points downstream. We describe site conditions, and provide microbiological data in the form of enrichment cultures, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), carbon and nitrogen isotopic composition of solids, and PCR screens of nitrogen cycle genes. Source fluids are pH 11.95, with a Ca:Mg of ~200, and sediments under the ignited gas seep measure 60°C. Collectively, these data suggest the fluid is the product of active serpentinization at depth. Source sediments are primarily calcite and alteration products (chlorite and montmorillonite). Downstream, biofilms are mixed with montmorillonite. SEM shows biofilms distributed homogeneously with carbonates. Organic carbon accounts for 60% of the total carbon at the source, decreasing downstream to <15% as inorganic carbon precipitates. δ13C ratios of the organic carbon fraction of solids are depleted (−25 to −28‰) relative to the carbonates (−11 to −20‰). We conclude that heterotrophic processes are dominant throughout the surface ecosystem, and carbon fixation may be key down channel. δ15N ratios ~3‰, and absence of nifH in extracted DNA suggest that nitrogen fixation is not occurring in sediments. However, the presence of narG and nirS at most locations and in enrichments indicates genomic potential for nitrate and nitrite reduction. This small seep with shallow run-off is likely ephemeral, but abundant preserved microterracettes in the outflow and the surrounding area suggest it has been present for some time. This site and others like it present an opportunity for investigations of preserved deep biosphere signatures, and subsurface-surface interactions

  13. High pH microbial ecosystems in a newly discovered, ephemeral, serpentinizing fluid seep at Yanartaş (Chimera), Turkey.

    PubMed

    Meyer-Dombard, D'Arcy R; Woycheese, Kristin M; Yargıçoğlu, Erin N; Cardace, Dawn; Shock, Everett L; Güleçal-Pektas, Yasemin; Temel, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    Gas seeps emanating from Yanartaş (Chimera), Turkey, have been documented for thousands of years. Active serpentinization produces hydrogen and a range of carbon gases that may provide fuel for life. Here we report a newly discovered, ephemeral fluid seep emanating from a small gas vent at Yanartaş. Fluids and biofilms were sampled at the source and points downstream. We describe site conditions, and provide microbiological data in the form of enrichment cultures, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), carbon and nitrogen isotopic composition of solids, and PCR screens of nitrogen cycle genes. Source fluids are pH 11.95, with a Ca:Mg of ~200, and sediments under the ignited gas seep measure 60°C. Collectively, these data suggest the fluid is the product of active serpentinization at depth. Source sediments are primarily calcite and alteration products (chlorite and montmorillonite). Downstream, biofilms are mixed with montmorillonite. SEM shows biofilms distributed homogeneously with carbonates. Organic carbon accounts for 60% of the total carbon at the source, decreasing downstream to <15% as inorganic carbon precipitates. δ(13)C ratios of the organic carbon fraction of solids are depleted (-25 to -28‰) relative to the carbonates (-11 to -20‰). We conclude that heterotrophic processes are dominant throughout the surface ecosystem, and carbon fixation may be key down channel. δ(15)N ratios ~3‰, and absence of nifH in extracted DNA suggest that nitrogen fixation is not occurring in sediments. However, the presence of narG and nirS at most locations and in enrichments indicates genomic potential for nitrate and nitrite reduction. This small seep with shallow run-off is likely ephemeral, but abundant preserved microterracettes in the outflow and the surrounding area suggest it has been present for some time. This site and others like it present an opportunity for investigations of preserved deep biosphere signatures, and subsurface-surface interactions. PMID

  14. Rapid estimation of recharge potential in ephemeral-stream channels using electromagnetic methods, and measurements of channel and vegetation characteristics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Callegary, J.B.; Leenhouts, J.M.; Paretti, N.V.; Jones, C.A.

    2007-01-01

    To classify recharge potential (RCP) in ephemeral-stream channels, a method was developed that incorporates information about channel geometry, vegetation characteristics, and bed-sediment apparent electrical conductivity (??a). Recharge potential is not independently measurable, but is instead formulated as a site-specific, qualitative parameter. We used data from 259 transects across two ephemeral-stream channels near Sierra Vista, Arizona, a location with a semiarid climate. Seven data types were collected: ??a averaged over two depth intervals (0-3 m, and 0-6 m), channel incision depth and width, diameter-at-breast-height of the largest tree, woody-plant and grass density. A two-tiered system was used to classify a transect's RCP. In the first tier, transects were categorized by estimates of near-surface-sediment hydraulic permeability as low, moderate, or high using measurements of 0-3 m-depth ??a. Each of these categories was subdivided into low, medium, or high RCP classes using the remaining six data types, thus yielding a total of nine RCP designations. Six sites in the study area were used to compare RCP and ??a with previously measured surrogates for hydraulic permeability. Borehole-averaged percent fines showed a moderate correlation with both shallow and deep ??a measurements, however, correlation of point measurements of saturated hydraulic conductivity, percent fines, and cylinder infiltrometer measurements with ??a and RCP was generally poor. The poor correlation was probably caused by the relatively large measurement volume and spatial averaging of ??a compared with the spatially-limited point measurements. Because of the comparatively large spatial extent of measurement transects and variety of data types collected, RCP estimates can give a more complete picture of the major factors affecting recharge at a site than is possible through point or borehole-averaged estimates of hydraulic permeability alone. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Dengue haemorrhagic fever in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Sumarmo

    1987-09-01

    Dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) was first recognized in Indonesia in the cities of Jakarta and Surabaya in 1968, 15 years after its recognition in the Philippines. During the 1968 outbreak, a total of 58 clinical cases with 24 deaths were reported. The number of reported cases since then has increased sharply, with the highest number of cases recorded in the years 1973 (10, 189 cases), 1983 (13,668 cases), and 1985 (13,588 cases). Outbreaks of the disease have spread to involve most of the major urban areas, as well as some of the rural areas. In 1985, the disease had spread to 26 of 27 Provinces and 160 of 300 regencies or municipalities. At present, the disease is endemic in many large cities and small towns. Interestingly, DHF has not been reported in some cities, even though dengue virus transmission rates in those cities are high. The epidemic pattern of DHF for the country as a whole has become irregular. Since 1982, the intensity and spread of DHF has created an increasing public health problem in Indonesia, particularly in Java where 60% of the total population of the country resides. Java contributed about 71% of all cases occurring in the country in 1982, 84% in 1983, and 91% in 1984. The peak monthly incidence of DHF was frequently reported during October through April, months which coincide with the rainy season. The morbidity rate for Indonesia, estimated from reported cases over five years (1981-1985), ranged between 3.39 to 8.65 per 100,000 population.

  16. Malignant catarrhal fever: a review.

    PubMed

    Russell, George C; Stewart, James P; Haig, David M

    2009-03-01

    Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) is a fatal lymphoproliferative disease of cattle and other ungulates caused by the ruminant gamma-herpesviruses alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 (AlHV-1) and ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2). These viruses cause inapparent infection in their reservoir hosts (wildebeest for AlHV-1 and sheep for OvHV-2), but fatal lymphoproliferative disease when they infect MCF-susceptible hosts, including cattle, deer, bison, water buffalo and pigs. MCF is an important disease wherever reservoir and MCF-susceptible species mix and currently is a particular problem in Bali cattle in Indonesia, bison in the USA and in pastoralist cattle herds in Eastern and Southern Africa. MCF is characterised by the accumulation of lymphocytes (predominantly CD8(+) T lymphocytes) in a variety of organs, often associated with tissue necrosis. Only a small proportion of these lymphocytes appear to contain virus, although recent results with virus gene-specific probes indicate that more infected cells may be present than previously thought. The tissue damage in MCF is hypothesised to be caused by the indiscriminate activity of MHC-unrestricted cytotoxic T/natural killer cells. The pathogenesis of MCF and the virus life cycle are poorly understood and, currently, there is no effective disease control. Recent sequencing of the OvHV-2 genome and construction of an AlHV-1 bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) are facilitating studies to understand the pathogenesis of this extraordinary disease. Furthermore, new and improved methods of disease diagnosis have been developed and promising vaccine strategies are being tested. The next few years are likely to be exciting and productive for MCF research.

  17. Yellow fever vaccination in the Americas.

    PubMed

    1984-01-01

    Outbreaks of yellow fever in recent years in the Americas have prompted concern about the possible urbanization of jungle fever. Vaccination, using the 17D strain of yellow fever virus, provides an effective, practical method of large scale protection against the disease. Because yellow fever can reappear in certain areas after a 2-year dormancy period, some countries maintain routine vaccination programs in areas where jungle yellow fever is endemic. The size of the endemic area (approximately half of South America), transportation and communication difficulties, and the inability to ensure a reliable cold chain are problems facing these programs. In addition, the problem of reaching dispersed and isolated populations has been addressed by the use of mobile teams, radio monitoring, and educational methods. During yellow fever outbreaks, many countries institute massive vaccination campaigns, targeted at temporary workers and migrants. Because epidemics in South America may involve extensive areas, these campaigns may not effectively address the problem. The ped-o-jet injector method, used in Brazil and Colombia, should be used in outbreak situations, as it is effective for large-scale vaccination. Vaccine by needle, suggested for maintenance programs, should be administered to those above 1 year of age. An efficient monitoring method to avoid revaccination, and to assess immunity, should be developed. The 17D strain produces seroconversion in 95% of recipients, and most is prepared in Brazil and Colombia. But, problems with storage methods, instability in seed lots, and difficulties in large-scale production were identified in 1981 by the Pan American Health Organization and WHO. The group recommended modernization of current production techniques and further research to develop a vaccine that could be produced in cell cultures. Brazil and Colombia have acted on these recommendations, modernizing vaccine production and researching thermostabilizing media for

  18. Role of fever in infection: has induced fever any therapeutic potential in HIV infection?

    PubMed Central

    Morton, R S; Rashid, S

    1997-01-01

    Ancient societies had no rational understanding of fever. The Greeks were the first to recognise that it may be part of nature's method of effecting cure in some diseases. How best to assist nature went through many trials and errors. Appreciation of the prognostic value of fever and how it may be controlled was slow to appear. That there was a place in the therapeutic arsenal for induced fever came only with the 20th century. Finding a suitable, safe, and satisfactory means came slowly. The curative power of well controlled and reproducible levels of fever was proved by the arrest of one deadly and incurable complication of a sexually transmitted disease in the first half of this century. The purpose of this review is to promote discussion and, hopefully, well ordered laboratory and clinical trials aimed at learning whether or not induced fevers have a place in the care of patients with HIV/AIDS. Images PMID:9306904

  19. Not just a spring fever... Information and advice to help families with hay fever sufferers.

    PubMed

    Emberlin, Jean; Bartle, Janette; Bryant, Celia

    2011-01-01

    Hay fever is an allergy to pollen or spores presenting as an allergic inflammatory response in all mucous membranes of the upper airway. The UK has one of the highest rates (it's estimated one in four of us have hay fever) and symptoms are often trivialised, even though the socio-economic and health costs are huge. If left treated, for example, a hay fever sufferer risks developing asthma. Also paediatric allergists now consider the combination of eczema and hay fever to be a significant marker, indicating an atopic child's propensity to develop more serious allergic disease. Unfortunately childhood hay fever is often poorly treated, but a combination of sensible allergen avoidance measures and appropriate medication or treatments is usually sufficient to control symptoms.

  20. Context dependency and generality of fever in insects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stahlschmidt, Z. R.; Adamo, S. A.

    2013-07-01

    Fever can reduce mortality in infected animals. Yet, despite its fitness-enhancing qualities, fever often varies among animals. We used several approaches to examine this variation in insects. Texas field crickets ( Gryllus texensis) exhibited a modest fever (1 °C increase in preferred body temperature, T pref) after injection of prostaglandin, which putatively mediates fever in both vertebrates and invertebrates, but they did not exhibit fever during chronic exposure to heat-killed bacteria. Further, chronic food limitation and mating status did not affect T pref or the expression of behavioural fever, suggesting limited context dependency of fever in G. texensis. Our meta-analysis of behavioural fever studies indicated that behavioural fever occurs in many insects, but it is not ubiquitous. Thus, both empirical and meta-analytical results suggest that the fever response in insects `is widespread, although certainly not inevitable' (Moore 2002). We highlight the need for future work focusing on standardizing an experimental protocol to measure behavioural fever, understanding the specific mechanism(s) underlying fever in insects, and examining whether ecological or physiological costs often outweigh the benefits of fever and can explain the sporadic nature of fever in insects.

  1. Ecological association between scarlet fever and asthma.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Mario H

    2006-02-01

    One plausible explanation for the worldwide epidemic increase of asthma prevalence is the hygiene hypothesis, which suggests that better control of infections shifts the immune response toward an allergic phenotype. However, studies demonstrating an inverse association between asthma and infectious diseases are scarce and possess conflicting results. To explore the relationship between asthma and scarlet fever, an ecological analysis of their national trends was carried out. Association of both diseases in their annual (1996-2003), seasonal (by month) and geographic (by state) trends was evaluated using the Spearman's correlation coefficient (r(S)). Results showed a strong inverse association between asthma and scarlet fever in all settings. Thus, annual incidence rates of both diseases showed an r(S)=-0.93 (P=0.0009). Seasonal patterns showed a higher proportion of new asthma cases from September to January, while the number of scarlet fever cases increased from March to June (r(S)=-0.84, P=0.0006, 1-month lag). Among the 32 Mexican states, the higher the incidence of scarlet fever the lower the incidence of asthma (r(S)=-0.47, P=0.007). These results suggest that Streptococcus pyogenes, the causative agent of scarlet fever, might be one of the major protagonists of the hygiene hypothesis, a possibility deserving of further investigation.

  2. Patient with Recurrent Polyserositis (Familial Mediterranean Fever).

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Arun; Sharma, Samiksha

    2015-08-01

    Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is a hereditary autosomal recessive ,systemic, auto-inflammatory disorder characterized by sporadic, unpredictable attacks of fever and serosal inflammation. FMF is caused by mutations in MEFV, a gene located on the short arm of chromosome 16 (16p13) which encodes a protein 'Pyrin'. The disorder has been given various names including familial paroxysmal polyserositis, periodic peritonitis, recurrent polyserositis, benign paroxysmal peritonitis, and periodic disease or periodic fever, As the name indicates, FMF occurs within families and is much more common in individuals of Mediterranean descent than in persons of any other ethnicity. It has been described in several ethnic groups including Sephardic Jews, Armenians, Turks, North Africans, Arabs, Greeks, and Italians. However, the disease is not restricted to these groups and sporadic cases have been reported. Diagnosis is usually clinical and it classically presents with unprovoked, recurrent attacks of fever and painful polyserositis mainly affecting the peritoneum (most common), synovium, and pleura that usually (but not always) begin in childhood. We present a atypical case of FMF with type 1 Diabetes Mellitus and FMF who had no fever, Mediterranean ancestory or family history and discuss his clinical features,diagnosis and management. PMID:27604438

  3. Fever and antipyretic use in children.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Janice E; Farrar, Henry C

    2011-03-01

    Fever in a child is one of the most common clinical symptoms managed by pediatricians and other health care providers and a frequent cause of parental concern. Many parents administer antipyretics even when there is minimal or no fever, because they are concerned that the child must maintain a "normal" temperature. Fever, however, is not the primary illness but is a physiologic mechanism that has beneficial effects in fighting infection. There is no evidence that fever itself worsens the course of an illness or that it causes long-term neurologic complications. Thus, the primary goal of treating the febrile child should be to improve the child's overall comfort rather than focus on the normalization of body temperature. When counseling the parents or caregivers of a febrile child, the general well-being of the child, the importance of monitoring activity, observing for signs of serious illness, encouraging appropriate fluid intake, and the safe storage of antipyretics should be emphasized. Current evidence suggests that there is no substantial difference in the safety and effectiveness of acetaminophen and ibuprofen in the care of a generally healthy child with fever. There is evidence that combining these 2 products is more effective than the use of a single agent alone; however, there are concerns that combined treatment may be more complicated and contribute to the unsafe use of these drugs. Pediatricians should also promote patient safety by advocating for simplified formulations, dosing instructions, and dosing devices.

  4. Animal Models for Viral Hemorrhagic Fever.

    PubMed

    Falzarano, Darryl; Bente, Dennis A

    2014-04-01

    Viral hemorrhagic fever can be caused by one of a diverse group of viruses that come from four different families of RNA viruses. Disease severity can vary from mild self-limiting febrile illness to severe disease characterized by high fever, high-level viremia, increased vascular permeability that can progress to shock, multi-organ failure, and death. Despite the urgent need, effective treatments and preventative vaccines are currently lacking for the majority of these viruses. A number of factors preclude the effective study of these diseases in humans including the high virulence of the agents involved, the sporadic nature of outbreaks of these viruses which are typically in geographically isolated areas with underserviced diagnostic capabilities, and the requirements for high level bio-containment. As a result, animal models that accurately mimic human disease are essential for advancing our understanding of the pathogenesis of viral hemorrhagic fevers. Moreover, animal models for viral hemorrhagic fevers are necessary to test vaccines and therapeutic intervention strategies. Here, we present an overview of the animal models that have been established for each of the hemorrhagic fever viruses and identify which aspects of human disease are modeled. Furthermore, we discuss how experimental design considerations, such as choice of species and virus strain as well as route and dose of inoculation, have an influence on animal model development. We also bring attention to some of the pitfalls that need to be avoided when extrapolating results from animal models. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  5. Bichat guidelines for the clinical management of haemorrhagic fever viruses and bioterrorism-related haemorrhagic fever viruses.

    PubMed

    Bossi, Philippe; Tegnell, Anders; Baka, Agoritsa; Van Loock, Frank; Hendriks, Jan; Werner, Albrecht; Maidhof, Heinrich; Gouvras, Georgios

    2004-12-15

    Haemorrhagic fever viruses (HFVs) are a diverse group of viruses that cause a clinical disease associated with fever and bleeding disorder. HFVs that are associated with a potential biological threat are Ebola and Marburg viruses (Filoviridae), Lassa fever and New World arenaviruses (Machupo, Junin, Guanarito and Sabia viruses) (Arenaviridae), Rift Valley fever (Bunyaviridae) and yellow fever, Omsk haemorrhagic fever, and Kyanasur Forest disease (Flaviviridae). In terms of biological warfare concerning dengue, Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever and Hantaviruses, there is not sufficient knowledge to include them as a major biological threat. Dengue virus is the only one of these that cannot be transmitted via aerosol. Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever and the agents of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome appear difficult to weaponise. Ribavirin is recommended for the treatment and the prophylaxis of the arenaviruses and the bunyaviruses, but is not effective for the other families. All patients must be isolated and receive intensive supportive therapy.

  6. Optimal Repellent Usage to Combat Dengue Fever.

    PubMed

    Dorsett, Chasity; Oh, Hyunju; Paulemond, Marie Laura; Rychtář, Jan

    2016-05-01

    Dengue fever is one of the most important vector-borne diseases. It is transmitted by Aedes Stegomyia aegypti, and one of the most effective strategies to combat the disease is the reduction of exposure to bites of these mosquitoes. In this paper, we present a game-theoretical model in which individuals choose their own level of protection against mosquito bites in order to maximize their own benefits, effectively balancing the cost of protection and the risk of contracting the dengue fever. We find that even when the usage of protection is strictly voluntary, as soon as the cost of protection is about 10,000 times less than the cost of contracting dengue fever, the optimal level of protection will be within 5 % of the level needed for herd immunity.

  7. Optimal Repellent Usage to Combat Dengue Fever.

    PubMed

    Dorsett, Chasity; Oh, Hyunju; Paulemond, Marie Laura; Rychtář, Jan

    2016-05-01

    Dengue fever is one of the most important vector-borne diseases. It is transmitted by Aedes Stegomyia aegypti, and one of the most effective strategies to combat the disease is the reduction of exposure to bites of these mosquitoes. In this paper, we present a game-theoretical model in which individuals choose their own level of protection against mosquito bites in order to maximize their own benefits, effectively balancing the cost of protection and the risk of contracting the dengue fever. We find that even when the usage of protection is strictly voluntary, as soon as the cost of protection is about 10,000 times less than the cost of contracting dengue fever, the optimal level of protection will be within 5 % of the level needed for herd immunity. PMID:27142427

  8. Lost Trust: A Yellow Fever Patient Response

    PubMed Central

    Runge, John S.

    2013-01-01

    In the 19th century, yellow fever thrived in the tropical, urban trade centers along the American Gulf Coast. Industrializing and populated, New Orleans and Memphis made excellent habitats for the yellow fever-carrying Aedes aegypti mosquitoes and the virulence they imparted on their victims. Known for its jaundice and black, blood-filled vomit, the malady terrorized the region for decades, sometimes claiming tens of thousands of lives during the near annual summertime outbreaks. In response to the failing medical community, a small, pronounced population of sick and healthy laypeople openly criticized the efforts to rid the Gulf region of yellow jack. Utilizing newspapers and cartoons to vocalize their opinions, these critics doubted and mocked the medical community, contributing to the regional and seasonal dilemma yellow fever posed for the American South. These sentient expressions prove to be an early example of patient distrust toward caregivers, a current problem in clinical heath care. PMID:24348220

  9. Fatal Spotted Fever Rickettsiosis, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Dumler, J. Stephen; Mafra, Cláudio Lísias; Calic, Simone Berger; Chamone, Chequer Buffe; Filho, Gracco Cesarino; Olano, Juan Pablo; Walker, David H.

    2003-01-01

    The emergence and reemergence of a serious infectious disease are often associated with a high case-fatality rate because of misdiagnosis and inappropriate or delayed treatment. The current reemergence of spotted fever rickettsiosis caused by Rickettsia rickettsii in Brazil has resulted in a high proportion of fatal cases. We describe two familial clusters of Brazilian spotted fever in the state of Minas Gerais, involving six children 9 months to 15 years of age; five died. Immunohistochemical investigation of tissues obtained at necropsy of a child in each location, Novo Cruzeiro and Coronel Fabriciano municipalities, established the diagnosis by demonstration of disseminated endothelial infection with spotted fever group rickettsiae. The diagnosis in the two fatal cases from Coronel Fabriciano and the surviving patient from Novo Cruzeiro was further supported by immunofluorescence serologic tests. PMID:14718082

  10. Quinolone and Cephalosporin Resistance in Enteric Fever

    PubMed Central

    Capoor, Malini Rajinder; Nair, Deepthi

    2010-01-01

    Enteric fever is a major public health problem in developing countries. Ciprofloxacin resistance has now become a norm in the Indian subcontinent. Novel molecular substitutions may become frequent in future owing to selective pressures exerted by the irrational use of ciprofloxacin in human and veterinary therapeutics, in a population endemic with nalidixic acid-resistant strains. The therapeutics of ciprofloxacin-resistant enteric fever narrows down to third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins, azithromycin, tigecycline and penems. The first-line antimicrobials ampicillin, chloramphenicol and co-trimoxazole need to be rolled back. Antimicrobial surveillance coupled with molecular analysis of fluoroquinolone resistance is warranted for reconfirming novel and established molecular patterns for therapeutic reappraisal and for novel-drug targets. This review explores the antimicrobial resistance and its molecular mechanisms, as well as novel drugs in the therapy of enteric fever. PMID:20927288

  11. Acute Rheumatic Fever in Los Angeles County

    PubMed Central

    Propp, Richard P.

    1965-01-01

    There was a general downward trend in the reported incidence of acute rheumatic fever in Los Angeles County during the years 1954-1963. A survey of hospital records in five large hospitals in 1962 revealed 100 cases diagnosed, 39 of which were reported. Diagnoses in the charts reviewed conformed to the Modified Jones Criteria. Most of the patients were born in Los Angeles County. Mortality rates for acute rheumatic fever during the same period were greatly in excess of those expected from the reported morbidity. The mean crude mortality rate for the period concerned was higher than for New York City, although not as high as for Boston. Acute rheumatic fever appears to constitute a health problem in need of review in Los Angeles County. PMID:5834286

  12. A curious case of Fever and hyperpigmentation.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarti, Subrata

    2015-01-01

    Megaloblastic anaemia as a cause of pyrexia is a rare entity. Similarly, hyperpigmentation of skin has rarely been reported as the presenting manifestation of folate and/or vitamin B12 deficiency. The author reports the case of a patient who presented with fever and hyperpigmentation and was diagnosed to have megaloblastic anaemia secondary to vitamin B12 and folate deficiency after other infective, inflammatory/autoimmune, endocrine causes of pyrexia and hyperpigmentation were excluded by appropriate investigations. The patient responded remarkably well to the treatment with vitamin B12 and folic acid supplementation. Although presentation of megaloblastic anaemia as isolated fever or hyperpigmentation are noted in literature, simultaneous fever and hyperpigmentation as its initial presentation is exceedingly rare. PMID:25738019

  13. [Scarlet fever in Poland in 2001].

    PubMed

    Czarkowski, Mirosław P

    2003-01-01

    In 2001, as compared to 2000, a 29.5% decrease in the number of scarlet fever cases was noted. The incidence was 15.2 per 100,000 population and was one of the lowest since the World War I. In particular voivodeships incidence ranged from 5.7 to 28.8 per 100,000 population. In urban areas the incidence was 32.3% higher than in rural ones. Of all registered cases 91.9% were children under 15 years of age. The age distribution of scarlet fever cases in 2001 was similar to the distribution observed in the last decade. The highest incidence was noted among children aged 6 and 5,169.1 and 155.1 per 100,000 respectively. About 2.1% of all cases were hospitalised. No scarlet fever deaths were noted.

  14. [Scarlet fever in Poland in 2000].

    PubMed

    Czarkowski, Mirosław P

    2002-01-01

    In 2000, as compared with 1999, a 14% decrease in the number of scarlet fever cases was noted. The incidence was 21.6 per 100,000 population and was one of the lowest since World War II. In particular voivodeships incidence ranged from 9.4 to 34.3 per 100,000 population. In urban areas the incidence was 71.3% higher than in rural ones. Of all registered cases 95.3% were children under 15 years of age. The age distribution of scarlet fever cases in 2000 was similar to the distribution observed in the last decade. The highest incidence was noted among children aged 6 and 5, respectively 257.0 and 224.4 per 100,000. About 2.1% of all cases were hospitalized. No scarlet fever deaths were noted.

  15. Immunological Features Underlying Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers

    PubMed Central

    Messaoudi, Ilhem; Basler, Christopher F.

    2015-01-01

    Several enveloped RNA viruses of the arenavirus, bunyavirus, filovirus and flavivirus families are associated with a syndrome known as viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF). VHF is characterized by fever, vascular leakage, coagulation defects and multi organ system failure. VHF is currently viewed as a disease precipitated by viral suppression of innate immunity, which promotes systemic virus replication and excessive proinflammatory cytokine responses that trigger the manifestations of severe disease. However, the mechanisms by which immune dysregulation contributes to disease remain poorly understood. Infection of nonhuman primates closely recapitulates human VHF, notably Ebola and yellow fever, thereby providing excellent models to better define the immunological basis for this syndrome. Here we review the current state of our knowledge and suggest future directions that will better define the immunological mechanisms underlying VHF. PMID:26163194

  16. Global trends in typhoid and paratyphoid fever

    PubMed Central

    Crump, John A.; Mintz, Eric D.

    2009-01-01

    Typhoid and paratyphoid fever continue to be important causes of illness and death, particularly among children and adolescents in south-central and southeast Asia where enteric fever is associated with poor sanitation and unsafe food and water. High quality incidence data from Asia are underpinning efforts to expand access to typhoid vaccines. Efforts are underway to develop vaccines that are immunogenic in infants following a single dose and that can be produced locally in endemic countries. The growing importance of S. Paratyphi A in Asia is concerning. Antimicrobial resistance has sequentially emerged to traditional first-line drugs, fluoroquinolones, and now to third generation cephalosporins, posing patient management challenges. Azithromycin has proven to be effective alternatives for uncomplicated typhoid fever. The availability of full genome sequences for S. Typhi and S. Paratyphi A confirms their place as monomorphic, human-adapted pathogens vulnerable to control measures if international efforts can be redoubled. PMID:20014951

  17. Incubation periods of Yellow fever virus.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Michael A; Arana-Vizcarrondo, Neysarí; Biggerstaff, Brad J; Staples, J Erin

    2010-07-01

    Yellow fever virus is a global health threat due to its endemicity in parts of Africa and South America where human infections occur in residents and travelers. To understand yellow fever dynamics, it is critical to characterize the incubation periods of the virus in vector mosquitoes and humans. Here, we compare four statistical models of the yellow fever incubation periods fitted with historical data. The extrinsic incubation period in the urban vector Aedes aegypti was best characterized with a temperature-dependent Weibull model with a median of 10 days at 25 degrees C (middle 95% = 2.0-37 days). The intrinsic incubation period, fitted with a log-normal model, had a median of 4.3 days (middle 95% = 2.3-8.6 days). These estimates and their associated statistical models provide a quantitative basis to assist in exposure assessments, model potential outbreaks, and evaluate the effectiveness of public health interventions.

  18. [Dengue fever during pregnancy. Cases report].

    PubMed

    Rosado León, Rocio; Muñoz Rodríguez, Mario R; Soler Huerta, Elizabeth; Parissi Crivelli, Aurora; Méndez Machado, Gustavo F

    2007-11-01

    Dengue is known as an endemic disease of tropical and subtropical regions. It was considered a disease very frequent on kids, but recently an increase was reported on adult people. Some of these cases were related to pregnant women, for that reason, we decided to check eight cases, including just the mothers who presented dengue virus infection through ELISA IgM. IgG and ELISA IgM studies. Five products were determined between 3 and 9-born-babies. Eight cases of dengue were analyzed during pregnancy, three cases of fever dengue and five cases of hemorrhagic dengue; main complications detected were threat of abortion, and premature labour, postsurgical bleeding with desiccant haematoma of uterine artery, oligohydramnios, as well as pleural effusion, two of the neonates were classified as septic for presenting fever. In no case, IgG or IgM for fever dengue was detected in neonates.

  19. Imported Dengue Fever: an important reemerging disease.

    PubMed

    Courtney, Malachi; Shetty, Avinash K

    2009-11-01

    Fever in a returned traveler from the tropics often poses a diagnostic challenge to the emergency department physician because of the potential for serious morbidity and mortality associated with certain infections such as falciparum malaria and dengue. We report a case of imported dengue fever in a 15-year-old adolescent boy acquired during a recent travel to Guatemala. Dengue fever is a mosquito-transmitted viral infection of global importance. The majority of US residents with dengue become infected during travel to tropical areas. In recent years, dengue has remerged in US tropical and subtropical areas. The disease is underreported in the United States along the Mexican border. The epidemiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, control, and prevention of this important global reemerging infectious disease are reviewed. Clinicians should include dengue in the differential diagnosis of febrile illness in children who have recently returned from dengue endemic areas.

  20. Fever: suppress or let it ride?

    PubMed

    Ray, Juliet J; Schulman, Carl I

    2015-12-01

    While our ability to detect and manage fever has evolved since its conceptualization in the 5(th) century BC, controversy remains over the best evidence-based practices regarding if and when to treat this physiologic derangement in the critically ill. There are two basic fields of thought: (I) fever should be suppressed because its metabolic costs outweigh its potential physiologic benefit in an already stressed host; vs. (II) fever is a protective adaptive response that should be allowed to run its course under most circumstances. The latter approach, sometime referred to as the "let it ride" philosophy, has been supported by several recent randomized controlled trials like that of Young et al. [2015], which are challenging earlier observational studies and may be pushing the pendulum away from the Pavlovian treatment response. PMID:26793378

  1. Effect of (social) media on the political figure fever model: Jokowi-fever model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yong, Benny; Samat, Nor Azah

    2016-02-01

    In recent years, political figures begin to utilize social media as one of alternative to engage in communication with their supporters. Publics referred to Jokowi, one of the candidates in Indonesia presidential election in 2014, as the first politician in Indonesia to truly understand the power of social media. Social media is very important in shaping public opinion. In this paper, effect of social media on the Jokowi-fever model in a closed population will be discussed. Supporter population is divided into three class sub-population, i.e susceptible supporters, Jokowi infected supporters, and recovered supporters. For case no positive media, there are two equilibrium points; the Jokowi-fever free equilibrium point in which it locally stable if basic reproductive ratio less than one and the Jokowi-fever endemic equilibrium point in which it locally stable if basic reproductive ratio greater than one. For case no negative media, there is only the Jokowi-fever endemic equilibrium point in which it locally stable if the condition is satisfied. Generally, for case positive media proportion is positive, there is no Jokowi-fever free equilibrium point. The numerical result shows that social media gives significantly effect on Jokowi-fever model, a sharp increase or a sharp decrease in the number of Jokowi infected supporters. It is also shown that the boredom rate is one of the sensitive parameters in the Jokowi-fever model; it affects the number of Jokowi infected supporters.

  2. Familial Mediterranean fever: An updated review

    PubMed Central

    Sarı, İsmail; Birlik, Merih; Kasifoğlu, Timuçin

    2014-01-01

    Familial Mediterranean Fever (FMF) is a hereditary autoinflammatory disorder characterised by acute attacks of fever and serosal inflammation. FMF primarily affects Jewish, Armenian, Turkish, and Arab populations. The disease is accompanied by a marked decrease in quality of life due to the effects of attacks and subclinical inflammation in the attack-free periods. Untreated or inadequately treated patients run the risk of amyloidosis, which is an important cause of morbidity and mortality. In this review, the current information available on FMF is summarised. PMID:27708867

  3. Milk Fever Control Principles: A Review

    PubMed Central

    2002-01-01

    Three main preventive principles against milk fever were evaluated in this literature review, and the efficacy of each principle was estimated from the results of controlled investigations. Oral calcium drenching around calving apparently has a mean efficacy of 50%–60% in terms of milk fever prevention as well as prevention of milk fever relapse after intravenous treatment with calcium solutions. However, some drenches have been shown to cause lesions in the forestomacs. When using the DCAD (dietary cation-anion difference) principle, feeding rations with a negative DCAD (measured as (Na + K) – (Cl + S)) significantly reduce the milk fever incidence. Calculating the relative risk (RR) of developing milk fever from controlled experiments results in a mean RR between 0.19 and 0.35 when rations with a negative versus positive DCAD are compared. The main drawback from the DCAD principle is a palatability problem. The principle of feeding rations low in calcium is highly efficient in milk fever prevention provided the calcium intake in the dry period is kept below 20 g per day. Calculating the relative risk (RR) of developing milk fever from controlled experiments results in a very low mean RR (between 0 and 0.20) (daily calcium intake below versus above 20 g/d). The main problem in implementing the low-Ca principle is difficulties in formulating rations sufficiently low in calcium when using commonly available feeds. The use of large doses of vitamin D metabolites and analogues for milk fever prevention is controversial. Due to toxicity problems and an almost total lack of recent studies on the subject this principle is not described in detail. A few management related issues were discussed briefly, and the following conclusions were made: It is important to supply the periparturient cow with sufficient magnesium to fulfil its needs, and to prevent the dry cows from being too fat. Available information on the influence of carbohydrate intake, and on the effect of

  4. Classical swine fever in China: a minireview.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yuzi; Li, Su; Sun, Yuan; Qiu, Hua-Ji

    2014-08-01

    Classical swine fever (CSF), caused by Classical swine fever virus (CSFV), is an OIE-listed, highly contagious, often fatal disease of swine worldwide. Currently, the disease is controlled by prophylactic vaccination in China and many other countries using the modified live vaccines derived from C-strain, which was developed in China in the mid-1950s. This minireview summarizes the epidemiology, diagnostic assays, control and challenges of CSF in China. Though CSF is essentially under control, complete eradication of CSF in China remains a challenging task and needs long-term, joint efforts of stakeholders.

  5. An epidemic of dengue fever in Wewak.

    PubMed

    Farrell, K T

    1978-06-01

    143 clinical cases of dengue fever were reported in Wewak between April and August 1976. 15 patients demonstrated a diagnostic rise in antibody titre for Group B arbovirus. Tests for complement-fixing antibody to dengue viruses did not indicate what type of dengue virus was responsible for the epidemic. Vector species Aedes aegypti and Aedes scutellaris were found before control measures were adopted but were not found four months later. The epidemiology of dengue fever is discussed and measures for prevention and control of epidemics are recommended.

  6. Dengue fever with encephalopathy in Australia.

    PubMed

    Row, D; Weinstein, P; Murray-Smith, S

    1996-03-01

    During an epidemic of dengue type 2 virus in the rural community of Charters Towers, North Queensland, Australia, in 1993, 210 cases presented to the local hospital with signs and symptoms of classic dengue fever. Two cases were noteworthy because of neurologic complications, which included drowsiness, short term memory loss, agitation, and seizure. The cases are presented in detail because they are the first cases of dengue-associated encephalopathy to be documented in Australia. An increasing number of cases of encephalopathy associated with classic dengue fever is being reported world wide, but the etiology of this clinical syndrome remains unknown.

  7. [Dengue fever in Russian tourists who have come from Thailand].

    PubMed

    Shestakova, I V; Iushchuk, N D; Akinfiev, I B; Popova, T I; Sergeeva, T V; Vdovina, E T

    2013-01-01

    The review analyzes the major epidemiological and clinical aspects of Dengue fever, by providing the clinical examples of using its imported cases. It gives algorithms for examining patients who have come from tropical countries with the fever of unknown origin. Based on the extensive data available in the literature and international guidelines, the authors present treatment algorithms for out- and inpatients with Dengue fever. Promising studies of vaccination against Dengue fever are analyzed.

  8. Evaluating recharge to an ephemeral dryland stream using a hydraulic model and water, chloride and isotope mass balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dogramaci, Shawan; Firmani, Giovanni; Hedley, Paul; Skrzypek, Grzegorz; Grierson, Pauline F.

    2015-02-01

    Dewatering associated with mining below water table to achieve dry mining conditions may exert significant pressure on water balance in terms of lowering the water table and change in the dynamics of interactions between surface water and groundwater. The discharge of surplus mine water into ephemeral streams may also affect the water balance, by elevating groundwater levels and altering the exchange rate between streams and underlying aquifers. However, it is unclear whether volumes and recharge processes are within the range of natural variability. Here, we present a case study of an ephemeral creek in the semi-arid Hamersley Basin of northwest Australia that has received continuous mine discharge for more than six years. We used a numerical model coupled with repeated measurements of water levels, chloride concentrations and the hydrogen and oxygen stable isotope composition (δ2H and δ18O) to estimate longitudinal evapotranspiration and recharge rates along a 27 km length of Weeli Wolli Creek. We found that chloride increased from 73 to 120 mg/L across this length, while δ18O increased from -8.2‰ to -7.00‰. Groundwater is directly connected to the creek for the first 13 km and recharge rates are negligible. Below this point, the creek flows over a highly permeable aquifer and water loss by recharge increases to a maximum rate of 4.4 mm/d, which accounts for ∼65% of the total water discharged to the creek. Evapotranspiration losses account for the remaining ∼35%. The calculated recharge from continuous flow due to surplus water discharge is similar to that measured for rainfall-driven flood events along the creek. Groundwater under the disconnected section of the creek is characterised by a much lower Cl concentration and more depleted δ18O value than mining discharge water but is similar to flood water generated by large episodic rainfall events. Our results suggest that the impact of recharge from continuous flow on the water balance of the creek

  9. A comparison of methane flux rates from the margins of a permanent wetland and an ephemeral wetland in southern Minnesota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, L. C.; Kannenberg, S.; Ludwig, S.; Rich, H.; Spawn, S.; Porterfield, J.; Schade, J. D.

    2012-12-01

    The degree of expansion and contraction of wetlands is likely to change as climate change alters drought and precipitation events. As wetland size becomes more dynamic, the extent and duration of inundation of soils on their margins will change. The amount of methane released from wetlands will also change since methanogens thrive in anoxic, saturated soils. It is critical to study the factors that influence methane emissions from wetlands because methane is 20 times more effective at trapping heat in the atmosphere than carbon dioxide. The objective of our research was to compare methane flux rates from the margins of a permanent wetland and an ephemeral wetland. We also assessed the impact of Reed Canary Grass (Phalaris arundinacea) on transport of methane from the soil to the atmosphere. Methane flux emissions were measured using portable gas flux chambers at Bakko Pond (a permanent wetland) and East Coyote Pond (an ephemeral wetland) on the St. Olaf College Natural Lands in southern Minnesota. At each wetland, we measured methane emissions from plots of clipped and unclipped Reed Canary Grass. We found no statistical difference between clipped and unclipped plots, suggesting that a diffusive gas transport system rather than a coupling of a diffusive and convective gas transport emits methane. We also found that the average rate of methane flux was higher at East Coyote Pond at both the wet Reed Canary Grass and dry Reed Canary Grass sites, when compared to the dry Reed Canary Grass site at Bakko Pond. Higher methane emission rates at East Coyote Pond is consistent with the characteristics of a wetland with a shallow bank where marginal soil is frequently inundated with water, creating a favorable anoxic environment for active methanogens. In contrast, Bakko Pond has a steep embankment, reducing soil saturation. We also found that soil moisture was strongly correlated with methane flux rates between the sites and over time within a site. Overall, our results

  10. Scarlet fever epidemic, Hong Kong, 2011.

    PubMed

    Luk, Emma Y Y; Lo, Janice Y C; Li, Amy Z L; Lau, Michael C K; Cheung, Terence K M; Wong, Alice Y M; Wong, Monica M H; Wong, Christine W; Chuang, Shuk-kwan; Tsang, Thomas

    2012-10-01

    More than 900 cases of scarlet fever were recorded in Hong Kong during January-July, 2011. Six cases were complicated by toxic shock syndrome, of which 2 were fatal. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns suggested a multiclonal epidemic; emm12 was the predominant circulating type. We recommend genetic testing of and antimicrobial resistance monitoring for this reportable disease.

  11. Dengue fever with unusual thalamic involvement.

    PubMed

    Mallick, Asim Kumar; Purkait, Radheshyam; Sinhamahapatra, Tapan Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Dengue is the most important mosquito-borne viral disease in the world and is caused by four distinct viruses (type 1 to 4) that are closely related antigenically. Infection by dengue virus may be asymptomatic or may lead to undifferentiated fever, dengue fever or dengue haemorrhagic fever. Recent observations indicate that the clinical profile of dengue is changing and the neurological complications are being reported more frequently. The neurological features includeheadache, seizures, neck stiffness, depressed sensorium, behavioural disorders, delirium, paralysis and cranial nerve palsies. Such neurological symptoms in dengue fever wereattributed to cerebral oedema, haemorrhage, haemoconcentration due to increasing vascular permeability, coagulopathy and release of toxic substances. Cerebral oedema, encephalitis-like changes (oedema and scattered focal lesions), intracranial haemorrhages as well as selective involvement of bilateral hippocampus in dengue infection have been reported previously on selective neuro-imaging but thalamic involvement is rare. We here report a case of a typical presentation of encephalopathy with left sided complete hemiplegia due to thalamic involvement in dengue infection.

  12. Rift Valley Fever, Mayotte, 2007–2008

    PubMed Central

    Giry, Claude; Gabrie, Philippe; Tarantola, Arnaud; Pettinelli, François; Collet, Louis; D’Ortenzio, Eric; Renault, Philippe; Pierre, Vincent

    2009-01-01

    After the 2006–2007 epidemic wave of Rift Valley fever (RVF) in East Africa and its circulation in the Comoros, laboratory case-finding of RVF was conducted in Mayotte from September 2007 through May 2008. Ten recent human RVF cases were detected, which confirms the indigenous transmission of RFV virus in Mayotte. PMID:19331733

  13. Population-level effects of suppressing fever

    PubMed Central

    Earn, David J. D.; Andrews, Paul W.; Bolker, Benjamin M.

    2014-01-01

    Fever is commonly attenuated with antipyretic medication as a means to treat unpleasant symptoms of infectious diseases. We highlight a potentially important negative effect of fever suppression that becomes evident at the population level: reducing fever may increase transmission of associated infections. A higher transmission rate implies that a larger proportion of the population will be infected, so widespread antipyretic drug use is likely to lead to more illness and death than would be expected in a population that was not exposed to antipyretic pharmacotherapies. We assembled the published data available for estimating the magnitudes of these individual effects for seasonal influenza. While the data are incomplete and heterogeneous, they suggest that, overall, fever suppression increases the expected number of influenza cases and deaths in the US: for pandemic influenza with reproduction number , the estimated increase is 1% (95% CI: 0.0–2.7%), whereas for seasonal influenza with , the estimated increase is 5% (95% CI: 0.2–12.1%). PMID:24452021

  14. [A case of Yellow fever in 1887].

    PubMed

    Hansen, Sven Erik

    2015-01-01

    A young Danish sailor died from yellow fever in Barbados in 1887. The Shipmaster's letter to the family with a description of the course of the disease, which has been preserved, is presented here together with a photo of the sailor and a painting of the Danish sailing-ship. PMID:27086445

  15. Malignant catarrhal fever: inching towards understanding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) is an often lethal infection of many species in the order Artiodactyla, caused by members of the MCF virus group within Gammaherpesvirinae. MCF is a worldwide problem and has a significant economic impact on highly disease-susceptible hosts, such as cattle, bison and ...

  16. Autochthonous dengue fever, Tokyo, Japan, 2014.

    PubMed

    Kutsuna, Satoshi; Kato, Yasuyuki; Moi, Meng Ling; Kotaki, Akira; Ota, Masayuki; Shinohara, Koh; Kobayashi, Tetsuro; Yamamoto, Kei; Fujiya, Yoshihiro; Mawatari, Momoko; Sato, Tastuya; Kunimatsu, Junwa; Takeshita, Nozomi; Hayakawa, Kayoko; Kanagawa, Shuzo; Takasaki, Tomohiko; Ohmagari, Norio

    2015-03-01

    After 70 years with no confirmed autochthonous cases of dengue fever in Japan, 19 cases were reported during August-September 2014. Dengue virus serotype 1 was detected in 18 patients. Phylogenetic analysis of the envelope protein genome sequence from 3 patients revealed 100% identity with the strain from the first patient (2014) in Japan.

  17. Diagnostic approaches for Rift Valley Fever

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Disease outbreaks caused by arthropod-borne animal viruses (arboviruses) resulting in significant livestock and economic losses world-wide appear to be increasing. Rift Valley fever (RVF) virus (RVFV) is an important arbovirus that causes lethal disease in cattle, camels, sheep and goats in Sub-Saha...

  18. [Metal fume fever, an almost forgotten disease].

    PubMed

    Yordanov, Y; Cantin, D; Le Guerroué, G; Pourriat, J-L

    2010-05-01

    Metal fume fever is an ancient and almost forgotten occupational disease found among welders. Diagnosis is made difficult by the frequency and the non-specific flue-like symptomatology. We present the cases of three patients admitted for developing the symptoms after being exposed to welding fumes. Treatment was symptom based. Severe cases have been described after exposure to military fumes. PMID:20378299

  19. Metal fume fever among galvanized welders.

    PubMed

    Wardhana; Datau, E A

    2014-07-01

    The metal fume fever (MFF) is an inhalation fever syndrome in welders of galvanized steel, who join and cut metal parts using flame or electric arc and other sources of heat. Inhalation of certain freshly formed metal oxides produced from welding process can cause MFF as an acute self-limiting flulike illness. The most common cause of MFF is the inhalation of zinc oxide (ZnO). The inhalation of ZnO particles can provoke a number of clinical responses of which accompanied by changes in composition of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, including early increase in pro-inflammatory cytokines, inflammatory marker, and recruitment of inflammatory cells in the lungs. The MFF is characterized by fever, cough, sputing, wheezing, chest tightness, fatique, chills, fever, myalgias, cough, dyspnea, leukocytosis with a left shift, thirst, metallic taste, and salivations. The diagnosis of MFF diagnosis is based on clinical finding and occupational history. The symptoms resolved spontaneously. The treatment of MFF is entirely symptomatic, no specific treatment is indicated for MFF. The mainstay of management of MFF is prevention of sub-sequent exposure to harmful metals. Including public and physician awareness of MFF may help to reduce the occurrence of the disease. PMID:25348190

  20. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... to the rash, the infection can cause fever, chills, muscle aches, vomiting, and nausea. Typically, RMSF is ... often 103°-105°F (39°-40°C) — with chills, muscle aches, and a severe headache. Eyes can ...

  1. Dengue and dengue haemorrhagic fever: Indian perspective.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, U C; Nagar, Rachna

    2008-11-01

    The relationship of this country with dengue has been long and intense. The ?rst recorded epidemic of clinically dengue-like illness occurred at Madras in 1780 and the dengue virus was isolated for the ?rst time almost simultaneously in Japan and Calcutta in 1943-1944. After the ?rst virologically proved epidemic of dengue fever along the East Coast of India in 1963-1964, it spread to allover the country.The ?rst full-blown epidemic of the severe form of the illness,the dengue haemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome occurred in North India in 1996. Aedes aegypti is the vector for transmission of the disease. Vaccines or antiviral drugs are not available for dengue viruses; the only effective way to prevent epidemic degure fever/dengue haemorrhagic fever (DF/DHF) is to control the mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti and prevent its bite. This country has few virus laboratories and some of them have done excellent work in the area of molecular epidemiology,immunopathology and vaccine development. Selected work done in this country on the problems of dengue is presented here.

  2. Periodic fevers and autoinflammatory syndromes in childhood.

    PubMed

    Ostring, Genevieve T; Singh-Grewal, Davinder

    2016-09-01

    Recurrent fever is a common presentation in paediatric practice and can be caused by a wide variety of diseases including autoinflammatory conditions. The innate immune system plays an essential role in the 'first line' response to infection through mediation of inflammatory responses. Inflammasomes are part of the regulatory process for this system and result in the production of the powerful pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1B. Dysregulation of inflammasomes, and Interleukin 1 production, contributes to the pathogenesis of autoinflammatory diseases. This review focuses on described periodic fever syndromes (PFS) which are now collectively referred to as autoinflammatory syndromes. Conditions discussed include periodic fever aphthous stomatitis pharyngitis and cervical adenopathy, familial Mediterranean fever, tumour necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic syndromes, hyperimmunoglobulinaemia D and the cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes. Presenting features, complications, diagnostic and treatment approaches for these conditions are discussed. Nonetheless, as most of these conditions are rare and may have significant long-term complications, it is recommended that they be managed in consultations with a physician experienced in managing PFS. PMID:27650143

  3. Prevalence of dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever in Hospital Tengku Ampuan Rahimah, Klang, Selangor, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Jamaiah, I; Rohela, M; Nissapatorn, V; Maizatulhikma, M M; Norazlinda, R; Syaheerah, H; Tan, H P

    2005-01-01

    Dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever have been known to be endemic and reportable diseases in Malaysia since 1971. Major outbreaks occurred in 1973, 1982 and in 1998. For the past few decades until now. many studies have been performed to investigate the importance of these two diseases in Malaysia. A retrospective study was carried out in Hospital Tengku Ampuan Rahimah Klang to find the prevalence of these diseases. The data was collected from the record department of this hospital starting from the year 1999 until 2003 (5 years). A total of 6,577 cases of dengue fever and 857 cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever were reported. From the year 2000 onwards, cases of dengue fever had increased tremendously. However for the year 2001, there was a slight decrease in the reported cases. Most cases occurred in 2003, increasing from 674 in 1999 to 2,813 in 2003. Highest incidence was seen in Malay males more than 12 years of age. However, the cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever declined tremendously throughout the years. Most cases occurred in 1999 with 674 cases, then declining to only one in the year 2001 before it increased to 60 and 72 in the years 2002 and 2003, respectively. Most cases occurred in patients above 12 years old, the majority of which were Malay males.

  4. Sensitivity of growth and biomass allocation patterns to increasing nitrogen: a comparison between ephemerals and annuals in the Gurbantunggut Desert, north-western China

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiaobing; Zhang, Yuanming; Niklas, Karl J.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Biomass accumulation and allocation patterns are critical to quantifying ecosystem dynamics. However, these patterns differ among species, and they can change in response to nutrient availability even among genetically related individuals. In order to understand this complexity further, this study examined three ephemeral species (with very short vegetative growth periods) and three annual species (with significantly longer vegetative growth periods) in the Gurbantunggut Desert, north-western China, to determine their responses to different nitrogen (N) supplements under natural conditions. Methods Nitrogen was added to the soil at rates of 0, 0·5, 1·0, 3·0, 6·0 and 24·0 g N m−2 year−1. Plants were sampled at various intervals to measure relative growth rate and shoot and root dry mass. Key Results Compared with annuals, ephemerals grew more rapidly, increased shoot and root biomass with increasing N application rates and significantly decreased root/shoot ratios. Nevertheless, changes in the biomass allocation of some species (i.e. Erodium oxyrrhynchum) in response to the N treatment were largely a consequence of changes in overall plant size, which was inconsistent with an optimal partitioning model. An isometric log shoot vs. log root scaling relationship for the final biomass harvest was observed for each species and all annuals, while pooled data of three ephemerals showed an allometric scaling relationship. Conclusions These results indicate that ephemerals and annuals differ observably in their biomass allocation patterns in response to soil N supplements, although an isometric log shoot vs. log root scaling relationship was maintained across all species. These findings highlight that different life history strategies behave differently in response to N application even when interspecific scaling relationships remain nearly isometric. PMID:24287812

  5. Interactions of landscape position, stream flow, and litter quality on litter decomposition in intermittent to ephemeral streams in the American Southwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lohse, K. A.; Schwabedissen, S. G.; Gallo, E. L.; Meixner, T.

    2014-12-01

    Ephemeral streams are an important but little studied resource in the American Southwest. Many streams in arid and semi-arid regions are ephemeral (e.g. 89% of western US), only flowing in response to rainfall, and the distribution of these streams is likely to increase in a changing climate. Given the hydrologic variability and additional water present in ephemeral stream systems, decomposition rates are likely to vary as a function of stream flow presence and soil-water presence. Here we examine how different types of litter decompose across a climate gradient in Arizona with a range of ephemeral, intermittent to perennial streams. We used a space for time substitution and deployed common gamble oak and sycamore litterbags at three replicate reach transects at 13 sites in Arizona over an 18-month period. Within each of these sites, we deployed little bags in channel, riparian, and channel landscape positions for (1100 total litter bags). We measured soil-water presence and stream flow days with electrical resistivity sensors. Cumulative rainfall ranged from 9 to 38 cm across the sites whereas cumulative stream flow presence varied dramatically across the sites, from 11 to 433 days over the 18-month deployment. As expected, rates of decomposition were higher in channels than riparian and upland positions at sites with higher soil-water and stream flow presence and slower for oak compared to sycamore leaves. Eighty-six of the oak compared to seventy four percent of the sycamore mass was remaining after 180 days. Cumulative days of soil -water presence and stream flow associated with each site were positively related to rates of decomposition of litter located in channels suggesting that changes in streamflow and soil-water presence associated climate change will have large effects of rates of nutrient release via the process of decomposition.

  6. Local structuring factors of invertebrate communities in ephemeral freshwater rock pools and the influence of more permanent water bodies in the region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jocque, M.; Graham, T.; Brendonck, L.

    2007-01-01

    We used three isolated clusters of small ephemeral rock pools on a sandstone flat in Utah to test the importance of local structuring processes on aquatic invertebrate communities. In the three clusters we characterized all ephemeral rock pools (total: 27) for their morphometry, and monitored their water quality, hydrology and community assemblage during a full hydrocycle. In each cluster we also sampled a set of more permanent interconnected freshwater systems positioned in a wash, draining the water from each cluster of rock pools. This design allowed additional testing for the potential role of more permanent water bodies in the region as source populations for the active dispersers and the effect on the community structure in the rock pools. Species richness and community composition in the rock pools correlated with level of permanence and the ammonia concentration. The length of the rock pool inundation cycle shaped community structure, most probably by inhibiting colonization by some taxa (e.g. tadpoles and insect larvae) through developmental constraints. The gradient in ammonia concentrations probably reflects differences in primary production. The more permanent water bodies in each wash differed both environmentally and in community composition from the connected set of rock pools. A limited set of active dispersers was observed in the rock pools. Our findings indicate that aquatic invertebrate communities in the ephemeral rock pools are mainly structured through habitat permanence, possibly linked with biotic interactions and primary production. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  7. Unusual Presentation of Dengue Fever Leading to Unnecessary Appendectomy

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Lovekesh; Singh, Mahendra; Saxena, Ashish; Kolhe, Yuvraj; Karande, Snehal K.; Singh, Narendra; Venkatesh, P.; Meena, Rambabu

    2015-01-01

    Dengue fever is the most important arbovirus illness with an estimated incidence of 50–100 million cases per year. The common symptoms of dengue include fever, rash, malaise, nausea, vomiting, and musculoskeletal pain. Dengue fever may present as acute abdomen leading to diagnostic dilemma. The acute surgical complications of dengue fever include acute pancreatitis, acute acalculous cholecystitis, nonspecific peritonitis, and acute appendicitis. We report a case of dengue fever that mimicked acute appendicitis leading to unnecessary appendectomy. A careful history examination for dengue-related signs, and serial hemogram over the first 3-4 days of disease may prevent unnecessary appendectomy. PMID:26167314

  8. [Dengue fever. Another infectious disease out of control?].

    PubMed

    Jensenius, M; Gundersen, S G

    1997-11-30

    In the 1950s dengue fever left its home in South-East Asia. The result, as we see it 40 years later, is terrifying. From being an almost unknown infection, dengue fever is today's most common arboviral disease with up to 100 million cases annually. In addition, the clinical picture has changed from a benign influenza-like disorder (classic dengue fever) to a serious disease with bleeding and hypovolemic shock (dengue hemorrhagic fever). In this article the authors give an overview of the present epidemiology, prognosis and possible preventive measures against dengue fever.

  9. Dengue fever: a resurgent risk for the international traveler.

    PubMed

    Lange, W R; Beall, B; Denny, S C

    1992-03-01

    The incidence of dengue fever, an acute febrile illness transmitted by the Aedes aegypti mosquito, is on the rise. High fever, severe headache, skin rash and a variety of constitutional symptoms are hallmarks of classic dengue fever. Dengue hemorrhagic fever, a severe manifestation associated with secondary infection, most often occurs in children. Treatment of classic dengue fever is supportive, whereas urgent rehydration therapy is often required in more severe forms. Community-based and personal strategies for avoiding the mosquito vector represent the best methods of prevention, although vaccine development programs are under way.

  10. Spatial and temporal transcriptome changes occurring during flower opening and senescence of the ephemeral hibiscus flower, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis

    PubMed Central

    Trivellini, Alice; Cocetta, Giacomo; Hunter, Donald A.; Vernieri, Paolo; Ferrante, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Flowers are complex systems whose vegetative and sexual structures initiate and die in a synchronous manner. The rapidity of this process varies widely in flowers, with some lasting for months while others such as Hibiscus rosa-sinensis survive for only a day. The genetic regulation underlying these differences is unclear. To identify key genes and pathways that coordinate floral organ senescence of ephemeral flowers, we identified transcripts in H. rosa-sinensis floral organs by 454 sequencing. During development, 2053 transcripts increased and 2135 decreased significantly in abundance. The senescence of the flower was associated with increased abundance of many hydrolytic genes, including aspartic and cysteine proteases, vacuolar processing enzymes, and nucleases. Pathway analysis suggested that transcripts altering significantly in abundance were enriched in functions related to cell wall-, aquaporin-, light/circadian clock-, autophagy-, and calcium-related genes. Finding enrichment in light/circadian clock-related genes fits well with the observation that hibiscus floral development is highly synchronized with light and the hypothesis that ageing/senescence of the flower is orchestrated by a molecular clock. Further study of these genes will provide novel insight into how the molecular clock is able to regulate the timing of programmed cell death in tissues. PMID:27591432

  11. Water availability controls on community structure of an ephemeral meltwater stream ecosystem in the McMurdo Dry Valleys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKnight, D. M.; Simmons, B.; Stanish, L.

    2009-05-01

    The McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica contain many glacial meltwater streams that flow during the summer into lakes on the valley floors. Many streams have thriving cyanobacterial mats that are freeze-dried in winter and begin photosynthesis when flow arrives. We studied the community structure in a formerly abandoned channel, which was reactivated by a flow diversion in 1994. Cyanobacterial mats became abundant in the reactivated channel within a week and have remained evident even through cold, low flow summers. We recently compared the abundance and species distribution of invertebrates and diatoms in the cyanobacterial mats and in hyporheic zone during cold (low flow) and warm (high flow) summers. During the warm summer, there were sites where the invertebrate abundance was greater in the mats than in the underlying hyporheic sediments. In contrast, during the cold summer the invertebrate biomass was lower in the mats than in the hyporheic sediments. These findings suggest that the optimal micro-habitat for invertebrates in these mats and sediments is partially driven by ephemeral stream hydrology. This limitation on potential invertebrate grazers (which are important nutrient transformers) may account for the accumulation of algal biomass and subsequent nutrient immobilization in the mats over many summers.

  12. Carbon-Fixation Rates and Associated Microbial Communities Residing in Arid and Ephemerally Wet Antarctic Dry Valley Soils

    PubMed Central

    Niederberger, Thomas D.; Sohm, Jill A.; Gunderson, Troy; Tirindelli, Joëlle; Capone, Douglas G.; Carpenter, Edward J.; Cary, S. Craig

    2015-01-01

    Carbon-fixation is a critical process in severely oligotrophic Antarctic Dry Valley (DV) soils and may represent the major source of carbon in these arid environments. However, rates of C-fixation in DVs are currently unknown and the microorganisms responsible for these activities unidentified. In this study, C-fixation rates measured in the bulk arid soils (<5% moisture) ranged from below detection limits to ∼12 nmol C/cc/h. Rates in ephemerally wet soils ranged from ∼20 to 750 nmol C/cc/h, equating to turnover rates of ∼7–140 days, with lower rates in stream-associated soils as compared to lake-associated soils. Sequencing of the large subunit of RuBisCO (cbbL) in these soils identified green-type sequences dominated by the 1B cyanobacterial phylotype in both arid and wet soils including the RNA fraction of the wet soil. Red-type cbbL genes were dominated by 1C actinobacterial phylotypes in arid soils, with wetted soils containing nearly equal proportions of 1C (actinobacterial and proteobacterial signatures) and 1D (algal) phylotypes. Complementary 16S rRNA and 18S rRNA gene sequencing also revealed distinct differences in community structure between biotopes. This study is the first of its kind to examine C-fixation rates in DV soils and the microorganisms potentially responsible for these activities. PMID:26696969

  13. Assessment of channel changes in a Mediterranean ephemeral stream since the early twentieth century. The Rambla de Cervera, eastern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segura-Beltrán, Francisca; Sanchis-Ibor, Carles

    2013-11-01

    An analysis of morphological changes during the last six decades is presented for a 16.5-km reach of the Rambla de Cervera, a Mediterranean ephemeral stream located in eastern Spain. Channel changes were analysed through a range of techniques, specifically the analysis of aerial photographs with geographical information systems (GIS) and comparison of topographic surveys. The gravel channel underwent a general decline over the study period, losing width (68.5%) and surface area (45.7%) caused by the development of established islands frequently attached to the floodplain. These morphological changes exhibit an interesting temporal variability, with a maximum decrease of the gravel channel in the period 1946-1956 and another narrowing stage between 1977 and 1991. Two periods (1956-1977 and 1991-2006) also had mixed performance. In addition, incision processes occurred along the entire study reach at an average depth of 3.5 m. Natural and human-induced factors producing contradictory effects are considered responsible for changes in the Rambla de Cervera.

  14. On the effects of improved cross-section representation in one-dimensional flow routing models applied to ephemeral rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutton, Christopher J.; Brazier, Richard E.; Nicholas, Andrew P.; Nearing, Mark

    2012-04-01

    Flash floods are an important component of the semiarid hydrological cycle, and provide the potential for groundwater recharge as well as posing a dangerous natural hazard. A number of catchment models have been applied to flash flood prediction; however, in general they perform poorly. This study has investigated whether the incorporation of light detection and ranging (lidar) derived data into the structure of a 1-D flow routing model can improve the prediction of flash floods in ephemeral channels. Two versions of this model, one based on an existing trapezoidal representation of cross-section morphology (K-Tr), and one that uses lidar data (K-Li) were applied to 5 discrete runoff events measured at two locations on the main channel of The Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed, United States. In general, K-Li showed improved performance in comparison to K-Tr, both when each model was calibrated to individual events and during an evaluation phase when the models (and parameter sets) were applied across events. Sensitivity analysis identified that the K-Li model also had more consistency in behavioral parameter sets across runoff events. In contrast, parameter interaction within K-Tr resulted in poorly constrained behavioral parameter sets across the multidimensional parameter space. These results, revealed with a modeling focus on the structure of a particular element of a distributed catchment model, suggest that lidar derived cross-section morphology can lead to improved, and more robust flash flood prediction.

  15. Q Fever: An Old but Still a Poorly Understood Disease

    PubMed Central

    Honarmand, Hamidreza

    2012-01-01

    Q fever is a bacterial infection affecting mainly the lungs, liver, and heart. It is found around the world and is caused by the bacteria Coxiella burnetii. The bacteria affects sheep, goats, cattle, dogs, cats, birds, rodents, and ticks. Infected animals shed this bacteria in birth products, feces, milk, and urine. Humans usually get Q fever by breathing in contaminated droplets released by infected animals and drinking raw milk. People at highest risk for this infection are farmers, laboratory workers, sheep and dairy workers, and veterinarians. Chronic Q fever develops in people who have been infected for more than 6 months. It usually takes about 20 days after exposure to the bacteria for symptoms to occur. Most cases are mild, yet some severe cases have been reported. Symptoms of acute Q fever may include: chest pain with breathing, cough, fever, headache, jaundice, muscle pains, and shortness of breath. Symptoms of chronic Q fever may include chills, fatigue, night sweats, prolonged fever, and shortness of breath. Q fever is diagnosed with a blood antibody test. The main treatment for the disease is with antibiotics. For acute Q fever, doxycycline is recommended. For chronic Q fever, a combination of doxycycline and hydroxychloroquine is often used long term. Complications are cirrhosis, hepatitis, encephalitis, endocarditis, pericarditis, myocarditis, interstitial pulmonary fibrosis, meningitis, and pneumonia. People at risk should always: carefully dispose of animal products that may be infected, disinfect any contaminated areas, and thoroughly wash their hands. Pasteurizing milk can also help prevent Q fever. PMID:23213331

  16. [Risks and benefits of paracetamol in children with fever].

    PubMed

    de Bont, Eefje G P M; Brand, Paul L P; Dinant, Geert-Jan; van Well, Gijs T J; Cals, Jochen W L

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide, paracetamol is the most commonly used antipyretic for children and the drug of first choice for reducing fever named in the majority of practice guidelines. However, whether or not it is necessary or desirable to treat fever is questionable. The provision of accurate information on the causes and treatment of fever can decrease the help-seeking behaviour of parents. Paracetamol is both effective and advisable when there is a combination of fever and pain. Fever on its own does not require treatment and doctors should therefore show caution about advising paracetamol for children who have just this symptom. The effect of paracetamol on the general well-being of children with fever on its own has not been unequivocally proven. Treatment with paracetamol for the prevention of febrile convulsions has been proven ineffective. There are indications that inhibiting fever through paracetamol can adversely affect the immune response. The use of paracetamol can produce mild side effects and hepatotoxicity.

  17. Thrombocytopenia and fever: not just another infection….

    PubMed

    Sriskandarajah, Priya; Davies, Rhys

    2016-01-01

    Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is a high-grade, aggressive disease that typically presents with widespread lymphadenopathy and active 'B' symptoms, making it easy to recognise and manage. However, a small proportion of patients can present with no evidence of lymphadenopathy or organomegaly, with the disease confined to the bone marrow; this presentation is also known as 'Primary Bone Marrow DLBCL'. Subsequently, diagnosis can be a challenge, resulting in delayed treatment and an overall poorer prognosis. Given the rarity of this disease, we wished to describe a patient who presented initially with fevers associated with isolated thrombocytopenia and was later diagnosed with this condition. Unfortunately, due to the aggressive nature of this disease, subsequent treatment was unsuccessful. Overall, we felt that in future cases of fevers with thrombocytopenia, clinicians should include this rare lymphoma subtype as part of the differential diagnosis, as early identification and treatment can be associated with a favourable outcome. PMID:27174453

  18. [Hyperimmunoglobulinemia D and periodic fever syndrome].

    PubMed

    Agbo-kpati, K-P; Condor, R; Hollenberg, H; Chalvon Demersay, A; Cuisset, L; Quartier, P

    2014-07-01

    We report the cases of two sisters born of parents who were first-degree cousins, who started recurrent fever with lymph node and digestive tract involvement at the age of 2 years. There was no mutation of the familial Mediterranean fever gene and a diagnosis of partial mevalonate kinase (MVK) deficiency was made. However, immunoglobulin (Ig) D and A levels were normal. Elevated mevalonic acid in the patients' urine during an episode and MVK gene analysis provided the diagnosis. Clinical remission was obtained under anti-TNF-alpha treatment with etanercept. These observations and those of several previously reported patients, particularly in French and Dutch series, illustrate the importance of considering the diagnosis in a child with early-onset auto-inflammatory syndrome even in the absence of hyper-IgD or -IgA.

  19. Chikungunya fever presenting with acute optic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Mohite, Abhijit Anand; Agius-Fernandez, Adriana

    2015-07-28

    Chikungunya fever is a vector borne virus that typically causes a self-limiting systemic illness with fever, skin rash and joint aches 2 weeks after infection. We present the case of a 69-year-old woman presenting with an acute unilateral optic neuropathy as a delayed complication of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection contracted during a recent trip to the West Indies. She presented to our ophthalmology department with acute painless visual field loss in the right eye and a recent flu-like illness. She was found to have a right relative afferent pupillary defect (RAPD) with unilateral optic disc swelling. Serology confirmed recent CHIKV infection. Treatment with intravenous methylprednisolone was delayed while awaiting MRI scans and serology results. At 5-month follow-up, there was a persistent right RAPD and marked optic atrophy with a corresponding inferior scotoma in the visual field.

  20. Infection Control During Filoviral Hemorrhagic Fever Outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    Vanessa, N Raabe; Matthias, Borchert

    2012-01-01

    Breaking the human-to-human transmission cycle remains the cornerstone of infection control during filoviral (Ebola and Marburg) hemorrhagic fever outbreaks. This requires effective identification and isolation of cases, timely contact tracing and monitoring, proper usage of barrier personal protection gear by health workers, and safely conducted burials. Solely implementing these measures is insufficient for infection control; control efforts must be culturally sensitive and conducted in a transparent manner to promote the necessary trust between the community and infection control team in order to succeed. This article provides a review of the literature on infection control during filoviral hemorrhagic fever outbreaks focusing on outbreaks in a developing setting and lessons learned from previous outbreaks. The primary search database used to review the literature was PUBMED, the National Library of Medicine website. PMID:22529631

  1. Valley Fever: Earth Observations for Risk Reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sprigg, W. A.

    2012-12-01

    Advances in satellite Earth observation systems, numerical weather prediction, and dust storm modeling yield new tools for public health warnings, advisories and epidemiology of illnesses associated with airborne desert dust. Valley Fever, endemic from California through the US/Mexico border region into Central and South America, is triggered by inhalation of soil-dwelling fungal spores. The path from fungal growth to airborne threat depends on environmental conditions observable from satellite. And space-based sensors provide initial conditions for dust storm forecasts and baselines for the epidemiology of Valley Fever and other dust-borne aggravation of respiratory and cardiovascular disease. A new Pan-American Center for the World Meteorological Organization Sand and Dust Storm Warning Advisory and Assessment System creates an opportunity to advance Earth science applications in public health.

  2. [Scarlet fever in Poland in 2008].

    PubMed

    Czarkowski, Mirosław P; Kondej, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    The 2008 was another year when the scarlet fever incidence in Poland increased. In total there were 11,179 cases registered and the incidence was 29,3 per 100,000 population ranging from 11.5 in podkarpackie voievodeship to 53.0 in opolskie voievodeship. Cases among children and adolescents of less then 15 years of age accounted for 93.1% of all cases. The incidence peaked among 5 years old children (435.9). Incidence in men (33.9) markedly exceeded the incidence in women (25.1) and incidence in urban areas (32.5) that in rural areas (24.4). Approximately 1.7% of all cases were hospitalized and there were no deaths due to scarlet fever in Poland in 2008.

  3. [Scarlet fever in Poland in 2007].

    PubMed

    Czarkowski, Mirosław P; Kondej, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    The 2007 was another year when the scarlet fever incidence in Poland increased. In total there were 10,740 cases registered and the incidence was 28.2 per 100,000 population ranging from 11.4 in zachodniopomorskie voivodeship to 54.1 in lubelskie voivodeship. Cases among children and adolescents of less then 15 years of age accounted for 92.1% of all cases. The incidence peaked among 5 years old children (433.4). Incidence in men (32.7) markedly exceeded the incidence in women (24.0) and incidence in urban areas (31.3) that in rural areas (23.2). Approximately 1.6% of all cases were hospitalized and there were no deaths due to scarlet fever in Poland in 2007.

  4. [Scarlet fever in Poland in 2003].

    PubMed

    Czarkowski, Mirosław P; Kondej, Barbara

    2005-01-01

    Following the last epidemic in 1995 the scarlet fever incidence in Poland has been gradually decreasing. The downward trend continued in 2003, with overall incidence rate of 10.1 per 100,000. The incidence registered during 2001-2003 dropped below the lowest level noted ever sine the introduction of mandatory reporting in 1918. Regionally the incidence ranged from 3.4 per 100,000 in lódzkie voivodeship to 21.8 in opolskie voivodeship. As observed previously incidence in the urban areas (11.8) was significantly higher then in the rural areas (7.5) and the incidence in men (11.1) exceeded the incidence in women (9.2). The majority of cases occurred in children and adolescents younger then 15 years (mode--6 years; incidence 132.3). Approximately 3% of cases were hospitalized. There were no deaths due to scarlet fever reported in 2003.

  5. Tickborne Relapsing Fever, Bitterroot Valley, Montana, USA

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Joshua; Fischer, Robert J.; McCoy, Brandi N.; Raffel, Sandra J.

    2015-01-01

    In July 2013, a resident of the Bitterroot Valley in western Montana, USA, contracted tickborne relapsing fever caused by an infection with the spirochete Borrelia hermsii. The patient’s travel history and activities before onset of illness indicated a possible exposure on his residential property on the eastern side of the valley. An onsite investigation of the potential exposure site found the vector, Ornithodoros hermsi ticks, and 1 chipmunk infected with spirochetes, which on the basis of multilocus sequence typing were identical to the spirochete isolated from the patient. Field studies in other locations found additional serologic evidence and an infected tick that demonstrated a wider distribution of spirochetes circulating among the small mammal populations. Our study demonstrates that this area of Montana represents a previously unrecognized focus of relapsing fever and poses a risk for persons of acquiring this tickborne disease. PMID:25625502

  6. Surveillance for dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever.

    PubMed

    Gubler, D J

    1989-01-01

    Dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever are emerging as major public health problems in most tropical countries. Effective prevention and control programs will depend on improved surveillance designed to provide early warning of dengue epidemics. This article outlines a reasonable approach to dengue surveillance of this kind. Virologic surveillance should be considered the most important element in any such early warning system. Dengue virus transmission should be monitored to determine which serotypes are present, their distribution, and the type of illnesses associated with each. Other key components of an active surveillance system should include monitoring of fever activity and clinical surveillance for cases of severe and fatal disease associated with viral syndromes. Collectively, these three surveillance components can provide an early warning capability permitting emergency mosquito control measures to be implemented and major epidemics to be averted.

  7. Dengue fever with acute acalculous cholecystitis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Keng-Liang; Changchien, Chi-Sin; Kuo, Chung-Mou; Chuah, Seng-Kee; Lu, Sheng-Nan; Eng, Hock-Liew; Kuo, Chung-Huang

    2003-06-01

    Dengue fever (DF) with acute acalculous cholecystitis is rarely reported. To investigate the incidence, treatment, and prognosis of acute acalculous cholecystitis in DF patients, we retrospectively studied 10 patients with DF and acute acalculous cholecystitis. From October 2001 to July 2002, 131 patients were diagnosed with DF. Ten of 131 DF patients (7.63%) had complications of acute acalculous cholecystitis. Two patients underwent cholecystectomy and one underwent percutaneous transhepatic gallbladder drainage due to poor resolution of acute acalculous cholecystitis. We found acute acalculous cholecystitis in a small proportion of patients with DF. In our experience, closely monitoring vital signs to avoid shock and correct thrombocytopenia to avoid bleeding could be adequate for most patients. In some cases, surgical treatment may be needed for DF fever patients with complications of diffuse peritonitis.

  8. Dengue fever: a risk to travelers.

    PubMed

    Karp, B E

    1997-07-01

    An outbreak of dengue fever occurred among a small group of Maryland and Pennsylvania residents following a trip to the British Virgin Islands in January 1996. Dengue fever is a mosquito-borne viral illness that occurs primarily in tropical urban areas. Most dengue infections are benign and self-limited, but some produce severe and fatal hemorrhagic disease. Although dengue is not endemic in the continental United States, travelers may acquire the infection during visits to the tropics. Physicians should consider dengue in the differential diagnosis of a patient with a febrile illness and a history of recent travel to a tropical area. Travelers to endemic areas should be advised to take precautions to prevent mosquito bites.

  9. Severe Dengue Fever Outbreak in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sheng-Fan; Wang, Wen-Hung; Chang, Ko; Chen, Yen-Hsu; Tseng, Sung-Pin; Yen, Chia-Hung; Wu, Deng-Chyang; Chen, Yi-Ming Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Dengue fever (DF) is a vector-borne disease caused by dengue viruses (DENVs). Epidemic dengue occurs intermittently in Taiwan. In 2014, Taiwan experienced its largest DF outbreak. There were 15,732 DF cases reported. There were a total of 136 dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) cases, of which 20 resulted in death. Most DF cases were reported in southern Taiwan. A total of 15,043 (96%) cases were from Kaohsiung, a modern city in southern Taiwan. This report reviews DF epidemics in Taiwan during 2005-2014. The correlation between DF and DHF along with temperature and precipitation were conjointly examined. We conclude that most dengue epidemics in Taiwan resulted from imported DF cases. Results indicate three main factors that may have been associated with this DF outbreak in Kaohsiung: an underground pipeline explosion combined with subsequent rainfall and higher temperature. These factors may have enhanced mosquito breeding activity, facilitating DENV transmission.

  10. Dengue fever in the Western Hemisphere.

    PubMed

    Castleberry, Jason S; Mahon, Connie R

    2003-01-01

    Dengue virus, an arthropod-borne viral agent, causes two distinct diseases: classic dengue fever (DF) and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF). There are four dengue virus serotypes: DEN-1, DEN-2, DEN-3, and DEN-4. Although infection with dengue stimulates immunologic response to a serotype, there is no cross-immunity conferred. Hence, a person can potentially be infected with each serotype during his or her lifetime. An infected female Aedes mosquito transmits the virus from person to person while feeding. The disease, now endemic in more than 100 countries in Africa, the Americas, the Eastern Mediterranean, Southeast Asia, and Western Pacific, is spreading to new areas and causing explosive outbreaks. Because of the major impact on lives and local economies epidemics produce, rapid detection of dengue infection has become an important public health research issue. Recently developed serological procedures to detect dengue infections have shown great potential for field use.

  11. [Hemorrhagic fever and the dengue shock syndrome].

    PubMed

    Ramos, C; García, H; Villaseca, J M

    1993-01-01

    Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF) and Dengue Shock Syndrome (DSS) are the severe and/or fatal clinical manifestations of dengue fever. Epidemics of DHF/DSS occur mainly in the southeast Asian countries where children are seriously affected and high case-fatality ratio is annually reported. Recently significant epidemics of DHF/DSS have been reported in Cuba, Venezuela and Brazil, which means that reinforcements of the epidemiological surveillance in the countries of the American region that show high virus transmission, are urgently needed. The main purpose of the present article is to review relevant information regarding the clinical manifestations, pathology, diagnostic procedures, treatment of cases, pathophysiologic mechanisms and some data related with specific DHF/DSS epidemics.

  12. Dengue fever, Hawaii, 2001-2002.

    PubMed

    Effler, Paul V; Pang, Lorrin; Kitsutani, Paul; Vorndam, Vance; Nakata, Michele; Ayers, Tracy; Elm, Joe; Tom, Tammy; Reiter, Paul; Rigau-Perez, José G; Hayes, John M; Mills, Kristin; Napier, Mike; Clark, Gary G; Gubler, Duane J

    2005-05-01

    Autochthonous dengue infections were last reported in Hawaii in 1944. In September 2001, the Hawaii Department of Health was notified of an unusual febrile illness in a resident with no travel history; dengue fever was confirmed. During the investigation, 1,644 persons with locally acquired denguelike illness were evaluated, and 122 (7%) laboratory-positive dengue infections were identified; dengue virus serotype 1 was isolated from 15 patients. No cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever or shock syndrome were reported. In 3 instances autochthonous infections were linked to a person who reported denguelike illness after travel to French Polynesia. Phylogenetic analyses showed the Hawaiian isolates were closely associated with contemporaneous isolates from Tahiti. Aedes albopictus was present in all communities surveyed on Oahu, Maui, Molokai, and Kauai; no Ae. aegypti were found. This outbreak underscores the importance of maintaining surveillance and control of potential disease vectors even in the absence of an imminent disease threat.

  13. [Hyperimmunoglobulinemia D and periodic fever syndrome].

    PubMed

    Agbo-kpati, K-P; Condor, R; Hollenberg, H; Chalvon Demersay, A; Cuisset, L; Quartier, P

    2014-07-01

    We report the cases of two sisters born of parents who were first-degree cousins, who started recurrent fever with lymph node and digestive tract involvement at the age of 2 years. There was no mutation of the familial Mediterranean fever gene and a diagnosis of partial mevalonate kinase (MVK) deficiency was made. However, immunoglobulin (Ig) D and A levels were normal. Elevated mevalonic acid in the patients' urine during an episode and MVK gene analysis provided the diagnosis. Clinical remission was obtained under anti-TNF-alpha treatment with etanercept. These observations and those of several previously reported patients, particularly in French and Dutch series, illustrate the importance of considering the diagnosis in a child with early-onset auto-inflammatory syndrome even in the absence of hyper-IgD or -IgA. PMID:24935455

  14. [Chikungunya fever in La Reunion Island--2006].

    PubMed

    Boutin, J P

    2006-06-01

    The epidemic of Chikungunya fever that has affected the population of La Reunion since Christmas 2005 will be remembered as the most serious public health crises in the island's history. A number of lessons have been learned from this experience with a disease initially considered as benign. In addition to providing a concise chronological account of epidemiological events from the beginning of the outbreak in March 2005, this article describes what was done, what has been learned up to now, what could have been done and what remains to be done. After this outbreak Chikungunya fever can no longer be considered as transient strictly benign disease. Nor can the population or authorities of La Reunion ever again consider that economic development protects them from the hazards of the tropical environment.

  15. Argentine hemorrhagic fever: a primate model.

    PubMed

    Weissenbacher, M C; Calello, M A; Colillas, O J; Rondinone, S N; Frigerio, M J

    1979-01-01

    Experimental Junin virus infection of a New World primate, Callithrix jacchus, was evaluated. The virus produced anorexia, loss of weight, thrombocytopenia, leukopenia, and hemorrhagic and neurological symptoms and terminated in death. Virus was recovered from urine, blood samples and all tissues taken at autopsy. These preliminary observations show that several aspects of the experimental disease in C. jacchus are quite similar to severe natural Argentine hemorrhagic fever of man.

  16. [Paediatric features of Dengue and Chikungunya fevers].

    PubMed

    Gérardin, P

    2010-01-01

    Dengue (Df) and Chikungunya fever (Cf) arbovirosis are booming in the world, because of the plasticity of their pathogens, mutant RNA viruses making the acquisition of sustainable herd immunity and vaccination difficult in humans, and the plasticity of their vectors, the female mosquitoes of the genus Aedes (Stegomya), capable of adapting to different environments. This review summarizes the viral life cycle and epidemiology of these arboviruses, pathogenesis and pediatric aspects of their clinical forms and the basic principles of their treatment and prevention.

  17. Climate, intermittent humidification, and humidifier fever.

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, K; Watt, A D; Sinclair, D; Lewis, C; McSharry, C P; Boyd, G

    1989-01-01

    Two summer outbreaks of humidifier fever (HF) are described in a microprocessor factory (factory A) and a printing factory (factory B). The air in each factory was humidified intermittently and controlled by present humidistats operating to maintain a relative humidity of 45% by an air handler incorporating a spray humidifier in factory A and two ceiling mounted spray humidifiers in factory B. Questionnaire data from each workforce suggested that although symptoms apparently occurred most commonly in both factories on return from holiday (41/57, 71.9%), many subjects (24/40, 60%) in factory A also had intermittent symptoms of ill defined periodicity for some time before the disorder was recognised. Similar intermittent symptoms with no discernible pattern occurred in factory B in a smaller number of subjects (4/17, 23.5%), all of whom were night or rotating shift workers. Both episodes of humidifier fever after return from summer holiday developed when nocturnal air temperatures were unseasonably low; not on the day of return to work but two days later (factory A) and one day later (factory B). Symptoms were most common in most workers who had circulating serum IgG antibody measured by ELISA to humidifier sludge in factory B (14/17, 82.9%) but were most common in IgG antibody negative subjects in factory A (27/40, 67.5%). A more classic form of humidifier fever redeveloped in factory B during winter when meteorological recordings suggested that humidification of intake air was more continuous. Humidifier fever in winter may have been the major influence on the formulation of the symptom pattern thought to be relevant for recognition of the disorder. A form of the illness, however, can occur during the summer which is camouflaged by intermittent humidification when the symptoms appear to be more closely associated with cool nocturnal air intake and unrelated to the pattern of attendance at work. PMID:2789971

  18. Unrecognized spotted fever group rickettsiosis masquerading as dengue fever in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Zavala-Velazquez, J E; Yu, X J; Walker, D H

    1996-08-01

    Although Rocky Mountain spotted fever was documented in northern Mexico during the 1940s, spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsioses have subsequently received little attention in Mexico. In this study, sera collected in 1993 from 50 patients from the Mexican states of Yucatan and Jalisco, who were suspected clinically to have dengue fever but had no antibodies to dengue virus, were examined by indirect immunofluorescence for IgM antibodies reactive with Rickettsia rickettsii, R. akari, and R. typhi. Twenty (40%) of the patients' sera contained IgM antibodies to SFG rickettsiae at a titer of 128 or greater. Among five sera reactive only against R. akari, four were from patients in Jalisco where a cluster of cases occurred in June and July. Among five sera reactive only with R. rickettsii, all were from Yucatan patients. Sera of 10 patients contained antibodies reactive with antigens shared by R. rickettsii and R. akari. The clinical signs and symptoms (fever, 100%; myalgia, 95%; headache, 85%; rash, 85%) were similar to those of dengue fever patients identified in this study. However, the incidence of rash was substantially higher than the nondengue, nonrickettsiosis patients. One or more SFG rickettsioses appear to be present in areas of Mexico not previously recognized to harbor these organisms. The etiologic agent or agents are as yet unknown.

  19. [Scarlet fever in Poland in 2004].

    PubMed

    Czarkowski, Mirosław P; Kondej, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    Following the last epidemic in 1995 the scarlet fever incidence in Poland has been gradually decreasing. In 2004 this tendency was reversed as a consequence of the epidemic cycle of scarlet fever which in Poland has the duration of 7-9 years. In total 5,964 cases were registered (54% more then in 2003) corresponding to the incidence of 15,6 per 100,000. Regionally the incidence ranged from 32.6 per 100,000 in kujawsko-pomorskie voivodeship to 4.8 in lubelskie voivodeship. As observed previously incidence in the urban areas (18.9) was significantly higher then in the rural areas (10.5) and the incidence in men (17.6) exceeded the incidence in women (13.8). The majority of cases occurred in children and adolescents younger then 15 years (mode--6 years; incidence 236.7. Approximately 3% of cases were hospitalised. There were no deaths due to scarlet fever reported in 2004.

  20. [Scarlet fever in Poland in 2005].

    PubMed

    Czarkowski, Mirosław P; Kondej, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    Following the last epidemic in 1995 the scarlet fever incidence in Poland has been gradually decreasing. In 2004-2005 this tendency was reversed as a consequence of the epidemic cycle of scarlet fever which in Poland has the duration of 7-9 years. In total 9,911 cases were registered (66.3% more then in 2004) corresponding to the incidence of 26.0 per 100,000. Regionally the incidence ranged from 58.0 per 100,000 in warminsko-mazurskie voivodeship to 10.8 in lubelskie voivodeship. As observed previously incidence in the urban areas (29.4) was significantly higher then in the rural areas (20.5) and the incidence in men (28.4) exceeded the incidence in women (23.7). The majority of cases occurred in children and adolescents younger then 15 years (mode - 6 years; incidence 406.5. Approximately 2% of cases were hospitalised. There were no deaths due to scarlet fever reported in 2004.

  1. Enteric fever in Mediterranean north Africa.

    PubMed

    Ghenghesh, Khalifa Sifaw; Franka, Ezzedin; Tawil, Khaled; Wasfy, Momtaz O; Ahmed, Salwa F; Rubino, Salvatore; Klena, John D

    2009-01-01

    Typhoid fever is endemic in the Mediterranean North African countries (Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, and Egypt) with an estimated incidence of 10-100 cases per 100,000 persons. Outbreaks caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi are common and mainly due to the consumption of untreated or sewage-contaminated water. Salmonella enterica Paratyphi B is more commonly involved in nosocomial cases of enteric fever in North Africa than expected and leads to high mortality rates among infants with congenital anomalies. Prevalence among travellers returning from this region is low, with an estimate of less than one per 100,000. Although multidrug resistant strains of Salmonella Typhi and Paratyphi are prevalent in this region, the re-emergence of chloramphenicol- and ampicillin-susceptible strains has been observed. In order to better understand the epidemiology of enteric fever in the Mediterranean North African region, population-based studies are needed. These will assist the health authorities in the region in preventing and controlling this important disease.

  2. [Chikungunya fever - A new global threat].

    PubMed

    Montero, Antonio

    2015-08-01

    The recent onset of epidemics caused by viruses such as Ebola, Marburg, Nipah, Lassa, coronavirus, West-Nile encephalitis, Saint Louis encephalitis, human immunodeficiency virus, dengue, yellow fever and Venezuelan hemorrhagic fever alerts about the risk these agents represent for the global health. Chikungunya virus represents a new threat. Surged from remote African regions, this virus has become endemic in the Indic ocean basin, the Indian subcontinent and the southeast of Asia, causing serious epidemics in Africa, Indic Ocean Islands, Asia and Europe. Due to their epidemiological and biological features and the global presence of their vectors, chikungunya represents a serious menace and could become endemic in the Americas. Although chikungunya infection has a low mortality rate, its high attack ratio may collapse the health system during epidemics affecting a sensitive population. In this paper, we review the clinical and epidemiological features of chikungunya fever as well as the risk of its introduction into the Americas. We remark the importance of the epidemiological control and mosquitoes fighting in order to prevent this disease from being introduced into the Americas.

  3. [Scarlet fever in Poland in 2009].

    PubMed

    Czarkowski, Mirosław P; Kondej, Barbara; Staszewska, Ewa

    2011-01-01

    After the last outbreak of scarlet fever, when the peak was recorded in 1985, now is observed the visible extension of disease epidemic period and the weakness of the dynamics of the annual changes of incidence. In 2009, as in previous years, the scarlet fever incidence in Poland increased. There were 13,968 cases registered in total and the incidence was 36.6 per 100,000 population ranging from 18.4 in podkarpackie voivodeship to 62.1 in opolskie voivodeship. Cases among children and adolescents of less than 15 years of age accounted for 95.3% of all cases. The highest incidence was observed among 4 years old children (566.5) and 6 years old children (564.70). Incidence in men (41.5) markedly exceeded the incidence in women (32.1) and incidence in urban areas (40.5) and in rural areas (30.6). Approximately 1.1% of all cases were hospitalized. Due to scarlet fever there were no deaths in Poland in 2009.

  4. [Scarlet fever in Poland in 2002].

    PubMed

    Czarkowski, Mirosław P

    2004-01-01

    Following the last epidemic in 1995 the scarlet fever incidence in Poland has been gradually decreasing, on average 20% per year. The downward trend continued in 2002, the overall incidence rate being 10.6 per 100,000. It was the lowest incidence registered in Poland since the introduction of mandatory reporting of scarlet fever in 1918 (the lowest so far registered incidence rates were 15.2 in 2001 and 17.5 in 1918). Spatial distribution of cases was relatively even--incidence ranged from 5.0 per 100,000 in łódzkie voivodeship to 25.1 in opolskie voivodeship. As observed previously incidence in the urban areas (12.0) was significantly higher then in the rural areas (8.4) and the incidence in men (11.7) exceeded the incidence in women (9.6). The majority of cases occurred in children and adolescents younger then 15 years (mode--6 years). Two percent of cases were hospitalized. There were no deaths due to scarlet fever reported in 2002.

  5. Dengue haemorrhagic fever in children in Delhi.

    PubMed

    Kabra, S K; Verma, I C; Arora, N K; Jain, Y; Kalra, V

    1992-01-01

    An epidemic of dengue haemorrhagic fever occurred in Delhi during 1988. A total of 21 paediatric patients with dengue haemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome were evaluated from September to November 1988. All the patients had fever, restlessness, ecchymotic spots and ascites. Pleural effusion occurred in 19 patients (90%), and 18 (86%) exhibited each of the following: vomiting, thrombocytopenia, and haemoconcentration. Hepatomegaly was observed in 15 patients (71%) and splenomegaly in three (14%). Titres of haemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibodies against dengue virus type 2 were raised in all the 15 cases from whom sera were collected during the acute stage. Convalescent sera from five patients had increased titres of HI antibodies to dengue virus type 2. The remaining 10 cases exhibited raised IgM antibody levels against dengue virus type 2. The fatality rate for serologically proven cases was 13% (2 of 15 patients), while for all patients (including those diagnosed clinically (6) and serologically (15)) it was 33.3% (7 of 21). Patients who survived had no sequelae, except one who had transient hypertension that lasted for two weeks.

  6. Advanced vaccine candidates for Lassa fever.

    PubMed

    Lukashevich, Igor S

    2012-11-01

    Lassa virus (LASV) is the most prominent human pathogen of the Arenaviridae. The virus is transmitted to humans by a rodent reservoir, Mastomys natalensis, and is capable of causing lethal Lassa Fever (LF). LASV has the highest human impact of any of the viral hemorrhagic fevers (with the exception of Dengue Fever) with an estimated several hundred thousand infections annually, resulting in thousands of deaths in Western Africa. The sizeable disease burden, numerous imported cases of LF in non-endemic countries, and the possibility that LASV can be used as an agent of biological warfare make a strong case for vaccine development. Presently there is no licensed vaccine against LF or approved treatment. Recently, several promising vaccine candidates have been developed which can potentially target different groups at risk. The purpose of this manuscript is to review the LASV pathogenesis and immune mechanisms involved in protection. The current status of pre-clinical development of the advanced vaccine candidates that have been tested in non-human primates will be discussed. Major scientific, manufacturing, and regulatory challenges will also be considered.

  7. Mediterranean spotted fever in southeastern Romania.

    PubMed

    Pitigoi, Daniela; Olaru, Ioana D; Badescu, Daniela; Rafila, Alexandru; Arama, Victoria; Hristea, Adriana

    2013-01-01

    Although cases of Mediterranean spotted fever (MSF) have been reported for decades in southeastern Romania, there are few published data. We retrospectively studied 339 patients, diagnosed with MSF at the National Institute of Infectious Diseases "Prof. Dr. Matei Bals" between 2000 and 2011, in order to raise awareness about MSF in certain regions of Romania. According to the Raoult diagnostic criteria 171 (50.4%) had a score >25 points. Mean age was 52.5 years. One hundred and fifty-five (90.6%) patients were from Bucharest and the surrounding region. Almost all patients presented with fever (99.4%) and rash (98.2%), and 57.9% had evidence of a tick bite. There were no recorded deaths. Serologic diagnosis was made by indirect immunofluorescence assay. Of the 171 patients, serology results for R. conorii were available in 147. One hundred and twenty-three (83.7%) of them had a titer IgG ≥1:160 or a fourfold increase in titer in paired samples. MSF is endemic in southeastern Romania and should be considered in patients with fever and rash even in the absence of recognized tick exposure. Since the disease is prevalent in areas highly frequented by tourists, travel-associated MSF should be suspected in patients with characteristic symptoms returning from the endemic area.

  8. Drug fever caused by propofol in the intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Yatabe, Tomoaki; Yamashita, Koichi; Yokoyama, Masataka

    2015-10-01

    Few studies have reported that fever is caused by intravenous sedative drugs even though these agents are widely used. We present a case of propofol-induced drug fever. A 57-year-old woman underwent hepatic segmentectomy. Although she was diagnosed with type I glycogen storage disease when in her twenties, her liver function was normal. As the operative hemorrhage was high, the patient was transferred to the intensive care unit (ICU). Her temperature at ICU admission was 35.8 °C, and sedation with propofol and dexmedetomidine was initiated. Two hours after admission to the ICU, the patient had a fever of 38-39.5 °C. Remittent fever persisted until day 5 after surgery. Because of her persistent fever, pneumonia was suspected and antibiotics were initiated on day 4 after surgery. As the fever persisted after the initiation of antibiotics, drug fever was suspected. On day 5 after surgery, propofol infusion was discontinued and the patient was extubated. Her temperature of 37.7 °C at the discontinuation of propofol infusion, and rapidly decreased to 36.1 °C in the following 3 h. Propofol-induced drug fever must be considered in cases of fever of unknown origin when patients receive propofol and appear inappropriately well for the degree of fever that they have.

  9. Field study and simulation of diurnal temperature effects on infiltration and variably saturated flow beneath an ephemeral stream

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ronan, A.D.; Prudic, D.E.; Thodal, C.E.; Constantz, J.

    1998-01-01

    Two experiments were performed to investigate flow beneath an ephemeral stream and to estimate streambed infiltration rates. Discharge and stream-area measurements were used to determine infiltration rates. Stream and subsurface temperatures were used to interpret subsurface flow through variably saturated sediments beneath the stream. Spatial variations in subsurface temperatures suggest that flow beneath the streambed is dependent on the orientation of the stream in the canyon and the layering of the sediments. Streamflow and infiltration rates vary diurnally: Stream flow is lowest in late afternoon when stream temperature is greatest and highest in early morning when stream temperature is least. The lower afternoon streamflow is attributed to increased infiltration rates; evapotranspiration is insufficient to account for the decreased streamflow. The increased infiltration rates are attributed to viscosity effects on hydraulic conductivity from increased stream temperatures. The first set of field data was used to calibrate a two-dimensional variably saturated flow model that includes heat transport. The model was calibrated to (1) temperature fluctuations in the subsurface and (2) infiltration rates determined from measured stream flow losses. The second set of field data was to evaluate the ability to predict infiltration rates on the basis of temperature measurements alone. Results indicate that the variably saturated subsurface flow depends on downcanyon layering of the sediments. They also support the field observations in indicating that diurnal changes in infiltration can be explained by temperature dependence of hydraulic conductivity. Over the range of temperatures and flows monitored, diurnal stream temperature changes can be used to estimate streambed infiltration rates. It is often impractical to maintain equipment for determining infiltration rates by traditional means; however, once a model is calibrated using both infiltration and temperature data

  10. Genetic analysis of an ephemeral intraspecific hybrid zone in the hypervariable tree, Metrosideros polymorpha, on Hawai'i Island.

    PubMed

    Stacy, E A; Johansen, J B; Sakishima, T; Price, D K

    2016-09-01

    Intraspecific hybrid zones involving long-lived woody species are rare and can provide insights into the genetic basis of early-diverging traits in speciation. Within the landscape-dominant Hawaiian tree, Metrosideros polymorpha, are morphologically distinct successional varieties, incana and glaberrima, that dominate new and old lava flows, respectively, below 1200 me on volcanically active Hawai'i Island, with var. glaberrima also extending to higher elevations and bogs. Here, we use morphological measurements on 86 adult trees to document the presence of an incana-glaberrima hybrid zone on the 1855 Mauna Loa lava flow on east Hawai'i Island and parent-offspring analysis of 1311 greenhouse seedlings from 71 crosses involving 72 adults to estimate heritabilities and genetic correlations among vegetative traits. Both the variation in adult leaf pubescence at the site and the consistency between adult and offspring phenotypes suggest the presence of two hybrid classes, F1s and var. incana backcrosses, as would be expected on a relatively young lava flow. Nine nuclear microsatellite loci failed to distinguish parental and hybrid genotypes. All four leaf traits examined showed an additive genetic basis with moderate to strong heritabilities, and genetic correlations were stronger for the more range-restricted var. incana. The differences between varieties in trait values, heritabilities and genetic correlations, coupled with high genetic variation within but low genetic variation between varieties, are consistent with a multi-million-year history of alternating periods of disruptive selection in contrasting environments and admixture in ephemeral hybrid zones. Finally, the contrasting genetic architectures suggest different evolutionary trajectories of leaf traits in these forms.

  11. Genetic analysis of an ephemeral intraspecific hybrid zone in the hypervariable tree, Metrosideros polymorpha, on Hawai'i Island.

    PubMed

    Stacy, E A; Johansen, J B; Sakishima, T; Price, D K

    2016-09-01

    Intraspecific hybrid zones involving long-lived woody species are rare and can provide insights into the genetic basis of early-diverging traits in speciation. Within the landscape-dominant Hawaiian tree, Metrosideros polymorpha, are morphologically distinct successional varieties, incana and glaberrima, that dominate new and old lava flows, respectively, below 1200 me on volcanically active Hawai'i Island, with var. glaberrima also extending to higher elevations and bogs. Here, we use morphological measurements on 86 adult trees to document the presence of an incana-glaberrima hybrid zone on the 1855 Mauna Loa lava flow on east Hawai'i Island and parent-offspring analysis of 1311 greenhouse seedlings from 71 crosses involving 72 adults to estimate heritabilities and genetic correlations among vegetative traits. Both the variation in adult leaf pubescence at the site and the consistency between adult and offspring phenotypes suggest the presence of two hybrid classes, F1s and var. incana backcrosses, as would be expected on a relatively young lava flow. Nine nuclear microsatellite loci failed to distinguish parental and hybrid genotypes. All four leaf traits examined showed an additive genetic basis with moderate to strong heritabilities, and genetic correlations were stronger for the more range-restricted var. incana. The differences between varieties in trait values, heritabilities and genetic correlations, coupled with high genetic variation within but low genetic variation between varieties, are consistent with a multi-million-year history of alternating periods of disruptive selection in contrasting environments and admixture in ephemeral hybrid zones. Finally, the contrasting genetic architectures suggest different evolutionary trajectories of leaf traits in these forms. PMID:27301333

  12. Spatio-temporal complexity of chimpanzee food: How cognitive adaptations can counteract the ephemeral nature of ripe fruit.

    PubMed

    Janmaat, Karline R L; Boesch, Christophe; Byrne, Richard; Chapman, Colin A; Goné Bi, Zoro B; Head, Josephine S; Robbins, Martha M; Wrangham, Richard W; Polansky, Leo

    2016-06-01

    Ecological complexity has been proposed to play a crucial role in primate brain-size evolution. However, detailed quantification of ecological complexity is still limited. Here we assess the spatio-temporal distribution of tropical fruits and young leaves, two primary chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) foods, focusing on the predictability of their availability in individual trees. Using up to 20 years of information on monthly availability of young leaf, unripe and ripe fruit in plant species consumed by chimpanzees from tropical forests in East, Central, and West Africa, we estimated: (1) the forest-wide frequency of occurrence of each food type and (2) the predictability of finding ripe fruit-bearing trees, focusing on the timing, frequency, and amount of ripe fruit present. In all three forests, at least half of all encountered trees belonged to species that chimpanzees were known to feed on. However, the proportion of these trees bearing young leaves and fruit fluctuated widely between months. Ripe fruit was the most ephemeral food source, and trees that had more than half of their crown filled were at least nine times scarcer than other trees. In old growth forests only one large ripe fruit crop was on average encountered per 10 km. High levels of inter-individual variation in the number of months that fruit was present existed, and in some extreme cases individuals bore ripe fruit more than seven times as often as conspecifics. Some species showed substantially less variation in such ripe fruit production frequencies and fruit quantity than others. We hypothesize that chimpanzees employ a suite of cognitive mechanisms, including abilities to: (1) generalize or classify food trees; (2) remember the relative metrics of quantity and frequency of fruit production across years; and (3) flexibly plan return times to feeding trees to optimize high-energy food consumption in individual trees, and efficient travel between them. Am. J. Primatol. 78:626-645, 2016. © 2016

  13. Chikungunya Fever Presenting as a Systemic Disease with Fever. Arthritis and Rash: Our Experience in Israel.

    PubMed

    Tanay, Amir

    2016-01-01

    Chikungunya fever (CHIK-F) has been increasingly documented among Western travelers returning from areas with chikungunya virus transmission, which are also popular tourist sites. We present three Israeli travelers who developed fever, maculopapular rash and long-standing arthralgias while visiting northern Indian states not known to be involved in the chikungunya fever epidemic. We also present an epidemiological review of the chikungunya epidemic over the past decades. Rare systemic manifestations of this disorder, like catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome (CAPS) and adult-onset Still's syndrome, are discussed. The present era of international travel poses a new diagnostic and epidemiologic challenge that demands increased awareness to the possibility of an exotic tropical infectious disease.

  14. Dengue fever--an emerging viral fever in Ludhiana, North India.

    PubMed

    Lal, Madan; Aggarwal, A; Oberoi, A

    2007-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine the seroprevalence of dengue fever and dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) in patients attending medical clinics or admitted in ICU with febrile signs and symptoms of heamorrhages. 168 (39.4%) out of 426 samples were tested positive for IgM antibodies. Of the 168 positive cases 159 were detected during the months of October and November 2005. Early detection of DHF/DSS can go a long way in managing these patients and to reduce morbidity and mortality specially in DHF and DSS cases.

  15. [Diagnostic approach of recurrent fevers of unknown origin in adults].

    PubMed

    Zenone, T

    2015-07-01

    Recurrent fever of unknown origin is probably the most difficult to diagnose subtype of fever of unknown origin. It represents between 18 and 42% of the cases in large series of patients with fever of unknown origin. The limited literature data do not allow one to construct a diagnostic algorithm. However, the diagnostic strategy is different from classic fever of unknown origin. The spectrum of causative disorders is different from continuous fever with less infections and tumors. Among systemic inflammatory diseases, adult-onset Still's disease is the most common cause. More than 50% of the cases remain unexplained. Hereditary recurrent fevers, the prototype of autoinflammatory diseases, are now more easily discuss in a young adult.

  16. [Scarlet fever with multisystem organ failure and hypertrophic gastritis].

    PubMed

    Sandrini, J; Beucher, A-B; Kouatchet, A; Lavigne, C

    2009-05-01

    Scarlet fever is a rare disease in adult patients. We report a patient in whom scarlet fever was associated with hypertrophic gastritis and multiple organ failure. A 62-year-old woman presented with septic shock and multiple organ failure. Bacteriological survey was negative. Abdominal tomodensitometry showed an hypertrophic gastritis. Histological analysis demonstrated a non specific gastritis without any tumoral sign. Cefotaxime and amoxicillin led to improvement and hypertrophic gastritis progressively resolved. A sandpaper rash over the body with finger desquamation, elevation of antistreptolysin O and a recent contact with an infected grandson led to the diagnosis of scarlet fever. Due to antibiotic prescription, scarlet fever is now uncommon. Although classical, ENT or gastroenteritis presentations may be puzzling for the diagnosis of scarlet fever. As 150 years ago, diagnosis of scarlet fever is still a clinical challenge.

  17. Yellow fever in China is still an imported disease.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun; Lu, Hongzhou

    2016-05-23

    Yellow fever is a vector-borne disease endemic to tropical regions of Africa and South America. A recent outbreak in Angola caused hundreds of deaths. Six cases of yellow fever imported from Angola were reported recently in China. This raised the question of whether it will spread in China and how it can be prevented. This article discusses the possibility of yellow fever transmission in China and the strategies to counter it.

  18. Acalculous cholecystitis: an unusual presentation of acute Q fever masquerading as infectious endocarditis.

    PubMed

    Ergas, David; Abdul-Hai, Ali; Sthoeger, Zev Moshe

    2008-10-01

    We report here a patient with acute Q fever-related acalculous cholecystitis, who presented with prolonged fever, valvular abnormalities, and positive serology for Q fever phase 1 antigens, features suggesting chronic Q fever endocarditis. The pathogenesis of this rare presentation of Q fever is discussed. PMID:18854682

  19. Channel Transmission Loss Studies During Ephemeral Flow Events: ER-5-3 Channel and Cambric Ditch, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    J.J. Miller; S.A. Mizell; R.H. French; D.G. Meadows; M.H. Young

    2005-10-01

    Transmission losses along ephemeral channels are an important, yet poorly understood, aspect of rainfall-runoff prediction. Losses occur as flow infiltrates channel bed, banks, and floodplains. Estimating transmission losses in arid environments is difficult because of the variability of surficial geomorphic characteristics and infiltration capacities of soils and near-surface low-permeability geologic layers (e.g., calcrete). Transmission losses in ephemeral channels are nonlinear functions of discharge and time (Lane, 1972), and vary spatially along the channel reach and with soil antecedent moisture conditions (Sharma and Murthy, 1994). Rainfall-runoff models used to estimate peak discharge and runoff volume for flood hazard assessment are not designed specifically for ephemeral channels, where transmission loss can be significant because of the available storage volume in channel soils. Accuracy of the flow routing and rainfall-runoff models is dependent on the transmission loss estimate. Transmission loss rate is the most uncertain parameter in flow routing through ephemeral channels. This research, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA) and conducted at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), is designed to improve understanding of the impact of transmission loss on ephemeral flood modeling and compare various methodologies for predicting runoff from rainfall events. Various applications of this research to DOE projects include more site-specific accuracy in runoff prediction; possible reduction in size of flood mitigation structures at the NTS; and a better understanding of expected infiltration from runoff losses into landfill covers. Two channel transmission loss field experiments were performed on the NTS between 2001 and 2003: the first was conducted in the ER-5-3 channel (Miller et al., 2003), between March and June 2001, and the second was conducted in the Cambric Ditch (Mizell et al., 2005), between April

  20. [Prolonged fever: specific issues in the young adult population].

    PubMed

    Carmoi, T; Grateau, G; Billhot, M; Dumas, G; Biale, L; Perrot, G; Algayres, J-P

    2010-12-01

    Early studies on prolonged fever date back to the 1960s. Fifty years later, prolonged unexplained fever remains a diagnostic challenge to the general internists. Although the aetiologies of prolonged fevers have not changed much in the general population, the distribution between the various causes is not the same anymore. A regular decrease in infectious and neoplastic causes is noticed whatever the age. Prolonged fevers related to inflammatory disorders and fevers that remain of unknown origin still represent approximately 30 to 50% of the cases. In the young adult population, as in the older patients, prolonged fevers can be attributed to four groups: infection, inflammation, neoplasic and other aetiologies (including drug-related fevers). In the young adult population, the management of prolonged fever presents some specific issues that are the purpose of this review coupled with our own experience. The prognosis of undiagnosed prolonged fever is usually favourable, as a life-threatening aetiology is exceptionally diagnosed during the follow-up if the initial management was complete and accurate.

  1. Fever revealing Behçet's disease: Two new cases.

    PubMed

    Harmouche, H; Maamar, M; Sahnoune, I; Tazi-Mezalek, Z; Aouni, M; Maaouni, A

    2007-03-01

    Behçet's disease (BD) is an uncommon cause of fever of unknown origin. We report two cases, both involving 42-year-old males, who initially presented with prolonged fever and who were ultimately diagnosed as having BD after a delay of 12 and 21 months, respectively. Both patients developed pulmonary aneurysms. Although fevers resolved after therapy, both patients died within the first year after diagnosis. Clinicians should be aware that long-term fever may be an inaugural sign of BD, especially in individuals living in countries along the ancient Silk Road or Mediterranean basin.

  2. [Q fever : A rare differential diagnosis of granulomatous disease].

    PubMed

    Hippe, S; Kellner, N; Seliger, G; Wiechmann, V; Grünewald, T

    2016-05-01

    Q fever is a worldwide distributed zoonotic disease with a mostly benign course, which regularly reoccurs in Germany. This report is about a patient with sporadic serologically proven Q fever, which also showed typical histopathological findings with nonspecific granulomatous hepatitis, usually seen in acute disease. The bone marrow biopsy revealed so-called doughnut granulomas, which are not pathognomonic but a typical finding in Q fever. This case report impressively underlines that the histomorphological findings can make a decisive contribution to the clarification by extended differential diagnostics, even though it plays a subordinate role in the routine diagnostics of disseminated Q fever. PMID:26919849

  3. Seir Model for Transmission of Dengue Fever in Selangor Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syafruddin, S.; Noorani, M. S. M.

    In this paper, we study a system of differential equations that models the population dynamics of SEIR vector transmission of dengue fever. The model studied breeding value based on the number of reported cases of dengue fever in Selangor because the state had the highest case in Malaysia. The model explains that maximum level of human infection rate of dengue fever achieved in a very short period. It is also revealed that there existed suitability result between theoretical and empirical calculation using the model. The result of SEIR model will hopefully provide an insight into the spread of dengue fever in Selangor Malaysia and basic form for modeling this area.

  4. Urbanisation of yellow fever in Santa Cruz, Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Van der Stuyft, P; Gianella, A; Pirard, M; Cespedes, J; Lora, J; Peredo, C; Pelegrino, J L; Vorndam, V; Boelaert, M

    1999-05-01

    Until recently, urban yellow fever had not been reported from the Americas since 1954, but jungle yellow fever increasingly affects forest dwellers in Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru. The reinvasion by Aedes aegypti of cities in the Americas now threatens to urbanize yellow fever. After yellow fever infection was identified in a resident of Santa Cruz, Bolivia, in December 1997, all subsequent suspected cases were investigated. Active surveillance of yellow fever was introduced in the Santa Cruz area, with hospitals and selected urban and rural health centers reporting all suspected cases. Patients were serologically screened for yellow fever, dengue, hepatitis A and B, and leptospirosis; clinical and epidemiological data were collected from patients' records and through interviews; and a population-based serosurvey was conducted in the neighborhood of one case. Between December 1997 and June 1998, symptomatic yellow fever infection was confirmed in 6 residents of Santa Cruz, of whom 5 died. 5 lived in the southern sector of the city. 2 cases did not leave the city during their incubation period, and 1 had visited only an area in which sylvatic transmission was deemed impossible. Of the 281 people covered in the serosurvey, 16 (6%) were positive for IgM antibody to yellow fever. Among 5 people for whom that result could not be explained by recent vaccination, there were 2 pairs of neighbors. This instance of urban yellow fever transmission was limited in both time and space.

  5. Managing the child with a fever.

    PubMed

    Hague, Rosie

    2015-01-01

    Most illnesses associated with fever are self-limiting and children recover with no specific treatment. However, fever can also be the presenting feature of serious illness, which may be life threatening if not diagnosed and treated appropriately. It is important to establish whether the temperature has been measured and, if so, how. The height of the temperature should be recorded, and always enquire what device has been used, as a reading from a forehead thermometer may not be accurate. While many families will use a thermometer the impression of the child being hot to touch without formal measurement should still be taken seriously. Check whether the child is still feeding or taking fluids adequately. Any child may be irritable when their temperature is high, but a constantly irritable or inconsolable child, or one who is extremely lethargic, drowsy or difficult to rouse is a cause for concern. Ask about any skin changes or rashes the parent may have noticed. Find out what measures the parent may already have taken to manage the fever, and in particular, whether, and at what time, antipyretics have been given. Enquire about contact with infectious illnesses, and foreign travel. Other vital signs, including heart rate, respiratory rate and capillary refill time should also be recorded. The child should be examined for focal signs indicating the site of infection, and hydration should be assessed. Posture, tone, fontanelle (if patent), presence of a rash, neck stiffness and level of consciousness should also be assessed. If the diagnosis is unclear, potentially serious, and specific treatment may be needed to prevent deterioration, the child should be referred.

  6. Cardiac Apoptosis in Severe Relapsing Fever Borreliosis

    PubMed Central

    Londoño, Diana; Bai, Yunhong; Zückert, Wolfram R.; Gelderblom, Harald; Cadavid, Diego

    2005-01-01

    Previous studies revealed that the heart suffers significant injury during experimental Lyme and relapsing fever borreliosis when the immune response is impaired (D. Cadavid, Y. Bai, E. Hodzic, K. Narayan, S. W. Barthold, and A. R. Pachner, Lab. Investig. 84:1439-1450, 2004; D. Cadavid, T. O'Neill, H. Schaefer, and A. R. Pachner, Lab. Investig. 80:1043-1054, 2000; and D. Cadavid, D. D. Thomas, R. Crawley, and A. G. Barbour, J. Exp. Med. 179:631-642, 1994). To investigate cardiac injury in borrelia carditis, we used antibody-deficient mice persistently infected with isogenic serotypes of the relapsing fever agent Borrelia turicatae. We studied infection in hearts 1 to 2 months after inoculation by TaqMan reverse transcription-PCR and immunohistochemistry (IHC) and inflammation by hematoxylin and eosin and trichrome staining, IHC, and in situ hybridization (ISH). We studied apoptosis by terminal transferase-mediated DNA nick end labeling assay and measured expression of apoptotic molecules by RNase protection assay, immunofluorescence, and immunoblot. All antibody-deficient mice, but none of the immunocompetent controls, developed persistent infection of the heart. Antibody-deficient mice infected with serotype 2 had more severe cardiac infection and injury than serotype 1-infected mice. The injury was more severe around the base of the heart and pericardium, corresponding to sites of marked infiltration by activated macrophages and upregulation of interleukin-6 (IL-6). Infected hearts showed evidence of apoptosis of macrophages and cardiomyocytes as well as significant upregulation of caspases, most notably caspase-1. We conclude that persistent infection with relapsing fever borrelias causes significant loss of cardiomyocytes associated with prominent infiltration by activated macrophages, upregulation of IL-6, induction of caspase-1, and apoptosis. PMID:16239571

  7. Vaccine Platforms to Control Arenaviral Hemorrhagic Fevers.

    PubMed

    Carrion, Ricardo; Bredenbeek, Peter; Jiang, Xiaohong; Tretyakova, Irina; Pushko, Peter; Lukashevich, Igor S

    2012-11-20

    Arenaviruses are rodent-borne emerging human pathogens. Diseases caused by these viruses, e.g., Lassa fever (LF) in West Africa and South American hemorrhagic fevers (HFs), are serious public health problems in endemic areas. We have employed replication-competent and replication-deficient strategies to design vaccine candidates potentially targeting different groups "at risk". Our leader LF vaccine candidate, the live reassortant vaccine ML29, is safe and efficacious in all tested animal models including non-human primates. In this study we showed that treatment of fatally infected animals with ML29 two days after Lassa virus (LASV) challenge protected 80% of the treated animals. In endemic areas, where most of the target population is poor and many live far from health care facilities, a single-dose vaccination with ML29 would be ideal solution. Once there is an outbreak, a fast-acting vaccine or post-exposure prophylaxis would be best. The 2(nd) vaccine technology is based on Yellow Fever (YF) 17D vaccine. We designed YF17D-based recombinant viruses expressing LASV glycoproteins (GP) and showed protective efficacy of these recombinants. In the current study we developed a novel technology to clone LASV nucleocapsid within YF17D C gene. Low immunogenicity and stability of foreign inserts must be addressed to design successful LASV/YFV bivalent vaccines to control LF and YF in overlapping endemic areas of West Africa. The 3(rd) platform is based on the new generation of alphavirus replicon virus-like-particle vectors (VLPV). Using this technology we designed VLPV expressing LASV GP with enhanced immunogenicity and bivalent VLPV expressing cross-reactive GP of Junin virus (JUNV) and Machupo virus (MACV), causative agents of Argentinian and Bolivian HF, respectively. A prime-boost regimen required for VLPV immunization might be practical for medical providers, military, lab personnel, and visitors in endemic areas.

  8. Titration of African swine fever (ASF) virus.

    PubMed

    Enjuanes, L; Carrascosa, A L; Moreno, M A; Viñuela, E

    1976-09-01

    A haemadsorption microtest for African swine fever (ASF) virus is described. This assay is as sensitive and its response is faster than the conventional assay which uses buffy coat cultures in Leighton tubes. The method can also process a larger number of samples by using smaller amounts of swine blood and laboratory space. A plaque assay for ASF virus adapted to grow in VERO cells gives a titre similar to that obtained using the haemadsorption microtest. In both the micromethod and the plaque assay infection may be produced by a single infective particle. PMID:823294

  9. Fever of unknown origin in cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Loizidou, A; Aoun, M; Klastersky, J

    2016-05-01

    Fever of unknown origin (FUO) remains a challenging clinical problem, namely in patients with cancer. In cancer patients, FUO may be due to the cancer itself, as it is the case of hematological malignancies; digestive tumors (colon cancer, liver metastases) are significantly associated with FUO and infection can be demonstrated in some cases. Prevention with G-CSF and empirical antimicrobial therapy are essential approaches for the management of FUO in cancer patients. New diagnostic approaches, such as PET imaging, should be further evaluated in cancer patients with FUO. PMID:26995082

  10. Chikungunya fever in Los Angeles, California.

    PubMed

    Harter, Katherine R; Bhatt, Sanjay; Kim, Hyung T; Mallon, William K

    2014-11-01

    We report the case of a 33-year-old woman returning from Haiti, presenting to our emergency department (ED) with fever, rash and arthralgia. Following a broad workup that included laboratory testing for dengue and malaria, our patient was diagnosed with Chikungunya virus, which was then reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for initiation of infection control. This case demonstrates the importance of the ED for infectious disease case identification and initiation of public health measures. This case also addresses public health implications of Chikungunya virus within the United States, and issues related to the potential for local spread and autochthonous cases.

  11. Titration of African swine fever (ASF) virus.

    PubMed

    Enjuanes, L; Carrascosa, A L; Moreno, M A; Viñuela, E

    1976-09-01

    A haemadsorption microtest for African swine fever (ASF) virus is described. This assay is as sensitive and its response is faster than the conventional assay which uses buffy coat cultures in Leighton tubes. The method can also process a larger number of samples by using smaller amounts of swine blood and laboratory space. A plaque assay for ASF virus adapted to grow in VERO cells gives a titre similar to that obtained using the haemadsorption microtest. In both the micromethod and the plaque assay infection may be produced by a single infective particle.

  12. Relapsing Fever Borreliae: A Global Review.

    PubMed

    Cutler, Sally J

    2015-12-01

    Relapsing fever borreliae were notorious and feared infectious agents that earned their place in history through their devastating impact as causes of both epidemic and endemic infection. They are now considered more as an oddity, and their burden of infection is largely overshadowed by other infections such as malaria, which presents in a similar clinical way. Despite this, they remain the most common bacterial infection in some developing countries. Transmitted by soft ticks or lice, these fascinating spirochetes have evolved a myriad of mechanisms to survive within their diverse environments. PMID:26593261

  13. Ultrasound findings in dengue haemorrhagic fever.

    PubMed

    Pramuljo, H S; Harun, S R

    1991-01-01

    The ultrasound examination of 29 children, aged between 2 to 13 years with clinical and serological proven dengue haemorrhagic fever were reviewed and correlated with the findings in the literature. Ultrasound findings consisted of: (1) ascites, (2) pleural effusion, (3) abnormal gallbladder wall and (4) abnormal liver parenchyma. Ascites is common in DHF. Pleural effusion was found on the right and on bilateral pleural spaces. There was no isolated left pleural effusions. The abnormal gallbladder wall has never been mentioned before in the literature and the abnormal liver parenchyma might be due to intraparenchymal and subcapsular haemorrhages.

  14. [Epidemiology of dengue fever in Taiwan].

    PubMed

    Ko, Y C

    1989-01-01

    Dengue fever, a tropical communicable disease, is caused by an infectious viral disease. It is also known as break bone fever. There have been a number of epidemics over the last century in Taiwan. Following an islandwide epidemic in 1942, dengue fever had not been presented on the island for about forty years. In 1981, an outbreak of dengue occurred in Liuchiu Hsiang, a small off-shore island of Pingtung county. The estimated attack rate was 80%. DEN-2 was isolated during that outbreak. Another occurrence occurred in the fall of 1987 in the southern part of Taiwan. The accumulated reported cases reached 1,387 at the end of that year. A majority of cases were reported in the Sanmin district of Kaohsiung city. The reported cumulative incidence was 0.2% in Sanmin. However, according to one survey, the attack rate in that area was 2.9%. DEN-1 was most commonly isolated but DEN-2 was also found in five cases. The latest outbreak took place in 1988. The estimation of reported cases exceeded 10,000 at the end of November, 1988. Two cases of dengue haemorrhagic fever were confirmed. More than fifty percent of the report case came from Kaohsiung city. The reported cumulative incidence rate was 0.5% in that area. Another survey reported that the adult attack rate exceeded 5% in the same area. It is estimated that the number of patients with mild symptoms and those without any symptoms would be a few times more than the number of those actually reported. However, a large space of herd immunity for susceptible hosts has remained. DEN-1 was isolated from all of the reported cases except two in which DEN-4 were isolated. Among the various variables which would effect the proliferation of disease, such as Aedes aegypti density, precipitation, and temperature, only a prior month of precipitation can explain the outbreak of dengue by stepwise multiple regression. Besides this, there was also a higher relative risk due to a higher population density with a trend correlation

  15. Dengue hemorrhagic fever in Thai society.

    PubMed

    Kantachuvessiri, Aree

    2002-03-01

    Dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) is one of the most important infectious diseases in Thailand for many decades. Knowledge of DHF is vital to its control. Like other tropical countries, Thailand is facing this resurgent disease. The Thai National Dengue Prevention and Control Plan has been recently implemented to prevent and reduce the problems resulting from the spread of DHF. In this paper, a three-pronged strategy is offered that will create social mobilization at family, community, and national level and that will, therefore, reduce the socioeconomic and health impacts of DHF.

  16. Recurrence of Rift Valley fever in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Arthur, R R; el-Sharkawy, M S; Cope, S E; Botros, B A; Oun, S; Morrill, J C; Shope, R E; Hibbs, R G; Darwish, M A; Imam, I Z

    1993-11-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) has been recorded in man and in domestic animals in Egypt after a 12-year absence. Human infections were first noted in the Aswan Governorate in late May, 1993. Only cases of ocular disease, an infrequent and late manifestation, were reported. Of 41 cases, 35 were tested serologically and 27 (77%) had RVF virus-specific IgM antibodies. An estimated 600-1500 infections occurred in the region. Abortions in cattle and buffalo were seen concurrently and antibodies to RVFV were present in 39% of domestic livestock, presumably unvaccinated. RVFV was isolated from an aborted water buffalo fetus.

  17. Temperature and UV-B-insensitive performance in tadpoles of the ornate burrowing frog: an ephemeral pond specialist.

    PubMed

    Kern, Pippa; Cramp, Rebecca L; Franklin, Craig E

    2014-04-15

    Animals may overcome the challenges of temperature instability through behavioural and physiological mechanisms in response to short- and long-term temperature changes. When ectotherms face the challenge of large diel temperature fluctuations, one strategy may be to reduce the thermal sensitivity of key traits in order to maintain performance across the range of temperatures experienced. Additional stressors may limit the ability of animals to respond to these thermally challenging environments through changes to energy partitioning or interactive effects. Ornate burrowing frog (Platyplectrum ornatum) tadpoles develop in shallow ephemeral pools that experience high diel thermal variability (>20°C) and can be exposed to high levels of UV-B radiation. Here, we investigated how development in fluctuating versus stable temperature conditions in the presence of high or low UV-B radiation influences thermal tolerance and thermal sensitivity of performance traits of P. ornatum tadpoles. Tadpoles developed in either stable (24°C) or fluctuating temperatures (18-32°C) under high or low UV-B conditions. Tadpoles were tested for upper critical thermal limits, thermal dependence of resting metabolic rate and maximum burst swimming performance. We hypothesised that developmental responses to thermal fluctuations would increase thermal tolerance and reduce thermal dependence of physiological traits, and that trade-offs in the allocation of metabolic resources towards repairing UV-B-induced damage may limit the ability to maintain performance over the full range of temperatures experienced. We found that P. ornatum tadpoles were thermally insensitive for both burst swimming performance, across the range of temperatures tested, and resting metabolic rate at high temperatures independent of developmental conditions. Maintenance of performance led to a trade-off for growth under fluctuating temperatures and UV-B exposure. Temperature treatment and UV-B exposure had an interactive

  18. Evaluation of regression methodology with low-frequency water quality sampling to estimate constituent loads for ephemeral watersheds in Texas.

    PubMed

    Toor, Gurpal S; Harmel, R Daren; Haggard, Brian E; Schmidt, Gerd

    2008-01-01

    Water quality regulation and litigation have elevated the awareness and need for quantifying water quality and source contributions in watersheds across the USA. In the present study, the regression method, which is typically applied to large (perennial) rivers, was evaluated in its ability to estimate constituent loads (NO(3)-N, total N, PO(4)-P, total P, sediment) on three small (ephemeral) watersheds with different land uses in Texas. Specifically, regression methodology was applied with daily flow data collected with bubbler stage recorders in hydraulic structures and with water quality data collected with four low-frequency sampling strategies: random, rise and fall, peak, and single stage. Estimated loads were compared with measured loads determined in 2001-2004 with an autosampler and high-frequency sampling strategies. Although annual rainfall and runoff volumes were relatively consistent within watersheds during the study period, measured annual nutrient and sediment concentrations and loads varied considerably for the cultivated and mixed watersheds but not for the pasture watershed. Likewise, estimated loads were much better for the pasture watershed than the cultivated and mixed landuse watersheds because of more consistent land management and vegetation type in the pasture watershed, which produced stronger correlations between constituent loads and mean daily flow rates. Load estimates for PO(4)-P were better than for other constituents possibly because PO(4)-P concentrations were less variable within storm events. Correlations between constituent concentrations and mean daily flow rate were poor and not significant for all watersheds, which is different than typically observed in large rivers. The regression method was quite variable in its ability to accurately estimate annual nutrient loads from the study watersheds; however, constituent load estimates were much more accurate for the combined 3-yr period. Thus, it is suggested that for small

  19. The role of vegetation in the formation of anabranching channels in an ephemeral river, Northern plains, arid central Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tooth, Stephen; Nanson, Gerald C.

    2000-10-01

    As the distribution and abundance of vegetation in drylands is often controlled by the greater availability of water along river channels, riparian vegetation has the potential to influence significantly dryland river form, process and behaviour. This paper demonstrates how a small indigenous shrub, the inland teatree (Melaleuca glomerata), influences the formation and maintenance of anabranching channels in a reach of the ephemeral Marshall River, Northern Plains, arid central Australia. Here, the Marshall is characterized by ridge-form anabranching, where water and sediment are routed through subparallel, multiple channels of variable size which occur within a typically straight channel-train. Channels are separated by channel-train ridges - narrow, flow-aligned, vegetated features - or by wider islands. By providing a substantial element of boundary roughness, dense stands of teatrees growing on channel beds or atop the ridges and islands influence flow velocities, flow depths and sediment transport, resulting in flow diversion, bank and floodplain erosion, and especially sediment deposition. Ridges and islands represent a continuum of forms, and their formation and development can be divided into a three-stage sequence involving teatree growth and alluvial sedimentation.1Teatrees colonize a flat, sandy channel bed, initiating the formation of ridges by lee-side accretion. Individual ridges grow laterally, vertically and longitudinally and maintain a geometrically similar streamlined (lemniscate) form that presents minimum drag.2Individual ridges grow in size, and interact with neighbouring ridges, causing the lemniscate forms to become distorted. Ridges in the lee of other ridges tend to be protected from the erosive effects of floods and survive, whereas individual teatrees or small ridges exposed to flow concentrated between larger ridges, tend to be removed.3

  20. Hydro-Chemical Characterization and Microbiology Monitoring to Determine Optimal Restoration Strategies for the Ephemeral Hebron-Besor Transboundary Streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asaf, L.; Nagouker, N.; Angel, R.; Ronen, Z.; Nejidat, A.; Tal, A.; Laronne, J.; Al Khateeb, N.

    2006-12-01

    The Hebron/Besor drainage basin is the largest watershed flowing to the Mediterranean, in Israel and the Palestinian Authority (3,500 Km2). The basin receives high pollution loads both from point and non-point sources. The main sources are: untreated domestic wastewater from the PA city of Hebron and slurry from stone cutting industry, estimated jointly to be 15,000 m3/day. On-going discharge of untreated wastewater to the stream has completely altered its morphology and ecology. From a quasi-natural ephemeral wadi eco- system it became one with perennial and polluted flow. The research was conducted along ~100km of the stream and included measurements of stream discharge, standard chemical parameters, organic C content of the sediments and molecular analysis of the ammonia oxidizing bacteria community (AOB). At the upper sections of the watershed (in the Palestinian authority), the water quality was very low, dominated by the presence of raw sewage. High levels of BOD and COD were found in the water, Nitrosomonas eutropha sequences were present in the stream sediments and were absent in both the bank soils and the unpolluted spring. Our measurements indicated that in the upper part of the watershed 62-75% of the sewage infiltrates and pollutes the subsurface all year around. The water quality improved along the flow-pass (in Israeli territory) in most common effluent parameters (eg BOD, COD, Ammonia). The improvement was most prominent following the sedimentation of the stone cutting slurry, which resulted in nitrification of the organic material. Even so, organic loads and pollution levels in the middle and the lower sections of the stream were higher than the recommended standard. Our findings emphasize that progress in river restoration requires cooperation between Israelis and Palestinians due to the transboundary nature of the surface water resources. Wastewater facilities in the middle part of the stream, as planned by the Israeli government, will not solve

  1. Fever in a traveler returning from the Amazon. Do not forget hepatitis A.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Burke A; Teper, Rina Seerke; Raza, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    Travelers returning from the tropics with fever remain a diagnostic challenge. Fever and chills suggest malaria, but may be present in dengue, chikungunya and influenza, and splenomegaly favors malaria or typhoid fever. In terms of laboratory tests, leukopenia suggests dengue fever, chikungunya fever or influenza. Atypical lymphocytes are present in malaria, dengue fever, chikungunya fever and influenza HAV, but not typhoid fever. Thrombocytopenia is profound in dengue fever, is also present in influenza and malaria. Mildly increased serum transaminases are common in malaria, typhoid fever, dengue fever, chikungunya fever and influenza while very high serum transaminases point to HAV. We present a case of a young woman traveler returning from the Amazon with splenomegaly, leukopenia, atypical lymphocytes, elevated LDH and minimally elevated serum transaminases who was found to have acute hepatitis A infection. PMID:27051578

  2. Researching the Ephemeral.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Julia M.

    Histories of rhetoric in composition studies have been determined largely by the politics of the discipline. Rhetoric tends to be thought of in a somewhat narrow sense, defined by the writing courses and programs of universities. The field has strengthened itself by researching the histories of rhetoric in the academy from classical time to the…

  3. Typhoid fever in Fiji: a reversible plague?

    PubMed

    Thompson, Corinne N; Kama, Mike; Acharya, Shrish; Bera, Una; Clemens, John; Crump, John A; Dawainavesi, Aggie; Dougan, Gordon; Edmunds, W John; Fox, Kimberley; Jenkins, Kylie; Khan, M Imran; Koroivueta, Josefa; Levine, Myron M; Martin, Laura B; Nilles, Eric; Pitzer, Virginia E; Singh, Shalini; Raiwalu, Ratu Vereniki; Baker, Stephen; Mulholland, Kim

    2014-10-01

    The country of Fiji, with a population of approximately 870 000 people, faces a growing burden of several communicable diseases including the bacterial infection typhoid fever. Surveillance data suggest that typhoid has become increasingly common in rural areas of Fiji and is more frequent amongst young adults. Transmission of the organisms that cause typhoid is facilitated by faecal contamination of food or water and may be influenced by local behavioural practices in Fiji. The Fijian Ministry of Health, with support from Australian Aid, hosted a meeting in August 2012 to develop comprehensive control and prevention strategies for typhoid fever in Fiji. International and local specialists were invited to share relevant data and discuss typhoid control options. The resultant recommendations focused on generating a clearer sense of the epidemiology of typhoid in Fiji and exploring the contribution of potential transmission pathways. Additionally, the panel suggested steps such as ensuring that recommended ciprofloxacin doses are appropriate to reduce the potential for relapse and reinfection in clinical cases, encouraging proper hand hygiene of food and drink handlers, working with water and sanitation agencies to review current sanitation practices and considering a vaccination policy targeting epidemiologically relevant populations. PMID:25066005

  4. Emergence of Q fever arthritis in France.

    PubMed

    Angelakis, Emmanouil; Edouard, Sophie; Lafranchi, Marie-Alix; Pham, Thao; Lafforgue, Pierre; Raoult, Didier

    2014-04-01

    Osteoarticular infection is an uncommon presentation of Q fever. Positron emission tomography (PET) scanning is a valuable tool for the diagnosis of Coxiella burnetii graft prosthesis infection and endocarditis. Our objective was to test a series of culture-negative osteoarticular samples using molecular assays for Coxiella burnetii. We tested for C. burnetii by molecular assays targeting the IS1111 and the IS30A spacer regions, using culture-negative osteoarticular samples obtained in our laboratory between January 2011 and December 2012. We examine a total of 1,410 osteoarticular samples, and we observed two cases of arthritis and subacromial bursitis caused by C. burnetii. The infections were localized using PET scanning, and the diagnosis was confirmed through serology. For one, a C. burnetii strain with a multispacer sequence type 8 genotype was isolated from synovial fluid culture. Q fever articular infections could be undiagnosed because of the long evolution of articular attack, and patients with high antibody titers against C. burnetii should be tested using PET scanning to localize the site of infection.

  5. Dengue Fever: Causes, Complications, and Vaccine Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Khanna, Ira

    2016-01-01

    Dengue is a highly endemic infectious disease of the tropical countries and is rapidly becoming a global burden. It is caused by any of the 4 serotypes of dengue virus and is transmitted within humans through female Aedes mosquitoes. Dengue disease varies from mild fever to severe conditions of dengue hemorrhagic fever and shock syndrome. Globalization, increased air travel, and unplanned urbanization have led to increase in the rate of infection and helped dengue to expand its geographic and demographic distribution. Dengue vaccine development has been a challenging task due to the existence of four antigenically distinct dengue virus serotypes, each capable of eliciting cross-reactive and disease-enhancing antibody response against the remaining three serotypes. Recently, Sanofi Pasteur's chimeric live-attenuated dengue vaccine candidate has been approved in Mexico, Brazil, and Philippines for usage in adults between 9 and 45 years of age. The impact of its limited application to the public health system needs to be evaluated. Simultaneously, the restricted application of this vaccine candidate warrants continued efforts in developing a dengue vaccine candidate which is additionally efficacious for infants and naïve individuals. In this context, alternative strategies of developing a designed vaccine candidate which does not allow production of enhancing antibodies should be explored, as it may expand the umbrella of efficacy to include infants and naïve individuals. PMID:27525287

  6. Typhoid fever in Fiji: a reversible plague?

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Corinne N; Kama, Mike; Acharya, Shrish; Bera, Una; Clemens, John; Crump, John A; Dawainavesi, Aggie; Dougan, Gordon; Edmunds, W John; Fox, Kimberley; Jenkins, Kylie; Khan, M Imran; Koroivueta, Josefa; Levine, Myron M; Martin, Laura B; Nilles, Eric; Pitzer, Virginia E; Singh, Shalini; Raiwalu, Ratu Vereniki; Baker, Stephen; Mulholland, Kim

    2014-01-01

    The country of Fiji, with a population of approximately 870 000 people, faces a growing burden of several communicable diseases including the bacterial infection typhoid fever. Surveillance data suggest that typhoid has become increasingly common in rural areas of Fiji and is more frequent amongst young adults. Transmission of the organisms that cause typhoid is facilitated by faecal contamination of food or water and may be influenced by local behavioural practices in Fiji. The Fijian Ministry of Health, with support from Australian Aid, hosted a meeting in August 2012 to develop comprehensive control and prevention strategies for typhoid fever in Fiji. International and local specialists were invited to share relevant data and discuss typhoid control options. The resultant recommendations focused on generating a clearer sense of the epidemiology of typhoid in Fiji and exploring the contribution of potential transmission pathways. Additionally, the panel suggested steps such as ensuring that recommended ciprofloxacin doses are appropriate to reduce the potential for relapse and reinfection in clinical cases, encouraging proper hand hygiene of food and drink handlers, working with water and sanitation agencies to review current sanitation practices and considering a vaccination policy targeting epidemiologically relevant populations. PMID:25066005

  7. Typhoid fever in Fiji: a reversible plague?

    PubMed

    Thompson, Corinne N; Kama, Mike; Acharya, Shrish; Bera, Una; Clemens, John; Crump, John A; Dawainavesi, Aggie; Dougan, Gordon; Edmunds, W John; Fox, Kimberley; Jenkins, Kylie; Khan, M Imran; Koroivueta, Josefa; Levine, Myron M; Martin, Laura B; Nilles, Eric; Pitzer, Virginia E; Singh, Shalini; Raiwalu, Ratu Vereniki; Baker, Stephen; Mulholland, Kim

    2014-10-01

    The country of Fiji, with a population of approximately 870 000 people, faces a growing burden of several communicable diseases including the bacterial infection typhoid fever. Surveillance data suggest that typhoid has become increasingly common in rural areas of Fiji and is more frequent amongst young adults. Transmission of the organisms that cause typhoid is facilitated by faecal contamination of food or water and may be influenced by local behavioural practices in Fiji. The Fijian Ministry of Health, with support from Australian Aid, hosted a meeting in August 2012 to develop comprehensive control and prevention strategies for typhoid fever in Fiji. International and local specialists were invited to share relevant data and discuss typhoid control options. The resultant recommendations focused on generating a clearer sense of the epidemiology of typhoid in Fiji and exploring the contribution of potential transmission pathways. Additionally, the panel suggested steps such as ensuring that recommended ciprofloxacin doses are appropriate to reduce the potential for relapse and reinfection in clinical cases, encouraging proper hand hygiene of food and drink handlers, working with water and sanitation agencies to review current sanitation practices and considering a vaccination policy targeting epidemiologically relevant populations.

  8. Fever, hyperthermia and the heat shock response.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ishwar S; Hasday, Jeffrey D

    2013-08-01

    The heat shock response is a highly conserved primitive response that is essential for survival against a wide range of stresses, including extremes of temperature. Fever is a more recently evolved response, during which organisms raise their core body temperature and temporarily subject themselves to thermal stress in the face of infections. The present review documents studies showing the potential overlap between the febrile response and the heat shock response and how both activate the same common transcriptional programme (although with different magnitudes) including the stress-activated transcription factor, heat shock factor-1, to modify host defences in the context of infection, inflammation and injury. The review focuses primarily on how hyperthermia within the febrile range that often accompanies infections and inflammation acts as a biological response modifier and modifies innate immune responses. The characteristic 2-3 °C increase in core body temperature during fever activates and utilises elements of the heat shock response pathway to modify cytokine and chemokine gene expression, cellular signalling and immune cell mobilisation to sites of inflammation, infection and injury. Interestingly, typical proinflammatory agonists such as Toll-like receptor agonists modify the heat shock-induced transcriptional programme and expression of HSP genes following co-exposure to febrile range hyperthermia or heat shock, suggesting a complex reciprocal regulation between the inflammatory pathway and the heat shock response pathway. PMID:23863046

  9. Dengue Fever: Causes, Complications, and Vaccine Strategies.

    PubMed

    Khetarpal, Niyati; Khanna, Ira

    2016-01-01

    Dengue is a highly endemic infectious disease of the tropical countries and is rapidly becoming a global burden. It is caused by any of the 4 serotypes of dengue virus and is transmitted within humans through female Aedes mosquitoes. Dengue disease varies from mild fever to severe conditions of dengue hemorrhagic fever and shock syndrome. Globalization, increased air travel, and unplanned urbanization have led to increase in the rate of infection and helped dengue to expand its geographic and demographic distribution. Dengue vaccine development has been a challenging task due to the existence of four antigenically distinct dengue virus serotypes, each capable of eliciting cross-reactive and disease-enhancing antibody response against the remaining three serotypes. Recently, Sanofi Pasteur's chimeric live-attenuated dengue vaccine candidate has been approved in Mexico, Brazil, and Philippines for usage in adults between 9 and 45 years of age. The impact of its limited application to the public health system needs to be evaluated. Simultaneously, the restricted application of this vaccine candidate warrants continued efforts in developing a dengue vaccine candidate which is additionally efficacious for infants and naïve individuals. In this context, alternative strategies of developing a designed vaccine candidate which does not allow production of enhancing antibodies should be explored, as it may expand the umbrella of efficacy to include infants and naïve individuals. PMID:27525287

  10. Platelet transfusion practice during dengue fever epidemic.

    PubMed

    Kumar, N D; Tomar, V; Singh, B; Kela, K

    2000-01-01

    Blood components especially platelet concentrates due to their short shelf life are frequently in limited supply. Appropriate use of blood components is required to ensure their availability for needy patients as well as to avoid the unnecessary risk of transfusion-transmitted diseases. Medical audit of blood transfusion practice, which forms an important part of quality assurance programme in a transfusion centre, can provide grounds for improvement in transfusion medicine practice. During the epidemic of dengue fever in Oct., 1996, 1837 patients were admitted as dengue haemorrhagic fever in a teaching hospital in Delhi. Two hundred and eight patients (11.3%) were given platelet transfusions. Retrospective analysis of these platelet transfusions was done. It was observed that in only 52 (25%) out of 208 patients the information on platelet counts was provided. History of active bleeding was obtained only in 65 (31.2%) patients. About 35% patients received unnecessary prophylactic transfusions and during 89% of the transfusion episodes inappropriate dose of platelet concentrate was given. Information regarding post-transfusion recovery could be obtained in only 16.5% of transfusion episodes. The study emphasises the need for development of specific guidelines for transfusion of blood components, constant interaction and co-ordination amongst clinicians and transfusion centre for implementation of these guidelines, and a regular medical audit to review the optimal utilisation of blood components.

  11. Dengue haemorrhagic fever in Malaysia: a review.

    PubMed

    George, R

    1987-09-01

    The historical background, epidemiology and changing pattern of clinical disease as seen in Malaysia is reviewed. The preliminary results of the longitudinal study of epidemiology of dengue in Malaysia is also presented. Studies led by Rudnick et al. over some 18 years have established that the disease is endemically transmitted by both Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus causing illnesses ranging from mild febrile episodes through classical dengue fever, dengue haemorrhagic fever and the dengue shock syndrome. The first epidemic occurred in 1962 in Penang, and the second major epidemic in 1974 in Selangor. From then on epidemics seem to occur every 4 years, i.e. 1978, and then in 1982. With increasing number of cases being seen from the end of 1985 and in 1986, and with the increasing numbers of positive virus isolates, another epidemic may occur this year. Though in the early years, mainly children were affected, recently more cases are being seen in 16-30 years age group. There is also a changing pattern in the clinical presentation of the cases. The clinician has to be aware of the various modes of presentation of this sinister disease. A high index of suspicion is needed for early diagnosis, as management is mainly symptomatic and there is no specific drug as yet to combat the shock and bleeding manifestations.

  12. Prognostic value of fever grade combined with neutrophil percentage in hepatocellular carcinoma patients presenting fever as the initial manifestation

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Zi-Jun; Guo, Wei; Sun, Yun-Fan; Zhang, Xin; Qiu, Shuang-Jian; Zhou, Jian; Fan, Jia; Yang, Xin-Rong

    2016-01-01

    Background Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients with fever as the initial presentation are extremely rare. Our aim was to investigate the clinical characteristics and prognosis of patients with this disease. Patients and methods The clinical features were analyzed in a retrospective study of 63 HCC patients with fever as the first manifestation and 300 HCC patients without fever as the control group. Results HCC patients with fever had a higher neutrophil percentage, larger tumor size, worse tumor differentiation, advanced Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer stage, and more hilar lymph node metastasis than HCC patients without fever (all P<0.05). Compared with HCC patients without fever, patients presenting with fever had shorter overall survival (OS, median: 13 months, P<0.001) and time to recurrence (TTR, median: 7.5 months, P<0.001). In addition, HCC patients with fever also had shorter OS and TTR than those without fever in all clinical subgroups with aggressive features (all P<0.05). Multivariate analysis showed that neutrophil percentage >70%, fever grade ≥38.5°C, tumor size >5 cm, and hilar lymph node metastasis were independent factors for OS and TTR. A positive correlation was observed between body temperature and serum neutrophil percentage (r=0.527, P<0.001). Patients with a fever grade ≥38.5°C had more incomplete encapsulation and larger tumor size, while those with a neutrophil percentage >70% presented with more incomplete encapsulation, vascular invasion, and worse tumor differentiation. Patients with a fever grade ≥38.5°C combined with a neutrophil percentage >70% had worse OS and TTR than other groups. Conclusion HCC patients presenting with fever have poorer prognosis than those without fever; however, their prognosis could be improved by timely surgical intervention. Patients with a neutrophil percentage >70% and a fever grade ≥38.5°C represent a rare HCC subgroup with an extremely dismal outcome and more aggressive clinical course. PMID

  13. Close Relationship of Ruminant Pestiviruses and Classical Swine Fever Virus

    PubMed Central

    Postel, Alexander; Schmeiser, Stefanie; Oguzoglu, Tuba Cigdem; Indenbirken, Daniela; Alawi, Malik; Fischer, Nicole; Grundhoff, Adam

    2015-01-01

    To determine why serum from small ruminants infected with ruminant pestiviruses reacted positively to classical swine fever virus (CSFV)–specific diagnostic tests, we analyzed 2 pestiviruses from Turkey. They differed genetically and antigenically from known Pestivirus species and were closely related to CSFV. Cross-reactions would interfere with classical swine fever diagnosis in pigs. PMID:25811683

  14. Rheumatic Fever in the Adult: A Forgotten Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Brian; Swanson, Richard; Smith, Stanley

    1987-01-01

    The authors of this article present a case of acute rheumatic fever in an adult and review the diagnostic criteria for this illness. They emphasize the prevention of acute rheumatic fever by the adequate treatment of streptococcal pharyngitis with penicillin. PMID:21263778

  15. Fever tree revisited: From malaria to autoinflammatory diseases.

    PubMed

    Pastore, Serena; Vuch, Josef; Bianco, Anna Monica; Taddio, Andrea; Tommasini, Alberto

    2015-11-01

    Over the centuries the idea of recurrent fevers has mainly been associated with malaria, but many other fevers, such as typhoid and diphtheria were cause for concern. It is only in recent times, with the more severe forms of fever from infectious origin becoming less frequent or a cause for worry that we started noticing recurrent fevers without any clear infectious cause, being described as having a pathogenesis of autoinflammatory nature. The use of molecular examinations in many cases can allow a diagnosis where the cause is monogenic. In other cases, however the pathogenesis is likely to be multifactorial and the diagnostic-therapeutic approach is strictly clinical. The old fever tree paradigm developed to describe fevers caused by malaria has been revisited here to describe today's periodic fevers from the periodic fever adenitis pharyngitis aphthae syndrome to the more rare autoinflammatory diseases. This model may allow us to place cases that are yet to be identified which are likely to be of multifactorial origin. PMID:26566482

  16. Fever tree revisited: From malaria to autoinflammatory diseases

    PubMed Central

    Pastore, Serena; Vuch, Josef; Bianco, Anna Monica; Taddio, Andrea; Tommasini, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Over the centuries the idea of recurrent fevers has mainly been associated with malaria, but many other fevers, such as typhoid and diphtheria were cause for concern. It is only in recent times, with the more severe forms of fever from infectious origin becoming less frequent or a cause for worry that we started noticing recurrent fevers without any clear infectious cause, being described as having a pathogenesis of autoinflammatory nature. The use of molecular examinations in many cases can allow a diagnosis where the cause is monogenic. In other cases, however the pathogenesis is likely to be multifactorial and the diagnostic-therapeutic approach is strictly clinical. The old fever tree paradigm developed to describe fevers caused by malaria has been revisited here to describe today’s periodic fevers from the periodic fever adenitis pharyngitis aphthae syndrome to the more rare autoinflammatory diseases. This model may allow us to place cases that are yet to be identified which are likely to be of multifactorial origin. PMID:26566482

  17. Louseborne Relapsing Fever among East African Refugees, Italy, 2015.

    PubMed

    Lucchini, Anna; Lipani, Filippo; Costa, Cecilia; Scarvaglieri, Mariaelisabetta; Balbiano, Rosanna; Carosella, Sinibaldo; Calcagno, Andrea; Audagnotto, Sabrina; Barbui, Anna Maria; Brossa, Silvia; Ghisetti, Valeria; Dal Conte, Ivano; Caramello, Pietro; Di Perri, Giovanni

    2016-02-01

    During June 9-September 30, 2015, five cases of louseborne relapsing fever were identified in Turin, Italy. All 5 cases were in young refugees from Somalia, 2 of whom had lived in Italy since 2011. Our report seems to confirm the possibility of local transmission of louse-borne relapsing fever. PMID:26812354

  18. Typhoid Fever Complicated by Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis and Rhabdomyolysis.

    PubMed

    Non, Lemuel R; Patel, Rupa; Esmaeeli, Amir; Despotovic, Vladimir

    2015-11-01

    Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) and rhabdomyolysis are rare complications of typhoid fever from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi. Herein, we describe the clinical features in a 21-year-old female from India who presented to the intensive care unit with fever, severe pancytopenia, and rhabdomyolysis. PMID:26324725

  19. Effects of Vegetation Microclimate on Larval Cattle Fever Tick Survival

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cattle Fever Ticks (CFT), Rhipicephalus annulatus and R. microplus, have been a threat to the livestock industry for many years. These ticks are vectors of cattle fever, a disease produced by the hemoparasite Babesia bovis and B. bigemina. Laboratory research on CFT larval survival has shown that co...

  20. Louseborne Relapsing Fever among East African Refugees, Italy, 2015.

    PubMed

    Lucchini, Anna; Lipani, Filippo; Costa, Cecilia; Scarvaglieri, Mariaelisabetta; Balbiano, Rosanna; Carosella, Sinibaldo; Calcagno, Andrea; Audagnotto, Sabrina; Barbui, Anna Maria; Brossa, Silvia; Ghisetti, Valeria; Dal Conte, Ivano; Caramello, Pietro; Di Perri, Giovanni

    2016-02-01

    During June 9-September 30, 2015, five cases of louseborne relapsing fever were identified in Turin, Italy. All 5 cases were in young refugees from Somalia, 2 of whom had lived in Italy since 2011. Our report seems to confirm the possibility of local transmission of louse-borne relapsing fever.