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Sample records for epicondylitis tennis elbow

  1. A Newly Designed Tennis Elbow Orthosis With a Traditional Tennis Elbow Strap in Patients With Lateral Epicondylitis

    PubMed Central

    Saremi, Hossein; Chamani, Vahid; Vahab-Kashani, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background Lateral epicondylitis is a common cause of pain and upper limb dysfunction. The use of counterforce straps for treatment of lateral epicondylitis is widespread. This kind of orthosis can be modified to have a greater effect on relieving pain by reducing tension on the origin of the extensor pronator muscles. Objectives To determine the immediate effects of a newly designed orthosis on pain and grip strength in patients with lateral epicondylitis. Materials and Methods Twelve participants (six men and six women) were recruited (mean age = 41 ± 6.7 years) and evaluated for pain and grip strength in three sessions. A 48-hour break was taken between each session. The first session was without any orthosis, the second session was with the new modified tennis elbow orthosis, and the third session was with a conventional tennis elbow strap. Results Both counterforce straps were effective. However, significantly more improvement was observed in pain and grip strength after using the newly modified orthosis (P < 0.05). Conclusions The newly designed strap reduces pain more effectively and improves grip strength by causing greater localized pressure on two regions with different force applications (two component vectors versus one). PMID:28180116

  2. Tennis elbow surgery

    MedlinePlus

    Lateral epicondylitis - surgery; Lateral tendinosis - surgery; Lateral tennis elbow - surgery ... Surgery to repair tennis elbow is often an outpatient surgery. This means you will not stay in the hospital overnight. You will be given ...

  3. A CRITICAL REVIEW OF THE CURRENT CONSERVATIVE THERAPIES FOR TENNIS ELBOW (LATERAL EPICONDYLITIS)

    PubMed Central

    Viola, Leonardo

    1998-01-01

    The pathogenesis, pathology, natural course, and in particular the treatment of lateral epicondylitis (tennis elbow) remains controversial. An extensive review of the scientific literature with respect to the conservative treatment of tennis elbow, revealed that acceptable epidemiological techniques of the prospective randomised control trials or case controlled studies are scarce. While administration of steroid compounds has traditionally been the mainstay of conservative treatment of tennis elbow, the high recurrence rate of side effects and structural tissue changes associated with steroid therapy, leaves this modality as the most controversial approach in the treatment of tennis elbow. In contrast, in some studies evidence in favour of a role for classical acupuncture, ultrasound and low level laser as effective therapeutic means in the treatment of tennis elbow has been provided. As these modalities have not been associated with any side effects, in view of the ease of application, low cost and good curative effects, their increased application has been suggested by some authors. This proposition, however, remains rather conjectural until it could be convincingly substantiated by future studies with appropriate epidemiological design. PMID:17987156

  4. Extracorporeal shock wave treatment for chronic lateral epicondylitis (tennis elbow).

    PubMed

    Ho, C

    2007-01-01

    (1) Electrohydraulic, electromagnetic, or piezoelectric devices are used to translate energy into acoustic waves during extracorporeal shock wave treatment (ESWT) for chronic lateral epicondylitis (CLE) of the elbow (elbow tendonitis or tennis elbow). These waves may help to accelerate the healing process via an unknown mechanism. (2) Results from randomized controlled trials have been conflicting. Half of the studies showed statistically significant improvement in pain in the treatment group, and half of the studies had data showing no benefit over placebo for any measured outcomes. (3) Limited evidence shows that ESWT is cheaper than arthroscopic surgery, open surgery, and other conservative therapies, such as steroid infiltrations and physiotherapy, that continue for more than six weeks. (4) The lack of convincing evidence regarding its effectiveness does not support the use of ESWT for CLE.

  5. Tennis elbow surgery - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Lateral epicondylitis surgery - discharge; Lateral tendinosis surgery - discharge; Lateral tennis elbow surgery - discharge ... Soon after surgery, severe pain will decrease, but you may have mild soreness for 3 to 6 months.

  6. Comparison of Effectiveness of Supervised Exercise Program and Cyriax Physiotherapy in Patients with Tennis Elbow (Lateral Epicondylitis): A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Viswas, Rajadurai; Ramachandran, Rejeeshkumar; Korde Anantkumar, Payal

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To compare the effectiveness of supervised exercise program and Cyriax physiotherapy in the treatment of tennis elbow (lateral epicondylitis). Design. Randomized clinical trial. Setting. Physiotherapy and rehabilitation centre. Subjects. This study was carried out with 20 patients, who had tennis elbow (lateral epicondylitis). Intervention. Group A (n = 10) had received supervised exercise program. Group B (n = 10) was treated with Cyriax physiotherapy. All patients received three treatment sessions per week for four weeks (12 treatment sessions). Outcome measures. Pain was evaluated using a visual analogue scale (VAS), and functional status was evaluated by completion of the Tennis Elbow Function Scale (TEFS) which were recorded at base line and at the end of fourth week. Results. Both the supervised exercise program and Cyriax physiotherapy were found to be significantly effective in reduction of pain and in the improvement of functional status. The supervised exercise programme resulted in greater improvement in comparison to those who received Cyriax physiotherapy. Conclusion. The results of this clinical trial demonstrate that the supervised exercise program may be the first treatment choice for therapist in managing tennis elbow. PMID:22629225

  7. Efficacy of tennis elbow (epicondylitis humeri radialis) treatment in CBR "Praxis".

    PubMed

    Pecar, Dzemal; Avdić, Dijana

    2009-02-01

    Tennis elbow (Epicondylitis humeri radialis) is the most frequent reason that patients with elbow pain report to a physician. The exact cause of elbow pain is still unclear. However, it is certainly causally connected with connective intersection between forearm muscle and bone in the elbow region. In this paper, we analyzed patients that, over the period of 15 years, reported to "Praxis" clinic for elbow pain treatment (Epicondylitis humeri radialis). Of the total number of 228 patients, 126 were male, 101 female while one patient was younger than 14. Initial analysis established that average overall health condition grade was 2,87 at the onset of treatment. Following the treatment completion that grade was 4,48. Of the total number of 223 patients who were treated by combined method of manipulation and local corticosteroid instillation, eight patients received physical therapy as well. Thus, surgical treatment was not necessary in any patient. The patients' treatment included: 1. Application of manipulative methods in order to reestablish mobility in the "blocked" radio-humeral and the upper radio-ulnar joints. 2. Local instillation of corticosteroid depot in order to control inflammation (enthesitis) and thus, eliminate pain and establish physiological conditions for functioning of joint and local structures. Unlike conservative method which includes initial immobilization due to irritation and inflammation development prevention with concomitant analgesic and antirheumatic therapy, initial application of manipulation with reinstatement of joint mobility instead of immobilization with subsequent instillation of steroid preparations achieves functional restitution and fast reinstatement of full working ability, as a rule.

  8. Natural course in tennis elbow--lateral epicondylitis after all?

    PubMed

    Zeisig, Eva

    2012-12-01

    Tennis elbow is a common and difficult-to-treat condition largely because of lack of evidence. The natural history is unknown, but the condition is described as self-limiting. The objective of this case report is to describe the natural course of two control participants (pain free), who later developed tennis elbow, patient history, clinical findings, and ultrasound and colour Doppler examination before, during and after a period of tennis elbow.

  9. EFFICACY OF TENNIS ELBOW (EPICONDYLITIS HUMERI RADIALIS) TREATMENT IN CBR “PRAXIS”

    PubMed Central

    Pecar, Džemal; Avdić, Dijana

    2009-01-01

    Tennis elbow (Epicondylitis humeri radialis) is the most frequent reason that patients with elbow pain report to a physician. The exact cause of elbow pain is still unclear. However, it is certainly causally connected with connective intersection between forearm muscle and bone in the elbow region. In this paper, we analyzed patients that, over the period of 15 years, reported to “Praxis” clinic for elbow pain treatment (Epicondylitis humeri radialis). Of the total number of 228 patients, 126 were male, 101 female while one patient was younger than 14. Initial analysis established that average overall health condition grade was 2,87 at the onset of treatment. Following the treatment completion that grade was 4,48. Of the total number of 223 patients who were treated by combined method of manipulation and local corticosteroid instillation, eight patients received physical therapy as well. Thus, surgical treatment was not necessary in any patient. The patients’ treatment included: Application of manipulative methods in order to reestablish mobility in the “blocked” radio-humeral and the upper radio-ulnar joints. Local instillation of corticosteroid depot in order to control inflammation (enthesitis) and thus, eliminate pain and establish physiological conditions for functioning of joint and local structures. Unlike conservative method which includes initial immobilization due to irritation and inflammation development prevention with concomitant analgesic and antirheumatic therapy, initial application of manipulation with reinstatement of joint mobility instead of immobilization with subsequent instillation of steroid preparations achieves functional restitution and fast reinstatement of full working ability, as a rule. PMID:19284391

  10. Lateral epicondylitis of the elbow.

    PubMed

    Tosti, Rick; Jennings, John; Sewards, J Milo

    2013-04-01

    Lateral epicondylitis, or "tennis elbow," is a common musculotendinous degenerative disorder of the extensor origin at the lateral humeral epicondyle. Repetitive occupational or athletic activities involving wrist extension and supination are thought to be causative. The typical symptoms include lateral elbow pain, pain with wrist extension, and weakened grip strength. The diagnosis is made clinically through history and physical examination; however, a thorough understanding of the differential diagnosis is imperative to prevent unnecessary testing and therapies. Most patients improve with nonoperative measures, such as activity modification, physical therapy, and injections. A small percentage of patients will require surgical release of the extensor carpi radialis brevis tendon. Common methods of release may be performed via percutaneous, arthroscopic, or open approaches. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Racquet string tension directly affects force experienced at the elbow: implications for the development of lateral epicondylitis in tennis players

    PubMed Central

    Mohandhas, Badri R; Makaram, Navnit; Drew, Tim S; Wang, Weijie; Arnold, Graham P

    2016-01-01

    Background Lateral epicondylitis (LE) occurs in almost half of all tennis players. Racket-string tension is considered to be an important factor influencing the development of LE. No literature yet exists that substantiates how string-tension affects force transmission to the elbow, as implicated in LE development. We establish a quantitative relationship between string-tension and elbow loading, analyzing tennis strokes using rackets with varying string-tensions. Methods Twenty recreational tennis players simulated backhand tennis strokes using three rackets strung at tensions of 200 N, 222 N and 245 N. Accelerometers recorded accelerations at the elbow, wrist and racket handle. Average peak acceleration was determined to correlate string-tension with elbow loading. Results Statistically significant differences (p < 0.05) were observed when average peak acceleration at the elbow at 200 N string-tension (acceleration of 5.58 m/s2) was compared with that at 222 N tension (acceleration of 6.83 m/s2) and 245 N tension (acceleration of 7.45 m/s2). The 200 N racket induced the least acceleration at the elbow. Conclusions Although parameters determining force transmission to the elbow during a tennis stroke are complex, the present study was able to control these parameters, isolating the effect of string-tension. Lower string-tensions transmit less force to the elbow in backhand strokes. Reducing string-tension should be considered favourably with respect to reducing the risk of developing LE. PMID:27583017

  12. LATERAL EPICONDYLITIS OF THE ELBOW

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Marcio; da Rocha Motta Filho, Geraldo

    2015-01-01

    Lateral epicondylitis, also known as tennis elbow, is a common condition that is estimated to affect 1% to 3% of the population. The word epicondylitis suggests inflammation, although histological analysis on the tissue fails to show any inflammatory process. The structure most commonly affected is the origin of the tendon of the extensor carpi radialis brevis and the mechanism of injury is associated with overloading. Nonsurgical treatment is the preferred method, and this includes rest, physiotherapy, cortisone infiltration, platelet-rich plasma injections and use of specific immobilization. Surgical treatment is recommended when functional disability and pain persist. Both the open and the arthroscopic surgical technique with resection of the degenerated tendon tissue present good results in the literature. PMID:27047843

  13. Acupuncture for lateral epicondylitis (tennis elbow): study protocol for a randomized, practitioner-assessor blinded, controlled pilot clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Shin, Kyung-Min; Kim, Joo-Hee; Lee, Seunghoon; Shin, Mi-Suk; Kim, Tae-Hun; Park, Hyo-Ju; Lee, Min-Hee; Hong, Kwon-Eui; Lee, Seungdeok; Choi, Sun-Mi

    2013-06-14

    Lateral epicondylitis is the most frequent cause of pain around the elbow joint. It causes pain in the region of the elbow joint and results in dysfunction of the elbow and deterioration of the quality of life. The purpose of this study is to compare the effects of ipsilateral acupuncture, contralateral acupuncture and sham acupuncture on lateral epicondylitis. Forty-five subjects with lateral epicondylitis will be randomized into three groups: the ipsilateral acupuncture group, contralateral acupuncture group and the sham acupuncture group. The inclusion criteria will be as follows: (1) age between 19 and 65 years with pain due to one-sided lateral epicondylitis that persisted for at least four weeks, (2) with tenderness on pressure limited to regions around the elbow joint, (3) complaining of pain during resistive extension of the middle finger or the wrist, (4) with average pain of NRS 4 or higher during the last one week at a screening visit and (5) voluntarily agree to this study and sign a written consent. Acupuncture treatment will be given 10 times in total for 4 weeks to all groups. Follow up observations will be conducted after the completion of the treatment, 8 weeks and 12 weeks after the random assignment. Ipsilateral acupuncture group and contralateral acupuncture group will receive acupuncture on LI4, TE5, LI10, LI11, LU5, LI12 and two Ashi points. The sham acupuncture group will receive treatment on acupuncture points not related to the lateral epicondylitis using a non-invasive method. The needles will be maintained for 20 minutes. The primary outcome will be differences in the visual analogue scale (VAS) for elbow pain between the groups. The secondary outcome will be differences in patient-rated tennis elbow evaluation (PRTEE), pain-free/maximum grip strength (Dynamometer), pressure pain threshold, clinically relevant improvement, patient global assessment, and the EQ-5D. The data will be analyzed with the paired t-test and ANCOVA (P <0.05). The

  14. Acupuncture for lateral epicondylitis (tennis elbow): study protocol for a randomized, practitioner-assessor blinded, controlled pilot clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Lateral epicondylitis is the most frequent cause of pain around the elbow joint. It causes pain in the region of the elbow joint and results in dysfunction of the elbow and deterioration of the quality of life. The purpose of this study is to compare the effects of ipsilateral acupuncture, contralateral acupuncture and sham acupuncture on lateral epicondylitis. Methods/design Forty-five subjects with lateral epicondylitis will be randomized into three groups: the ipsilateral acupuncture group, contralateral acupuncture group and the sham acupuncture group. The inclusion criteria will be as follows: (1) age between 19 and 65 years with pain due to one-sided lateral epicondylitis that persisted for at least four weeks, (2) with tenderness on pressure limited to regions around the elbow joint, (3) complaining of pain during resistive extension of the middle finger or the wrist, (4) with average pain of NRS 4 or higher during the last one week at a screening visit and (5) voluntarily agree to this study and sign a written consent. Acupuncture treatment will be given 10 times in total for 4 weeks to all groups. Follow up observations will be conducted after the completion of the treatment, 8 weeks and 12 weeks after the random assignment. Ipsilateral acupuncture group and contralateral acupuncture group will receive acupuncture on LI4, TE5, LI10, LI11, LU5, LI12 and two Ashi points. The sham acupuncture group will receive treatment on acupuncture points not related to the lateral epicondylitis using a non-invasive method. The needles will be maintained for 20 minutes. The primary outcome will be differences in the visual analogue scale (VAS) for elbow pain between the groups. The secondary outcome will be differences in patient-rated tennis elbow evaluation (PRTEE), pain-free/maximum grip strength (Dynamometer), pressure pain threshold, clinically relevant improvement, patient global assessment, and the EQ-5D. The data will be analyzed with the paired t

  15. Tennis elbow

    MedlinePlus

    Epitrochlear bursitis; Lateral epicondylitis; Epicondylitis - lateral; Tendonitis - elbow ... Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 25. Biundo JJ. Bursitis, tendinitis, and other periarticular disorders and sports medicine. ...

  16. Lateral epicondylitis of the elbow

    PubMed Central

    Vaquero-Picado, Alfonso; Barco, Raul; Antuña, Samuel A.

    2016-01-01

    Lateral epicondylitis, also known as ‘tennis elbow’, is a very common condition affecting mainly middle-aged patients. The pathogenesis remains unknown but there appears to be a combination of local tendon pathology, alteration in pain perception and motor impairment. The diagnosis is usually clinical but some patients may benefit from additional imaging for a specific differential diagnosis. The disease has a self-limiting course of between 12 and 18 months, but in some patients, symptoms can be persistent and refractory to treatment. Most patients are well-managed with non-operative treatment and activity modification. Many surgical techniques have been proposed for patients with refractory symptoms. New non-operative treatment alternatives with promising results have been developed in recent years. Cite this article: Vaquero-Picado A, Barco R, Antuña SA. Lateral epicondylitis of the elbow. EFORT Open Rev 2016;1:391-397. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.1.000049. PMID:28461918

  17. Outcome of Boyd-McLeod procedure for recalcitrant lateral epicondylitis of elbow.

    PubMed

    Reddy, V R M; Satheesan, K S; Bayliss, N

    2011-08-01

    Various surgical procedures including percutaneous and open release and arthroscopic procedures have been described to treat recalcitrant tennis elbow. We present the outcome of Boyd-McLeod surgical procedure for tennis elbow resistant to non-operative treatment in twenty-seven patients (twenty-nine limbs). Boyd McLeod procedure involves excision of the proximal portion of the annular ligament, release of the origin of the extensor muscles, excision of the bursa if present, and excision of the synovial fringe. The average time interval from the onset of symptoms of tennis elbow until surgery was 28 months (range 8-72 months). Of those patients, 91% reported complete relief of symptoms with return to full normal activities including sports. Average post-operative time for return to professional/recreational activity was 5 weeks. One case developed pain secondary to ectopic bone formation after surgery, which settled after excision, and in another there was no pain relief with Boyd McLeod procedure. Two patients had scar tenderness that did not affect the final outcome. We conclude that Boyd-McLeod procedure is an effective treatment option in patients with resistant lateral epicondylitis.

  18. Posterolateral Rotatory Apprehension Test in Tennis Elbow.

    PubMed

    Chanlalit, Cholawish; Phorkhar, Termphong

    2015-11-01

    Tennis elbow is a syndrome that commonly diagnosed in patient who comes with lateral elbow pain. Instability pain in tennis elbow patient was observed and reported in many previous literatures. Posterolateral rotatory apprehension test was proposed for diagnosis of posterolateral rotatory instability of elbow. However, no review literatures that studied about posterolateral rotatory apprehensions test in tennis elbow. To find out the relationship between posterolateral rotatory apprehension test and tennis elbow. There were 44 patients that were recruited in this study. We examined the posterolateral rotatory apprehension test in tennis elbow patients. The examination was done in our outpatient clinic from March 2012 to April 2012. The data was collected to find out the ratio of negative test in tennis elbow patient. The results from the posterolateral rotatory apprehension test were negative in 43 patients. The ratio of the negative test result was 98%. A result from posterolateral rotatory apprehension test should be negative in general tennis elbow patients. If this test is used in a tennis elbow patients who are suspected with hidden instability and the result is positive, further evaluation is strongly suggested.

  19. Tennis elbow: associated psychological factors.

    PubMed

    Aben, Aurelie; De Wilde, Lieven; Hollevoet, Nadine; Henriquez, Carlos; Vandeweerdt, Marc; Ponnet, Koen; Van Tongel, Alexander

    2018-03-01

    The etiology of tennis elbow is multifactorial. Overuse of the wrist extensors along with anatomic factors, such as flexibility problems, aging, and poor blood circulation, may play a role. This study investigated whether patients with tennis elbow have a different psychological profile compared with healthy controls. Patients with clinical signs of tennis elbow, consulting at the Ghent University Hospital between September 2015 and January 2017, were offered a paper-and-pencil questionnaire about Big Five personality traits, perfectionism, anxiety, depression, work satisfaction, and working conditions. Healthy controls in the same risk group were offered the same questionnaires. We recruited 69 patients (35 men, 34 women) and 100 controls (44 men, 56 women). Tennis elbow patients scored significantly lower on the personality traits extraversion and agreeableness. Men, in particular, scored significantly higher on perfectionism and were more likely to develop an anxiety disorder or a depression. Concerning work, patients indicated a significantly higher workload (especially men) and a significantly lower autonomy (especially women). Female patients also indicated less contact with colleagues. However, work satisfaction was relatively high in both groups. The results suggest that there is a relationship between complaints related to tennis elbow and psychological characteristics. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The Snapping Elbow Syndrome as a Reason for Chronic Elbow Neuralgia in a Tennis Player - MR, US and Sonoelastography Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Łasecki, Mateusz; Olchowy, Cyprian; Pawluś, Aleksander; Zaleska-Dorobisz, Urszula

    2014-01-01

    Ulnar neuropathy is the second most common peripheral nerve neuropathy after median neuropathy, with an incidence of 25 cases per 100 000 men and 19 cases per 100 000 women each year. Skipping (snapping) elbow syndrome is an uncommon cause of pain in the posterior-medial elbow area, sometimes complicated by injury of the ulnar nerve. One of the reason is the dislocation of the abnormal insertion of the medial triceps head over the medial epicondyle during flexion and extension movements. Others are: lack of the Osboune fascia leading to ulnar nerve instability and focal soft tissue tumors (fibromas, lipomas, etc). Recurrent subluxation of the nerve at the elbow results in a tractional and frictional neuritis with classical symptoms of peripheral neuralgia. As far as we know snapping triceps syndrome had never been evaluated in sonoelastography. A 28yo semi-professional left handed tennis player was complaining about pain in posterior-medial elbow area. Initial US examination suggest golfers elbow syndrome which occurs quite commonly and has a prevalence of 0.3-0.6% in males and 0-3-1.1% in women and may be associated (approx. 50% of cases) with ulnar neuropathy. However subsequently made MRI revealed unusual distal triceps anatomy, moderate ulnar nerve swelling and lack of medial epicondylitis symptoms. Followed (second) US examination and sonoelastography have detected slipping of the both ulnar nerve and the additional band of the medial triceps head. Snapping elbow syndrome is a poorly known medical condition, sometimes misdiagnosed as the medial epicondylitis. It describes a broad range of pathologies and anatomical abnormalities. One of the most often reasons is the slipping of the ulnar nerve as the result of the Osborne fascia/anconeus epitrochlearis muscle absence. Simultaneously presence of two or more "snapping reasons" is rare but should be always taken under consideration. There are no sonoelastography studies describing golfers elbow syndrome

  1. Calcific periarthritis of the elbow presenting as acute tennis elbow.

    PubMed

    Jawad, F; Jawad, A S M

    2014-01-01

    A 28-year-old woman presented with sudden acute lateral epicondylitis. There was no history of preceding trauma or repetitive use of the arm. Because of the acute onset and signs of acute inflammation, an X-ray was arranged. The X-ray showed a hyperdense calcified elongated globule distal to the lateral epicondyle. A diagnosis of calcific periarthritis (calcium apatite) of the elbow was made. Calcific periarthritis has rarely been reported as a cause of acute elbow pain.

  2. Effects of platelet-rich plasma on lateral epicondylitis of the elbow: prospective randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Palacio, Evandro Pereira; Schiavetti, Rafael Ramos; Kanematsu, Maiara; Ikeda, Tiago Moreno; Mizobuchi, Roberto Ryuiti; Galbiatti, José Antônio

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) infiltration in patients with lateral epicondylitis of the elbow, through analysis of the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) and Patient-Rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation (PRTEE) questionnaires. Sixty patients with lateral epicondylitis of the elbow were prospectively randomized and evaluated after receiving infiltration of three milliliters of PRP, or 0.5% neocaine, or dexamethasone. For the scoring process, the patients were asked to fill out the DASH and PRTEE questionnaires on three occasions: on the day of infiltration and 90 and 180 days afterwards. Around 81.7% of the patients who underwent the treatment presented some improvement of the symptoms. The statistical tests showed that there was evidence that the cure rate was unrelated to the substance applied (p = 0.62). There was also intersection between the confidence intervals of each group, thus demonstrating that the proportions of patients whose symptoms improved were similar in all the groups. At a significance level of 5%, there was no evidence that one treatment was more effective than another, when assessed using the DASH and PRTEE questionnaires.

  3. Laser radiation in tennis elbow treatment: a new minimally invasive alternative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paganini, Stefan; Thal, Dietmar R.; Werkmann, Klaus

    1998-01-01

    The epicondylitis humeri radialis (EHR) (tennis elbow), is a common disease in elbow joint pain syndromes. We treated patients with chronic pain for at least one year and no improvement with conservative or operative therapies with a new minimal invasive method, the EHR-Laser radiation (EHR- LR). With this method periepicondylar coagulations were applied to the trigger points of the patients. For this the previously established technique of facet joint coagulation with the Nd:Yag-laser was modified. In a follow-up study of between 6 weeks and 2 years all patients reported either a significant pain reduction or were symptom free. EHR-LR is a new method situated between conservative and surgical treatments for minimal invasive therapy of EHR. Several therapeutic rationales were discussed for the resulting pain reduction.

  4. Ultrasound-guided, minimally invasive, percutaneous needle puncture treatment for tennis elbow.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jiaan; Hu, Bing; Xing, Chunyan; Li, Jia

    2008-10-01

    This report evaluates the efficacy of percutaneous needle puncture under sonographic guidance in treating lateral epicondylitis (tennis-elbow). Ultrasound-guided percutaneous needle puncture was performed on 76 patients who presented with persistent elbow pain. Under a local anesthetic and sonographic guidance, a needle was advanced into the calcification foci and the calcifications were mechanically fragmented. This was followed by a local injection of 25 mg prednisone acetate and 1% lidocaine. If no calcification was found then multiple punctures were performed followed by local injection of 25 mg prednisone acetate and 1% lidocaine. A visual analog scale (VAS) was used to evaluate the degree of pain pre-and posttreatment at 1 week to 24 weeks. Elbow function improvement and degree of self-satisfaction were also evaluated. Of the 76 patients, 55% were rated with excellent treatment outcome, 32% good, 11% average, and 3% poor. From 3 weeks posttreatment, VAS scores were significantly reduced compared with the pretreatment score (P<0.05) and continued to gradually decline up to 24 weeks posttreatment. Sonography demonstrated that the calcified lesions disappeared completely in 13% of the patients, were reduced in 61% of the patients, and did not change in 26% of the patients. Color Doppler flow signal used to assess hemodynamic changes showed a significant improvement after treatment in most patients. Ultrasound-guided percutaneous needle puncture is an effective and minimally invasive treatment for tennis elbow. Sonography can be used to accurately identify the puncture location and monitor changes.

  5. Tennis elbow: a biomechanical and therapeutic approach.

    PubMed

    Schnatz, P; Steiner, C

    1993-07-01

    Lateral epicondylitis, one of the most common lesions of the arm, affects some 50% of tennis players. This condition poses a problem in clinical management because treatment is dependent not only on proper medical therapy but also on correction of the improper on-court biomechanics. The most common flaw is a late contact on the backhand groundstroke, forcing the player to extend the wrist with the extensor muscles. This action predisposes to trauma of the tendon fibers at the lateral epicondyle. Understanding the biomechanics will better prepare the physician to advise the patient and to communicate with a tennis teaching professional to facilitate long-term relief.

  6. Management of tennis elbow by Agnikarma.

    PubMed

    Mahanta, Vyasadeva; Dudhamal, Tukaram S; Gupta, Sanjay Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Tennis elbow is a painful condition and causes restricted movement of forearm which requires treatment for long period. Till date only symptomatic treatments are available like use of anti-inflammatory analgesic drugs, steroids injection, physiotherapy, exercise etc. But none of these provide satisfactory result. Long term use of anti-inflammatory, analgesic drugs and steroids injection is also not free from the adverse effects. Usually, 'wait-and-see policy' of treatment guideline is recommended in most of medical texts. According to Ayurveda, snayugata vata can be correlated with the condition of tennis elbow. Sushruta has advised Agnikarma for disorders of snayu (ligaments and tendons), asthi (bone), siddhi (joints) etc. Hence, in this study a case of tennis elbow (snayugata vata) was treated by Agnikarma, along with administration of powder of Ashwagandha and Navajivana Rasa orally, for a period of 03 weeks. This combination therapy provided considerable relief in pain and movement of the elbow joint.

  7. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Patient-Rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation Questionnaire on lateral elbow tendinopathy for French-speaking patients.

    PubMed

    Kaux, Jean-François; Delvaux, François; Schaus, Jean; Demoulin, Christophe; Locquet, Médéa; Buckinx, Fanny; Beaudart, Charlotte; Dardenne, Nadia; Van Beveren, Julien; Croisier, Jean-Louis; Forthomme, Bénédicte; Bruyère, Olivier

    Translation and validation of algo-functional questionnaire. The lateral elbow tendinopathy is a common injury in tennis players and physical workers. The Patient-Rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation (PRTEE) Questionnaire was specifically designed to measure pain and functional limitations in patients with lateral epicondylitis (tennis elbow). First developed in English, this questionnaire has since been translated into several languages. The aims of the study were to translate and cross-culturally adapt the PRTEE questionnaire into French and to evaluate the reliability and validity of this translated version of the questionnaire (PRTEE-F). The PRTEE was translated and cross-culturally adapted into French according to international guidelines. To assess the reliability and validity of the PRTEE-F, 115 participants were asked twice to fill in the PRTEE-F, and once the Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder and Hand Questionnaire (DASH) and the Short Form Health Survey (SF-36). Internal consistency (using Cronbach's alpha), test-retest reliability (using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), standard error of measurement and minimal detectable change), and convergent and divergent validity (using the Spearman's correlation coefficients respectively with the DASH and with some subscales of the SF-36) were assessed. The PRTEE was translated into French without any problems. PRTEE-F showed a good test-retest reliability for the overall score (ICC 0.86) and for each item (ICC 0.8-0.96) and a high internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.98). The correlation analyses revealed high correlation coefficients between PRTEE-F and DASH (convergent validity) and, as expected, a low or moderate correlation with the divergent subscales of the SF-36 (discriminant validity). There was no floor or ceiling effect. The PRTEE questionnaire was successfully cross-culturally adapted into French. The PRTEE-F is reliable and valid for evaluating French-speaking patients with lateral elbow

  8. Biomechanics of the elbow joint in tennis players and relation to pathology.

    PubMed

    Eygendaal, Denise; Rahussen, F Th G; Diercks, R L

    2007-11-01

    Elbow injuries constitute a sizeable percentage of tennis injuries. A basic understanding of biomechanics of tennis and analysis of the forces, loads and motions of the elbow during tennis will improve the understanding of the pathophysiology of these injuries. All different strokes in tennis have a different repetitive biomechanical nature that can result in tennis-related injuries. In this article, a biomechanically-based evaluation of tennis strokes is presented. This overview includes all tennis-related pathologies of the elbow joint, whereby the possible relation of biomechanics to pathology is analysed, followed by treatment recommendations.

  9. Risk factors in lateral epicondylitis (tennis elbow): a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Titchener, A G; Fakis, A; Tambe, A A; Smith, C; Hubbard, R B; Clark, D I

    2013-02-01

    Lateral epicondylitis is a common condition, but relatively little is known about its aetiology and associated risk factors. We have undertaken a large case-control study using The Health Improvement Network database to assess and quantify the relative contributions of some constitutional and environmental risk factors for lateral epicondylitis in the community. Our dataset included 4998 patients with lateral epicondylitis who were individually matched with a single control by age, sex, and general practice. The median age at diagnosis was 49 (interquartile range 42-56) years . Multivariate analysis showed that the risk factors associated with lateral epicondylitis were rotator cuff pathology (OR 4.95), De Quervain's disease (OR 2.48), carpal tunnel syndrome (OR 1.50), oral corticosteroid therapy (OR 1.68), and previous smoking history (OR 1.20). Diabetes mellitus, current smoking, trigger finger, rheumatoid arthritis, alcohol intake, and obesity were not found to be associated with lateral epicondylitis.

  10. Biomechanics of the elbow joint in tennis players and relation to pathology

    PubMed Central

    Eygendaal, Denise; Rahussen, F T G; Diercks, R L

    2007-01-01

    Elbow injuries constitute a sizeable percentage of tennis injuries. A basic understanding of biomechanics of tennis and analysis of the forces, loads and motions of the elbow during tennis will improve the understanding of the pathophysiology of these injuries. All different strokes in tennis have a different repetitive biomechanical nature that can result in tennis‐related injuries. In this article, a biomechanically‐based evaluation of tennis strokes is presented. This overview includes all tennis‐related pathologies of the elbow joint, whereby the possible relation of biomechanics to pathology is analysed, followed by treatment recommendations. PMID:17638843

  11. Short-term evaluation of arthroscopic management of tennis elbow; including resection of radio-capitellar capsular complex.

    PubMed

    Babaqi, AbdulRahman A; Kotb, Mohammed M; Said, Hatem G; AbdelHamid, Mohamed M; ElKady, Hesham A; ElAssal, Maher A

    2014-06-01

    There has been controversy regarding the pathogenesis and treatment of lateral epicondylitis. Different surgical techniques for the treatment of lateral epicondylitis prescribed. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the short-term outcomes of arthroscopic management including resection of the radio-capitellar capsular complex, using different validated scores. In this study, arthroscopic resection of a capsular fringe complex was done beside debridement of the undersurface of Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis (ECRB). Thirty-one patients with recalcitrant lateral epicondylitis for a minimum of 6 months had surgery. In all patients, a collar-like band of radio-capitellar capsular complex was found to impinge on the radial head and subluxate into the radio-capitellar joint with manipulation under direct vision. Outcomes were assessed using Mayo Elbow Performance Index (MEPI), the Patient-Rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation (PRTEE), and the Disability of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH), beside visual analog scale (VAS) for pain and satisfaction criteria. After arthroscopic surgery, overall satisfaction was extremely positive, over the 31 patients, 93.5% of the patients are satisfied. The mean score for pain improved from 8.64 to 1.48 points. The total PRTEE improved from 55.53 to 10.39 points. The mean MEPI score was improved from 61.82 to 94.10 points. DASH score also improved from 24.46 to 4.81 points. All improvements are statistically significant (P < 0.05). Arthroscopic release of ECRB in patients with chronic lateral epicondylitis is a reproducible method with a marked improvement in function within a short period, with special consideration for resection of radio-capitellar capsular complex.

  12. Assessment of tennis elbow using the Marcy Wedge-Pro.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, R W; Mani, R; Cawley, M I; Englisch, W; Eckenberger, P

    1993-01-01

    The Marcy Wedge-Pro (MWP), a device used in training by tennis players, was employed in the assessment of tennis elbow. The MWP was used to measure the ability of patients to perform wrist extension exercises, since pain resulting from this specific activity is a prominent symptom of the condition. The MWP results were compared with clinical measures and found to identify accurately patients who responded to treatment (P < 0.05). This study illustrates the potential of the MWP to assess tennis elbow quantitatively. Images Figure 1 PMID:8130959

  13. Incarcerated medial epicondyle fracture following pediatric elbow dislocation: 11 cases.

    PubMed

    Dodds, Seth D; Flanagin, Brody A; Bohl, Daniel D; DeLuca, Peter A; Smith, Brian G

    2014-09-01

    To describe outcomes after surgical management of pediatric elbow dislocation with incarceration of the medial epicondyle. We conducted a retrospective case review of 11 consecutive children and adolescents with an incarcerated medial epicondyle fracture after elbow dislocation. All patients underwent open reduction internal fixation using a similar technique. We characterized outcomes at final follow-up. Average follow-up was 14 months (range, 4-56 mo). All patients had clinical and radiographic signs of healing at final follow-up. There was no radiographic evidence of loss of reduction at intervals or at final follow-up. There were no cases of residual deformity or valgus instability. Average final arc of elbow motion was 4° to 140°. All patients had forearm rotation from 90° supination to 90° pronation. Average Mayo elbow score was 99.5. Four of 11 patients had ulnar nerve symptoms postoperatively and 1 required a second operation for ulnar nerve symptoms. In addition, 1 required a second operation for flexion contracture release with excision of heterotopic ossification. Three patients had ulnar nerve symptoms at final follow-up. Two of these had mild paresthesia only and 1 had both mild paresthesia and weakness. Our results suggest that open reduction internal fixation of incarcerated medial epicondyle fractures after elbow dislocation leads to satisfactory motion and function; however, the injury carries a high risk for complications, particularly ulnar neuropathy. Therapeutic IV. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Elbow arthroscopy: indications, techniques, outcomes, and complications.

    PubMed

    Adams, Julie E; King, Graham J W; Steinmann, Scott P; Cohen, Mark S

    2015-01-01

    Elbow arthroscopy is a tool useful for the treatment of a variety of pathologies about the elbow. The major indications for elbow arthroscopy include débridement for septic elbow arthritis, synovectomy for inflammatory arthritis, débridement for osteoarthritis, loose body extraction, contracture release, treatment of osteochondral defects and selected fractures or instability, and tennis elbow release. To achieve favorable outcomes after elbow arthroscopy, the surgeon should be aware of contraindications, technical considerations, anatomic principles, and the need for proper patient positioning and portal selection. Elbow arthroscopy is an effective procedure for the treatment of inflammatory arthritis, osteoarthritis, and lateral epicondylitis.

  15. Measurement issues in the sonographic assessment of tennis elbow.

    PubMed

    Poltawski, Leon; Jayaram, Vijay; Watson, Tim

    2010-05-01

    Sonography is increasingly being used for assessment in tennis elbow research and clinical practice, but there are a lack of data regarding its validity, reliability, and responsiveness to change for this application. Studies using the modality were reviewed to establish current levels of evidence for these measurement properties. There is reasonable evidence regarding its validity for identifying tennis elbow tendinopathy, but a lack of data addressing its reliability and responsiveness. Practical issues affecting image quality are discussed, and recommendations for further investigation are suggested, to enhance the credible use of sonography with this debilitating condition.

  16. Elbow arthroscopy: indications, techniques, outcomes, and complications.

    PubMed

    Adams, Julie E; King, Graham J W; Steinmann, Scott P; Cohen, Mark S

    2014-12-01

    Elbow arthroscopy is a tool useful for the treatment of a variety of pathologies about the elbow. The major indications for elbow arthroscopy include débridement for septic elbow arthritis, synovectomy for inflammatory arthritis, débridement for osteoarthritis, loose body extraction, contracture release, treatment of osteochondral defects and selected fractures or instability, and tennis elbow release. Contraindications, technical considerations, and favorable outcomes following treatment with elbow arthroscopy require careful patient evaluation, a thorough understanding of anatomic principles, and proper patient positioning and portal selection to guide preoperative planning and overall patient care. Elbow arthroscopy is an effective procedure for the treatment of inflammatory arthritis, osteoarthritis, and lateral epicondylitis. Copyright 2014 by the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons.

  17. Isokinetic profile of elbow flexion and extension strength in elite junior tennis players.

    PubMed

    Ellenbecker, Todd S; Roetert, E Paul

    2003-02-01

    Descriptive study. To determine whether bilateral differences exist in concentric elbow flexion and extension strength in elite junior tennis players. The repetitive nature of tennis frequently produces upper extremity overuse injuries. Prior research has identified tennis-specific strength adaptation in the dominant shoulder and distal upper extremity musculature of elite players. No previous study has addressed elbow flexion and extension strength. Thirty-eight elite junior tennis players were bilaterally tested for concentric elbow flexion and extension muscle performance on a Cybex 6000 isokinetic dynamometer at 90 degrees/s, 210 degrees/s, and 300 degrees/s. Repeated-measures ANOVAs were used to test for differences between extremities, muscle groups, and speed. Significantly greater (P<0.002) dominant-arm elbow extension peak torque values were measured at 90 degrees/s, 210 degrees/s, and 300 degrees/s for males. Significantly greater (P<0.002) dominant-arm single-repetition work values were also measured at 90 degrees/s and 210 degrees/s for males. No significant difference was measured between extremities in elbow flexion muscular performance in males and for elbow flexion or extension peak torque and single-repetition work values in females. No significant difference between extremities was measured in elbow flexion/extension strength ratios in females and significant differences between extremities in this ratio were only present at 210 degrees/s in males (P<0.002). These data indicate muscular adaptations around the dominant elbow in male elite junior tennis players but not females. These data have ramifications for clinicians rehabilitating upper extremity injuries in patients from this population.

  18. Pain, functional disability, and psychologic status in tennis elbow.

    PubMed

    Alizadehkhaiyat, Omid; Fisher, Anthony C; Kemp, Graham J; Frostick, Simon P

    2007-01-01

    First to compare pain and functional disability in tennis elbow (TE) patients with healthy controls. Second, to evaluate the relationship between the 2 major psychologic factors (anxiety and depression) and TE. Sixteen TE patients were recruited from 46 consecutive attendees at an upper limb clinic: inclusion criteria were lateral epicondyle tenderness, pain with resisted wrist and middle finger extension and at least 3 months localized lateral elbow pain. Sixteen healthy controls with no upper limb problem were recruited from students and staff. Participants were given 4 questionnaires, together with instructions for completion: Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand, Patient-Rated Forearm Evaluation Questionnaire, Patient-Rated Wrist Evaluation Questionnaire, and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. The independent t test was used to compare the total and subscale scores between the groups. Significantly higher scores were found in TE for pain and function subscales and also total score for Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand, Patient-Rated Forearm Evaluation Questionnaire, and Patient-Rated Wrist Evaluation Questionnaire. For Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, both anxiety and depression subscales (P<0.001) and the total score (P<0.01) were significantly higher in TE. According to the anxiety and depression subscales, 55% and 36% of patients, respectively, were classified as probable cases (score >11). TE patients showed markedly increased pain and functional disability. Significantly elevated levels of depression and anxiety pointed out the importance of psychologic assessment in TE patients. In the development of supportive and treatment strategies, we suggest the combination of "upper limb" and "psychologic" assessment tools.

  19. Long term results in refractory tennis elbow using autologous blood.

    PubMed

    Gani, Naseem Ul; Khan, Hayat Ahmad; Kamal, Younis; Farooq, Munir; Jeelani, Hina; Shah, Adil Bashir

    2014-10-27

    Tennis elbow (TE) is one of the commonest myotendinosis. Different treatment options are available and autologous blood injection has emerged as the one of the acceptable modalities of treatment. Long term studies over a larger group of patients are however lacking. The purpose of this study was to evaluate these patients on longer durations. One-hundred and twenty patients of TE, who failed to respond to conventional treatment including local steroid injections were taken up for this prospective study over the period from year 2005 to 2011 and were followed up for the minimum of 3 years (range 3-9 years). Two mL of autologous blood was taken from the ipsilateral limb and injected into the lateral epicondyle. The effectiveness of the procedure was assessed by Pain Rating Sscale and Nirschl Staging, which was monitored before the procedure, at first week, monthly for first three months, at 6 months and then 3 monthly for first year, six monthly for next 2 years and then yearly. Statistical analysis was done and a P value of <0.05 was taken as significant. The patients (76 females and 44 males) were evaluated after procedure. The mean age group was 40.67±8.21. The mean follow up was 5.7±1.72 (range 3 to 9 years). The mean pain score and Nirschl stage before the procedure was 3.3±0.9 and 6.2±0.82 respectively. At final follow up the pain score and Nirschl were 1.1±0.9 and 1.5±0.91 respectively. Autologous blood injection was found to be one of the modalities for treatment of TE. Being cheap, available and easy method of treatment, it should be considered as a treatment modality before opting for the surgery. Universal guidelines for the management of tennis elbow should be made as there is lot of controversy regarding the treatment.

  20. Lateral epicondylitis and beyond: imaging of lateral elbow pain with clinical-radiologic correlation.

    PubMed

    Kotnis, Nikhil A; Chiavaras, Mary M; Harish, Srinivasan

    2012-04-01

    The diagnosis of lateral epicondylitis is often straightforward and can be made on the basis of clinical findings. However, radiological assessment is valuable where the clinical picture is less clear or where symptoms are refractory to treatment. Demographics, aspects of clinical history, or certain physical signs may suggest an alternate diagnosis. Knowledge of the typical clinical presentation and imaging findings of lateral epicondylitis, in addition to other potential causes of lateral elbow pain, is necessary. These include entrapment of the posterior interosseous and lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerves, posterolateral rotatory instability, posterolateral plica syndrome, Panner's disease, osteochondritis dissecans of the capitellum, radiocapitellar overload syndrome, occult fractures and chondral-osseous impaction injuries, and radiocapitellar arthritis. Knowledge of these potential masquerades of lateral epicondylitis and their characteristic clinical and imaging features is essential for accurate diagnosis. The goal of this review is to provide an approach to the imaging of lateral elbow pain, discussing the relevant anatomy, various causes, and discriminating factors, which will allow for an accurate diagnosis.

  1. Simultaneous bilateral elbow dislocation with bilateral medial epicondyle fractures in a 13-year-old female gymnast with hyperlaxity

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Stefan; Dunne, Ben; Whitewood, Colin

    2012-01-01

    Bilateral simultaneous elbow dislocations are extremely rare and have only been described in 12 cases. In the paediatric population unilateral elbow dislocations are rare with 3–6% of all elbow injuries and there are only few studies describing this injury exclusively in children. There is only one case report of a paediatric patient who sustained a simultaneous bilateral elbow dislocation with medial epicondyle fractures. We present a second paediatric case of simultaneous bilateral elbow dislocation with associated displaced bilateral medial epicondyle fractures in a gymnast with joint hyperlaxity (3 of 5 Wynne-Davies criteria) treated with closed reduction and short-term immobilisation (3 weeks). The patient returned to full trampoline gymnastics between 4 and 5 months postinjury and made an uneventful recovery. PMID:23234820

  2. Subject-specific computer simulation model for determining elbow loading in one-handed tennis backhand groundstrokes.

    PubMed

    King, Mark A; Glynn, Jonathan A; Mitchell, Sean R

    2011-11-01

    A subject-specific angle-driven computer model of a tennis player, combined with a forward dynamics, equipment-specific computer model of tennis ball-racket impacts, was developed to determine the effect of ball-racket impacts on loading at the elbow for one-handed backhand groundstrokes. Matching subject-specific computer simulations of a typical topspin/slice one-handed backhand groundstroke performed by an elite tennis player were done with root mean square differences between performance and matching simulations of < 0.5 degrees over a 50 ms period starting from ball impact. Simulation results suggest that for similar ball-racket impact conditions, the difference in elbow loading for a topspin and slice one-handed backhand groundstroke is relatively small. In this study, the relatively small differences in elbow loading may be due to comparable angle-time histories at the wrist and elbow joints with the major kinematic differences occurring at the shoulder. Using a subject-specific angle-driven computer model combined with a forward dynamics, equipment-specific computer model of tennis ball-racket impacts allows peak internal loading, net impulse, and shock due to ball-racket impact to be calculated which would not otherwise be possible without impractical invasive techniques. This study provides a basis for further investigation of the factors that may increase elbow loading during tennis strokes.

  3. [Social, demographic and laboral factors associated with the presence of lateral elbow epicondylitis].

    PubMed

    Zamudio-Muñoz, Laura Angélica; Urbiola-Verdejo, Marcos; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, Pedro Miguel

    2011-01-01

    To determine the social and demographic factors associated with laboral activities and the presence of lateral epicondylitis of elbow in workers. We conducted an observational, descriptive, cross-sectional sampling for convenience. We included 34 patients with a diagnosis of lateral epicondylitis, both sexes between 20 and 55 years, with occupations requiring repetitive movements of the wrist. They answered a questionnaire with 21 questions. We applied descriptive statistic. Lateral epicondylitis occurs predominantly in women, aged 42.4 years with a schooling of 8.8 years; the main laboral activities were as cleaning staff (12%), packaging (12%) and mechanical (12%). Thirty five percent of participants made at least two breaks for health. Nine percent were exposed to low temperatures. Lateral epicondylitis is a condition that occurs in greater proportion in women. It is situated more frequently in the fifth decade of life. Epicondylitis has not been thoroughly studied in our environment, perhaps it is more prevalent in women who work at home.

  4. Common extensor origin release in recalcitrant lateral epicondylitis - role justified?

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The aim of our study was to analyse the efficacy of operative management in recalcitrant lateral epicondylitis of elbow. Forty patients included in this study were referred by general practitioners with a diagnosis of tennis elbow to the orthopaedic department at a district general hospital over a five year period. All had two or more steroid injections at the tender spot, without permanent relief of pain. All subsequently underwent simple fasciotomy of the extensor origin. Of forty patients thirty five had improvement in pain and function, two had persistent symptoms and three did not perceive any improvement. Twenty five had excellent, ten had well, two had fair and three had poor outcomes (recurrent problem; pain at rest and night). Two patients underwent revision surgery. Majority of the patients had improvement in pain and function following operative treatment. In this study, an extensor fasciotomy was demonstrated to be an effective treatment for refractory chronic lateral epicondylitis; however, further studies are warranted. PMID:20459701

  5. Intra-Articular Entrapment of the Medial Epicondyle following a Traumatic Fracture Dislocation of the Elbow in an Adult

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Youssef G.; Joukhadar, Nabih I.

    2018-01-01

    Medial epicondyle entrapment after an acute fracture dislocation of the elbow is a common finding in the pediatric population, but a rare finding in adults. We present a case of an adult patient diagnosed with a traumatic fracture dislocation of the elbow joint with intra-articular entrapment of the medial epicondyle. After initial evaluation, closed reduction was done. Stability testing after reduction showed an unstable joint; thus, open reduction and internal fixation was decided. PMID:29666736

  6. The Boyd–McLeod procedure for tennis elbow: mid- to long-term results

    PubMed Central

    Jeavons, Richard; Richards, Ian; Bayliss, Neil

    2014-01-01

    Background Tennis elbow is a common condition that usually responds to conservative measures. In refractory cases, surgical intervention is indicated. A plethora of surgical techniques have been described. We report the mid- to long-term outcomes of the Boyd–McLeod procedure for refractory tennis elbow. Methods A retrospective analysis and current review of patients that had undergone the Boyd–McLeod procedure over a 12-year period was undertaken. Demographics, time to discharge, length of follow-up and outcome scores were collected. Results Seventy patients underwent surgery. Mean time to discharge was 15.35 weeks, with 88% successful outcomes. Fifty-four patients were available for current follow-up at mean of 5.52 years (range 1.17 years to 11.49 years). Range of motion in all patients was unchanged. There were no revision procedures. Mean (SD) Mayo Elbow Performance Score was 90.85 (13.11), with 75.5% returning a good or excellent score and 24.5% a fair outcome. The mean (SD) Oxford Elbow Score was 44.04 (6.92); mean (SD) pain score was 89.5 (17.58); mean (SD) function score was 95.34 (9.59) and mean (SD) socio-psychological score was 91.50 (17.01). Overall, 83% of patients had an Oxford Elbow Score of 43 or greater, suggesting excellent outcome. Conclusions We show that the Boyd–McLeod procedure is an excellent option over both the short- and long-term for refractory tennis elbow. PMID:27582946

  7. Chronic elbow dislocation: a rare complication of tennis elbow surgery. Successful treatment by open reduction and external fixator.

    PubMed

    Degreef, I; De Smet, L

    2007-06-01

    A case is presented of chronic dislocation of the elbow after tennis elbow surgery combined with posterior interosseous nerve (PIN) release. An open reduction with repair of the collateral ligaments was performed. Postoperative rehabilitation involved the use of an articulated external fixator and there was a successful outcome. Possible causes of the dislocation are discussed.

  8. Tennis players show a lower coactivation of the elbow antagonist muscles during isokinetic exercises.

    PubMed

    Bazzucchi, Ilenia; Riccio, Maria Elena; Felici, Francesco

    2008-10-01

    Previous studies have suggested that muscle coactivation could be reduced by a recurrent activity (training, daily activities). If this was correct, skilled athletes should show a specific muscle activation pattern with a low level of coactivation of muscles which are typically involved in their discipline. In particular, the aim of this study was to verify the hypothesis that the amount of antagonist activation of biceps brachii (BB) and triceps brachii (TB) is different between tennis players and non-players individuals during maximal isokinetic contractions. Ten young healthy men and eight male tennis players participated in the study. The surface electromyographic signals (sEMG) were recorded from the BB and TB muscles during three maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVC) of elbow flexors and extensors and a set of three maximal elbow flexions and extensions at 15 degrees , 30 degrees , 60 degrees , 120 degrees , 180 degrees and 240 degrees /s. Normalized root mean square (RMS) of sEMG was calculated as an index of sEMG amplitude. Antagonist activation (%RMSmax) of TB was significantly lower in tennis players (from 14.0+/-7.9% at MVC to 16.3+/-8.9% at 240 degrees /s) with respect to non-players (from 27.7+/-19.7% at MVC to 38.7+/-17.6% at 240 degrees /s) at all angular velocities. Contrary to non-players, tennis players did not show any difference in antagonist activation between BB and TB muscles. Tennis players, with a constant practice in controlling forces around the elbow joint, learn how to reduce coactivation of muscles involved in the control of this joint. This has been shown by the lower antagonist muscular activity of triceps brachii muscle during isokinetic elbow flexion found in tennis players with respect to non-players.

  9. Cost effectiveness of brace, physiotherapy, or both for treatment of tennis elbow

    PubMed Central

    Struijs, P A A; Bos, I B C Korthals‐de; van Tulder, M W; van Dijk, C N; Bouter, L M

    2006-01-01

    Background The annual incidence of tennis elbow in the general population is high (1–3%). Tennis elbow often leads to limitation of activities of daily living and work absenteeism. Physiotherapy and braces are the most common treatments. Objectives The hypothesis of the trial was that no difference exists in the cost effectiveness of physiotherapy, braces, and a combination of the two for treatment of tennis elbow. Methods The trial was designed as a randomised controlled trial with intention to treat analysis. A total of 180 patients with tennis elbow were randomised to brace only (n  =  68), physiotherapy (n  =  56), or a combination of the two (n  =  56). Outcome measures were success rate, severity of complaints, pain, functional disability, and quality of life. Follow up was at six, 26, and 52 weeks. Direct healthcare and non‐healthcare costs and indirect costs were measured. Mean cost differences over 12 months were evaluated by applying non‐parametric bootstrap techniques. Results No clinically relevant or statistically significant differences were found between the groups. Success rate at 12 months was 89% in the physiotherapy group, 86% in the brace group, and 87% in the combination group. Mean total costs per patient were €2069 in the brace only group, €978 in the physiotherapy group, and €1256 in the combination group. The mean difference in total costs between the physiotherapy and brace group was substantial (€1005), although not significant. Cost effectiveness ratios and cost utility ratios showed physiotherapy to be the most cost effective, although this also was not statistically significant. Conclusion No clinically relevant or statistically significant differences in costs were identified between the three strategies. PMID:16687482

  10. Mechanical solution for a mechanical problem: Tennis elbow.

    PubMed

    Rothschild, Bruce

    2013-07-18

    Lateral epicondylitis is a relatively common clinical problem, easily recognized on palpation of the lateral protuberance on the elbow. Despite the "itis" suffix, it is not an inflammatory process. Therapeutic approaches with topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, corticosteroids and anesthetics have limited benefit, as would be expected if inflammation is not involved. Other approaches have included provision of healing cytokines from blood products or stem cells, based on the recognition that this repetitive effort-derived disorder represents injury. Noting calcification/ossification of tendon attachments to the lateral epicondyle (enthesitis), dry needling, radiofrequency, shock wave treatments and surgical approaches have also been pursued. Physiologic approaches, including manipulation, therapeutic ultrasound, phonophoresis, iontophoresis, acupuncture and exposure of the area to low level laser light, has also had limited success. This contrasts with the benefit of a simple mechanical intervention, reducing the stress on the attachment area. This is based on displacement of the stress by use of a thin (3/4-1 inch) band applied just distal to the epicondyle. Thin bands are required, as thick bands (e.g., 2-3 inch wide) simply reduce muscle strength, without significantly reducing stress. This approach appears to be associated with a failure rate less than 1%, assuming the afflicted individual modifies the activity that repeatedly stresses the epicondylar attachments.

  11. [External stability of the elbow after surgical treatment of epicondylitis. Presentation of a case].

    PubMed

    Llop-Corbacho, A; Romero-Ruiz, J; Denia-Alarcón, N

    2014-01-01

    Elbow instability is a difficult to diagnose condition in certain cases, and could lead to some problems that limit daily functioning, such as joint blocks, bumps, projections, muscle weakness, and persistent pain. A case is presented of a patient with a clinical picture of epicondylitis, with a previous history of a fall on the affected arm. As there was no improvement after performing conventional non-aggressive treatment, surgery was performed on the affected tendon. The outcome of this was persistent pain and clinical instability of the elbow that ended up requiring surgery to reconstruct the ligament over the external complex. In follow-up 6 months after the operation, the clinical instability had disappeared, but there was still external discomfort and a 30° extension deficit. When faced with a picture of epicondylitis with a previous injury that does not respond to conventional therapies, it is important to take into account the possibility of an underlying elbow instability, ruling this out with a correct physical examination and, where necessary, with the appropriate complementary tests. Copyright © 2013 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  12. Outcome of Percutaneous Release of Tennis Elbow: A Non-Randomized Controlled Trial Study.

    PubMed

    Panthi, Sagar; Khatri, Kishor; Kharel, Krishna; Byanjankar, Subin; Shrestha, Rahul; Sharma, Jay R; Vaishya, Raju; Agarwal, Amit Kumar; Vijay, Vipul

    2017-01-02

    Tennis elbow is a common disorder of the upper extremity. It can be treated conservatively in the majority of patients, but some resistant cases eventually can be treated by percutaneous release with good functional outcome. This non-randomized control trial was conducted at the Department of Orthopaedics Surgery in a tertiary care hospital from July 2015 to June 2016 on 50 patients who underwent percutaneous release of the common extensor origin using an 18 gauge hypodermic needle. These patients did not respond to conservative treatment including rest, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) and local steroid injections. The outcome was graded as Excellent, Good, Fair, and Poor. Fifty patients (50 elbows) were included in the study. Thirty-two patients were female (64%), and 18 were male (36%). The right side was affected in 37 patients (74%) and left side in 13 (26%). The time taken to achieve a completely pain-free elbow ranged from one day to two months (average of 26.2 days). Those who did not achieve a pain-free elbow had a residual pain of 1.5 to six on the visual analogue scale (VAS) (average 2.32). Excellent outcome was noticed in 24 patients (48%); Good result in eight patients (36% ); Fair in four patients (eight percent) and Poor in four patients (eight percent). Tennis elbow probably results from the degenerative tear of the common extensor origin, and a percutaneous tenotomy using an 18 gauge hypodermic needle is a simple, safe, patient-friendly, efficient, and easily reproducible method of treating tennis elbow in those who are resistant to conservative treatment, and it can be done as an outpatient procedure.

  13. Outcome of Percutaneous Release of Tennis Elbow: A Non-Randomized Controlled Trial Study

    PubMed Central

    Khatri, Kishor; Kharel, Krishna; Byanjankar, Subin; Shrestha, Rahul; Sharma, Jay R; Vaishya, Raju; Agarwal, Amit kumar; Vijay, Vipul

    2017-01-01

    Background Tennis elbow is a common disorder of the upper extremity. It can be treated conservatively in the majority of patients, but some resistant cases eventually can be treated by percutaneous release with good functional outcome. Materials and methods This non-randomized control trial was conducted at the Department of Orthopaedics Surgery in a tertiary care hospital from July 2015 to June 2016 on 50 patients who underwent percutaneous release of the common extensor origin using an 18 gauge hypodermic needle. These patients did not respond to conservative treatment including rest, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) and local steroid injections. The outcome was graded as Excellent, Good, Fair, and Poor. Results Fifty patients (50 elbows) were included in the study. Thirty-two patients were female (64%), and 18 were male (36%). The right side was affected in 37 patients (74%) and left side in 13 (26%). The time taken to achieve a completely pain-free elbow ranged from one day to two months (average of 26.2 days). Those who did not achieve a pain-free elbow had a residual pain of 1.5 to six on the visual analogue scale (VAS) (average 2.32). Excellent outcome was noticed in 24 patients (48%); Good result in eight patients (36% ); Fair in four patients (eight percent) and Poor in four patients (eight percent). Conclusion Tennis elbow probably results from the degenerative tear of the common extensor origin, and a percutaneous tenotomy using an 18 gauge hypodermic needle is a simple, safe, patient-friendly, efficient, and easily reproducible method of treating tennis elbow in those who are resistant to conservative treatment, and it can be done as an outpatient procedure. PMID:28168130

  14. Anatomic factors related to the cause of tennis elbow.

    PubMed

    Bunata, Robert E; Brown, David S; Capelo, Roderick

    2007-09-01

    The pathogenesis of lateral epicondylitis remains unclear. Our purpose was to study the anatomy of the lateral aspect of the elbow under static and dynamic conditions in order to identify bone-to-tendon and tendon-to-tendon contact or rubbing that might cause abrasion of the tissues. Eighty-five cadaveric elbows were examined to determine details related to the bone structure and musculotendinous origins. We identified the relative positions of the musculotendinous units and the underlying bone when the elbow was in different degrees of flexion. We also recorded the contact between the extensor carpi radialis brevis and the lateral edge of the capitellum as elbow motion occurred, and we sought to identify the areas of the capitellum and extensor carpi radialis brevis where contact occurs. The average site of origin of the extensor carpi radialis brevis on the humerus lay slightly medial and superior to the outer edge of the capitellum. As the elbow was extended, the undersurface of the extensor carpi radialis brevis rubbed against the lateral edge of the capitellum while the extensor carpi radialis longus compressed the brevis against the underlying bone. The extensor carpi radialis brevis tendon has a unique anatomic location that makes its undersurface vulnerable to contact and abrasion against the lateral edge of the capitellum during elbow motion.

  15. Mechanical solution for a mechanical problem: Tennis elbow

    PubMed Central

    Rothschild, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Lateral epicondylitis is a relatively common clinical problem, easily recognized on palpation of the lateral protuberance on the elbow. Despite the “itis” suffix, it is not an inflammatory process. Therapeutic approaches with topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, corticosteroids and anesthetics have limited benefit, as would be expected if inflammation is not involved. Other approaches have included provision of healing cytokines from blood products or stem cells, based on the recognition that this repetitive effort-derived disorder represents injury. Noting calcification/ossification of tendon attachments to the lateral epicondyle (enthesitis), dry needling, radiofrequency, shock wave treatments and surgical approaches have also been pursued. Physiologic approaches, including manipulation, therapeutic ultrasound, phonophoresis, iontophoresis, acupuncture and exposure of the area to low level laser light, has also had limited success. This contrasts with the benefit of a simple mechanical intervention, reducing the stress on the attachment area. This is based on displacement of the stress by use of a thin (3/4-1 inch) band applied just distal to the epicondyle. Thin bands are required, as thick bands (e.g., 2-3 inch wide) simply reduce muscle strength, without significantly reducing stress. This approach appears to be associated with a failure rate less than 1%, assuming the afflicted individual modifies the activity that repeatedly stresses the epicondylar attachments. PMID:23878775

  16. Tennis Elbow Diagnosis Using Equivalent Uniform Voltage to Fit the Logistic and the Probit Diseased Probability Models

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Wei-Chun; Lin, Shu-Yuan; Wu, Li-Fu; Guo, Shih-Sian; Huang, Hsiang-Jui; Chao, Pei-Ju

    2015-01-01

    To develop the logistic and the probit models to analyse electromyographic (EMG) equivalent uniform voltage- (EUV-) response for the tenderness of tennis elbow. In total, 78 hands from 39 subjects were enrolled. In this study, surface EMG (sEMG) signal is obtained by an innovative device with electrodes over forearm region. The analytical endpoint was defined as Visual Analog Score (VAS) 3+ tenderness of tennis elbow. The logistic and the probit diseased probability (DP) models were established for the VAS score and EMG absolute voltage-time histograms (AVTH). TV50 is the threshold equivalent uniform voltage predicting a 50% risk of disease. Twenty-one out of 78 samples (27%) developed VAS 3+ tenderness of tennis elbow reported by the subject and confirmed by the physician. The fitted DP parameters were TV50 = 153.0 mV (CI: 136.3–169.7 mV), γ 50 = 0.84 (CI: 0.78–0.90) and TV50 = 155.6 mV (CI: 138.9–172.4 mV), m = 0.54 (CI: 0.49–0.59) for logistic and probit models, respectively. When the EUV ≥ 153 mV, the DP of the patient is greater than 50% and vice versa. The logistic and the probit models are valuable tools to predict the DP of VAS 3+ tenderness of tennis elbow. PMID:26380281

  17. Reliability of internal oblique elbow radiographs for measuring displacement of medial epicondyle humerus fractures: a cadaveric study.

    PubMed

    Gottschalk, Hilton P; Bastrom, Tracey P; Edmonds, Eric W

    2013-01-01

    Standard elbow radiographs (AP and lateral views) are not accurate enough to measure true displacement of medial epicondyle fractures of the humerus. The amount of perceived displacement has been used to determine treatment options. This study assesses the utility of internal oblique radiographs for measurement of true displacement in these fractures. A medial epicondyle fracture was created in a cadaveric specimen. Displacement of the fragment (mm) was set at 5, 10, and 15 in line with the vector of the flexor pronator mass. The fragment was sutured temporarily in place. Radiographs were obtained at 0 (AP), 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, and 90 degrees (lateral) of internal rotation, with the elbow in set positions of flexion. This was done with and without radio-opaque markers placed on the fragment and fracture bed. The 45 and 60 degrees internal oblique radiographs were then presented to 5 separate reviewers (of different levels of training) to evaluate intraobserver and interobserver agreement. Change in elbow position did not affect the perceived displacement (P=0.82) with excellent intraobserver reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient range, 0.979 to 0.988) and interobserver agreement of 0.953. The intraclass correlation coefficient for intraobserver reliability on 45 degrees internal oblique films for all groups ranged from 0.985 to 0.998, with interobserver agreement of 0.953. For predicting displacement, the observers were 60% accurate in predicting the true displacement on the 45 degrees internal oblique films and only 35% accurate using the 60 degrees internal oblique view. Standardizing to a 45 degrees internal oblique radiograph of the elbow (regardless of elbow flexion) can augment the treating surgeon's ability to determine true displacement. At this degree of rotation, the measured number can be multiplied by 1.4 to better estimate displacement. The addition of a 45 degrees internal oblique radiograph in medial humeral epicondyle fractures has good

  18. Epicondylitis in the athlete's elbow.

    PubMed

    Van Hofwegen, Christopher; Baker, Champ L; Baker, Champ L

    2010-10-01

    Epicondylitis is a diagnostic term that describes a pattern of pain and tenderness localized to the medial or lateral epicondyles of the distal humerus. The pathoanatomy, clinical presentation, and treatment of these disorders is described. Nonoperative treatment, operative techniques, postoperative care, and the results of treatment are discussed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Posterolateral rotatory instability from multiple steroids injections for tennis elbow: a case report.

    PubMed

    Chanlalit, Cholawish; Limsricharoen, Warodom

    2013-01-01

    This article reports the complication (lateral collateral ligament rupture) arising from improper numbers of steroids injections for the chronic lateral elbow pain (tennis elbow). Clinical sign and investigation with MRI confirmed a diagnosis of LCL rupture. In the present report, we describe the successful outcome of one year results in surgical debridement and lateral collateral ligament (LCL) reconstruction. A discussion of the proper conservative role for the chronic lateral epicondyalgia and the surgical decision to resolve this complication is also included.

  20. Reliability of sonographic assessment of tendinopathy in tennis elbow.

    PubMed

    Poltawski, Leon; Ali, Syed; Jayaram, Vijay; Watson, Tim

    2012-01-01

    To assess the reliability and compute the minimum detectable change using sonographic scales to quantify the extent of pathology and hyperaemia in the common extensor tendon in people with tennis elbow. The lateral elbows of 19 people with tennis elbow were assessed sonographically twice, 1-2 weeks apart. Greyscale and power Doppler images were recorded for subsequent rating of abnormalities. Tendon thickening, hypoechogenicity, fibrillar disruption and calcification were each rated on four-point scales, and scores were summed to provide an overall rating of structural abnormality; hyperaemia was scored on a five point scale. Inter-rater reliability was established using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) to compare scores assigned independently to the same set of images by a radiologist and a physiotherapist with training in musculoskeletal imaging. Test-retest reliability was assessed by comparing scores assigned by the physiotherapist to images recorded at the two sessions. The minimum detectable change (MDC) was calculated from the test-retest reliability data. ICC values for inter-rater reliability ranged from 0.35 (95% CI: 0.05, 0.60) for fibrillar disruption to 0.77 (0.55, 0.88) for overall greyscale score, and 0.89 (0.79, 0.95) for hyperaemia. Test-retest reliability ranged from 0.70 (0.48, 0.84) for tendon thickening to 0.82 (0.66, 0.90) for overall greyscale score and 0.86 (0.73, 0.93) for calcification. The MDC for the greyscale total score was 2.0/12 and for the hyperaemia score was 1.1/5. The sonographic scoring system used in this study may be used reliably to quantify tendon abnormalities and change over time. A relatively inexperienced imager can conduct the assessment and use the rating scales reliably.

  1. Medial elbow pain

    PubMed Central

    Barco, Raul; Antuña, Samuel A.

    2017-01-01

    Medial elbow pain is uncommon when compared with lateral elbow pain. Medial epicondylitis is an uncommon diagnosis and can be confused with other sources of pain. Overhead throwers and workers lifting heavy objects are at increased risk of medial elbow pain. Differential diagnosis includes ulnar nerve disorders, cervical radiculopathy, injured ulnar collateral ligament, altered distal triceps anatomy or joint disorders. Children with medial elbow pain have to be assessed for ‘Little League elbow’ and fractures of the medial epicondyle following a traumatic event. This paper is primarily focused on the differential diagnosis of medial elbow pain with basic recommendations on treatment strategies. Cite this article: EFORT Open Rev 2017;2:362-371. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.2.160006 PMID:28932488

  2. Comparison of Local Injection of Platelet Rich Plasma and Corticosteroids in the Treatment of Lateral Epicondylitis of Humerus.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Raman; Kothari, S Y; Borah, Diganta

    2015-07-01

    Lateral epicondylitis or Tennis Elbow is one of the most common causes of upper extremity pain with various treatment options. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) offers a new option for the treatment of lateral epicondylitis. This study was conducted with an aim to compare the efficacy of PRP versus methyl-prednisolone local injection in patients with lateral epicondylitis. Sixty five patients with lateral epicondylitis were included in the study and randomized into two groups. Group A was treated with single injection of 1ml PRP with absolute platelet count of at least 1 million platelets/ mm(3). Group B was treated with single injection of 1ml (40mg) methyl-prednisolone. Pain, grip strength and functional improvements were assessed using visual analogue scale, dynamometer and quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand scale respectively at baseline, 15 days, 1 month and 3 months. Sixty patients completed the follow up. All assessment parameters improved significantly in both the Groups at each follow up compared to baseline. At the end of three months group A showed significantly better improvement as compared to Group B. PRP and methyl-prenisolone both are effective in the treatment of lateral epicondylitis. However, PRP is a superior treatment option for longer duration efficacy.

  3. Ultrasonographic assessment of tendon thickness, Doppler activity and bony spurs of the elbow in patients with lateral epicondylitis and healthy subjects: a reliability and agreement study.

    PubMed

    Krogh, T P; Fredberg, U; Christensen, R; Stengaard-Pedersen, K; Ellingsen, T

    2013-10-01

    Tennis elbow, also known as lateral epicondylitis (LE), is a common disorder often assessed by ultrasound. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ultrasonographic outcomes and methods used in LE research and clinical practice. This study was designed as an intra- and interobserver reliability and agreement study. Ultrasonographic examination of the common extensor tendon of the elbow was performed. The intraobserver study examined tendon thickness twice in 20 right elbows from 20 healthy individuals at an interval of 7 to 12 days. The interobserver study examined tendon thickness, color Doppler activity, and bony spurs in 18 right elbows in 9 healthy individuals and 9 patients with LE. Two trained rheumatologists performed the interobserver examinations with the same scanner on the same day. The main outcomes were intra- and interclass correlation (ICC) and agreement. In the intraobserver study, the ICC with regard to tendon thickness ranged from 0.76 to 0.81, depending on the measurement techniques used. The agreement ranged from 0.06 to 0.13 mm. In the interobserver study, the tendon thickness ICC ranged from 0.45 to 0.65 and the agreement ranged from -0.17 to 0.13 mm. The ICC for color Doppler activity was 0.93, with agreement in 14/18 (78 %) of the cases. A perfect reliability was demonstrated for bony spurs, with an ICC of 1 and exact agreement in 18/18 (100 %) of the cases. Good to excellent reliability was obtained for all measurements. The ultrasonographic techniques evaluated in this trial can be recommended for use in both research and clinical practice. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Corticosteroid and platelet-rich plasma injection therapy in tennis elbow (lateral epicondylalgia): a survey of current U.K. specialist practice and a call for clinical guidelines.

    PubMed

    Titchener, Andrew G; Booker, Simon J; Bhamber, Nivraj S; Tambe, Amol A; Clark, David I

    2015-11-01

    Tennis elbow is a common condition with a variety of treatment options, but little is known about which of these options specialists choose most commonly. Corticosteroid injections in tennis elbow may reduce pain in the short-term but delay long-term recovery. We have undertaken a UK-wide survey of upper limb specialists to assess current practice. Cross-sectional electronic survey of current members of the British Elbow and Shoulder Society (BESS) and the British Society for Surgery of the Hand (BSSH). 271 of 1047 eligible members responded (25.9%); consultant surgeons constituted the largest group (232/271, 85%). 131 respondents (48%) use corticosteroid injections as their first-line treatment for tennis elbow. 206 respondents (77%) believed that corticosteroid injections are not potentially harmful in the treatment of tennis elbow, while 31 (11%) did not use them in their current practice. In light of recent evidence of the potential harmful effects of corticosteroid therapy, 136 (50%) had not changed their practice while 108 (40.1%) had reduced or discontinued their use. 43 respondents (16%) reported having used platelet-rich plasma injections. Recent high-quality evidence that corticosteroids may delay recovery in tennis elbow appears to have had a limited effect on current practice. Treatment is not uniform among specialists and a proportion of them use platelet-rich plasma injections. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  5. Richly innervated soft tissues covering the superficial aspect of the extensor origin in patients with chronic painful tennis elbow - Implication for treatment?

    PubMed

    Spang, C; Alfredson, H

    2017-06-01

    Tennis elbow is difficult to treat. The results of surgical treatments are not convincing. Treatment studies on Achilles and patellar tendinopathy targeting the richly innervated and vascularized soft tissues outside the tendon have shown promising outcomes. The innervation patterns in the fibrous/fatty tissues superficially to the elbow extensor origin have not been clarified. Nine tissue specimens from the fibrous/fatty tissue covering the extensor origin was taken from seven patients (mean age: 45 years) undergoing surgical treatment for chronic painful tennis elbow. The specimens were stained for morphology (haematoxylin and eosin, H and E) and immunohistochemically for general nerve marker protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5) and markers for sympathetic (tyrosine hydroxylase, TH) and sensory nerve fibres (calcitonin gene-related peptide, CGRP). All specimens contained multiple blood vessels and nerve structures indicated by morphology and immunoreactions. There was a frequent occurrence of TH reactions, especially peri-vascularly, but also in nerve fascicles. Immunoreactions for CGRP were seen in nerve fascicles and isolated nerve fibres. The results provide new information on the innervation patterns of the superficial tissues of the extensor origin and their potential as source of tennis elbow pain. IV.

  6. Randomised, prospective, non-blinded pilot study comparing the effect of intramuscular steroid injections and intralesional steroid injections in the management of tennis elbow

    PubMed Central

    Tahir, Hasan; Biro, Izolda; Donnelly, Simon; Greenwood, Mandy

    2016-01-01

    Background Tennis elbow is an overuse injury affecting people performing repetitive forearm movements. It is a soft tissue disorder that causes significant disability and pain. The aim of the study was to establish that an intramuscular steroid injection is effective in the short-term pain relief and functional improvement of tennis elbow. The severity of pain at the injection site was monitored to determine whether the intramuscular injection is better tolerated than the intralesional injection. Methods and results 19 patients, who had no treatment for tennis elbow in the preceding 3 months, were recruited from Whipps Cross University Hospital, London, and were randomised to receive either 80 mg of intramuscular Depo-Medrone or 40 mg of intralesional Depo-Medrone injection. Blinding proved difficult as the injection sites differed and placebo arms were not included in the study. A Patient-Rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation (PRTEE) Questionnaire and a 10-point Likert scale were used to assess primary outcome. Six weeks after the treatment, there was a reduction in pain, improvement in function and total PRTEE scores in both intramuscular and intralesional groups (p=0.008) using a 95% CI for mean treatment difference of −26 to +16 points. A statistically significant result (p=0.001) in favour of intramuscular causing less pain at the injection site was noted. Conclusion Non-inferiority of intramuscular to intralesional injections was not confirmed; however, the intramuscular injection proved to be effective in reducing tennis elbow-related symptoms and was found less painful at the site of injection at the time of administration. Trial registration number EUDRACT Number: 2010-022131-11. REC Number: 10/H0718/76 (NRES, Central London REC 1). PMID:28879024

  7. Decreased Brain Neurokinin-1 Receptor Availability in Chronic Tennis Elbow.

    PubMed

    Linnman, Clas; Catana, Ciprian; Svärdsudd, Kurt; Appel, Lieuwe; Engler, Henry; Långström, Bengt; Sörensen, Jens; Furmark, Tomas; Fredrikson, Mats; Borsook, David; Peterson, Magnus

    Substance P is released in painful and inflammatory conditions, affecting both peripheral processes and the central nervous system neurokinin 1 (NK1) receptor. There is a paucity of data on human brain alterations in NK1 expression, how this system may be affected by treatment, and interactions between central and peripheral tissue alterations. Ten subjects with chronic tennis elbow (lateral epicondylosis) were selected out of a larger (n = 120) randomized controlled trial evaluating graded exercise as a treatment for chronic tennis elbow (lateral epicondylosis). These ten subjects were examined by positron emission tomography (PET) with the NK1-specific radioligand 11C-GR205171 before, and eight patients were followed up after treatment with graded exercise. Brain binding in the ten patients before treatment, reflecting NK1-receptor availability (NK1-RA), was compared to that of 18 healthy subjects and, longitudinally, to the eight of the original ten patients that agreed to a second PET examination after treatment. Before treatment, patients had significantly lower NK1-RA in the insula, vmPFC, postcentral gyrus, anterior cingulate, caudate, putamen, amygdala and the midbrain but not the thalamus and cerebellum, with the largest difference in the insula contralateral to the injured elbow. No significant correlations between brain NK1-RA and pain, functional severity, or peripheral NK1-RA in the affected limb were observed. In the eight patients examined after treatment, pain ratings decreased in everyone, but there were no significant changes in NK1-RA. These findings indicate a role for the substance P (SP) / NK1 receptor system in musculoskeletal pain and tissue healing. As neither clinical parameters nor successful treatment response was reflected in brain NK1-RA after treatment, this may reflect the diverse function of the SP/NK1 system in CNS and peripheral tissue, or a change too small or slow to capture over the three-month treatment.

  8. Medial epicondylitis - golfer's elbow

    MedlinePlus

    ... Golf Baseball and other throwing sports, such as football and javelin Racquet sports, such as tennis Weight ... herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any ...

  9. [Case-control study on local injection of autoallergic platelet rich plasma or whole blood for the treatment of tennis elbow].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Li-Lai; Tong, Pei-Jian; Xiao, Lu-Wei; Zhu, Qiu-Liang; Xu, Bin; Yan, Mao-Hua

    2014-11-01

    To compare therapeutic effects of local injection with autoallergic platelet rich plasma (PRP) or autoallergic whole blood (AWB) for the treatment of chronic tennis elbow. From January 2011 to January 2014, 40 patients with chronic tennis elbow were divided into 2 groups, 20 cases in each group: PRP group and AWB group. There were 20 patients in PRP group treated with local injection of autoallergic platelet rich plasma, including 5 males and 15 females, with an average age of (47.50 ± 9.86) years old; and the average course of disease was (4.67 ± 3.27) months. Among the 20 patients in AWB group treated with local injection of autoallergic whole blood, 3 patients were male and 17 patients were female, with an average age of (46.50 ± 9.96) years old;and the average course of disease was (4.53 ± 2.27) months. The elbow joint was fixed with elastic stockings after injection. All the patients were guided to do strengthening and extension exercises during the follow-up period. Visual analog scale (VAS), Mayo scores for elbow and pressure pain threshold (PPT) were used to evaluate clinical effects after injection immediately and 4,8 weeks after treatment. Results:All the patients were followed up,there were no infections and swelling occurred. The VAS, Mayo and PPT scores of patients in PRP group were improved from pre-therapy 7.22 ± 1.32, 56.71 ± 10.90 and 17.47 ± 4.62 to 2.73 ± 1.00, 91.59 ± 6.95 and 21.35 ± 4.80 respectively 8 weeks after treatment. The VAS, Mayo and PPT scores of patients in AWB group were improved from pre-therapy 7.16 ±1.27, 54.72 ± 8.36 and 17.06 ± 4.83 to 3.81 ± 1.36, 82.06 ± 7.89 and 20.12 ± 4.97 respectively 8 weeks after treatment. All the pain and functional variables including VAS, PPT, and Mayo scores were improved significantly in both groups 4 weeks after injection. On the 4th week after injection, there was no statistically significant difference in PPT between two groups; while the VAS and Mayo score of AWB group were

  10. Richly innervated soft tissues covering the superficial aspect of the extensor origin in patients with chronic painful tennis elbow – Implication for treatment?

    PubMed Central

    Spang, C.; Alfredson, H.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Tennis elbow is difficult to treat. The results of surgical treatments are not convincing. Treatment studies on Achilles and patellar tendinopathy targeting the richly innervated and vascularized soft tissues outside the tendon have shown promising outcomes. The innervation patterns in the fibrous/fatty tissues superficially to the elbow extensor origin have not been clarified. Methods: Nine tissue specimens from the fibrous/fatty tissue covering the extensor origin was taken from seven patients (mean age: 45 years) undergoing surgical treatment for chronic painful tennis elbow. The specimens were stained for morphology (haematoxylin & eosin, H&E) and immunohistochemically for general nerve marker protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5) and markers for sympathetic (tyrosine hydroxylase, TH) and sensory nerve fibres (calcitonin gene-related peptide, CGRP). Results: All specimens contained multiple blood vessels and nerve structures indicated by morphology and immunoreactions. There was a frequent occurrence of TH reactions, especially peri-vascularly, but also in nerve fascicles. Immunoreactions for CGRP were seen in nerve fascicles and isolated nerve fibres. Conclusion: The results provide new information on the innervation patterns of the superficial tissues of the extensor origin and their potential as source of tennis elbow pain. Level of Evidence: IV. PMID:28574416

  11. Comparison of corticosteroid, autologous blood or sclerosant injections for chronic tennis elbow.

    PubMed

    Branson, R; Naidu, K; du Toit, C; Rotstein, A H; Kiss, R; McMillan, D; Fooks, L; Coombes, B K; Vicenzino, B

    2017-06-01

    To compare three different ultrasound-guided injections for chronic tennis elbow. Assessor-blinded, randomized controlled comparative trial. 44 patients with clinically diagnosed tennis elbow, confirmed by Doppler ultrasound, received under ultrasound guidance, a single corticosteroid injection (n=14), or two injections (separated by 4 weeks) of either autologous blood (n=14) or polidocanol (n=16). Clinical and ultrasound examination was performed at baseline, 4, 12 and 26 weeks. Complete recovery or much improvement was greater for corticosteroid injection than autologous blood and polidocanol at 4 weeks (p<0.001, number needed to treat 1 (95% CI 1-2)). In contrast, at 26 weeks corticosteroid was significantly worse than polidocanol (p=0.004, number needed to harm 2 (1-6)). Recurrence after corticosteroid injection was significantly higher than autologous blood or polidocanol (p=0.007, number needed to harm 2 (1-4)). Corticosteroid injection produced greater reduction in tendon thickness and vascularity than autologous blood at 4 weeks only. Compared to autologous blood, polidocanol reduced tendon thickness at 4 and 12 weeks and reduced echogenicity and hyperaemia after 12 or 26 weeks respectively. Injections of corticosteroid cannot be recommended over polidocanol or autologous blood, because despite beneficial short-term effect there were inferior long-term effects. Whether polidocanol or autologous blood injections are effective is unknown, especially as their global effect profiles are not unlike previously reported for wait-and-see. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Variation Among Pediatric Orthopaedic Surgeons When Treating Medial Epicondyle Fractures.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Meghan; Dua, Karan; O'Hara, Nathan N; Brighton, Brian K; Ganley, Theodore J; Hennrikus, William L; Herman, Martin J; Hyman, Joshua E; Lawrence, J Todd; Mehlman, Charles T; Noonan, Kenneth J; Otsuka, Norman Y; Schwend, Richard M; Shrader, M Wade; Smith, Brian G; Sponseller, Paul D; Abzug, Joshua M

    2017-10-18

    Medial epicondyle fractures are a common pediatric and adolescent injury accounting for 11% to 20% of elbow fractures in this population. This purpose of this study was to determine the variability among pediatric orthopaedic surgeons when treating pediatric medial epicondyle fractures. A discrete choice experiment was conducted to determine which patient and injury attributes influence the management of medial epicondyle fractures by pediatric orthopaedic surgeons. A convenience sample of 13 pediatric orthopaedic surgeons reviewed 60 case vignettes of medial epicondyle fractures that included elbow radiographs and patient/injury characteristics. Displacement was incorporated into the study model as a fixed effect. Surgeons were queried if they would treat the injury with immobilization alone or open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF). Statistical analysis was performed using a mixed effect regression model. In addition, surgeons filled out a demographic questionnaire and a risk assessment to determine if these factors affected clinical decision-making. Elbow dislocation and fracture displacement were the only attributes that significantly influenced surgeons to perform surgery (P<0.05). The presence of an elbow dislocation had the largest impact on surgeons when choosing operative care (β=-0.14; P=0.02). In addition, for every 1 mm increase in displacement, surgeons tended to favor ORIF by a factor of 0.09 (P<0.01). Sex, mechanism of injury, and sport participation did not influence decision-making. In total, 54% of the surgeons demonstrated a preference for ORIF for the included scenarios. On the basis of the personality Likert scale, participants were neither high-risk takers nor extremely risk adverse with an average-risk score of 2.24. Participant demographics did not influence decision-making. There is substantial variation among pediatric orthopaedic surgeons when treating medial epicondyle fractures. The decision to operate is significantly based on

  13. Golfer's Elbow

    MedlinePlus

    ... your elbow can cause golfer's elbow. This includes painting, raking, hammering, chopping wood, using a computer, doing ... using older golfing irons, consider upgrading to lighter graphite clubs. If you play tennis, a racket with ...

  14. No effect of forearm band and extensor strengthening exercises for the treatment of tennis elbow: a prospective randomised study.

    PubMed

    Luginbühl, Rolf; Brunner, Florian; Schneeberger, Alberto G

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this prospective randomised study was to analyse the effect of the forearm support band and of strengthening exercises for the treatment of tennis elbow. Twenty-nine patients with 30 tennis elbows were randomised into 3 groups of treatment: (I) forearm support band, (II) strengthening exercises and (III) both methods. The patients had a standardised examination at their first visit, and then after 6 weeks, 3 months and 1 year. At the latest follow-up, there was a significant improvement of the symptoms compared to before treatment (p<0.0001), considering all patients independently of the methods of treatment. However, no differences in the scores were found between the 3 groups of treatment (p=0.27), indicating that no beneficial influence was found either for the strengthening exercises or for the forearm support band. Improvement seems to occur with time, independent of the method of treatment used.

  15. Transcatheter arterial embolization of abnormal vessels as a treatment for lateral epicondylitis refractory to conservative treatment: a pilot study with a 2-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Wataru; Okuno, Yuji; Matsumura, Noboru; Kaneko, Takao; Ikegami, Hiroyasu

    2017-08-01

    Abnormal vessels and accompanying nerves are possible sources of pain with lateral epicondylitis. The purpose of this study was to describe the safety and efficacy of transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) for lateral epicondylitis resistant to conservative treatment. This prospective study was conducted in 24 patients with lateral epicondylitis resistant to conservative treatments for more than 3 months, with a symptom duration longer than 6 months, and with moderate to severe pain who were treated with TAE between March 2013 and October 2014. Two patients were lost to follow-up, and the remaining 22 patients were followed up for 2 years after TAE. Abnormal vessels were identified in all of the patients. No major adverse events were observed. The Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand scores at baseline significantly decreased at 1, 3, 6, and 24 months after treatment (50.8 vs 23.4, 8.3, 5.3, and 2.7, respectively; all P < .001). There was a statistically significant (P < .001) change from baseline to the last observed value in all of the clinical parameters, including visual analog scale pain score, Patient-Rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation score, and pain-free grip strength. Magnetic resonance images obtained 2 years after TAE showed an improvement in tendinosis and tear scores compared with baseline, and no patients showed bone marrow necrosis, obvious cartilage loss, or muscle atrophy. TAE could be one possible treatment option for patients with lateral epicondylitis that fails to improve with conservative treatments. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. MR imaging of patients with lateral epicondylitis of the elbow: is the common extensor tendon an isolated lesion?

    PubMed

    Qi, Liang; Zhu, Zheng-Feng; Li, Feng; Wang, Ren-Fa

    2013-01-01

    To investigate whether an injury of the common extensor tendon (CET) is associated with other abnormalities in the elbow joint and find the potential relationships between these imaging features by using a high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Twenty-three patients were examined with 3.0 T MR. Two reviewers were recruited for MR images evaluation. Image features were recorded in terms of (1) the injury degree of CET; (2) associated injuries in the elbow joint. Spearman's rank correlation analysis was performed to analyze the relationships between the injury degree of CET and associated abnormalities of the elbow joint, correlations were considered significant at p<0.05. Total 24 elbows in 23 patients were included. Various degrees of injuries were found in total 24 CETs (10 mild, 7 moderate and 7 severe). Associated abnormalities were detected in accompaniments of the elbow joints including ligaments, tendons, saccussynovialis and muscles. A significantly positive correlation (r = 0.877,p<0.01) was found in injuries of CET and lateral ulnar collateral ligament (LUCL). Injury of the CET is not an isolated lesion for lateral picondylitis, which is mostly accompanied with other abnormalities, of which the LUCL injury is the most commonly seen in lateral epicondylitis, and there is a positive correlation between the injury degree in CET and LUCL.

  17. MR imaging of the elbow in the injured athlete.

    PubMed

    Wenzke, Daniel R

    2013-03-01

    This article summarizes key MR imaging findings in common athletic elbow injuries including little leaguer's elbow, Panner disease, osteochondritis dissecans, olecranon stress fracture, occult fracture, degenerative osteophyte formation, flexor-pronator strain, ulnar collateral ligament tear, lateral ulnar collateral ligament and radial collateral ligament tear, lateral epicondylitis, medial epicondylitis, biceps tear, bicipitoradial bursitis, triceps tear, olecranon bursitis, ulnar neuropathy, posterior interosseous nerve syndrome, and radial tunnel syndrome. The article also summarizes important technical considerations in elbow MR imaging that enhance image quality and contribute to the radiologist's success. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Elbow arthroscopy.

    PubMed

    Dodson, Christopher C; Nho, Shane J; Williams, Riley J; Altchek, David W

    2008-10-01

    Arthroscopy of the elbow was originally considered to be an unsafe procedure because of the small size of the elbow joint capsule and its proximity to several crucial neurovascular structures. Over the past decade, however, the procedure has become safer and more effective. These improvements can be attributed to a better understanding of elbow anatomy and of the disorders about the elbow as well as to advances in arthroscopic equipment and surgical technique. The most common indications for elbow arthroscopy include removal of loose bodies, synovectomy, débridement and/or excision of osteophytes, capsular release, and the assessment and treatment of osteochondritis dissecans. More recent advances have expanded the indications of elbow arthroscopy to include fracture management (eg, radial head fractures) and the treatment of lateral epicondylitis.

  19. [Clinical observation on external humeral epicondylitis treated with back-rotation traction].

    PubMed

    Fu, Rui-yang; Wang, Ya-ling; Gu, Zhong-zhong; Wang, Bao-hu; Zhu, Qi; Li, Ye; Wang, En-ping

    2009-02-01

    To evaluate the clinical effect of manipulation on external humeral epicondylitis, and to explore the functional mechanism and ideal treatment. Eighty-six patients who had been treated with acupuncture, obturation and needle-knife were divided into routine group and treatment group randomly. In routine group, there were 42 cases (male 13, female 29, means 40.8 years); and in treatment group there were 44 cases (male 16, female 28, means 41.2 years). There's no further treatment for the routine group after the therapy above, while the treatment group was added with back-rotation traction manipulation. Taking Verhaar therapy effect appraisal system of tennis-ball elbow to evaluate elbow function. After 7 days of therapy, the results were excellent in 13 cases, good in 16, fair in 4, poor in 9 in the routine group; and excellent in 38, good in 4 and fair in 2 in treatment group; and the effect in the treatment group were better than that of the routine group (P < 0.010). Half a year later, in the routine group 38 cases recurrenced and in the treatment group 10 cases recurrenced. Making manipulation after routine acupuncture, local obturation and needle-knife has active meaning to remove trauma inflammation, prevent re-conglutination, promote recovery and prevent recurrence.

  20. Nirschl surgical technique for concomitant lateral and medial elbow tendinosis: a retrospective review of 53 elbows with a mean follow-up of 11.7 years.

    PubMed

    Schipper, Oliver N; Dunn, Jonathan H; Ochiai, Derek H; Donovan, J Skye; Nirschl, Robert P

    2011-05-01

    Combined lateral elbow tendinosis (tennis elbow) and medial elbow tendinosis (golfer's elbow) can be a disabling condition that, if unresponsive to nonoperative treatments, may be effectively treated surgically. The authors are not aware of any study that reports the outcome of a combined operation for lateral and medial elbow tendinosis (country club elbow) performed in the same operative setting. Combined surgical treatment of country club elbow in the same operative setting has similar outcomes to those seen in the literature for single operative procedures. Case series; Level of evidence 4. Outcome measurements included the Numeric Pain Intensity Scale, the Nirschl tennis elbow scoring system, and the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons elbow form. Forty-eight patients (53 clinical elbows) were available by telephone, with a minimum time to follow-up of 5 years (range, 5-19 years; mean, 11.7 years). The average Nirschl tennis elbow score improved from 16.7 preoperatively to 70.8 postoperatively (P < .01). The average American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons elbow score improved from 45.2 to 90.4 (P < .01). The Numeric Pain Intensity Scale score improved from 8.8 to 1.7 (P < .01). By the criteria of the Nirschl tennis elbow score, results were rated excellent in 38 elbows, good in 7 elbows, fair in 5 elbows, and poor in 3 elbows, with 85% (45 of 53) good to excellent results. Patient satisfaction with the surgery averaged 8.7 out of 10. Of the 46 patients who played sports, 44 (96%) reported returning to their sports. When nonoperative treatment of lateral and medial elbow tendinosis fails, combined surgical intervention via the Nirschl operative techniques for country club elbow is highly effective, with results similar to those of single-sided intervention.

  1. Elbow Injuries and Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Many things can make your elbow hurt. A common cause is tendinitis, an inflammation or injury to the tendons that attach muscle to bone. Tendinitis of the elbow is a sports injury, often from playing tennis or golf. You ...

  2. Strength and fatigability of selected muscles in upper limb: assessing muscle imbalance relevant to tennis elbow.

    PubMed

    Alizadehkhaiyat, O; Fisher, A C; Kemp, G J; Frostick, S P

    2007-08-01

    The aetiology of tennis elbow has remained uncertain for more than a century. To examine muscle imbalance as a possible pathophysiological factor requires a reliable method of assessment. This paper describes the development of such a method and its performance in healthy subjects. We propose a combination of surface and fine-wire EMG of shoulder and forearm muscles and wrist strength measurements as a reliable tool for assessing muscle imbalance relevant to the pathophysiology of tennis elbow. Six healthy volunteers participated. EMG data were acquired at 50% maximal voluntary isometric contraction from five forearm muscles during grip and three shoulder muscles during external rotation and abduction, and analysed using normalized median frequency slope as a fatigue index. Wrist extension/flexion strength was measured using a purpose-built dynamometer. Significant negative slope of median frequency was found for all muscles, with good reproducibility, and no significant difference in slope between the different muscles of the shoulder and the wrist. (Amplitude slope showed high variability and was therefore unsuitable for this purpose.) Wrist flexion was 27+/-8% stronger than extension (mean+/-SEM, p=0.006). This is a reliable method for measuring muscle fatigue in forearm and shoulder. EMG and wrist strength studies together can be used for assessing and identifying the muscle balance in the wrist-forearm-shoulder chain.

  3. Management of Chronic Lateral Epicondylitis With Manual Therapy and Local Cryostimulation: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Richer, Nadia; Marchand, Andrée-Anne; Descarreaux, Martin

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of adding cryostimulation to manual therapy in patients with chronic lateral epicondylitis. The control group (n = 19) was treated with manual therapy consisting of soft-tissue therapy and radial head mobilizations. The experimental group (n = 18) received cryostimulation in addition to manual therapy care similar to that for the control group. Both protocols consisted of 8 treatments over a 4-week period. Outcome measures included pain intensity (visual analog scale), pain-free grip strength (handheld dynamometer), and functional index (Patient-Rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation questionnaire). Assessments were performed at baseline, postintervention, and 3-month follow-up. Adherence and dropout rates were also considered. Both groups exhibited significant improvements in pain intensity and functional index at postintervention assessments, which were maintained at follow-up. All participants attended the prescribed number of treatments, but 27% were lost at follow-up. Minor adverse events were reported after cryostimulation in 4 cases. This study indicated that it is feasible to complete a clinical trial evaluating the efficacy of adding cryostimulation to manual therapy in patients with chronic lateral epicondylitis. On the basis of these preliminary data, the combination of cryostimulation and manual therapy care did not provide any additional benefits in both the short term and the long term. Manual myofascial point treatment and mobilization techniques yielded positive outcomes in chronic lateral epicondylitis. Further studies should focus on the sole therapeutic effect of cryostimulation in both patients with acute and those with chronic conditions.

  4. Characteristics of upper limb muscular strength in male wheelchair tennis players

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Hyo-Bin; Park, Seung-Jae; Kim, Al-Chan; Jang, Jee-Hun

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the characteristics of muscular strength in upper limb and to present the preliminary information for development of sports injury prevention program and exercise rehabilitation program in wheelchair tennis players. Participants were 12 male wheelchair tennis players. Muscular strength was measured in shoulder and elbow joints with isokinetic dynamometer. Ipsilateral (IR) and bilateral (BR) balance ratio were calculated with isokinetic strength at 60°/sec. As a result, extension strength (ES) was significantly higher than flexion strength (FS) (P< 0.001), and IR in both sides and BR in ES were maintained within normal range whereas BR in FS was lower than normal range in shoulder joint. In elbow joint FS was significantly higher than ES (P< 0.05), and IR and BR were lower than normal range. Consequently, the different tendency in IR between shoulder and elbow joints and lower IR and BR in elbow joints could be the characteristics in male wheelchair tennis players. It is suggested that flexor strengthening program in nondominant shoulder joint, extensor strengthening program in both elbow joint, and flexor strengthening program in non-dominant elbow joint should be introduced for male wheelchair tennis players. PMID:24278887

  5. Tennis injuries: prevention and treatment. A review.

    PubMed

    Kulund, D N; McCue, F C; Rockwell, D A; Gieck, J H

    1979-01-01

    When players are engaged in the sport of tennis, injuries may occur to the eyes, in the neck, to the shoulder and back, arm and elbow, wrist and hand, and feet. The key to prevention and treatment of these injuries is good coaching and a formal stretching and strengthening program. The drooped "tennis shoulder" of professionals and senior tennis players is a natural response to heavy use. Shoulder elevating exercises are useful when soreness is associated. The treatment of tennis elbow includes wrist extensor stretching, isometrics, and light weightlifting. When a player follows this program, injections or counterforce braces are rarely needed. It is important for the player to bring his racket to the examination so that his stroke mechanics and grip can be checked. Wrist soreness in a tennis player may denote a hamate hook fracture. Special radiographic views are needed to discern the fracture and it is treated with a short arm cast and little finger extension splint. Nonunion of a hamate hook requires excision. The calf pain prodrome of "tennis leg" requires rest and then a stretching program. Tennis shoes should have rolled heels and large toe boxes with reinforced toe bumpers. The physician may have to fashion soft inserts for the tennis shoes; arch supports may be insufficient.

  6. Ultrasound-guided percutaneous bone drilling for the treatment of lateral epicondylitis.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Sang Ho; Cha, Jang Gyu; Lee, Bo Ra

    2018-01-01

    To determine the clinical efficacy of sonographically-guided percutaneous bone drilling of the lateral epicondyle (LE) for the treatment of patients with LE. We included 24 patients with LE who reported pain in this study. All patients underwent sonographically-guided percutaneous bone drilling of the lateral epicondyle. Follow-up sonography and physical examinations were performed 1, 3 and 6 months after the procedure. The outcome measures included sonographic findings, visual analogue scale (VAS) score, maximum voluntary grip strength (MVGS) and patient-related tennis elbow evaluation (PRTEE) score. None of the patients had immediate complications during the procedure. The area of the extensor carpi radialis brevis (ECRB) tears decreased significantly at 1 month and declined gradually over the remaining 5 months of the study (p < 0.001). The mean pain VAS score was significantly lower at 6 months than preoperatively (respectively; p < 0.001). The mean MVGS increased significantly between pretreatment and 6 months post-treatment (p < 0.001), whereas the PRTEE score decreased significantly during the same period (p < 0.001). Sonographically-guided percutaneous drilling is a quick and safe treatment option for LE that can be performed in an outpatient setting. • Percutaneous drilling of the lateral condyle is effective for the treatment of LE. • The area of ECRB tears can be measured by US-guided saline injection. • US-guided percutaneous drilling is a quick and safe treatment option for LE.

  7. Elbow arthroscopy: setup, portal placement, and simple procedures.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Christopher S; Vitale, Mark A

    2011-01-01

    Elbow arthroscopy has become an accepted treatment for numerous elbow conditions, including loose bodies, lateral epicondylitis, contractures, painful osteophytes, synovitis, osteochondritis dissecans, synovial plica, and osteoarthritis. It is absolutely necessary that the treating surgeon have complete knowledge of elbow anatomy. Three options exist for patient positioning: supine, prone, and lateral decubitus. Standard arthroscopic probes, grasping forceps, punches, and motorized shavers and burrs are used in the procedure. Retractors are essential for visualizing, exposing, and protecting nerves. Specially designed capsular biters can be used to develop a plane between the capsule and the surrounding soft tissues to facilitate capsulotomy and capsulectomy. Among elbow arthroscopists, the sequence of portal placement varies; however, there is little variation in the exact location of portal placement because of neurovascular constraints. Loose body removal and extensor carpi radialis brevis release for lateral epicondylitis are common procedures suitable for the beginning arthroscopist. For beginning and advanced procedures, the surgeon's skill and competence must be at a level consistent with the procedure to avoid complications.

  8. The detection of the capsular tear at the undersurface of the extensor carpi radialis brevis tendon in chronic tennis elbow: the value of magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography arthrography.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Koichi; Tamakawa, Mitsuharu; Onda, Kazunori; Iba, Kosuke; Sonoda, Tomoko; Yamashita, Toshihiko; Wada, Takuro

    2011-04-01

    This study compared the diagnostic efficacy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography arthrography (CTA) in the assessment of capsular tears at the undersurface of the extensor carpi radials brevis tendon in chronic tennis elbow using arthroscopy as a gold standard. Because of the higher spatial resolution of CT, we hypothesized that CTA is superior to MRI for assessing capsular tears. We retrospectively reviewed 19 consecutive patients with chronic tennis elbow with preoperative MRI and CTA studies who underwent arthroscopic surgery. Three observers with different levels of training and experience (musculoskeletal radiologist, experienced elbow surgeon, and hand fellow) evaluated the capsular tear by MRI and CTA in a blinded manner. The results of the MRI and CTA were compared and the agreement among the 3 observers was determined using an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Then, the results of the MRI and CTA examinations were compared with the intraoperative findings of the arthroscopic examination. The sensitivity, specificity, and κ value were calculated. The ICC of CTA (0.855) was superior to MRI (0.645). The sensitivity, specificity, and κ value of CTA were superior to those of MRI in each of the 3 observers. The κ value was 0.79, 0.89, and 0.79 for CTA, and 0.48, 0.48, and 0.27 for MRI for the radiologist, surgeon, and fellow, respectively. CTA was a reliable and accurate diagnostic modality compared with MRI to detect the capsular tear in patients with chronic tennis elbow. CTA was less influenced by the observer's experience. Copyright © 2011 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Characteristics and prognosis of medial epicondylar fragmentation of the humerus in male junior tennis players.

    PubMed

    Harada, Mikio; Takahara, Masatoshi; Maruyama, Masahiro; Takagi, Michiaki

    2014-10-01

    Although medial epicondylar fragmentation of the humerus is a reported elbow injury in junior tennis players, there have been only a few studies on this entity, and none have investigated the characteristics and prognosis of medial epicondylar fragmentation. Forty-one male junior tennis players, aged 11 to 14 years (mean, 13 years), underwent elbow examination by ultrasonography. Elbow re-examination was performed in subjects with medial epicondylar fragmentation at an average of 20 months (12-30 months) after the initial examination. On examination, 9 subjects (22%) had elbow pain. Ultrasonography showed that 6 subjects (15%) had medial epicondylar fragmentation, all of whom had elbow pain. Medial epicondylar fragmentation was present in 5 (38%) of 13 subjects aged 11 to 12 years and in 1 (4%) of 28 aged 13 to 14 years. More subjects aged 11 to 12 years had medial epicondylar fragmentation (P = .0084). All 6 subjects with medial epicondylar fragmentation continued to play tennis between the initial elbow examination and the re-examination. At re-examination, although ultrasonography showed that 5 developed bone union and 1 had nonunion, 3 subjects (50%) reported elbow pain. Our results demonstrated that subjects aged 11 to 12 years had a high frequency (38%) of medial epicondylar fragmentation. Although medial epicondylar fragmentation was the main cause of elbow pain (67%) at the initial elbow examination, all 6 players with medial epicondylar fragmentation continued to play tennis between the initial elbow examination and the re-examination. At re-examination, 5 subjects presented spontaneous bone union (83%), but 3 subjects (50%) reported elbow pain. Copyright © 2014 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Upper Extremity Injuries in Tennis Players: Diagnosis, Treatment, and Management

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Kevin C.; Lark, Meghan E.

    2016-01-01

    Synopsis Upper extremity tennis injuries are most commonly characterized as overuse injuries to the wrist, elbow and shoulder. The complex anatomy of these structures and their interaction with biomechanical properties of tennis strokes contributes to the diagnostic challenges. A thorough understanding of tennis kinetics, in combination with the current literature surrounding diagnostic and treatment methods, will improve clinical decision-making. PMID:27886833

  11. Upper Extremity Injuries in Tennis Players: Diagnosis, Treatment, and Management.

    PubMed

    Chung, Kevin C; Lark, Meghan E

    2017-02-01

    Upper extremity tennis injuries are most commonly characterized as overuse injuries to the wrist, elbow, and shoulder. The complex anatomy of these structures and their interaction with biomechanical properties of tennis strokes contributes to the diagnostic challenges. A thorough understanding of tennis kinetics, in combination with the current literature surrounding diagnostic and treatment methods, will improve clinical decision-making. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. IMpact of Platelet Rich plasma OVer alternative therapies in patients with lateral Epicondylitis (IMPROVE): protocol for a multicenter randomized controlled study: a multicenter, randomized trial comparing autologous platelet-rich plasma, autologous whole blood, dry needle tendon fenestration, and physical therapy exercises alone on pain and quality of life in patients with lateral epicondylitis.

    PubMed

    Chiavaras, Mary M; Jacobson, Jon A; Carlos, Ruth; Maida, Eugene; Bentley, Todd; Simunovic, Nicole; Swinton, Marilyn; Bhandari, Mohit

    2014-09-01

    Lateral epicondylitis, commonly known as tennis elbow, is the most common cause of lateral elbow pain and the second most frequently diagnosed musculoskeletal disorder in the neck and upper limb in a primary care setting. Many therapeutic options, including conservative, surgical, and minimally invasive procedures, have been advocated for the treatment of lateral epicondylitis. Although numerous small studies have been performed to assess the efficacy of various treatments, there are conflicting results with no clear consensus on the optimal treatment. In an economic environment with limited health care resources, it is paramount that optimal cost-effective therapies with favorable patient-important outcomes be identified. This is a protocol paper which outlines a multicenter, multidisciplinary, single-blinded, four-arm randomized controlled trial, comparing platelet-rich plasma (PRP), whole blood injection, dry needle tendon fenestration, and sham injection with physical therapy alone for the treatment of lateral epicondylitis. Patients are screened based on pre-established eligibility criteria and randomized to one of the four study groups using an Internet-based system. The patients are followed at 6-week, 12-week, 24-week, and 52-week time points to assess the primary and secondary outcomes of the study. The primary outcome is pain. Secondary outcomes include health-related quality of life and ultrasound appearance of the common extensor tendon. Two university centers (McMaster University and the University of Michigan) are currently recruiting patients. We have planned a sample size of 100 patients (25 patients per arm) to ensure over 80% power to detect a three-point difference in pain scores at 52 weeks of follow-up. This study has ethics approval from the McMaster University Research Ethics Board (REB# 12-146) and the University of Michigan Institutional Review Board (IRB# HUM00067750). Successful completion of this proposed study will significantly impact

  13. The thrower's elbow.

    PubMed

    Patel, Ronak M; Lynch, T Sean; Amin, Nirav H; Calabrese, Gary; Gryzlo, Stephen M; Schickendantz, Mark S

    2014-07-01

    Overhead throwing activities expose the elbow to tremendous valgus stress, making athletes vulnerable to a specific constellation of injuries. Although baseball players, in particular pitchers, are the athletes affected most commonly, overhead throwing athletes in football, volleyball, tennis, and javelin tossing also are affected. The purpose of this review is to review the anatomy, biomechanics, pathophysiology, and treatment of elbow disorders related to overhead throwing athletes. Although focus is on management of ulnar collateral ligament injuries, all common pathologies are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Pulsed radiofrequency on radial nerve under ultrasound guidance for treatment of intractable lateral epicondylitis.

    PubMed

    Oh, Dae Seok; Kang, Tae Hyung; Kim, Hyae Jin

    2016-06-01

    Lateral epicondylitis is a painful and functionally limiting disorder. Although lateral elbow pain is generally self-limiting, in a minority of people symptoms persist for a long time. When various conservative treatments fail, surgical approach is recommended. Surgical denervation of several nerves that innervate the lateral humeral epicondyle could be considered in patients with refractory pain because it denervates the region of pain. Pulsed radiofrequency is a minimally invasive procedure that improves chronic pain when applied to various neural tissues without causing any significant destruction and painful complication. This procedure is safe, minimally invasive, and has less risk of complications relatively compared to the surgical approach. The radial nerve can be identified as a target for pulsed radiofrequency lesioning in lateral epicondylitis. This innovative method of pulsed radiofrequency applied to the radial nerve has not been reported before. We reported on two patients with intractable lateral epicondylitis suffering from elbow pain who did not respond to nonoperative treatments, but in whom the ultrasound-guided pulsed radiofrequency neuromodulation of the radial nerve induced symptom improvement. After a successful diagnostic nerve block, radiofrequency probe adjustment around the radial nerve was performed on the lateral aspect of the distal upper arm under ultrasound guidance and multiple pulsed treatments were applied. A significant reduction in pain was reported over the follow-up period of 12 weeks.

  15. Return to competitive sports after medial epicondyle fractures in adolescent athletes: results of operative and nonoperative treatment.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, J Todd R; Patel, Neeraj M; Macknin, Jonathan; Flynn, John M; Cameron, Danielle; Wolfgruber, Hayley C; Ganley, Theodore J

    2013-05-01

    The optimal treatment of medial epicondyle fractures in pediatric athletes remains unclear. To evaluate the outcomes of operative and nonoperative management of medial epicondyle fractures in young athletes. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. The records of all children with fractures of the medial epicondyle over a 5-year period, with a minimum 2 years of follow-up at a pediatric tertiary referral center, were reviewed. Patients with intra-articular entrapment of the fracture fragment or ulnar nerve entrapment were excluded. Treatment decisions were made primarily based on injury mechanism and elbow laxity or instability. Patients were contacted and asked to complete a modified Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) questionnaire. Complete data with 2-year follow-up were available for 20 athletes: 6 treated nonoperatively and 14 treated operatively. At the latest follow-up, both groups achieved excellent DASH scores. Half of each cohort required physical therapy, and 6 of 14 patients who received operative treatment reported numbness. All patients were either very or completely satisfied with their treatment. Fourteen patients were overhead athletes (8 treated operatively, 6 nonoperatively). Excellent DASH scores were achieved in both groups, and all overhead athletes were able to return to their sport at the next appropriate level. Seven patients were baseball pitchers and sustained a fracture while throwing (4 treated operatively, 3 nonoperatively). None felt their performance was limited after treatment, and excellent DASH scores were achieved in both groups. These data demonstrate that nonoperative treatment can be successful in young athletes with low-energy medial epicondyle avulsions, a stable elbow, and minimal fracture displacement. Surgical management can be successful in athletes who sustain more significant trauma, who have elbow laxity or instability, or who have significant fracture fragment displacement after a fracture of the medial

  16. Systematic diagnosis and therapy of lateral elbow pain with emphasis on elbow instability.

    PubMed

    Kniesel, Bettina; Huth, Jochen; Bauer, Gerhard; Mauch, Frieder

    2014-12-01

    In recalcitrant epicondylitis innumerable operative techniques have been published, nevertheless a certain percentage of patients remains symptomatic after operative treatment. We developed an individual, systematic diagnostic pathway including arthroscopic assessment of elbow stability to identify the optimal and respectively less invasive therapy. We so far included 40 patients with recalcitrant lateral epicondylitis (mean age 46 ± 11). 5 patients had previous surgery. In all patients, we did an elbow arthroscopy and a systematic arthroscopic stability testing. 25 patients were treated exclusively arthroscopically once instability was excluded. In 13 patients with slight instability, we did an open debridement of the lateral tendon complex and local refixation. Two patients with severe instability were treated with open debridement and additional stabilization of the LUCL with a trizeps graft. With a minimum follow-up of 1 year, we assessed the DASH score and subjective patient satisfaction. Mean follow-up was 24 ± 12 months, mean duration of symptoms before surgery was 19 ± 18 months. The mean DASH score at follow-up was 22 ± 19.36 patients reported symptoms improvement, 34 patients would repeat surgery given the same situation; in 30 cases, patients expectations had been fulfilled. We did not observe any intraoperative complications or infections. One patient developed joint stiffness requiring reoperation. Using a systematic diagnostic pathway including assessment of elbow stability and consecutive individualized, respectively, less invasive surgical procedure we acquired high patients satisfaction and good clinical outcome with a low complication rate. Level III.

  17. Are “knife and fork” good enough for day case surgery of resistant tennis elbow?

    PubMed Central

    Govindaswamy, Raja; Elbouni, Tariq; Chambler, Andrew F. W.

    2008-01-01

    This observational retrospective study was performed on 22 consecutive patients treated surgically in a day surgery unit for resistant tennis elbow to ascertain the effectiveness of the “knife and fork” procedure. All patients had an unfavourable response to nonsurgical treatment lasting at least six months. A simple and inexpensive “knife and fork” technique yielded excellent results in 90.5% of patients and a high percentage (95.2%) of satisfied patients at an average follow-up of two years. There were no fair or poor results and no complications. We conclude that the “knife and fork” technique is a simple and dependable day case procedure. In the present National Health Service (NHS) era of tariff and “payment by results”, this approach is more cost effective than an arthroscopic alternative. PMID:19096844

  18. Functional Results in Arthroscopic Treatment in Patients with Chronic Lateral Elbow Pain.

    PubMed

    Phorkhar, Termphong; Chanlalit, Cholawish

    2015-11-01

    Modern surgery as elbow arthroscopic surgery is an accepted operation due to benefit in precise intra-articular lesion detection and minimally invasive surgery. To report the functional results when using arthroscopic surgery to treat chronic lateral elbow pain. The data was collected from 25 patients with chronic lateral elbow pain that failed in non-operative treatment and treated with elbow arthroscopic surgery. Five patients were excluded from this study due to diagnosed as instability that needed the ligament reconstruction. The etiology of pain were grouped in to tennis elbow (4 pts), plica (9 pts), tennis elbow combined with plica (4 pts) and cartilage lesion (3 pts). Thai quick DASH questionnaire was used to evaluate the functional results by comparing pre and post operation score and calculated statistic results with paired t-test by level of significance p < 0.05. The mean follow-up after surgery was 22 months by mean disability module pre and post-operative score is 68 and 18 respectively. In the occupation module was 74 and 25 respectively and in sports module was 81 and 17 respectively. All modules, scores was significant improved with p-value = 0.000, 0.000 and 0.004 respectively. The disability mean score in pre and post-operative along the diagnosis, tennis elbow mean score was 74 and 33, in plica lesion mean score was 65 and 11, combined lesions mean score was 60 and 18 and cartilage lesion mean score was 60 and 20. Approaching chronic lateral elbow pain with arthroscopy can maintain the signficant improvement of functional result in midterm follow-up.

  19. Comparison of the effects of sodium hyaluronate-chondroitin sulphate and corticosteroid in the treatment of lateral epicondylitis: a prospective randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Tosun, Haci Bayram; Gumustas, Seyitali; Agir, Ismail; Uludag, Abuzer; Serbest, Sancar; Pepele, Demet; Ertem, Kadir

    2015-09-01

    Hyaluronic acid and glycosaminoglycans have shown positive effects in improving lateral epicondylitis and other tendinosis conditions. Therefore, we designed a prospective, randomized study to compare the effects of a combined sodium hyaluronate and chondroitin sulfate (HA + CS) injection versus a triamcinolone injection in the treatment of lateral epicondylitis. In total, 57 consecutive patients with clinically diagnosed lateral epicondylitis were divided randomly into two groups. In the HA + CS group, 25 patients received a single injection of a solution containing an HA + CS combination and prilocaine HCl, while the 32 patients in the triamcinolone group received a single injection of a solution of triamcinolone and prilocaine HCl. We evaluated the pain and function outcome measures using the Patient-Rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation (PRTEE) questionnaire at the beginning of the study, and 3 and 6 months after the injection. Additionally, the Minimum Clinically Important Difference values and percentage changes in the PRTEE subscale scores between the assessments were calculated. No serious adverse events were reported throughout the study. The mean pain and function scores for the HA + CS and triamcinolone groups had significantly improved at 3 months, but the mean function scores in the HA + CS group were statistically significantly better when compared to the triamcinolone group. At 6 months, both groups had significantly improved mean pain and function scores, compared to the baseline scores; however, the mean pain and function scores in the 6-month HA + CS treatment group were better than in the 6-month triamcinolone group. The relative change for the mean total score in the HA + CS group was much better when compared with the triamcinolone group, and the HA + CS treatment group showed clinically significant improvement when compared with triamcinolone group at 3 and 6 months. This study supports the idea that for a single injection treatment of patients with

  20. Does Kinesiotaping improve pain and functionality in patients with newly diagnosed lateral epicondylitis?

    PubMed

    Eraslan, Leyla; Yuce, Deniz; Erbilici, Arzu; Baltaci, Gul

    2018-03-01

    This study aimed to compare the short-term effects of kinesiotaping and extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) along with physiotherapy on pain, functionality, and grip strength in patients with newly diagnosed lateral epicondylitis undergoing rehabilitation. Forty-five voluntary patients (mean age 48 years) were randomly assigned to three groups. Patients in all groups received physiotherapy consisting of a cold pack and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation five times per week for a total of 15 sessions and a home exercise programme including stretching and eccentric strength exercises. In the second group, patients received kinesiotaping 5 days a week for 3 weeks. In the third group, ESWT was applied three times for 3 weeks. Patients were assessed by visual analogue scale for pain intensity, pain-free grip strength using a hand dynamometer, Cyriax Resisted Muscle Test, and Patient-Rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation Scale. All measurements were collected at baseline and after treatment. There were no significant differences in the demographic characteristics of the patients in all groups at baseline. Intra-group analysis revealed that pain intensity decreased, whereas maximum grip strength and functionality increased in all groups at the end of the treatment (p < 0.05). Inter-group analysis revealed that the kinesiotaping group yielded better results in decreasing pain intensity than the other groups (p < 0.05). The kinesiotaping group (p < 0.001) and ESWT group (p = 0.002) yielded better results in improving functionality than the physiotherapy group. There were significant differences in recovering pain-free grip strength in the kinesiotaping group (p < 0.05). Kinesiotaping was found to be effective for decreasing pain intensity, recovering grip strength, and improving functionality in patients with lateral epicondylitis undergoing rehabilitation. Therapeutic study, Level II.

  1. Efficacy of peloid therapy in patients with chronic lateral epicondylitis: a randomized, controlled, single blind study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ökmen, Burcu Metin; Eröksüz, Rıza; Altan, Lale; Aksoy, Meliha Kasapoğlu

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of peloid on pain, functionality, daily life activities, and quality of life of lateral epicondylitis (LE) patients. In this randomized, controlled, single-blind study, 75 patients who were diagnosed with chronic LE were enrolled to the study. Patients were randomized into two groups using the random number table. The patients in the first group (group 1) ( n = 33), were given lateral epicondylitis band (LEB) (during the day for 6 weeks) + peloid therapy (five consecutive days a week for 2 weeks), and the second group (group 2) ( n = 32), received LEB treatment alone. The patients were assessed by using Patient Rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation (PRTEE) and Nottingham Health Profile (NHP). The data were obtained before treatment (W0), immediately after treatment (W2), and 1 month after treatment (W6). In analysis of the collected data, the Wilcoxon signed rank test for intra-group comparisons and Mann-Whitney U test for comparisons between groups were used. Both in groups 1 and 2, there was a statistically significant improvement in all the evaluation parameters at W2 and W6 when compared to W0 ( p < 0.05). In comparison of difference scores between groups, although there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups at W2 when compared to W0 ( p > 0.05), a statistically significant difference was found in favor of group 1 for all the evaluation parameters at W6 ( p < 0.05). Our results have shown that peloid treatment could be effective in providing improvement in pain relief, function, daily life activities, and quality of life in LE patients.

  2. Mathematical modelling and simulation of a tennis racket.

    PubMed

    Brannigan, M; Adali, S

    1981-01-01

    By constructing a mathematical model, we consider the dynamics of a tennis racket hit by a ball. Using this model, known experimental results can be simulated on the computer, and it becomes possible to make a parametric study of a racket. Such a simulation is essential in the study of two important problems related to tennis: computation of the resulting forces and moments transferred to the hand should assist understanding of the medical problem 'tennis elbow'; secondly, simulation will enable a study to be made of the relationships between the impact time, tension in the strings, forces transmitted to the rim and return velocity of the ball, all of which can lead to the optimal design of rackets.

  3. Modified Anterolateral Portals in Elbow Arthroscopy: A Cadaveric Study on Safety.

    PubMed

    Thon, Stephen; Gold, Peter; Rush, Lane; O'Brien, Michael J; Savoie, Felix H

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate the proximity to the radial nerve on cadaveric specimens of 2 modified anterolateral portals used for elbow arthroscopy. Ten fresh cadaveric elbow specimens were prepared. Four-millimeter Steinman pins were inserted into 3 anterolateral portal sites in relation to the lateral epicondyle: (1) the standard distal anterolateral portal, (2) a modified direct anterolateral portal, and (3) a modified proximal anterolateral portal. These were defined as follows: direct portals 2 cm directly anterior to the lateral epicondyle, and proximal portals 2 cm proximal and 2 cm directly anterior to the lateral epicondyle. Each elbow was then dissected to reveal the course of the radial nerve. Digital photographs were taken of each specimen, and the distance from the Steinman pin to the radial nerve was measured. The modified proximal anterolateral and direct anterolateral portals were found to be a statistically significant distance from the radial nerve compare to the distal portal site (P = .011 and P = .0011, respectively). No significant difference was found in the proximity of the radial nerve between the modified proximal and direct anterolateral portals (P = .25). Inadequate imaging was found at a single portal site for the proximal site; 9 specimens were used for analysis of this portal with 10 complete specimens for the other 2 sites. In cadaveric analysis, both the modified proximal and direct lateral portals provide adequate distance from the radial nerve and may be safe for clinical use. In this study, the distal anterolateral portal was in close proximity of the radial nerve and may result in iatrogenic injury in the clinical setting. This is a cadaveric analysis of 2 modified portal locations at the anterolateral elbow for use in elbow arthroscopy. Further clinical studies are needed prior to determining their absolute safety in comparison to previously identified portal sites. Copyright © 2017 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by

  4. Intra-articular findings in symptomatic minor instability of the lateral elbow (SMILE).

    PubMed

    Arrigoni, Paolo; Cucchi, Davide; D'Ambrosi, Riccardo; Butt, Usman; Safran, Marc R; Denard, Patrick; Randelli, Pietro

    2017-07-01

    Lateral epicondylitis is generally considered an extra-articular condition. The role of minor instability in the aetiology of lateral elbow pain has rarely been considered. The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation of lateral ligamentous laxity with aspects of intra-articular lateral elbow pathology and investigate the role of minor instability in lateral elbow pain. Thirty-five consecutive patients aged between 20 and 60 years with recalcitrant lateral epicondylitis who had failed conservative therapy and had no previous trauma or overt instability, were included. The presence of three signs of lateral ligamentous patholaxity and five intra-articular findings were documented during arthroscopy. The relative incidence of each of these was calculated, and the correlation between patholaxity and intra-articular pathology was evaluated. At least one sign of lateral ligamentous laxity was observed in 48.6% of the studied cohort, and 85.7% demonstrated at least one intra-articular abnormal finding. Radial head ballottement was the most common sign of patholaxity (42.9%). Synovitis was the most common intra-articular aspect of pathology (77.1%), followed by lateral capitellar chondropathy (40.0%). A significant correlation was found between the presence of lateral ligamentous patholaxity signs and capitellar chondropathy (p = 0.0409), as well as anteromedial synovitis (p = 0.0408). Almost one half of patients suffering from recalcitrant lateral epicondylitis display signs of lateral ligamentous patholaxity, and over 85% demonstrate at least one intra-articular abnormality. The most frequent intra-articular findings are synovitis and lateral capitellar chondropathy, which correlate significantly with the presence of lateral ligamentous patholaxity. The fact that several patients demonstrated multiple intra-articular findings in relation to laxity provides support to a sequence of pathologic changes that may result from a symptomatic minor instability of

  5. Clinical anatomy of the elbow and shoulder.

    PubMed

    Villaseñor-Ovies, Pablo; Vargas, Angélica; Chiapas-Gasca, Karla; Canoso, Juan J; Hernández-Díaz, Cristina; Saavedra, Miguel Ángel; Navarro-Zarza, José Eduardo; Kalish, Robert A

    The elbow patients herein discussed feature common soft tissue conditions such as tennis elbow, golfers' elbow and olecranon bursitis. Relevant anatomical structures for these conditions can easily be identified and demonstrated by cross examination by instructors and participants. Patients usually present rotator cuff tendinopathy, frozen shoulder, axillary neuropathy and suprascapular neuropathy. The structures involved in tendinopathy and frozen shoulder can be easily identified and demonstrated under normal conditions. The axillary and the suprascapular nerves have surface landmarks but cannot be palpated. In neuropathy however, physical findings in both neuropathies are pathognomonic and will be discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  6. [Elbow tendinopathy].

    PubMed

    Dumusc, A; Zufferey, P

    2015-03-11

    The lateral and medial epicondylitis is often manifested in a professional or in a sport context leading to repetitive wrist movements. The diagnosis is primarily clinical. Additional tests are indicated in chronic evolution and in searching for differential diagnoses. Elbow X-ray can be completed with ultrasound or MRI, the most efficient but expensive diagnostic procedure. There is no consensus on treatment. After a period of rest, stretching then strengthening exercises are recommended. Corticosteroid injections may provide a short-term beneficial effect. Platelet-Rich Plasma injections have recently gained notoriety. In case of failure of treatment, surgery is possible, but only in a minority of patients.

  7. Elbow tendinopathy.

    PubMed

    Pitzer, Michael E; Seidenberg, Peter H; Bader, Dov A

    2014-07-01

    Overuse injuries of the lateral and medial elbow are common in sport, recreational activities, and occupational endeavors. They are commonly diagnosed as lateral and medial epicondylitis; however, the pathophysiology of these disorders demonstrates a lack of inflammation. Instead, angiofibroblastic degeneration is present, referred to as tendinosis. As such, a more appropriate terminology for these conditions is epicondylosis. This is a clinical diagnosis, and further investigations are only performed to rule out other clinical entities after conventional therapy has failed. Yet, most patients respond to conservative measures with physical therapy and counterforce bracing. Corticosteroid injections are effective for short-term pain control but have not demonstrated long-term benefit. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Ultrasonography of the hand, wrist, and elbow.

    PubMed

    Bodor, Marko; Fullerton, Brad

    2010-08-01

    High-frequency diagnostic ultrasonography of the hand, wrist and elbow has significant potential to improve the quality of diagnosis and care provided by neuromuscular and musculoskeletal specialists. In patients referred for weakness, pain and numbness of the hand, wrist or elbow, diagnostic ultrasonography can be an adjunct to electrodiagnosis and help in identifying ruptured tendons and treating conditions such as carpal tunnel syndrome or trigger finger. Use of a small high-frequency (>10-15 MHz) transducer, an instrument with a blunt pointed tip to enhance sonopalpation and a model of the hand, wrist and elbow is advised to enhance visualization of small anatomical structures and complex bony contours. A range of conditions, including tendon and ligament ruptures, trigger finger, de Quervain tenosynovitis, intersection syndrome, lateral epicondylitis, and osteoarthritis, is described along with detailed ultrasonography-guided injection techniques for carpal tunnel syndrome and trigger finger. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Sequence-dependent rotation axis changes in tennis.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Clint; Martin, Caroline; Rezzoug, Nasser; Gorce, Philippe; Bideau, Benoit; Isableu, Brice

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of rotation axes during a tennis serve. A motion capture system was used to evaluate the contribution of the potential axes of rotation (minimum inertia axis, shoulder-centre of mass axis and the shoulder-elbow axis) during the four discrete tennis serve phases (loading, cocking, acceleration and follow through). Ten ranked athletes (International Tennis Number 1-3) repeatedly performed a flat service aiming at a target on the other side of the net. The four serve phases are distinct and thus, each movement phase seems to be organised around specific rotation axes. The results showed that the limbs' rotational axis does not necessarily coincide with the minimum inertia axis across the cocking phase of the tennis serve. Even though individual serving strategies were exposed, all participants showed an effect due to the cocking phase and changed the rotation axis during the task. Taken together, the results showed that despite inter-individual differences, nine out of 10 participants changed the rotation axis towards the minimum inertia and/or the mass axis in an endeavour to maximise external rotation of the shoulder to optimally prepare for the acceleration phase.

  10. The Effects of Racket Inertia Tensor on Elbow Loadings and Racket Behavior for Central and Eccentric Impacts

    PubMed Central

    Nesbit, Steven M.; Elzinga, Michael; Herchenroder, Catherine; Serrano, Monika

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the inertia tensors of tennis rackets and their influence on the elbow swing torques in a forehand motion, the loadings transmitted to the elbow from central and eccentric impacts, and the racket acceleration responses from central and eccentric impacts. Inertia tensors of various rackets with similar mass and mass center location were determined by an inertia pendulum and were found to vary considerably in all three orthogonal directions. Tennis swing mechanics and impact analyses were performed using a computer model comprised of a full-body model of a human, a parametric model of the racket, and an impact function. The swing mechanics analysis of a forehand motion determined that inertia values had a moderate linear effect on the pronation-supination elbow torques required to twist the racket, and a minor effect on the flexion-extension and valgus-varus torques. The impact analysis found that mass center inertia values had a considerable effect on the transmitted torques for both longitudinal and latitudinal eccentric impacts and significantly affected all elbow torque components. Racket acceleration responses to central and eccentric impacts were measured experimentally and found to be notably sensitive to impact location and mass center inertia values. Key Points Tennis biomechanics. Racket inertia tensor. Impact analysis. Full-body computer model. PMID:24260004

  11. Comparison of shock transmission and forearm electromyography between experienced and recreational tennis players during backhand strokes.

    PubMed

    Wei, Shun-Hwa; Chiang, Jinn-Yen; Shiang, Tzyy-Yuang; Chang, Hsiao-Yun

    2006-03-01

    To test the hypothesis that recreational tennis players transmit more shock impact from the racket to the elbow joint than experienced tennis players during the backhand stroke. Also, to test whether recreational tennis players used higher electromyographic (EMG) activities in common wrist extensor and flexor around epicondylar region at follow-through phase. A repeated-measure, cross-sectional study. National College of Physical Education and Sports at Taipei, Taiwan. Twenty-four male tennis players with no abnormal forearm musculoskeletal injury participated in the study. According to performance level, subjects were categorized into 2 groups: experienced and recreational. Impact transmission and wrist extensor-flexor EMG for backhand acceleration, impact, and follow-through phases were recorded for each player. An independent t test with a significance level of 0.05 was used to examine mean differences of shock impact and EMG between the 2 test groups. One-way ANOVA associated with Tukey multiple comparisons was used to identify differences among different impact locations and EMG phases. Experienced athletes reduced the racket impact to the elbow joint by 89.2%, but recreational players reduced it by only 61.8%. The largest EMG differences were found in the follow-through phase (P<0.05). Experienced athletes showed that their extensor and flexor EMGs were at submaximal level for follow-through phase, whereas recreational players maintained their flexor and extensor EMGs at either supramaximal or maximal level. Our results support the hypothesis that recreational players transmit more shock impact from the racket to the elbow joint and use larger wrist flexor and extensor EMG activities at follow-through phase of the backhand stroke. Follow-through control is proposed as a critical factor for reduction of shock transmission. Clinicians or trainers should instruct beginners to quickly release their grip tightness after ball-to-racket impact to reduce shock impact

  12. Upper limb joint muscle/tendon injury and anthropometric adaptations in French competitive tennis players.

    PubMed

    Rogowski, Isabelle; Creveaux, Thomas; Genevois, Cyril; Klouche, Shahnaz; Rahme, Michel; Hardy, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the upper limb anthropometric dimensions and a history of dominant upper limb injury in tennis players. Dominant and non-dominant wrist, forearm, elbow and arm circumferences, along with a history of dominant upper limb injuries, were assessed in 147 male and female players, assigned to four groups based on location of injury: wrist (n = 9), elbow (n = 25), shoulder (n = 14) and healthy players (n = 99). From anthropometric dimensions, bilateral differences in circumferences and in proportions were calculated. The wrist group presented a significant bilateral difference in arm circumference, and asymmetrical bilateral proportions between wrist and forearm, as well as between elbow and arm, compared to the healthy group (6.6 ± 3.1% vs. 4.9 ± 4.0%, P < 0.01; -3.6 ± 3.0% vs. -0.9 ± 2.9%, P < 0.05; and -2.2 ± 2.2% vs. 0.1 ± 3.4%, P < 0.05, respectively). The elbow group displayed asymmetrical bilateral proportions between forearm and arm compared to the healthy group (-0.4 ± 4.3% vs. 1.5 ± 4.0%, P < 0.01). The shoulder group showed significant bilateral difference in elbow circumference, and asymmetrical bilateral proportions between forearm and elbow when compared to the healthy group (5.8 ± 4.7% vs. 3.1 ± 4.8%, P < 0.05 and -1.7 ± 4.5% vs. 1.4 ± 4.3%, P < 0.01, respectively). These findings suggest that players with a history of injury at the upper limb joint present altered dominant upper limb proportions in comparison with the non-dominant side, and such asymmetrical proportions would appear to be specific to the location of injury. Further studies are needed to confirm the link between location of tennis injury and asymmetry in upper limb proportions using high-tech measurements in symptomatic tennis players.

  13. Energy flow analysis during the tennis serve: comparison between injured and noninjured tennis players.

    PubMed

    Martin, Caroline; Bideau, Benoit; Bideau, Nicolas; Nicolas, Guillaume; Delamarche, Paul; Kulpa, Richard

    2014-11-01

    Energy flow has been hypothesized to be one of the most critical biomechanical concepts related to tennis performance and overuse injuries. However, the relationships among energy flow during the tennis serve, ball velocity, and overuse injuries have not been assessed. To investigate the relationships among the quality and magnitude of energy flow, the ball velocity, and the peaks of upper limb joint kinetics and to compare the energy flow during the serve between injured and noninjured tennis players. Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. The serves of expert tennis players were recorded with an optoelectronic motion capture system. The forces and torques of the upper limb joints were calculated from the motion captures by use of inverse dynamics. The amount of mechanical energy generated, absorbed, and transferred was determined by use of a joint power analysis. Then the players were followed during 2 seasons to identify upper limb overuse injuries with a questionnaire. Finally, players were classified into 2 groups according to the questionnaire results: injured or noninjured. Ball velocity increased and upper limb joint kinetics decreased with the quality of energy flow from the trunk to the hand + racket segment. Injured players showed a lower quality of energy flow through the upper limb kinetic chain, a lower ball velocity, and higher rates of energy absorbed by the shoulder and elbow compared with noninjured players. The findings of this study imply that improper energy flow during the tennis serve can decrease ball velocity, increase upper limb joint kinetics, and thus increase overuse injuries of the upper limb joints. © 2014 The Author(s).

  14. Effects of the racket polar moment of inertia on dominant upper limb joint moments during tennis serve.

    PubMed

    Rogowski, Isabelle; Creveaux, Thomas; Chèze, Laurence; Macé, Pierre; Dumas, Raphaël

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effect of the polar moment of inertia of a tennis racket on upper limb loading in the serve. Eight amateur competition tennis players performed two sets of 10 serves using two rackets identical in mass, position of center of mass and moments of inertia other than the polar moment of inertia (0.00152 vs 0.00197 kg.m2). An eight-camera motion analysis system collected the 3D trajectories of 16 markers, located on the thorax, upper limbs and racket, from which shoulder, elbow and wrist net joint moments and powers were computed using inverse dynamics. During the cocking phase, increased racket polar moment of inertia was associated with significant increases in the peak shoulder extension and abduction moments, as well the peak elbow extension, valgus and supination moments. During the forward swing phase, peak wrist extension and radial deviation moments significantly increased with polar moment of inertia. During the follow-through phase, the peak shoulder adduction, elbow pronation and wrist external rotation moments displayed a significant inverse relationship with polar moment of inertia. During the forward swing, the magnitudes of negative joint power at the elbow and wrist were significantly larger when players served using the racket with a higher polar moment of inertia. Although a larger polar of inertia allows players to better tolerate off-center impacts, it also appears to place additional loads on the upper extremity when serving and may therefore increase injury risk in tennis players.

  15. Current Concepts in Examination and Treatment of Elbow Tendon Injury

    PubMed Central

    Ellenbecker, Todd S.; Nirschl, Robert; Renstrom, Per

    2013-01-01

    Context: Injuries to the tendons of the elbow occur frequently in the overhead athlete, creating a significant loss of function and dilemma to sports medicine professionals. A detailed review of the anatomy, etiology, and pathophysiology of tendon injury coupled with comprehensive evaluation and treatment information is needed for clinicians to optimally design treatment programs for rehabilitation and prevention. Evidence Acquisitions: The PubMed database was searched in January 2012 for English-language articles pertaining to elbow tendon injury. Results: Detailed information on tendon pathophysiology was found along with incidence of elbow injury in overhead athletes. Several evidence-based reviews were identified, providing a thorough review of the recommended rehabilitation for elbow tendon injury. Conclusions: Humeral epicondylitis is an extra-articular tendon injury that is common in athletes subjected to repetitive upper extremity loading. Research is limited on the identification of treatment modalities that can reduce pain and restore function to the elbow. Eccentric exercise has been studied in several investigations and, when coupled with a complete upper extremity strengthening program, can produce positive results in patients with elbow tendon injury. Further research is needed in high-level study to delineate optimal treatment methods. PMID:24427389

  16. Complete dislocation of the ulnar nerve at the elbow: a protective effect against neuropathy?

    PubMed

    Leis, A Arturo; Smith, Benn E; Kosiorek, Heidi E; Omejec, Gregor; Podnar, Simon

    2017-08-01

    Recurrent complete ulnar nerve dislocation has been perceived as a risk factor for development of ulnar neuropathy at the elbow (UNE). However, the role of dislocation in the pathogenesis of UNE remains uncertain. We studied 133 patients with complete ulnar nerve dislocation to determine whether this condition is a risk factor for UNE. In all, the nerve was palpated as it rolled over the medial epicondyle during elbow flexion. Of 56 elbows with unilateral dislocation, UNE localized contralaterally in 17 elbows (30.4%) and ipsilaterally in 10 elbows (17.9%). Of 154 elbows with bilateral dislocation, 26 had UNE (16.9%). Complete dislocation decreased the odds of having UNE by 44% (odds ratio = 0.475; P =  0.028), and was associated with less severe UNE (P = 0.045). UNE occurs less frequently and is less severe on the side of complete dislocation. Complete dislocation may have a protective effect on the ulnar nerve. Muscle Nerve 56: 242-246, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Effects of the Racket Polar Moment of Inertia on Dominant Upper Limb Joint Moments during Tennis Serve

    PubMed Central

    Rogowski, Isabelle; Creveaux, Thomas; Chèze, Laurence; Macé, Pierre; Dumas, Raphaël

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effect of the polar moment of inertia of a tennis racket on upper limb loading in the serve. Eight amateur competition tennis players performed two sets of 10 serves using two rackets identical in mass, position of center of mass and moments of inertia other than the polar moment of inertia (0.00152 vs 0.00197 kg.m2). An eight-camera motion analysis system collected the 3D trajectories of 16 markers, located on the thorax, upper limbs and racket, from which shoulder, elbow and wrist net joint moments and powers were computed using inverse dynamics. During the cocking phase, increased racket polar moment of inertia was associated with significant increases in the peak shoulder extension and abduction moments, as well the peak elbow extension, valgus and supination moments. During the forward swing phase, peak wrist extension and radial deviation moments significantly increased with polar moment of inertia. During the follow-through phase, the peak shoulder adduction, elbow pronation and wrist external rotation moments displayed a significant inverse relationship with polar moment of inertia. During the forward swing, the magnitudes of negative joint power at the elbow and wrist were significantly larger when players served using the racket with a higher polar moment of inertia. Although a larger polar of inertia allows players to better tolerate off-center impacts, it also appears to place additional loads on the upper extremity when serving and may therefore increase injury risk in tennis players. PMID:25117871

  18. Upper limb joint kinetic analysis during tennis serve: Assessment of competitive level on efficiency and injury risks.

    PubMed

    Martin, C; Bideau, B; Ropars, M; Delamarche, P; Kulpa, R

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this work was to compare the joint kinetics and stroke production efficiency for the shoulder, elbow, and wrist during the serve between professionals and advanced tennis players and to discuss their potential relationship with given overuse injuries. Eleven professional and seven advanced tennis players were studied with an optoelectronic motion analysis system while performing serves. Normalized peak kinetic values of the shoulder, elbow, and wrist joints were calculated using inverse dynamics. To measure serve efficiency, all normalized peak kinetic values were divided by ball velocity. t-tests were used to determine significant differences between the resultant joint kinetics and efficiency values in both groups (advanced vs professional). Shoulder inferior force, shoulder anterior force, shoulder horizontal abduction torque, and elbow medial force were significantly higher in advanced players. Professional players were more efficient than advanced players, as they maximize ball velocity with lower joint kinetics. Since advanced players are subjected to higher joint kinetics, the results suggest that they appeared more susceptible to high risk of shoulder and elbow injuries than professionals, especially during the cocking and deceleration phases of the serve. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Sonographic measurements of the ulnar nerve at the elbow with different degrees of elbow flexion.

    PubMed

    Patel, Prutha; Norbury, John W; Fang, Xiangming

    2014-05-01

    To determine whether there were differences in the cross-sectional area (CSA) and the flattening ratio of the normative ulnar nerve as it passes between the medial epicondyle and the olecranon at 30° of elbow flexion versus 90° of elbow flexion. Bilateral upper extremities of normal healthy adult volunteers were evaluated with ultrasound. The CSA and the flattening ratio of the ulnar nerve at the elbow as it passes between the medial epicondyle and the olecranon were measured, with the elbow flexed at 30° and at 90°, by 2 operators with varying ultrasound scanning experience by using ellipse and direct tracing methods. The results from the 2 different angles of elbow flexion were compared for each individual operator. Finally, intraclass correlations for absolute agreement and consistency between the 2 raters were calculated. An outpatient clinic room at a regional rehabilitation center. Twenty-five normal healthy adult volunteers. The mean CSA and the mean flattening ratio of the ulnar nerve at 30° of elbow flexion and at 90° of elbow flexion. First, for the ellipse method, the mean CSA of the ulnar nerve at 90° (9.93 mm(2)) was slightly larger than at 30° (9.77 mm(2)) for rater 1. However, for rater 2, the mean CSA of the ulnar nerve at 90° (6.80 mm(2)) was slightly smaller than at 30° (7.08 mm(2)). This was found to be statistically insignificant when using a matched pairs t test and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test, with a significance level of .05. Similarly, the difference between the right side and the left side was not statistically significant. The intraclass correlations for absolute agreement between the 2 raters were not very high due to different measurement locations, but the intraclass correlations for consistency were high. Second, for the direct tracing method, the mean CSA at 90° (7.26 mm(2)) was slightly lower than at 30° (7.48 mm(2)). This was found to be statistically nonsignificant when using the matched pairs t test and the

  20. The ulnar collateral ligament of the human elbow joint. Anatomy, function and biomechanics.

    PubMed Central

    Fuss, F K

    1991-01-01

    The posterior portion of the ulnar collateral ligament, which arises from the posterior surface of the medial epicondyle, is taut in maximal flexion. The anterior portion, which takes its origin from the anterior and inferior surfaces of the epicondyle, contains three functional fibre bundles. One of these is taut in maximal extension, another in intermediate positions between middle position and full flexion while the third bundle is always taut and serves as a guiding bundle. Movements of the elbow joint are checked by the ligaments well before the bony processes forming the jaws of the trochlear notch lock into the corresponding fossae on the humerus. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:2050566

  1. Effect of elbow and forearm position on contact pressure between the extensor origin and the lateral side of the capitellum.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Yoshitaka; Aoki, Mitsuhiro; Izumi, Tomoki; Wada, Takuro; Fujimiya, Mineko; Yamashita, Toshihiko

    2011-01-01

    Bone-to-tendon contact in the origin of the common extensor tendons is considered to be one of the causes of lateral epicondylitis. Some factors, including elbow and forearm position, varus stress to the elbow, or contraction of the wrist extensor tendons, are considered to affect this bone-to-tendon contact. However, no studies have evaluated the effect of the elbow and forearm position on bone-tendon interface. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of the position of the elbow and forearm on the contact pressure of the tendinous origin of the common wrist and finger extensors. We used 8 fresh cadaveric upper extremities. Contact pressure between the origin of the common extensor tendons and the lateral side of the capitellum was measured with a pressure sensor and was compared among various conditions, including elbow flexion angle (0°, 30°, 60°, and 90°), forearm rotation position (neutral and 81.5° pronation position), and varus stress load of the elbow (none, gravity on the forearm, and gravity on the forearm +1.96 Nm). Contact pressure was also measured during tension force of the extensor carpi radialis longus, extensor carpi radialis brevis, and extensor digitorum communis by 0, 9.8, and 19.6 N. Contact pressure was significantly increased with the elbow extension position, forearm pronation position, and varus stress to the elbow under tension of the extensor carpi radialis longus or extensor carpi radialis brevis. This study provides data about the amount of contact pressure between bone and tendon at the origin of the common extensor tendons in the elbow. This information may lead to a better understanding of, and better treatment for, lateral epicondylitis. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Cross-cultural adaptation and measurement properties of the italian version of the Patient-Rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation (PRTEE) questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Cacchio, Angelo; Necozione, Stefano; MacDermid, Joy C; Rompe, Jan Dirk; Maffulli, Nicola; di Orio, Ferdinando; Santilli, Valter; Paoloni, Marco

    2012-08-01

    The Patient-Rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation (PRTEE) questionnaire is a tool designed for self-assessment of forearm pain and disability in patients with lateral elbow tendinopathy (LET). However, an Italian version of this questionnaire has not been available. The aims of this study were: (1) to translate and cross-culturally adapt the PRTEE questionnaire into Italian and (2) to evaluate its measurement properties. This was a longitudinal, observational measurement study. The PRTEE questionnaire was cross-culturally adapted to Italian according to established guidelines. Ninety-five individuals (41 women, 54 men) with unilateral, imaging-confirmed, chronic LET were selected consecutively to assess the measurement properties of the PRTEE questionnaire. Internal consistency, test-retest reliability, construct validity, and responsiveness were estimated. The Italian version of the PRTEE displayed a high degree of internal consistency, with a Cronbach alpha of .95. The test-retest reliability was high for both short-term and medium-term, with intraclass correlation coefficients (2,1) of .95 and .93, respectively. The PRTEE exhibited a strong correlation (r=.77-.91, P<.0001) with the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) at the baseline and a moderate correlation (r=.58-.74, P<.0001) at discharge. The responsiveness was higher for the PRTEE than for the DASH. Limitations A methodological limitation of the study is that due to the small sample size, a factor analysis was not performed to assess convergent validity. The Italian version of the PRTEE questionnaire is internally consistent, demonstrates expected correlations with other measures, and is more responsive than the DASH in Italian patients with chronic LET.

  3. Platelet-rich plasma injection reduces pain in patients with recalcitrant epicondylitis.

    PubMed

    Hechtman, Keith S; Uribe, John W; Botto-vanDemden, Angie; Kiebzak, Gary M

    2011-01-01

    Thirty patients (31 elbows) with epicondylitis unresponsive to nonsurgical treatment (including steroid injection) for >6 months received a single treatment of platelet-rich plasma injected with a peppering technique. Patients were followed using a 5-subcategory visual analog scale (VAS) for pain (0, no pain; 10, worst possible pain), modified American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons assessment survey, and VAS for patient satisfaction (0, not at all satisfied; 10, very satisfied). Successful treatment was defined as a 25% decrease in worst pain at follow-up with no intervention after 1 year. Two patients (2 elbows) elected for surgery 1 month postinjection. Of the remaining 29 elbows followed, 28 had a 25% reduction in worst pain at ≥1 follow-up visits, for an overall success rate of 90% (28 of 31 elbows). Mean scores for worst pain at baseline, 3 months, and last follow-up (patients with at least 6 months of follow-up; 25±14 months) were 7.2±1.6 (n=30 elbows), 4.0±2.2 (n=23), and 1.1±1.7 (n=26), respectively (P<.01 or less comparing follow-up scores to baseline using each patient as his or her own control). Patient satisfaction scores improved from 5.1±2.5 at 1 month to 9.1±1.9 at last follow-up (P<.01). Only 1 patient reported no improvement after 6 months. Results suggest that a single platelet-rich plasma injection can improve pain and function scores, thus avoiding surgery. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  4. Rehabilitation of the Overhead Athlete’s Elbow

    PubMed Central

    Wilk, Kevin E.; Macrina, Leonard C.; Cain, E. Lyle; Dugas, Jeffrey R.; Andrews, James R.

    2012-01-01

    The activities required during overhead sports, particularly during baseball pitching, produce large forces at the elbow joint. Injuries to the elbow joint frequently occur in the overhead athlete because of the large amount of forces observed during the act of throwing, playing tennis, or playing golf. Injuries may result because of repetitive overuse, leading to tissue failure. Rehabilitation following injury or surgery to the throwing elbow is vital to fully restore normal function and return the athlete to competition as quickly and safely as possible. Rehabilitation of the elbow, whether following injury or postsurgical, must follow a progressive and sequential order, building on the previous phase, to ensure that healing tissues are not compromised. Emphasis is placed on restoring full motion, muscular strength, and neuromuscular control while gradually applying loads to healing tissue. In addition, when one is creating a rehabilitation plan for athletes, it is imperative to treat the entire upper extremity, core, and legs to create and dissipate the forces generated at each joint. PMID:23016113

  5. Platelet-rich plasma versus corticosteroid injection for recalcitrant lateral epicondylitis: clinical and ultrasonographic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Gautam, V K; Verma, Saurabh; Batra, Sahil; Bhatnagar, Nidhi; Arora, Sumit

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate the clinical and ultrasonographic changes in the morphology and vascularity of the common extensor tendon after injecting platelet-rich plasma (PRP) or corticosteroid (CS) for recalcitrant lateral epicondylitis (LE). 30 patients aged 18 to 60 years with recalcitrant (>6 months) LE not responsive to oral medication or non-invasive treatment were randomised to receive PRP (n=15) or CS (n=15) injection. Patients were assessed using the visual analogue scale (VAS) for pain, Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand Scale (DASH) score, Oxford Elbow Score, modified Mayo Clinic performance index for the elbow (modified Mayo score), and hand grip strength. Ultrasonography was performed by a musculoskeletal ultrasonologist to evaluate for tear at the common extensor origin, oedema at the common extensor origin, cortical erosion, probe-induced tenderness, and thickness of the tendon. The VAS for pain, DASH score, Oxford Elbow Score, modified Mayo score, and hand grip strength all improved significantly from pre-injection to the 6-month follow-up in the PRP and CS groups. However, in the CS group, the scores generally peaked at 3 months and then deteriorated slightly at 6 months indicating recurrence of symptoms, which involved 46.7% of the CS patients. At 6 months, the number of patients positive for various ulrasonographic findings generally decreased. However, in the CS group, the number of patients with reduced thickness of the common extensor tendon increased from 2 to 12, and the number of patients with cortical erosion at the lateral epicondyle increased from 9 to 11. PRP appeared to enable biological healing of the lesion, whereas CS appeared to provide short-term, symptomatic relief but resulted in tendon degeneration.

  6. ELBOW AND WRIST INJURIES IN SPORTS

    PubMed Central

    Marmor, Leonard; Bechtol, Charles O.

    1960-01-01

    Any disabling injury of the elbow or wrist should be studied roentgenographically for evidence of fracture which may not be otherwise evident but which may cause permanent disability unless the joint is immobilized for healing. “Tennis elbow” may be treated with physical therapy and analgesic injection but may require splinting or tendon stripping. Elbow sprain can occur in the growing epiphysis but is rare in adults. A jarring fall on the hand may cause fracture or dislocation at the elbow. Full extension of the joint should be restored gradually by active exercise rather than passive or forcible stretching. Fracture at the head of the radius may cause joint hemorrhage with severe pain which can be relieved by aspiration. A displacing fracture at the head of the radius requires removal of the head to prevent arthritic changes. Myositis ossificans contraindicates operation until after it has cleared. Healing of wrist fractures may be facilitated by exercise of the shoulder and elbow while the wrist is still in a cast. Fractures of the navicular bone are difficult to detect even roentgenographically and splinting may have to be done on clinical evidence alone. PMID:14421374

  7. Is posterior synovial plica excision necessary for refractory lateral epicondylitis of the elbow?

    PubMed

    Rhyou, In Hyeok; Kim, Kang Wook

    2013-01-01

    Arthroscopic treatments for lateral epicondylitis including débridement of the extensor carpi radialis brevis (ECRB) origin (Baker technique) or resection of the radiocapitellar synovial plica reportedly improve symptoms. However the etiology of the disease and the role of the plica remain unclear. We asked if posterior radiocapitellar synovial plica excision made any additional improvement in pain or function after arthroscopic ECRB release. We retrospectively reviewed 38 patients who had arthroscopic treatment for refractory lateral epicondylitis between November 2003 and October 2009. Twenty patients (Group A) underwent the Baker technique and 18 patients (Group B) underwent a combination of the Baker technique and posterior synovial plica excision. The minimum followup was 36 months (mean, 46 months; range, 36-72 months) for Group A and 25 months (mean, 30 months; range, 25-36 months) for Group B. Postoperatively we obtained VAS pain and DASH scores for each group. Two years postoperatively, we found no differences in the VAS pain score or DASH: the mean VAS pain scores were 0.3 points in Group A and 0.4 points in Group B, and the DASH scores were 5.1 points and 6.1 points respectively. The addition of débridement of the posterior synovial fold did not appear to enhance either pain relief or function compared with the classic Baker technique without decortication.

  8. Platelet-rich plasma for chronic lateral epicondylitis: is one injection sufficient?

    PubMed

    Glanzmann, Michael C; Audigé, Laurent

    2015-12-01

    Chronic lateral epicondylitis is generally treated using nonsurgical methods including physiotherapy and infiltrations of cortisone or platelet-rich plasma (PRP). The latter is known for its simple application as well as associated low risk of adverse events, which lend to its widespread use in treating various musculoskeletal conditions. There is limited evidence on the effectiveness of PRP injections to optimally treat chronic lateral epicondylitis. This study explored the effectiveness of single or repeated injections for patients with symptoms that spanned 6 months or more and were unresponsive to alternate conservative measures. Patients with chronic lateral epicondylitis received PRP injections in 4-week intervals that were complemented with standardized physical therapy. Patient-reported outcomes based on the patient-rated elbow evaluation (PREE), quick disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand (qDASH), and EuroQol (five dimensions) 3-level version (EQ5D3L) questionnaires were documented at each visit including 6 months after the first injection. These outcomes were compared between patients receiving 1 vs. 2 or 3 PRP injections. Sixty-two patients received one (n = 36) or more (n = 26) PRP injections. The mean baseline to 6-month follow-up scores of the PREE and qDASH questionnaires improved significantly from 54.0 to 23.0 and 50.3 to 20.7, respectively. The mean baseline EQ5D3L-visual analogue scale score improved from 62.5 to 82.9 by 6 months post-injection. These outcomes did not significantly differ between the patients who received varying numbers of injections. Patients with chronic lateral epicondylitis reported significant pain relief and gain in function as well as quality of life 6 months after localized PRP treatment. A single PRP injection may be sufficient.

  9. The Effects of a Functional Elbow Brace on Medial Joint Stability: A Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Pincivero, Danny M.; Rijke, Arie M.; Heinrichs, Kristinn; Perrin, David H.

    1994-01-01

    Medical elbow ligament sprains in athletics can be traumatic and disabling. In this case report, we outline the effect of a prototype functional elbow brace on joint stability in a female collegiate javelin thrower with an ulnar collateral ligament sprain. A valgus force to both elbows was applied using graded stress radiography (Telos GA-II/E stress device) at 0, 5, 10, and 15 kiloPascals (kPa) of pressure. The increase in gap width between the coronoid process and the medial epicondyle was measured from anteroposterior radiographs to determine medial displacement. The brace resulted in less displacement in both injured and noninjured ulnar collateral ligament; injured ulnar collateral ligament demonstrated greater displacement regardless of condition. The brace restored medial stability to the elbow joint by 49%, 38%, and 35% at 5, 10, and 15 kPa of pressure, respectively. The application of the brace may be useful in athletes with ulnar collateral ligament injuries. ImagesFig 1Fig 2 PMID:16558285

  10. [MRI in chronic epicondylitis humeri radialis using 1.0 T equipment--contrast medium administration necessary?].

    PubMed

    Herber, S; Kalden, P; Kreitner, K F; Riedel, C; Rompe, J D; Thelen, M

    2001-05-01

    Evaluation of the diagnostic value and confidence of contrast-enhanced MR imaging in patients with lateral epicondylitis in comparison to clinical diagnosis. 42 consecutive patients with clinically proven chronic lateral epicondylitis and 10 elbow joints of healthy controls have been examined on a 1.0 T MR-unit. Criteria for inclusion in the prospective study were: persistent pain and a failed conservative therapy. The MR protocol included STIR sequence, a native, T2-weighted, fat-suppressed TSE sequence, and a Flash-2-D sequence. Also, fat-suppressed, T1-weighted SE sequences before and after administration of Gd-DTPA contrast media have been recorded. In 39/42 patients the STIR sequence showed an increased SI of the common extensor tendon. Increased MR signal of the lateral collateral ligament combined with a thickening and a partial rupture or a full thickness tear have been observed in 15/42 cases. A bone marrow edema at the lateral epicondilus was noticed in 6 of the studied patients and a joint effusion in 18/42 patients. After administration of contrast media we noticed an average increase of SI by about 150%. However, enhanced MR imaging did not provide additional information. In MR imaging of chronic epicondylitis administration of gadolinium-DTPA does not provide additional information.

  11. A study of kinematic cues and anticipatory performance in tennis using computational manipulation and computer graphics.

    PubMed

    Ida, Hirofumi; Fukuhara, Kazunobu; Kusubori, Seiji; Ishii, Motonobu

    2011-09-01

    Computer graphics of digital human models can be used to display human motions as visual stimuli. This study presents our technique for manipulating human motion with a forward kinematics calculation without violating anatomical constraints. A motion modulation of the upper extremity was conducted by proportionally modulating the anatomical joint angular velocity calculated by motion analysis. The effect of this manipulation was examined in a tennis situation--that is, the receiver's performance of predicting ball direction when viewing a digital model of the server's motion derived by modulating the angular velocities of the forearm or that of the elbow during the forward swing. The results showed that the faster the server's forearm pronated, the more the receiver's anticipation of the ball direction tended to the left side of the serve box. In contrast, the faster the server's elbow extended, the more the receiver's anticipation of the ball direction tended to the right. This suggests that tennis players are sensitive to the motion modulation of their opponent's racket-arm.

  12. Intra-articular injuries of the elbow: pitfalls of diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed Central

    Fowles, J. V.; Rizkallah, R.

    1976-01-01

    Poor results in treating fractures and dislocations about the elbow may be avoided if the surgeon is aware of the possible injuries, examines good radiographs of both elbows, and treats the injury promptly and appropriately. A displaced fracture of the lateral or medial condyle of the humerus should be suspected if there is a flake fracture of the adjoining metaphysis; open reduction and internal fixation give better results than closed reduction. A shear fracture of the capitulum humeri can only be seen on a lateral radiograph; excision of the fragment, followed by mobilization, is sufficient for a good functional result. Dislocation of the elbow in a child may avulse the medial epicondyle, which sometimes lodges in the joint; it is essential to recognize this and remove the fragment without delay to avoid early degenerative arthritis. An apparently isolated fracture of the ulna should alert the surgeon to the possibility of a dislocation of the radial head; the dislocation and the fracture must be reduced and stabilized to conserve elbow function. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 FIG. 6 FIG. 7 FIG. 8 PMID:943224

  13. Evaluation of a subject-specific, torque-driven computer simulation model of one-handed tennis backhand groundstrokes.

    PubMed

    Kentel, Behzat B; King, Mark A; Mitchell, Sean R

    2011-11-01

    A torque-driven, subject-specific 3-D computer simulation model of the impact phase of one-handed tennis backhand strokes was evaluated by comparing performance and simulation results. Backhand strokes of an elite subject were recorded on an artificial tennis court. Over the 50-ms period after impact, good agreement was found with an overall RMS difference of 3.3° between matching simulation and performance in terms of joint and racket angles. Consistent with previous experimental research, the evaluation process showed that grip tightness and ball impact location are important factors that affect postimpact racket and arm kinematics. Associated with these factors, the model can be used for a better understanding of the eccentric contraction of the wrist extensors during one-handed backhand ground strokes, a hypothesized mechanism of tennis elbow.

  14. The effect of platelet-rich plasma injection on lateral epicondylitis following failed conservative management.

    PubMed

    Brkljac, Milos; Kumar, Shyam; Kalloo, Dale; Hirehal, Kiran

    2015-12-01

    We assessed the effect PRP injection on pain and function in patients with lateral epicondylitis where conservative management had failed. We prospectively reviewed 34 patients. The mean follow-up was 26 weeks (range 6-114 weeks). We used the Oxford Elbow Score (OES) and progression to surgery to assess outcomes. 88.2% improved their OES. 8.8% reported symptom progression. One patient had no change. No patients suffered adverse reactions. Two patients underwent an open release procedure. One had the injection repeated. An injection of PRP improves pain and function in patients suffering from LE where conservative management has failed.

  15. Prediction of Tennis Performance in Junior Elite Tennis Players

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Tamara; Huijgen, Barbara C.H.; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T.; Visscher, Chris

    2017-01-01

    Predicting current and future tennis performance can lead to improving the development of junior tennis players. The aim of this study is to investigate whether age, maturation, or physical fitness in junior elite tennis players in U13 can explain current and future tennis performance. The value of current tennis performance for future tennis performance is also investigated. A total of 86 junior elite tennis players (boys, n = 44; girls, n = 42) U13 (aged: 12.5 ± 0.3 years), and followed to U16, took part in this study. All players were top-30 ranked on the Dutch national ranking list at U13, and top-50 at U16. Age, maturation, and physical fitness, were measured at U13. A principal component analysis was used to extract four physical components from eight tests (medicine ball throwing overhead and reverse, ball throwing, SJ, CMJas, Sprint 5 and 10 meter, and the spider test). The possible relationship of age, maturation, and the physical components; “upper body power”, “lower body power”, “speed”, and “agility” with tennis performance at U13 and U16 was analyzed. Tennis performance was measured by using the ranking position on the Dutch national ranking list at U13 and U16. Regression analyses were conducted based on correlations between variables and tennis performance for boys and girls, separately. In boys U13, positive correlations were found between upper body power and tennis performance (R2 is 25%). In girls, positive correlations between maturation and lower body power with tennis performance were found at U13. Early maturing players were associated with a better tennis performance (R2 is 15%). In girls U16, only maturation correlated with tennis performance (R2 is 13%); later-maturing girls at U13 had better tennis performances at U16. Measuring junior elite tennis players at U13 is important for monitoring their development. These measurements did not predict future tennis performance of junior elite tennis players three years later

  16. Elbow dislocation with intra-articular fracture: the results of operative treatment without repair of the medial collateral ligament.

    PubMed

    Forthman, Christopher; Henket, Marjolijn; Ring, David C

    2007-10-01

    To determine the effectiveness of a protocol for the treatment of fracture-dislocations of the elbow based on the concept that, if dislocation of the elbow with associated fractures can be made to resemble a simple elbow dislocation by repairing or reconstructing the fractured structures, repair of the medial collateral ligament (MCL) will not be necessary. Over a 5-year period, a single surgeon operated on 34 patients with a posterior dislocation of the elbow associated with one or more intra-articular fractures. The mean age of these 19 men and 15 women was 48 years. Associated fractures included the capitellum, trochlea, and lateral epicondyle in 3 patients; the olecranon in 1 patient; and the radial head in 30 patients (with concomitant fracture of the coronoid process-the so-called "terrible triad" of the elbow-in 22 patients, and concomitant fracture of the coronoid and olecranon in 1 patient). Operative treatment consisted of open reduction internal fixation (ORIF) or prosthetic replacement of all fractures and reattachment of the origin of the lateral collateral ligament (LCL) complex to the lateral epicondyle. The MCL was not repaired. Two patients (1 with a terrible triad injury and 1 with fracture of the capitellum and trochlea) had postoperative instability related to noncompliance, had reconstructive procedures, and were considered failures. An average of 32 months after injury, the remaining 32 patients regained an average of 120 degrees ulnohumeral motion and 142 degrees forearm rotation. Twenty-five of 34 patients (74%) had good or excellent results according to the system of Broberg and Morrey. Patients with terrible triad injuries had an average of 117 degrees ulnohumeral motion and 137 degrees forearm rotation, and 17 of 22 patients (77%) had good or excellent results. MCL repair is unnecessary in the treatment of dislocation of the elbow with associated intra-articular fractures, provided that the articular fractures and the LCL are repaired or

  17. Percutaneous Needle Tenotomy for the Treatment of Lateral Epicondylitis: A Systematic Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Mattie, Ryan; Wong, Joseph; McCormick, Zachary; Yu, Sloane; Saltychev, Mikhail; Laimi, Katri

    2017-06-01

    To analyze the literature to determine whether controlled studies on percutaneous tenotomy have been published, and if so, to systematically assess the efficacy of percutaneous tenotomy for the treatment of tendinosis at the lateral epicondyle of the elbow. Systematic review of the available literature. Cochrane Controlled Trials Register (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and Web of Science databases were searched in November 2015, unrestricted by date. After the initial search, we excluded conference proceedings, theses, reviews, expert opinions, and publications written in languages other than English. Next, 2 independent reviewers screened all of the remaining records with regard to their titles and abstracts, and subsequently, the full texts of identified publications potentially relevant to the present study. Six articles focused on percutaneous tenotomy, none of which were controlled against a placebo or conservative treatment group. The absence of true randomized controlled trials created a great deal of heterogeneity between the studies; thus we could not include any of our studies in the intended final quantitative analysis with meta-analysis tools. We describe all 6 studies identified by this systematic review with a detailed analysis of the procedural methods, outcome measures, and conclusions of each study. Percutaneous tenotomy presents an alternative to surgical release of the common extensor tendon for the treatment of chronic tendinosis at the lateral epicondyle of the elbow. Current research supporting the efficacy of this procedure, however, is of low quality (level II to level IV). III. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. N of 1, two contemporary arm, randomised controlled clinical trial for bilateral epicondylitis: a new study design

    PubMed Central

    Fante, Claudia Del; Perotti, Cesare; Pavesi, Claudio Francesco; Coscia, Davide; Scotti, Valeria; Tinelli, Carmine

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the use of a novel study design in analysis of bilateral elbow pain. Design N of 1, two contemporary arm, open label, randomised controlled clinical trial. Setting A clinical epidemiologist at a university hospital in Pavia, Italy. Participants Two elbows with epicondylitis. Interventions Autologous platelet lysate versus “wait and see” strategy. Main outcome measures Visual analogue scale for pain on elbow extension and resisted wrist extension. Results Over six months’ follow-up, the patient experienced bilateral improvement in pain, but higher in the treated arm, with a drop in visual analogue scale for pain from 28 to 4 for right (control) arm (drop of 24 points) and from 67 to 10.5 for left (treated) arm (drop of 56.5 points). Conclusions Platelet lysate might (or might not) work. Competing interests and lack of blinding might be relevant issues in the interpretation of trial results. However, the new study design can be applied to a number of conditions such as bilateral sport or trauma injuries, bilateral otitis, or any condition affecting chiral organs or limbs. PMID:22187187

  19. Glenohumeral contact force during flat and topspin tennis forehand drives.

    PubMed

    Blache, Yoann; Creveaux, Thomas; Dumas, Raphaël; Chèze, Laurence; Rogowski, Isabelle

    2017-03-01

    The primary role of the shoulder joint in tennis forehand drive is at the expense of the loadings undergone by this joint. Nevertheless, few studies investigated glenohumeral (GH) contact forces during forehand drives. The aim of this study was to investigate GH compressive and shearing forces during the flat and topspin forehand drives in advanced tennis players. 3D kinematics of flat and topspin forehand drives of 11 advanced tennis players were recorded. The Delft Shoulder and Elbow musculoskeletal model was implemented to assess the magnitude and orientation of GH contact forces during the forehand drives. The results showed no differences in magnitude and orientation of GH contact forces between the flat and topspin forehand drives. The estimated maximal GH contact force during the forward swing phase was 3573 ± 1383 N, which was on average 1.25 times greater than during the follow-through phase, and 5.8 times greater than during the backswing phase. Regardless the phase of the forehand drive, GH contact forces pointed towards the anterior-superior part of the glenoid therefore standing for shearing forces. Knowledge of GH contact forces during real sport tasks performed at high velocity may improve the understanding of various sport-specific adaptations and causative factors for shoulder problems.

  20. Incidence of musculoskeletal sport injuries in a sample of male and female recreational paddle-tennis players.

    PubMed

    Castillo-Lozano, Romualdo; Casuso-Holgado, Maria J

    2017-06-01

    Nowadays paddle-tennis is practiced by the Spanish population, not only in a professional or semi-professional way, but also as a recreational sport. As occurs in tennis, the repetition of specific actions and gestures in paddle-tennis could be a factor associated with one or more types of musculoskeletal injuries in this population. The aim of this research was to describe the incidence and location of musculoskeletal injuries in a sample of Spanish recreational paddle-tennis and to explore a possible causality injury model, focusing on gender contribution. The sample was composed of 113 active paddle-tennis players, of whom 47.78% were men. The participants were asked about the injuries they had suffered during their paddle participation. Other variables such as age, physical position in the game and level of ability were taken into account. 85.4% of the players reported any sport paddle injury. The elbow and the lower back have been shown as the most common regions of injury, followed by knee and shoulder injuries. Female group reported a higher injury incidence due to playing paddle-tennis (OR=0.169; P=0.008). Significant differences also existed between the genders for calf injury location (OR=0.208; P=0.020). A global injury model explaining 22.5% of the variance has been observed. Gender seems to explain 7.4% of the variance. Being a medium-aged weighty right-handed woman seems to be the profile more likely to report paddle-tennis related musculoskeletal injuries. A lack of literature regarding paddle-tennis related injuries has been observed. It could be said that our results contribute substantially in this field.

  1. [Imaging of the elbow joint with focus MRI. Part 2: muscles, nerves and synovial membranes].

    PubMed

    Rehm, J; Zeifang, F; Weber, M-A

    2014-03-01

    This review article discusses the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features and pathological changes of muscles, nerves and the synovial lining of the elbow joint. Typical imaging findings are illustrated and discussed. In addition, the cross-sectional anatomy and anatomical variants, such as accessory muscles and plicae are discussed. Injuries of the muscles surrounding the elbow joint, as well as chronic irritation are particularly common in athletes. Morphological changes in MRI, for example tennis or golfer's elbow are typical and often groundbreaking. By adapting the examination sequences, imaging planes and slices, complete and incomplete tendon ruptures can be reliably diagnosed. Although the clinical and electrophysiological examinations form the basis for the diagnosis of peripheral neuropathies, MRI provides useful additional information about the precise localization due to its high resolution and good soft tissue contrast and helps to rule out differential diagnoses. Synovial diseases, such as inflammatory arthritis, proliferative diseases and also impinging plicae must be considered in the MRI diagnostics of the elbow joint.

  2. A reliable technique for ultrasound-guided perineural injection in ulnar neuropathy at the elbow.

    PubMed

    Hamscha, Ulrike M; Tinhofer, Ines; Heber, Stefan; Grisold, Wolfgang; Weninger, Wolfgang J; Meng, Stefan

    2017-08-01

    Ulnar neuropathy at the elbow (UNE) is a common peripheral compression neuropathy and, in most cases, occurs at 2 sites, the retroepicondylar groove or the cubital tunnel. With regard to a potential therapeutic approach with perineural corticosteroid injection, the aim of this study was to evaluate the distribution of injection fluid applied at a standard site. We performed ultrasound-guided (US-guided) perineural injections to the ulnar nerve halfway between the olecranon and the medial epicondyle in 21 upper limbs from 11 non-embalmed cadavers. In anatomic dissection we investigated the spread of injected ink. Ink was successfully injected into the perineural sheath of the ulnar nerve in all 21 cases (cubital tunnel: 21 of 21; retroepicondylar groove: 19 of 21). US-guided injection between the olecranon and the medial epicondyle is a feasible and safe method to reach the most common sites of ulnar nerve entrapment. Muscle Nerve 56: 237-241, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Energetics of Table Tennis and Table Tennis-Specific Exercise Testing.

    PubMed

    Zagatto, Alessandro Moura; Leite, Jorge Vieira de Mello; Papoti, Marcelo; Beneke, Ralph

    2016-11-01

    To test the hypotheses that the metabolic profile of table tennis is dominantly aerobic, anaerobic energy is related to the accumulated duration and intensity of rallies, and activity and metabolic profile are interrelated with the individual fitness profile determined via table tennis-specific tests. Eleven male experienced table tennis players (22 ± 3 y, 77.6 ± 18.9 kg, 177.1 ± 8.1 cm) underwent 2 simulated table tennis matches to analyze aerobic (W OXID ) energy, anaerobic glycolytic (W BLC ) energy, and phosphocreatine breakdown (W PCr ); a table tennis-specific graded exercise test to measure ventilatory threshold and peak oxygen uptake; and an exhaustive supramaximal table tennis effort to determine maximal accumulated deficit of oxygen. W OXID , W BLC , and W PCr corresponded to 96.5% ± 1.7%, 1.0% ± 0.7%, and 2.5% ± 1.4%, respectively. W OXID was interrelated with rally duration (r = .81) and number of shots per rally (r = .77), whereas match intensity was correlated with WPCr (r = .62) and maximal accumulated oxygen deficit (r = .58). The metabolic profile of table tennis is predominantly aerobic and interrelated with the individual fitness profile determined via table tennis-specific tests. Table tennis-specific ventilatory threshold determines the average oxygen uptake and overall W OXID , whereas table tennis-specific maximal accumulated oxygen deficit indicates the ability to use and sustain slightly higher blood lactate concentration and W BLC during the match.

  4. The transfer of skill from short tennis to lawn tennis.

    PubMed

    Coldwells, A; Hare, M E

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish if short tennis skills transferred to lawn tennis. The experiment was conducted in two parts. In the first experiment 16 children (average age 8.9 years) were coached for 20 h (2 h/day for 2 weeks). The experimental group (n = 8) received 10 h of short tennis coaching followed by 10h of tennis coaching. The control group (n = 8) received tennis coaching only. In the second experiment 14 children (average age 8.5 years) were coached for 8h in group strokes alone (only ground strokes were tested and analysed). The experimental group (n = 7) received 4h of short tennis coaching and 4h of tennis coaching; the control group (n = 7) received tennis coaching only. Prior to coaching, all children were tested on the Dyer Backboard Test. The tests were video-taped for later analysis of technique. The video was analysed by three coaches in terms of backswing, positioning (position where player stood in reference to the bounce of the ball), follow-through, and placement (accuracy with which the ball was hit). The experimental group improved more than the control group on the Dyer Backboard Test (p < 0.05) in Experiment 1. In Experiment 2 both groups improved (p < 0.05) with coaching; there was no difference (p > 0.05) between the two groups following coaching. This implied that the short tennis skills positively transferred to tennis.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. The Thrower's Elbow: Arthroscopic Treatment of Valgus Extension Overload Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Altchek, David W.

    2006-01-01

    Injury to the medial collateral ligament of the elbow (MCL) can be a career-threatening injury for an overhead athlete without appropriate diagnosis and treatment. It has been considered separately from other athletic injuries due to the unique constellation of pathology that results from repetitive overhead throwing. The past decade has witnessed tremendous gains in understanding of the complex interplay between the dynamic and static stabilizers of the athlete's elbow. Likewise, the necessity to treat these problems in a minimally invasive manner has driven the development of sophisticated techniques and instrumentation for elbow arthroscopy. MCL injuries, ulnar neuritis, valgus extension overload with osteophyte formation and posteromedial impingement, flexor pronator strain, medial epicondyle pathology, and osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) of the capitellum have all been described as sequelae of the overhead throwing motion. In addition, loose body formation, bony spur formation, and capsular contracture can all be present in conjunction with these problems or as isolated entities. Not all pathology in the thrower's elbow is amenable to arthroscopic treatment; however, the clinician must be familiar with all of these problems in order to form a comprehensive differential diagnosis for an athlete presenting with elbow pain, and he or she must be comfortable with the variety of open and arthroscopic treatments available to best serve the patient. An understanding of the anatomy and biomechanics of the thrower's elbow is critical to the care of this population. The preoperative evaluation should focus on a thorough history and physical examination, as wellas on specific diagnostic imaging modalities. Arthroscopic setup, including anesthesia, patient positioning, and portal choices will be discussed. Operative techniques in the anterior and posterior compartments will bereviewed, as well as postoperative rehabilitationandsurgical results. Lastly, complications will

  6. The Relationship Between Maximum Isometric Strength and Ball Velocity in the Tennis Serve.

    PubMed

    Baiget, Ernest; Corbi, Francisco; Fuentes, Juan Pedro; Fernández-Fernández, Jaime

    2016-12-01

    The aims of this study were to analyze the relationship between maximum isometric strength levels in different upper and lower limb joints and serve velocity in competitive tennis players as well as to develop a prediction model based on this information. Twelve male competitive tennis players (mean ± SD; age: 17.2 ± 1.0 years; body height: 180.1 ± 6.2 cm; body mass: 71.9 ± 5.6 kg) were tested using maximum isometric strength levels (i.e., wrist, elbow and shoulder flexion and extension; leg and back extension; shoulder external and internal rotation). Serve velocity was measured using a radar gun. Results showed a strong positive relationship between serve velocity and shoulder internal rotation (r = 0.67; p < 0.05). Low to moderate correlations were also found between serve velocity and wrist, elbow and shoulder flexion - extension, leg and back extension and shoulder external rotation (r = 0.36 - 0.53; p = 0.377 - 0.054). Bivariate and multivariate models for predicting serve velocity were developed, with shoulder flexion and internal rotation explaining 55% of the variance in serve velocity (r = 0.74; p < 0.001). The maximum isometric strength level in shoulder internal rotation was strongly related to serve velocity, and a large part of the variability in serve velocity was explained by the maximum isometric strength levels in shoulder internal rotation and shoulder flexion.

  7. Diclofenac Patch for Treatment of Mild to Moderate Tendonitis or Bursitis

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2008-08-05

    Rotator Cuff Tendonitis; Bicipital Tendonitis; Subdeltoid Bursitis of the Shoulder; Subacromial Bursitis of the Shoulder; Medial Epicondylitis of the Elbow; Lateral Epicondylitis of the Elbow; DeQuervain's Tenosynovitis of the Wrist

  8. Psychometric properties of the Mayo Elbow Performance Score.

    PubMed

    Celik, Derya

    2015-06-01

    To translate and culturally adapt the Mayo Elbow Performance Score (MEPS), a widely used instrument for evaluating disability associated with elbow injuries, into Turkish (MEPS-T) and to determine psychometric properties of the translated version. The MEPS was translated into Turkish using published methodological guidelines. The measurement properties of the MEPS-T (construct validity and floor and ceiling effects) were tested in 91 patients with elbow pathology. The reproducibility of the MEPS-T was tested in 59 patients over 7-14 days. The responsiveness of the MEPS-T was tested in a subgroup of 46 patients diagnosed with lateral epicondylitis and who received conservative treatment for 6 weeks. The interclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to estimate the test-retest reliability. The construct validity was analyzed with the disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand (DASH), Visual Analog Scale (VAS) and the Short Form 36 (SF-36). Effect size (ES) was used to assess the responsiveness. The distribution of floor and ceiling effects was determined. The MEPS-T showed very good test-retest reliability (ICC 0.89). The correlation coefficients between the MEPS-T and DASH and VAS were -0.61 and -0.53, respectively (p < 0.001). The highest correlations were between the MEPS-T and the mental component summary (r = 0.47, p = 0.001) and role emotional (r = 0.45, p = 0.001). The MEPS-T ES, 0.50, was moderate (95% CI 0.33-0.62). We observed no ceiling or floor effects. The MEPS-T represents a valid, reliable and moderately responsive instrument for evaluating patients with elbow disease.

  9. Arthroscopic Debridement Versus Platelet-Rich Plasma Injection: A Prospective, Randomized, Comparative Study of Chronic Lateral Epicondylitis With a Nearly 2-Year Follow-Up.

    PubMed

    Merolla, Giovanni; Dellabiancia, Fabio; Ricci, Annamaria; Mussoni, Maria Pia; Nucci, Simonetta; Zanoli, Gustavo; Paladini, Paolo; Porcellini, Giuseppe

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this prospective, randomized study was to compare the efficacy of autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injections and arthroscopic lateral release in treating chronic lateral epicondylitis (LE). Patients who had a clinical diagnosis of LE confirmed by ultrasound (US) were included in this study. A total of 101 patients received arthroscopic release (n = 50) or US-guided PRP injections (n = 51). Outcomes were assessed using a visual analog scale for pain, the Patient-Rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation (PRTEE), and a calibrated hand dynamometer for grip strength. Both patient groups experienced significant improvement in all measures. Between-group comparisons showed a significantly higher value in the PRP group only for grip strength at week 8 (P = .0073); all other significant differences were in favor of arthroscopy: overall pain (P = .0021), night pain (P = .0013), and PRTEE score (P = .0013) at week 104 and grip strength at weeks 24, 52, and 104 (all P < .0001). Consumption of rescue pain medication was not significantly different between the groups. The present findings suggest that (1) PRP injections and arthroscopic extensor carpi radialis brevis release are both effective in the short and medium term; (2) PRP patients experienced a significant worsening of pain at 2 years; (3) arthroscopic release ensured better long-term outcomes in terms of pain relief and grip strength recovery; and (4) both procedures were safe and well accepted by patients. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level II, prospective comparative study. Copyright © 2017 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Does effectiveness of exercise therapy and mobilisation techniques offer guidance for the treatment of lateral and medial epicondylitis? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Hoogvliet, Peter; Randsdorp, Manon S; Dingemanse, Rudi; Koes, Bart W; Huisstede, Bionka M A

    2013-11-01

    Owing to the change in paradigm of the histological nature of epicondylitis, therapeutic modalities as exercises such as stretching and eccentric loading and mobilisation are considered for its treatment. To assess the evidence for effectiveness of exercise therapy and mobilisation techniques for both medial and lateral epicondylitis. Searches in PubMed, Embase, Cinahl and Pedro were performed to identify relevant randomised clinical trials (RCTs) and systematic reviews. Two reviewers independently extracted data and assessed the methodological quality. One review and 12 RCTs, all studying lateral epicondylitis, were included. Different therapeutic regimes were evaluated: stretching, strengthening, concentric/eccentric exercises and manipulation of the cervical or thoracic spine, elbow or wrist. No statistical pooling of the results could be performed owing to heterogeneity of the included studies. Therefore, a best-evidence synthesis was used to summarise the results. Moderate evidence for the short-term effectiveness was found in favour of stretching plus strengthening exercises versus ultrasound plus friction massage. Moderate evidence for short-term and mid-term effectiveness was found for the manipulation of the cervical and thoracic spine as add-on therapy to concentric and eccentric stretching plus mobilisation of wrist and forearm. For all other interventions only limited, conflicting or no evidence was found. Although not yet conclusive, these results support the belief that strength training decreases symptoms in tendinosis. The short-term analgesic effect of manipulation techniques may allow more vigorous stretching and strengthening exercises resulting in a better and faster recovery process of the affected tendon in lateral epicondylitis.

  11. Comparison Between Steroid and 2 Different Sites of Botulinum Toxin Injection in the Treatment of Lateral Epicondylalgia: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Active Drug-Controlled Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yao-Hong; Kuan, Ta-Shen; Chen, Kuan-Lin; Lien, Wei-Chih; Hsieh, Pei-Chun; Hsieh, I-Chieh; Chiu, Szu-Hao; Lin, Yu-Ching

    2017-01-01

    To compare the effects of 2 different injection sites of low doses of botulinum toxin type A with steroid in treating lateral epicondylalgia. Double-blind, randomized, active drug-controlled trial. Tertiary medical center. Patients with lateral epicondylalgia for >6 months were recruited from a hospital-based outpatient population (N=26). A total of 66 patients were approached, and 40 were excluded. No participant withdrew because of adverse effects. Patients were randomly assigned into 3 groups: (1) botulinum toxin epic group (n=8), who received 20U of botulinum toxin injection into the lateral epicondyle; (2) botulinum toxin tend group (n=7), who received 20U of botulinum toxin injected into tender points of muscles; and (3) steroid group (n=11), who received 40mg of triamcinolone acetonide injected into the lateral epicondyle. A visual analog scale, a dynamometer, and the Patient-Rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation were used to evaluate the perception of pain, maximal grip strength, and functional status, respectively. Outcome measures were assessed before intervention and at 4, 8, 12, and 16 weeks after treatment. The primary outcome measure was a visual analog scale. At 4 weeks after injection, the steroid group was superior to the botulinum toxin tend group in improvement on the visual analog scale (P=.006), grip strength (P=.03), and Patient-Rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation (P=.02). However, these differences were not observed at the 8-, 12-, and 16-week follow-up assessments. There was no significant difference between the steroid and botulinum toxin epic groups. Injections with botulinum toxin and steroid effectively reduced pain and improved upper limb function in patients with lateral epicondylalgia for at least 16 weeks. The onset of effect was earlier in the steroid and botulinum toxin epic groups than in the botulinum toxin tend group. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Mechanical energy generation and transfer in the racket arm during table tennis topspin backhands.

    PubMed

    Iino, Yoichi; Kojima, Takeji

    2016-06-01

    The ability to generate a high racket speed and a large amount of racket kinetic energy on impact is important for table tennis players. The purpose of this study was to understand how mechanical energy is generated and transferred in the racket arm during table tennis backhands. Ten male advanced right-handed table tennis players hit topspin backhands against pre-impact topspin and backspin balls. The joint kinetics at the shoulder, elbow and wrist of the racket arm was determined using inverse dynamics. A majority of the mechanical energy of the racket arm acquired during forward swing (65 and 77% against topspin and backspin, respectively) was due to energy transfer from the trunk. Energy transfer by the shoulder joint force in the vertical direction was the largest contributor to the mechanical energy of the racket arm against both spins and was greater against backspin than against topspin (34 and 28%, respectively). The shoulder joint force directed to the right, which peaked just before impact, transferred additional energy to the racket. Our results suggest that the upward thrust of the shoulder and the late timing of the axial rotation of the upper trunk are important for an effective topspin backhand.

  13. Platelet-rich plasma versus autologous blood versus steroid injection in lateral epicondylitis: systematic review and network meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Arirachakaran, Alisara; Sukthuayat, Amnat; Sisayanarane, Thaworn; Laoratanavoraphong, Sorawut; Kanchanatawan, Wichan; Kongtharvonskul, Jatupon

    2016-06-01

    Clinical outcomes between the use of platelet-rich plasma (PRP), autologous blood (AB) and corticosteroid (CS) injection in lateral epicondylitis are still controversial. A systematic review and network meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials was conducted with the aim of comparing relevant clinical outcomes between the use of PRP, AB and CS injection. Medline and Scopus databases were searched from inception to January 2015. A network meta-analysis was performed by applying weight regression for continuous outcomes and a mixed-effect Poisson regression for dichotomous outcomes. Ten of 374 identified studies were eligible. When compared to CS, AB injection showed significantly improved effects with unstandardized mean differences (UMD) in pain visual analog scale (VAS), Disabilities of Arm Shoulder and Hand (DASH), Patient-Related Tennis Elbow Evaluation (PRTEE) score and pressure pain threshold (PPT) of -2.5 (95 % confidence interval, -3.5, -1.5), -25.5 (-33.8, -17.2), -5.3 (-9.1, -1.6) and 9.9 (5.6, 14.2), respectively. PRP injections also showed significantly improved VAS and DASH scores when compared with CS. PRP showed significantly better VAS with UMD when compared to AB injection. AB injection has a higher risk of adverse effects, with a relative risk of 1.78 (1.00, 3.17), when compared to CS. The network meta-analysis suggested no statistically significant difference in multiple active treatment comparisons of VAS, DASH and PRTEE when comparing PRP and AB injections. However, AB injection had improved DASH score and PPT when compared with PRP injection. In terms of adverse effects, AB injection had a higher risk than PRP injection. This network meta-analysis provided additional information that PRP injection can improve pain and lower the risk of complications, whereas AB injection can improve pain, disabilities scores and pressure pain threshold but has a higher risk of complications. Level I evidence.

  14. A review of epidemiology of paediatric elbow injuries in sports.

    PubMed

    Magra, Merzesh; Caine, Dennis; Maffulli, Nicola

    2007-01-01

    The elbow is a common site of orthopaedic injury in the paediatric population. The number of these injuries continues to rise following increased levels of participation in paediatric recreational and competitive sport. Injuries to the paediatric elbow can be classified as either overuse or acute. Delineating injury patterns to the elbow in children can be challenging, given the cartilaginous composition of the distal humerus and the multiple secondary ossification centres that appear and unite with the epiphysis at defined ages. Pitching in baseball, serving in tennis, spiking in volleyball, passing in American football and launching in javelin-throwing can all produce elbow pathology by forceful valgus stress, with medial stretching, lateral compression and posterior impingement. In children and adolescents, the epiphyseal plate is weaker than the surrounding ligaments, predisposing them to epiphyseal plate injuries. On the other hand, post-pubescent or skeletally mature athletes are more prone to tendinous or ligamentous injury. Injuries may cause significant impact on the athlete, parents and healthcare system. With the exception of baseball, there are few prospective cohort studies on the epidemiological trends of childhood elbow injuries in other sports. This paper aims to describe the epidemiological trends in paediatric elbow injuries related to sports, suggests prevention strategies and discusses the scope for further research. A web-based search of existing articles pertaining to paediatric elbow injuries in sports was performed. The implications of acute and overuse injuries and the possibility of permanent damage should be understood by parents, coaches and the athletes. Proper understanding of the intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors that could lead to elbow injuries is thus required. Measures to prevent elbow injuries should include proper coaching, warm-up, officiation, legislation, medical expertise and protective gear. There are still many

  15. [Design of a multicenter study for assessing the effectiveness of extracorporeal shockwave therapy in epicondylitis humeri radialis].

    PubMed

    Haake, M; Jensen, K; Prinz, H; Willenberg, T

    2000-01-01

    Previously published studies concerning, extracorporeal shock-wave therapy (ESWT) in the treatment of lateral epicondylitis do not fulfil the biometric standards of modern clinical research. The objective of the trial is to show that ESWT is effective in the treatment of chronic LE. A prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, single-blinded, multicenter trial with an independent blinded observer was designed. The effectiveness of ESWT is evaluated by comparison with a control group in which sham-ESWT is performed, both under local anaesthesia. Outcome is determined on the basis of the Roles/Maudsley-Score. Inclusion criteria are a history of at least 6 months of LE and failure of conventional treatment. The therapy includes 3 sessions of low energy ESWT with 2000 impulses (energy flux density 0.07-0.09 mJ/mm2). Sample size is 272 patients. Randomisation started in October 1998 and is planned over a period of two and a half years. Only a randomised clinical trial with adequate control of placebo effects and observer bias can provide the required evidence for the efficiency of ESWT in the treatment of lateral epicondylitis of the elbow.

  16. The Relationship Between Maximum Isometric Strength and Ball Velocity in the Tennis Serve

    PubMed Central

    Corbi, Francisco; Fuentes, Juan Pedro; Fernández-Fernández, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aims of this study were to analyze the relationship between maximum isometric strength levels in different upper and lower limb joints and serve velocity in competitive tennis players as well as to develop a prediction model based on this information. Twelve male competitive tennis players (mean ± SD; age: 17.2 ± 1.0 years; body height: 180.1 ± 6.2 cm; body mass: 71.9 ± 5.6 kg) were tested using maximum isometric strength levels (i.e., wrist, elbow and shoulder flexion and extension; leg and back extension; shoulder external and internal rotation). Serve velocity was measured using a radar gun. Results showed a strong positive relationship between serve velocity and shoulder internal rotation (r = 0.67; p < 0.05). Low to moderate correlations were also found between serve velocity and wrist, elbow and shoulder flexion – extension, leg and back extension and shoulder external rotation (r = 0.36 – 0.53; p = 0.377 – 0.054). Bivariate and multivariate models for predicting serve velocity were developed, with shoulder flexion and internal rotation explaining 55% of the variance in serve velocity (r = 0.74; p < 0.001). The maximum isometric strength level in shoulder internal rotation was strongly related to serve velocity, and a large part of the variability in serve velocity was explained by the maximum isometric strength levels in shoulder internal rotation and shoulder flexion. PMID:28149411

  17. Association between Epicondylitis and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Pooled Occupational Cohorts.

    PubMed

    Hegmann, Kurt T; Thiese, Matthew S; Kapellusch, Jay; Merryweather, Andrew; Bao, Stephen; Silverstein, Barbara; Wood, Eric M; Kendall, Richard; Foster, James; Drury, David L; Garg, Arun

    2017-05-30

    The pathophysiology of lateral epicondylitis (LE) is unclear. Recent evidence suggests some common musculoskeletal disorders may have a basis in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. Thus, we examined CVD risks as potential LE risks. Workers (n = 1824) were enrolled in two large prospective studies and underwent structured interviews and physical examinations at baseline. Analysis of pooled baseline data assessed the relationships separately between a modified Framingham Heart Study CVD risk score and three prevalence outcomes of: 1) lateral elbow pain, 2) positive resisted wrist or middle finger extension, and 3) a combination of both symptoms and at least one resisted maneuver. Quantified job exposures, personal and psychosocial confounders were statistically controlled. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% Confidence Intervals (CIs) were calculated. There was a strong relationship between CVD risk score and lateral elbow symptoms, resisted wrist or middle finger extension and LE after adjustment for confounders. The adjusted ORs for symptoms were as high as 3.81 (95% CI 2.11, 6.85), for positive examination with adjusted odds ratios as high as 2.85 (95% CI 1.59, 5.12) and for combined symptoms and physical examination 6.20 (95% CI 2.04, 18.82). Relationships trended higher with higher CVD risk scores. These data suggest a potentially modifiable disease mechanism for LE.

  18. It's time to change perspective! New diagnostic tools for lateral elbow pain.

    PubMed

    Arrigoni, P; Cucchi, D; Menon, A; Randelli, P

    2017-12-01

    The presence of intra-articular findings that may complement the extra-articular pathology in lateral epicondilytis has been suggested, and a role for minor instability of the elbow as part of the causative process of this disease has been postulated. This study was designed to describe two new clinical tests, aimed at detecting intra-articular pathology in patients affected by recalcitrant lateral epicondylitis and investigate their diagnostic performance. Ten patients suffering of atraumatic lateral elbow pain unresponsive to conservative treatment were considered in this study. Two clinical tests were developed and administrated prior to arthroscopy: Supination and Antero-Lateral pain Test (SALT); Posterior Elbow Pain by Palpation-Extension of the Radiocapitellar joint (PEPPER). Sensitivity, specificity, predictive values and accuracy of SALT and PEPPER as diagnostic tests for seven intra-articular findings were calculated. In 90% of the patients, at least one test was positive. All patients with signs of lateral ligamentous patholaxity or intra-articular abnormal findings had a positive response to at least one of the two tests. SALT proved to have a high sensitivity but a low specificity and is accurate in detecting the presence of intra-articular abnormal findings, especially synovitis. PEPPER test was sensible, specific and accurate in the detection of radial head chondropathy. Two new diagnostic tests (SALT and PEPPER) were specifically designed to evoke pain from intra-articular structures. These tests could be a valid support in the diagnostic algorithm of recalcitrant lateral elbow pain. Positive findings may be indicative of a minor instability of the lateral elbow condition. Diagnostic study, development of diagnostic criteria on basis of consecutive patients, level II.

  19. The first 100 elbow arthroscopies of one surgeon: analysis of complications.

    PubMed

    Marti, Darius; Spross, Christian; Jost, Bernhard

    2013-04-01

    Elbow arthroscopy is technically challenging and prone to complications especially due to the close relation of nerves and vessels. Complication rates up to 20% are reported, depending on indication and how complications are defined. This study analyzes the complications of the first 100 elbow arthroscopies done by 1 fellowship- and cadaver-trained surgeon. From September 2004 to April 2009, 100 consecutive elbow arthroscopies were performed, and thus consequently standardized, by 1 surgeon in 1 institution. The clinical data of all patients were retrospectively analyzed for indication-specific complications. Complications were divided into minor (transient) and major (persistent or infection). Included were 65 male and 35 female patients (mean age, 41 years; range, 12-70 years) with a minimum follow-up of 12 months (clinical or telephone). The following indications were documented (several per patient were possible): osteoarthritis in 29, stiffness in 27, loose bodies in 27, tennis elbow in 24, traumatic sequelae in 19, and others in 24. No major complications occurred, but 6 minor complications occurred in 5 patients (5%), comprising 2 hematoma, 2 transient nerve lesions, 1 wound-healing problem, and 1 complex regional pain syndrome. No revision surgery was necessary. Complications were not significantly associated with the indication for operation or the surgeon's learning curve. This study shows an acceptable complication rate of the first 100 elbow arthroscopies from a single surgeon. A profound clinical education, including cadaver training as well as standardization of patient position, portals, and surgery, help to achieve this. Copyright © 2013 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Double pendulum model for a tennis stroke including a collision process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youn, Sun-Hyun

    2015-10-01

    By means of adding a collision process between the ball and racket in the double pendulum model, we analyzed the tennis stroke. The ball and the racket system may be accelerated during the collision time; thus, the speed of the rebound ball does not simply depend on the angular velocity of the racket. A higher angular velocity sometimes gives a lower rebound ball speed. We numerically showed that the proper time-lagged racket rotation increased the speed of the rebound ball by 20%. We also showed that the elbow should move in the proper direction in order to add the angular velocity of the racket.

  1. Coordination and variability in the elite female tennis serve.

    PubMed

    Whiteside, David; Elliott, Bruce Clifford; Lay, Brendan; Reid, Machar

    2015-01-01

    Enhancing the understanding of coordination and variability in the tennis serve may be of interest to coaches as they work with players to improve performance. The current study examined coordinated joint rotations and variability in the lower limbs, trunk, serving arm and ball location in the elite female tennis serve. Pre-pubescent, pubescent and adult players performed maximal effort flat serves while a 22-camera 500 Hz motion analysis system captured three-dimensional body kinematics. Coordinated joint rotations in the lower limbs and trunk appeared most consistent at the time players left the ground, suggesting that they coordinate the proximal elements of the kinematic chain to ensure that they leave the ground at a consistent time, in a consistent posture. Variability in the two degrees of freedom at the elbow became significantly greater closer to impact in adults, possibly illustrating the mechanical adjustments (compensation) these players employed to manage the changing impact location from serve to serve. Despite the variable ball toss, the temporal composition of the serve was highly consistent and supports previous assertions that players use the location of the ball to regulate their movement. Future work should consider these associations in other populations, while coaches may use the current findings to improve female serve performance.

  2. Joint angles during successful and unsuccessful tennis serves kinematics of tennis serve.

    PubMed

    Göktepe, Ayhan; Ak, Emre; Söğüt, Mustafa; Karabörk, Hakan; Korkusuz, Feza

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the joint angle differences in successful and unsuccessful tennis serves of junior tennis players. Nine healthy junior tennis players (5 girls, 4 boys; mean age 11.8+/-0.8 years; height 153.6+/-7.2 cm; body mass index 42.3+/-4.1 kg; playing experience 6.2+/-1.5 years) volunteered to participate in this study. They were asked to perform tennis serves as fast as they can as if they were in an actual game. Successful and unsuccessful serves were recorded using two high speed cameras and then analyzed using Pictran software. Angle changes in pre-impact, impact and post-impact phases were compared. The results of paired sample t-tests revealed nosignificant differences between successful and unsuccessful tennis serves in all three phases. This study failed to show differences between successful and unsuccessful tennis serves in pre-impact, impact and post-impact phases. However, future research with more detailed analyses would be needed to reveal the possible changes in the joints while serving.

  3. Biomechanical analysis of three tennis serve types using a markerless system.

    PubMed

    Abrams, Geoffrey D; Harris, Alex H S; Andriacchi, Thomas P; Safran, Marc R

    2014-02-01

    The tennis serve is commonly associated with musculoskeletal injury. Advanced players are able to hit multiple serve types with different types of spin. No investigation has characterised the kinematics of all three serve types for the upper extremity and back. Seven NCAA Division I male tennis players performed three successful flat, kick and slice serves. Serves were recorded using an eight camera markerless motion capture system. Laser scanning was utilised to accurately collect body dimensions and data were computed using inverse kinematic methods. There was no significant difference in maximum back extension angle for the flat, kick or slice serves. The kick serve had a higher force magnitude at the back than the flat and slice as well as larger posteriorly directed shoulder forces. The flat serve had significantly greater maximum shoulder internal rotation velocity versus the slice serve. Force and torque magnitudes at the elbow and wrist were not significantly different between the serves. The kick serve places higher physical demands on the back and shoulder while the slice serve demonstrated lower overall kinetic forces. This information may have injury prevention and rehabilitation implications.

  4. [Efficacies of arthroscopic debridement and olecranon fossa plasty in the treatment of osteoarthritis and posterior elbow impingement].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu-jie; Wang, Jun-liang; Li, Hai-feng; Qi, Wei; Wang, Ning

    2012-07-17

    To evaluate the efficacies of arthroscopic debridement and removal of osteophyma for olecroanon and olecranon fossa plasty for posterior impingement of elbow joint. Between 1999 and 2008, a total of 21 cases were diagnosed with osteoarthritis and posterior elbow impingement. There were 15 males and 6 females. And there were 16 right and 15 left cases. They included volleyball players (n = 7), tennis players (n = 7), golf enthusiasts (n = 4) and fencers (n = 3). The average duration of onset-operation was 3.5 years (range: 2.5 - 8). Arthroscopic exploration revealed synovial hyperplasia hypertrophy, cartilage degeneration and olecranon fossa hyperplasia with deformed olecranon fossa. Debridement and plasty were performed. Loose bodies were removed from elbow joint in 6 patients. Partial resection of posterior olecranon tip was performed and osteophytes or fibrous tissue removed in this area. Dynamic observation showed no posterior elbow impingement. Postoperative follow-up was conducted in 19 cases and 2 cases became lost to follow-up. The average follow-up period was 25.3 months (range: 18 - 42). All patients were evaluated preoperatively and postoperatively with the Hospital for Special Surgery Elbow Assessment Scale. The outcomes were excellent (n = 12), good (n = 7) and fair (n = 2). Postoperative patients elbow swelling and pain relieve, sports and life function returns to normal, elbow flexion and rotating mobility obviously improved. With the elbow radiological films to measure the range of motion, the average range of motion was 90.5° preoperatively and improved to 130° postoperatively. There was significant improvement in all cases. Posterior elbow impingement is caused by hyperextension trauma and elbow overuse during specific sporting activities. Arthroscopic debridement and olecroanon or olecranon fossa plasty demonstrates excellent results for posterior impingement of elbow joint.

  5. Arthroscopic R-LCL plication for symptomatic minor instability of the lateral elbow (SMILE).

    PubMed

    Arrigoni, Paolo; Cucchi, Davide; D'Ambrosi, Riccardo; Menon, Alessandra; Aliprandi, Alberto; Randelli, Pietro

    2017-07-01

    Minor instability has been proposed as a possible aetiology of lateral elbow pain. This study presents the results of the arthroscopic plication of the radial component of the lateral collateral ligament (R-LCL) to reduce minor instability of the lateral elbow. Twenty-seven patients with recalcitrant lateral epicondylitis who had failed conservative therapy and who had no previous trauma or overt instability, were included. R-LCL plication was performed in the presence of at least one sign of lateral ligamentous patholaxity and one intra-articular abnormal finding. Single-assessment numeric evaluation (SANE), Oxford Elbow Score (OES), quickDASH (Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, Hand), patient satisfaction and post-operative range of motion were evaluated. SANE improved from a median of 30 [2-40] points pre-operatively to 90 [80-100] at final follow-up (p < 0.0001), and 96.3% patients obtained good or excellent subjective results. Post-operative median quickDASH was 9.1 [0-25] points and OES 42 [34-48]. Median post-operative flexion was 145°, and extension was 0°. Post-operative flexion was restrained in seven patients and extension in eight patients; 59% of patients reached full ROM at final follow-up. R-LCL plication produces subjective satisfaction and positive clinical results in patients presenting with a symptomatic minor instability of the lateral elbow (SMILE) at 2-year median follow-up. A slight limitation in range of motion is a possible undesired consequence of this intervention. Retrospective case series, Level IV.

  6. Cross-cultural adaptation and reliability and validity of the Dutch Patient-Rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation (PRTEE-D).

    PubMed

    van Ark, Mathijs; Zwerver, Johannes; Diercks, Ronald L; van den Akker-Scheek, Inge

    2014-08-11

    Lateral Epicondylalgia (LE) is a common injury for which no reliable and valid measure exists to determine severity in the Dutch language. The Patient-Rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation (PRTEE) is the first questionnaire specifically designed for LE but in English. The aim of this study was to translate into Dutch and cross-culturally adapt the PRTEE and determine reliability and validity of the PRTEE-D (Dutch version). The PRTEE was cross-culturally adapted according to international guidelines. Participants (n = 122) were asked to fill out the PRTEE-D twice with a one week interval to assess test-retest reliability. Internal consistency of the PRTEE-D was determined by calculating Crohnbach's alphas for the questionnaire and subscales. Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICC) were calculated for the overall PRTEE-D score, pain and function subscale and individual questions to determine test-retest reliability. Additionally, the Disabilities for the Arm, Shoulder and Hand questionnaire (DASH) and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) pain scores were obtained from 30 patients to assess construct validity; Spearman's correlation coefficients were calculated between the PRTEE-D (subscales) and DASH and VAS-pain scores. The PRTEE was successfully cross-culturally adapted into Dutch (PRTEE-D). Crohnbach's alpha for the first assessment of the PRTEE-D was 0.98; Crohnbach's alpha was 0.93 for the pain subscale and 0.97 for the function subscale. ICC for the PRTEE-D was 0.98; subscales also showed excellent ICC values (pain scale 0.97 and function scale 0.97). A significant moderate correlation exists between PRTEE-D and DASH (0.65) and PRTEE-D and VAS pain (0.68). The PRTEE was successfully cross-culturally adapted and this study showed that the PRTEE-D is reliable and valid to obtain an indication of severity of LE. An easy-to-use instrument for practitioners is now available and this facilitates comparing Dutch and international research data.

  7. No abatement of steroid injections for tennis elbow in Australian General Practice: A 15-year observational study with random general practitioner sampling

    PubMed Central

    Vicenzino, Bill; Britt, Helena; Pollack, Allan J.; Hall, Michelle; Bennell, Kim L.; Hunter, David J.

    2017-01-01

    Objective Evaluate general practitioner (GP) management of tennis elbow (TE) in Australia. Methods Data about the management of TE by GPs from 2000 to 2015 were extracted from the Bettering the Evaluation of Care of Health program database. Patient and GP characteristics and encounter management data were classified by the International Classification of Primary Care, version 2, and reported using descriptive statistics with point estimates and 95% confidence intervals. Results TE was managed by GPs 242,000 times per year on average. Patients were mainly female (52.3%), aged between 35 and 64 years (mean: 49.3 yrs), had higher relative risks of concomitant disorders (e.g. carpal tunnel syndrome and other tendonitis) and their TE was 10 times more likely to be work related than problems managed for patients who did not have TE. Use of diagnostic tests was low, implying a clinical examination based diagnosis of TE. Management was by procedural treatments (36 per 100 TE problems), advice, education or counselling (25 per 100), and referral to other health care providers (14 per 100, mainly to physiotherapy). The rate of local injection did not change over the 15 years and was performed at similar rates as physiotherapy referral. Conclusion The high risk of comorbidities and work relatedness and no abatement in the reasonably high rate of local injections (which is contrary to the evidence from clinical trials) provides support for the development and dissemination of TE clinical guidelines for GPs. PMID:28727755

  8. No abatement of steroid injections for tennis elbow in Australian General Practice: A 15-year observational study with random general practitioner sampling.

    PubMed

    Vicenzino, Bill; Britt, Helena; Pollack, Allan J; Hall, Michelle; Bennell, Kim L; Hunter, David J

    2017-01-01

    Evaluate general practitioner (GP) management of tennis elbow (TE) in Australia. Data about the management of TE by GPs from 2000 to 2015 were extracted from the Bettering the Evaluation of Care of Health program database. Patient and GP characteristics and encounter management data were classified by the International Classification of Primary Care, version 2, and reported using descriptive statistics with point estimates and 95% confidence intervals. TE was managed by GPs 242,000 times per year on average. Patients were mainly female (52.3%), aged between 35 and 64 years (mean: 49.3 yrs), had higher relative risks of concomitant disorders (e.g. carpal tunnel syndrome and other tendonitis) and their TE was 10 times more likely to be work related than problems managed for patients who did not have TE. Use of diagnostic tests was low, implying a clinical examination based diagnosis of TE. Management was by procedural treatments (36 per 100 TE problems), advice, education or counselling (25 per 100), and referral to other health care providers (14 per 100, mainly to physiotherapy). The rate of local injection did not change over the 15 years and was performed at similar rates as physiotherapy referral. The high risk of comorbidities and work relatedness and no abatement in the reasonably high rate of local injections (which is contrary to the evidence from clinical trials) provides support for the development and dissemination of TE clinical guidelines for GPs.

  9. Clarification of Eponymous Anatomical Terminology: Structures Named After Dr Geoffrey V. Osborne That Compress the Ulnar Nerve at the Elbow.

    PubMed

    Wali, Arvin R; Gabel, Brandon; Mitwalli, Madhawi; Tubbs, R Shane; Brown, Justin M

    2017-05-01

    In 1957, Dr Geoffrey Osborne described a structure between the medial epicondyle and the olecranon that placed excessive pressure on the ulnar nerve. Three terms associated with such structures have emerged: Osborne's band, Osborne's ligament, and Osborne's fascia. As anatomical language moves away from eponymous terminology for descriptive, consistent nomenclature, we find discrepancies in the use of anatomic terms. This review clarifies the definitions of the above 3 terms. We conducted an extensive electronic search via PubMed and Google Scholar to identify key anatomical and surgical texts that describe ulnar nerve compression at the elbow. We searched the following terms separately and in combination: "Osborne's band," "Osborne's ligament," and "Osborne's fascia." A total of 36 papers were included from 1957 to 2016. Osborne's band, Osborne's ligament, and Osborne's fascia were found to inconsistently describe the etiology of ulnar neuritis, referring either to the connective tissue between the 2 heads of the flexor carpi ulnaris muscle as described by Dr Osborne or to the anatomically distinct fibrous tissue between the olecranon process of the ulna and the medial epicondyle of the humerus. The use of eponymous terms to describe ulnar pathology of the elbow remains common, and although these terms allude to the rich history of surgical anatomy, these nonspecific descriptions lead to inconsistencies. As Osborne's band, Osborne's ligament, and Osborne's fascia are not used consistently across the literature, this research demonstrates the need for improved terminology to provide reliable interpretation of these terms among surgeons.

  10. Effects of sports drinks on the maintenance of physical performance during 3 tennis matches: a randomized controlled study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Tennis tournaments often involve playing several consecutive matches interspersed with short periods of recovery. Objective The objective of this study was firstly to assess the impact of several successive tennis matches on the physical performance of competitive players and secondly to evaluate the potential of sports drinks to minimize the fatigue induced by repeated matches. Methods This was a crossover, randomized controlled study. Eight male regionally-ranked tennis players participated in this study. Players underwent a series of physical tests to assess their strength, speed, power and endurance following the completion of three tennis matches each of two hours duration played over three consecutive half-days (1.5 day period for each condition). In the first condition the players consumed a sports drink before, during and after each match; in the second, they drank an identical volume of placebo water. The results obtained were compared with the third ‘rest’ condition in which the subjects did not play any tennis. Main outcomes measured were maximal isometric strength and fatigability of knee and elbow extensors, 20-m sprint speed, jumping height, specific repeated sprint ability test and hand grip strength. Results The physical test results for the lower limbs showed no significant differences between the three conditions. Conversely, on the upper limbs the EMG data showed greater fatigue of the triceps brachii in the placebo condition compared to the rest condition, while the ingestion of sports drinks attenuated this fatigue. Conclusions This study has demonstrated for the first time that, when tennis players are adequately hydrated and ingest balanced meals between matches, then no large drop in physical performance is observed even during consecutive competitive matches. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01353872. PMID:25302057

  11. Extensor tendinopathy of the elbow assessed with sonoelastography: histologic correlation.

    PubMed

    Klauser, Andrea S; Pamminger, Mathias; Halpern, Ethan J; Abd Ellah, Mohamed M H; Moriggl, Bernhard; Taljanovic, Mihra S; Deml, Christian; Sztankay, Judit; Klima, Guenther; Jaschke, Werner R

    2017-08-01

    To compare agreement between conventional B-mode ultrasound (US) and compression sonoelastography (SEL) of the common extensor tendons of the elbow with histological evaluation. Twenty-six common extensor tendons were evaluated in 17 cadavers (11 females, median age 85 years and 6 males, median age 80 years). B-mode US was graded into: Grade 1, homogeneous fibrillar pattern; grade 2, hypoechoic areas and/or calcifications <30%; and grade 3 > 30%. SEL was graded into: Grade 1 indicated blue (hardest) to green (hard); grade 2 yellow (soft); and grade 3 red (softest). B-mode US, SEL, and a combined grading score incorporating both were compared to histological findings in 76 biopsies. Histological alterations were detected in 55/76 biopsies. Both modalities showed similar results (sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy 84%, 81%, and 83% for B-mode US versus 85%, 86%, and 86% for SEL, respectively, P > 0.3). However, a combination of both resulted in significant improvement in sensitivity (96%, P < 0.02) without significant change in specificity (81%, P < 0.3), yielding an improved overall accuracy (92%). Combined imaging of the extensor tendons with both modalities is superior to either modality alone for predicting the presence of pathologic findings on histology. • Combination of B-mode US and SEL proved efficiency in diagnosing lateral epicondylitis. • Combination of B-mode US and SEL in lateral epicondylitis correlates to histology. • Combination of both modalities provides improved sensitivity without loss of specificity.

  12. Golf and racquet sports injuries.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Jon A; Miller, Bruce S; Morag, Yoav

    2005-12-01

    There are specific injuries that are common in golf and racquet sports. These abnormalities have a predilection for specific structures as well and can be divided into two categories on the basis of etiology as either chronic repetitive injury or acute trauma. With golf injuries, upper extremity abnormalities prevail and include rotator cuff disease, epicondylitis, wrist tenosynovitis, and hamate hook fracture. Thoracolumbar spine pain can also occur. The order of frequency of these ailments is different for professional and recreational athletes. With racquet injuries, as in tennis, lower extremity injuries are more common and include medial gastrocnemius and Achilles tendon abnormalities, although shoulder, elbow, and wrist abnormalities may also occur. Knowledge of the biomechanics behind each sport is also helpful in understanding the pathophysiology of injury and in part explains the findings seen at imaging.

  13. The effect of high level tennis matches on urine steroid profiles in professional tennis players.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, D; Toribio, F; Timón, R; Olcina, G; Maynar, J I; Maynar, M

    2010-12-01

    Modern day, tennis matches are characterized by shorter and more intense efforts with players enduring great physical and psychological stress. The aim of this study was to evaluate acute changes in the urinary steroid profile of elite tennis players following professional tournament matches. Eight professional male tennis players participated in this study. Urine samples were collected before and after tennis matches corresponding to the quarter finals of the Spanish Tennis Masters. After the match, there was a significant fall (P<0.05) in testosterone, androsterone, etiocholanolone, and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). Cortisone increased whereas tetrahydrocortisone (THE) decreased. The anabolic/catabolic hormone ratio also decreased, although only the fall in total suprarenal androgen (TSA)/total corticosteroid (TC) and DHEA/(THE+THF) ratios had a significant decrease (P<0.05). These results indicate that a professional tennis match modifies the urine steroid profiles of players, increasing corticosteroid and decreasing androgen excretion in urine, suggesting an important adrenal activation.

  14. A systematic review with procedural assessments and meta-analysis of low level laser therapy in lateral elbow tendinopathy (tennis elbow).

    PubMed

    Bjordal, Jan M; Lopes-Martins, Rodrigo Ab; Joensen, Jon; Couppe, Christian; Ljunggren, Anne E; Stergioulas, Apostolos; Johnson, Mark I

    2008-05-29

    Recent reviews have indicated that low level level laser therapy (LLLT) is ineffective in lateral elbow tendinopathy (LET) without assessing validity of treatment procedures and doses or the influence of prior steroid injections. Systematic review with meta-analysis, with primary outcome measures of pain relief and/or global improvement and subgroup analyses of methodological quality, wavelengths and treatment procedures. 18 randomised placebo-controlled trials (RCTs) were identified with 13 RCTs (730 patients) meeting the criteria for meta-analysis. 12 RCTs satisfied half or more of the methodological criteria. Publication bias was detected by Egger's graphical test, which showed a negative direction of bias. Ten of the trials included patients with poor prognosis caused by failed steroid injections or other treatment failures, or long symptom duration or severe baseline pain. The weighted mean difference (WMD) for pain relief was 10.2 mm [95% CI: 3.0 to 17.5] and the RR for global improvement was 1.36 [1.16 to 1.60]. Trials which targeted acupuncture points reported negative results, as did trials with wavelengths 820, 830 and 1064 nm. In a subgroup of five trials with 904 nm lasers and one trial with 632 nm wavelength where the lateral elbow tendon insertions were directly irradiated, WMD for pain relief was 17.2 mm [95% CI: 8.5 to 25.9] and 14.0 mm [95% CI: 7.4 to 20.6] respectively, while RR for global pain improvement was only reported for 904 nm at 1.53 [95% CI: 1.28 to 1.83]. LLLT doses in this subgroup ranged between 0.5 and 7.2 Joules. Secondary outcome measures of painfree grip strength, pain pressure threshold, sick leave and follow-up data from 3 to 8 weeks after the end of treatment, showed consistently significant results in favour of the same LLLT subgroup (p < 0.02). No serious side-effects were reported. LLLT administered with optimal doses of 904 nm and possibly 632 nm wavelengths directly to the lateral elbow tendon insertions, seem to offer

  15. Clinical rating systems in elbow research-a systematic review exploring trends and distributions of use.

    PubMed

    Evans, Jonathan P; Smith, Chris D; Fine, Nicola F; Porter, Ian; Gangannagaripalli, Jaheeda; Goodwin, Victoria A; Valderas, Jose M

    2018-04-01

    Clinical rating systems are used as outcome measures in clinical trials and attempt to gauge the patient's view of his or her own health. The choice of clinical rating system should be supported by its performance against established quality standards. A search strategy was developed to identify all studies that reported the use of clinical rating systems in the elbow literature. The strategy was run from inception in Medline Embase and CINHAL. Data extraction identified the date of publication, country of data collection, pathology assessed, and the outcome measure used. We identified 980 studies that reported clinical rating system use. Seventy-two separate rating systems were identified. Forty-one percent of studies used ≥2 separate measures. Overall, 54% of studies used the Mayo Elbow Performance Score (MEPS). For arthroplasty, 82% used MEPS, 17% used Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH), and 7% used QuickDASH. For trauma, 66.7% used MEPS, 32% used DASH, and 23% used the Morrey Score. For tendinopathy, 31% used DASH, 23% used Patient-Rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation (PRTEE), and 13% used MEPS. Over time, there was an increased proportional use of the MEPS, DASH, QuickDASH, PRTEE, and the Oxford Elbow Score. This study identified a wide choice and usage of clinical rating systems in the elbow literature. Numerous studies reported measures without a history of either a specific pathology or cross-cultural validation. Interpretability and comparison of outcomes is dependent on the unification of outcome measure choice. This was not demonstrated currently. Copyright © 2018 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The effect of ball impact location on racket and forearm joint angle changes for one-handed tennis backhand groundstrokes.

    PubMed

    King, Mark; Hau, Agnes; Blenkinsop, Glen

    2017-07-01

    Recreational tennis players tend to have higher incidence of tennis elbow, and this has been hypothesised to be related to one-handed backhand technique and off-centre ball impacts on the racket face. This study aimed to investigate for a range of participants the effect of off-longitudinal axis and off-lateral axis ball-racket impact locations on racket and forearm joint angle changes immediately following impact in one-handed tennis backhand groundstrokes. Three-dimensional racket and wrist angular kinematic data were recorded for 14 university tennis players each performing 30 "flat" one-handed backhand groundstrokes. Off-longitudinal axis ball-racket impact locations explained over 70% of the variation in racket rotation about the longitudinal axis and wrist flexion/extension angles during the 30 ms immediately following impact. Off-lateral axis ball-racket impact locations had a less clear cut influence on racket and forearm rotations. Specifically off-longitudinal impacts below the longitudinal axis forced the wrist into flexion for all participants with there being between 11° and 32° of forced wrist flexion for an off-longitudinal axis impact that was 1 ball diameter away from the midline. This study has confirmed that off-longitudinal impacts below the longitudinal axis contribute to forced wrist flexion and eccentric stretch of the wrist extensors and there can be large differences in the amount of forced wrist flexion from individual to individual and between strokes with different impact locations.

  17. [The elbow joint - a diagnostic challenge : anatomy, biomechanics, and pathology].

    PubMed

    Schueller-Weidekamm, C; Kainberger, F

    2008-12-01

    The elbow is one of the most commonly injured joints in sports activities. In particular, weight lifters, golfers, tennis players, and pitchers are affected. Injuries in sports involving overhead throwing are commonly based on the pathophysiologic model of valgus extension overload syndrome. The injuries are commonly complex and demand a good knowledge of the symptoms, the exact anatomy, and the biomechanics to arrive at a precise radiologic diagnosis. The characteristic patterns of injury that occur in specific sports activities are related to a combination of increased varus or valgus and extension or flexion overload that results in tensile forces and/or compression and shear stress. Acute symptoms are frequently based on chronic degeneration of the tendons and ligamentous structures due to repetitive microtrauma from overuse syndrome.

  18. Teaching and Coaching Tennis Using System 5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helfrich, Janet

    2006-01-01

    The United States Professional Tennis Association (USPTA) has developed a universal language for tennis instruction entitled System 5: The Five Keys to Tennis, which is extremely easy to teach and learn and covers court positioning, strategy, and stroke selection. Many professional tennis instructors have used System 5 since its inception but…

  19. A comparison of the upper limb movement kinematics utilized by children playing virtual and real table tennis.

    PubMed

    Bufton, Amy; Campbell, Amity; Howie, Erin; Straker, Leon

    2014-12-01

    Active virtual games (AVG) may facilitate gross motor skill development, depending on their fidelity. This study compared the movement patterns of nineteen 10-12 yr old children, while playing table tennis on three AVG consoles (Nintendo Wii, Xbox Kinect, Sony Move) and as a real world task. Wrist and elbow joint angles and hand path distance and speed were captured. Children playing real table tennis had significantly smaller (e.g. Wrist Angle Forehand Real-Kinect: Mean Difference (MD): -18.2°, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): -26.15 to -10.26) and slower (e.g. Average Speed Forehand Real-Kinect: MD: -1.98 ms(-1), 95% CI: -2.35 to -1.61) movements than when using all three AVGs. Hand path distance was smaller in forehand and backhand strokes (e.g. Kinect-Wii: MD: 0.46 m, 95% CI: 0.13-0.79) during playing with Kinect than Move and Wii. The movement patterns when playing real and virtual table tennis were different and this may impede the development of real world gross motor skills. Several elements, including display, input and task characteristics, may have contributed to the differences in movement patterns observed. Understanding the interface components for AVGs may help development of higher fidelity games to potentially enhance the development of gross motor skill and thus participation in PA. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Intensity of tennis match play

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, J; Mendez‐Villanueva, A; Pluim, B M

    2006-01-01

    This review focuses on the characteristics of tennis players during match play and provides a greater insight into the energy demands of tennis. A tennis match often lasts longer than an hour and in some cases more than five hours. During a match there is a combination of periods of maximal or near maximal work and longer periods of moderate and low intensity activity. Match intensity varies considerably depending on the players' level, style, and sex. It is also influenced by factors such as court surface and ball type. This has important implications for the training of tennis players, which should resemble match intensity and include interval training with appropriate work to rest ratios. PMID:16632566

  1. Tennis for physical health: acute age- and gender-based physiological responses to cardio tennis.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Alistair P; Duffield, Rob; Reid, Machar

    2014-11-01

    This study described physiological and perceptual responses to Cardio tennis for "younger" and "older" adult populations of both sexes for health-related outcomes. Thirty-one active participants, each with prior recreational tennis experience (∼2 years) (8 younger and 8 older males, and 7 younger and 8 older females) performed preliminary testing and a 50-minute instructor-led Cardio tennis session. Cardio tennis is a conditioning-based tennis program comprised of warm-up movements, drill-based exercises (set movement and hitting games), and competitive play scenarios. Participants performed the 20-m shuttle run test to determine maximal heart rate (HR) during preliminary testing. Before, after, and 30-minute post Cardio tennis session, HR, blood pressure (BP), rate pressure product (RPP), and capillary blood lactate and glucose were determined. Furthermore, HR and pedometer-derived step counts were measured throughout, while the session was filmed and coded for technical skill. After the session, ratings of perceived exertion, enjoyment, and challenge were obtained. Heart rate, systolic BP, and RPP were significantly increased by Cardio tennis (p ≤ 0.05), though returned to pre-exercise levels after 30 minutes (p > 0.05). Heart rate and BP did not differ between groups pre- or 30-minute postexercise (p > 0.05); however, these were lower in younger males during and higher in younger females postsession (p ≤ 0.05). Lactate and glucose concentrations were increased in all groups (p ≤ 0.05), with lactate being highest in male groups (p ≤ 0.05), without differences in glucose between groups (p > 0.05). Stroke and step counts were not different between groups (p > 0.05). Ratings of perceived exertion and perceived challenge were lowest in the younger male group compared with all other groups (p ≤ 0.05). Cardio tennis presents as an effective stimulus to invoke sufficient cardiovascular and metabolic load to benefit health and fitness, though age- and sex

  2. Deep transverse friction massage for treating lateral elbow or lateral knee tendinitis.

    PubMed

    Loew, Laurianne M; Brosseau, Lucie; Tugwell, Peter; Wells, George A; Welch, Vivian; Shea, Beverley; Poitras, Stephane; De Angelis, Gino; Rahman, Prinon

    2014-11-08

    Background Deep transverse friction massage, one of several physical therapy interventions suggested for the management of tendinitis pain, was first demonstrated in the 1930s by Dr James Cyriax, a renowned orthopedic surgeon in England. Its goal is to prevent abnormal fibrous adhesions and abnormal scarring. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2001.Objectives To assess the benefits and harms of deep transverse friction massage for treating lateral elbow or lateral knee tendinitis.Search methods We searched the following electronic databases: the specialized central registry of the Cochrane Field of Physical and Related Therapies,the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL),MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Clinicaltrials.gov, and the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro), up until July 2014. The reference lists of these trials were consulted for additional studies.Selection criteria All randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and controlled clinical trials (CCTs) comparing deep transverse friction massage with control or other active interventions for study participants with two eligible types of tendinitis (ie, extensor carpi radialis tendinitis (lateral elbow tendinitis, tennis elbow or lateral epicondylitis or lateralis epicondylitis humeri) and iliotibial band friction syndrome (lateral knee tendinitis)) were selected. Only studies published in English and French languages were included.Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed the studies on the basis of inclusion and exclusion criteria. Results of individual trials were extracted from the included study using extraction forms prepared by two independent review authors before the review was begun.Data were cross-checked by a third review author. Risk of bias of the included studies was assessed using the "Risk of bias"tool of The Cochrane Collaboration. A pooled analysis was performed using

  3. Arm Care. Relief and Prevention for Shoulder Tendonitis, Tennis Elbow, Bursitis and Wrist Sprain in Athletics and Other Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nirschl, Robert P.

    The book provides a practical and meaningful treatment program for athletes involved in sports which injure the arm or shoulder to a high degree, such as tennis, baseball, swimming, raquetball, pole vaulting, javelin throwing, and weight training. The book's chapters present information on: (1) symptoms of injury; (2) the anatomy of injury; (3)…

  4. Platelet-Rich Plasma Injection With Percutaneous Needling for Recalcitrant Lateral Epicondylitis: Comparison of Tenotomy and Fenestration Techniques.

    PubMed

    Gaspar, Michael P; Motto, Michael A; Lewis, Sarah; Jacoby, Sidney M; Culp, Randall W; Lee Osterman, A; Kane, Patrick M

    2017-12-01

    Recalcitrant lateral epicondylitis (LE) is a common debilitating condition, with numerous treatment options of varying success. An injection of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has been shown to improve LE, although it is unclear whether the method of needling used in conjunction with a PRP injection is of clinical importance. To determine whether percutaneous needle tenotomy is superior to percutaneous needle fenestration when each is combined with a PRP injection for the treatment of recalcitrant LE. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. A total of 93 patients with recalcitrant LE were treated with a PRP injection and percutaneous needle fenestration (n = 45) or percutaneous needle tenotomy (n = 48) over a 5-year study interval. Preoperative patient data, including visual analog scale for pain (VAS-P), Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (QuickDASH), and Patient-Rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation (PRTEE) scores and grip strength, were obtained from a chart review and compared with postoperative values obtained prospectively. Secondary outcomes included the incidence of complications, need for additional interventions, return to work, and patient satisfaction. At a mean follow-up of 40 months, significant improvements in VAS-P (mean, -6.1; 95% CI, -6.8 to -5.5; P < .0001), QuickDASH (mean, -46; 95% CI, -52 to -40; P < .0001), and PRTEE (mean, -57; 95% CI, -64 to -50; P < .0001) scores and grip strength (mean, +6.1 kg; 95% CI, 4.9 to 7.3; P < .0001) were observed across the entire study cohort, with no significant differences noted between the fenestration and tenotomy groups. Nine of 45 patients (22%) underwent additional procedures to treat recurrent symptoms in the fenestration group compared with 5 of 48 patients (10%) in the tenotomy group ( P = .05). No complications occurred in any patients, and no patients expressed dissatisfaction with their treatment course. A PRP injection with concomitant percutaneous needling is an effective treatment for recalcitrant

  5. Expectancy effects in tennis: the impact of opponents' pre-match non-verbal behaviour on male tennis players.

    PubMed

    Buscombe, Richard; Greenlees, Iain; Holder, Tim; Thelwell, Richard; Rimmer, Matt

    2006-12-01

    In this study, we examined the impact of a male opponent's pre-match body language and clothing (general vs. sports-specific) on how his performances were judged by an observer. Forty male tennis players viewed videos of a male target tennis player warming up and then observed playing footage of the target. Each participant viewed the target player warming up displaying one of four combinations of body language and clothing (positive body language/tennis-specific clothing; positive body language/general sportswear; negative body language/tennis-specific clothing; negative body language/general sportswear). Participants rated the performance of the tennis player and gave their perceptions of the likely outcome of a tennis match with the target player. Analyses of variance indicated that clothing and body language had an interactive effect on both outcome expectations and ratings of performance. The findings support the contention that the initial impressions athletes form of their opponents can influence the way in which they judge the performances of opponents and their perceived likelihood of success against the same opponents.

  6. Physiological responses and match characteristics in professional tennis players during a one-hour simulated tennis match

    PubMed Central

    Şenel, Ömer; Arslan, Erşan; Can, Sema

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of serve and return game situations on physiological responses and match characteristics in professional male tennis players during one hour-long simulated singles tennis matches. Ten internationally ranked tennis players (age 22.2 ± 2.8 years; body height 180.7 ± 4.4 cm; body mass 75.9 ± 8.9 kg) participated in this study. Their physiological responses were measured using two portable analyzers during indoor hard court matches. Ratings of perceived exertion were also determined at the end of the game. The variables describing the characteristics of the matches determined from video recordings were: (a) duration of rallies; (b) rest time; (c) work-to-rest ratio; (d) effective playing time; and (d) strokes per rally. Significant differences (p<0.05) were found between serving and returning conditions in an hour-long simulated singles tennis match in terms of oxygen uptake, a heart rate, ratings of perceived exertion, pulmonary ventilation, respiration frequency and a respiratory gas exchange ratio. In addition, both the heart rate and ratings of perceived exertion responses were moderately correlated with the duration of rallies and strokes per rally (r = 0.60 to 0.26; p<0.05). Taken together, these results indicate that the serve game situation has a significant effect on the physiological response in an hour-long simulated tennis match between professional male tennis players. These findings might be used for the physiological adaptations required for tennis-specific aerobic endurance. PMID:28149371

  7. Elbow replacement

    MedlinePlus

    ... arthroplasty Patient Instructions Elbow replacement - discharge Surgical wound care - open Images Elbow prosthesis References Cohen MS, Chen NC. Total elbow arthroplasty. In: Wolfe SW, Hotchkiss RN, Pederson ...

  8. A kinematic comparison of successful and unsuccessful tennis serves across the elite development pathway.

    PubMed

    Whiteside, David; Elliott, Bruce; Lay, Brendan; Reid, Machar

    2013-08-01

    While velocity generation is an obvious prerequisite to proficient tennis serve performance, it is also the only stroke where players are obliged to negotiate a unique target constraint. Therefore, the dearth of research attending to the accuracy component of the serve is surprising. This study compared the body, racquet and ball kinematics characterising successful serves and service faults, missed into the net, in two groups of elite junior female players and one professional female tennis player. Three-dimensional body, racquet and ball kinematics were recorded using a 22-camera VICON motion analysis system. There were no differences in body kinematics between successful serves and service faults, suggesting that service faults cannot be attributed to a single source of biomechanical error. However, service faults missing into the net are characterized by projection angles significantly further below the horizontal, implying that consistency in this end-point parameter is critical to successful performance. Regulation of this parameter appears dependent on compensatory adjustments in the distal elbow and wrist joints immediately prior to impact and also perceptual feedback. Accordingly, coordination of the distal degrees of freedom and a refined perception-action coupling appear more important to success than any isolated mechanical component of the service action. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Hydration and temperature in tennis - a practical review.

    PubMed

    Kovacs, Mark S

    2006-03-01

    Competitive tennis is typically played in warm and hot environments. Because hypohydration will impair tennis performance and increases the risk of heat injury, consumption of appropriate fluid levels is necessary to prevent dehydration and enhance performance. The majority of research in this area has focused on continuous aerobic activity - unlike tennis, which has average points lasting less than ten seconds with rest periods dispersed between each work period. For this reason, hydration and temperature regulation methods need to be specific to the activity. Tennis players can sweat more than 2.5 L·h(-1) and replace fluids at a slower rate during matches than in practice. Latter stages of matches and tournaments are when tennis players are more susceptible to temperature and hydration related problems. Sodium (Na(+)) depletion, not potassium (K(+)), is a key electrolyte in tennis related muscle cramps. However, psychological and competitive factors also contribute. CHO drinks have been shown to promote fluid absorption to a greater degree than water alone, but no performance benefits have been shown in tennis players in short matches. It is advisable to consume a CHO beverage if practice or matches are scheduled longer than 90-120 minutes. Key PointsAlthough substantial research has been performed on temperature and hydration concerns in aerobic activities, there is little information with regard to tennis performance and safetyTennis athletes should be on an individualized hydration schedule, consuming greater than 200ml of fluid every changeover (approximately 15 minutes).Optimum hydration and temperature regulation will reduce the chance of tennis related muscle cramps and performance decrements.

  10. Quantitative relation between server motion and receiver anticipation in tennis: implications of responses to computer-simulated motions.

    PubMed

    Ida, Hirofumi; Fukuhara, Kazunobu; Sawada, Misako; Ishii, Motonobu

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the quantitative relationships between the server's motion and the receiver's anticipation using a computer graphic animation of tennis serves. The test motions were determined by capturing the motion of a model player and estimating the computational perturbations caused by modulating the rotation of the player's elbow and forearm joints. Eight experienced and eight novice players rated their anticipation of the speed, direction, and spin of the ball on a visual analogue scale. The experienced players significantly altered some of their anticipatory judgment depending on the percentage of both the forearm and elbow modulations, while the novice players indicated no significant changes. Multiple regression analyses, including that of the racket's kinematic parameters immediately before racket-ball impact as independent variables, showed that the experienced players demonstrated a higher coefficient of determination than the novice players in their anticipatory judgment of the ball direction. The results have implications on the understanding of the functional relation between a player's motion and the opponent's anticipatory judgment during real play.

  11. Effect of simultaneous stretching of the wrist and finger extensors for lateral epicondylitis: a gross anatomical study of the tendinous origins of the extensor carpi radialis brevis and extensor digitorum communis.

    PubMed

    Shirato, Rikiya; Wada, Takuro; Aoki, Mitsuhiro; Iba, Kousuke; Kanaya, Kohei; Fujimiya, Mineko; Yamashita, Toshihiko

    2015-11-01

    Pulling the wrist into flexion with the elbow in extension and forearm in pronation has been used as the stretching technique of wrist extensors for lateral epicondylitis. Simultaneous stretching of the fingers in addition to the wrist flexion has also been applied. However, the mechanism of this simultaneous stretching has not been clarified. This study is designed to clarify the mechanism underlying this simultaneous stretching technique based on the anatomical features of the origins of the extensor carpi radialis brevis (ECRB) and extensor digitorum communis (EDC). Thirty-nine arms from formalin-embalmed Japanese human specimens were dissected. The features of the origins of the ECRB and EDC were macroscopically observed, and the locations of each origin on the lateral epicondyle were measured. The ECRB had a long and wide, purely tendinous origin which originated from the anterior slope of the lateral epicondyle. The tendinous origin of the index finger of the EDC (EDC-IF) arose from the posterior aspect of the ECRB tendinous origin, with a coexisting muscular portion observed at the level of the proximal forearm. The middle finger of the EDC (EDC-MF) had a short tendinous origin with an associated muscular portion and originated proximo-laterally to the origin of the ECRB on the lateral epicondyle. In addition, the muscular origin of the EDC-MF arose on the superficial and posterior aspect of the ECRB tendinous origin. In contrast, the ring and little fingers of the EDC originated from the tendinous septum of the extensor digiti minimi and extensor carpi ulnaris, and had no connection with the ECRB tendinous origin. On the basis of our anatomical findings, simultaneous stretching of the wrist extensors by wrist, index and middle fingers flexion could provide stretching force to both the tendinous origins of the ECRB and EDC through the EDC-IF and EDC-MF.

  12. 21 CFR 888.3170 - Elbow joint radial (hemi-elbow) polymer prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Elbow joint radial (hemi-elbow) polymer prosthesis. 888.3170 Section 888.3170 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... (hemi-elbow) polymer prosthesis. (a) Identification. An elbow joint radial (hemi-elbow) polymer...

  13. 21 CFR 888.3170 - Elbow joint radial (hemi-elbow) polymer prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Elbow joint radial (hemi-elbow) polymer prosthesis. 888.3170 Section 888.3170 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... (hemi-elbow) polymer prosthesis. (a) Identification. An elbow joint radial (hemi-elbow) polymer...

  14. 21 CFR 888.3170 - Elbow joint radial (hemi-elbow) polymer prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Elbow joint radial (hemi-elbow) polymer prosthesis. 888.3170 Section 888.3170 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... (hemi-elbow) polymer prosthesis. (a) Identification. An elbow joint radial (hemi-elbow) polymer...

  15. 21 CFR 888.3170 - Elbow joint radial (hemi-elbow) polymer prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Elbow joint radial (hemi-elbow) polymer prosthesis. 888.3170 Section 888.3170 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... (hemi-elbow) polymer prosthesis. (a) Identification. An elbow joint radial (hemi-elbow) polymer...

  16. 21 CFR 888.3170 - Elbow joint radial (hemi-elbow) polymer prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Elbow joint radial (hemi-elbow) polymer prosthesis. 888.3170 Section 888.3170 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... (hemi-elbow) polymer prosthesis. (a) Identification. An elbow joint radial (hemi-elbow) polymer...

  17. Elbow pain

    MedlinePlus

    Pain - elbow ... Elbow pain can be caused by many problems. A common cause in adults is tendinitis . This is inflammation and ... a partial dislocation ). Other common causes of elbow pain are: Bursitis -- inflammation of a fluid-filled cushion ...

  18. Nutrition for Tennis: Practical Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Ranchordas, Mayur K.; Rogersion, David; Ruddock, Alan; Killer, Sophie C.; Winter, Edward M.

    2013-01-01

    Tennis is a pan-global sport that is played year-round in both hemispheres. This places notable demands on the physical and psychological preparation of players and included in these demands are nutritional and fluid requirements both of training and match- play. Thus, the purpose of this article is to review nutritional recommendations for tennis. Notably, tennis players do not excel in any particular physiological or anthropometric characteristic but are well adapted in all areas which is probably a result of the varied nature of the training demands of tennis match play. Energy expenditures of 30.9 ± 5.5 and 45.3 ± 7.3 kJ·min-1 have been reported in women and men players respectively regardless of court surface. Tennis players should follow a habitually high carbohydrate diet of between 6-10 g·kg-1·d-1 to ensure adequate glycogen stores, with women generally requiring slightly less than men. Protein intake guidelines for tennis players training at a high intensity and duration on a daily basis should be ~1.6 g·kg-1·d-1 and dietary fat intake should not exceed 2 g·kg-1·d-1. Caffeine in doses of 3 mg·kg-1 provides ergogenic benefit when taken before and/or during tennis match play. Depending on environmental conditions, sweat rates of 0.5 to and over 5 L·hr-1 and sodium losses of 0.5 - 1.8 g have been recorded in men and women players. 200 mL of fluid containing electrolytes should be consumed every change-over in mild to moderate temperatures of < 27°C but in temperatures greater than 27°C players should aim for ≤ 400 mL. 30-60 g·hr-1 of carbohydrate should be ingested when match play exceeds 2 hours. Key Points Tennis players should follow a habitually high carbohydrate diet of between 6-10 g·kg-1 to ensure adequate glycogen stores, with women generally requiring slightly less than men. Protein intake guidelines for tennis players training at a high intensity and duration on a daily basis should be ~1.6 g·kg-1·d-1. Dietary fat intake should

  19. Does ovulation affect performance in tennis players?

    PubMed

    Otaka, Machiko; Chen, Shu-Man; Zhu, Yong; Tsai, Yung-Shen; Tseng, Ching-Yu; Fogt, Donovan L; Lim, Boon-Hooi; Huang, Chih-Yang; Kuo, Chia-Hua

    2018-01-01

    Scientific data on the performance of collegiate female tennis players during the menstrual phases are scarce. Double-blind, counter-balanced, crossover trials were conducted to examine whether tennis performance was affected during menstruation, with and without dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) supplementation. Ten Division 1 collegiate tennis players (aged 18-22 years) were evenly assigned into placebo-supplemented and DHEA-supplemented (25 mg/day) trials. Treatments were exchanged among the participants after a 28-day washout. Tennis serve performance was assessed on the first day of menstrual bleeding (day 0/28) and on days 7, 14 and 21. Mood state was unaltered during the menstrual cycles in both trials. The lowest tennis serve performance score (speed times accuracy) occurred on day 14 (P=0.06 vs day 0; P=0.01 vs day 21) in both placebo and DHEA trials. Decreased performance on day 14 was explained by decreased accuracy (P=0.03 vs day 0/28; P=0.01 vs day 21), but not velocity itself. Isometric hip strength, but not quadriceps strength, was moderately lower on day 14 (P=0.08). Increasing plasma DHEA-S (by ~65%) during the DHEA-supplemented trial had no effects on mood state, sleep quality or tennis serve performance. We have shown that menses does not affect serve performance of collegiate tennis players. However, the observed decrement in the accuracy of serve speed near ovulation warrants further investigation.

  20. Differences in energy capacities between tennis players and runners.

    PubMed

    Novak, Dario; Vucetić, Vlatko; Zugaj, Sanja

    2013-05-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to determine differences between elite athletes and tennis players in order to provide a clearer picture regarding the energy demands in modern tennis. Forty-eight (48) athletes and 24 tennis players from Croatian national leagues were compared in morphological and physiological parameters of an all-out incremental treadmill test with gas exchange measurements. Tennis players' HRmax (192.96+/-7.75 bpm) shows values that are most different to 400-meters sprinters (200.13+/-6.95 bpm). Maximum running speed of tennis players on the treadmill (vmax) is no different with the speed achieved by sprinters, while there are significant differences among other athletes. Values in running speed at anaerobic threshold (vAnT) show no statistically significant difference with the values for athlete sprinters and 400-m sprinters. Values of RvO2max for tennis players indicate significant similarities with athlete sprinters and 400-m sprinters while the values of RvO2AnT are nearly identical with the values for sprinters and show no statistically significant differences (p<0.05). The results indicate that values achieved by tennis players approximate most different those of the middle and long distance runners. This singles out the possible importance of the anaerobic capacity and the high level of sprint endurance in tennis players. Knowing these characteristics is the basis for planning and implementing training systems that will enable the increase and optimal usage of energy capacities of tennis players in possibly improving sports results.

  1. The Physiological Demands of Table Tennis: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Kondrič, Miran; Zagatto, Alessandro Moura; Sekulić, Damir

    2013-01-01

    Although table tennis has a tradition lasting more than 100 years, relatively little is known about players’ physiological requirements – especially during competition. In this review we discuss research studies that have led to our current understanding of how the body functions during table tennis training and competition and how this is altered by training. Match and practice analysis of the table tennis game indicates that during intense practice and competition it is predominantly the anaerobic alactic system that is called into play, while the endurance system is relied on to recovery the anaerobic stores used during such effort. It is thus important for coaches to keep in mind that, while the anaerobic alactic system is the most energetic system used during periods of exertion in a table tennis game, a strong capacity for endurance is what helps a player recover quicker for the following match and the next day of competition. This paper provides a review of specific studies that relate to competitive table tennis, and highlights the need for training and research programs tailored to table tennis. Key Points Match and practice analysis of the table tennis game indicates that during intense practice and competition it is predominantly the anaerobic alactic system that is called into play. The endurance system is relied on to recovery the anaerobic stores used during hard practice and competition effort. It is important for coaches to keep in mind that, while the anaerobic alactic system is the most energetic system used during periods of exertion in a table tennis game, a strong capacity for endurance is what helps a player recover quicker for the following match and the next day of competition. PMID:24149139

  2. Ultrasound-Guided Elbow Procedures.

    PubMed

    Sussman, Walter I; Williams, Christopher J; Mautner, Ken

    2016-08-01

    High-resolution ultrasonography can help clinicians visualize key anatomic structures of the elbow and guide periarticular and intra-articular injections. Historically, most procedures done around the elbow have been done using landmark guidance, and few studies have reported the accuracy of ultrasonography-guided injections in the elbow region. This article reviews common musculoskeletal disorders about the elbow that can be evaluated with ultrasonography, reviews the literature on ultrasonography-guided injections of the elbow region, and describes the senior author's preferred approach for the most commonly performed elbow region injections. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Anatomy of the collateral ligaments of the feline elbow joint: functional implications.

    PubMed

    Engelke, E; Pfarrer, C; Waibl, H

    2011-04-01

    Cats show a higher capability to supinate their forearms than dogs. This suggests a special arrangement of the collateral ligaments of the feline elbow joint. Therefore, the course of the ligaments was examined in 13 adult cats. The size of the ligaments was measured, and effects of passive joint movements were studied. Ligaments of five additional cats were examined histologically. The lateral collateral ligament (LCL) had a superficial and deep part, both originating from the humerus. The free humeral portion of the LCL was short and contained fibrous cartilage. Fibre bundles of the deep part inserted into the annular ligament, while the remaining deep fibres and the superficial part inserted with a long antebrachial portion on the radius. The medial collateral ligament (MCL) originated from the humeral epicondyle and divided into cranial and caudal parts. The caudal part inserted medioproximally on the ulna, while the cranial part attached primarily with a long thin part to the caudal aspect of the radius. During supination, the MCL loosened thus allowing medial widening of the joint space, up to 2 mm. A specific feature of the feline elbow is the long thin part of the MCL. Its course through a special furrow distal to the medial coronoid causes the tightening of the feline MCL during pronation. Apart from that, the feline collateral ligaments combine the features of both human and canine cubital anatomy. This explains the range of supination in cats, which is intermediate between humans and dogs. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Carbohydrate intake and tennis: are there benefits?

    PubMed Central

    Kovacs, M S

    2006-01-01

    Carbohydrate supplementation in prolonged aerobic exercise has been shown to be effective in improving performance and deferring fatigue. However, there is confounding evidence with regard to carbohydrate supplementation and tennis performance, which may be due to the limited number of studies on this topic. This evidence based review, using database searches of Medline and SPORTDiscus, summarises the limited relevant literature to determine if carbohydrate supplementation benefits tennis performance, and, if so, the appropriate amounts and timing. Although more research is required, it appears that it may be beneficial in tennis sessions lasting more than 90 minutes. PMID:16632561

  5. Brain Jogging Training to Improve Motivation and Learning Result of Tennis Skills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tafaqur, M.; Komarudin; Mulyana; Saputra, M. Y.

    2017-03-01

    This research is aimed to determine the effect of brain jogging towards improvement of motivation and learning result of tennis skills. The method used in this research is experimental method. The population of this research is 15 tennis athletes of Core Siliwangi Bandung Tennis Club. The sampling technique used in this research is purposive sampling technique. Sample of this research is the 10 tennis athletes of Core Siliwangi Bandung Tennis Club. Design used for this research is pretest-posttest group design. Data analysis technique used in this research is by doing Instrument T-test to measure motivation using The Sport Motivation Scale questionnaire (SMS-28) and Instrument to measure learning result of tennis skill by using tennis skills test, which include: (1) forehand test, (2) backhand test, and (3) service placement test. The result of this research showed that brain jogging significantly impact the improvement of motivation and learning result of tennis skills.

  6. Intrateam Communication and Performance in Doubles Tennis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lausic, Domagoj; Tennebaum, Gershon; Eccles, David; Jeong, Allan; Johnson, Tristan

    2009-01-01

    Verbal and nonverbal communication is a critical mediator of performance in team sports and yet there is little extant research in sports that involves direct measures of communication. Our study explored communication within NCAA Division I female tennis doubles teams. Video and audio recordings of players during doubles tennis matches captured…

  7. The development of healthy tennis clubs in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Pluim, Babette M; Earland, Jane; Pluim, Nicole E

    2014-06-01

    To explore the factors that facilitate or hinder the development of healthy tennis clubs in the Netherlands and to identify suitable interventions that would help clubs to reach 'healthy club' status. A maximum variation, purposive sampling strategy was used to identify and recruit board members (n=16) from 10 Dutch tennis clubs. Data were collected using in-depth interviews based on an interview guide. The interviews explored what steps the clubs had taken to create a healthy tennis club, and what the respondents perceived to be the barriers to reaching healthy club status. The data were analysed using thematic content analysis. An ecological model was used to frame the interpretation of the themes and guide the development of the interventions. Four emerging themes were identified: provision of healthy foods, injury prevention and health services, social health and safety around the club. The main facilitators were found to be support from club management, having appropriate policies in place and having appointed officers. The main barriers were identified as a lack of policy templates, inadequate knowledge of coaches on injury prevention and injury management and fragmented access to relevant information. Guided by an ecological model, this study demonstrates the many factors that influence tennis clubs and the individual members of a healthy tennis club. Using this model, a multilevel intervention framework has been created that could be used by the Royal Netherlands Lawn Tennis Association to increase the number of healthy tennis clubs in the Netherlands.

  8. On the Gender Effects of Handedness in Professional Tennis

    PubMed Central

    Breznik, Kristijan

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the effects of the gender variable in relation to other player and match characteristics on the advantage possessed by left-handed professional tennis players over their right-handed rivals. The data include 16 732 male tennis players and 16 432 female tennis players who played 438 937 and 415 346 matches, respectively, in the period from 1968 to the end of 2011. The results revealed that the advantage of left-handed professional tennis players is higher in males compared to females. The inverse impact of player and match quality on the left- handers’ advantage was clearly confirmed. On the contrary, it seems that the type of court surface does not directly imply this advantage. To obtain an overview on the individual level, directed and weighted networks of tennis matches in both gender categories were constructed. Applying network analytic methods and the PageRank algorithm, the best left and right-handed players in the Open Era of tennis were identified. The top three ranked left-handed players in the male and female categories were found to be far more consistent in their ranks achieved against left and right-handed opponents compared to their right-handed counterparts. Key Points The advantage of left-handed professional tennis players over their right-handed opponents is higher in males compared to females. The quality of player and match is inversely proportional to the advantage of left-handers against their right-handed counterparts. On the contrary, it seems that the type of court surface does not directly imply this advantage. When the tennis talent appears in left-handers it is likely to be an outstanding one, particularly in the female category. PMID:24149815

  9. Pulled elbow in children.

    PubMed

    Yamanaka, Syunsuke; Goldman, Ran D

    2018-06-01

    Question Our practice is seeing children with relatively minor injuries to their elbows, with a history of "swinging" them when their hands are being held to cross the road. Nothing is usually found on a physical examination. I know that this is likely a "pulled elbow." Can we manage this in the clinic setting rather than sending the family to the emergency department? What would be the best course of action in the clinic setting? Answer Pulled elbow, also called nursemaid's elbow , is a radial head subluxation caused by axial traction or a sudden pull of the extended pronated arm, and it is a very common phenomenon. The practice of swinging children while holding their hands should be abandoned. In the case of pulled elbow, the child usually avoids moving the affected arm, holding it close to his or her body, without considerable pain, and no obvious swelling or deformity can be seen. While a fracture should be excluded, pulled elbow can usually be identified based on this presentation. The reduction procedure can easily be done in the office setting, with an 80% success rate and no complications. The hyperpronation maneuver (holding the elbow at 90° and then firmly pronating the wrist) to reduce pulled elbow has been found to be better than a supination-flexion maneuver (holding the elbow at 90° with one hand, supinating and flexing the elbow rapidly with the other) and should be exercised first. When 2 trials of reduction are unsuccessful, the child's arm should be splinted and the family should be sent for further evaluation. Copyright© the College of Family Physicians of Canada.

  10. Elbow Synovial Fold Syndrome

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    inflammation are not present. In the first reported cases of this syndrome, diagnosis was made by arthroscopy after the patient had failed all non...osteoarthritis, and snapping triceps tendon. Lateral epicondylitis appears to be the leading mis-diagnosis before proper imaging or arthroscopy is

  11. Anatomical association between wrist extensor musculature and topographical pain sensitivity maps of the elbow area.

    PubMed

    Prados-Frutos, Juan Carlos; Ruiz-Ruiz, Beatriz; De-la-Llave-Rincón, Ana Isabel; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Madeleine, Pascal; Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César

    2012-06-01

    High-density topographical sensitivity maps have been developed to visualize nonuniformity deep tissue pain sensitivity in, for example, lateral epicondylitis (LE). The aim of this cadaveric study was to determine the anatomical association between the topographical sensitivity maps over the elbow area and wrist extensor musculature. A topographical pressure sensitivity map consisting of 12 points forming a 3 × 4 matrix: 4 points in the superior part, 4 points in the middle, and 4 points in the lower part around the lateral epicondyle was marker on a 50-year embalmed cadaver. Color marker pins were inserted into each point. Pins were removed during the process of dissection, but the small holes created by their removal assured accurate relocation. Progressive dissection revealed that points 1 to 4 (superior line) were placed over the musculotendinous junction and belly of the extensor carpi radialis brevis (ECRB) muscle, points 6 to 8 (middle line) were placed over the musculotendinous junction and belly of the extensor digitorum communis muscle, and points 9 to 12 (inferior line) were located over the musculotendinous junction and belly of the extensor carpi ulnaris muscle. It was also observed that the superficial branch of the radial nerve runs between the belly of the ECRB and extensor digitorum communis muscles. This study confirmed that anatomical location previously assumed supporting the important wrist extensor muscles, particularly the ECRB, in patients with LE as depicted by pressure pain sensitivity maps. This study also suggests a potential role of the superficial branch of the radial nerve in LE. Copyright © 2012 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Recovery interventions and strategies for improved tennis performance

    PubMed Central

    Kovacs, Mark S; Baker, Lindsay B

    2014-01-01

    Improving the recovery capabilities of the tennis athlete is receiving more emphasis in the research communities, and also by practitioners (coaches, physical trainers, tennis performance specialists, physical therapists, etc). The purpose of this article was to review areas of recovery to limit the severity of fatigue and/or speed recovery from fatigue. This review will cover four broad recovery techniques commonly used in tennis with the belief that the interventions may improve athlete recovery and therefore improve adaptation and future performance. The four areas covered are: (1) temperature-based interventions, (2) compressive clothing, (3) electronic interventions and (4) nutritional interventions. PMID:24668374

  13. Professional tennis players' serve: correlation between segmental angular momentums and ball velocity.

    PubMed

    Martin, Caroline; Kulpa, Richard; Delamarche, Paul; Bideau, Benoit

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify the relationships between segmental angular momentum and ball velocity between the following events: ball toss, maximal elbow flexion (MEF), racket lowest point (RLP), maximal shoulder external rotation (MER), and ball impact (BI). Ten tennis players performed serves recorded with a real-time motion capture. Mean angular momentums of the trunk, upper arm, forearm, and the hand-racket were calculated. The anteroposterior axis angular momentum of the trunk was significantly related with ball velocity during the MEF-RLP, RLP-MER, and MER-BI phases. The strongest relationships between the transverse-axis angular momentums and ball velocity followed a proximal-to-distal timing sequence that allows the transfer of angular momentum from the trunk (MEF-RLP and RLP-MER phases) to the upper arm (RLP-MER phase), forearm (RLP-MER and MER-BI phases), and the hand-racket (MER-BI phase). Since sequence is crucial for ball velocity, players should increase angular momentums of the trunk during MEF-MER, upper arm during RLP-MER, forearm during RLP-BI, and the hand-racket during MER-BI.

  14. The application of mechanical diagnosis and therapy in lateral epicondylalgia

    PubMed Central

    Maccio, Joseph R.; Fink, Sarah; Yarznbowicz, Richard; May, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Background lateral epicondylalgia (LE) is a musculoskeletal diagnosis that causes pain and dysfunction in the lateral aspect of the elbow. Mechanical diagnosis and therapy (MDT) is an orthopaedic classification and treatment system based on mechanical and symptomatic response to repeated and sustained end-range movement. There has been no investigation of the association between MDT and patients diagnosed with LE. Case description this report presents three patients matching the currently accepted diagnostic criteria for LE, two with a diagnosis of lateral epicondylitis (tennis elbow) from a medical doctor. These patients were classified and treated by a diplomat of MDT and two third-year doctoral students of physical therapy using MDT. Outcomes short- and long-term (one year) outcomes were excellent, demonstrating rapid abolishment of symptoms and return to prior levels of function in 3–6 visits between 11–59 days. Patients demonstrated the ability to prevent and manage reoccurrence of symptoms independently without seeking further health care. Discussion this case series raises questions about whether or not the pathologies traditionally associated with the aetiology of LE are actually at fault. Moreover, it raises questions about the utility of special tests typically utilized to identify those structures. The series provides preliminary evidence that MDT may be capable of providing effective short- and long-term outcomes in the management of LE. Level of Evidence: 4 PMID:27559286

  15. Epidemiological analysis of doping offences in the professional tennis circuit

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Tennis is a professional sport under a strict anti-doping control. However, since the first violation of the code, the positive cases have not been statistically studied. The objective of this study was to analyze doping offences in the international professional tennis circuit. Methods All offences to the Doping Code committed by tennis players during 2003-2009 were collected from the ITF official webpage, registered and analyzed. Results An average of 1905.7 (±174.5) samples was obtained per year. Fifty-two doping offences were reported and the overall incidence of positive doping samples accounted for 0.38% and 7.4 (±4.1) cases/year. Male players showed higher incidence doping offences than females (p = 0.0004). The incidence in wheelchair players was higher than in non-handicapped subjects (p = 0.0001) Banned substance distribution showed: stimulants 32.69%, cannabis 23.07%; anabolic 11.53%, diuretics and masking agents 11.53, β2-agonists 9.61%; corticosteroids 3.84%, others 3.84%. The overall incidence of 'social drugs' (cocaine, cannabis) was 36.53%. All EPO and blood samples were normal, while the incidence of 'out-of-competition' offences was 0.12%. The lower incidence of doping was found in Grand Slams tournaments. Conclusions The incidence of positive doping samples among professional tennis players is quite low supporting the assumption that there is no evidence of systematic doping in Tennis. "Social drugs" misuse constitutes the main problem of doping in tennis. Male and wheelchair tennis players showed higher risk of infringing the doping code than their females and non-handicapped counterparts. Findings of this study should help to determine the direction of the ongoing strategy in the fight against doping in Tennis. PMID:21159201

  16. iTTVis: Interactive Visualization of Table Tennis Data.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yingcai; Lan, Ji; Shu, Xinhuan; Ji, Chenyang; Zhao, Kejian; Wang, Jiachen; Zhang, Hui

    2018-01-01

    The rapid development of information technology paved the way for the recording of fine-grained data, such as stroke techniques and stroke placements, during a table tennis match. This data recording creates opportunities to analyze and evaluate matches from new perspectives. Nevertheless, the increasingly complex data poses a significant challenge to make sense of and gain insights into. Analysts usually employ tedious and cumbersome methods which are limited to watching videos and reading statistical tables. However, existing sports visualization methods cannot be applied to visualizing table tennis competitions due to different competition rules and particular data attributes. In this work, we collaborate with data analysts to understand and characterize the sophisticated domain problem of analysis of table tennis data. We propose iTTVis, a novel interactive table tennis visualization system, which to our knowledge, is the first visual analysis system for analyzing and exploring table tennis data. iTTVis provides a holistic visualization of an entire match from three main perspectives, namely, time-oriented, statistical, and tactical analyses. The proposed system with several well-coordinated views not only supports correlation identification through statistics and pattern detection of tactics with a score timeline but also allows cross analysis to gain insights. Data analysts have obtained several new insights by using iTTVis. The effectiveness and usability of the proposed system are demonstrated with four case studies.

  17. Fitness testing of tennis players: How valuable is it?

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Fernandez, Jaime; Ulbricht, Alexander; Ferrauti, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    In tennis, sport-specific technical skills are predominant factors, although a complex profile of physical performance factors is also required. The fitness test batteries assist in examining tennis players’ capabilities for performance at different levels in the laboratory as well as in the field, in the junior or elite level. While laboratory tests can be, and are, used to evaluate basic performance characteristics of athletes in most individual sports, in a more specific approach, field-based methods are better suited to the demands of complex intermittent sports like tennis. A regular test battery performed at different periods of the year allows to obtain an individual's performance profile, as well as the ability to prescribe individual training interventions. Thus, the aim of the present review was to describe and evaluate the different physical tests recommended and used by practitioners, sports scientists and institutions (national tennis federations). PMID:24668375

  18. Multiple forearm robotic elbow configuration

    DOEpatents

    Fisher, John J.

    1990-01-01

    A dual forearmed robotic elbow configuration comprises a main arm having a double elbow from which two coplanar forearms depend, two actuators carried in the double elbow for moving the forearms, and separate, independent end effectors, operated by a cable carried from the main arm through the elbow, is attached to the distal end of each forearm. Coiling the cables around the actuators prevents bending or kinking when the forearms are rotated 360 degrees. The end effectors can have similar or different capabilities. Actuator cannisters within the dual elbow are modular for rapid replacement or maintenance. Coarse and fine resolver transducers within the actuators provide accurate position referencing information.

  19. Expert-novice differences in cognitive and execution skills during tennis competition.

    PubMed

    Del Villar, Fernando; García González, Luis; Iglesias, Damián; Perla Moreno, M; Cervelló, Eduardo M

    2007-04-01

    This study deals with decision and execution behavior of tennis players during competition. The study is based on the expert-novice paradigm and aims to identify differences between both groups in the decision-making and execution variables in serve and shot actions in tennis. Six expert players (elite Spanish tennis players) and six novice players (grade school tennis players) took part in this study. To carry out this study, the observation protocol defined by McPherson and Thomas in 1989, in which control, decision-making and execution variables were included, was used, where it was applied to the performance of the tennis player in a real match situation. In the analysis, significant differences between experts and novices in decision-making and execution variables are found wherein it can be observed that experts display a greater ability to make the appropriate decisions, selecting the most tactical responses to put pressure on the opponent. Expert tennis players were also able to carry out forceful executions to their opponent with greater efficiency, making the opponent's response to a large extent more difficult. These findings are in accordance with those of McPherson and colleagues.

  20. Illness data from the US Open Tennis Championships From 1994 to 2009.

    PubMed

    Sell, Katie; Hainline, Brian; Yorio, Michael; Kovacs, Mark

    2013-01-01

    To examine the incidence of illness and highlight gender differences in tennis players competing in a major professional tennis tournament over a 16-year period between 1994 and 2009. Descriptive epidemiology study of illness trends in professional tennis players. Archival data from the US Open Tennis Championships. Participants in the US Open Tennis Championships main draw from 1994 to 2009. Illness data collected at the US Open Tennis Championships between 1994 and 2009 were classified using guidelines presented in a sport-specific consensus statement. Each case was categorized according to the medical system effected and impact on play availability during the tournament. Illness rates were determined based on the exposure of an athlete to a match event and were calculated as the ratio of illness cases per 1000 match exposures (ME). The average number of illness cases over the 16-year period analyzed was 58.19 ± 12.02 per year (36.74 per 1000 ME) requiring assistance by the medical staff. Statistical analyses showed a significant fluctuation in illness cases related to the dermatological (DERM), gastrointestinal, renal/urogenital/gynecological, neurological, ophthalmic and otorhinolaryngological (ENT), and infectious medical systems (P < 0.05). The ENT and DERM conditions were the most commonly reported types of illness for both men and women. Numerous medical systems are susceptible to illness in tennis players. Sport-specific factors may influence susceptibility to common illnesses experienced by professional tennis players.

  1. USTC & TBA Guidelines for Tennis Court & Running Track Construction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United States Tennis Court & Track Builders Association.

    Guidelines are presented on tennis court and track and field construction that reflect the latest developments in construction technology, methodology, and practice. Based on contributions from experienced certified tennis court and track builders, material suppliers and design professionals, this manual examines each of the critical areas of…

  2. The Effects of Elbow Bracing on Medial Elbow Joint Space Gapping Associated With Repetitive Throwing in High School Baseball Players

    PubMed Central

    Hattori, Hiroshi; Akasaka, Kiyokazu; Otsudo, Takahiro; Takei, Keiichi; Yamamoto, Mitsuru

    2017-01-01

    Background: Throwing athletes risk medial elbow injury from extreme valgus stress generated across the medial elbow during throwing. Braces have been developed to protect the elbow joint; however, no previous study has investigated the effects of elbow bracing on medial elbow joint space gapping associated with repetitive throwing. Hypothesis/Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of elbow bracing on medial elbow joint space gapping during repetitive throwing. Our hypothesis was that an elbow brace may reduce mechanical stress on the elbow by reducing medial elbow joint space gapping. Study Design: Controlled laboratory study. Methods: Twenty-five high school baseball players participated in this study. Each subject pitched 100 times under 2 conditions: control (without elbow brace) and elbow brace. The ulnohumeral joint space was measured ultrasonically before pitching and after every block of 20 pitches. Measurement of the ulnohumeral joint space was carried out using ultrasound with the forearm hanging by the side. Two-way repeated-measures analysis of variance and post hoc tests were used to compare ulnohumeral joint space with repeated pitching and between the elbow brace and control conditions. Results: In the control condition, ulnohumeral joint space after 60 pitches was significantly greater than that before pitching (P < .01). In contrast, in the elbow brace condition, ulnohumeral joint space was not significantly different after repeated pitching. When comparing these 2 conditions, ulnohumeral joint space in the control condition was significantly greater than that in the elbow brace condition after 60 pitches (P < .01). Conclusion: An elbow brace has the effect of preventing medial elbow joint space gapping with repeated throwing when determined ultrasonically by measuring the ulnohumeral joint space under gravity load. Clinical Relevance: An elbow brace worn during baseball pitching practice may help reduce mechanical stress

  3. The Effects of Elbow Bracing on Medial Elbow Joint Space Gapping Associated With Repetitive Throwing in High School Baseball Players.

    PubMed

    Hattori, Hiroshi; Akasaka, Kiyokazu; Otsudo, Takahiro; Takei, Keiichi; Yamamoto, Mitsuru

    2017-04-01

    Throwing athletes risk medial elbow injury from extreme valgus stress generated across the medial elbow during throwing. Braces have been developed to protect the elbow joint; however, no previous study has investigated the effects of elbow bracing on medial elbow joint space gapping associated with repetitive throwing. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of elbow bracing on medial elbow joint space gapping during repetitive throwing. Our hypothesis was that an elbow brace may reduce mechanical stress on the elbow by reducing medial elbow joint space gapping. Controlled laboratory study. Twenty-five high school baseball players participated in this study. Each subject pitched 100 times under 2 conditions: control (without elbow brace) and elbow brace. The ulnohumeral joint space was measured ultrasonically before pitching and after every block of 20 pitches. Measurement of the ulnohumeral joint space was carried out using ultrasound with the forearm hanging by the side. Two-way repeated-measures analysis of variance and post hoc tests were used to compare ulnohumeral joint space with repeated pitching and between the elbow brace and control conditions. In the control condition, ulnohumeral joint space after 60 pitches was significantly greater than that before pitching ( P < .01). In contrast, in the elbow brace condition, ulnohumeral joint space was not significantly different after repeated pitching. When comparing these 2 conditions, ulnohumeral joint space in the control condition was significantly greater than that in the elbow brace condition after 60 pitches ( P < .01). An elbow brace has the effect of preventing medial elbow joint space gapping with repeated throwing when determined ultrasonically by measuring the ulnohumeral joint space under gravity load. An elbow brace worn during baseball pitching practice may help reduce mechanical stress on the elbow by reducing medial elbow joint space gapping.

  4. Sonographically guided percutaneous needle tenotomy for treatment of common extensor tendinosis in the elbow.

    PubMed

    McShane, John M; Nazarian, Levon N; Harwood, Marc I

    2006-10-01

    Chronic tendinosis of the common extensor tendon of the lateral elbow can be a difficult problem to treat. We report our experience with sonographically guided percutaneous needle tenotomy to relieve pain and improve function in patients with this condition. We performed sonographically guided percutaneous needle tenotomy on 58 consecutive patients who had persistent pain and disability resulting from common extensor tendinosis. Under a local anesthetic and sonographic guidance, a needle was advanced into the common extensor tendon, and the tip of the needle was used to repeatedly fenestrate the tendinotic tissue. Calcifications, if present, were mechanically fragmented, and the adjacent bony surface of the apex and face of the epicondyle were abraded. Finally, the fenestrated tendon was infiltrated with a solution containing corticosteroid mixed with bupivacaine. After the procedure, patients were instructed to perform passive stretches and to undergo physical therapy. During a subsequent telephone interview, patients answered questions about their experience, their functioning level, and their perceptions of procedure outcome. Fifty-five (95%) of 58 patients were contacted by telephone and agreed to participate in the study. Thirty-five (63.6%) of 55 respondents reported excellent outcomes, 16.4% good, 7.3% fair, and 12.7% poor. The average follow-up time from the date of the procedure to the date of the interview was 28 months (range, 17-44 months). No adverse events were reported; 85.5% stated that they would refer a friend or close relative for the procedure. Sonographically guided percutaneous needle tenotomy for lateral elbow tendinosis is a safe, effective, and viable alternative for patients in whom all other nonsurgical treatments failed.

  5. The effect of platelet-rich plasma on clinical outcomes in lateral epicondylitis.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Zafar; Brooks, Roger; Kang, Sertaz-Niel; Weaver, Holly; Nunney, Ian; Tytherleigh-Strong, Graham; Rushton, Neil

    2013-11-01

    To evaluate the evidence for application of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in lateral epicondylitis. We carried out a systematic review of the current evidence on the effects of PRP in lateral epicondylitis on clinical outcomes. We performed a comprehensive search of the PubMed, Medline, Cochrane, CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature), and Embase databases using various combinations of the commercial names of each PRP preparation and "lateral epicondylitis" (with its associated terms), looking specifically at human studies. Data validity was assessed and collected on clinical outcome. Nine studies met the inclusion criteria, of which 5 were randomized controlled trials. Two cohort studies showed that PRP improved clinical satisfaction scores. One case-control study showed that PRP yielded a significantly greater improvement in symptoms compared with bupivacaine. Two randomized controlled trials compared the effect of injections of PRP and blood. Only 1 of the studies noted a significant difference at the 6-week time point. Three randomized controlled trials compared corticosteroids with PRP. Two of the smaller trials, which had follow-up periods of 6 weeks and 3 months, showed no significant difference between treatment groups. The largest randomized controlled trial found that PRP had significant benefit compared with corticosteroids with regard to pain and Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand scores at 1- and 2-year time points. This review highlights the limited but evolving evidence for the use of PRP in lateral epicondylitis; however, further research is required to understand the concentration and preparation that facilitate the best clinical outcome. Characterizing the timing of the intervention would optimize the health economics behind the decision to treat for the patient and health care provider. Level III, systematic review of Level I to III studies. Copyright © 2013 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by

  6. A Systematic Review of Tennis Elbow Surgery: Open Versus Arthroscopic Versus Percutaneous Release of the Common Extensor Origin.

    PubMed

    Pierce, Todd P; Issa, Kimona; Gilbert, Benjamin T; Hanly, Brian; Festa, Anthony; McInerney, Vincent K; Scillia, Anthony J

    2017-06-01

    To compare complications, function, pain, and patient satisfaction after conventional open, percutaneous, or arthroscopic release of the extensor origin for the treatment of lateral epicondylitis. A thorough review of 4 databases-PubMed, EBSCOhost, CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature) Plus, and Scopus-was performed to identify all studies that addressed surgical management of lateral epicondylitis. We included (1) studies published between 2000 and 2015 and (2) studies with clearly defined surgical techniques. We excluded (1) non-English-language manuscripts, (2) isolated case reports, (3) studies with fewer than 10 subjects, (4) animal studies, (5) studies with additional adjunctive procedures aside from release of the extensor origin, (6) clinical or systematic review manuscripts, (7) studies with a follow-up period of 6 months or less, and (8) studies in which less than 80% of patients completed follow-up. Each study was analyzed for complication rates, functional outcomes, pain, and patient satisfaction. Thirty reports were identified that included 848 open, 578 arthroscopic, and 178 percutaneous releases. Patients within each release group had a similar age (46 years vs 46 years vs 48 years; P = .9 and P = .4, respectively), whereas there was a longer follow-up time in patients who underwent surgery by an open technique (49.4 months vs 42.6 months vs 23 months, P < .001). There were no differences in complication rates among these techniques (3.8% vs 2.9% vs 3.9%; P = .5 and P = .9, respectively). However, open techniques were correlated with higher surgical-site infection rates than arthroscopic techniques (0.7% vs 0%, P = .04). Mean Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand scores were substantially better with both open and arthroscopic techniques than with percutaneous release (19.9 points vs 21.3 points vs 29 points, P < .001). In addition, there was less pain reported in the arthroscopic and percutaneous release

  7. The Effects of Scaling Tennis Equipment on the Forehand Groundstroke Performance of Children

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Emma J.; Guggenheimer, Joshua D.

    2013-01-01

    The modifications that have taken place within youth sports have made games, such as basketball, soccer, or tennis, easier for children to play. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects low compression (LC) tennis balls and scaled tennis courts had on the forehand groundstroke performance of children. The forehand groundstroke performances of eight subjects’ (8.10 ± 0.74 yrs) using LC tennis balls were measured on a scaled tennis court and standard compression balls (SC) on a standard court. Forehand groundstroke performance was assessed by the ForeGround test which measures Velocity Precision Success Index (VPS) and Velocity Precision Index (VP). Participants attempted three different forehand rally patterns on two successive days, using LC balls on the 18.3m court one day and SC balls on the 23.8m court the other. When using LC balls, participants’ recorded higher overall VPS performance scores (p < 0.001) for each non-error stroke as well as higher VP scores (p = 0.01). The results of this study confirmed that the use of modified balls and modified court size may increase the control, velocity and overall success rate of the tennis forehand groundstroke of children. Key Points This study observed the effects of modified tennis balls and court had on the forehand groundstroke performance in children. Modified ball compression and modified court size can increase control, velocity and overall success of tennis performance. Children will have more success learning the game of tennis using modified equipment than using standard equipment. PMID:24149812

  8. Modifying Equipment in Early Skill Development: A Tennis Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buszard, Tim; Farrow, Damian; Reid, Machar; Masters, Rich S. W.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The International Tennis Federation recently launched a worldwide campaign advocating the use of equipment scaling for children learning to play tennis. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence that varying racquet sizes and ball compressions had on children's ability to play a forehand groundstroke. Method: This was a…

  9. Nursemaid's Elbow (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & ... For Parents / Nursemaid's Elbow Print About Nursemaid's Elbow Toddlers and preschoolers are at risk for a common ...

  10. Physical examination of the athlete's elbow.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Stephanie H; Moen, Todd C; Levine, William N; Ahmad, Christopher S

    2012-03-01

    Elbow injury is encountered less frequently than are other joint conditions. The bony architecture, muscle, ligament, and nerve anatomy are complex, and the forces leading to injury in the athlete's elbow are unique. Appreciating the pathomechanics leading to injury and a detailed knowledge of elbow anatomy are the foundation for conducting a directed history and physical examination that achieves an accurate diagnosis. Recent advances in physical examination have improved our ability to accurately diagnose and treat athletic elbow disorders. This article reviews general and focused physical examination maneuvers of the elbow in a systematic anatomic fashion.

  11. Gender Differences in Coping among Elite Table Tennis Players

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirimoglu, Huseyin

    2011-01-01

    The current study aims to investigate the explanatory power of social support and coping in relation to a competitive sport event between male and female table tennis players. 246 university students table tennis players (120 men and 126 women) from different region and part of Turkey were invited to participate in a survey study included the…

  12. Influence of Playing a Prolonged Tennis Match on Shoulder Internal Range of Motion.

    PubMed

    Martin, Caroline; Kulpa, Richard; Ezanno, Felix; Delamarche, Paul; Bideau, Benoit

    2016-08-01

    Shoulder range of motion (ROM) deficits have been identified as an injury risk factor among tennis players. It is well known that shoulder internal rotation deficit increases with age and years of play, but there is a lack of knowledge regarding the influence of a prolonged tennis match on shoulder ROM. To examine changes in shoulder ROM during a prolonged tennis match. Descriptive laboratory study. Shoulder passive internal and external rotation ROM were measured on 8 male tennis players before, every 30 minutes during, and just after a 3-hour tennis match. Total ROM was calculated as the combination of shoulder internal and external rotations. Ball velocity on the serve was measured with a radar gun before, at midmatch, and just after the match. Decreases in shoulder internal rotation (-20.8°; P = .005), total ROM (-24.6°; P = .001), and serve velocity (-1.8 m/s; P = .002) were observed at the end of the match. No statistically significant difference was observed for shoulder external rotation after the match (P = .460). Passive shoulder internal rotation and total ROM are significantly decreased during a 3-hour tennis match. The results show that a prolonged tennis match play can modify values of shoulder ROM. © 2016 The Author(s).

  13. Competition Field Perceptions of Table-tennis Athletes and their Performance

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ying-Chieh; Wang, Ming-Yueh; Hsu, Chi-Yueh

    2018-01-01

    Abstract The distinction between positive and negative perceptions is fundamental in perception models. The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation between field perceptions of table tennis players and the outcome (net result) during the matches in a competition. Experimental data were collected from 10 elite table tennis players and analysed. The results addressed the following three competition field perceptions: (1) before the service, the player’s positive perceptions had significant effect on the positive outcome (winning rate) of that service; (2) the perception after the net result of the previous service increased the positive outcome of the next service, and (3) the player’s positive/negative perception during the matches affected the win/loss outcome of that competition. In conclusion, the player’s positive perceptions enhanced their winning rate during table tennis competitions. Therefore, during the training program, coaches need to develop positive perceptions and strengthen the psychological quality of table tennis players. PMID:29599876

  14. 21 CFR 888.3180 - Elbow joint humeral (hemi-elbow) metallic uncemented prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Elbow joint humeral (hemi-elbow) metallic uncemented prosthesis. 888.3180 Section 888.3180 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3180...

  15. 21 CFR 888.3180 - Elbow joint humeral (hemi-elbow) metallic uncemented prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Elbow joint humeral (hemi-elbow) metallic uncemented prosthesis. 888.3180 Section 888.3180 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3180...

  16. 21 CFR 888.3180 - Elbow joint humeral (hemi-elbow) metallic uncemented prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Elbow joint humeral (hemi-elbow) metallic uncemented prosthesis. 888.3180 Section 888.3180 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3180...

  17. 21 CFR 888.3180 - Elbow joint humeral (hemi-elbow) metallic uncemented prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Elbow joint humeral (hemi-elbow) metallic uncemented prosthesis. 888.3180 Section 888.3180 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3180...

  18. 21 CFR 888.3180 - Elbow joint humeral (hemi-elbow) metallic uncemented prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Elbow joint humeral (hemi-elbow) metallic uncemented prosthesis. 888.3180 Section 888.3180 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3180...

  19. Noninvasive monopolar capacitive-coupled radiofrequency for the treatment of pain associated with lateral elbow tendinopathies: 1-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Weber, Tobias; Kabelka, Bernd

    2012-03-01

    To evaluate noninvasive monopolar capacitive-coupled radiofrequency (mcRF) for the treatment of pain associated with lateral elbow tendinopathies. Prospective, single-center, single-arm, 1-year follow-up. Private sports medicine practice. Thirty-nine consecutive patients with diagnosis of lateral elbow tendinopathy (including 3 bilateral cases, for a total of 42 elbows) participated in the study. All patients had been unsuccessfully treated with a variety of nonoperative therapies (eg, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, corticosteroid injections, and braces) for at least 3 months before they were enrolled in the study. Patients were treated with mcRF technology in the office without local anesthetic or any particular preparation. Anatomic landmarks and careful determination of the most tender point defined the area treated; rapid and precise mcRF pulses were delivered covering the area in a staggered fashion; and 10 additional pulses were delivered directly to the point of maximum tenderness (total of 100 pulses). Patients returned to activities of daily living without restriction and were instructed to avoid nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and/or ice over the treated area. Physical therapy or other treatment modalities were disallowed. The presence of pain before enrollment ranged from 15 weeks to 2 years (average, 32 weeks). Visual analog scores at rest, with regular activity, and with triggering events were gathered at 3, 6, and 12 months. The Nirschl Tennis Elbow Questionnaire and patient satisfaction also were used to evaluate study outcomes. Follow-up average was 423 days (range, 330-487 days). On the basis of the study's multifactorial success criteria, 81% of participants had successful outcomes. Furthermore, 89% of the patients who completed the study were completely or moderately satisfied with the outcome. Outcomes of this study suggest that noninvasive mcRF may have a role in the treatment of pain associated with lateral elbow tendinopathies

  20. Total elbow arthroplasty for primary osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Schoch, Bradley S; Werthel, Jean-David; Sánchez-Sotelo, Joaquín; Morrey, Bernard F; Morrey, Mark

    2017-08-01

    Primary osteoarthritis of the elbow is a less common indication for total elbow arthroplasty (TEA). Higher complication rates in younger, active patients may offset short-term improvements in pain and function. The purpose of this study was to determine pain relief, functional outcomes, complications, and survival of TEA in this population. Between 1984 and 2011, 20 consecutive TEAs were performed for primary elbow osteoarthritis. Two patients died before the 2-year follow-up. Mean age at surgery was 68 years (range, 51-85 years). Outcome measures included pain, motion, Mayo Elbow Performance Score, satisfaction, complications, and reoperations. Mean follow-up was 8.9 years (range, 2-20 years). Three elbows sustained mechanical failures. Complications included intraoperative fracture (n = 2), wound irrigation and débridement (n = 1), bony ankylosis (n = 1), humeral loosening (n = 1), humeral component fracture (n = 1), and mechanical failure of a radial head component (n = 1). Fifteen elbows without mechanical failure were examined clinically. Pain improved from 3.6 to 1.5 (P < .001). Range of motion remained clinically unchanged (P > .05), with preoperative flexion contractures not improving. Mayo Elbow Performance Scores were available for 13 elbows without mechanical failure, averaging 81.5 points (range, 60-100 points); these were graded as excellent (n = 5), good (n = 2), and fair (n = 6). Subjectively, all patients without mechanical failure were satisfied. TEA represents a reliable surgical option for pain relief in patients with primary osteoarthritis. However, restoration of extension is not always obtained, indicating that more aggressive soft tissue releases or bony resection should be considered. Complications occurred in a large number of elbows, but mechanical failure was low considering the nature of this population and the length of follow-up. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier

  1. A Computational Model of Human Table Tennis for Robot Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mülling, Katharina; Peters, Jan

    Table tennis is a difficult motor skill which requires all basic components of a general motor skill learning system. In order to get a step closer to such a generic approach to the automatic acquisition and refinement of table tennis, we study table tennis from a human motor control point of view. We make use of the basic models of discrete human movement phases, virtual hitting points, and the operational timing hypothesis. Using these components, we create a computational model which is aimed at reproducing human-like behavior. We verify the functionality of this model in a physically realistic simulation of a Barrett WAM.

  2. Effects of a Simulated Tennis Match on Lymphocyte Subset Measurements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schafer, Mark; Kell, Holly; Navalta, James; Tibana, Ramires; Lyons, Scott; Arnett, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Tennis is an activity requiring both endurance and anaerobic components, which could have immunosuppressive effects postexercise. Purpose: The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effect of a simulated tennis match on apoptotic and migratory markers on lymphocyte subsets. Method: Male high school (n = 5) and college (n = 3) tennis…

  3. Investigation on Suitability of Natural Fibre as Replacement Material for Table Tennis Blade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arifin, A. M. T.; Fahrul Hassan, M.; Ismail, A. E.; Zulafif Rahim, M.; Rasidi Ibrahim, M.; Haq, R. H. Abdul; Rahman, M. N. A.; Yunos, M. Z.; Amin, M. H. M.

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents an investigation of suitability natural fibre as replacement material for table tennis blade, due to low cost, lightweight and apparently environmentally. Nowadays, natural fibre are one of the materials often used in replaced the main material on manufacturing sector, such as automotive, and construction. The objective of this study is to investigate and evaluate the suitability natural fiber materials to replace wood as a structure on table tennis blade. The mechanical properties of the different natural fibre material were examined, and correlated with characteristic of table tennis blade. The natural fibre selected for the study are kenaf (Hibiscus Cannabinus), jute, hemp, sisal (Agave Sisalana) and ramie. A further comparison was made with the corresponding properties of each type of natural fiber using Quality Function Deployment (QFD) and Theory of Inventive Problem Solving (TRIZ). TRIZ has been used to determine the most appropriate solution in producing table tennis blade. The results showed the most appropriate solution in producing table tennis blade using natural fibre is kenaf natural fibre. The selected on suitability natural fibre used as main structure on table tennis blade are based on the characteristics need for good performance of table tennis blade, such as energy absorption, lightweight, strength and hardness. Therefore, it shows an opportunity for replacing existing materials with a higher strength, lower cost alternative that is environmentally friendly.

  4. Extracorporeal shock wave therapy without local anesthesia for chronic lateral epicondylitis.

    PubMed

    Pettrone, Frank A; McCall, Brian R

    2005-06-01

    The use of extracorporeal shock wave therapy for the treatment of lateral epicondylitis is controversial. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of extracorporeal shock wave therapy without local anesthesia to treat chronic lateral epicondylitis. One hundred and fourteen patients with a minimum six-month history of lateral epicondylitis that was unresponsive to conventional therapy were randomized into double-blind active treatment and placebo groups. The protocol consisted of three weekly treatments of either low-dose shock wave therapy without anesthetic or a sham treatment. Patients had a physical examination, including provocation testing and dynamometry, at one, four, eight, and twelve weeks and at six and twelve months after treatment. Radiographs, laboratory studies, and electrocardiograms were also evaluated prior to participation and at twelve weeks. A visual analog scale was used to evaluate pain, and an upper extremity functional scale was used to assess function. Crossover to active treatment was initiated for nonresponsive patients who had received the placebo and met the inclusion criteria after twelve weeks. A total of 108 of the 114 randomized patients completed all treatments and the twelve weeks of follow-up required by the protocol. Sixty-one patients completed one year of follow-up, whereas thirty-four patients crossed over to receive active treatment. A significant difference (p = 0.001) in pain reduction was observed at twelve weeks in the intent-to-treat cohort, with an improvement in the pain score of at least 50% seen in 61% (thirty-four) of the fifty-six patients in the active treatment group who were treated according to protocol compared with 29% (seventeen) of the fifty-eight subjects in the placebo group. This improvement persisted in those followed to one year. Functional activity scores, activity-specific evaluation, and the overall impression of the disease state all showed significant improvement as well (p < 0

  5. Women's Lib and Professional Tennis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geist, Harold; And Others

    1971-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the psyche of the people who watch and pay to see female tennis players. It was concluded that women are breaking through the cultural constraints of this sport. (Author/BY)

  6. Coach/player relationships in tennis.

    PubMed

    Prapavessis, H; Gordon, S

    1991-09-01

    The present study examined the variables that predict coach/athlete compatibility. Compatibility among a sample of 52 elite tennis coach/player dyads was assessed using a sport adapted version of Schutz's (1966) Fundamental Interpersonal Relations Orientation-Behaviour (FIRO-B), a sport adapted version of Fiedler's (1967) Least Preferred Co-worker scale (LPC), and Chelladurai and Saleh's (1980) Leadership Scale for Sport (LSS). Self-ratings of the quality of the interaction were obtained from both coach and athlete. Multiple-regression analyses using self-rating scores as the dependent measure were carried out to determine which variables best predicted the degree of compatibility. The sole inventory that significantly predicted compatibility was the LSS. More specifically, the discrepancy between the athlete's preferences and perceptions on the autocratic dimension was the best predictor. Implications for tennis coaches and recommendations for future research in this area are discussed.

  7. General Halleck's itchy elbows.

    PubMed

    Cropley, Thomas G

    2007-01-01

    General Henry Wager Halleck served as general-in-chief and chief of staff of the Federal army from 1862-1865. Unpopular with troops as well as with many members of the Lincoln administration, he was a particular source of irritation to Secretary of Navy Gideon Welles. In his posthumously-published diary of the war years, Welles viciously criticized Halleck for his failings as army commander. Welles also derided Halleck's personality and personal appearance. Welles found the general's habitual elbow-scratching annoying enough to mention it in five separate diary entries. This depiction of Halleck ceaselessly, nervously scratching his elbows has entered Civil War folklore. Why did Halleck scratch his elbows? Two possibilities exist. Either he did so compulsively, as a nervous habit, or he was scratching an itch. In this paper, I present a speculative argument that Halleck may have had a skin disease, possibly atopic dermatitis, and that this may have contributed to or have been the sole cause of his elbow scratching.

  8. Applying Sensors to Investigate Gender Differences in Beginning Tennis Players

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Chih-Hung; Wang, Jye-Shyan; Wu, Cheng-Chih

    2017-01-01

    This study utilized sensors to investigate how females and males might perform and reflect differently on their tennis skills in a beginner class. A quasi-experimental design was conducted in this study to investigate the learning outcome of using tennis sensors. Two classes of students enrolled in a college physical education course participated…

  9. Anterior and posterior bands of the anterior bundle in the elbow ulnar collateral ligament: ultrasound anatomy.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Masahito; Goto, Hideyuki; Takenaga, Tetsuya; Tsuchiya, Atsushi; Sugimoto, Katsumasa; Musahl, Volker; Fu, Freddie; Otsuka, Takanobu

    2017-10-01

    The anterior oblique bundle (AOL) of the ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) is composed of anterior and posterior bands. This study evaluated the anatomy of the anterior and posterior bands in the AOL of the UCL for their separate visualization with ultrasound (US). We dissected 18 cadaveric elbow joints and recorded the direction of each band from the lateral view to determine the proper position for the US transducer. To determine the proper inclination of the transducer, we measured the inclinations of each band at the proximal and distal insertions from the transverse view. A paired t test was used for comparisons between both bands. Values of P < .05 were considered statistically significant. The mean angles of the directions in the anterior and posterior bands were 10° ± 4° and 24° ± 9°, respectively. At the medial epicondyle, the mean inclination angles of both bands were 61° ± 5° and 67° ± 5°, respectively. At the sublime tubercle, the mean inclination angles of both bands were 14° ± 7° and 44° ± 9°, respectively. The inclination angles at the proximal ulna and the directions in both bands were significantly different (P < .001). This study shows that the directions of both bands and inclination angles of the bony attachments in both bands can assist with correct placement of the US transducer and allow for separate visualization of each band. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. 75 FR 65323 - The Tennis Channel, Inc. v. Comcast Cable Communications, LLC; File No. CSR-8258-P

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-22

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION [MB Docket No. 10-204; DA 10-1918] The Tennis Channel, Inc. v... Tennis Channel, Inc. (``The Tennis Channel'') and Comcast Cable Communications, LLC (``Comcast'') shall... Tennis Channel and Comcast, in person or by their attorneys, shall each file with the Commission, by...

  11. Effects of a 6-week junior tennis conditioning program on service velocity.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Fernandez, Jaime; Ellenbecker, Todd; Sanz-Rivas, David; Ulbricht, Alexander; Ferrautia, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a 6-week strength-training program on serve velocity in youth tennis players. Thirty competitive healthy and nationally ranked male junior tennis players (13 years of age) were randomly and equally divided into control and training groups. The training group performed 3 sessions (60-70 min) weekly for 6 weeks, comprising core strength, elastic resistance and medicine ball exercises. Both groups (control and training) also performed a supervised stretching routine at the end of each training session, during the 6 week intervention. Service velocity, service accuracy and shoulder internal/external rotation were assessed initially and at the end of the 6-week conditioning program for both, control and training groups. There was a significant improvement in the serve velocity for the training group (p = 0. 0001) after the intervention, whereas in the control group there were no differences between pre and post-tests (p = 0.29). Serve accuracy was not affected in the training group (p = 0.10), nor in the control group (p = 0.15). Shoulder internal/external rotation ROM significantly improved in both groups, training (p = 0.001) and control (p = 0.0001). The present results showed that a short- term training program for young tennis players, using minimum equipment and effort, can result in improved tennis performance (i.e., serve velocity) and a reduction in the risk of a possible overuse injury, reflected by an improvement in shoulder external/internal range of motion. Key PointsA short-term training program for young tennis players, using minimum equipment and effort, can result in improved tennis performance and a reduction in the risk of a possible overuse injury, reflected by an improvement in shoulder external/internal range of motionA combination of core stabilization, elastic resistance exercises, and upper body plyometric exercises (i.e., medicine ball throws), focussing on the primary muscle groups and stabilizers involved in

  12. Effects of A 6-Week Junior Tennis Conditioning Program on Service Velocity

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Fernandez, Jaime; Ellenbecker, Todd; Sanz-Rivas, david; Ulbricht, Alexander; Ferrautia, lexander

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a 6-week strength-training program on serve velocity in youth tennis players. Thirty competitive healthy and nationally ranked male junior tennis players (13 years of age) were randomly and equally divided into control and training groups. The training group performed 3 sessions (60-70 min) weekly for 6 weeks, comprising core strength, elastic resistance and medicine ball exercises. Both groups (control and training) also performed a supervised stretching routine at the end of each training session, during the 6 week intervention. Service velocity, service accuracy and shoulder internal/external rotation were assessed initially and at the end of the 6-week conditioning program for both, control and training groups. There was a significant improvement in the serve velocity for the training group (p = 0. 0001) after the intervention, whereas in the control group there were no differences between pre and post-tests (p = 0.29). Serve accuracy was not affected in the training group (p = 0.10), nor in the control group (p = 0.15). Shoulder internal/external rotation ROM significantly improved in both groups, training (p = 0.001) and control (p = 0.0001). The present results showed that a short- term training program for young tennis players, using minimum equipment and effort, can result in improved tennis performance (i.e., serve velocity) and a reduction in the risk of a possible overuse injury, reflected by an improvement in shoulder external/internal range of motion. Key Points A short-term training program for young tennis players, using minimum equipment and effort, can result in improved tennis performance and a reduction in the risk of a possible overuse injury, reflected by an improvement in shoulder external/internal range of motion A combination of core stabilization, elastic resistance exercises, and upper body plyometric exercises (i.e., medicine ball throws), focussing on the primary muscle groups and stabilizers involved

  13. Ultrasonographic Differentiation of Lateral Elbow Pain

    PubMed Central

    Obuchowicz, R.; Bonczar, M.

    2016-01-01

    Lateral elbow pain is often attributed to degenerative or posttraumatic impairment of the common extensor tendon. Ultrasonography assesses the soft tissue structures of the lateral elbow, allowing the differentiation between various underlying processes, including angiofibroblastic degeneration, hyaline degeneration, and inflammation, and exclusion of other possible causes of pain such as posterior interosseous and lateral antebrachial nerve compression. Furthermore, the real-time imaging nature of ultrasonography enables the detection of impingement of the lateral synovial fold, degenerative changes in the elbow recess, and elbow posterolateral instability during dynamic maneuvers. Ultrasonography is widely accessible and well tolerated by patients, making it a perfect method for establishing an initial diagnosis and monitoring the healing process. This review describes the possible causes of lateral elbow pain and their ultrasonographic differentiation. PMID:27689169

  14. Table Top Tennis: A Vehicle for Teaching Sportspersonship and Responsibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwager, Susan; Stylianou, Michalis

    2012-01-01

    Table top tennis is a game that can be played in the classroom or lunchroom when the gymnasium is unavailable. It is a good activity for developing sportspersonship and responsibility in students in grades four and up. This article provides a description of table top tennis, including basic rules and strategies; an explanation of how it can…

  15. Elbow joint angle and elbow movement velocity estimation using NARX-multiple layer perceptron neural network model with surface EMG time domain parameters.

    PubMed

    Raj, Retheep; Sivanandan, K S

    2017-01-01

    Estimation of elbow dynamics has been the object of numerous investigations. In this work a solution is proposed for estimating elbow movement velocity and elbow joint angle from Surface Electromyography (SEMG) signals. Here the Surface Electromyography signals are acquired from the biceps brachii muscle of human hand. Two time-domain parameters, Integrated EMG (IEMG) and Zero Crossing (ZC), are extracted from the Surface Electromyography signal. The relationship between the time domain parameters, IEMG and ZC with elbow angular displacement and elbow angular velocity during extension and flexion of the elbow are studied. A multiple input-multiple output model is derived for identifying the kinematics of elbow. A Nonlinear Auto Regressive with eXogenous inputs (NARX) structure based multiple layer perceptron neural network (MLPNN) model is proposed for the estimation of elbow joint angle and elbow angular velocity. The proposed NARX MLPNN model is trained using Levenberg-marquardt based algorithm. The proposed model is estimating the elbow joint angle and elbow movement angular velocity with appreciable accuracy. The model is validated using regression coefficient value (R). The average regression coefficient value (R) obtained for elbow angular displacement prediction is 0.9641 and for the elbow anglular velocity prediction is 0.9347. The Nonlinear Auto Regressive with eXogenous inputs (NARX) structure based multiple layer perceptron neural networks (MLPNN) model can be used for the estimation of angular displacement and movement angular velocity of the elbow with good accuracy.

  16. Tournament Structure and Success of Players Based on Location in Men’s Professional Tennis

    PubMed Central

    Panjan, Andrej; Reid, Machar; Crespo, Miguel; Sarabon, Nejc

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the relationship between success of professional male tennis players according to the country and world region from which they originate and the professional tournament structure in men’s tennis in that world region and country. The success of a country or world region was defined by the number of players in the top 300 ATP rankings and was calculated for seven time periods between 1975 and 2008. The results showed the correlations between the total number of top 300 ranked players, the total number of tournaments, and the annual tournament prize money of the specific country. The correlations were nearly perfect in the 1975-1990 period (r = 0.93-0.95; p < 0.01) but only high in the 2005-2008 period (r = 0.60-0.64; p < 0.01), suggesting that the association between the number of top 300 ranked tennis players and professional tournaments, while still significant, is in decline. These data should inform the policy and investment decisions of regional and national federations, particularly as they relate to domestic professional tennis tournament structures and to explore opportunities to include professional tournaments of neighbour countries in their player’s development programs. Key Points This paper observes relation changes between the total number of players, total number of ATP tournaments and total annual prize money in particular continents from 1975 to 2008. The correlation between the tennis success, total number of tournaments and total annual prize money in tournaments was highest from 1975 to 1989 and was gradually decreasing from 1990 to 2008. The leading tennis countries organise over 20 ATP tournaments and entry professional tournaments per year. Tennis less developed countries very often is using the competition systems of the most successful tennis countries. Indications are that tennis will continue to become increasingly global and that this trend may be unlikely to reverse. PMID:24149816

  17. Deep Friction Massage Versus Steroid Injection in the Treatment of Lateral Epicondylitis.

    PubMed

    Yi, Rosemary; Bratchenko, Walter W; Tan, Virak

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the efficacy of deep friction massage in the treatment of lateral epicondylitis by comparing outcomes with a control group treated with splinting and therapy and with an experimental group receiving a local steroid injection. A randomized clinical trial was conducted to compare outcomes after recruitment of consecutive patients presenting with lateral epicondylitis. Patients were randomized to receive one of 3 treatments: group 1: splinting and stretching, group 2: a cortisone injection, or group 3: a lidocaine injection with deep friction massage. Pretreatment and posttreatment parameters of visual analog scale (VAS) pain ratings, Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) scores, and grip strength were measured. Outcomes were measured at early follow-up (6-12 weeks) and at 6-month follow-up. There was a significant improvement in VAS pain score in all treatment groups at early follow-up. DASH score and grip strength improved in the cortisone injection group and the deep friction massage group at early follow-up; these parameters did not improve in the splinting and stretching group. At 6-month follow-up, only patients in the deep friction massage group demonstrated a significant improvement in all outcome measures, including VAS pain score, DASH score, and grip strength. Deep friction massage is an effective treatment for lateral epicondylitis and can be used in patients who have failed other nonoperative treatments, including cortisone injection.

  18. Fluid Mechanics of Cricket and Tennis Balls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehta, Rabindra D.

    2009-11-01

    Aerodynamics plays a prominent role in defining the flight of a ball that is struck or thrown through the air in almost all ball sports. The main interest is in the fact that the ball can often deviate from its initial straight path, resulting in a curved, or sometimes an unpredictable, flight path. It is particularly fascinating that that not all the parameters that affect the flight of a ball are always under human influence. Lateral deflection in flight, commonly known as swing, swerve or curve, is well recognized in cricket and tennis. In tennis, the lateral deflection is produced by spinning the ball about an axis perpendicular to the line of flight, which gives rise to what is commonly known as the Magnus effect. It is now well recognized that the aerodynamics of sports balls are strongly dependent on the detailed development and behavior of the boundary layer on the ball's surface. A side force, which makes a ball curve through the air, can also be generated in the absence of the Magnus effect. In one of the cricket deliveries, the ball is released with the seam angled, which trips the laminar boundary layer into a turbulent state on that side. The turbulent boundary layer separates relatively late compared to the laminar layer on the other side, thereby creating a pressure difference and hence side force. The fluid mechanics of a cricket ball become very interesting at the higher Reynolds numbers and this will be discussed in detail. Of all the round sports balls, a tennis ball has the highest drag coefficient. This will be explained in terms of the contribution of the ``fuzz" drag and how that changes with Reynolds number and ball surface wear. It is particularly fascinating that, purely through historical accidents, small disturbances on the ball surface, such as the stitching on cricket balls and the felt cover on tennis balls are all about the right size to affect boundary layer transition and development in the Reynolds numbers of interest. The fluid

  19. Spondylolysis in young tennis players

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz‐Cotorro, A; Balius‐Matas, R; Estruch‐Massana, A; Angulo, J Vilaró

    2006-01-01

    The general aetiology, diagnosis, and treatment of spondylolysis, a bone defect in the pars interarticularis of the vertebra, are reviewed. A retrospective study of young tennis players diagnosed between 2000 and 2004 with spondylolysis with or without spondylolisthesis, assessed by radiography and planar bone scintigraphy, is described. If the radiographic results were negative, computed tomography was performed. Sixty six cases were evaluated: 53 L5 lesions, eight L4 lesions, two L3 lesions, and one bilateral lesion at the L2 level. Two more lesions at two levels were found (bilateral L5 and unilateral L4 and L3 on the right side). Classification, treatment, and outcome of the cases are reported. A combination of radiography, planar bone scintigraphy, and SPECT is useful for evaluating spondylolysis in tennis players and recommending treatment. Use of a brace did not appear to achieve significant results. PMID:16632576

  20. Wii Tennis Play for Low-Income African American Adolescents’ Energy Expenditure

    PubMed Central

    Staiano, Amanda E.; Calvert, Sandra L.

    2013-01-01

    Exergames, which are video games that require gross motor activity, are popular activities that produce energy expenditure. Seventy-four low-income African American 12- to 18-year-old adolescents were randomly assigned to a 30-minute condition: 1) solitary Wii tennis exergame play against virtual peers; 2) social Wii tennis exergame play against a real peer; or 3) control group with sedentary computer activity. Adolescents were tested for caloric expenditure after exposure to treatment conditions as well as on a tennis court using Actical accelerometers. Adolescents who played the social exergame against a peer expended significantly more energy than those who played alone. Both exergame groups expended more energy than the control group. Adolescents who played the social exergame also expended comparable calories to actual tennis court play during a simulated lesson. Exergames, then, could promote physical activity, thereby becoming a tool to combat the obesity crisis that is affecting many youth. PMID:24058381

  1. Prosthetic elbow joint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weddendorf, Bruce C. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    An artificial, manually positionable elbow joint for use in an upper extremity, above-elbow, prosthetic is described. The prosthesis provides a locking feature that is easily controlled by the wearer. The instant elbow joint is very strong and durable enough to withstand the repeated heavy loadings encountered by a wearer who works in an industrial, construction, farming, or similar environment. The elbow joint of the present invention comprises a turntable, a frame, a forearm, and a locking assembly. The frame generally includes a housing for the locking assembly and two protruding ears. The forearm includes an elongated beam having a cup-shaped cylindrical member at one end and a locking wheel having a plurality of holes along a circular arc on its other end with a central bore for pivotal attachment to the protruding ears of the frame. The locking assembly includes a collar having a central opening with a plurality of internal grooves, a plurality of internal cam members each having a chamfered surface at one end and a V-shaped slot at its other end; an elongated locking pin having a crown wheel with cam surfaces and locking lugs secured thereto; two coiled compression springs; and a flexible filament attached to one end of the elongated locking pin and extending from the locking assembly for extending and retracting the locking pin into the holes in the locking wheel to permit selective adjustment of the forearm relative to the frame. In use, the turntable is affixed to the upper arm part of the prosthetic in the conventional manner, and the cup-shaped cylindrical member on one end of the forearm is affixed to the forearm piece of the prosthetic in the conventional manner. The elbow joint is easily adjusted and locked between maximum flex and extended positions.

  2. Anthropometric characteristics, body composition and somatotype of elite junior tennis players

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez‐Muñoz, Cristóbal; Sanz, David; Zabala, Mikel

    2007-01-01

    Objectives The aims of this study were to describe the anthropometric characteristics, body composition and somatotype of elite male and female junior tennis players, to compare the anthropometric data, body composition and somatotype of the first 12 elite junior tennis players on the ranking with the lower ranked players, and to establish an anthropometric profile chart for elite junior tennis players. Methods A total of 123 (57 males and 66 females) elite junior tennis players participated in this study. The athletes were divided into two groups, the first 12 and the lower ranked players, according to gender. A total of 17 anthropometric variables were recorded of each subject. Results There were no significant differences in height and weight between the first 12 and the lower ranked boys, while the first 12 girls were significantly taller than the lower ranked girls (p = 0.009). Significant differences were found for humeral and femoral breadths between the first 12 and the lower ranked girls (p = 0.000; p = 0.004, respectively). The mean (SD) somatotype of elite male junior tennis players could be defined as ectomesomorphic (2.4 (0.7), 5.2 (0.8), 2.9 (0.7)) and the mean (SD) somatotype of elite female junior tennis players evaluated could be defined as endomesomorphic (3.8 (0.9), 4.6 (1.0), 2.4 (1.0)). No significant differences were found in somatotype components between the first 12 and the lower ranked players of both genders. Conclusions When comparing the first 12 and the lower ranked elite junior tennis players of both genders, no significant differences were observed in any measured item for the boys. By contrast, significant differences were observed in height and humeral and femoral breadths between the first 12 and the lower ranked girls, whereby the first 12 were taller and had wider humeral and femoral breadths than the lower ranked players. These differences could influence the playing style of junior female players. PMID:17957016

  3. Anthropometric characteristics, body composition and somatotype of elite junior tennis players.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Muñoz, Cristóbal; Sanz, David; Zabala, Mikel

    2007-11-01

    The aims of this study were to describe the anthropometric characteristics, body composition and somatotype of elite male and female junior tennis players, to compare the anthropometric data, body composition and somatotype of the first 12 elite junior tennis players on the ranking with the lower ranked players, and to establish an anthropometric profile chart for elite junior tennis players. A total of 123 (57 males and 66 females) elite junior tennis players participated in this study. The athletes were divided into two groups, the first 12 and the lower ranked players, according to gender. A total of 17 anthropometric variables were recorded of each subject. There were no significant differences in height and weight between the first 12 and the lower ranked boys, while the first 12 girls were significantly taller than the lower ranked girls (p = 0.009). Significant differences were found for humeral and femoral breadths between the first 12 and the lower ranked girls (p = 0.000; p = 0.004, respectively). The mean (SD) somatotype of elite male junior tennis players could be defined as ectomesomorphic (2.4 (0.7), 5.2 (0.8), 2.9 (0.7)) and the mean (SD) somatotype of elite female junior tennis players evaluated could be defined as endomesomorphic (3.8 (0.9), 4.6 (1.0), 2.4 (1.0)). No significant differences were found in somatotype components between the first 12 and the lower ranked players of both genders. When comparing the first 12 and the lower ranked elite junior tennis players of both genders, no significant differences were observed in any measured item for the boys. By contrast, significant differences were observed in height and humeral and femoral breadths between the first 12 and the lower ranked girls, whereby the first 12 were taller and had wider humeral and femoral breadths than the lower ranked players. These differences could influence the playing style of junior female players.

  4. Elbow mass flow meter

    DOEpatents

    McFarland, Andrew R.; Rodgers, John C.; Ortiz, Carlos A.; Nelson, David C.

    1994-01-01

    Elbow mass flow meter. The present invention includes a combination of an elbow pressure drop generator and a shunt-type mass flow sensor for providing an output which gives the mass flow rate of a gas that is nearly independent of the density of the gas. For air, the output is also approximately independent of humidity.

  5. Haptic Recreation of Elbow Spasticity

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jonghyun; Damiano, Diane L.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to develop a haptic device capable of presenting standardized recreation of elbow spasticity. Using the haptic device, clinicians will be able to repeatedly practice the assessment of spasticity without requiring patient involvement, and these practice opportunities will help improve accuracy and reliability of the assessment itself. Haptic elbow spasticity simulator (HESS) was designed and prototyped according to mechanical requirements to recreate the feel of elbow spasticity. Based on the data collected from subjects with elbow spasticity, a mathematical model representing elbow spasticity is proposed. As an attempt to differentiate the feel of each score in Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS), parameters of the model were obtained respectively for three different MAS scores 1, 1+, and 2. The implemented haptic recreation was evaluated by experienced clinicians who were asked to give MAS scores by manipulating the haptic device. The clinicians who participated in the study were blinded to each other’s scores and to the given models. They distinguished the three models and the MAS scores given to the recreated models matched 100% with the original MAS scores from the patients. PMID:22275660

  6. The Distal Humerus Axial View: Assessment of Displacement in Medial Epicondyle Fractures.

    PubMed

    Souder, Christopher D; Farnsworth, Christine L; McNeil, Natalie P; Bomar, James D; Edmonds, Eric W

    2015-01-01

    The assessment and treatment of childhood medial epicondyle humerus fractures continues to be associated with significant debate. Several studies demonstrate that standard radiographic views are unable to accurately portray the true displacement. Without reliable ways to assess the amount of displacement, how can we debate treatment and outcomes? This study introduces a novel imaging technique for the evaluation of medial epicondyle fractures. An osteotomy of a cadaveric humerus was performed to simulate a medial epicondyle fracture. Plain radiographs were obtained with the fracture fragment displaced anteriorly in 2-mm increments between 0 and 18 mm. Anteroposterior (AP), internal oblique (IR), lateral (LAT), and distal humerus axial (AXIAL) views were performed. Axial images were obtained by positioning the central ray above the shoulder at 15 to 20 degrees from the long axis of the humerus, centered on the distal humerus. Displacement (mm) was measured by 7 orthopaedic surgeons on digital radiographs. At 10 mm displacement, AP views underestimated displacement by 5.5±0.6 mm and IR views underestimated by 3.8±2.1 mm. On LAT views, readers were not able to visualize fragments with <10 mm displacement. Displacement ≥10 mm from LAT views was overestimated by 1 reader by up to 4.6 mm and underestimated by others by up to 18.0 mm. AXIAL images more closely estimated the true amount of displacement, with a mean 1.5±1.1 mm error in measurement for <10 mm displacement and a mean 0.8±0.7 mm error for displacements of ≥10 mm. AXIAL measurements correlated strongly with the actual displacement (r=0.998, P<0.05); AP measurements did not (r=0.655, P=0.55). Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was 0.257 for AP and IR measurements; ICC was 0.974 for AXIAL measurements. Standard imaging, consisting of AP, IR, and LAT radiographs, consistently underestimates the actual displacement of medial epicondyle humerus fractures. The newly described AXIAL projection more

  7. Exposures of the elbow.

    PubMed

    Axelrod, Terry S

    2014-11-01

    This article describes the basic bony, ligamentous, and neurologic anatomy of the structures about the elbow. The surgical exposures of the elbow joint are described, providing details of the various posterior, lateral, and medial approaches to the articular segments. Clinical applications describing the potential benefits of each surgical exposure are provided as examples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The kinematics of table tennis racquet: differences between topspin strokes.

    PubMed

    Bańkosz, Ziemowit; Winiarski, Sławomir

    2017-03-01

    Studies of shot kinematics in table tennis have not been sufficiently described in the literature. The assessment of the racquet trajectory, its speed and time characteristics makes it possible to emphasize on certain technical elements in the training process in order, for example, to increase strength, speed of rotation or speed of the shot while maintaining its accuracy. The aim of this work was to measure selected kinematic parameters of table tennis racquet during forehand and backhand topspin shots, while considering the differences between these strokes in table tennis. The measurements took place in a certified biomechanical laboratory using a motion analysis system. The study involved 12 female table tennis players in high-level sports training and performance. Each subject had to complete series of six tasks, presenting different varieties of topspin shots. The longest racquet trajectory was related to forehand shots, shots played against a ball with backspin and winner shots. The maximum racquet velocity was precisely in the moment of impact with the ball. The individual of velocity and distance were larger in the direction of the acting force, depending on the individual shot. Changing the type of topspin shot requires changes of time, velocity and primarily distance parameters as well as the direction of the playing racquet. The maximum speed of the racquet occurring at the moment of the impact is probably the most important principle in playing technique. The results can be directly used in improving training of table tennis techniques, especially in the application and use of topspin shots.

  9. Treatment of the external epicondylitis of the humerus with a magnetic field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degen, I. L.

    1974-01-01

    The therapeutic effect of a constant and varying magnetic field on epicondylitis of the humerus is studied on ninety patients. Good results are obtained from the treatment (recovery of 80%, considerable improvement in 14.5%). The method is recommended for clinical application.

  10. Tennis-Badminton-Squash Guide with Official Rules. June 1972 - June 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Martha, Ed.; And Others

    Rules in tennis, badminton, and squash for girls and women from June 1972 - June 1974 are discussed. Standards in the sports are detailed along with the Division for Girls and Women's Sports (DGWS) statement of beliefs. Specific articles dealing with teaching techniques, officiating techniques, and rules for tennis and badminton are presented.…

  11. Astym treatment vs. eccentric exercise for lateral elbow tendinopathy: a randomized controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Stegink-Jansen, Caroline W.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Patients with chronic lateral elbow (LE) tendinopathy, commonly known as tennis elbow, often experience prolonged symptoms and frequent relapses. Astym treatment, evidenced in animal studies to promote the healing and regeneration of soft tissues, is hypothesized to improve outcomes in LE tendinopathy patients. This study had two objectives: (1) to compare the efficacy of Astym treatment to an evidence-based eccentric exercise program (EE) for patients with chronic LE tendinopathy, and (2) to quantify outcomes of subjects non-responsive to EE who were subsequently treated with Astym treatment. Study Design. Prospective, two group, parallel, randomized controlled trial completed at a large orthopedic center in Indiana. Inclusion criteria: age range of 18–65 years old, with clinical indications of LE tendinopathy greater than 12 weeks, with no recent corticosteriod injection or disease altering comorbidities. Methods. Subjects with chronic LE tendinopathy (107 subjects with 113 affected elbows) were randomly assigned using computer-generated random number tables to 4 weeks of Astym treatment (57 elbows) or EE treatment (56 elbows). Data collected at baseline, 4, 8, 12 weeks, 6 and 12 months. Primary outcome measure: DASH; secondary outcome measures: pain with activity, maximum grip strength and function. The treating physicians and the rater were blinded; subjects and treating clinicians could not be blinded due to the nature of the treatments. Results. Resolution response rates were 78.3% for the Astym group and 40.9% for the EE group. Astym subjects showed greater gains in DASH scores (p = 0.047) and in maximum grip strength (p = 0.008) than EE subjects. Astym therapy also resolved 20/21 (95.7%) of the EE non-responders, who showed improvements in DASH scores (p < 0.005), pain with activity (p = 0.002), and function (p = 0.004) following Astym treatment. Gains continued at 6 and 12 months. No adverse effects were reported. Conclusion. This study

  12. Cutaneous lupus erythematosus of elbows: A distinct entity?

    PubMed

    Singh, Nidhi; Chandrashekar, Laxmisha; Kumar, Nava; Kar, Rakhee; Sylvia, Mary Theresa; Thappa, Devinder Mohan

    2016-01-01

    The elbow is not recognized as common site for cutaneous lupus erythematosus (CLE) lesions. Twelve cases of CLE over the elbows were evaluated for systemic involvement and Cutaneous Lupus Disease Area and Severity Index activity and damage scores and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index scoring was done. Histopathological examination of the affected skin was performed in doubtful cases. Most of the patients were women (10, 83.3%) with mean age of 28.75 years. Three patients had only elbow lesions and the remaining nine patients had CLE lesions at sites other than the elbows, of which five had elbow lesions preceding skin lesions elsewhere over the body and three patients were not aware of whether elbow lesions preceded or succeeded CLE lesions at other sites, and one patient had noticed malar rash 9 months prior to elbow lesions. All the patients antinuclear antibody positivity, systemic involvement, and fulfilled criteria for systemic lupus erythematosus. This peculiar localization of CLE to the elbows may be associated with a greater risk of systemic involvement and may be an predictor of flare of LE.

  13. Tennis is not dangerous for the spine during growth: results of a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Zaina, Fabio; Donzelli, Sabrina; Lusini, Monia; Fusco, Claudia; Minnella, Salvatore; Negrini, Stefano

    2016-09-01

    Tennis is widely practiced by adolescents in many countries. Many spinal deformity experts consider this activity, together with other asymmetrical sports, as risk factors for scoliosis development even though scientific data are missing. The aim of the present study was to verify the prevalence of spinal deformities and LBP in adolescent competitive tennis players compared to healthy controls. We designed a cross-sectional study. A convenience sample of 102 adolescent tennis players (52 girls) was compared to 203 scholars (102 girls) of the same age (12 years). We used a questionnaire to collect data on LBP and we measured the ATR to screen for spinal deformities and the plumb line distances for kyphosis (C7 and C7 + L3) and lordosis (L3). We found similar spinal deformities in both groups: ATR female: 3.2° ± 1° (tennis) versus 2.8° ± 1° (school), NS; ATR males: 2.8° ± 1° (tennis) versus 2.6° ± 1° (school), p < 0.05. No differences were found for kyphosis and lordosis. Low back pain prevalence was similar for both groups, but a significant difference was found for limitation of usual activity, which was higher for tennis players than controls. The correlation between tennis, an asymmetric sport, and spinal deformities that has been postulated by many experts was not confirmed by our data. There was no correlation between tennis and LBP, even if there were some differences among groups for limitations of the daily activities. Adolescent competitive tennis showed to be a safe sport without an increased risk of spinal deformities and LBP.

  14. Pediatric sports elbow injuries.

    PubMed

    Greiwe, R Michael; Saifi, Comron; Ahmad, Christopher S

    2010-10-01

    Elbow injuries in the pediatric and adolescent population represent a spectrum of pathology that can be categorized as medial tension injuries, lateral compression injuries, and posterior shear injuries. Early and accurate diagnosis can improve outcomes for both nonoperative and operative treatments. Prevention strategies are important to help reduce the increasing incidence of elbow injuries in youth athletes. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Energy Requirement Assessment in Japanese Table Tennis Players Using the Doubly Labeled Water Method.

    PubMed

    Sagayama, Hiroyuki; Hamaguchi, Genki; Toguchi, Makiko; Ichikawa, Mamiko; Yamada, Yosuke; Ebine, Naoyuki; Higaki, Yasuki; Tanaka, Hiroaki

    2017-10-01

    Total daily energy expenditure (TEE) and physical activity level (PAL) are important for adequate nutritional management in athletes. The PAL of table tennis has been estimated to about 2.0: it is categorized as a moderateactivity sport (4.0 metabolic equivalents [METs]) in the Compendium of Physical Activities. However, modern table tennis makes high physiological demands. The aims of the current study were to examine (1) TEE and PAL of competitive table tennis players and (2) the physiological demands of various types of table tennis practice. In Experiment 1, we measured TEE and PAL in 10 Japanese college competitive table tennis players (aged 19.9 ± 1.1 years) using the doubly labeled water (DLW) method during training and with an exercise training log and self-reported energy intake. TEE was 15.5 ± 1.9 MJ·day -1 (3695 ± 449 kcal·day -1 ); PAL was 2.53 ± 0.25; and the average training duration was 181 ± 38 min·day -1 . In Experiment 2, we measured METs of five different practices in seven college competition players (20.6 ± 1.2 years). Three practices without footwork were 4.5-5.2 METs, and two practices with footwork were 9.5-11.5 METs. Table tennis practices averaged 7.1 ± 3.2 METS demonstrating similarities with other vigorous racket sports. In conclusion the current Compendium of Physical Activities underestimates the physiological demands of table tennis practice for competition; the estimated energy requirement should be based on DLW method data.

  16. Sport Nutrition and Doping in Tennis: An Analysis of Athletes’ Attitudes and Knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Kondric, Miran; Sekulic, Damir; Uljevic, Ognjen; Gabrilo, Goran; Zvan, Milan

    2013-01-01

    Nutrition and doping issues are rarely studied in the sport of tennis. The aims of this investigation were to determine knowledge on doping (KD) and knowledge on sport nutrition (KSN), and corresponding socio-demographic-, sport-, and sport-nutrition- and doping-factors among an international sample of high-level tennis players of both sexes (43 females; 22 years old on average). In the first phase of the investigation, the KSN and KD questionnaires were studied for their reliability and validity. The consumption of NS is found to be very high, with almost of all the females and 80% of the males using NS at least occasionally. The athletes showed a low tendency regarding future doping usage, although most of them are convinced that doping does exist in tennis. Since athletes declared that their coaches are their main source of information about NS and doping, future studies should investigate what coaches actually know about such problems. KSN has been found to be protective against potential doping behavior in the future. Males are found to be more prone to doping than females. Therefore, in order to prevent doping behavior in tennis we strongly suggest intensive educational programs on sports nutrition and doping-related problems. Key Points The incidence of nutritional supplementation use among the tennis players is found to be very high, especially among the females. Although most of the subjects are of the opinion that the doping behavior is present in tennis circuit, we have found a low tendency regarding future doping usage, and high levels of athletes’ trust in their coaches with regard to nutritional supplementation and doping. There are indices that the knowledge about nutrition is protective factor against potential doping behavior. It clearly reinforces the need to include a wide educational program on sports nutrition in tennis, but also in other sports. PMID:24149808

  17. Injury trend analysis from the US Open Tennis Championships between 1994 and 2009.

    PubMed

    Sell, Katie; Hainline, Brian; Yorio, Michael; Kovacs, Mark

    2014-04-01

    Injuries can be a debilitating aspect of professional tennis. Injury rates and trends at the US Open Tennis Championships over multiple years are unknown. The purpose of this study was to examine injury trends in professional tennis players competing in a major professional tennis tournament between 1994 and 2009. From 1994 to 2009, injury data from the US Open Tennis Championships were recorded. Injuries were classified by location and type using terminology derived from a consensus statement developed specifically for tennis. Injury rates were determined based on the exposure of an athlete to a match event, and were calculated as the ratio of injuries per 1000 match exposures (MEs). There was a statistically significant fluctuation in injuries across the timeframe analysed (p<0.05). There were 76.2±19.6 total injuries and 43.8±11.8 acute injuries per year seeking medical assistance. Muscle or tendon injuries were the most common type of acute injury. The rate of lower limb injuries was significantly higher than upper limb and trunk injuries (p<0.01). The ankle, followed by the wrist, knee, foot/toe and shoulder/clavicle were the most common injury sites. Acute injuries occurred more frequently than gradual-onset injuries, and most common injury types were similar to previously examined populations. However, there were differences in injury location trends compared to previous research, suggesting that further research in this elite-level population is warranted.

  18. Concerns on Little League Elbow.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Michael J.; Bell, Gerald W.

    1995-01-01

    Little league elbow is a common overuse injury resulting from repetitive valgus stress on the elbow during overhead throwing. Prevention and treatment should emphasize education of athletes, parents, and coaches about its etiology. The paper examines bone development, noting that the condition is highly treatable if diagnosed in early development.…

  19. Total elbow arthroplasty in primary osteoarthritis of the elbow.

    PubMed

    Kozak, T K; Adams, R A; Morrey, B F

    1998-10-01

    Primary osteoarthritis of the elbow is an infrequent condition typically managed by some form of debridement. There is no comment in the literature regarding prosthetic replacement for this condition. We report 5 patients (mean age, 68), with a minimum assessment of 3 years (range, 37-125 years) after total elbow arthroplasty. Complications in 4 patients included subluxation, fracture of a humeral component with particulate synovitis, heterotopic ossification, recurrent osteophyte formation, and transient ulnar neuropathy. Although revision was required in 2 of the 5, currently all experience had satisfactory outcomes. While replacement has proven ultimately to be a successful option for this high-demand patient group because of the high complication rate, we do not recommend replacement unless alternate operative options are deemed unacceptable.

  20. Recognition of tennis serve performed by a digital player: comparison among polygon, shadow, and stick-figure models.

    PubMed

    Ida, Hirofumi; Fukuhara, Kazunobu; Ishii, Motonobu

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the cognitive effect of human character models on the observer's ability to extract relevant information from computer graphics animation of tennis serve motions. Three digital human models (polygon, shadow, and stick-figure) were used to display the computationally simulated serve motions, which were perturbed at the racket-arm by modulating the speed (slower or faster) of one of the joint rotations (wrist, elbow, or shoulder). Twenty-one experienced tennis players and 21 novices made discrimination responses about the modulated joint and also specified the perceived swing speeds on a visual analogue scale. The result showed that the discrimination accuracies of the experienced players were both above and below chance level depending on the modulated joint whereas those of the novices mostly remained at chance or guessing levels. As far as the experienced players were concerned, the polygon model decreased the discrimination accuracy as compared with the stick-figure model. This suggests that the complicated pictorial information may have a distracting effect on the recognition of the observed action. On the other hand, the perceived swing speed of the perturbed motion relative to the control was lower for the stick-figure model than for the polygon model regardless of the skill level. This result suggests that the simplified visual information can bias the perception of the motion speed toward slower. It was also shown that the increasing the joint rotation speed increased the perceived swing speed, although the resulting racket velocity had little correlation with this speed sensation. Collectively, observer's recognition of the motion pattern and perception of the motion speed can be affected by the pictorial information of the human model as well as by the perturbation processing applied to the observed motion.

  1. Use of the Liverpool Elbow Score as a postal questionnaire for the assessment of outcome after total elbow arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Ashmore, Alexander M; Gozzard, Charles; Blewitt, Neil

    2007-01-01

    The Liverpool Elbow Score (LES) is a newly developed, validated elbow-specific score. It consists of a patient-answered questionnaire (PAQ) and a clinical assessment. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the PAQ portion of the LES could be used independently as a postal questionnaire for the assessment of outcome after total elbow arthroplasty and to correlate the LES and the Mayo Elbow Performance Score (MEPS). A series of 51 total elbow replacements were reviewed by postal questionnaire. Patients then attended the clinic for assessment by use of both the LES and the MEPS. There was an excellent response rate to the postal questionnaire (98%), and 44 elbows were available for clinical review. Good correlation was shown between the LES and the MEPS (Spearman correlation coefficient, 0.84; P < .001) and between the PAQ portion of the LES and the MEPS (Spearman correlation coefficient, 0.76; P < .001). We conclude that there is good correlation between the LES PAQ component and the MEPS, suggesting that outcome assessment is possible by postal questionnaire.

  2. Event-based image recognition applied in tennis training assistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wawrzyniak, Zbigniew M.; Kowalski, Adam

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents a concept of a real-time system for individual tennis training assistance. The system is supposed to provide user (player) with information on his strokes accuracy as well as other training quality parameters such as velocity and rotation of the ball during its flight. The method is based on image processing methods equipped with developed explorative analysis of the events and their description by parameters of the movement. There has been presented the concept for further deployment to create a complete system that could assist tennis player during individual training.

  3. Elbow Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... tear damage than are many other joints. Seek emergency care if you have: An obvious deformity in ... http://www.mayoclinic.org/symptoms/elbow-pain/basics/definition/SYM-20050874 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and ...

  4. Adaptive Alterations in Shoulder Range of Motion and Strength in Young Tennis Players

    PubMed Central

    Gillet, Benoit; Begon, Mickaël; Sevrez, Violaine; Berger-Vachon, Christian; Rogowski, Isabelle

    2017-01-01

    Context: Playing tennis requires unilateral and intensive movement of the upper limb, which may lead to functional adaptations of the shoulder and an increased injury risk. Identifying which athletes will be future elite tennis players starts at 5 to 6 years of age. Therefore, highly skilled players practice intensively in their childhood. However, whether these functional changes occur during the prepubertal years has not been established. Objectives: To assess changes in glenohumeral-joint–rotation range of motion and strength of the shoulder-complex muscles in prepubertal elite tennis players. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Tennis training sports facilities. Patients or Other Participants: Sixty-seven male tennis players (age range = 7–13 years) selected by a regional tennis center of excellence were divided into 3 biological age groups relative to their predicted age at peak height velocity: greater than 4 (n = 26; age = 8.7 ± 0.7 years, height = 132.4 ± 12.9 cm, mass = 27.8 ± 3.8 kg), 3 to 4 (n = 21; age = 10.3 ± 0.6 years, height = 144.9 ± 5.7 cm, mass = 34.7 ± 4.0 kg), and 2 (n = 20; age = 12.8 ± 1.4 years, height = 158.5 ± 8.7 cm, mass = 43.0 ± 8.2 kg) years before their age at peak height velocity. Main Outcome Measures(s): We measured the internal- and external-rotation ranges of motion of the glenohumeral joint using a goniometer and calculated the total arc of motion. Maximal isometric strength of 8 shoulder muscles was measured using a handheld dynamometer. Strength values were normalized to body weight and used to calculate 4 agonist-to-antagonist strength ratios. Results: The total arc of motion of the glenohumeral joint decreased gradually with biological age (P ≤ .01) due to the decrease in internal-rotation range of motion (P < .001). Absolute strength increased gradually with biological age (P < .001), but the relative strengths and ratios remained similar. Conclusions: Functional adaptations of the shoulder seen in

  5. Treatment strategy and long-term functional outcome of traumatic elbow dislocation in childhood: a single centre study.

    PubMed

    Nussberger, G; Schädelin, S; Mayr, J; Studer, D; Zimmermann, P

    2018-04-01

    Traumatic elbow dislocation (TED) is the most common injury of large joints in children. There is an ongoing debate on the optimal treatment for TED. We aimed to assess the functional outcome after operative and nonoperative treatment of TED. We analysed the medical records of patients with TED treated at the University Children's Hospital, Basel, between March 2006 and June 2015. Functional outcome was assessed using the Mayo Elbow Performance Score (MEPS) and Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (QuickDASH) Sport and Music Module score. These scores were compared between nonoperatively and operatively treated patients. A total of 37 patients (mean age 10.2 years, 5.2 to 15.3) were included. Of these, 21 (56.8%) children had undergone nonoperative treatment, with 16 (43.2%) patients having had operative treatment. After a mean follow-up of 5.6 years (1.2 to 5.9), MEPS and QuickDASH Sport and Music Module scores in the nonoperative group and operative group were similar: MEPS: 97.1 points (SD 4.6) versus 97.2 points (SD 2.6); 95% confidence interval (CI)-2.56 to 2.03); p = 0.53; QuickDASH Sport and Music Module score: 3.9 points (SD 6.1) versus 3.1 points (SD 4.6); 95% CI 2.60 to 4.17; p = 0.94. We noted no significant differences regarding the long-term functional outcome between the subgroup of children treated operatively versus those treated nonoperatively for TED with accompanying fractures of the medial epicondyle and medial condyle. Functional outcome after TED was excellent, independent of the treatment strategy. If clear indications for surgery are absent, a nonoperative approach for TED should be considered. Level III - therapeutic, retrospective, comparative study.

  6. Large asymmetric hypertrophy of rectus abdominis muscle in professional tennis players.

    PubMed

    Sanchis-Moysi, Joaquin; Idoate, Fernando; Dorado, Cecilia; Alayón, Santiago; Calbet, Jose A L

    2010-12-31

    To determine the volume and degree of asymmetry of the musculus rectus abdominis (RA) in professional tennis players. The volume of the RA was determined using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 8 professional male tennis players and 6 non-active male control subjects. Tennis players had 58% greater RA volume than controls (P = 0.01), due to hypertrophy of both the dominant (34% greater volume, P = 0.02) and non-dominant (82% greater volume, P = 0.01) sides, after accounting for age, the length of the RA muscle and body mass index (BMI) as covariates. In tennis players, there was a marked asymmetry in the development of the RA, which volume was 35% greater in the non-dominant compared to the dominant side (P<0.001). In contrast, no side-to-side difference in RA volume was observed in the controls (P = 0.75). The degree of side-to-side asymmetry increased linearly from the first lumbar disc to the pubic symphysis (r = 0.97, P<0.001). Professional tennis is associated with marked hypertrophy of the musculus rectus abdominis, which achieves a volume that is 58% greater than in non-active controls. Rectus abdominis hypertrophy is more marked in the non-dominant than in the dominant side, particularly in the more distal regions. Our study supports the concept that humans can differentially recruit both rectus abdominis but also the upper and lower regions of each muscle. It remains to be determined if this disequilibrium raises the risk of injury.

  7. Implementation of Motor Imagery during Specific Aerobic Training Session in Young Tennis Players

    PubMed Central

    Guillot, Aymeric; Di Rienzo, Franck; Pialoux, Vincent; Simon, Germain; Skinner, Sarah; Rogowski, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of implementing motor imagery (MI) during specific tennis high intensity intermittent training (HIIT) sessions on groundstroke performance in young elite tennis players. Stroke accuracy and ball velocity of forehand and backhand drives were evaluated in ten young tennis players, immediately before and after having randomly performed two HIIT sessions. One session included MI exercises during the recovery phases, while the other included verbal encouragements for physical efforts and served as control condition. Results revealed that similar cardiac demand was observed during both sessions, while implementing MI maintained groundstroke accuracy. Embedding MI during HIIT enabled the development of physical fitness and the preservation of stroke performance. These findings bring new insight to tennis and conditioning coaches in order to fulfil the benefits of specific playing HIIT sessions, and therefore to optimise the training time. PMID:26580804

  8. Restoration of Elbow Flexion.

    PubMed

    Loeffler, Bryan J; Lewis, Daniel R

    2016-08-01

    Active elbow flexion is required to position the hand in space, and loss of this function is debilitating. Nerve transfers or nerve grafts to restore elbow flexion may be options when the target muscle is viable, but in delayed reconstruction when the biceps and brachialis are atrophied or damaged, muscle transfer options should be considered. Muscle transfer options are discussed with attention to the advantages and disadvantages of each transfer option. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The role of arthroscopy in chronic elbow instability.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, David; Dynin, Maria; Macdonnell, J Ryan; Kessler, Michael W

    2013-12-01

    Elbow arthroscopy has had an emerging role in the management of many disorders of the elbow. In patients with chronic elbow instability, several arthroscopic techniques have been described in the diagnosis and management of posterolateral rotatory instability and valgus instability. We performed a systematic review investigating the role of arthroscopy in posterolateral rotatory instability and valgus instability in the elbow using the PubMed and CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature) databases, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, consisting of articles from peer-reviewed journals published in the English language after January 1, 1991. Search criteria initially identified 249 articles. Twenty-five articles met criteria for inclusion. This included 17 review articles, 4 cadaveric studies, 3 retrospective studies, and 1 prospective study. Two of the retrospective studies compared arthroscopic and open techniques. Articles included in this systematic review concluded that arthroscopy is an accurate adjunct to physical examination and imaging in the diagnosis of chronic elbow instability and affords an exceptional view of the joint with the ability to address intra-articular pathologic conditions. Arthroscopic surgical techniques have shown equivalent clinical outcomes in a comparison of arthroscopic and open techniques. Elbow arthroscopy is a valuable tool in the diagnosis and management of chronic elbow instability. Patients treated arthroscopically benefit from additional diagnostic techniques, improved visualization of the elbow joint, the ability to address coexisting intra-articular pathologic conditions, and minimal soft tissue injury with no clinical consequences in outcomes. With such significant advantages, the use of elbow arthroscopy is likely to expand in the management of chronic elbow instability. Level IV, systematic review. Copyright © 2013 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc

  10. A primer for physical examination of the elbow.

    PubMed

    Zouzias, Ioannis C; Byram, Ian R; Shillingford, Jamal N; Levine, William N

    2012-02-01

    The elbow is a complex joint consisting of 3 separate but important articulations: the ulnohumeral, radiohumeral, and proximal radioulnar joints. The elbow assists in positioning the hand in space through 2 important motions, flexion-extension and pronation-supination. Although the elbow is not a weightbearing joint, it is subjected to significant loads, especially in overhead and throwing athletes. An accurate knowledge of the anatomy and physiology of the elbow joint is critical for conducting a focused physical examination and arriving at an accurate diagnosis. The goal of this article is to review general and focused physical examination of the elbow in a systematic manner based on medial, lateral, anterior, and posterior aspects.

  11. Why bigger may in fact be better... in the context of table tennis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truscott, Tadd; Pan, Zhao; Belden, Jesse

    2014-11-01

    We submit that table tennis is too fast. Because of the high ball velocities relative to the small table size, players are required to act extremely quickly, often exceeding the limits of human reaction time. Additionally, the Magnus effect resulting from large rotation rates introduces dramatically curved paths and causes rapid direction changes after striking the table or paddle, which effectively reduces reaction time further. Moreover, watching a professional game is often uninteresting and even tiring because the ball is moving too quickly to follow with the naked eye and the action of the players is too subtle to resolve from a distance. These facts isolate table tennis from our quantitatively defined ``fun game club,'' and make it less widely appealing than sports like baseball and soccer. Over the past 100 years, the rules of table tennis have changed several times in an effort to make the game more attractive to players and spectators alike, but the game continues to lose popularity. Here, we experimentally quantify the historic landmark equipment changes of table tennis from a fluid dynamics perspective. Based on theory and observation, we suggest a larger diameter ball for table tennis to make the game more appealing to both spectators and amateur players.

  12. Effects of tennis play on executive function in 6-11-year-old children: a 12-month longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Ishihara, Toru; Mizuno, Masao

    2018-06-01

    The present study aimed to assess the effects of 12 months of frequent tennis play on executive functions and the relationships of daily moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), physical competence, and enjoyment of playing tennis to executive functions in children. Thirty-two children (6-11 years old) who had regularly played tennis (once a week; mean = 3 years, range = 0-6 years) before the study were enrolled in a 12-month intervention. Participants were allocated into two groups: low-dose (maintain current frequency of tennis play, N = 19) or high-dose (increased frequency of tennis play to four times per week, N = 13). Participants' MVPA, physical competence, enjoyment of playing tennis, and executive functions (i.e. inhibitory control, working memory, and cognitive flexibility) were evaluated before and after this intervention. The high-dose group demonstrated a greater improvement in working memory than the low-dose group, while there was no group difference in MVPA, physical competence, and enjoyment of playing tennis. Changes in MVPA were associated with improvements in cognitive flexibility. Changes in physical competence were associated with improvements in working memory and cognitive flexibility. Changes in the enjoyment of playing tennis were associated with improvements in inhibitory control. The current findings suggest that replacement of MVPA with sports activity, such as tennis enhances executive functions development, and suggest that sports programmes that seek to build competence and enjoyment might help support the development of executive functions in children.

  13. Assessing the therapeutic effect of 625-nm light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Zongzhen; Xu, Guodong; Yang, Yi

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate the effects of red Light-Emitting Diodes on elbow extensor and flexor strength and the recovery of exercise induced fatigue, the torque values from the isokinetic dynamometer as well as biochemistry parameters were used as outcome measures. A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled crossover trial was performed with twenty male young tennis athletes. Active LED therapy (LEDT, with wavelength 625nm, 10 minutes total irradiation time, irradiated area amount to 30cm2, and 900J of total energy irradiated) or an identical placebo was delivered under double-blinded conditions to the left elbow just before exercise. The isokinetic muscle strength was measured immediately after irradiation. The blood lactate levels were sampled pre-exercise and post-exercise. The peak torque values of elbow extensor strength were significantly different between two groups. As in elbow flexor strength, the difference of peak torque was not significant. The blood lactate concentration of LEDT group post-exercise was significantly lower than those of placebo group. The results indicate that 625nm LED therapy is effective in preventing muscle fatigue as it can significantly reduce peak torque value of elbow extensors and blood lactate concentration. It has no effect on the strength of left elbow flexor or backhand performance in tennis.

  14. High temperature lined conduits, elbows and tees

    DOEpatents

    De Feo, Angelo; Drewniany, Edward

    1982-01-01

    A high temperature lined conduit comprising, a liner, a flexible insulating refractory blanket around and in contact with the liner, a pipe member around the blanket and spaced therefrom, and castable rigid refractory material between the pipe member and the blanket. Anchors are connected to the inside diameter of the pipe and extend into the castable material. The liner includes male and female slip joint ends for permitting thermal expansion of the liner with respect to the castable material and the pipe member. Elbows and tees of the lined conduit comprise an elbow liner wrapped with insulating refractory blanket material around which is disposed a spaced elbow pipe member with castable refractory material between the blanket material and the elbow pipe member. A reinforcing band is connected to the elbow liner at an intermediate location thereon from which extend a plurality of hollow tubes or pins which extend into the castable material to anchor the lined elbow and permit thermal expansion. A method of fabricating the high temperature lined conduit, elbows and tees is also disclosed which utilizes a polyethylene layer over the refractory blanket after it has been compressed to maintain the refractory blanket in a compressed condition until the castable material is in place. Hot gases are then directed through the interior of the liner for evaporating the polyethylene and setting the castable material which permits the compressed blanket to come into close contact with the castable material.

  15. Percutaneous Soft Tissue Release for Treating Chronic Recurrent Myofascial Pain Associated with Lateral Epicondylitis: 6 Case Studies

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ming-Ta; Chou, Li-Wei; Chen, Hsin-Shui; Kao, Mu-Jung

    2012-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of this pilot study is to investigate the effectiveness of the percutaneous soft tissue release for the treatment of recurrent myofascial pain in the forearm due to recurrent lateral epicondylitis. Methods. Six patients with chronic recurrent pain in the forearm with myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) due to chronic lateral epicondylitis were treated with percutaneous soft tissue release of Lin's technique. Pain intensity (measured with a numerical pain rating scale), pressure pain threshold (measured with a pressure algometer), and grasping strength (measured with a hand dynamometer) were assessed before, immediately after, and 3 months and 12 months after the treatment. Results. For every individual case, the pain intensity was significantly reduced (P < 0.01) and the pressure pain threshold and the grasping strength were significantly increased (P < 0.01) immediately after the treatment. This significant effectiveness lasts for at least one year. Conclusions. It is suggested that percutaneous soft tissue release can be used for treating chronic recurrent lateral epicondylitis to avoid recurrence, if other treatment, such as oral anti-inflammatory medicine, physical therapy, or local steroid injection, cannot control the recurrent pain. PMID:23243428

  16. Favorable Responsiveness of the Hand10 Questionnaire to Assess Treatment Outcomes for Lateral Epicondylitis.

    PubMed

    Nishizuka, Takanobu; Iwatsuki, Katsuyuki; Kurimoto, Shigeru; Yamamoto, Michiro; Onishi, Tetsuro; Hirata, Hitoshi

    2018-06-01

    The aim of our study was to compare the responsiveness of the Hand10 questionnaire and the Pain visual analogue scale (VAS) for the assessment of lateral epicondylitis. The standardized response mean and effect size were used as indicators of responsiveness, measured at baseline and after 6 months of treatment. Among the 54 patients enrolled, 28 were treated using a forearm band, compress and stretching, with the other 26 patients treated using compress and stretching. The standardized response mean and the effect size were 1.18 and 1.38, respectively, of the Hand10 and 1.39 and 1.75, respectively, for the Pain VAS. The responsiveness of both tests was considered to be large, based on Cohen's classification of effect size, supporting the use of the Hand10 questionnaire to assess treatment outcomes for lateral epicondylitis.

  17. Elbow joint fatigue and bench-press training.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yen-Po; Chou, You-Li; Chen, Feng-Chun; Wang, Rong-Tyai; Huang, Ming-Jer; Chou, Paul Pei-Hsi

    2014-01-01

    Bench-press exercises are among the most common form of training exercise for the upper extremity because they yield a notable improvement in both muscle strength and muscle endurance. The literature contains various investigations into the effects of different bench-press positions on the degree of muscle activation. However, the effects of fatigue on the muscular performance and kinetics of the elbow joint are not understood fully. To investigate the effects of fatigue on the kinetics and myodynamic performance of the elbow joint in bench-press training. Controlled laboratory study. Motion research laboratory. A total of 18 physically healthy male students (age = 19.6 ± 0.8 years, height = 168.7 ± 5.5 cm, mass = 69.6 ± 8.6 kg) participated in the investigation. All participants were right-hand dominant, and none had a history of upper extremity injuries or disorders. Participants performed bench-press training until fatigued. Maximal possible number of repetitions, cycle time, myodynamic decline rate, elbow-joint force, and elbow-joint moment. We observed a difference in cycle time in the initial (2.1 ± 0.42 seconds) and fatigue (2.58 ± 0.46 seconds) stages of the bench-press exercise (P = .04). As the participants fatigued, we observed an increase in the medial-lateral force (P = .03) and internal-external moment (P ≤ .04) acting on the elbow joint. Moreover, a reduction in the elbow muscle strength was observed in the elbow extension-flexion (P ≤ .003) and forearm supination-pronation (P ≤ .001) conditions. The results suggest that performing bench-press exercises to the point of fatigue increases elbow-joint loading and may further increase the risk of injury. Therefore, when clinicians design bench-press exercise regimens for general athletic training, muscle strengthening, or physical rehabilitation, they should control carefully the maximal number of repetitions.

  18. Shoulder functional ratio in elite junior tennis players.

    PubMed

    Saccol, Michele Forgiarini; Gracitelli, Guilherme Conforto; da Silva, Rogério Teixeira; Laurino, Cristiano Frota de Souza; Fleury, Anna Maria; Andrade, Marília dos Santos; da Silva, Antonio Carlos

    2010-02-01

    To evaluate shoulder rotation strength and compare the functional ratio between shoulders of elite junior tennis players. This cross-sectional study evaluated muscular rotation performance of 40 junior tennis players (26 male and 14 female) with an isokinetic dynamometer. Strength variables of external (ER) and internal rotators (IR) in concentric and eccentric modes were considered. For the peak torque functional ratio, the eccentric strength of the ER and the concentric strength of the IR were calculated. All variables related to IR were significantly higher on the dominant compared to the non-dominant side in males and females (p<0.05), but only boys exhibited this dominance effect in ER (p<0.05 and p<0.001). Regarding functional ratios, they were significantly lower for the dominant shoulder (p<0.001) and below 1.00 for both groups, indicating that the eccentric strength of the ER was not greater than the concentric strength of the IR. Elite junior tennis players without shoulder injury have shoulder rotation muscle strength imbalances that alter the normal functional ratio between rotator cuff muscles. Although these differences do not seem to affect the athletic performance, detection and prevention with exercise programs at an early age are recommended. Crown Copyright 2009. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The Influence of Training Strategy and Physical Condition toward Forehand Drive Ability in Table Tennis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langitan, F. W.

    2018-02-01

    The objective of this research is to find out the influence of training strategy and physical condition toward forehand drive ability in table tennis of student in faculty of sport in university of Manado, department of health and recreation education. The method used in this research was factorial 2x2 design method. The population was taken from the student of Faculty of Sport at Manado State University, Indonesia, in 2017 of 76 students for sample research. The result of this research shows that: In general, this training strategy of wall bounce gives better influence toward forehand drive ability compare with the strategy of pair training in table tennis. For the students who have strong forehand muscle, the wall bounce training strategy give better influence to their ability of forehand drive in table tennis. For the student who have weak forehand muscle, pair training strategy give better influence than wall bound training toward forehand drive ability in table tennis. There is an interaction between training using hand muscle strength to the training result in table tennis using forehand drive.

  20. Motor Imagery and Tennis Serve Performance: The External Focus Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Guillot, Aymeric; Desliens, Simon; Rouyer, Christelle; Rogowski, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    There is now ample evidence that motor imagery (MI) contributes to enhance motor performance. Previous research also demonstrated that directing athletes’ attention to the effects of their movements on the environment is more effective than focusing on the action per se. The present study aimed therefore at evaluating whether adopting an external focus during MI contributes to enhance tennis serve performance. Twelve high-level young tennis players were included in a test-retest procedure. The effects of regular training were first evaluated. Then, players were subjected to a MI intervention during which they mentally focused on ball trajectory and specifically visualized the space above the net where the serve can be successfully hit. Serve performance was evaluated during both a validated serve test and a real match. The main results showed a significant increase in accuracy and velocity during the ecological serve test after MI practice, as well as a significant improvement in successful first serves and won points during the match. Present data therefore confirmed the efficacy of MI in combination of physical practice to improve tennis serve performance, and further provided evidence that it is feasible to adopt external attentional focus during MI. Practical applications are discussed. Key Points Motor imagery contributes to enhance tennis serve performance. Data provided evidence of the benefits of adopting an external focus of attention during imagery. Results showed significant improvement in successful first serves and won points during a real match. PMID:24149813

  1. Muscle Hypertrophy in Prepubescent Tennis Players: A Segmentation MRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Sanchis-Moysi, Joaquin; Idoate, Fernando; Serrano-Sanchez, Jose A.; Dorado, Cecilia; Calbet, Jose A. L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To asses if tennis at prepubertal age elicits the hypertrophy of dominant arm muscles. Methods The volume of the muscles of both arms was determined using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 7 male prepubertal tennis players (TP) and 7 non-active control subjects (CG) (mean age 11.0±0.8 years, Tanner 1–2). Results TP had 13% greater total muscle volume in the dominant than in the contralateral arm. The magnitude of inter-arm asymmetry was greater in TP than in CG (13 vs 3%, P<0.001). The dominant arm of TP was 16% greater than the dominant arm of CG (P<0.01), whilst non-dominant arms had similar total muscle volumes in both groups (P = 0.25), after accounting for height as covariate. In TP, dominant deltoid (11%), forearm supinator (55%) and forearm flexors (21%) and extensors (25%) were hypertrophied compared to the contralateral arm (P<0.05). In CG, the dominant supinator muscle was bigger than its contralateral homonimous (63%, P<0.05). Conclusions Tennis at prepubertal age is associated with marked hypertrophy of the dominant arm, leading to a marked level of asymmetry (+13%), much greater than observed in non-active controls (+3%). Therefore, tennis particpation at prepubertal age is associated with increased muscle volumes in dominant compared to the non-dominant arm, likely due to selectively hypertrophy of the loaded muscles. PMID:22428074

  2. ACOEM practice guidelines: elbow disorders.

    PubMed

    Hegmann, Kurt T; Hoffman, Harold E; Belcourt, Roger M; Byrne, Kevin; Glass, Lee; Melhorn, J Mark; Richman, Jack; Zinni, Phillip; Thiese, Matthew S; Ott, Ulrike; Tokita, Kylee; Passey, Deborah Gwenevere; Effiong, Atim Cecelia; Robbins, Riann Bree; Ording, Julie A

    2013-11-01

    The American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine has updated the treatment guidelines in its Elbow Disorders chapter through revision processes begun in 2006. This abbreviated version of that chapter highlights some of the evidence and recommendations developed. Comprehensive systematic literature reviews were accomplished with article abstraction, critiquing, grading, evidence table compilation, and guideline finalization by a multidisciplinary expert panel and extensive peer-review to develop evidence-based guidance. Consensus recommendations were formulated when evidence was lacking and often relied on analogy to other disorders for which evidence exists. A total of 108 high- or moderate-quality trials were identified for elbow disorders. Guidance has been developed for 13 major diagnoses and includes 270 specific recommendations. Quality evidence is now available to guide treatment for elbow disorders, particularly for lateral epicondylalgia.

  3. Low Back Pain in a Tennis Player.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracker, Mark; And Others

    1988-01-01

    A group of physicians meet to discuss a case in which a middle-aged tennis player suffers from low back pain. The diagnosis, treatment and management of the case are discussed. The article is one in an occasional series. (JL)

  4. The Elbow-EpiTrainer: a method of delivering graded resistance to the extensor carpi radialis brevis. Effectiveness of a prototype device in a healthy population.

    PubMed

    Navsaria, Rishi; Ryder, Dionne M; Lewis, Jeremy S; Alexander, Caroline M

    2015-03-01

    Tennis elbow or lateral epicondylopathy (LE) is experienced as the lateral elbow has a reported prevalence of 1.3%, with symptoms lasting up to 18 months. LE is most commonly attributed to tendinopathy involving the extensor carpi radialis brevis (ECRB) tendon. The aim of tendinopathy management is to alleviate symptoms and restore function that initially involves relative rest followed by progressive therapeutic exercise. To assess the effectiveness of two prototype exercises using commonly available clinical equipment to progressively increase resistance and activity of the ECRB. Eighteen healthy participants undertook two exercise progressions. Surface electromyography was used to record ECRB activity during the two progressions, involving eccentric exercises of the wrist extensors and elbow pronation exercises using a prototype device. The two progressions were assessed for their linearity of progression using repeated ANOVA and linear regression analysis. Five participants repeated the study to assess reliability. The exercise progressions led to an increase in ECRB electromyographic (EMG) activity (p<0.001). A select progression of exercises combining the two protocols increased EMG activity in a linear fashion (p<0.001). The ICC values indicated good reliability (ICC>0.7) between the first and second tests for five participants. Manipulation of resistance and leverage with the prototype exercises was effective in creating significant increases of ECRB normalised EMG activity in a linear manner that may, with future research, become useful to clinicians treating LE. In addition, between trial reliability for the device to generate a consistent load was acceptable. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  5. Medical reasons behind player departures from male and female professional tennis competitions.

    PubMed

    Okholm Kryger, Katrine; Dor, Frédéric; Guillaume, Marion; Haida, Amal; Noirez, Philippe; Montalvan, Bernard; Toussaint, Jean-François

    2015-01-01

    The number of retirements, withdrawals, and "lucky losers" (the replacement of a player who withdraws before the start of the tournament by a losing player from the qualifying round) from professional tennis tournaments has increased, but the reasons behind such departures have not yet been analyzed. An official consensus statement has been conducted to allow a general categorization of injuries in tennis. To determine the reasons for departure and injury rates in professional tennis. Descriptive epidemiology study. All reasons for departures were collected from official Association of Tennis Professionals (ATP) and Women's Tennis Association (WTA) web pages. All tournaments apart from the 4 major competitions (the Australian Open, French Open, Wimbledon, and US Open) were included for the period 2001-2012 for men and women. Personal data, tournament information, surface, match setting, date, and reason were obtained for each departure scenario. Variations in departure and injury rates were seen throughout the season. Women left and were injured significantly more than men. Women mainly left because of thigh injuries, whereas men left mainly because of back injuries. Playing surface only had an influence on the risk of lower back injuries. Only women's departures were affected by the tournament round. A high number of departures from tournaments have occurred during the past 10 years on the ATP and WTA circuits. Injuries were the main reasons of these departures, regardless of the type of departure and player sex. The back and thigh were the main locations of injuries for men and women, respectively. © 2014 The Author(s).

  6. Pressure loss in elbow pipes of unplasticized polyvinyl chloride.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, T; Ojima, J

    1996-01-01

    In the ductwork of local exhaust systems, 90 degrees elbow pipes (JIS K 6739) are commonly used to alter the direction of airflow; thus, are important components of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) ducts. Pressure loss in 90 degrees PVC elbow pipes was investigated by measuring static pressure, and the characteristics of airflow was determined. First, a linear decrease in static pressure was observed at points of the downstream side beyond a distance of 10 times the diameter (10d) from the flanged round opening of the smooth VU ducts (JIS K6741). The linear decrease was also observed at points of the downstream side located at distances of greater than 30d from the elbow pipe. Coefficients of loss in the PVC elbow pipes were found to be constant for the Reynolds numbers ranging from 3.38 x 10(4) to 5.96 x 10(5) for all diameters examined, and a chart of pressure loss was constructed with these coefficients. The coefficients of loss in PVC elbow pipes were not equivalent to those of metal stamped elbows for any R/d. However, the differences in the coefficients between the metal stamped elbow and the PVC elbow were smaller with larger R/d values.

  7. Impingement of Droplets in 60 Deg Elbows with Potential Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hacker, Paul T.; Saper, Paul G.; Kadow, Charles F.

    1956-01-01

    Trajectories were determined for water droplets or other aerosol particles in air flowing through 600 elbows especially designed for two-dimensional potential motion. The elbows were established by selecting as walls of each elbow two streamlines of a flow field produced by a complex potential function that establishes a two-dimensional flow around. a 600 bend. An unlimited number of elbows with slightly different shapes can be established by selecting different pairs of streamlines as walls. Some of these have a pocket on the outside wall. The elbows produced by the complex potential function are suitable for use in aircraft air-inlet ducts and have the following characteristics: (1) The resultant velocity at any point inside the elbow is always greater than zero but never exceeds the velocity at the entrance. (2) The air flow field at the entrance and exit is almost uniform and rectilinear. (3) The elbows are symmetrical with respect to the bisector of the angle of bend. These elbows should have lower pressure losses than bends of constant cross-sectional area. The droplet impingement data derived from the trajectories are presented along with equations so that collection efficiency, area, rate, and distribution of droplet impingement can be determined for any elbow defined by any pair of streamlines within a portion of the flow field established by the complex potential function. Coordinates for some typical streamlines of the flow field and velocity components for several points along these streamlines are presented in tabular form. A comparison of the 600 elbow with previous calculations for a comparable 90 elbow indicated that the impingement characteristics of the two elbows were very similar.

  8. A systematic, multimodality approach to emergency elbow imaging.

    PubMed

    Singer, Adam D; Hanna, Tarek; Jose, Jean; Datir, Abhijit

    2016-01-01

    The elbow is a complex synovial hinge joint that is frequently involved in both athletic and nonathletic injuries. A thorough understanding of the normal anatomy and various injury patterns is essential when utilizing diagnostic imaging to identify damaged structures and to assist in surgical planning. In this review, the elbow anatomy will be scrutinized in a systematic approach. This will be followed by a comprehensive presentation of elbow injuries that are commonly seen in the emergency department accompanied by multimodality imaging findings. A short discussion regarding pitfalls in elbow imaging is also included. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Ranking benchmarks of top 100 players in men's professional tennis.

    PubMed

    Reid, Machar; Morris, Craig

    2013-01-01

    In men's professional tennis, players aspire to hold the top ranking position. On the way to the top spot, reaching the top 100 can be seen as a significant career milestone. National Federations undertake extensive efforts to assist their players to reach the top 100. However, objective data considering reasonable ranking yardsticks for top 100 success in men's professional tennis are lacking. Therefore, it is difficult for National Federations and those involved in player development to give empirical programming advice to young players. By taking a closer look at the ranking history of professional male tennis players, this article tries to provide those involved in player development a more objective basis for decision-making. The 100 names, countries, birthdates and ranking histories of the top 100 players listed in the Association of Tennis Professionals (ATP) at 31 December 2009 were recorded from websites in the public domain. Descriptive statistics were reported for the ranking milestones of interest. Results confirmed the merits of the International Tennis Federation's junior tour with 91% of the top 100 professionals earning a junior ranking, the mean peak of which was 94.1, s=148.9. On average, top 100 professionals achieved their best junior rankings and earned their first ATP point at similar ages, suggesting that players compete on both the junior and professional tours during their transition. Once professionally ranked, players took an average 4.5, s=2.1 years to reach the ATP top 100 at the mean age of 21.5, s=2.6 years, which contrasts with the mean current age of the top 100 of 26.8, s=3.2. The best professional rankings of players born in 1982 or earlier were positively related to the ages at which players earned their first ATP point and then entered the top 100, suggesting that the ages associated with these ranking milestones may have some forecasting potential. Future work should focus on the change in top 100 demographics over time as well

  10. Collision avoidance behavior as a function of aging and tennis playing.

    PubMed

    Lobjois, Régis; Benguigui, Nicolas; Bertsch, Jean; Broderick, Michael P

    2008-02-01

    Daily living often requires pedestrians and drivers to adapt their behavior to the displacement of other objects in their environment in order to avoid collision. Yet little research has paid attention to the effect of age on the completion of such a challenging task. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between age and collision avoidance skill and whether a sporting activity affects this. Three age groups (20-30, 60-70, and 70-80 years) of tennis players and non-players launched a projectile toward a target in order to hit it before it was hit by another "object" (a stimulus represented by apparent motion of lights). If the participant judged that time-to-collision (TTC) of the moving stimulus was not long enough for him/her to launch the projectile in time to arrive before the stimulus, the participant had to inhibit the launching. Results showed that for the non-players the number of errors in the 70-80 year-old group was significantly higher than those of the 20-30 and 60-70 year-old groups, which did not differ from each other. However, this increase was not observed in the 70-80 year-old tennis players, demonstrating a beneficial effect of playing tennis on collision avoidance skill. Results also revealed that the older groups of both tennis players and non-players were subject to the typical age-related increase in response time. Additional analyses indicated that the 70-80 year-old non-players did not adjust their actions to these age-related changes in response time. The older tennis-playing participants, however, were more likely to adjust collision avoidance behavior to their diminished response times.

  11. Biomechanical Analysis of Abdominal Injury in Tennis Serves. A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Tubez, François; Forthomme, Bénédicte; Croisier, Jean-Louis; Cordonnier, Caroline; Brüls, Olivier; Denoël, Vincent; Berwart, Gilles; Joris, Maurice; Grosdent, Stéphanie; Schwartz, Cédric

    2015-01-01

    The serve is an important stroke in any high level tennis game. A well-mastered serve is a substantial advantage for players. However, because of its repeatability and its intensity, this stroke is potentially deleterious for upper limbs, lower limbs and trunk. The trunk is a vital link in the production and transfer of energy from the lower limbs to the upper limbs; therefore, kinematic disorder could be a potential source of risk for trunk injury in tennis. This research studies the case of a professional tennis player who has suffered from a medical tear on the left rectus abdominis muscle after tennis serve. The goal of the study is to understand whether the injury could be explained by an inappropriate technique. For this purpose, we analyzed in three dimensions the kinematic and kinetic aspects of the serve. We also performed isokinetic tests of the player’s knees. We then compared the player to five other professional players as reference. We observed a possible deficit of energy transfer because of an important anterior pelvis tilt. Some compensation made by the player during the serve could be a possible higher abdominal contraction and a larger shoulder external rotation. These particularities could induce an abdominal overwork that could explain the first injury and may provoke further injuries. Key points In the proximal-distal sequence, energy is transmitted from lower limbs to upper limps via trunk. The 3D analysis tool is an indispensable test for an objective evaluation of the kinematic in the tennis serve. Multiple evaluations techniques are useful for fuller comprehension of the kinematics and contribute to the awareness of the player’s staff concerning pathologies and performance. PMID:25983591

  12. Risk factors for shoulder and elbow pain in youth baseball players.

    PubMed

    Matsuura, Tetsuya; Iwame, Toshiyuki; Suzue, Naoto; Arisawa, Kokichi; Sairyo, Koichi

    2017-05-01

    This study sought to quantify the 1-year cumulative incidence of shoulder and elbow pain among youth baseball players and identify risk factors associated with the occurrence of shoulder and elbow pain. In total, 900 youth baseball players (aged 7-11 years) were enrolled in a 1-year prospective follow-up study. One year later, the players were asked whether they had experienced episodes of shoulder or elbow pain and the following risk factors for such pain were investigated: age, position, length of baseball experience, training hours per week, and history of shoulder or elbow pain. Data for the groups with and without shoulder or elbow pain were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression models. Episodes of shoulder pain were reported by 18.3% of players and episodes of elbow pain were reported by 35.2% of players. Multivariate analysis showed that shoulder pain was associated with pitcher position, catcher position, longer training hours per week, and history of shoulder and elbow pain, and that elbow pain was associated with age, pitcher position, catcher position, longer training hours per week, and history of elbow pain. Length of baseball experience was not associated with shoulder or elbow pain. History of elbow pain, pitcher position, catcher position, and longer training hours per week were associated with both types of pain. History of shoulder pain was associated with shoulder pain but not elbow pain. Age was associated with elbow pain but not shoulder pain.

  13. Elbow stress indices using finite element analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Lixin

    Section III of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (the Code) specifies rules for the design of nuclear power plant components. NB-3600 of the Code presents a simplified design method using stress indices---Scalar Coefficients used the modify straight pipe stress equations so that they can be applied to elbows, tees and other piping components. The stress indices of piping components are allowed to be determined both analytically and experimentally. This study concentrates on the determination of B2 stress indices for elbow components using finite element analysis (FEA). First, the previous theoretical, numerical and experimental investigations on elbow behavior were comprehensively reviewed, as was the philosophy behind the use of stress indices. The areas of further research was defined. Then, a comprehensive investigation was carried out to determine how the finite element method should be used to correctly simulate an elbow's structural behavior. This investigation included choice of element type, convergence of mesh density, use of boundary restraint and a reconciliation study between FEA and laboratory experiments or other theoretical formulations in both elastic and elasto-plastic domain. Results from different computer programs were also compared. Reasonably good reconciliation was obtained. Appendix II of the Code describes the experimental method to determine B2 stress indices based on load-deflection curves. This procedure was used to compute the B2 stress indices for various loading modes on one particular elbow configuration. The B2 stress indices thus determined were found to be about half of the value calculated from the Code equation. Then the effect on B2 stress indices of those factors such as internal pressure and flange attachments were studied. Finally, the investigation was extended to other configurations of elbow components. A parametric study was conducted on different elbow sizes and schedules. Regression analysis was then used to

  14. Elbow Joint Fatigue and Bench-Press Training

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yen-Po; Chou, You-Li; Chen, Feng-Chun; Wang, Rong-Tyai; Huang, Ming-Jer; Chou, Paul Pei-Hsi

    2014-01-01

    Context: Bench-press exercises are among the most common form of training exercise for the upper extremity because they yield a notable improvement in both muscle strength and muscle endurance. The literature contains various investigations into the effects of different bench-press positions on the degree of muscle activation. However, the effects of fatigue on the muscular performance and kinetics of the elbow joint are not understood fully. Objective: To investigate the effects of fatigue on the kinetics and myodynamic performance of the elbow joint in bench-press training. Design: Controlled laboratory study. Setting: Motion research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 18 physically healthy male students (age = 19.6 ± 0.8 years, height = 168.7 ± 5.5 cm, mass = 69.6 ± 8.6 kg) participated in the investigation. All participants were right-hand dominant, and none had a history of upper extremity injuries or disorders. Intervention(s): Participants performed bench-press training until fatigued. Main Outcome Measure(s): Maximal possible number of repetitions, cycle time, myodynamic decline rate, elbow-joint force, and elbow-joint moment. Results: We observed a difference in cycle time in the initial (2.1 ± 0.42 seconds) and fatigue (2.58 ± 0.46 seconds) stages of the bench-press exercise (P = .04). As the participants fatigued, we observed an increase in the medial-lateral force (P = .03) and internal-external moment (P ≤ .04) acting on the elbow joint. Moreover, a reduction in the elbow muscle strength was observed in the elbow extension-flexion (P ≤ .003) and forearm supination-pronation (P ≤ .001) conditions. Conclusions: The results suggest that performing bench-press exercises to the point of fatigue increases elbow-joint loading and may further increase the risk of injury. Therefore, when clinicians design bench-press exercise regimens for general athletic training, muscle strengthening, or physical rehabilitation, they should

  15. Snapping plicae associated with radiocapitellar chondromalacia.

    PubMed

    Antuna, S A; O'Driscoll, S W

    2001-05-01

    Painful snapping of the elbow joint is usually attributed to intra-articular loose bodies, instability, or medial dislocation of the triceps muscle over the medial epicondyle. We report our experience with 14 patients who were treated arthroscopically for snapping elbow that was found to be caused by hypertrophic synovial folds associated with radiocapitellar chondromalacia. Case series. The records of 14 patients who were treated arthroscopically for painful snapping elbows caused by intra-articular plicae were reviewed. There were 6 women and 8 men with an average age of 36 years (range, 27 to 48 years). Nine patients had had some type of trauma to the joint. Four patients had been previously diagnosed with lateral epicondylitis and 5 with intra-articular loose bodies. The average time from initial onset of symptoms to treatment was 13 months (range, 8 to 36 months). Average follow-up was 24 months (range, 6 to 66 months). All patients complained of painful snapping in the posterolateral or anterolateral aspect of the elbow. The snapping occurred between 90 degrees and 110 degrees of flexion with the forearm in pronation. In 7 patients, the snapping was reproducible by passively flexing the pronated elbow, which we refer to as the flexion-pronation test. At the time of arthroscopic surgery, all patients had a thickened synovial plica that would snap back and forward over the radial head, usually associated with a chondromalacic area on the radial head. Twelve patients had complete relief of their snapping after surgery. One patient in whom there was associated posterolateral rotatory elbow instability did not improve. One patient became asymptomatic for 4 years but then had recurrence of her symptoms, which persisted despite 2 subsequent arthroscopies. The presence of synovial plicae in the radiocapitellar joint must be considered in the differential diagnosis of painful snapping elbow. Arthroscopy confirms the diagnosis and allows excision of the plica.

  16. Neck Cooling Improves Table Tennis Performance amongst Young National Level Players

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Terun; Bottoms, Lindsay

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the effects of neck cooling on table tennis performance. Eight young, National level, male table tennis players (age 16 ± 2 years, height 1.77 ± 0.08 m, body mass 67.54 ± 10.66 kg) were recruited. Participants attended four testing sessions separated by a week. Session one determined fitness levels, and session two was a familiarisation trial. The final two sessions involved completing the table tennis-specific protocol either with (ICE) or without (CON) neck cooling for 1 min before each exercise period (bout: 80–90 shots), which represented an individual game. The exercise protocol required completing three bouts to represent a match, each simulating a different skill (forehand, backhand, alternate forehand and backhand), against a mechanical ball thrower. Performance was measured by the number of balls hitting two pre-determined targets. Heart rate, ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), and thermal sensation (TS) were measured. Total performance scores (shots on target) were significantly greater during ICE (136 ± 26), compared to CON (120 ± 25; p = 0.006) with a 15 (±12)% improvement. Effects for time (p < 0.05) but not condition (p > 0.05) were found for RPE and all other physiological variables. TS significantly decreased with cooling throughout the protocol (p = 0.03). Neck cooling appears to be beneficial for table tennis performance by lowering thermal sensation. PMID:29910379

  17. Tennis Coaching: Applying the Game Sense Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pill, Shane; Hewitt, Mitchell

    2017-01-01

    This article demonstrates the game sense approach for teaching tennis to novice players. In a game sense approach, learning is positioned within modified games to emphasize the way rules shape game behavior, tactical awareness, decision-making and the development of contextualized stroke mechanics.

  18. Shoulder internal rotation elbow flexion test for diagnosing cubital tunnel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ochi, Kensuke; Horiuchi, Yukio; Tanabe, Aya; Waseda, Makoto; Kaneko, Yasuhito; Koyanagi, Takahiro

    2012-06-01

    Shoulder internal rotation enhances symptom provocation attributed to cubital tunnel syndrome. We present a modified elbow flexion test--the shoulder internal rotation elbow flexion test--for diagnosing cubital tunnel syndrome. Fifty-five ulnar nerves in cubital tunnel syndrome patients and 123 ulnar nerves in controls were examined with 5 seconds each of elbow flexion, shoulder internal rotation, and shoulder internal rotation elbow flexion tests before and after treatment (surgery in 18; conservative in others). For the shoulder internal rotation elbow flexion test position, 90° abduction, maximum internal rotation, and 10° flexion of the shoulder were combined with the elbow flexion test position. The test was considered positive if any symptom for cubital tunnel syndrome developed <5 seconds. Influence of the shoulder internal rotation elbow flexion test was evaluated by nerve conduction studies in 10 cubital tunnel syndrome nerves and 7 control nerves. The sensitivities/specificities of the 5-second elbow flexion, shoulder internal rotation, and shoulder internal rotation elbow flexion tests were 25%/100%, 58%/100%, and 87%/98%, respectively. Sensitivity differences between the shoulder internal rotation elbow flexion test and the other two tests were significant. Shoulder internal rotation elbow flexion test results and cubital tunnel syndrome symptoms were significantly correlated. Influence of the shoulder internal rotation elbow flexion test on the ulnar nerve was seen in 8 of 10 cubital tunnel syndrome nerves but not in controls. The 5-second shoulder internal rotation elbow flexion test is specific, easy and quick provocative test for diagnosing cubital tunnel syndrome. Copyright © 2012 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Utilization of cues in action anticipation in table tennis players.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qi; Lu, Yingzhi; Jaquess, Kyle J; Zhou, Chenglin

    2018-04-11

    By manipulating the congruency between body kinematics and subsequent ball trajectory, this study investigated the anticipation capabilities of regional-level, college-level, and novice table tennis players using a full video simulation occluder paradigm. Participants watched footage containing congruent, incongruent, or no ball trajectory information, to predict the landing point of the ball. They were required to choose between two potential locations to make their prediction. Percent accuracy and relevant indexes (d-prime, criterion, effect size) were calculated for each condition. Results indicated that experienced table tennis players (both regional and college players) were superior to novices in the ability to anticipate ball trajectory using kinematic information, but no difference was found between regional-level and college-level players. The findings of this study further demonstrate the superior anticipation ability of experienced table tennis players. Furthermore, the present result suggests that there may be a certain "baseline" level of motor experience in racquet sports for effective action anticipation, while the addition of further motor experience does not appear to assist direction anticipation.

  20. Dry Arthroscopy of the Elbow.

    PubMed

    Phadnis, Joideep; Bain, Gregory

    2015-08-01

    Dry arthroscopy is attractive because it affords an unsurpassed clarity of view and minimizes swelling. The elbow is a challenging joint to assess arthroscopically; however, dry arthroscopy has some particular benefits in the elbow. The primary benefit is the quality of the tissue definition, but dry arthroscopy also increases the working time for surgery by reducing swelling and results in less postoperative discomfort for the patient. With dry arthroscopy, all joint surfaces are covered in synovial fluid, which reflects light, to provide a clearer image of the joint surfaces and depth of field. The air-fluid interface provides an uninterrupted appreciation of the synovial recesses and tissue perfusion. This article describes the technique and indications for dry elbow arthroscopy, which will allow other surgeons to reap the benefits of dry arthroscopy without the need for special equipment or changes in their basic technique.

  1. Fractal Aggregates in Tennis Ball Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabin, J.; Bandin, M.; Prieto, G.; Sarmiento, F.

    2009-01-01

    We present a new practical exercise to explain the mechanisms of aggregation of some colloids which are otherwise not easy to understand. We have used tennis balls to simulate, in a visual way, the aggregation of colloids under reaction-limited colloid aggregation (RLCA) and diffusion-limited colloid aggregation (DLCA) regimes. We have used the…

  2. Epidemiology of shoulder and elbow pain in youth baseball players.

    PubMed

    Matsuura, Tetsuya; Suzue, Naoto; Iwame, Toshiyuki; Arisawa, Kokichi; Fukuta, Shoji; Sairyo, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    There are relatively few published epidemiological studies examining the differences in the risk of shoulder and elbow pain in young baseball players. The purpose of this study was to investigate risk factors for shoulder and elbow pain in child and adolescent baseball players. A total of 1563 players aged 7 to 12 years participated in this investigation. Subjects were asked whether they had experienced episodes of shoulder or elbow pain. We investigated the following risk factors for shoulder and elbow pain: age, position, years of baseball experience, and training hours per week. Data from the groups with and without shoulder and elbow pain were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression models. Among the 1563 participants, 15.9% and 29.2% reported episodes of shoulder and elbow pain, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that shoulder pain was associated with age 10, 11, and 12 years, and that elbow pain was associated with age 10, 11, and 12 years, playing catcher, and >2 years of baseball experience. Training hours per week were not associated with either shoulder or elbow pain. In over 1000 baseball players aged 7 to 12 years, 15.9% reported episodes of shoulder pain, while 29.2% reported elbow pain in the throwing arm. The associated risk factors were different for each type of pain. Shoulder pain was associated with increased age while elbow pain was associated with increased age, increased years of baseball experience, and playing catcher.

  3. ACUTE CHANGES IN PASSIVE GLENOHUMERAL ROTATION FOLLOWING TENNIS PLAY EXPOSURE IN ELITE FEMALE PLAYERS

    PubMed Central

    Kibler, W. Ben; Myers, Natalie L.; Smith, Belinda J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Alterations in glenohumeral (GH) rotation especially internal rotation and total range of motion have been associated with altered GH kinematics and susceptibility to injury. Researchers have evaluated long-term change in baseball and tennis players, and short-term changes in baseball players. However, acute (short-term) changes in GH rotation have not been evaluated in tennis players. Hypotheses/Purpose The purpose of this study was to quantify short-term glenohumeral rotational changes within a group of professional women's tennis players following competitive play. It was hypothesized that there would be acute alterations in passive glenohumeral internal rotation and total range of motion following episodes of tennis play. Study Design Cohort Study Methods Passive glenohumeral external rotation (GER), glenohumeral internal rotation (GIR), and total range of motion (TROM) were evaluated in a cohort of 79 professional adult female tennis players. Measurements were taken at three different time points (TP): baseline before match play (TP1), immediately after match play (TP2), and 24-hours after baseline (TP3). Results There was a statistically significant decrease in the mean GIR from TP1 (43 ± 11 °) to TP2 (39 ± 9 °) (p=0.002) and from TP1 to TP3 (38 ± 10 °) (p=0.001). All measures were at the level of minimal detectable change (MDC) (4 °) indicating clinical significance. There was a decrease in mean TROM from TP1 (146 ± 11 °) to TP2 (142 ± 12 °) (p=0.04), which was not above MDC (7 °). Subgroup analysis showed that 47% of the players demonstrated a decrease in GIR beyond MDC, and 37% demonstrated a decrease in TROM beyond MDC. GER remained unchanged across all time points (p>0.05). Conclusion Both GIR and TROM were reduced after acute exposure to tennis play. In a large subgroup of the cohort, the changes were clinically significant and approached values previously demonstrated to be associated with

  4. Relationship Between Motor Variability, Accuracy, and Ball Speed in the Tennis Serve

    PubMed Central

    Antúnez, Ruperto Menayo; Hernández, Francisco Javier Moreno; García, Juan Pedro Fuentes; Vaíllo, Raúl Reina; Arroyo, Jesús Sebastián Damas

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to analyze the motor variability in the performance of the tennis serve and its relationship to performance outcome. Seventeen male tennis players took part in the research, and they performed 20 serves. Linear and non-linear variability during the hand movement was measured by 3D Motion Tracking. Ball speed was recorded with a sports radar gun and the ball bounces were video recorded to calculate accuracy. The results showed a relationship between the amount of variability and its non-linear structure found in performance of movement and the outcome of the serve. The study also found that movement predictability correlates with performance. An increase in the amount of movement variability could affect the tennis serve performance in a negative way by reducing speed and accuracy of the ball. PMID:23486998

  5. Dry Arthroscopy of the Elbow

    PubMed Central

    Phadnis, Joideep; Bain, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Dry arthroscopy is attractive because it affords an unsurpassed clarity of view and minimizes swelling. The elbow is a challenging joint to assess arthroscopically; however, dry arthroscopy has some particular benefits in the elbow. The primary benefit is the quality of the tissue definition, but dry arthroscopy also increases the working time for surgery by reducing swelling and results in less postoperative discomfort for the patient. With dry arthroscopy, all joint surfaces are covered in synovial fluid, which reflects light, to provide a clearer image of the joint surfaces and depth of field. The air-fluid interface provides an uninterrupted appreciation of the synovial recesses and tissue perfusion. This article describes the technique and indications for dry elbow arthroscopy, which will allow other surgeons to reap the benefits of dry arthroscopy without the need for special equipment or changes in their basic technique. PMID:26759772

  6. Winning the game: brain processes in expert, young elite and amateur table tennis players.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Sebastian; Brölz, Ellen; Scholz, David; Ramos-Murguialday, Ander; Keune, Philipp M; Hautzinger, Martin; Birbaumer, Niels; Strehl, Ute

    2014-01-01

    (1) compared with amateurs and young elite, expert table tennis players are characterized by enhanced cortical activation in the motor and fronto-parietal cortex during motor imagery in response to table tennis videos; (2) in elite athletes, world rank points are associated with stronger cortical activation. To this aim, electroencephalographic data were recorded in 14 expert, 15 amateur and 15 young elite right-handed table tennis players. All subjects watched videos of a serve and imagined themselves responding with a specific table tennis stroke. With reference to a baseline period, power decrease/increase of the sensorimotor rhythm (SMR) during the pretask- and task period indexed the cortical activation/deactivation (event-related desynchronization/synchronization, ERD/ERS). Regarding hypothesis (1), 8-10 Hz SMR ERD was stronger in elite athletes than in amateurs with an intermediate ERD in young elite athletes in the motor cortex. Regarding hypothesis (2), there was no correlation between ERD/ERS in the motor cortex and world rank points in elite experts, but a weaker ERD in the fronto-parietal cortex was associated with higher world rank points. These results suggest that motor skill in table tennis is associated with focused excitability of the motor cortex during reaction, movement planning and execution with high attentional demands. Among elite experts, less activation of the fronto-parietal attention network may be necessary to become a world champion.

  7. Investigating the Nutritional and Recovery Habits of Tennis Players.

    PubMed

    Fleming, James A; Naughton, Robert J; Harper, Liam D

    2018-04-03

    In this study, the nutritional and recovery habits of tennis players pre-, during, and post-match-play were investigated. Seventy tennis players completed a bespoke nutrition and recovery habits questionnaire, with questions related to the following areas: match preparation, intra-match nutritional habits, situation dependent variables, and post-match nutrition and recovery. On match day-1, the consumption of balanced meals consisting of carbohydrate (CHO), fat and protein, with some micronutrient considerations were reported by 51% of players. On match-days, CHOs were prioritised prior to match-play with CHO dominant meals consumed by the majority of players. During matches, all players adopted a nutritional strategy, with water (94%), banana(s) (86%) and sports drinks (50%) commonly used. Carbohydrate rich nutritional aids, including sports drinks (80%) and energy gels (26%) were utilised more readily during long matches (>2 h). The day after match-play, 39% of players reported the consumption of "nothing specific". Multiple post-match recovery strategies were adopted by 80% of players, with foam rolling (77%), ice baths (40%), protein shake intake (37%) and hot baths (26%) most used. Findings indicate highly variable eating and recovery habits in tennis players pre-, during and post-match-play, with scope for improved practices.

  8. Investigating the Nutritional and Recovery Habits of Tennis Players

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    In this study, the nutritional and recovery habits of tennis players pre-, during, and post-match-play were investigated. Seventy tennis players completed a bespoke nutrition and recovery habits questionnaire, with questions related to the following areas: match preparation, intra-match nutritional habits, situation dependent variables, and post-match nutrition and recovery. On match day-1, the consumption of balanced meals consisting of carbohydrate (CHO), fat and protein, with some micronutrient considerations were reported by 51% of players. On match-days, CHOs were prioritised prior to match-play with CHO dominant meals consumed by the majority of players. During matches, all players adopted a nutritional strategy, with water (94%), banana(s) (86%) and sports drinks (50%) commonly used. Carbohydrate rich nutritional aids, including sports drinks (80%) and energy gels (26%) were utilised more readily during long matches (>2 h). The day after match-play, 39% of players reported the consumption of “nothing specific”. Multiple post-match recovery strategies were adopted by 80% of players, with foam rolling (77%), ice baths (40%), protein shake intake (37%) and hot baths (26%) most used. Findings indicate highly variable eating and recovery habits in tennis players pre-, during and post-match-play, with scope for improved practices. PMID:29614035

  9. Exercise‐induced homeostatic perturbations provoked by singles tennis match play with reference to development of fatigue

    PubMed Central

    Mendez‐Villanueva, Alberto; Fernandez‐Fernandez, Jaime; Bishop, David

    2007-01-01

    This review addresses metabolic, neural, mechanical and thermal alterations during tennis match play with special focus on associations with fatigue. Several studies have provided a link between fatigue and the impairment of tennis skills proficiency. A tennis player's ability to maintain skilled on‐court performance and/or optimal muscle function during a demanding match can be compromised as a result of several homeostatic perturbations, for example hypoglycaemia, muscle damage and hyperthermia. Accordingly, an important physiological requirement to succeed at competitive level might be the player's ability to resist fatigue. However, research evidence on this topic is limited and it is unclear to what extent players experience fatigue during high‐level tennis match play and what the physiological mechanisms are that are likely to contribute to the deterioration in performance. PMID:17957005

  10. Feasibility of four-dimensional preoperative simulation for elbow debridement arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Michiro; Murakami, Yukimi; Iwatsuki, Katsuyuki; Kurimoto, Shigeru; Hirata, Hitoshi

    2016-04-02

    Recent advances in imaging modalities have enabled three-dimensional preoperative simulation. A four-dimensional preoperative simulation system would be useful for debridement arthroplasty of primary degenerative elbow osteoarthritis because it would be able to detect the impingement lesions. We developed a four-dimensional simulation system by adding the anatomical axis to the three-dimensional computed tomography scan data of the affected arm in one position. Eleven patients with primary degenerative elbow osteoarthritis were included. A "two rings" method was used to calculate the flexion-extension axis of the elbow by converting the surface of the trochlea and capitellum into two rings. A four-dimensional simulation movie was created and showed the optimal range of motion and the impingement area requiring excision. To evaluate the reliability of the flexion-extension axis, interobserver and intraobserver reliabilities regarding the assessment of bony overlap volumes were calculated twice for each patient by two authors. Patients were treated by open or arthroscopic debridement arthroplasties. Pre- and postoperative examinations included elbow range of motion measurement, and completion of the patient-rated questionnaire Hand20, Japanese Orthopaedic Association-Japan Elbow Society Elbow Function Score, and the Mayo Elbow Performance Score. Measurement of the bony overlap volume showed an intraobserver intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.93 and 0.90, and an interobserver intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.94. The mean elbow flexion-extension arc significantly improved from 101° to 125°. The mean Hand20 score significantly improved from 52 to 22. The mean Japanese Orthopaedic Association-Japan Elbow Society Elbow Function Score significantly improved from 67 to 88. The mean Mayo Elbow Performance Score significantly improved from 71 to 91 at the final follow-up evaluation. We showed that four-dimensional, preoperative simulation can be generated by

  11. A quantitative evaluation of the high elbow technique in front crawl.

    PubMed

    Suito, Hiroshi; Nunome, Hiroyuki; Ikegami, Yasuo

    2017-07-01

    Many coaches often instruct swimmers to keep the elbow in a high position (high elbow position) during early phase of the underwater stroke motion (pull phase) in front crawl, however, the high elbow position has never been quantitatively evaluated. The aims of this study were (1) to quantitatively evaluate the "high elbow" position, (2) to clarify the relationship between the high elbow position and required upper limb configuration and (3) to examine the efficacy of high elbow position on the resultant swimming velocity. Sixteen highly skilled and 6 novice male swimmers performed 25 m front crawl with maximal effort and their 3-dimensional arm stroke motion was captured at 60 Hz. An attempt was made to develop a new index to evaluate the high elbow position (I he : high elbow index) using 3-dimensional coordinates of the shoulder, elbow and wrist joints. I he of skilled swimmers moderately correlated with the average shoulder internal rotation angle (r = -0.652, P < 0.01) and swimming velocity (r = -0.683, P < 0.01) during the pull phase. These results indicate that I he is a useful index for evaluating high elbow arm stroke technique during the pull phase in front crawl.

  12. Prevalence of posterior elbow problems in Japanese high school baseball players.

    PubMed

    Kida, Yoshikazu; Morihara, Toru; Furukawa, Ryuhei; Sukenari, Tsuyoshi; Kotoura, Yoshihiro; Yoshioka, Naoki; Hojo, Tatsuya; Oda, Ryo; Arai, Yuji; Sawada, Koshiro; Fujiwara, Hiroyoshi; Kubo, Toshikazu

    2016-09-01

    Various posterior elbow problems cause posterior elbow pain among baseball players. We aimed to determine the prevalence and diagnoses associated with posterior elbow problems and post-treatment recovery time for returning to sports in Japanese high school baseball players when treated in the off-season. A total of 576 Japanese high school baseball players who participated in baseball skill training camp during the off-season were enrolled in the study. The elbow of each player's throwing arm was assessed by use of a questionnaire and physical examination. Players with abnormal results were advised to visit the hospital. Players who visited the hospital were initially treated conservatively and underwent surgery if necessary. Retrospectively, players with positive physical examination results associated with posterior elbow pain, defined as olecranon tenderness and/or a positive elbow extension impingement test, were selected. Information about their position, elbow pain, physical examination results, diagnosis, treatment, and recovery time before returning to playing sports was assessed. Olecranon tenderness and/or positive elbow extension impingement test results were found in 76 players (13.2%). Of these, 33 agreed to visit the hospital for further diagnostic imaging and 25 players (75.8%) were diagnosed with posteromedial elbow impingement. By the next spring, 87.9% of players returned to sport, and 100% of players returned to sport before the next summer. The average recovery period was 77 ± 47 days. Physical examinations related to posterior elbow injuries were positive in 13.2% of high school baseball players. The most common diagnosis for posterior elbow pain was posteromedial elbow impingement. All players returned to competitive sports activity levels within 77 ± 47 days. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Does a perceptuomotor skills assessment have added value to detect talent for table tennis in primary school children?

    PubMed

    Faber, Irene R; Pion, Johan; Munivrana, Goran; Faber, Niels R; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, Maria W G

    2017-04-18

    Talent detection intends to support lifelong sports participation, reduce dropouts and stimulate sports at the elite level. For this purpose it is important to reveal the specific profile which directs children to the sports that connect to their strengths and preferences. This study evaluated a perceptuomotor skills assessment as part of talent detection for table tennis, a sport in which perceptuomotor skills are considered essential to cope with the difficult technical aspects. Primary school children (n = 121) and gifted young table tennis players (n = 146) were assessed using the Dutch perceptuomotor skills assessment measuring "ball control" and "gross motor function". A discriminant function analysis confirmed the added value by identifying primary school children fitting the table tennis perceptuomotor profile of the young gifted table tennis players (28%). General linear model analyses for the assessment's individual test items showed that the table tennis players outperformed their primary school peers on all "ball control" items (P < 0.001). In conclusion, the assessment appears to be of added value for talent detection in table tennis at this young age. Longitudinal studies need to reveal the predictive value for sports participation and elite sports.

  14. STS-44 OV-104's airlock hatch with tennis shoes and Presidential Sports Award

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    STS-44 airlock hatch is decorated with two pairs of tennis shoes and a Presidential Sports Award Jogging patch (insignia) on the middeck of Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104. With the crew having a treadmill-like device onboard for exercise and biomedical testing, tennis shoes were in plentiful stock on the eight-day mission.

  15. A comparative study of visual reaction time in table tennis players and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Bhabhor, Mahesh K; Vidja, Kalpesh; Bhanderi, Priti; Dodhia, Shital; Kathrotia, Rajesh; Joshi, Varsha

    2013-01-01

    Visual reaction time is time required to response to visual stimuli. The present study was conducted to measure visual reaction time in 209 subjects, 50 table tennis (TT) players and 159 healthy controls. The visual reaction time was measured by the direct RT computerized software in healthy controls and table tennis players. Simple visual reaction time was measured. During the reaction time testing, visual stimuli were given for eighteen times and average reaction time was taken as the final reaction time. The study shows that table tennis players had faster reaction time than healthy controls. On multivariate analysis, it was found that TT players had 74.121 sec (95% CI 98.8 and 49.4 sec) faster reaction time compared to non-TT players of same age and BMI. Also playing TT has a profound influence on visual reaction time than BMI. Our study concluded that persons involved in sports are having good reaction time as compared to controls. These results support the view that playing of table tennis is beneficial to eye-hand reaction time, improve the concentration and alertness.

  16. The Relative Age Effect and Physical Fitness Characteristics in German Male Tennis Players

    PubMed Central

    Ulbricht, Alexander; Fernandez-Fernandez, Jaime; Mendez-Villanueva, Alberto; Ferrauti, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The aims of the study were to test: 1) whether the relative age effect (RAE) was prevalent in young (U12-U18) German male tennis players; 2) the potential influence of age and/or skill level on RAE and 3) whether maturity, anthropometric and fitness measures vary according to birth date distribution in elite youth tennis players. For the present study the following male populations were analysed: Overall German population (n = 3.216.811), all players affiliated to the German Tennis Federation (DTB) (n = 120.851), players with DTB official ranking (n = 7165), regional (n = 381) and national (n = 57) squads (11-17 years old), as well as the top 50 German senior players were analyzed. RAEs were more prevalent at higher competitive levels with more players born in the first quarter of the year compared with the reference population for ranked (29.6%), regional (38.1%) and national (42.1%) players. No systematic differences were found in any of the maturity, anthropometric and fitness characteristics of the regional squad players born across different quarters. RAEs are present in the DTB competitive system and it was more pronounced at higher competitive levels. Compared with early born, late born players who were selected into elite squads did not differ in maturation, anthropometric and fitness characteristics. Key points RAEsexist in the selection of youth tennis players in Germany, a greater percentage of players analyzed was born in the 1st quarter compared to all licensed tennis players in the country, and more pronounced with an increased competition level in youth players. Players born later in the selection year and still selected in elite squads were likely to be similar across a range of physical fitness attributes compared with those born earlier in the year. The selection process should be reevaluated and changed to reduce the impact of RAEs on tennis players. PMID:26336351

  17. Physical Education: Tennis, Physical Fitness, Body-Building.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veilleux, Dave

    This unit plan for introducing high school students to the game of tennis is divided into objectives and suggested activities. A listing of resource outlets and retail prices for equipment and audiovisual materials is included. Student evaluation procedures are outlined, and a sample evaluation checklist is provided. (LH)

  18. Nerve injuries do occur in elbow arthroscopy.

    PubMed

    Hilgersom, Nick F J; van Deurzen, Derek F P; Gerritsma, Carina L E; van der Heide, Huub J L; Malessy, Martijn J A; Eygendaal, Denise; van den Bekerom, Michel P J

    2018-01-01

    The purpose is to create more awareness as well as emphasize the risk of permanent nerve injury as a complication of elbow arthroscopy. Patients who underwent elbow arthroscopy complicated by permanent nerve injury were retrospectively collected. Patients were collected using two strategies: (1) by word-of-mouth throughout the Dutch Society of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery, and the Leiden University Nerve Centre, and (2) approaching two medical liability insurance companies. Medical records were reviewed to determine patient characteristics, disease history and postoperative course. Surgical records were reviewed to determine surgical details. A total of eight patients were collected, four men and four women, ageing 21-54 years. In five out of eight patients (62.5%), the ulnar nerve was affected; in the remaining three patients (37.5%), the radial nerve was involved. Possible causes for nerve injury varied among patients, such as portal placement and the use of motorized instruments. A case series on permanent nerve injury as a complication of elbow arthroscopy is presented. Reporting on this sequel in the literature is little, however, its risk is not to be underestimated. This study emphasizes that permanent nerve injury is a complication of elbow arthroscopy, concurrently increasing awareness and thereby possibly aiding to prevention. IV, case series.

  19. Effectiveness of initial extracorporeal shock wave therapy on the newly diagnosed lateral or medial epicondylitis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Seok; Kang, Sangkuk; Park, Noh Kyoung; Lee, Chan Woo; Song, Ho Sup; Sohn, Min Kyun; Cho, Kang Hee; Kim, Jung Hwan

    2012-10-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of initial extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) for patients newly diagnosed with lateral or medial epicondylitis, compared to local steroid injection. An analysis was conducted of twenty-two patients who were newly confirmed as lateral or medial epicondylitis through medical history and physical examination. The ESWT group (n=12) was treated once a week for 3 weeks using low energy (0.06-0.12 mJ/mm(2), 2,000 shocks), while the local steroid injection group (n=10) was treated once with triamcinolone 10 mg mixed with 1% lidocaine solution. Nirschl score and 100 point score were assessed before and after the treatments of 1st, 2nd, 4th and 8th week. And Roles and Maudsley score was assessed one and eight weeks after the treatments. Both groups showed significant improvement in Nirschl score and 100 point score during the entire period. The local steroid injection group improved more in Nirschl score at the first week and in 100 point score at the first 2 weeks, compared to those of the ESWT group. But the proportion of excellent and good grades of Roles and Maudsley score in the ESWT group increased more than that of local steroid injection group by the final 8th week. The ESWT group improved as much as the local steroid injection group as treatment for medial and lateral epicondylitis. Therefore, ESWT can be a useful treatment option in patients for whom local steroid injection is difficult.

  20. Core Temperature and Sweat Responses in Professional Women's Tennis Players During Tournament Play in the Heat

    PubMed Central

    Tippet, Melissa L.; Stofan, John R.; Lacambra, Magie; Horswill, Craig A.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Context: Tennis is often played in hot, humid environments, intensifying the thermoregulatory strain placed on the athletes. As a safety measure, some tennis organizations allow for a 10-minute break in play between the second and third sets when environmental conditions are extreme. However, the actual effect of these breaks in reducing core temperature is unknown. Objective: To determine change in core temperature after a 10-minute break in play and assess fluid balance in professional female tennis players during tournament matches in the heat. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: A Women's Tennis Association Tour–sanctioned outdoor tournament on hard courts under hot conditions (30.3°C ± 2.3°C). Patients or Other Participants: Seven professional tennis players. Main Outcome Measure(s): Change in core temperature after a 10-minute break in tournament play, fluid intake, and sweat losses during match play. Results: Core temperature was reduced from 38.92°C to 38.67°C (change of −0.25°C ± 0.20°C) when a break was taken (P  =  .02). Mean sweat rate during match play was 2.0 ± 0.5 L/h. During that time, mean fluid intake was 1.5 ± 0.5 L/h, resulting in a 1.2% ± 1.0% reduction in body mass. Conclusions: Female professional tennis players are subjected to high heat loads during match play in hot environments. However, a 10-minute break in play decreased core temperature in 6 of 7 players by an average of 0.25°C, indicating that the break provides practical benefits in the field. Furthermore, although mean sweat rate in this group of female tennis players was high, most athletes were still able to minimize mass loss to less than 2% of their prematch weight. PMID:21214351

  1. Evaluation of common elbow pathologies: a focus on physical examination.

    PubMed

    Laratta, Joseph; Caldwell, Jon-Michael; Lombardi, Joseph; Levine, William; Ahmad, Christopher

    2017-05-01

    Elbow tendinopathy accounts for the majority of elbow pathology in patients presenting to upper extremity and sports medicine surgeons. With increased participation in overhead sports in an aging population, the incidence of elbow injuries has risen. A comprehensive knowledge of elbow anatomy and biomechanical function of the elbow complex is prerequisite in the assessment of patients with elbow injuries; however, a thorough understanding of alternative and confounding pathologies is essential for accurate diagnosis. Because tendinopathy, tendonitis, and tendon tears have an anatomic basis for their pathology, a targeted history and meticulous physical examination often yields an accurate clinical diagnosis. The importance of physical examination and provocative examination maneuvers must be stressed in a technologically advanced era where clinical diagnosis is too commonly attained solely by advanced imaging modalities. A revived dedication to the physical examination may enhance our ability to correctly diagnose various pathologies about the elbow. Early and accurate clinical diagnosis is the first step in the proper initiation of treatment modalities and improvement in overall patient outcome.

  2. Eye on the Ball: Table Tennis as a Pro-Health Form of Leisure-Time Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Buchholtz, Sonia; Krzepota, Justyna

    2018-01-01

    Background: The article is devoted to an analysis of leisure-time (amateur) table tennis in Poland, its practitioners and the regularities of their activity. Methods: The study examined 12,406 persons in 4689 households (representative for the population). We used binary logistic regression and descriptive statistics in order to identify the patterns and determinants of table-tennis practice in Poland. Results: Table tennis is practised by 2.8% of population, and by 6.6% of physically active Poles. Among adults it is predominantly an occasional recreational game, not performed as a sport per se. Among children, it is often the part of physical education (PE) classes. Statistically significant predictors of contact with table tennis are: gender, age, income, place of residence, children in the household and being a student. Conclusions: Due to the undeniable benefits of table tennis (health, pleasure, personal and social development), the sport is recommended for use as a tool in increasing the (overall low) physical activity of Poles. Its popularization requires promotion in the media (as a health-oriented activity) and using various channels, including public places, the workplace (as part of corporate social responsibility) and physical education classes at school. PMID:29649160

  3. Eye on the Ball: Table Tennis as a Pro-Health Form of Leisure-Time Physical Activity.

    PubMed

    Biernat, Elżbieta; Buchholtz, Sonia; Krzepota, Justyna

    2018-04-12

    Background: The article is devoted to an analysis of leisure-time (amateur) table tennis in Poland, its practitioners and the regularities of their activity. Methods: The study examined 12,406 persons in 4689 households (representative for the population). We used binary logistic regression and descriptive statistics in order to identify the patterns and determinants of table-tennis practice in Poland. Results: Table tennis is practised by 2.8% of population, and by 6.6% of physically active Poles. Among adults it is predominantly an occasional recreational game, not performed as a sport per se. Among children, it is often the part of physical education (PE) classes. Statistically significant predictors of contact with table tennis are: gender, age, income, place of residence, children in the household and being a student. Conclusions: Due to the undeniable benefits of table tennis (health, pleasure, personal and social development), the sport is recommended for use as a tool in increasing the (overall low) physical activity of Poles. Its popularization requires promotion in the media (as a health-oriented activity) and using various channels, including public places, the workplace (as part of corporate social responsibility) and physical education classes at school.

  4. A six-week neuromuscular training program for competitive junior tennis players.

    PubMed

    Barber-Westin, Sue D; Hermeto, Alex A; Noyes, Frank R

    2010-09-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of a tennis-specific training program on improving neuromuscular indices in competitive junior players. Tennis is a demanding sport because it requires speed, agility, explosive power, and aerobic conditioning along with the ability to react and anticipate quickly, and there are limited studies that evaluate these indices in young players after a multiweek training program. The program designed for this study implemented the essential components of a previously published neuromuscular training program and also included exercises designed to improve dynamic balance, agility, speed, and strength. Fifteen junior tennis players (10 girls, 5 boys; mean age, 13.0 +/- 1.5 years) who routinely participated in local tournaments and high-school teams participated in the 6-week supervised program. Training was conducted 3 times a week, with sessions lasting 1.5 hours that included a dynamic warm-up, plyometric and jump training, strength training (lower extremity, upper extremity, core), tennis-specific drills, and flexibility. After training, statistically significant improvements and large-to-moderate effect sizes were found in the single-leg triple crossover hop for both legs (p < 0.05), the baseline forehand (p = 0.006) and backhand (p = 0.0008) tests, the service line (p = 0.0009) test, the 1-court suicide (p < 0.0001), the 2-court suicide (p = 0.02), and the abdominal endurance test (p = 0.01). Mean improvements between pretrain and posttrain test sessions were 15% for the single-leg triple crossover hop, 10-11% for the baseline tests, 18% for the service line test, 21% for the 1-court suicide, 10% for the 2-court suicide, and 76% for the abdominal endurance test. No athlete sustained an injury or developed an overuse syndrome as a result of the training program. The results demonstrate that this program is feasible, low in cost, and appears to be effective in improving the majority of neuromuscular indices tested. We accomplished

  5. Comparing 9 to 10 Years Old Children's Performance in Tennis and Physical Fitness Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olcucu, Burcin

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study is to determine the degree of performance-related physical coordination of elementary education children (male and female) that play tennis according to their age and gender and to investigate the relationship between their motor ability tests and performances. A total of 210 children tennis players (9 to 10 years; 105 males…

  6. Epidemiology of tennis injuries: An eight-year review of Davis Cup retirements.

    PubMed

    Maquirriain, Javier; Baglione, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Tennis practice, especially at elite levels, may place players at risk for debilitating musculoskeletal injuries. The aim of this study was to analyse the epidemiological pattern of retirements due to medical conditions sustained by tennis players during Davis Cup matches in the 2006-2013 period. All uncompleted matches due to a medical condition (injuries and illnesses) occurred in the above-mentioned competition were collected from the official source, registered and analysed according to published guidelines. The overall incidence of match retirements was 1.66% (12/719). The injury rate was 6.05/1000 playing hours; and 6.64/1000 match exposures. Musculotendinous lesions were the most common type of injury (66.66%). The incidence of lower-limb injuries was higher than upper-limb and trunk lesions. The incidence of retired matches due to medical conditions was higher in hard courts than in clay courts (2.97% and 0.90%, respectively; p = 0.04), while the median value of inactivity of injuries was 32.0 days (range 3-297). In conclusion, the incidence of retirements due to medical conditions in Davis Cup matches was low supporting the assumption that elite tennis is a low-risk sport activity. Findings provided scientific evidences of injury patterns among male professional tennis players and may contribute to conduct better injury prevention strategies.

  7. Winning the game: brain processes in expert, young elite and amateur table tennis players

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Sebastian; Brölz, Ellen; Scholz, David; Ramos-Murguialday, Ander; Keune, Philipp M.; Hautzinger, Martin; Birbaumer, Niels; Strehl, Ute

    2014-01-01

    This study tested two hypotheses: (1) compared with amateurs and young elite, expert table tennis players are characterized by enhanced cortical activation in the motor and fronto-parietal cortex during motor imagery in response to table tennis videos; (2) in elite athletes, world rank points are associated with stronger cortical activation. To this aim, electroencephalographic data were recorded in 14 expert, 15 amateur and 15 young elite right-handed table tennis players. All subjects watched videos of a serve and imagined themselves responding with a specific table tennis stroke. With reference to a baseline period, power decrease/increase of the sensorimotor rhythm (SMR) during the pretask- and task period indexed the cortical activation/deactivation (event-related desynchronization/synchronization, ERD/ERS). Regarding hypothesis (1), 8–10 Hz SMR ERD was stronger in elite athletes than in amateurs with an intermediate ERD in young elite athletes in the motor cortex. Regarding hypothesis (2), there was no correlation between ERD/ERS in the motor cortex and world rank points in elite experts, but a weaker ERD in the fronto-parietal cortex was associated with higher world rank points. These results suggest that motor skill in table tennis is associated with focused excitability of the motor cortex during reaction, movement planning and execution with high attentional demands. Among elite experts, less activation of the fronto-parietal attention network may be necessary to become a world champion. PMID:25386126

  8. Tennis Rackets and the Parallel Axis Theorem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Derek

    2014-01-01

    This simple experiment uses an unusual graph straightening exercise to confirm the parallel axis theorem for an irregular object. Along the way, it estimates experimental values for g and the moment of inertia of a tennis racket. We use Excel to find a 95% confidence interval for the true values.

  9. Effectiveness of extracorporeal shockwave therapy in three major tendon diseases.

    PubMed

    Carulli, Christian; Tonelli, Filippo; Innocenti, Matteo; Gambardella, Bonaventura; Muncibì, Francesco; Innocenti, Massimo

    2016-03-01

    Extracorporeal shockwave therapy is a conservative treatment for several painful musculoskeletal disorders. The aim of the study was the assessment of the relief from pain by the shockwave therapy in a population of consecutive patients affected by specific pathologies. A group of consecutive patients were studied and treated. They were affected by calcific tendonitis of the shoulder (129 patients), chronic Achilles tendinopathy (102 patients), and lateral epicondylitis of the elbow (80 subjects). Each patient had 3 applications with a monthly interval, and was followed up at 1, 6, and 12 months after treatment. Results were evaluated by the numeric rating scale (NRS) in all cases, the Constant Murley Score for the assessment of the shoulder function, the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society Score for subjects affected by chronic Achilles tendinopathy, and the Oxford Elbow Score for those affected by a lateral epicondylitis of the elbow. One year after treatment, the results were considered satisfactory with an almost complete resolution of symptoms. There were statistically significant results at the 12-month follow-ups regarding the mean NRS score (from 6.25 to 0.2), the Constant Murley Score (from 66.7 to 79.4), the Oxford Elbow Score (from 28 to 46), and the AOFAS (from 71 to 86). Extracorporeal shockwave therapy may be considered a safe, economic, and effective treatment for several chronic musculoskeletal disorders, allowing satisfactory pain relief and improvement of function ability. Level IV.

  10. Mechanism of Tennis Racket Spin Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawazoe, Yoshihiko; Okimoto, Kenji; Okimoto, Keiko

    Players often say that some strings provide a better grip and more spin than others, but ball spin did not depend on string type, gauge, or tension in pervious laboratory experiments. There was no research work on spin to uncover what is really happening during an actual tennis impact because of the difficulty of performing the appropriate experiments. The present paper clarified the mechanism of top spin and its improvement by lubrication of strings through the use of high-speed video analysis. It also provided a more detailed explanation of spin behavior by comparing a racket with lubricated strings with the famous “spaghetti” strung racket, which was banned in 1978 by the International Tennis Federation because it used plastic spaghetti tubing over the strings to reduce friction, resulting in excessive ball spin. As the main strings stretch and slide sideways more, the ball is given additional spin due to the restoring force parallel to the string face when the main strings spring back and the ball is released from the strings. Herein, we also showed that the additional spin results in a reduction of shock vibrations of the wrist joint during impact.

  11. Heritabilities and genetic trends for elbow score as recorded by the New Zealand Veterinary Association Elbow Dysplasia Scheme (1992-2013) in four breeds of dog.

    PubMed

    Soo, M; Lopez-Villalobos, N; Worth, A J

    2018-05-01

    To estimate the heritability of the New Zealand Veterinary Association (NZVA) elbow phenotype, obtain estimated breeding values (EBV) for the worst-elbow score and estimate the genetic trends for this trait in four populous breeds of dogs, using the records from the NZVA Canine Elbow Dysplasia Scheme database (1992-2013). Overall, 4,070 elbow records from a pedigree of 11,311 dogs were available for animals scored between 1992 and 2013. The worst elbow score between the left and right elbows was identified for each dog and used for EBV analysis. Estimates of heritability and EBV for the elbow score of dogs from German Shepherd dog, Labrador Retriever, Golden Retriever and Rottweiler breeds were obtained using restricted maximum likelihood procedures with a within-breed linear animal model. The model included the fixed effects of sex and birth year, with age at scoring as a covariable, and the random effect of animal. Genetic trends for the worst-elbow score were calculated as the regression coefficient of the EBV, weighted by reliabilities, on year of birth. The estimates of heritability for worst-elbow score were 0.25 (SE 0.06) in German Shepherd dogs, 0.46 (SE 0.06) in Labrador Retrievers, 0.18 (SE 0.07) in Golden Retrievers and 0.29 (SE 0.11) in Rottweilers. The genetic trend for German Shepherd dogs was -0.0082 (SE 0.0015), for Labrador Retrievers was -0.0016 (SE 0.0016), for Golden Retrievers was -0.0033 (SE 0.0010) and for Rottweilers was -0.0070 (SE 0.0023) units per annum, which were different from zero (p<0.01) in all breeds except Labrador Retrievers. A small but favourable response to selection was achieved by three of the four breeds in the study period; during which selection for elbow traits has been largely voluntary. While the magnitude of genetic change in terms of elbow units per annum may appear small, it must be remembered that elbow scoring grades only range from 0-3. Greater improvement may be possible if compulsory screening was a requirement

  12. Isometric elbow extensors strength in supine- and prone-lying positions.

    PubMed

    Abdelzaher, Ibrahim E; Ababneh, Anas F; Alzyoud, Jehad M

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare isometric strength of elbow extensors measured in supine- and prone-lying positions at elbow flexion angles of 45 and 90 degrees. Twenty-two male subjects under single-blind procedures participated in the study. Each subject participated in both supine-lying and prone-lying measuring protocols. Calibrated cable tensiometer was used to measure isometric strength of the right elbow extensors and a biofeedback electromyography was used to assure no substitution movements from shoulder girdle muscles. The mean values of isometric strength of elbow extensors measured from supine-lying position at elbow flexion angles of 45 and 90 degrees were 11.1  ±  4.2 kg and 13.1  ±  4.6 kg, while those measured from prone-lying position were 9.9  ±  3.6 kg and 12  ±  4.2 kg, respectively. There is statistical significant difference between the isometric strength of elbow extensors measured from supine-lying position at elbow flexion angles of 45 and 90 degrees compared to that measured from prone-lying position (p  <  0.05). The results suggest that in manual muscle testing starting position can affect the isometric strength of elbow extensors since supine-lying starting position is better than prone-lying starting position.

  13. Biomechanical influence of pin placement and elbow angle on joint distraction and hinge alignment for an arthrodiatasis elbow-pin-fixator construct.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wei-Shiun; Linz, Shang-Chih; Shih, Kao-Shang; Chao, Ching-Kong; Chen, Yeung-Jen; Fan, Chang-Yuan

    2012-10-01

    Stiffness and contracture of the periarticular tissues are common complications of a post-traumatic elbow. Arthrodiatasis is a surgical technique that uses an external fixator for initial immobilization and subsequent distraction. The two prerequisites for an ideal arthrodiatasis are concentric distraction (avoiding bony contact) and hinge alignment (reducing internal stress). This study used the finite element (FE) method to clarify the relationship between these two prerequisites and the initial conditions (pin placement, elbow angle, and distraction mode). A total of 12 variations of the initial conditions were symmetrically arranged to evaluate their biomechanical influence on concentric distraction and hinge alignment. The humeroulnar surface was hypothesized to be ideally distracted orthogonal to the line joining the tips of the olecranon and the coronoid. The eccentric separation of the humeroulnar surfaces is a response to the non-orthogonality of the distracting force and joining line. Pin placement significantly affects the effective moment arm of the fixing pins to distract the bridged elbow. Both elbow angle and distraction mode directly alter the direction of the distracting force at the elbow center. In general, the hinges misalignment occurs in a direction opposite to the distraction-activated site. After joint distraction, the elastic deflection of the fixing pins inevitably makes both elbow and fixator hinges to misalign. This indicates that both joint distraction and hinge alignment are the interactive mechanisms. The humeroulnar separation is more concentric in the situation of the 120 degrees humeral distraction by using stiffer pins with convergent placement. Even so, the eccentric displacement of the elbow hinge is a crucial consideration in the initial placement of the guiding pin to compensate for hinge misalignment.

  14. Physiological Responses to On-Court vs Running Interval Training in Competitive Tennis Players

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Fernandez, Jaime; Sanz-Rivas, David; Sanchez-Muñoz, Cristobal; de la Aleja Tellez, Jose Gonzalez; Buchheit, Martin; Mendez-Villanueva, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare heart rate (HR), blood lactate (LA) and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) responses to a tennis-specific interval training (i.e., on-court) session with that of a matched-on-time running interval training (i.e., off-court). Eight well-trained, male (n = 4) and female (n = 4) tennis players (mean ± SD; age: 16.4 ± 1.8 years) underwent an incremental test where peak treadmill speed, maximum HR (HRmax) and maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) were determined. The two interval training protocols (i.e., off- court and on-court) consisted of 4 sets of 120 s of work, interspersed with 90 s rest. Percentage of HRmax (95.9 ± 2.4 vs. 96.1 ± 2.2%; p = 0.79), LA (6.9 ± 2.5 vs. 6.2 ± 2.4 mmol·L-1; p = 0.14) and RPE (16.7 ± 2.1 vs. 16.3 ± 1.8; p = 0.50) responses were similar for off-court and on-court, respectively. The two interval training protocols used in the present study have equivalent physiological responses. Longitudinal studies are still warranted but tennis-specific interval training sessions could represent a time-efficient alternative to off-court (running) interval training for the optimization of the specific cardiorespiratory fitness in tennis players. Key points On-court interval training protocol can be used as an alternative to running interval training Technical/tactical training should be performed under conditions that replicate the physical and technical demands of a competitive match During the competitive season tennis on-court training might be preferred to off-court training PMID:24150630

  15. Identification of temporal pathomechanical factors during the tennis serve.

    PubMed

    Martin, Caroline; Kulpa, Richard; Ropars, Mickaël; Delamarche, Paul; Bideau, Benoit

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study was twofold: (a) to measure the effects of temporal parameters on both ball velocity and upper limb joint kinetics to identify pathomechanical factors during the tennis serve and (b) to validate these pathomechanical factors by comparing injured and noninjured players. The serves of expert tennis players were recorded with an optoelectronic motion capture system. These experts were then followed during two seasons to identify overuse injuries of the upper limb. Correlation coefficients assessed the relationships between temporal parameters, ball velocity, and peaks of upper limb joint kinetics to identify pathomechanical factors. Temporal parameters and ball velocity were compared between injured and noninjured groups. Temporal pathomechanical factors were identified. The timings of peak angular velocities of pelvis longitudinal rotation, upper torso longitudinal rotation, trunk sagittal rotation, and trunk transverse rotation and the duration between instants of shoulder horizontal adduction and external rotation were significantly related to upper limb joint kinetics and ball velocity. Injured players demonstrated later timings of trunk rotations, improper differences in time between instants of shoulder horizontal adduction and external rotation, lower ball velocities, and higher joint kinetics. The findings of this study imply that improper temporal mechanics during the tennis serve can decrease ball velocity, increase upper limb joint kinetics, and thus possibly increase overuse injuries of the upper limb.

  16. Perceptual uncertainty and line-call challenges in professional tennis

    PubMed Central

    Mather, George

    2008-01-01

    Fast-moving sports such as tennis require both players and match officials to make rapid accurate perceptual decisions about dynamic events in the visual world. Disagreements arise regularly, leading to disputes about decisions such as line calls. A number of factors must contribute to these disputes, including lapses in concentration, bias and gamesmanship. Fundamental uncertainty or variability in the sensory information supporting decisions must also play a role. Modern technological innovations now provide detailed and accurate physical information that can be compared against the decisions of players and officials. The present paper uses this psychophysical data to assess the significance of perceptual limitations as a contributor to real-world decisions in professional tennis. A detailed analysis is presented of a large body of data on line-call challenges in professional tennis tournaments over the last 2 years. Results reveal that the vast majority of challenges can be explained in a direct highly predictable manner by a simple model of uncertainty in perceptual information processing. Both players and line judges are remarkably accurate at judging ball bounce position, with a positional uncertainty of less than 40 mm. Line judges are more reliable than players. Judgements are more difficult for balls bouncing near base and service lines than those bouncing near side and centre lines. There is no evidence for significant errors in localization due to image motion. PMID:18426755

  17. Split-Step Timing of Professional and Junior Tennis Players

    PubMed Central

    Leskosek, Bojan; Filipcic, Tjasa

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of the study was to determine the timing of a split-step in three categories of tennis players in four groups of strokes. Subjects were divided into three groups: male and female junior, and male professional tennis players. During two tournaments, all matches were recorded with two fixed video cameras. For every stroke, the timing of the split-step between the opponent’s impact point when hitting the ball and the player’s split-step was measured. A two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to determine the differences between groups of strokes, players and the interaction Player x Stroke Group. A Tukey post-hoc test was employed to determine specific differences. The results revealed differences between players in detecting the opponent’s movement, stroke and ball flight, which were reflected in different split-step timings. Each tennis player has his/her own timing mechanism which they adapt to various game situations. Response times differ significantly depending on the game situation. On average, they are the lowest in the serve, and then gradually rise from the return of the serve to baseline game, reaching the highest values in specific game situations. Players react faster in the first serve than in the second one and in the return of the serve, the response times are lower after the return of the second serve PMID:28210342

  18. Perceptual uncertainty and line-call challenges in professional tennis.

    PubMed

    Mather, George

    2008-07-22

    Fast-moving sports such as tennis require both players and match officials to make rapid accurate perceptual decisions about dynamic events in the visual world. Disagreements arise regularly, leading to disputes about decisions such as line calls. A number of factors must contribute to these disputes, including lapses in concentration, bias and gamesmanship. Fundamental uncertainty or variability in the sensory information supporting decisions must also play a role. Modern technological innovations now provide detailed and accurate physical information that can be compared against the decisions of players and officials. The present paper uses this psychophysical data to assess the significance of perceptual limitations as a contributor to real-world decisions in professional tennis. A detailed analysis is presented of a large body of data on line-call challenges in professional tennis tournaments over the last 2 years. Results reveal that the vast majority of challenges can be explained in a direct highly predictable manner by a simple model of uncertainty in perceptual information processing. Both players and line judges are remarkably accurate at judging ball bounce position, with a positional uncertainty of less than 40mm. Line judges are more reliable than players. Judgements are more difficult for balls bouncing near base and service lines than those bouncing near side and centre lines. There is no evidence for significant errors in localization due to image motion.

  19. Elbow flexor and extensor muscle weakness in lateral epicondylalgia.

    PubMed

    Coombes, Brooke K; Bisset, Leanne; Vicenzino, Bill

    2012-05-01

    To evaluate whether deficits of elbow flexor and extensor muscle strength exist in lateral epicondylalgia (LE) in comparison with a healthy control population. Cross-sectional study. 150 participants with unilateral LE were compared with 54 healthy control participants. Maximal isometric elbow flexion and extension strength were measured bilaterally using a purpose-built standing frame such that gripping was avoided. The authors found significant side differences in elbow extensor (-6.54 N, 95% CI -11.43 to -1.65, p=0.008, standardised mean difference (SMD) -0.45) and flexor muscle strength (-11.26 N, 95% CI -19.59 to -2.94, p=0.009, SMD -0.46) between LE and control groups. Within the LE group, only elbow extensor muscle strength deficits between sides was significant (affected-unaffected: -2.94 N, 95% CI -5.44 to -0.44). Small significant deficits of elbow extensor and flexor muscle strength exist in the affected arm of unilateral LE in comparison with healthy controls. Notably, comparing elbow strength between the affected and unaffected sides in unilateral epicondylalgia is likely to underestimate these deficits. Trial Registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Register ACTRN12609000051246.

  20. Participation motivation and competition anxiety among Korean and non-Korean wheelchair tennis players

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Irully; Park, Sunghee

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine differences in participation motivation and competition anxiety between Korean and non-Korean wheelchair tennis players and to identify relations between participation motivation and competition anxiety in each group. Sixty-six wheel-chair tennis players who participated in the 2013 Korea Open Wheel-chair Tennis Tournament in Seoul completed the Participation Motivation Survey and the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory II. Data were analyzed by a frequency analysis, descriptive statistics, Pearson’s correlation analysis, and independent samples t-test to identify participants’ demographic characteristics, differences in participation motivation, competition anxiety between Korean and non-Korean players, and correlations between participation motivation and competition anxiety in each group. Korean players reported significantly higher motivation in purification compared to non-Korean players, whereas non-Korean players reported significantly higher motivation in enjoyment. In addition, non-Korean players demonstrated higher cognitive anxiety and self-confidence compared to Korean players. Moreover, the physical anxiety of Korean players was negatively correlated with learning, health-fitness, and enjoyment motivation. On the other hand, only self-confidence was significantly related to learning motivation and enjoyment motivation in non-Korean players. Thus, the results presented herein provide evidence for the development of specialized counseling programs that consider the psychological characteristics of Korean wheelchair tennis players. PMID:24409429

  1. Linking of total elbow prosthesis during surgery; a biomechanical analysis.

    PubMed

    De Vos, Maarten J; Wagener, Marc L; Hendriks, Jan C M; Eygendaal, Denise; Verdonschot, Nico

    2013-09-01

    Presently, 2 types of elbow prostheses are used: unlinked and linked. The Latitude total elbow prosthesis allows the surgeon to decide during the implantation whether the prosthesis is placed unlinked or linked, and whether the native radial head is retained, resected, or replaced. The purpose of this study is to assess and to compare the varus and valgus laxity of the unlinked and linked version of the latitude total elbow prosthesis with: (1) the native radial head preserved, (2) the native radial head excised, and (3) the native radial head replaced by a radial head component. Biomechanical testing was performed on 14 fresh-frozen upper limb specimens. Linking the prosthesis predominantly influences the valgus laxity of the elbow. Linking the Latitude total elbow prosthesis results in increased valgus stability. In the linked version of the total elbow prosthesis, the radial head only plays a small part in both valgus and varus stability. An unlinked situation is not advised in absence of a native radial head or in case of inability to replace the radial head. Copyright © 2013 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Surgical anatomy of the radial nerve at the elbow.

    PubMed

    Artico, M; Telera, S; Tiengo, C; Stecco, C; Macchi, V; Porzionato, A; Vigato, E; Parenti, A; De Caro, R

    2009-02-01

    An anatomical study of the brachial portion of the radial nerve with surgical implications is proposed. Thirty specimens of arm from 20 fresh cadavers (11 male, 9 female) were used to examine the topographical relations of the radial nerve with reference to the following anatomical landmarks: acromion angle, medial and lateral epicondyles, point of division between the lateral and long heads of the triceps brachii, lateral intermuscular septum, site of division of the radial nerve into its superficial and posterior interosseous branches and entry and exit point of the posterior interosseous branch into the supinator muscle. The mean distances between the acromion angle and the medial and lateral levels of crossing the posterior aspect of the humerus were 109 (+/-11) and 157 (+/-11) mm, respectively. The mean length and calibre of the nerve in the groove were 59 (+/-4) and 6 (+/-1) mm, respectively. The division of the lateral and long heads of the triceps was found at a mean distance of 126 (+/-13) mm from the acromion angle. The mean distances between the lateral point of crossing the posterior aspect of the humerus and the medial and lateral epicondyles were 125 (+/-13) and 121 (+/-13) mm, respectively. The mean distance between the lateral point of crossing the posterior aspect of the humerus and the entry point in the lateral intermuscular septum (LIS) was 29 (+/-6) mm. The mean distances between the entry point of the nerve in the LIS and the medial and lateral epicondyles were 133 (+/-14) and 110 (+/-23) mm, respectively. Our study provides reliable and objective data of surgical anatomy of the radial nerve which should be always kept in mind by surgeons approaching to the surgery of the arm, in order to avoid iatrogenic injuries.

  3. The effect of repetitive baseball pitching on medial elbow joint space gapping associated with 2 elbow valgus stressors in high school baseball players.

    PubMed

    Hattori, Hiroshi; Akasaka, Kiyokazu; Otsudo, Takahiro; Hall, Toby; Amemiya, Katsuya; Mori, Yoshihisa

    2018-04-01

    To prevent elbow injury in baseball players, various methods have been used to measure medial elbow joint stability with valgus stress. However, no studies have investigated higher levels of elbow valgus stress. This study investigated medial elbow joint space gapping measured ultrasonically resulting from a 30 N valgus stress vs. gravitational valgus stress after a repetitive throwing task. The study included 25 high school baseball players. Each subject pitched 100 times. The ulnohumeral joint space was measured ultrasonographically, before pitching and after each successive block of 20 pitches, with gravity stress or 30 N valgus stress. Two-way repeated measures analysis of variance and Pearson correlation coefficient analysis were used. The 30 N valgus stress produced significantly greater ulnohumeral joint space gapping than gravity stress before pitching and at each successive 20-pitch block (P < .01). For the 2 stress methods, ulnohumeral joint space gapping increased significantly from baseline after 60 pitches (P < .01). Strong significant correlations were found between the 2 methods for measurement of medial elbow joint space gapping (r = 0.727-0.859, P < .01). Gravity stress and 30 N valgus stress may produce different effects with respect to medial elbow joint space gapping before pitching; however, 30 N valgus stress appears to induce greater mechanical stress, which may be preferable when assessing joint instability but also has the potential to be more aggressive. The present results may indicate that constraining factors to medial elbow joint valgus stress matched typical viscoelastic properties of cyclic creep. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Functional outcomes of "floating elbow" injuries in adult patients.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, K; Itoman, M; Kobayashi, A; Shindo, M; Futami, T

    1998-05-01

    To assess elbow function, complications, and problems of floating elbow fractures in adults receiving surgical treatment. Retrospective clinical review. Level I trauma center in Kanagawa, Japan. Fourteen patients with fifteen floating elbow injuries, excluding one immediate amputation, seen at the Kitasato University Hospital from January 1, 1984, to April 30, 1995. All fractures were managed surgically by various methods. In ten cases, the humeral and forearm fractures were treated simultaneously with immediate fixation. In three cases, both the humeral and forearm fractures were treated with delayed fixation on Day 1, 4, or 7. In the remaining two cases, the open forearm fracture was managed with immediate fixation and the humerus fracture with delayed fixation on Day 10 or 25. All subjects underwent standardized elbow evaluations, and results were compared with an elbow score based on a 100-point scale. The parameters evaluated were pain, motion, elbow and grip strength, and function during daily activities. Complications such as infections, nonunions, malunions, and refractures were investigated. Mean follow-up was forty-three months (range 13 to 112 months). At final follow-up, the mean elbow function score was 79 points, with 67 percent (ten of fifteen) of the subjects having good or excellent results. The functional outcome did not correlate with the Injury Severity Score of the individual patients, the existence of open injuries or neurovascular injuries, or the timing of surgery. There were one deep infection, two nonunions of the humerus, two nonunions of the forearm, one varus deformity of the humerus, and one forearm refracture. Based on the present data, we could not clarify the factors influencing the final functional outcome after floating elbow injury. These injuries, however, potentially have many complications, such as infection or nonunion, especially when there is associated brachial plexus injury. We consider that floating elbow injuries are

  5. Acute Effects of Static Stretching, Dynamic Exercises, and High Volume Upper Extremity Plyometric Activity on Tennis Serve Performance

    PubMed Central

    Gelen, Ertugrul; Dede, Muhittin; Bingul, Bergun Meric; Bulgan, Cigdem; Aydin, Mensure

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the acute effects of static stretching; dynamic exercises and high volume upper extremity plyometric activity on tennis serve performance. Twenty-six elite young tennis players (15.1 ± 4.2 years, 167.9 ± 5.8 cm and 61.6 ± 8.1 kg) performed 4 different warm-up (WU) routines in a random order on non-consecutive days. The WU methods consisted of traditional WU (jogging, rally and serve practice) (TRAD); traditional WU and static stretching (TRSS); traditional WU and dynamic exercise (TRDE); and traditional WU and high volume upper extremity plyometric activity (TRPLYP). Following each WU session, subjects were tested on a tennis serve ball speed test. TRAD, TRSS, TRDE and TRPLYO were compared by repeated measurement analyses of variance and post-hoc comparisons. In this study a 1 to 3 percent increase in tennis serve ball speed was recorded in TRDE and TRPLYO when compared to TRAD (p< 0.05). However, no significant change in ball speed performance between TRSS and TRAD. (p> 0.05). ICCs for ball speed showed strong reliability (0.82 to 0.93) for the ball speed measurements.The results of this study indicate that dynamic and high volume upper extremity plyometric WU activities are likely beneficial to serve speed of elite junior tennis players. Key points After the traditional warm up in tennis, static stretching has no effect on serve speed. Tennis players should perform dynamic exercises and/or high volume upper extremity plyometric activities to improve their athletic performance. PMID:24150068

  6. Effects of new sports tennis type exercise on aerobic capacity, follicle stimulating hormone and N-terminal telopeptide in the postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hyun-Jae; Lee, Ha-Yan; Cho, Hye-Young; Park, Yun-Jin; Moon, Hyung-Hoon; Lee, Sung-Hwan; Lee, Sung-Ki; Kim, Myung-Ki

    2014-04-01

    Menopause is characterized by rapid decreases in bone mineral density, aerobic fitness, muscle strength, and balance. In the present study, we investigated the effects of new sports tennis type exercise on aerobic capacity, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and N-terminal telopeptide (NTX) in the postmenopausal women. Subjects were consisted of 20 postmenopausal women, who had not menstruated for at least 1 yr and had follicle-stimulating hormone levels > 35 mIU/L, estradiol levels< 40 pg/mL. The subjects were randomly divided into two groups: control group (n= 10), new sports tennis type exercise group (n= 10). New sports tennis type exercise was consisted of warm up (10 min), new sports tennis type exercise (40 min), cool down (10 min) 3 days a per week for 12 weeks. The aerobic capacities were increased by 12 weeks new sports tennis type exercise. New sports tennis type exercise significantly increased FSH and NTx levels, indicating biochemical markers of bone formation and resorption. These findings indicate that 12 weeks of new sports tennis type exercise can be effective in prevention of bone loss and enhancement of aerobic capacity in postmenopausal women.

  7. Motivational correlates of mentally tough behaviours in tennis.

    PubMed

    Gucciardi, Daniel F; Jackson, Ben; Hanton, Sheldon; Reid, Machar

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine motivational correlates of mentally tough behaviours among adolescent tennis players. Two-phase study, involving the development of an informant-rated measure of mentally tough behaviours, followed by a cross-sectional survey including athlete and parent assessments of study variables. In Phase One, 17 adult, high-performance tennis coaches and 20 athletes participated in focus group interviews. Four scholars with expertise in performance psychology also completed a short, online survey. In Phase Two, a total of 347 adolescent tennis players (nmales=184; nfemales=163) aged 12-18 years (M=13.93, SD=1.47) and one respective parent took part in this study. An online multisection survey containing dimensions of passion, inspiration, fear of failure, and mentally tough behaviours was completed. Athletes self-reported all motivational variables, whereas parents rated their child solely on mentally tough behaviours. Structural equation modelling revealed that harmonious passion (β=.26, p<.01) and frequency of inspiration (β=.32, p<.001) were associated with significantly higher levels of mentally tough behaviours. In contrast, fear of failure (β=-.32, p<.001) and obsessive passion (β=-.15, p<.01) were inversely related to mentally tough behaviours. Inspiration intensity was not significantly associated with mentally tough behaviour (β=.13, p=.21). Motivational variables that are dispositional in nature, contextualised and contingent upon features of the environment, and concern one's identity are important considerations for understanding mentally tough behaviours. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Arthroscopic Management of Elbow Osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Kroonen, Leo T; Piper, Samantha L; Ghatan, Andrew C

    2017-08-01

    The incidence of osteoarthritis in the general population is low, but it can be seen in manual laborers, throwing athletes, and people dependent on crutches and wheelchairs. Patients often complain of pain at the terminal extents of motion, and imaging shows osteophyte formation at the tips of the coronoid and olecranon processes as well as thickening of the bone between the coronoid and the olecranon fossae. Recent advances in arthroscopic instrumentation and techniques have led to a growing interest in the arthroscopic treatment of elbow osteoarthritis. This article provides a review of basic arthroscopic elbow anatomy and the most common procedures, including diagnostic arthroscopy, loose body removal, and arthroscopic osteocapsular and ulnohumeral arthroplasty. As techniques advance, there might be interest in further procedures including arthroscopic-assisted interpositional arthroplasty. Although complications such as persistent drainage and nerve injury are frequently mentioned with elbow arthroscopy, the actual incidence of such complications remains low. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Criterion validity and accuracy of global positioning satellite and data logging devices for wheelchair tennis court movement

    PubMed Central

    Sindall, Paul; Lenton, John P.; Whytock, Katie; Tolfrey, Keith; Oyster, Michelle L.; Cooper, Rory A.; Goosey-Tolfrey, Victoria L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To compare the criterion validity and accuracy of a 1 Hz non-differential global positioning system (GPS) and data logger device (DL) for the measurement of wheelchair tennis court movement variables. Methods Initial validation of the DL device was performed. GPS and DL were fitted to the wheelchair and used to record distance (m) and speed (m/second) during (a) tennis field (b) linear track, and (c) match-play test scenarios. Fifteen participants were monitored at the Wheelchair British Tennis Open. Results Data logging validation showed underestimations for distance in right (DLR) and left (DLL) logging devices at speeds >2.5 m/second. In tennis-field tests, GPS underestimated distance in five drills. DLL was lower than both (a) criterion and (b) DLR in drills moving forward. Reversing drill direction showed that DLR was lower than (a) criterion and (b) DLL. GPS values for distance and average speed for match play were significantly lower than equivalent values obtained by DL (distance: 2816 (844) vs. 3952 (1109) m, P = 0.0001; average speed: 0.7 (0.2) vs. 1.0 (0.2) m/second, P = 0.0001). Higher peak speeds were observed in DL (3.4 (0.4) vs. 3.1 (0.5) m/second, P = 0.004) during tennis match play. Conclusions Sampling frequencies of 1 Hz are too low to accurately measure distance and speed during wheelchair tennis. GPS units with a higher sampling rate should be advocated in further studies. Modifications to existing DL devices may be required to increase measurement precision. Further research into the validity of movement devices during match play will further inform the demands and movement patterns associated with wheelchair tennis. PMID:23820154

  10. Quantifying Contextual Interference and Its Effect on Skill Transfer in Skilled Youth Tennis Players

    PubMed Central

    Buszard, Tim; Reid, Machar; Krause, Lyndon; Kovalchik, Stephanie; Farrow, Damian

    2017-01-01

    The contextual interference effect is a well-established motor learning phenomenon. Most of the contextual interference effect literature has addressed simple skills, while less is known about the role of contextual interference in complex sport skill practice, particularly with respect to skilled performers. The purpose of this study was to assess contextual interference when practicing the tennis serve. Study 1 evaluated tennis serve practice of nine skilled youth tennis players using a novel statistical metric developed specifically to measure between-skill and within-skill variability as sources of contextual interference. This metric highlighted that skilled tennis players typically engaged in serve practice that featured low contextual interference. In Study 2, 16 skilled youth tennis players participated in 10 practice sessions that aimed to improve serving “down the T.” Participants were stratified into a low contextual interference practice group (Low CI) and a moderate contextual interference practice group (Moderate CI). Pre- and post-tests were conducted 1 week before and 1 week after the practice period. Testing involved a skill test, which assessed serving performance in a closed setting, and a transfer test, which assessed serving performance in a match-play setting. No significant contextual interference differences were observed with respect to practice performance. However, analysis of pre- and post-test serve performance revealed significant Group × Time interactions. The Moderate CI group showed no change in serving performance (service displacement from the T) from pre- to post-test in the skill test, but did display improvements in the transfer test. Conversely, the Low CI group improved serving performance (service displacement from the T) in the skill test but not the transfer test. Results suggest that the typical contextual interference effect is less clear when practicing a complex motor skill, at least with the tennis serve skill

  11. 49 CFR 192.313 - Bends and elbows.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bends and elbows. 192.313 Section 192.313... Lines and Mains § 192.313 Bends and elbows. (a) Each field bend in steel pipe, other than a wrinkle bend made in accordance with § 192.315, must comply with the following: (1) A bend must not impair the...

  12. 49 CFR 192.313 - Bends and elbows.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Bends and elbows. 192.313 Section 192.313... Lines and Mains § 192.313 Bends and elbows. (a) Each field bend in steel pipe, other than a wrinkle bend made in accordance with § 192.315, must comply with the following: (1) A bend must not impair the...

  13. Optimal Measurement Level and Ulnar Nerve Cross-Sectional Area Cutoff Threshold for Identifying Ulnar Neuropathy at the Elbow by MRI and Ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Terayama, Yasushi; Uchiyama, Shigeharu; Ueda, Kazuhiko; Iwakura, Nahoko; Ikegami, Shota; Kato, Yoshiharu; Kato, Hiroyuki

    2018-06-01

    Imaging criteria for diagnosing compressive ulnar neuropathy at the elbow (UNE) have recently been established as the maximum ulnar nerve cross-sectional area (UNCSA) upon magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and/or ultrasonography (US). However, the levels of maximum UNCSA and diagnostic cutoff values have not yet been established. We therefore analyzed UNCSA by MRI and US in patients with UNE and in controls. We measured UNCSA at 7 levels in 30 patients with UNE and 28 controls by MRI and at 15 levels in 12 patients with UNE and 24 controls by US. We compared UNCSA as determined by MRI or US and determined optimal diagnostic cutoff values based on receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. The UNCSA was significantly larger in the UNE group than in controls at 3, 2, 1, and 0 cm proximal and 1, 2, and 3 cm distal to the medial epicondyle for both modalities. The UNCSA was maximal at 1 cm proximal to the medial epicondyle for MRI (16.1 ± 3.5 mm 2 ) as well as for US (17 ± 7 mm 2 ). A cutoff value of 11.0 mm 2 for MRI and US was found to be optimal for differentiating between patients with UNE and controls, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.95 for MRI and 0.96 for US. The UNCSA measured by MRI was not significantly different from that by US. Intra-rater and interrater reliabilities for UNCSA were all greater than 0.77. The UNCSA in the severe nerve dysfunction group of 18 patients was significantly larger than that in the mild nerve dysfunction group of 12 patients. By measuring UNCSA with MRI or US at 1 cm proximal to the ME, patients with and without UNE could be discriminated at a cutoff threshold of 11.0 mm 2 with high sensitivity, specificity, and reliability. Diagnostic III. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Phase-dependence of elbow muscle coactivation in front crawl swimming.

    PubMed

    Lauer, Jessy; Figueiredo, Pedro; Vilas-Boas, João Paulo; Fernandes, Ricardo J; Rouard, Annie Hélène

    2013-08-01

    Propulsion in swimming is achieved by complex sculling movements with elbow quasi-fixed on the antero-posterior axis to transmit forces from the hand and the forearm to the body. The purpose of this study was to investigate how elbow muscle coactivation was influenced by the front crawl stroke phases. Ten international level male swimmers performed a 200-m front crawl race-pace bout. Sagittal views were digitized frame by frame to determine the stroke phases (aquatic elbow flexion and extension, aerial elbow flexion and extension). Surface electromyograms (EMG) of the right biceps brachii and triceps brachii were recorded and processed using the integrated EMG to calculate a coactivation index (CI) for each phase. A significant effect of the phases on the CI was revealed with highest levels of coactivation during the aquatic elbow flexion and the aerial elbow extension. Swimmers stabilize the elbow joint to overcome drag during the aquatic phase, and act as a brake at the end of the recovery to replace the arm for the next stroke. The CI can provide insight into the magnitude of mechanical constraints supported by a given joint, in particular during a complex movement. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. 21 CFR 888.3160 - Elbow joint metal/polymer semi-constrained cemented prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Elbow joint metal/polymer semi-constrained... Elbow joint metal/polymer semi-constrained cemented prosthesis. (a) Identification. An elbow joint metal/polymer semi-constrained cemented prosthesis is a device intended to be implanted to replace an elbow...

  16. 21 CFR 888.3160 - Elbow joint metal/polymer semi-constrained cemented prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Elbow joint metal/polymer semi-constrained... Elbow joint metal/polymer semi-constrained cemented prosthesis. (a) Identification. An elbow joint metal/polymer semi-constrained cemented prosthesis is a device intended to be implanted to replace an elbow...

  17. 21 CFR 888.3160 - Elbow joint metal/polymer semi-constrained cemented prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Elbow joint metal/polymer semi-constrained... Elbow joint metal/polymer semi-constrained cemented prosthesis. (a) Identification. An elbow joint metal/polymer semi-constrained cemented prosthesis is a device intended to be implanted to replace an elbow...

  18. 21 CFR 888.3160 - Elbow joint metal/polymer semi-constrained cemented prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Elbow joint metal/polymer semi-constrained... Elbow joint metal/polymer semi-constrained cemented prosthesis. (a) Identification. An elbow joint metal/polymer semi-constrained cemented prosthesis is a device intended to be implanted to replace an elbow...

  19. The Ability of Elite Table Tennis Players with Intellectual Disabilities to Adapt Their Service/Return

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Biesen, Debbie; Verellen, Joeri; Meyer, Christophe; Mactavish, Jennifer; Van de Vliet, Peter; Vanlandewijck, Yves

    2010-01-01

    In this study the ability of elite table tennis players with intellectual disability (ID) to adapt their service/return to specific ball spin characteristics was investigated. This was done by examining the performance of 39 players with ID and a reference group of 8 players without ID on a standardized table tennis specific test battery. The…

  20. Tennis Training Sessions as a Rehabilitation Instrument for Patients after Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    García, Juan P. F.; Giraldo, Víctor M. A.; Barrado, José J. G.; Casasola, César D.

    2013-01-01

    The aims of this study were to measure the effects of a cardiac rehabilitation program based on a modification of a sport (tennis) on quality of life, on various laboratory test parameters and on an exercise stress test, and to determine if the results of this novel activity are equivalent to those of traditional programs (i.e., the use of the bicycle ergometer). The sample consisted of 79 patients with a low-risk acute coronary syndrome. They were divided into three groups: two experimental groups and one control group. One of the experimental groups used the bicycle ergometer as its main physical activity, whereas the other received training in a modified form of tennis lesson. By the end of the 3-month program, triglycerides, cholesterol LDL, cholesterol HDL, (-25 mg·dl-1 and 32.3 mg·dl-1 final, and 15.7 mg·dl-1 and 23.3 mg·dl-1 LDL final, respectively) and exercise capacity improved significantly (by 1.1 metabolic equivalents (METs) and 1.2 METs, respectively), in both experimental groups. We conclude that the application of a comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation program in patients with low-risk acute coronary syndrome based on a program of modified tennis improves exercise tolerance and metabolic parameters, as well as certain physical characteristics that reduce cardiovascular risk. Key Points Cardiac rehabilitation of low risk patients with acute coronary syndrome based on a program of modified tennis produces an improvement in quality of life, lipid profiles and in exercise tolerance A cardiac rehabilitation program based on a modification of tennis produces favourable changes in various anthropometric parameters related to the reduction of cardiovascular risk The development of programs of cardiac rehabilitation based on modified versions of various sports would advantage the adherence to physical exercise. PMID:24149811

  1. Comparison of short- to medium-term results of Coonrad-Morrey elbow replacement in patients with rheumatoid arthritis versus patients after elbow injuries

    PubMed Central

    Szyluk, Karol; Widuchowski, Wojciech; Jasiński, Andrzej; Koczy, Bogdan; Widuchowski, Jerzy

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to assess the utility of the Coonrad-Morrey elbow prosthesis in patients with severe elbow dysfunction secondary to rheumatoid arthritis (RA) or post-traumatic elbow dysfunction. Material/Methods The study involved 35 patients followed up for a mean of 36 months. The patients were divided into those with RA (Group I) and those with post-traumatic elbow dysfunction (Group II). Treatment outcomes were evaluated according to the Mayo Elbow Performance Score (MEPS) and the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand Score (Quick DASH). Results According to the MEPS, there were 20 (57.15%) excellent, 12 (34.3%) good, 1 (2.85%) fair, and 2 (5.7%) poor outcomes. The mean post-operative Quick-DASH score for the entire study group was 37.73 points. In subgroup analysis, the MEPS-based evaluation revealed: 14 (70%) excellent, 5 (25%) good, and 1 (5%) satisfactory outcome in Group I, versus 6 (40%) excellent, 7 (46.7%) good, and 2 (13.3%) poor outcomes in Group II. The mean Quick Dash scores were 78.64 points in Group I and 76.36 points in Group II. The final MEPS scores in Group I (p=0.000018) and Group II (p=0.00065) were most markedly influenced by reduction in elbow pain and improvement in the ability to perform activities of daily living (ADL): p=0.000018 in Group I and p=0.000713 in Group II. Conclusions The treatment outcomes confirm the utility of arthroplasty for severe elbow dysfunctions; they were most strongly influenced by pain reduction and improved ability to perform activities of daily living. PMID:23291737

  2. Floating elbow injuries in adults: prognostic factors affecting clinical outcomes.

    PubMed

    Ditsios, Konstantinos; Boutsiadis, Achilleas; Papadopoulos, Pericles; Karataglis, Dimitrios; Givissis, Panagiotis; Hatzokos, Ippokratis; Christodoulou, Anastasios

    2013-01-01

    Floating elbow fractures in adults are rare and complex injuries with unpredictable outcomes. The present study was designed to assess our experience, analyze possible compilations and illustrate prognostic factors of the final outcome. Between 2002 and 2009, 19 patients with floating elbow fractures were treated in our department (mean follow-up, 26 months). The fractures were open in 10 patients (52.6%), and concomitant nerve palsy was present in 10 patients. Although the term "floating elbow" refers only to concomitant ipsilateral humeral and forearm shaft fractures, we also included injuries with intra-articular involvement. We categorized the patients into 4 groups: group I (10 patients) included shaft fractures of humerus and forearm, group IIa (5 patients) and IIb (1 patient) included partial intra-articular injuries, and group III (3 patients) involved only intra-articular comminuted fractures of the elbow region. Fracture healing was observed 14 weeks postoperatively, except in 2 patients, in which elbow arthroplasty was applied, and in 1 with brachial artery injury. Nine patients with nerve neuropraxia recovered 4 months postoperatively, and tendon transfers were necessary in 1 patient. Recovery in patients with nerve palsy was worse than in those without nerve injury (Mayo Elbow Performance Score, 73 vs 88.34; Khalfayan score, 72 vs 88.3). In addition, intra-articular involvement (groups II and III) negatively influenced the final clinical outcome compared with isolated shaft fractures (group I; Mayo Elbow Performance Score, 71.1 vs 88.5; Khalfayan score, 72.67 vs 86.1). Although the nature of floating elbow injuries is complex, the presence of nerve injury and intra-articular involvement predispose to worse clinical outcomes. Copyright © 2013 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Analysis of elbow muscle strength parameters in Brazilian jiu-jitsu practitioners.

    PubMed

    Follmer, Bruno; Dellagrana, Rodolfo André; de Lima, Luis Antonio Pereira; Herzog, Walter; Diefenthaeler, Fernando

    2017-12-01

    Upper-body dynamic and isometric maximum strength are essential components for success in Brazilian jiu-jitsu (BJJ). This study was aimed at analysing strength parameters in the elbow flexor and extensor muscles of BJJ practitioners. Participants (n = 28) performed maximum isometric contractions of elbow flexors and extensors to determine peak torque (PT), rate of force development (RFD), and the torque-angle (T-A) relationship at elbow angles of 45°, 60°, 75°, 90°, 105°, and 120°. Additionally, concentric and eccentric PTs were measured at 1.04 rad·s -1 . Student t-test and ANOVA were performed using α = 0.05. Elbow flexors were stronger isometrically (P < 0.001, ES = 1.23) but weaker concentrically (P < 0.05, ES = 0.54) than extensor muscles, possibly because of the extensive grip disputes and pushing of opponents in BJJ. The T-A relationship had an inverted "U"-shape. Torque differences across elbow angles were moderate (ES = 0.62) for the extensor and large (ES = 0.92) for the flexor muscles. Isometric torque was greatest for elbow angles of 105° and 75° and smallest for 45° and 120° for extensor and flexor muscles, respectively. Elbow flexors had a greater RFD than extensors, regardless of elbow angle. The present study provides comprehensive results for elbow muscle strength in BJJ practitioners.

  4. Impingement of Droplets in 90 deg Elbows with Potential Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hacker, Paul T.; Brun, Rinaldo J.; Boyd, Bemrose

    1953-01-01

    Trajectories were determined for droplets in air flowing through 90 deg elbows especially designed for two-dimensional potential motion with low pressure losses. The elbows were established by selecting as walls of each elbow two streamlines of the flow field produced by a complex potential function that establishes a two-dimensional flow around a 90 deg bend. An unlimited number of elbows with slightly different shapes can be established by selecting different pairs of streamlines as walls. The elbows produced by the complex potential function selected are suitable for use in aircraft air-intake ducts. The droplet impingement data derived from the trajectories are presented along with equations in such a manner that the collection efficiency, the area, the rate, and the distribution of droplet impingement can be determined for any elbow defined by any pair of streamlines within a portion of the flow field established by the complex potential function. Coordinates for some typical streamlines of the flow field and velocity components for several points along these streamlines are presented in tabular form.

  5. The incidence and distribution of stress fractures in elite tennis players

    PubMed Central

    Maquirriain, J; Ghisi, J P

    2006-01-01

    Background Modern professional tennis involves powerful movements repeatedly subjecting the musculoskeletal system to heavy mechanical load. Thus tennis players are exposed to high risk of overuse injuries including stress fractures. Objective To determine the incidence and distribution of stress fractures in elite tennis players. Study design Retrospective cohort study. Methods The cohort study population consisted of 139 elite players (mean (SD) age, 20.0 (5.0) years; 48 female, 91 male). Stress fractures were identified and confirmed radiologically from medical records during a two year period. Injuries were analysed according to age, sex, site, severity, delay in diagnosis, and time needed to return to sports. Results 15 players sustained 18 stress fractures, corresponding to an overall case incidence of 12.9% (95% confidence interval (CI), 8.1 to 20.0). The tarsal navicular was most affected (n = 5; 27%), followed by the pars interarticularis (n = 3; 16%), the metatarsals (n = 3; 16%), the tibia (n = 2; 11%) and the lunate (n = 2; 11%). Magnetic resonance imaging showed a greater incidence of “high grade” lesions (94.4%). Stress fracture incidence was significantly higher in juniors (20.3% (95% CI, 11.4 to 33.2)) than in professional players (7.5% (2.8 to 15.6)) (p = 0.045). Conclusions There was a high absolute risk (12.9%) of stress fractures in elite tennis players over a two year period. Junior players were at highest risk. The lesions are a major cause of disruption both of training and of competition. Risk factors should therefore be identified and prevention emphasised. PMID:16632579

  6. Experimental measurement of flexion-extension movement in normal and corpse prosthetic elbow joint.

    PubMed

    TarniŢă, Daniela; TarniŢă, DănuŢ Nicolae

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative experimental study of flexion-extension movement in healthy elbow and in the prosthetic elbow joint fixed on an original experimental bench. Measurements were carried out in order to validate the functional morphology and a new elbow prosthesis type ball head. The three-dimensional (3D) model and the physical prototype of our experimental bench used to test elbow endoprosthesis at flexion-extension and pronation-supination movements is presented. The measurements were carried out on a group of nine healthy subjects and on the prosthetic corpse elbow, the experimental data being obtained for flexion-extension movement cycles. Experimental data for the two different flexion-extension tests for the nine subjects and for the corpse prosthetic elbow were acquired using SimiMotion video system. Experimental data were processed statistically. The corresponding graphs were obtained for all subjects in the experimental group, and for corpse prosthetic elbow for both flexion-extension tests. The statistical analysis has proved that the flexion angles of healthy elbows were significantly close to the values measured at the prosthetic elbow fixed on the experimental bench. The studied elbow prosthesis manages to re-establish the mobility for the elbow joint as close to the normal one.

  7. Humeral windows in revision total elbow arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Peach, Chris A; Salama, Amir; Stanley, David

    2016-04-01

    The use of cortical windows for revision elbow arthroplasty has not previously been widely reported. Their use aids safe revision of a well fixed humeral prosthesis and can be used in the setting of dislocation, periprosthetic fracture or aseptic loosening of the ulnar component. We describe our technique and results of cortical windows in the distal humerus for revision elbow arthroplasty surgery.

  8. A clinical and ultrasonographic study of risk factors for elbow injury in young baseball players.

    PubMed

    Tajika, T; Kobayashi, T; Yamamoto, A; Kaneko, T; Shitara, H; Shimoyama, D; Iizuka, Y; Okamura, K; Yonemoto, Y; Warita, T; Ohsawa, T; Nakajima, I; Iizuka, H; Takagishi, K

    2016-04-01

    To determine the risk factors for elbow injury and its association with glenohumeral internal rotation deficit among young baseball players. 229 baseball players aged 9 to 14 (mean, 11) years completed a self-administered questionnaire with items related to years of playing baseball, hours of training per weekday, days of training per week, and past and present experience of elbow pain. Two orthopaedic surgeons measured the range of motion of both shoulders and elbows. Another 2 orthopaedic surgeons performed ultrasonography to detect any elbow abnormality such as fragmentation of the medial epicondylar apophysis and osteochondritis dissecans of the capitellum. Using univariate and multivariable analyses, participants with or without elbow abnormality were compared to determine the risk factors for elbow abnormality. Elbow abnormality was detected in 100 of the participants and comprised osteochondritis dissecans of the capitellum (n=18) and fragmentation of the medial epicondylar apophysis (n=82). Elbow abnormality was associated with being a pitcher, past and present experience of elbow pain, loss of elbow extension, and the side-to-side internal rotation difference. The 100 participants with elbow abnormality were stratified into symptomatic (n=57) or asymptomatic (n=43) of elbow pain. Those with elbow abnormality and elbow pain was associated with being a pitcher. Being a pitcher was a risk factor for both elbow abnormality and elbow pain. Nonetheless, 43% of baseball players with elbow abnormality were asymptomatic. The use of ultrasonography was effective in detecting elbow abnormality and enabling early treatment.

  9. Computational Fluid Dynamic simulations of pipe elbow flow.

    SciTech Connect

    Homicz, Gregory Francis

    2004-08-01

    One problem facing today's nuclear power industry is flow-accelerated corrosion and erosion in pipe elbows. The Korean Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) is performing experiments in their Flow-Accelerated Corrosion (FAC) test loop to better characterize these phenomena, and develop advanced sensor technologies for the condition monitoring of critical elbows on a continuous basis. In parallel with these experiments, Sandia National Laboratories is performing Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) simulations of the flow in one elbow of the FAC test loop. The simulations are being performed using the FLUENT commercial software developed and marketed by Fluent, Inc. The model geometry and meshmore » were created using the GAMBIT software, also from Fluent, Inc. This report documents the results of the simulations that have been made to date; baseline results employing the RNG k-e turbulence model are presented. The predicted value for the diametrical pressure coefficient is in reasonably good agreement with published correlations. Plots of the velocities, pressure field, wall shear stress, and turbulent kinetic energy adjacent to the wall are shown within the elbow section. Somewhat to our surprise, these indicate that the maximum values of both wall shear stress and turbulent kinetic energy occur near the elbow entrance, on the inner radius of the bend. Additional simulations were performed for the same conditions, but with the RNG k-e model replaced by either the standard k-{var_epsilon}, or the realizable k-{var_epsilon} turbulence model. The predictions using the standard k-{var_epsilon} model are quite similar to those obtained in the baseline simulation. However, with the realizable k-{var_epsilon} model, more significant differences are evident. The maximums in both wall shear stress and turbulent kinetic energy now appear on the outer radius, near the elbow exit, and are {approx}11% and 14% greater, respectively, than those predicted in the baseline

  10. The hypertrophy of the lateral abdominal wall and quadratus lumborum is sport-specific: an MRI segmental study in professional tennis and soccer players.

    PubMed

    Sanchis-Moysi, Joaquin; Idoate, Fernando; Izquierdo, Mikel; Calbet, Jose A; Dorado, Cecilia

    2013-03-01

    The aim was to determine the volume and degree of asymmetry of quadratus lumborum (QL), obliques, and transversus abdominis; the last two considered conjointly (OT), in tennis and soccer players. The volume of QL and OT was determined using magnetic resonance imaging in professional tennis and soccer players, and in non-active controls (n = 8, 14, and 6, respectively). In tennis players the hypertrophy of OT was limited to proximal segments (cephalic segments), while in soccer players it was similar along longitudinal axis. In tennis players the hypertrophy was asymmetric (18% greater volume in the non-dominant than in the dominant OT, p = 0.001), while in soccer players and controls both sides had similar volumes (p > 0.05). In controls, the non-dominant QL was 15% greater than that of the dominant (p = 0.049). Tennis and soccer players had similar volumes in both sides of QL. Tennis alters the dominant-to-non-dominant balance in the muscle volume of the lateral abdominal wall. In tennis the hypertrophy is limited to proximal segments and is greater in the non-dominant side. Soccer, however, is associated to a symmetric hypertrophy of the lateral abdominal wall. Tennis and soccer elicit an asymmetric hypertrophy of QL.

  11. Articular Contact Area and Pressure in Posteromedial Rotatory Instability of the Elbow.

    PubMed

    Bellato, Enrico; Fitzsimmons, James S; Kim, Youngbok; Bachman, Daniel R; Berglund, Lawrence J; Hooke, Alexander W; O'Driscoll, Shawn W

    2018-03-21

    Joint incongruity in posteromedial rotatory instability (PMRI) has been theorized to determine early articular degenerative changes. Our hypothesis was that the articular contact area and contact pressure differ significantly between an intact elbow and an elbow affected by PMRI. Seven cadaveric elbows were tested under gravity varus stress using a custom-made machine designed to simulate muscle loads and allow passive elbow flexion (0° to 90°). The mean contact area and contact pressure data were collected and processed using the Tekscan sensor and software. After testing the intact specimen (intact elbow), a PMRI injury was simulated (PMRI elbow) and the specimen was tested again. The PMRI elbows were characterized by initial joint subluxation and significantly elevated articular contact pressure. Both worsened, corresponding with a reduction in contact area, as the elbow was flexed from 0° until the joint subluxation and incongruity spontaneously reduced (at a mean [and standard error] of 60° ± 5° of flexion), at which point the mean contact pressure decreased from 870 ± 50 kPa (pre-reduction) to 440 ± 40 kPa (post-reduction) (p < 0.001) and the mean contact area increased from 80 ± 8 mm to 150 ± 58 mm (p < 0.001). This reduction of the subluxation was also followed by a shift of the contact area from the coronoid fracture edge toward the lower portion of the coronoid. At the flexion angle at which the PMRI elbows reduced, both the contact area and the contact pressure of the intact elbows differed significantly from those of the PMRI elbows, both before and after the elbow reduction (p < 0.001). The reduction in contact area and increased contact pressures due to joint subluxation and incongruity could explain the progressive arthritis seen in some elbows affected by PMRI. This biomechanical study suggests that the early degenerative changes associated with PMRI reported in the literature could be subsequent to joint incongruity and an increase in

  12. A stochastic Markov chain approach for tennis: Monte Carlo simulation and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aslam, Kamran

    This dissertation describes the computational formulation of probability density functions (pdfs) that facilitate head-to-head match simulations in tennis along with ranking systems developed from their use. A background on the statistical method used to develop the pdfs , the Monte Carlo method, and the resulting rankings are included along with a discussion on ranking methods currently being used both in professional sports and in other applications. Using an analytical theory developed by Newton and Keller in [34] that defines a tennis player's probability of winning a game, set, match and single elimination tournament, a computational simulation has been developed in Matlab that allows further modeling not previously possible with the analytical theory alone. Such experimentation consists of the exploration of non-iid effects, considers the concept the varying importance of points in a match and allows an unlimited number of matches to be simulated between unlikely opponents. The results of these studies have provided pdfs that accurately model an individual tennis player's ability along with a realistic, fair and mathematically sound platform for ranking them.

  13. Autonomy, coping strategies and psychological well-being in young professional tennis players.

    PubMed

    Romero Carrasco, Alicia Elena; Campbell, Rolando Zapata; López, Alejandra Letelier; Poblete, Ixa López; García-Mas, Alexandre

    2013-01-01

    This research aimed to analyze the role of Psychological Well-being factors in young professional tennis players, assigning special attention to their preferred coping strategies and perceived autonomy that specifically contribute to Psychological Well-being. The conceptual framework utilized for this study was Ryff's Psychological Well-being multidimensional model in order to focus our understanding towards how environment demands of professional sport affect athletes Psychological Well-being. Participants were 155 male professional tennis players with a mean age of 14.61 (SD = 1.86) engaged in South American Tennis Federation tournaments. Instruments utilized were Psychological Well Being Scale EBP, Díaz et al., 2006, Sport Coping Approach Questionnary Spanish version, ACSQ-1 (Kim, Duda, Tomas, & Balaguer, 2003) and Sport Perceived Autonomy Scale, Spanish version (Balaguer, Castillo, & Duda, 2008). Our research revealed that the greater autonomy young athletes perceive while being engaged in professional sport was because of the coping strategies they utilized such as active planning, cognitive restructuring, emotional calmness and seeking of social support. Results confirmed also that the greater perceived autonomy was explaining athletes high levels of Psychological Well-being.

  14. Age-related, sport-specific adaptions of the shoulder girdle in elite adolescent tennis players.

    PubMed

    Cools, Ann M; Palmans, Tanneke; Johansson, Fredrik R

    2014-01-01

    Tennis requires repetitive overhead movements that can lead to upper extremity injury. The scapula and the shoulder play a vital role in injury-free playing. Scapular dysfunction and glenohumeral changes in strength and range of motion (ROM) have been associated with shoulder injury in the overhead athlete. To compare scapular position and strength and shoulder ROM and strength between Swedish elite tennis players of 3 age categories (<14, 14-16, and >16 years). Cross-sectional study. Tennis training sports facilities. Fifty-nine adolescent Swedish elite tennis players (ages 10-20 years) selected based on their national ranking. We used a clinical screening protocol with a digital inclinometer and a handheld dynamometer to measure scapular upward rotation at several angles of arm elevation, isometric scapular muscle strength, glenohumeral ROM, and isometric rotator cuff strength. Players older than 16 years showed less scapular upward rotation on the dominant side at 90° and 180° (P < .05). Although all absolute scapular muscle strength values increased with age, there was no change in the body-weight-normalized strength of the middle (P = .9) and lower (P = .81) trapezius or serratus anterior (P = .17). Glenohumeral internal-rotation ROM and total ROM tended to decrease, but this finding was not statistically significant (P = .052 and P = .06, respectively). Whereas normalized internal-rotator strength increased from 14 to 16 years to older than 16 years (P = .009), normalized external-rotator and supraspinatus strength remained unchanged. Age-related changes in shoulder and scapular strength and ROM were apparent in elite adolescent tennis players. Future authors should examine the association of these adaptations with performance data and injury incidence.

  15. The effectiveness of exercise for the management of musculoskeletal disorders and injuries of the elbow, forearm, wrist, and hand: a systematic review by the Ontario Protocol for Traffic Injury Management (OPTIMa) collaboration.

    PubMed

    Menta, Roger; Randhawa, Kristi; Côté, Pierre; Wong, Jessica J; Yu, Hainan; Sutton, Deborah; Varatharajan, Sharanya; Southerst, Danielle; D'Angelo, Kevin; Cox, Jocelyn; Brown, Courtney; Dion, Sarah; Mior, Silvano; Stupar, Maja; Shearer, Heather M; Lindsay, Gail M; Jacobs, Craig; Taylor-Vaisey, Anne

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate the effectiveness of exercise compared to other interventions, placebo/sham intervention, or no intervention in improving self-rated recovery, functional recovery, clinical, and/or administrative outcomes in individuals with musculoskeletal disorders and injuries of the elbow, forearm, wrist, and hand. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials from 1990 to 2015. Paired reviewers independently screened studies for relevance and assessed the risk of bias using the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network criteria. We synthesized the evidence using the best evidence synthesis methodology. We identified 5 studies with a low risk of bias. Our review suggests that, for patients with persistent lateral epicondylitis, (1) adding concentric or eccentric strengthening exercises to home stretching exercises provides no additional benefits; (2) a home program of either eccentric or concentric strengthening exercises leads to similar outcomes; (3) home wrist extensor strengthening exercises lead to greater short-term improvements in pain reduction compared to "wait and see"; and (4) clinic-based, supervised exercise may be more beneficial than home exercises with minimal improvements in pain and function. For hand pain of variable duration, supervised progressive strength training added to advice to continue normal physical activity provides no additional benefits. The relative effectiveness of stretching vs strengthening for the wrist extensors remains unknown for the management of persistent lateral epicondylitis. The current evidence shows that the addition of supervised progressive strength training does not provide further benefits over advice to continue normal physical activity for hand pain of variable duration. Copyright © 2015 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Elbow dislocation secondary to fall during police arrest.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, R J; Clark, K; Kelliher, T

    2014-02-01

    A case of total elbow dislocation with significant swelling and loss of distal pulses during police arrest is described. To date, this specific injury in relation to police arrest has not been described in the literature. Whilst attempting to remove the detainee from a public transport vehicle, the patient and the officers involved fell to the ground with his arm slightly flexed. He was handcuffed to the rear and taken to the police office. Whilst there, it was noted that his left elbow was swelling dramatically and he complained of pain. The detainee and officers attended the emergency room and he was found to have a total dislocation of the left elbow and vascular compromise of the limb. The elbow was promptly reduced with sedation and a post reduction angiogram demonstrated injury to the tissues surrounding the brachial artery. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  17. A comparison of manual and quantitative elbow strength testing.

    PubMed

    Shahgholi, Leili; Bengtson, Keith A; Bishop, Allen T; Shin, Alexander Y; Spinner, Robert J; Basford, Jeffrey R; Kaufman, Kenton R

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the clinical ratings of elbow strength obtained by skilled clinicians with objective strength measurement obtained through quantitative testing. A retrospective comparison of subject clinical records with quantitative strength testing results in a motion analysis laboratory was conducted. A total of 110 individuals between the ages of 8 and 65 yrs with traumatic brachial plexus injuries were identified. Patients underwent manual muscle strength testing as assessed on the 5-point British Medical Research Council Scale (5/5, normal; 0/5, absent) and quantitative elbow flexion and extension strength measurements. A total of 92 subjects had elbow flexion testing. Half of the subjects clinically assessed as having normal (5/5) elbow flexion strength on manual muscle testing exhibited less than 42% of their age-expected strength on quantitative testing. Eighty-four subjects had elbow extension strength testing. Similarly, half of those displaying normal elbow extension strength on manual muscle testing were found to have less than 62% of their age-expected values on quantitative testing. Significant differences between manual muscle testing and quantitative findings were not detected for the lesser (0-4) strength grades. Manual muscle testing, even when performed by experienced clinicians, may be more misleading than expected for subjects graded as having normal (5/5) strength. Manual muscle testing estimates for the lesser strength grades (1-4/5) seem reasonably accurate.

  18. Ultrasound-guided percutaneous needle electrolysis in chronic lateral epicondylitis: short-term and long-term results

    PubMed Central

    Valera-Garrido, Fermín; Minaya-Muñoz, Francisco; Medina-Mirapeix, Francesc

    2014-01-01

    Background Ultrasound (US)-guided percutaneous needle electrolysis (PNE) is a novel minimally invasive approach which consists of the application of a galvanic current through an acupuncture needle. Objective To evaluate the clinical and ultrasonographic effectiveness of a multimodal programme (PNE, eccentric exercise (EccEx) and stretching) in the short term for patients with chronic lateral epicondylitis, and to determine whether the clinical outcomes achieved decline over time. Methods A one-way repeated measures study was performed in a clinical setting in 36 patients presenting with lateral epicondylitis. The patients received one session of US-guided PNE per week over 4–6 weeks, associated with a home programme of EccEx and stretching. The main outcome measures were severity of pain, disability (Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) questionnaire), structural tendon changes (US), hypervascularity and patients’ perceptions of overall outcome. Measurements at 6, 26 and 52 weeks follow-up included recurrence rates (increase in severity of pain or disability compared with discharge), perception of overall outcome and success rates. Results All outcome measures registered significant improvements between pre-intervention and discharge. Most patients (n=30, 83.3%) rated the overall outcome as ‘successful’ at 6 weeks. The ultrasonographic findings showed that the hypoechoic regions and hypervascularity of the extensor carpi radialis brevis changed significantly. At 26 and 52 weeks, all participants (n=32) perceived a ‘successful’ outcome. Recurrence rates were null after discharge and at follow-up at 6, 26 and 52 weeks. Conclusions Symptoms and degenerative structural changes of chronic lateral epicondylitis are reduced after US-guided PNE associated with EccEx and stretching, with encouragingly low recurrences in the mid to long term. Trial registration number ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02085928. PMID:25122629

  19. Ultrasound-guided percutaneous needle electrolysis in chronic lateral epicondylitis: short-term and long-term results.

    PubMed

    Valera-Garrido, Fermín; Minaya-Muñoz, Francisco; Medina-Mirapeix, Francesc

    2014-12-01

    Ultrasound (US)-guided percutaneous needle electrolysis (PNE) is a novel minimally invasive approach which consists of the application of a galvanic current through an acupuncture needle. To evaluate the clinical and ultrasonographic effectiveness of a multimodal programme (PNE, eccentric exercise (EccEx) and stretching) in the short term for patients with chronic lateral epicondylitis, and to determine whether the clinical outcomes achieved decline over time. A one-way repeated measures study was performed in a clinical setting in 36 patients presenting with lateral epicondylitis. The patients received one session of US-guided PNE per week over 4-6 weeks, associated with a home programme of EccEx and stretching. The main outcome measures were severity of pain, disability (Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) questionnaire), structural tendon changes (US), hypervascularity and patients' perceptions of overall outcome. Measurements at 6, 26 and 52 weeks follow-up included recurrence rates (increase in severity of pain or disability compared with discharge), perception of overall outcome and success rates. All outcome measures registered significant improvements between pre-intervention and discharge. Most patients (n=30, 83.3%) rated the overall outcome as 'successful' at 6 weeks. The ultrasonographic findings showed that the hypoechoic regions and hypervascularity of the extensor carpi radialis brevis changed significantly. At 26 and 52 weeks, all participants (n=32) perceived a 'successful' outcome. Recurrence rates were null after discharge and at follow-up at 6, 26 and 52 weeks. Symptoms and degenerative structural changes of chronic lateral epicondylitis are reduced after US-guided PNE associated with EccEx and stretching, with encouragingly low recurrences in the mid to long term. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02085928. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence

  20. Five-Day Whole-Body Cryostimulation, Blood Inflammatory Markers, and Performance in High-Ranking Professional Tennis Players

    PubMed Central

    Ziemann, Ewa; Olek, Robert Antoni; Kujach, Sylwester; Grzywacz, Tomasz; Antosiewicz, Jędrzej; Garsztka, Tomasz; Laskowski, Radosław

    2012-01-01

    Context Tournament season can provoke overreaching syndrome in professional tennis players, which may lead to deteriorated performance. Thus, appropriate recovery methods are crucial for athletes in order to sustain high-level performance and avoid injuries. We hypothesized that whole-body cryostimulation could be applied to support the recovery process. Objective To assess the effects of 5 days of whole-body cryostimulation combined with moderate-intensity training on immunologic, hormonal, and hematologic responses; resting metabolic rate; and tennis performance in a posttournament season. Design Controlled laboratory study. Setting National Olympic Sport Centre. Patients or Other Participants Twelve high-ranking professional tennis players. Intervention(s) Participants followed a moderate-intensity training program. A subgroup was treated with the 5-day whole-body cryostimulation (−120°C) applied twice a day. The control subgroup participated in the training only. Main Outcome Measure(s) Pretreatment and posttreatment blood samples were collected and analyzed for tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin 6, testosterone, cortisol, and creatine kinase. Resting metabolic rate and performance of a tennis drill were also assessed. Results Proinflammatory cytokine (tumor necrosis factor α) decreased and pleiotropic cytokine (interleukin 6) and cortisol increased in the group exposed to cryostimulation. In the same group, greater stroke effectiveness during the tennis drill and faster recovery were observed. Neither the training program nor cryostimulation affected resting metabolic rate. Conclusions Professional tennis players experienced an intensified inflammatory response after the completed tournament season, which may lead to overreaching. Applying whole-body cryostimulation in conjunction with moderate-intensity training was more effective for the recovery process than the training itself. The 5-day exposure to cryostimulation twice a day ameliorated the

  1. Structural Analysis of Technical-Tactical Elements in Table Tennis and their Role in Different Playing Zones

    PubMed Central

    Munivrana, Goran; Petrinović, Lidija Zekan; Kondrič, Miran

    2015-01-01

    For the purpose of determining the overall structure of technical-tactical elements in table tennis and evaluating their role in different playing zones around the table, a new measuring instrument (a questionnaire) was formulated that took advantage of the expert knowledge of top, world class table tennis coaches. The results of the hierarchical taxonomic (cluster) analysis showed that the overall structure of the technical-tactical elements forming the table tennis technique could be divided into three basic groups; a group of technical-tactical elements (A) used in the phase of preparing one’s own and disabling the opponent’s attack; a group of technical-tactical elements (B) used in the phase of attack and counterattack; and a group of technical-tactical elements (C) used in the phase of defense. The differences among the obtained groups of table tennis elements were determined by applying the Kruskal-Wallis test, while relations between the groups and their role in different playing zones around the table were analyzed by comparing the average values of the experts’ scores. PMID:26557204

  2. Structural Analysis of Technical-Tactical Elements in Table Tennis and their Role in Different Playing Zones.

    PubMed

    Munivrana, Goran; Petrinović, Lidija Zekan; Kondrič, Miran

    2015-09-29

    For the purpose of determining the overall structure of technical-tactical elements in table tennis and evaluating their role in different playing zones around the table, a new measuring instrument (a questionnaire) was formulated that took advantage of the expert knowledge of top, world class table tennis coaches. The results of the hierarchical taxonomic (cluster) analysis showed that the overall structure of the technical-tactical elements forming the table tennis technique could be divided into three basic groups; a group of technical-tactical elements (A) used in the phase of preparing one's own and disabling the opponent's attack; a group of technical-tactical elements (B) used in the phase of attack and counterattack; and a group of technical-tactical elements (C) used in the phase of defense. The differences among the obtained groups of table tennis elements were determined by applying the Kruskal-Wallis test, while relations between the groups and their role in different playing zones around the table were analyzed by comparing the average values of the experts' scores.

  3. The effect of a novel square-profile hand rim on propulsion technique of wheelchair tennis players.

    PubMed

    de Groot, Sonja; Bos, Femke; Koopman, Jorine; Hoekstra, Aldo E; Vegter, Riemer J K

    2018-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of a square-profile hand rim (SPR) on propulsion technique of wheelchair tennis players. Eight experienced wheelchair tennis players performed two sets of three submaximal exercise tests and six sprint tests on a wheelchair ergometer, once with a regular rim (RR) and once with a SPR. Torque and velocity were measured continuously and power output and timing variables were calculated. No significant differences were found in propulsion technique between the RR and SPR during the submaximal tests. When sprinting with the racket, the SPR showed a significantly lower overall speed (9.1 vs. 9.8 m s -1 ), maximal speed (10.5 vs. 11.4 m s -1 ), and maximal acceleration (18.6 vs. 10.9 m s -2 ). The SPR does not seem to improve the propulsion technique when propelling a wheelchair with a tennis racket in the hand. However, the results gave input for new hand rim designs for wheelchair tennis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Internal and External Imagery Effects on Tennis Skills Among Novices.

    PubMed

    Dana, Amir; Gozalzadeh, Elmira

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of internal and external visual imagery perspectives on performance accuracy of open and closed tennis skills (i.e., serve, forehand, and backhand) among novices. Thirty-six young male novices, aged 15-18 years, from a summer tennis program participated. Following initial skill acquisition (12 sessions), baseline assessments of imagery ability and imagery perspective preference were used to assign participants to one of three groups: internal imagery ( n = 12), external imagery ( n = 12), or a no-imagery (mental math exercise) control group ( n = 12). The experimental interventions of 15 minutes of mental imagery (internal or external) or mental math exercises followed by 15 minutes of physical practice were held three times a week for six weeks. The performance accuracy of the groups on the serve, forehand, and backhand strokes was measured at pre- and post-test using videotaping. Results showed significant increases in the performance accuracy of all three tennis strokes in all three groups, but serve accuracy in the internal imagery group and forehand accuracy in the external imagery group showed greater improvements, while backhand accuracy was similarly improved in all three groups. These findings highlight differential efficacy of internal and external visual imagery for performance improvement on complex sport skills in early stage motor learning.

  5. Arthroscopic Shoulder Surgery in Female Professional Tennis Players: Ability and Timing to Return to Play.

    PubMed

    Young, Simon W; Dakic, Jodie; Stroia, Kathleen; Nguyen, Michael L; Safran, Marc R

    2017-07-01

    To assess the outcome and time to return to previous level of competitive play after shoulder surgery in professional tennis players. Retrospective case series. Tertiary academic centre. The records of all female tennis players on the Women's Tennis Association (WTA) professional circuit between January 2008 and June 2010 were reviewed to identify players who underwent shoulder surgery on their dominant (serving) shoulder. Primary outcomes were the ability and time to return to professional play and if they were able to return to their previous level of function as determined by singles ranking. Preoperative and postoperative singles rankings were used to determine rate and completeness of return to preoperative function. During the study period, 8 professional women tennis players from the WTA tour underwent shoulder surgery on their dominant arm. Indications included rotator cuff debridement or repair, labral reconstruction for instability or superior labral anterior posterior lesion, and neurolysis of the suprascapular nerve. Seven players (88%) returned to professional play. The mean time to return to play was 7 months after surgery. However, only 25% (2 of 8) players achieved their preinjury singles rank or better by 18 months postoperatively. In total, 4 players returned to their preinjury singles ranking, with their peak singles ranking being attained at a mean of 2.4 years postoperatively. In professional female tennis players, a high return to play rate after arthroscopic shoulder surgery is associated with a prolonged and often incomplete return to previous level of performance. Thus, counseling the patient to this fact is important to manage expectations. Level IV-Case Series.

  6. A musculoskeletal model of the elbow joint complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzalez, Roger V.; Barr, Ronald E.; Abraham, Lawrence D.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes a musculoskeletal model that represents human elbow flexion-extension and forearm pronation-supination. Musculotendon parameters and the skeletal geometry were determined for the musculoskeletal model in the analysis of ballistic elbow joint complex movements. The key objective was to develop a computational model, guided by optimal control, to investigate the relationship among patterns of muscle excitation, individual muscle forces, and movement kinematics. The model was verified using experimental kinematic, torque, and electromyographic data from volunteer subjects performing both isometric and ballistic elbow joint complex movements. In general, the model predicted kinematic and muscle excitation patterns similar to what was experimentally measured.

  7. MRI and arthroscopy correlations of the elbow: a case-based approach.

    PubMed

    Abrams, Geoffrey D; Stoller, David W; Safran, Marc R

    2012-01-01

    The number of elbow arthroscopies and indications for the procedure have increased significantly since the advent of modern elbow arthroscopy in the 1980s. In addition to the patient history, physical examination, and plain radiography, MRI is an important tool for the clinician in diagnosing several pathologies within and around the elbow. Understanding the pathophysiology and clinical presentation and being familiar with the MRI characteristics of a variety of elbow conditions will assist the physician in making an accurate diagnosis and help guide appropriate treatment.

  8. Fractal aggregates in tennis ball systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabin, J.; Bandín, M.; Prieto, G.; Sarmiento, F.

    2009-09-01

    We present a new practical exercise to explain the mechanisms of aggregation of some colloids which are otherwise not easy to understand. We have used tennis balls to simulate, in a visual way, the aggregation of colloids under reaction-limited colloid aggregation (RLCA) and diffusion-limited colloid aggregation (DLCA) regimes. We have used the images of the cluster of balls, following Forrest and Witten's pioneering studies on the aggregation of smoke particles, to estimate their fractal dimension.

  9. Training Level Does Not Affect Auditory Perception of The Magnitude of Ball Spin in Table Tennis.

    PubMed

    Santos, Daniel P R; Barbosa, Roberto N; Vieira, Luiz H P; Santiago, Paulo R P; Zagatto, Alessandro M; Gomes, Matheus M

    2017-01-01

    Identifying the trajectory and spin of the ball with speed and accuracy is critical for good performance in table tennis. The aim of this study was to analyze the ability of table tennis players presenting different levels of training/experience to identify the magnitude of the ball spin from the sound produced when the racket hit the ball. Four types of "forehand" contact sounds were collected in the laboratory, defined as: Fast Spin (spinning ball forward at 140 r/s); Medium Spin (105 r/s); Slow Spin (84 r/s); and Flat Hit (less than 60 r/s). Thirty-four table tennis players of both sexes (24 men and 10 women) aged 18-40 years listened to the sounds and tried to identify the magnitude of the ball spin. The results revealed that in 50.9% of the cases the table tennis players were able to identify the ball spin and the observed number of correct answers (10.2) was significantly higher (χ 2 = 270.4, p <0.05) than the number of correct answers that could occur by chance. On the other hand, the results did not show any relationship between the level of training/experience and auditory perception of the ball spin. This indicates that auditory information contributes to identification of the magnitude of the ball spin, however, it also reveals that, in table tennis, the level of training does not interfere with the auditory perception of the ball spin.

  10. Age-Related, Sport-Specific Adaptions of the Shoulder Girdle in Elite Adolescent Tennis Players

    PubMed Central

    Cools, Ann M.; Palmans, Tanneke; Johansson, Fredrik R.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Tennis requires repetitive overhead movements that can lead to upper extremity injury. The scapula and the shoulder play a vital role in injury-free playing. Scapular dysfunction and glenohumeral changes in strength and range of motion (ROM) have been associated with shoulder injury in the overhead athlete. Objective: To compare scapular position and strength and shoulder ROM and strength between Swedish elite tennis players of 3 age categories (<14, 14–16, and >16 years). Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Tennis training sports facilities. Patients or Other Participants: Fifty-nine adolescent Swedish elite tennis players (ages 10–20 years) selected based on their national ranking. Main Outcome Measure(s): We used a clinical screening protocol with a digital inclinometer and a handheld dynamometer to measure scapular upward rotation at several angles of arm elevation, isometric scapular muscle strength, glenohumeral ROM, and isometric rotator cuff strength. Results: Players older than 16 years showed less scapular upward rotation on the dominant side at 90° and 180° (P < .05). Although all absolute scapular muscle strength values increased with age, there was no change in the body-weight–normalized strength of the middle (P = .9) and lower (P = .81) trapezius or serratus anterior (P = .17). Glenohumeral internal-rotation ROM and total ROM tended to decrease, but this finding was not statistically significant (P = .052 and P = .06, respectively). Whereas normalized internal-rotator strength increased from 14 to 16 years to older than 16 years (P = .009), normalized external-rotator and supraspinatus strength remained unchanged. Conclusions: Age-related changes in shoulder and scapular strength and ROM were apparent in elite adolescent tennis players. Future authors should examine the association of these adaptations with performance data and injury incidence. PMID:25098662

  11. Moral Attitudes Predict Cheating and Gamesmanship Behaviors Among Competitive Tennis Players

    PubMed Central

    Lucidi, Fabio; Zelli, Arnaldo; Mallia, Luca; Nicolais, Giampaolo; Lazuras, Lambros; Hagger, Martin S.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The present study tested Lee et al.’s (2008) model of moral attitudes and cheating behavior in sports in an Italian sample of young tennis players and extended it to predict behavior in actual match play. In the first phase of the study we proposed that moral, competence and status values would predict prosocial and antisocial moral attitudes directly, and indirectly through athletes’ goal orientations. In the second phase, we hypothesized that moral attitudes would directly predict actual cheating behavior observed during match play. Method: Adolescent competitive tennis players (N = 314, 76.75% males, M age = 14.36 years, SD = 1.50) completed measures of values, goal orientations, and moral attitudes. A sub-sample (n = 90) was observed in 45 competitive tennis matches by trained observers who recorded their cheating and gamesmanship behaviors on a validated checklist. Results: Consistent with hypotheses, athletes’ values predicted their moral attitudes through the effects of goal orientations. Anti-social attitudes directly predicted cheating behavior in actual match play providing support for a direct link between moral attitude and actual behavior. Conclusion: The present study findings support key propositions of Lee and colleagues’ model, and extended its application to competitive athletes in actual match play. PMID:28446891

  12. Monitoring Hitting Load in Tennis Using Inertial Sensors and Machine Learning.

    PubMed

    Whiteside, David; Cant, Olivia; Connolly, Molly; Reid, Machar

    2017-10-01

    Quantifying external workload is fundamental to training prescription in sport. In tennis, global positioning data are imprecise and fail to capture hitting loads. The current gold standard (manual notation) is time intensive and often not possible given players' heavy travel schedules. To develop an automated stroke-classification system to help quantify hitting load in tennis. Nineteen athletes wore an inertial measurement unit (IMU) on their wrist during 66 video-recorded training sessions. Video footage was manually notated such that known shot type (serve, rally forehand, slice forehand, forehand volley, rally backhand, slice backhand, backhand volley, smash, or false positive) was associated with the corresponding IMU data for 28,582 shots. Six types of machine-learning models were then constructed to classify true shot type from the IMU signals. Across 10-fold cross-validation, a cubic-kernel support vector machine classified binned shots (overhead, forehand, or backhand) with an accuracy of 97.4%. A second cubic-kernel support vector machine achieved 93.2% accuracy when classifying all 9 shot types. With a view to monitoring external load, the combination of miniature inertial sensors and machine learning offers a practical and automated method of quantifying shot counts and discriminating shot types in elite tennis players.

  13. The psychosocial impact of wheelchair tennis on participants from developing countries.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Emma V; Papathomas, Anthony; Smith, Brett; Goosey-Tolfrey, Victoria L

    2017-01-01

    Individuals with physical disabilities in developing countries can experience many instances of psychosocial hardship. Although scholars have suggested that participation in sport can positively impact psychosocial health, few studies have explored this phenomenon within the disabled population of developing nations. Sixteen wheelchair tennis players were recruited across six developing countries and interviewed in regards to their experiences. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews, transcribed verbatim and subject to thematic analysis. Wheelchair tennis players perceived their participation in sport enhanced their psychosocial well-being. Three broad themes emerged from analysis of the interviews; (1) developed transferrable skills, (2) perceived personal growth and (3) benefits of an athletic identity. Sports participation, in this case wheelchair tennis, may be a viable means to promote psychosocial well-being in disabled populations within developing nations. Moreover, sport holds the potential to challenge negative perceptions of disability at an individual and societal level within these cultures. Implication for Rehabilitation Individuals with physical disabilities in developing countries may experience psychosocial hardship and cultural stigma. Wheelchair sport may be a viable means to enhance psychosocial well-being in this population. Skills learnt "on court" are transferrable to everyday life potentially improving independence and quality of life. Identifying as an athlete can challenge negative cultural perceptions of disability.

  14. Counter-IED PPE Horizon 0, Phase 1 Human Factors Trial: Performance Evaluation of Soft Armour Personal Protective Equipment (Essai Ergonomique du Projet Horizon 0 d’EPI a l’Epreuve des IED, Phase 1: Evaluation du Rendement d’un Equipement de Protection Individual en Materiel Souple)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-31

    angle. • Arm Horizontal Plane Adduction o Place the participant’s dominant shoulder in 30° of flexion. o Have the participant flex their elbow to...approximately 90° of flexion. o Have the forearm rotated into the mid-position between supination and pronation. o Have the inclinometer near the elbow ...Grenade Toss Participants were required to toss a tennis ball like a grenade from the prone position to a target approximately 15 m away

  15. Arthroscopic management of the painful total elbow arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Bain, Gregory I

    2015-01-01

    Background Failure of total elbow arthroplasty is more common than after other major joint arthroplasties and is often a result of aseptic loosening, peri-prosthetic infection, fracture and instability. Infection can be a devastating complication, yet there are no established guidelines for the pre-operative diagnosis of total elbow peri-prosthetic infection. This is because pre-operative clinical, radiographic and biochemical tests are often unreliable. Methods Using three case examples, a standardized protocol for the clinical and arthroscopic assessment of the painful total elbow arthroplasty is described. This is used to provide a mechanical and microbiological diagnosis of the patient’s pain. Results There have been no complications resulting from the use of this technique in the three patients described, nor in any other patient to date. Conclusions The staged protocol described in the present study, utilizing arthroscopic assessment, has refined the approach to the painful total elbow arthroplasty because it directly influences the definitive surgical management of the patient. It is recommended that other surgeons follow the principles outlined in the present study when faced with this challenging problem. PMID:27583000

  16. Arthroscopic management of the painful total elbow arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Phadnis, Joideep; Bain, Gregory I

    2016-01-01

    Failure of total elbow arthroplasty is more common than after other major joint arthroplasties and is often a result of aseptic loosening, peri-prosthetic infection, fracture and instability. Infection can be a devastating complication, yet there are no established guidelines for the pre-operative diagnosis of total elbow peri-prosthetic infection. This is because pre-operative clinical, radiographic and biochemical tests are often unreliable. Using three case examples, a standardized protocol for the clinical and arthroscopic assessment of the painful total elbow arthroplasty is described. This is used to provide a mechanical and microbiological diagnosis of the patient's pain. There have been no complications resulting from the use of this technique in the three patients described, nor in any other patient to date. The staged protocol described in the present study, utilizing arthroscopic assessment, has refined the approach to the painful total elbow arthroplasty because it directly influences the definitive surgical management of the patient. It is recommended that other surgeons follow the principles outlined in the present study when faced with this challenging problem.

  17. The role of total elbow arthroplasty in traumatology.

    PubMed

    Mansat, P; Bonnevialle, N; Rongières, M; Bonnevialle, P

    2014-10-01

    Fractures of the distal humerus account for 5% of osteoporotic fractures in subjects older than 60 years. A history of osteoporosis, co-morbidities, and joint comminution make their management difficult. The therapeutic options are limited to functional treatments, osteosynthesis, or either partial or total arthroplasty. Functional treatment of distal humerus fractures in the elderly subject provide inconsistent results, often with persistence of pain with a stiff or unstable elbow. Osteosynthesis remains the reference treatment for these fractures, following the principle of stable and rigid osteosynthesis allowing early mobilization. However, joint comminution and a history of osteoporosis occasionally make it impossible to meet this objective, with a considerable rate of complications and surgical revisions. Total elbow arthroplasty remains an alternative to osteosynthesis with very satisfactory immediate results restoring a painless, stable, and functional elbow. These results seem reproducible and sustainable over time. The complication rate is not uncommon with an approximately 10% surgical revision rate. Elbow hemiarthroplasty remains to be validated in this indication. V. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Experimental study of plastic responses of pipe elbows

    SciTech Connect

    Greenstreet, W.L.

    Load-deflection responses were determined experimentally for sixteen 152.4-mm (6-in.) (nominal) commercial carbon steel pipe elbows and four 152.4-mm (6-in.) stainless steel elbows. Each specimen was loaded with an external force of sufficient magnitude to produce predominantly plastic response. The influences of bend radius and wall thickness were studied, as well as the effect of internal prssure on load-deflection behavior. Comparisons of results from stainless steel and from carbon steel elbows indicate differences in responses attributable to material differences. The results were interpreted in terms of limit analysis concepts, and collapse loads were determined. Trends given by the collapse loads aremore » identified and discussed.« less

  19. Lower trunk kinematics and muscle activity during different types of tennis serves

    PubMed Central

    Chow, John W; Park, Soo-An; Tillman, Mark D

    2009-01-01

    Background To better understand the underlying mechanisms involved in trunk motion during a tennis serve, this study aimed to examine the (1) relative motion of the middle and lower trunk and (2) lower trunk muscle activity during three different types of tennis serves - flat, topspin, and slice. Methods Tennis serves performed by 11 advanced (AV) and 8 advanced intermediate (AI) male tennis players were videorecorded with markers placed on the back of the subject used to estimate the anatomical joint (AJ) angles between the middle and lower trunk for four trunk motions (extension, left lateral flexion, and left and right twisting). Surface electromyographic (EMG) techniques were used to monitor the left and right rectus abdominis (LRA and RRA), external oblique (LEO and REO), internal oblique (LIO and RIO), and erector spinae (LES and RES). The maximal AJ angles for different trunk motions during a serve and the average EMG levels for different muscles during different phases (ascending and descending windup, acceleration, and follow-through) of a tennis serve were evaluated. Results The repeated measures Skill × Serve Type × Trunk Motion ANOVA for maximal AJ angle indicated no significant main effects for serve type or skill level. However, the AV group had significantly smaller extension (p = 0.018) and greater left lateral flexion (p = 0.038) angles than the AI group. The repeated measures Skill × Serve Type × Phase MANOVA revealed significant phase main effects in all muscles (p < 0.001) and the average EMG of the AV group for LRA was significantly higher than that of the AI group (p = 0.008). All muscles showed their highest EMG values during the acceleration phase. LRA and LEO muscles also exhibited high activations during the descending windup phase, and RES muscle was very active during the follow-through phase. Conclusion Subjects in the AI group may be more susceptible to back injury than the AV group because of the significantly greater trunk

  20. A Physiological Case Study of a Paralympic Wheelchair Tennis Player: Reflective Practise

    PubMed Central

    Diaper, Nicholas J.; Goosey-Tolfrey, Victoria L.

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the physiological changes caused by long-term training in a world class female tennis player in preparation for a major championship. Additionally, we aim to describe the training interventions and determine a suitable cooling strategy that was to be used at the 2004 Paralympic Games. The athlete underwent regular physiological assessment during 2003-2004. Physiological measures involved body composition, submaximal and peak oxygen uptake and key variables associated with maximal sprinting. In addition, a suitable match-play cooling intervention and hydration strategy was also explored. Body composition improved over the course of the study. Aerobic capacity fell by 21%, yet the submaximal physiological variables such as lactate profile and pushing economy improved. The trade off of aerobic capacity was perhaps noticeably counter-balanced with the maintenance of the peak sprinting speed and improvement found in the fatigue profile across ten repeated sprints. The extensive training programme was responsible for these changes and these adaptations resulted in a more confident athlete, in peak physical condition leading into the Paralympic Games. It is difficult to appreciate the extent to which this work had an impact on tennis performance given the skill requirements of wheelchair tennis and this warrants future attention. Key points Physiological adaptations were apparent over the two-year training period. The training emphasis resulted in a reduction in aerobic capacity, yet an improvement in repetitive sprint performance was seen leading into the Major competition. An effective cooling technique was identified that could be used during wheelchair tennis performance. The athlete and coaches were complimentary to the physiological support provided, which resulted in a more confident athlete at the Paralympic Games. PMID:24149542

  1. Flexibility of internal and external glenohumeral rotation of junior female tennis players and its correlation with performance ranking.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Ching-Cheng; Hsu, Chih-Chia; Chiang, Jinn-Yen; Chang, Weng-Cheng; Tsai, Jong-Chang

    2016-12-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare the internal and external rotation of the dominant and nondominant shoulders of adolescent female tennis players. The correlation between the shoulder rotation range of motion and the player's ranking was also analyzed. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-one female junior tennis players who were 13 to 18 years old participated in this study. A standard goniometer was used to measure the internal and external rotation of both glenohumeral joints. The difference in internal and external rotation was calculated as the glenohumeral rotation deficit. The year-end ranking of each player was obtained from the Chinese Taipei Tennis Association. [Results] The internal rotation of the dominant shoulder was significantly smaller than that of the nondominant shoulder. Moreover, player ranking was significantly and negatively correlated with the internal rotation range of motion of both shoulders. On the other hand, the correlations of the internal and external rotation ranges of motion with the age, height, and weight were not significant. [Conclusion] The flexibility of the glenohumeral internal rotation is smaller in the dominant shoulder than of the nondominant shoulder in these junior female tennis players. Flexibility of the glenohumeral internal rotation may be a factor affecting performance in junior female tennis players.

  2. Chronic medial instability of the elbow

    PubMed Central

    Savoie, Felix H.; O’Brien, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Damage to the medial collateral ligament of the elbow from an instability episode usually heals with non-operative treatment. In some cases, residual instability may occur, leading to functional impairment.Non-operative management can be successful when bracing, taping and therapy are used to stabilise the elbow.A recent report detailing the efficacy of platelet-rich plasma in effectively treating ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) injuries in throwers has shown promise. However, there remain specific groups that should be considered for repair or reconstruction. These may include throwing athletes, wrestlers and some individuals involved in highly active physical activity which demands stability of the elbow.The results of surgical repair and reconstruction allowing a return to sports are quite good, ranging from 84% to 94%. Complications are generally low and mostly centred on ulnar nerve injuries.This report represents a review of the literature concerning valgus instability over the past five years, supplemented by selective older articles where relevant. Cite this article: EFORT Open Rev 2017;2:1-6. DOI:10.1302/2058-5241.2.160037. PMID:28607764

  3. The Activity Profile of Young Tennis Athletes Playing on Clay and Hard Courts: Preliminary Data.

    PubMed

    Adriano Pereira, Lucas; Freitas, Victor; Arruda Moura, Felipe; Saldanha Aoki, Marcelo; Loturco, Irineu; Yuzo Nakamura, Fábio

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the kinematic characteristics of tennis matches between red clay and hard courts in young tennis players. Eight young tennis players performed two tennis matches on different court surfaces. The match activities were monitored using GPS units. The distance covered in different velocity ranges and the number of accelerations were analyzed. The paired t test and inference based on magnitudes were used to compare the match physical performance between groups. The total distance (24% of difference), high-intensity running distance (15 - 18 km/h) (30% of difference), the number of high-intensity activities (44% of difference), the body load (1% of difference), and accelerations >1.5 g (1.5-2 g and >2 g 7.8 and 8.1 % of difference, respectively) were significantly greater in clay court than hard court matches ( p < 0.05). Matches played on the red clay court required players to cover more total and high-intensity running distances and engage in more high-intensity activities than the matches played on the hard court. Finally, on the clay court the body load and the number of accelerations performed (>1.5 g) were possibly higher than on the hard court.

  4. The Activity Profile of Young Tennis Athletes Playing on Clay and Hard Courts: Preliminary Data

    PubMed Central

    Adriano Pereira, Lucas; Freitas, Victor; Arruda Moura, Felipe; Saldanha Aoki, Marcelo; Loturco, Irineu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to compare the kinematic characteristics of tennis matches between red clay and hard courts in young tennis players. Eight young tennis players performed two tennis matches on different court surfaces. The match activities were monitored using GPS units. The distance covered in different velocity ranges and the number of accelerations were analyzed. The paired t test and inference based on magnitudes were used to compare the match physical performance between groups. The total distance (24% of difference), high-intensity running distance (15 - 18 km/h) (30% of difference), the number of high-intensity activities (44% of difference), the body load (1% of difference), and accelerations >1.5 g (1.5-2 g and >2 g 7.8 and 8.1 % of difference, respectively) were significantly greater in clay court than hard court matches (p < 0.05). Matches played on the red clay court required players to cover more total and high-intensity running distances and engage in more high-intensity activities than the matches played on the hard court. Finally, on the clay court the body load and the number of accelerations performed (>1.5 g) were possibly higher than on the hard court. PMID:28149359

  5. View of foundation, looking south. Note tennis courts in background ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of foundation, looking south. Note tennis courts in background facing south, see HABS no. CA-2716 - Presidio of San Francisco, Officers' Vehicles Garage, 1055 General Kennedy Avenue, Letterman Hospital Complex, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  6. View of foundation, looking southeast. Note tennis courts in background ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of foundation, looking southeast. Note tennis courts in background facing southeast, see HABS No. CA-2716 - Presidio of San Francisco, Officers' Vehicles Garage, 1055 General Kennedy Avenue, Letterman Hospital Complex, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  7. Tennis-Badminton-Squash Guide. June 1974-June 1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Patricia, Ed.; And Others

    This guide is a collection of essays by various authors on tennis, badminton, and squash. The document is divided into three sections, one for each sport. The topics covered include general teaching methods, methods to employ for teaching specific skills such as the lob or the backhand, the use of visual aids, conditioning drills, study questions,…

  8. In vivo three-dimensional elbow biomechanics during forearm rotation.

    PubMed

    Omori, Shinsuke; Miyake, Junichi; Oka, Kunihiro; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Murase, Tsuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    It is unclear how elbow kinematics changes during forearm rotation. This study investigated in vivo 3-dimensional elbow kinematics during forearm rotation. We studied 12 normal elbows using in vivo 3-dimensional computed tomography data in maximum forearm supination, neutral, and maximum pronation with the elbows in extension. We measured the motion of the radius and ulna relative to the humerus using a markerless bone registration technique and the contact area of the radiocapitellar joint, proximal radioulnar joint, and ulnohumeral joint using a proximity mapping method. When the forearm rotated from the supinated position to the pronated position, the radius showed significant varus rotation, internal rotation, and extension relative to the humerus. The center of the radial head significantly translated anteriorly, proximally, and laterally. The ulna significantly rotated in valgus, and the deepest point on the sagittal ridge of the trochlear notch translated medially with forearm pronation. The contact area of the radiocapitellar joint was largest in pronation. The contact area of the proximal radioulnar joint was largest in supination. The contact area of the ulnohumeral joint showed no significant change during forearm rotation. In pronation, because of the proximal migration of the radial head, the radiocapitellar joint was most congruent compared with other positions. The proximal radioulnar joint was most congruent in supination. The ulnohumeral joint congruency was not affected by forearm rotation. This study provides useful information for understanding 3-dimensional elbow motion and joint osseous stability related to forearm rotation. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The Relation between Self Esteem Levels and Life Quality Levels of Disabled and Non-Disabled Tennis Sportsmen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Civan, Adem

    2015-01-01

    This research was carried out to determine the self-esteem and life quality levels of disabled and non-disabled tennis sportsmen; and also to set forth the relation between their self-esteem and life quality levels. The research group consists of total 44 sportsmen including 22 disabled tennis sportsmen (n[subscript (female)]=9, n[subscript…

  10. Leadership and satisfaction in tennis: examination of congruence, gender, and ability.

    PubMed

    Riemer, H A; Toon, K

    2001-09-01

    The study investigated: (a) the congruency hypothesis, and (b) the member characteristics hypotheses relating to ability and gender, of Chelladurai's (1978) Multidimensional Model of Leadership. One hundred forty-eight tennis players (77 women) competing at the NCAA Division I and II Tennis Championship level participated in the study. Results indicated athlete satisfaction (Athlete Satisfaction Scale; Riemer & Chelladurai, 1998) was not dependent on the congruence between preferred and perceived leadership behavior. Other results indicated that an athlete's level of ability did affect preferences for leadership behavior. Further, while athlete gender was responsible for some variance in preferences for autocratic behavior and positive feedback behavior, the gender of the athlete's coach had a significant effect on the athlete's preferences for social support behavior.

  11. Scaling Constraints in Junior Tennis: The Influence of Net Height on Skilled Players' Match-Play Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Limpens, Vera; Buszard, Tim; Shoemaker, Emma; Savelsbergh, Geert J. P.; Reid, Machar

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The net height in tennis (0.91 m) is approximately 50% of a professional tennis player's height. Children are also expected to play with this net height, even though it is approximately 70% of the average 10-year-old's height. This study examined the immediate effect of lowering net height on the performance characteristics of skilled…

  12. Reliability and Factorial Validity of Non-Specific and Tennis-Specific Pre-Planned Agility Tests; Preliminary Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sekulic, Damir; Uljevic, Ognjen; Peric, Mia; Spasic, Miodrag; Kondric, Miran

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Agility is an important quality in tennis, yet there is an evident lack of studies focussing on the applicability of tennis-specific agility performances and comparing them to equivalent non-specific agility performances. The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability and factorial validity of three tests of pre-planned agility, performed in specific (with a tennis racquet) and non-specific (without a tennis racquet) conditions. The sample consisted of 33 tennis players (13 males and 20 females; age: 18.3 ± 1.1 years and 18.6 ± 1.3 years; body height: 185.4 ± 51 cm and 169.3 ± 4.2 cm, 74.0 ± 4.4 kg and 61.2 ± 3.1 kg, respectively). The variables comprised three agility tests: a 20-yard test, a T-test and the Illinois test, all performed in both specific and non-specific conditions. Between-subject and within-subject reliability were found to be high (Cronbach Alpha: 0.93 to 0.98; Coefficient of Variation: 3 to 8%), with better within-subject reliability and stability of the measurement for specific tests. Pearson’s product moment correlations between the non-specific and specific agility performances were high (r ≥0.84), while factor analysis extracted only one significant latent dimension on the basis of the Guttman-Kaiser criterion. The results of the 20-yard test were better when the test was conducted in the specific conditions (t-test = 2.66; p < 0.05). For the Illinois test, superior results were recorded in the non-specific conditions (t-test = 2.96; p < 0.05), which can be explained by the test duration (about 20 s) and non-specific locomotion forms such as rotational movements. Considering the findings of the present study, when testing tennis-specific pre-planned agility, we suggest using tests of short duration (less than 10 s) and sport-specific types of locomotion. PMID:28210343

  13. Descriptive profile of hip rotation range of motion in elite tennis players and professional baseball pitchers.

    PubMed

    Ellenbecker, Todd S; Ellenbecker, Gail A; Roetert, E Paul; Silva, Rogerio Teixeira; Keuter, Greg; Sperling, Fabio

    2007-08-01

    Repetitive loading to the hip joint in athletes has been reported as a factor in the development of degenerative joint disease and intra-articular injury. Little information is available on the bilateral symmetry of hip rotational measures in unilaterally dominant upper extremity athletes. Side-to-side differences in hip joint range of motion may be present because of asymmetrical loading in the lower extremities of elite tennis players and professional baseball pitchers. Cohort (cross-sectional) study (prevalence); Level of evidence, 1. Descriptive measures of hip internal and external rotation active range of motion were taken in the prone position of 64 male and 83 female elite tennis players and 101 male professional baseball pitchers using digital photos and computerized angle calculation software. Bilateral differences in active range of motion between the dominant and nondominant hip were compared using paired t tests and Bonferroni correction for hip internal, external, and total rotation range of motion. A Pearson correlation test was used to test the relationship between years of competition and hip rotation active range of motion. No significant bilateral difference (P > .005) was measured for mean hip internal or external rotation for the elite tennis players or the professional baseball pitchers. An analysis of the number of subjects in each group with a bilateral difference in hip rotation greater than 10 degrees identified 17% of the professional baseball pitchers with internal rotation differences and 42% with external rotation differences. Differences in the elite male tennis players occurred in only 15% of the players for internal rotation and 9% in external rotation. Female subjects had differences in 8% and 12% of the players for internal and external rotation, respectively. Statistical differences were found between the mean total arc of hip range of internal and external rotation in the elite tennis players with the dominant side being greater

  14. Finite Element Analysis and Experimental Study on Elbow Vibration Transmission Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qing-shan, Dai; Zhen-hai, Zhang; Shi-jian, Zhu

    2017-11-01

    Pipeline system vibration is one of the significant factors leading to the vibration and noise of vessel. Elbow is widely used in the pipeline system. However, the researches about vibration of elbow are little, and there is no systematic study. In this research, we firstly analysed the relationship between elbow vibration transmission characteristics and bending radius by ABAQUS finite element simulation. Then, we conducted the further vibration test to observe the vibration transmission characteristics of different elbows which have the same diameter and different bending radius under different flow velocity. The results of simulation calculation and experiment both showed that the vibration acceleration levels of the pipeline system decreased with the increase of bending radius of the elbow, which was beneficial to reduce the transmission of vibration in the pipeline system. The results could be used as reference for further studies and designs for the low noise installation of pipeline system.

  15. Design of a Soft Robotic Elbow Sleeve with Passive and Intent-Controlled Actuation

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Tze Hui; Cheng, Nicholas; Yap, Hong Kai; Yeow, Chen-Hua

    2017-01-01

    The provision of continuous passive, and intent-based assisted movements for neuromuscular training can be incorporated into a robotic elbow sleeve. The objective of this study is to propose the design and test the functionality of a soft robotic elbow sleeve in assisting flexion and extension of the elbow, both passively and using intent-based motion reinforcement. First, the elbow sleeve was developed, using elastomeric and fabric-based pneumatic actuators, which are soft and lightweight, in order to address issues of non-portability and poor alignment with joints that conventional robotic rehabilitation devices are faced with. Second, the control system was developed to allow for: (i) continuous passive actuation, in which the actuators will be activated in cycles, alternating between flexion and extension; and (ii) an intent-based actuation, in which user intent is detected by surface electromyography (sEMG) sensors attached to the biceps and triceps, and passed through a logic sequence to allow for flexion or extension of the elbow. Using this setup, the elbow sleeve was tested on six healthy subjects to assess the functionality of the device, in terms of the range of motion afforded by the device while in the continuous passive actuation. The results showed that the elbow sleeve is capable of achieving approximately 50% of the full range of motion of the elbow joint among all subjects. Next, further experiments were conducted to test the efficacy of the intent-based actuation on these healthy subjects. The results showed that all subjects were capable of achieving electromyography (EMG) control of the elbow sleeve. These preliminary results show that the elbow sleeve is capable of carrying out continuous passive and intent-based assisted movements. Further investigation of the clinical implementation of the elbow sleeve for the neuromuscular training of neurologically-impaired persons, such as stroke survivors, is needed. PMID:29118693

  16. The Effect of Moderate and High-Intensity Fatigue on Groundstroke Accuracy in Expert and Non-Expert Tennis Players

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, Mark; Al-Nakeeb, Yahya; Hankey, Joanne; Nevill, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Exploring the effects of fatigue on skilled performance in tennis presents a significant challenge to the researcher with respect to ecological validity. This study examined the effects of moderate and high-intensity fatigue on groundstroke accuracy in expert and non-expert tennis players. The research also explored whether the effects of fatigue are the same regardless of gender and player’s achievement motivation characteristics. 13 expert (7 male, 6 female) and 17 non-expert (13 male, 4 female) tennis players participated in the study. Groundstroke accuracy was assessed using the modified Loughborough Tennis Skills Test. Fatigue was induced using the Loughborough Intermittent Tennis Test with moderate (70%) and high-intensities (90%) set as a percentage of peak heart rate (attained during a tennis-specific maximal hitting sprint test). Ratings of perceived exertion were used as an adjunct to the monitoring of heart rate. Achievement goal indicators for each player were assessed using the 2 x 2 Achievement Goals Questionnaire for Sport in an effort to examine if this personality characteristic provides insight into how players perform under moderate and high-intensity fatigue conditions. A series of mixed ANOVA’s revealed significant fatigue effects on groundstroke accuracy regardless of expertise. The expert players however, maintained better groundstroke accuracy across all conditions compared to the novice players. Nevertheless, in both groups, performance following high-intensity fatigue deteriorated compared to performance at rest and performance while moderately fatigued. Groundstroke accuracy under moderate levels of fatigue was equivalent to that at rest. Fatigue effects were also similar regardless of gender. No fatigue by expertise, or fatigue by gender interactions were found. Fatigue effects were also equivalent regardless of player’s achievement goal indicators. Future research is required to explore the effects of fatigue on performance in

  17. A clinically oriented comprehensive pictorial review of canine elbow anatomy.

    PubMed

    Constantinescu, Gheorghe M; Constantinescu, Ileana A

    2009-02-01

    The clinically oriented canine elbow anatomy in its complexity earned a high importance in surgery especially after multiple imaging modalities have been used in the benefit of diagnosis and treatment of canine elbow disorders. The bony, joint, and muscular structures, the arteries, the veins and the nerves supplying the elbow are described and illustrated in textbooks and atlases in the context of the comparative anatomy. Nevertheless, there is no publication focused on all of these structures described together from the skin to the bones in a systematic and topographic order, nor through cross and/or sagittal and coronal sections. The figures used in this article are original and drawn after dissection, cross, sagittal, and coronal sections of the elbow structures. The sections are correlated to the multiple imaging modalities shown in the next article.

  18. 21 CFR 888.3160 - Elbow joint metal/polymer semi-constrained cemented prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Elbow joint metal/polymer semi-constrained cemented prosthesis. 888.3160 Section 888.3160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Elbow joint metal/polymer semi-constrained cemented prosthesis. (a) Identification. An elbow joint metal...

  19. Playing vs. nonplaying aerobic training in tennis: physiological and performance outcomes.

    PubMed

    Pialoux, Vincent; Genevois, Cyril; Capoen, Arnaud; Forbes, Scott C; Thomas, Jordan; Rogowski, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    This study compared the effects of playing and nonplaying high intensity intermittent training (HIIT) on physiological demands and tennis stroke performance in young tennis players. Eleven competitive male players (13.4 ± 1.3 years) completed both a playing and nonplaying HIIT session of equal distance, in random order. During each HIIT session, heart rate (HR), blood lactate, and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were monitored. Before and after each HIIT session, the velocity and accuracy of the serve, and forehand and backhand strokes were evaluated. The results demonstrated that both HIIT sessions achieved an average HR greater than 90% HRmax. The physiological demands (average HR) were greater during the playing session compared to the nonplaying session, despite similar lactate concentrations and a lower RPE. The results also indicate a reduction in shot velocity after both HIIT sessions; however, the playing HIIT session had a more deleterious effect on stroke accuracy. These findings suggest that 1) both HIIT sessions may be sufficient to develop maximal aerobic power, 2) playing HIIT sessions provide a greater physiological demand with a lower RPE, and 3) playing HIIT has a greater deleterious effect on stroke performance, and in particular on the accuracy component of the ground stroke performance, and should be incorporated appropriately into a periodization program in young male tennis players.

  20. Playing vs. Nonplaying Aerobic Training in Tennis: Physiological and Performance Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Pialoux, Vincent; Genevois, Cyril; Capoen, Arnaud; Forbes, Scott C.; Thomas, Jordan; Rogowski, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    This study compared the effects of playing and nonplaying high intensity intermittent training (HIIT) on physiological demands and tennis stroke performance in young tennis players. Eleven competitive male players (13.4 ± 1.3 years) completed both a playing and nonplaying HIIT session of equal distance, in random order. During each HIIT session, heart rate (HR), blood lactate, and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were monitored. Before and after each HIIT session, the velocity and accuracy of the serve, and forehand and backhand strokes were evaluated. The results demonstrated that both HIIT sessions achieved an average HR greater than 90% HRmax. The physiological demands (average HR) were greater during the playing session compared to the nonplaying session, despite similar lactate concentrations and a lower RPE. The results also indicate a reduction in shot velocity after both HIIT sessions; however, the playing HIIT session had a more deleterious effect on stroke accuracy. These findings suggest that 1) both HIIT sessions may be sufficient to develop maximal aerobic power, 2) playing HIIT sessions provide a greater physiological demand with a lower RPE, and 3) playing HIIT has a greater deleterious effect on stroke performance, and in particular on the accuracy component of the ground stroke performance, and should be incorporated appropriately into a periodization program in young male tennis players. PMID:25816346

  1. Does Excision of Heterotopic Ossification of the Elbow Result in Satisfactory Patient-Rated Outcomes?

    PubMed

    Sandeep, K N; Suresh, G; Gopisankar, B; Abhishek, N; Sujiv, A

    2017-03-01

    Treatment of heterotopic ossification (HO) of the elbow is challenging and fraught with complications. Patients who sustain direct trauma to the elbow joint, the central nervous system, and thermal burns are at increased risk for development of HO. There is a paucity of studies and reports on patient's self-evaluation after the excision of the heterotopic ossification. This retrospective study assessed outcomes after excision of heterotopic ossification around the elbow in a cohort of ten patients operated from 2012 to 2015. The outcome assessment was done by the Mayo Elbow Performance index (MEPI) and the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons-Elbow score (ASES-E scores). The mean follow-up was 18.11 months after the operation. The Mayo Elbow Performance Score was excellent in two elbows, good in six and fair in two. The mean gain in flexion-extension arc after excision of HO was 80 degrees. All of the patients had residual flexion deformity postoperatively. Eight of the nine patients were able to do activities requiring flexion at final follow-up. Excision of HO around the elbow is associated with satisfactory patient-rated outcomes in spite of failure to regain full range of motion.

  2. A double pendulum model of tennis strokes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, Rod

    2011-05-01

    The physics of swinging a tennis racquet is examined by modeling the forearm and the racquet as a double pendulum. We consider differences between a forehand and a serve, and show how they differ from the swing of a bat and a golf club. It is also shown that the swing speed of a racquet, like that of a bat or a club, depends primarily on its moment of inertia rather than on its mass.

  3. Analysis of elbow-joints misalignment in upper-limb exoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Malosio, Matteo; Pedrocchi, Nicola; Vicentini, Federico; Tosatti, Lorenzo Molinari

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents advantages of introducing elbow-joints misalignments in an exoskeleton for upper limb rehabilitation. Typical exoskeletons are characterized by axes of the device as much as possible aligned to the rotational axes of human articulations. This approach leads to advantages in terms of movements and torques decoupling, but can lead to limitations nearby the elbow singular configuration. A proper elbow axes misalignment between the exoskeleton and the human can improve the quality of collaborative rehabilitation therapies, in which a correct torque transmission from human articulations to mechanical joints of the device is required to react to torques generated by the patient. © 2011 IEEE

  4. Exploring practical knowledge: a case study of an experienced senior tennis performer.

    PubMed

    Langley, D J; Knight, S M

    1996-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to explore sport-related practical knowledge through the perceptions and experiences of a senior adult competitive tennis performer. Practical knowledge was defined as goal oriented, experiential knowledge developed within particular physical activity settings. Data were collected through formal interviews and participant observation and analyzed through narrative inquiry and conventional coding techniques. The data suggest that the tennis environment was perceived in terms of the opportunities afforded by that environment. Specifically, the participant's practical knowledge centered on performance capabilities and strategic planning that revealed opponent limitations. This knowledge appeared to be developed and expressed within the relationships among individual capabilities, the task, and the situated context of game play.

  5. Myositis ossificans traumatica causing ankylosis of the elbow.

    PubMed

    Kanthimathi, B; Udhaya Shankar, S; Arun Kumar, K; Narayanan, V L

    2014-12-01

    Myositis ossificans traumatica is an unusual complication following a muscle contusion injury. A significantly large myositic mass causing ankylosis of the elbow is even rarer. We report a 13-year-old boy who presented with a 14-month history of a fixed elbow with no movement and a palpable bony mass in the anterior aspect of the elbow. He had sustained significant trauma to the affected limb 1 month prior to onset of symptoms, which was managed by native massage and bandaging for 4 weeks. The clinicoradiological diagnosis was suggestive of myositis ossificans, and the myositic mass was completely excised. Histopathology revealed lamellar bone. The 2-year follow-up showed full function of the affected limb and no signs of recurrence. We report this case of clinical interest due to the unusually large myositic mass.

  6. Normative values of isometric elbow strength in healthy adults: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Kotte, Shamala H P; Viveen, Jetske; Koenraadt, Koen L M; The, Bertram; Eygendaal, Denise

    2018-07-01

    Post-traumatic deformities such as biceps tendon rupture or (peri-)articular fractures of the elbow are often related to a decrease in muscle strength. Postoperative evaluation of these deformities requires normative values of elbow strength. The purpose of this systematic review was to determine these normative values of isometric elbow strength in healthy adults resulting from studies evaluating this strength (i.e. flexion, extension, pronation and supination strength). The databases of PubMed, EMBASE and Web of Sciences were searched and screened for studies involving the isometric elbow strength as measured in asymptomatic volunteers. The quality of the studies was assessed and studies of low quality were excluded. Nineteen studies met the inclusion criteria and were of sufficiently high quality to be included in the present review. In these studies, elbow strength was measured in a total of 1880 healthy volunteers. The experimental set-up and devices used to measure elbow strength varied between studies. Using some assumptions, a normative values table was assembled. Large standard deviations of normative values in combination with different measurement devices used, as well as the different measurement positions of the subjects, demonstrated that there is no consensus about measuring the isometric elbow strength and therefore the normative values have to be interpreted with caution.

  7. Percutaneous ultrasonic tenotomy for chronic elbow tendinosis: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Darryl E; Beckley, James M; Smith, Jay

    2015-01-01

    Elbow tendinopathy is the most common cause of elbow pain affecting active populations. Surgical excision is reserved for patients with refractory symptoms. Percutaneous ultrasonic tenotomy performed under local anesthesia also removes degenerated tissue and therefore provides an alternative treatment option to surgical excision. This investigation prospectively documented the safety and 1-year efficacy of ultrasonic percutaneous tenotomy performed by a single operator. Nineteen patients, aged 38 to 67 years, in whom >6 months of conservative management for medial (7) or lateral (12) elbow tendinopathy had failed were prospectively studied. All patients were treated with percutaneous ultrasonic tenotomy of the elbow by a single operator. Visual analog scale (VAS) for pain, the 11-item version of the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (Quick DASH) index, and the Mayo Elbow Performance Score (MEPS) were assessed by an independent observer before treatment and at 6 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months after treatment. No procedural complications occurred. Total treatment time was <15 minutes, and ultrasonic energy time averaged 38.6 ± 8.8 seconds per procedure. Average VAS scores were significantly improved from 6.4 to 2.6 at 6 weeks and were 0.7 at 12 months (P < .0001). Similar improvement occurred with the Quick DASH (pretreatment, 44.1; 12 months, 8.6, P < .0001) and MEPS (pretreatment, 59.1; 12 months, 83.4; P < .0001). Percutaneous ultrasonic tenotomy performed under local anesthesia appears to be a safe and effective treatment option for chronic, refractory lateral or medial elbow tendinopathy up to 1 year after the procedure. Copyright © 2015 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Intention understanding over T: a neuroimaging study on shared representations and tennis return predictions

    PubMed Central

    Cacioppo, Stephanie; Fontang, Frederic; Patel, Nisa; Decety, Jean; Monteleone, George; Cacioppo, John T.

    2014-01-01

    Studying the way athletes predict actions of their peers during fast-ball sports, such as a tennis, has proved to be a valuable tool for increasing our knowledge of intention understanding. The working model in this area is that the anticipatory representations of others' behaviors require internal predictive models of actions formed from pre-established and shared representations between the observer and the actor. This model also predicts that observers would not be able to read accurately the intentions of a competitor if the competitor were to perform the action without prior knowledge of their intention until moments before the action. To test this hypothesis, we recorded brain activity from 25 male tennis players while they performed a novel behavioral tennis intention inference task, which included two conditions: (i) one condition in which they viewed video clips of a tennis athlete who knew in advance where he was about to act/serve (initially intended serves) and (ii) one condition in which they viewed video clips of that same athlete when he did not know where he was to act/serve until the target was specified after he had tossed the ball into the air to complete his serve (non-initially intended serves). Our results demonstrated that (i) tennis expertise is related to the accuracy in predicting where another server intends to serve when that server knows where he intends to serve before (but not after) he tosses the ball in the air; and (ii) accurate predictions are characterized by the recruitment of both cortical areas within the human mirror neuron system (that is known to be involved in higher-order (top-down) processes of embodied cognition and shared representation) and subcortical areas within brain regions involved in procedural memory (caudate nucleus). Interestingly, inaccurate predictions instead recruit areas known to be involved in low-level (bottom-up) computational processes associated with the sense of agency and self-other distinction

  9. Experiences of Australian professional female tennis players returning to competition from injury

    PubMed Central

    Young, Janet A; Pain, Michelle D; Pearce, Alan J

    2007-01-01

    Background This study examined the experiences of professional female tennis players returning to competition from injury. Methods In a study commissioned by Tennis Australia, 55 Australian professional female tennis players responded anonymously to a questionnaire developed for the purposes of this study. The questionnaire consisted of open and closed questions that assessed a player's attribution style, the occurrence and effect of minor and major injuries, frequency and type of treatment sought, attitudinal chances following injury and preventative injury factors. Results The quantitative and qualitative analyses of participants' responses revealed players generally displayed an internal attribution style with the majority of minor injuries involving lower limb injuries (attributed to playing on hard surfaces). Players reported these injuries were addressed in a variety of ways including self‐treatment. The majority of severe injuries were upper limb/shoulder and these were generally treated at tournament sites with some requiring surgery. Conclusions Players adopted a range of measures to assist recovery from severe injury including the services of health professionals. In further findings, a player's attribution style was not a predictive variable, except in terms of the number of tournaments missed for minor injuries. Implications of the study's results and future research directions for cross‐cultural studies are highlighted. PMID:17566049

  10. Soft tissue coverage of the elbow in a developing country.

    PubMed

    Pirela-Cruz, Miguel A; Reddy, Kartheek K; Higgs, Matthew

    2007-09-01

    Two cases that required soft tissue coverage to the anterior aspect of the elbow are presented. A fasciocutaneous intercostal perforator chest wall flap was used for one patient when only skin and fascia coverage was required. A latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap was used to provide soft tissue coverage and supply motor power for elbow flexion after contracture release in the other. The surgical techniques for each of these flaps are discussed in the context of addressing soft tissue traumatic injuries about the elbow in a developing country with limited resources.

  11. Tennis: Applied Examples of a Game-Based Teaching Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crespo, Miguel; Reid, Machar M.; Miley, Dave

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the authors reveal that tennis has been increasingly taught with a tactical model or game-based approach, which emphasizes learning through practice in match-like drills and actual play, rather than in practicing strokes for exact technical execution. Its goal is to facilitate the player's understanding of the tactical, physical…

  12. Hybridized Tennis Games for Utilization-Level and Higher Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahan, David

    2006-01-01

    Over the past 10 years a number of articles pertaining to teaching tennis to elementary and middle school students have appeared (see Resources at the end of this article). These articles have focused on topics such as tactical play, basic skill instruction and drill, teaching progressions, organizational methods, and fitness development. While…

  13. Serial casting for elbow flexion contractures in neonatal brachial plexus palsy.

    PubMed

    Duijnisveld, B J; Steenbeek, D; Nelissen, R G H H

    2016-09-02

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of serial casting of elbow flexion contractures in neonatal brachial plexus palsy. A prospective consecutive cohort study was performed with a median follow-up of 5 years. Forty-one patients with elbow flexion contractures ≥ 30° were treated with serial casting until the contracture was ≤ 10°, for a maximum of 8 weeks. Range of motion, number of recurrences and patient satisfaction were recorded and analyzed using Wilcoxon signed-rank and Cox regression tests. Passive extension increased from a median of -40° (IQR -50 to -30) to -15° (IQR -10 to -20, p < 0.001). Twenty patients showed 37 recurrences. The baseline severity of passive elbow extension had a hazard ratio of 0.93 (95% CI 0.89 to 0.96, p < 0.001) for first recurrence. Median patient satisfaction was moderate. Four patients showed loss of flexion mobility and in two patients serial casting had to be prematurely replaced by night splinting due to complaints. Serial casting improved elbow flexion contractures, although recurrences were frequent. The severity of elbow flexion contracture is a predictor of recurrence. We recommend more research on muscle degeneration and determinants involved in elbow flexion contractures to improve treatment strategies and prevent side-effects.

  14. The relationship between performance and flow state in tennis competition.

    PubMed

    Koehn, S; Morris, T

    2012-08-01

    The study aimed to examine 1) the validity of the nine-factor flow model in tennis competition; 2) differences in flow state between athletes who won or lost their competition match; 3) the link between flow and subjective performance; and 4) flow dimensions as predictors of performance outcome The sample consisted of 188 junior tennis players (115 male, 73 female) between 12 and 18 years of age. Participants' performance was recorded during junior ranking-list tournaments. Following the completion of a tennis competition match, participants completed the Flow State Scale-2 and a subjective performance outcome measure. Acceptable flow model fit indices of CFI, TLI, SRMR, and RMSEA were only found for winning athletes. The group of winning athletes scored significantly higher on all nine flow dimensions, except time transformation, than losing athletes, showing statistically significant differences for challenge-skills balance, clear goals, sense of control, and autotelic experience. Significant correlation coefficients were found between flow state and subjective performance assessments. The binary logistic regression revealed concentration on the task and sense of control to be significant predictors of performance outcome. The predictor variables explained 13% of the variance in games won. The study showed that athletes who win or lose perceived flow state differently. Studies using retrospective assessments need to be aware that subjective experience could be biased by performance outcomes. Pinpointing psychological variables and their impact on ecologically valid measures, such as performance results, would support the development of effective intervention studies to increase performance in sport competition.

  15. Lateral epicondylosis and calcific tendonitis in a golfer: a case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Yuill, Erik A.; Lum, Grant

    2011-01-01

    Objective To detail the progress of a young female amateur golfer who developed chronic left arm pain while playing golf 8 months prior to her first treatment visit. Clinical Features Findings included pain slightly distal to the lateral epicondyle of the elbow, decreased grip strength, and positive orthopedic testing. Diagnostic ultrasound showed thickening of the common extensor tendon origin indicating lateral epicondylosis. Radiographs revealed an oval shaped calcified density in the soft tissue adjacent to the lateral humeral epicondyle, indicating calcific tendonitis of the common extensor tendon origin. Intervention and Outcome Conventional care was aimed at decreasing the repetitive load on the common extensor tendon, specifically the extensor carpi radialis brevis. Soft tissue techniques, exercises and stretches, and an elbow brace helped to reduce repetitive strain. Outcome measures included subjective pain ratings, and follow up imaging 10 weeks after treatment began. Conclusion A young female amateur golfer with chronic arm pain diagnosed as lateral epicondylosis and calcific tendonitis was relieved of her pain after 7 treatments over 10 weeks of soft tissue and physical therapy focusing specifically on optimal healing and decreasing the repetitive load on the extensor carpi radialis brevis. PMID:22131570

  16. Elbow-specific clinical rating systems: extent of established validity, reliability, and responsiveness.

    PubMed

    The, Bertram; Reininga, Inge H F; El Moumni, Mostafa; Eygendaal, Denise

    2013-10-01

    The modern standard of evaluating treatment results includes the use of rating systems. Elbow-specific rating systems are frequently used in studies aiming at elbow-specific pathology. However, proper validation studies seem to be relatively sparse. In addition, these scoring systems might not always be used for appropriate populations of interest. Both of these issues might give rise to invalid conclusions being reported in the literature. Our aim was to investigate the extent to which the available elbow-specific outcome measurement tools have been validated and the quality of the validation itself. We also aimed to provide characteristics of the populations used for validation of these scales to enable clinicians to use them appropriately. A literature search identified 17 studies of 12 different elbow-specific scoring systems. These were assessed for validity, reliability, and responsiveness characteristics. The quality of these assessments was rated according to the Consensus Based Standards for the Selection of Health Measurement Instruments (COSMIN) checklist criteria, a standardized and validated tool developed specifically for this purpose. Currently, the only elbow-specific rating system that is validated using high-quality methodology is the Oxford Elbow Score, a patient-administered outcome measure tool that has been validated on heterogeneous study populations. Other rating systems still have to be proven in the future to be as good as the Oxford Elbow Score for clinical or research purposes. Additional validation studies are needed. Copyright © 2013 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The influence of shoe drop on the kinematics and kinetics of children tennis players.

    PubMed

    Herbaut, Alexis; Chavet, Pascale; Roux, Maxime; Guéguen, Nils; Gillet, Christophe; Barbier, Franck; Simoneau-Buessinger, Emilie

    2016-11-01

    This study investigated the immediate effects of reducing the shoe drop (i.e. the difference between the heel and the forefoot height) on the kinematics and kinetics of the lower extremities of children tennis players performing a tennis-specific movement. Thirteen children tennis players performed a series of simulated open stance forehands wearing 3 pairs of shoes differing only in the drop: 0 (D0), 6 (D6) and the control condition of 12 mm (D12). Two embedded forceplates and a motion capture system were used to analyse the ground reaction forces and ankle and knee joint angles and moments of the leading lower limb. In D6 compared with D12, the peak impact force was reduced by 24% (p = .004) and the ankle was less dorsiflexed at foot strike (p = .037). In D0 compared with D12, the peak impact force was reduced by 17% (p = .049), the ankle was less dorsiflexed at foot strike (p = .045) and the knee was more flexed at foot strike (p = .007). In addition, 4 out of 13 participants (31%) presented a forefoot strike pattern for some of the trials in D0. No difference was observed across shoe conditions for the peak knee extensor moment (p = .658) or the peak ankle plantarflexor moment (p = .071). The results provide preliminary data supporting the hypothesis that for children tennis players, using a 6-mm lower shoe drop might reduce heel impact forces and thus limit potentially impact-related injuries.

  18. Tectonic Tennis Balls: The STRATegy COLUMN for Precollege Science Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metzger, Ellen Pletcher

    1994-01-01

    Contains instructions and two patterns for making a terrestrial globe and a tectonic globe. The pattern is designed to be glued onto a tennis ball. By constructing the globes, students obtain a greater understanding of the locations of the edges of continents and the earth's plates. (AIM)

  19. Evaluation of a computational model to predict elbow range of motion

    PubMed Central

    Nishiwaki, Masao; Johnson, James A.; King, Graham J. W.; Athwal, George S.

    2014-01-01

    Computer models capable of predicting elbow flexion and extension range of motion (ROM) limits would be useful for assisting surgeons in improving the outcomes of surgical treatment of patients with elbow contractures. A simple and robust computer-based model was developed that predicts elbow joint ROM using bone geometries calculated from computed tomography image data. The model assumes a hinge-like flexion-extension axis, and that elbow passive ROM limits can be based on terminal bony impingement. The model was validated against experimental results with a cadaveric specimen, and was able to predict the flexion and extension limits of the intact joint to 0° and 3°, respectively. The model was also able to predict the flexion and extension limits to 1° and 2°, respectively, when simulated osteophytes were inserted into the joint. Future studies based on this approach will be used for the prediction of elbow flexion-extension ROM in patients with primary osteoarthritis to help identify motion-limiting hypertrophic osteophytes, and will eventually permit real-time computer-assisted navigated excisions. PMID:24841799

  20. Tendinitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... of a tendon. Tendinitis usually happens after repeated injury to an area such as the wrist or ankle. It causes pain and soreness around a joint. Some common forms of tendinitis are named after the sports that increase their risk. They include tennis elbow, ...

  1. Visualization of 3D elbow kinematics using reconstructed bony surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lalone, Emily A.; McDonald, Colin P.; Ferreira, Louis M.; Peters, Terry M.; King, Graham J. W.; Johnson, James A.

    2010-02-01

    An approach for direct visualization of continuous three-dimensional elbow kinematics using reconstructed surfaces has been developed. Simulation of valgus motion was achieved in five cadaveric specimens using an upper arm simulator. Direct visualization of the motion of the ulna and humerus at the ulnohumeral joint was obtained using a contact based registration technique. Employing fiducial markers, the rendered humerus and ulna were positioned according to the simulated motion. The specific aim of this study was to investigate the effect of radial head arthroplasty on restoring elbow joint stability after radial head excision. The position of the ulna and humerus was visualized for the intact elbow and following radial head excision and replacement. Visualization of the registered humerus/ulna indicated an increase in valgus angulation of the ulna with respect to the humerus after radial head excision. This increase in valgus angulation was restored to that of an elbow with a native radial head following radial head arthroplasty. These findings were consistent with previous studies investigating elbow joint stability following radial head excision and arthroplasty. The current technique was able to visualize a change in ulnar position in a single DoF. Using this approach, the coupled motion of ulna undergoing motion in all 6 degrees-of-freedom can also be visualized.

  2. The Table Tennis Triathlon: An Integrated Sport Education Season

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan, Alice M.; Barrow, Brook

    2016-01-01

    This article describes an integrated, 10-day unit that was designed using the sport education model in physical education. English language arts and social responsibility were integrated into a unit of table tennis in fifth-grade physical education. The student roles were adapted to best fit the needs of the unit. Through the integration of three…

  3. Acute effects of two different tennis sessions on dorsal and lumbar spine of adult players.

    PubMed

    Gallotta, Maria Chiara; Bonavolontà, Valerio; Emerenziani, Gian Pietro; Franciosi, Emanuele; Tito, Alessandro; Guidetti, Laura; Baldari, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the dorsal and lumbar spine of expert and recreational tennis players before (pre) and after (post) two different training sessions. The sample consisted of 17 male tennis players, nine expert and eight recreational males (age 21.2 ± 1.6 years). We assessed the back surface by rasterstereography pre and post two different training sessions both lasting 1.5 h: a standard training and a specific over-shoulder shots training session, respectively. Lordotic and kyphotic angle, length, imbalance, inclination for trunk, pelvic torsion, left and right lateral deviation and surface rotation were measured. Tennis expertise (expert versus recreational) significantly affected the surface rotation and right lateral deviation (P < 0.05). Trunk length was affected by intervention (pre versus post) (P < 0.05). Left lateral deviation differed both for type of session (session 1 versus session 2) and intervention (P < 0.001, P < 0.05). Expert tennis players had higher values on surface rotation and right lateral deviation, around or just above physiological values (0-5° and 0-5 mm, respectively). Type of session significantly affected left lateral deviation, indicating that over-shoulder shots lead to a higher stress for the spine; the workload produced by both single sessions led to a shortening effect on trunk length. A single training session can induce acute modifications in some parameters of dorsal and lumbar spine of players.

  4. Does an Eye-Hand Coordination Test Have Added Value as Part of Talent Identification in Table Tennis? A Validity and Reproducibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Faber, Irene R.; Oosterveld, Frits G. J.; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, Maria W. G.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the added value, i.e. discriminative and concurrent validity and reproducibility, of an eye-hand coordination test relevant to table tennis as part of talent identification. Forty-three table tennis players (7–12 years) from national (n = 13), regional (n = 11) and local training centres (n = 19) participated. During the eye-hand coordination test, children needed to throw a ball against a vertical positioned table tennis table with one hand and to catch the ball correctly with the other hand as frequently as possible in 30 seconds. Four different test versions were assessed varying the distance to the table (1 or 2 meter) and using a tennis or table tennis ball. ‘Within session’ reproducibility was estimated for the two attempts of the initial tests and ten youngsters were retested after 4 weeks to estimate ‘between sessions’ reproducibility. Validity analyses using age as covariate showed that players from the national and regional centres scored significantly higher than players from the local centre in all test versions (p<0.05). The tests at 1 meter demonstrated better discriminative ability than those at 2 meter. While all tests but one had a positive significant association with competition outcome, which were corrected for age influences, the version with a table tennis ball at 1 meter showed the highest association (r = 0.54; p = 0.001). Differences between the first and second attempts were comparable for all test versions (between −8 and +7 repetitions) with ICC's ranging from 0.72 to 0.87. The smallest differences were found for the test with a table tennis ball at 1 meter (between −3 and +3 repetitions). Best test version as part of talent identification appears to be the version with a table tennis ball at 1 meter regarding the psychometric characteristics evaluated. Longitudinal studies are necessary to evaluate the predictive value of this test. PMID:24465638

  5. Does an eye-hand coordination test have added value as part of talent identification in table tennis? A validity and reproducibility study.

    PubMed

    Faber, Irene R; Oosterveld, Frits G J; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, Maria W G

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the added value, i.e. discriminative and concurrent validity and reproducibility, of an eye-hand coordination test relevant to table tennis as part of talent identification. Forty-three table tennis players (7-12 years) from national (n = 13), regional (n = 11) and local training centres (n = 19) participated. During the eye-hand coordination test, children needed to throw a ball against a vertical positioned table tennis table with one hand and to catch the ball correctly with the other hand as frequently as possible in 30 seconds. Four different test versions were assessed varying the distance to the table (1 or 2 meter) and using a tennis or table tennis ball. 'Within session' reproducibility was estimated for the two attempts of the initial tests and ten youngsters were retested after 4 weeks to estimate 'between sessions' reproducibility. Validity analyses using age as covariate showed that players from the national and regional centres scored significantly higher than players from the local centre in all test versions (p<0.05). The tests at 1 meter demonstrated better discriminative ability than those at 2 meter. While all tests but one had a positive significant association with competition outcome, which were corrected for age influences, the version with a table tennis ball at 1 meter showed the highest association (r = 0.54; p = 0.001). Differences between the first and second attempts were comparable for all test versions (between -8 and +7 repetitions) with ICC's ranging from 0.72 to 0.87. The smallest differences were found for the test with a table tennis ball at 1 meter (between -3 and +3 repetitions). Best test version as part of talent identification appears to be the version with a table tennis ball at 1 meter regarding the psychometric characteristics evaluated. Longitudinal studies are necessary to evaluate the predictive value of this test.

  6. Unforced errors and error reduction in tennis

    PubMed Central

    Brody, H

    2006-01-01

    Only at the highest level of tennis is the number of winners comparable to the number of unforced errors. As the average player loses many more points due to unforced errors than due to winners by an opponent, if the rate of unforced errors can be reduced, it should lead to an increase in points won. This article shows how players can improve their game by understanding and applying the laws of physics to reduce the number of unforced errors. PMID:16632568

  7. Elbow mass flow meter

    DOEpatents

    McFarland, A.R.; Rodgers, J.C.; Ortiz, C.A.; Nelson, D.C.

    1994-08-16

    The present invention includes a combination of an elbow pressure drop generator and a shunt-type mass flow sensor for providing an output which gives the mass flow rate of a gas that is nearly independent of the density of the gas. For air, the output is also approximately independent of humidity. 3 figs.

  8. Risk of nerve injury during arthroscopy portal placement in the elbow joint: A cadaveric study

    PubMed Central

    Chaware, Prashant N; Santoshi, John A; Pakhare, Abhijit P; Rathinam, Bertha A D

    2016-01-01

    Background: Elbow arthroscopy has become a routine procedure now. However, placing portals is fraught with dangers of injuring the neurovascular structures around elbow. There are not enough data documenting the same amongst the Indians. We aimed to determine the relative distances of nerves around the elbow to the arthroscopy portals and risk of injury in different positions of the elbow. Materials and Methods: Six standard elbow arthroscopy portals were established in 12 cadaveric upper limbs after joint distension. Then using standard dissection techniques all the nerves around the elbow were exposed, and their distances from relevant portals were measured using digital vernier caliper in 90° elbow flexion and 0° extension. Descriptive statistical analysis was used for describing distance of the nerves from relevant portal. Wilcoxon-signed rank test and Friedman's test were used for comparison. Results: There was no major nerve injury at all the portals studied in both positions of the elbow. The total incidence of cutaneous nerve injury was 8.3% (12/144); medial cutaneous nerve of forearm 10/48 and posterior cutaneous nerve of forearm 2/24. No significant changes were observed in the distance of a nerve to an individual portal at 90° flexion or 0° extension position of the elbow. Conclusion: This study demonstrates the risk of injury to different nerves at the standard portals of elbow arthroscopy. In practice, the actual incidence of nerve injury may still be lower. We conclude that elbow arthroscopy is a safe procedure when all precautions as described are duly followed. PMID:26952128

  9. Ultrasonic Percutaneous Tenotomy for Recalcitrant Lateral Elbow Tendinopathy: Sustainability and Sonographic Progression at 3 Years.

    PubMed

    Seng, Chusheng; Mohan, P Chandra; Koh, Suang Bee Joyce; Howe, Tet Sen; Lim, Yee Gen; Lee, Brian P; Morrey, Bernard F

    2016-02-01

    percutaneous ultrasonic tenotomy provided sustained pain relief and functional improvement for recalcitrant tennis elbow at 3-year follow-up. It is one of the few procedures to demonstrate positive sonographic evidence of tissue-healing response and is an attractive alternative to surgical intervention for definitive treatment of recalcitrant elbow tendinopathy. © 2015 The Author(s).

  10. Ongoing positive effect of platelet-rich plasma versus corticosteroid injection in lateral epicondylitis: a double-blind randomized controlled trial with 2-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Gosens, Taco; Peerbooms, Joost C; van Laar, Wilbert; den Oudsten, Brenda L

    2011-06-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has been shown to be a general stimulation for repair and 1-year results showed promising success percentages. This trial was undertaken to determine the effectiveness of PRP compared with corticosteroid injections in patients with chronic lateral epicondylitis with a 2-year follow-up. Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 1. The trial was conducted in 2 Dutch teaching hospitals. One hundred patients with chronic lateral epicondylitis were randomly assigned to a leukocyte-enriched PRP group (n = 51) or the corticosteroid group (n = 49). Randomization and allocation to the trial group were carried out by a central computer system. Patients received either a corticosteroid injection or an autologous platelet concentrate injection through a peppering needling technique. The primary analysis included visual analog scale (VAS) pain scores and Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) outcome scores. The PRP group was more often successfully treated than the corticosteroid group (P < .0001). Success was defined as a reduction of 25% on VAS or DASH scores without a reintervention after 2 years. When baseline VAS and DASH scores were compared with the scores at 2-year follow-up, both groups significantly improved across time (intention-to-treat principle). However, the DASH scores of the corticosteroid group returned to baseline levels, while those of the PRP group significantly improved (as-treated principle). There were no complications related to the use of PRP. Treatment of patients with chronic lateral epicondylitis with PRP reduces pain and increases function significantly, exceeding the effect of corticosteroid injection even after a follow-up of 2 years. Future decisions for application of PRP for lateral epicondylitis should be confirmed by further follow-up from this trial and should take into account possible costs and harms as well as benefits.

  11. Neurological Complications Related to Elective Orthopedic Surgery: Part 1: Common Shoulder and Elbow Procedures.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, Tim; Henry, Patrick D G; Cholvisudhi, Phantila; Chan, Vincent W S; Theodoropoulos, John S; Brull, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Many anesthesiologists are unfamiliar with the rate of surgical neurological complications of the shoulder and elbow procedures for which they provide local anesthetic-based anesthesia and/or analgesia. Part 1 of this narrative review series on neurological complications of elective orthopedic surgery describes the mechanisms and likelihood of peripheral nerve injury associated with some of the most common shoulder and elbow procedures, including open and arthroscopic shoulder procedures, elbow arthroscopy, and total shoulder and elbow replacement. Despite the many articles available, the overall number of studied patients is relatively low. Large prospective trials are required to establish the true incidence of neurological complications following elective shoulder and elbow surgery. As the popularity of regional anesthesia increases with the development of ultrasound guidance, anesthesiologists should have a thoughtful understanding of the nerves at risk of surgical injury during elective shoulder and elbow procedures.

  12. Three-dimensional analysis of elbow soft tissue footprints and anatomy.

    PubMed

    Capo, John T; Collins, Christopher; Beutel, Bryan G; Danna, Natalie R; Manigrasso, Michaele; Uko, Linda A; Chen, Linda Y

    2014-11-01

    Tendinous and ligamentous injuries commonly occur in the elbow. This study characterized the location, surface areas, and origin and insertional footprints of major elbow capsuloligamentous and tendinous structures in relation to bony landmarks with the use of a precision 3-dimensional modeling system. Nine unpaired cadaveric elbow specimens were dissected and mounted on a custom jig. Mapping of the medial collateral ligament (MCL), lateral ulnar collateral ligament (LUCL), triceps, biceps, brachialis, and capsular reflections was then performed with 3-dimensional digitizing technology. The location, surface areas, and footprints of the soft tissues were calculated. The MCL had a mean origin (humeral) footprint of 216 mm(2), insertional footprint of 154 mm(2), and surface area of 421 mm(2). The LUCL had a mean origin footprint of 136 mm(2), an insertional footprint of 142 mm(2), and a surface area of 532 mm(2). Of the tendons, the triceps maintained the largest insertional footprint, followed by the brachialis and the biceps (P < .001-.03). The MCL, LUCL, and biceps footprint locations were consistent, with little variability. The surface areas of the anterior (1251 mm(2)) and posterior (1147 mm(2)) capsular reflections were similar (P = .82), and the anterior capsule extended farther proximally. Restoring the normal anatomy of key elbow capsuloligamentous and tendinous structures is crucial for effective reconstruction after bony or soft tissue trauma. This study provides the upper extremity surgeon with information that may aid in restoring elbow biomechanics and preserving range of motion in these patients. Copyright © 2014 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of strength training on regional hypertrophy of the elbow flexor muscles.

    PubMed

    Drummond, Marcos D M; Szmuchrowski, Leszek A; Goulart, Karine N O; Couto, Bruno P

    2016-10-01

    Muscle hypertrophy is the main structural adaptation to strength training. We investigated the chronic effects of strength training on muscle hypertrophy in different regions of the elbow flexor muscles. Eleven untrained men (21.8 ± 1.62 years) underwent magnetic resonance imaging to determine the proximal, medial, distal, and mean cross-sectional areas (CSA) of the elbow flexors. The volunteers completed 12 weeks of strength training. The training protocol consisted of 4 sets of 8-10 maximum repetitions of unilateral elbow flexion. The interval between sets was 120 s. The training frequency was 3 sessions per week. The magnetic resonance images verified the presence of significant and similar hypertrophy in the distal, medial, and proximal portions of the elbow flexor muscles. Muscle hypertrophy may be assessed using only the medial CSA. We should not expect different degrees of hypertrophy among the regions of the elbow flexor muscles. Muscle Nerve 54: 750-755, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Elbow Injuries in Professional Baseball: Epidemiological Findings From the Major League Baseball Injury Surveillance System.

    PubMed

    Ciccotti, Michael G; Pollack, Keisha M; Ciccotti, Michael C; D'Angelo, John; Ahmad, Christopher S; Altchek, David; Andrews, James; Curriero, Frank C

    2017-08-01

    Elbow injuries cause significant disability for the throwing athlete. Scant data are available on the distribution and characteristics of these injuries in elite baseball players. No study exists that focuses solely on the epidemiological characteristics of elbow injuries in professional baseball players using a comprehensive injury surveillance system. Professional baseball players have a high occurrence of elbow injuries influenced by factors including length of time playing, time period within the annual baseball season, and specific position played. Descriptive epidemiological study. Data on elbow injuries occurring during the 2011-2014 seasons were collected from Major League Baseball's Health Injury and Tracking System, a comprehensive injury surveillance system. Each specific type of elbow injury was evaluated with respect to overall injury rate, years as a professional player, mechanism of injury, treatment, average time lost, and return to play. During the study period, 3185 elbow injuries (n = 430 Major League; n = 2755 Minor League) occurred. The mean number of days missed and percentage requiring surgery were similar between Major and Minor League players. Overall, 20.0% (650/3185) of the injuries required surgical treatment. Pitchers were the most likely to incur an elbow injury (40.0% of injured athletes were pitchers), were the most likely to require surgery (34.2% of injured pitchers required surgery), and had the greatest mean number of days missed when treated nonsurgically (33.2 days). Medial injuries composed 42.1% (1342/3185) of all elbow injuries. Of all elbow surgeries performed during the study period, the highest percentage involved ligaments (372/650; 57.2%). Elbow injuries are a considerable source of disability in professional baseball players. Pitchers are most likely to incur these injuries, are most likely to require surgery, and have the highest mean number of days missed when treated nonsurgically. The most common injuries involve

  15. Romantic Resonances in the Rhetoric of Peter Elbow's "Writing Without Teachers."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yager, Kristi

    1996-01-01

    Seeks to uncover the historical roots within English Romanticism of Peter Elbow's thinking in order to show the depth and complexity of his assumptions about writing. Implicitly refutes charges questioning the intellectual credibility of Elbow's work. (TB)

  16. Motivational profiles in table tennis players: Relations with performance anxiety and subjective vitality.

    PubMed

    Chu, Tsz Lun Alan; Zhang, Tao; Hung, Tsung-Min

    2018-06-27

    Research has suggested the need to use a person-centred approach to examine multidimensionality of motivation. Guided by self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985), the primary aim of the present study was to examine the motivational profiles in table tennis players and their composition by gender, country, training status, and competition levels (from recreational to international). The secondary aim was to examine the differences in performance anxiety and subjective vitality across the motivational profiles. Participants were 281 table tennis players from multiple countries, mostly the U.S. and China. Hierarchical and nonhierarchical cluster analyses were conducted and showed three motivational profiles with distinct quantity and quality: "low", "controlled", and "self-determined". Chi-square tests of independence demonstrated significant differences in their cluster membership by country, formal training with a coach, and competition levels, but not gender. MANCOVA results indicated differences in performance anxiety and subjective vitality across the motivational profiles, in which the controlled profile had the greatest anxiety symptoms. These differences are attributed to the quality over quantity of motivation, which have meaningful implications for table tennis coaches and sport psychology consultants to diagnose and intervene with players in order to reduce their performance anxiety and improve their well-being.

  17. Field-Based Pre-Cooling for On-Court Tennis Conditioning Training in the Heat

    PubMed Central

    Duffield, Rob; Bird, Stephen P.; Ballard, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of pre-cooling for on- court, tennis-specific conditioning training in the heat. Eight highly-trained tennis players performed two on-court conditioning sessions in 35°C, 55% Relative Humidity. Sessions were randomised, involved either a pre-cooling or control session, and consisted of 30-min of court- based, tennis movement drills. Pre-cooling involved 20-min of an ice-vest and cold towels to the head/neck and legs, followed by warm-up in a cold compression garment. On-court movement distance was recorded by 1Hz Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) devices, while core temperature, heart rate and perceptual exertion and thermal stress were also recorded throughout the session. Additionally, mass and lower-body peak power during repeated counter-movement jumps were measured before and after each session. No significant performance differences were evident between conditions, although a moderate-large effect (d = 0.7-1.0; p > 0.05) was evident for total (2989 ± 256 v 2870 ± 159m) and high-intensity (805 ± 340 v 629 ± 265m) distance covered following pre-cooling. Further, no significant differences were evident between conditions for rise in core temperature (1.9 ± 0.4 v 2. 2 ± 0.4°C; d > 0.9; p > 0.05), although a significantly smaller change in mass (0.9 ± 0.3 v 1. 3 ± 0.3kg; p < 0.05) was present following pre-cooling. Perceived thermal stress and exertion were significantly lower (d > 1.0; p < 0.05) during the cooling session. Finally, lower-body peak power did not differ between conditions before or after training (d < 0.3; p > 0.05). Conclusions: Despite trends for lowered physiological load and increased distances covered following cooling, the observed responses were not significantly different or as explicit as previously reported laboratory-based pre-cooling research. Key points Pre-cooling did not significantly enhance training performance or reduce physiological load for tennis training in the heat

  18. The effects of KinesioTape on the treatment of lateral epicondylitis.

    PubMed

    Shakeri, Hassan; Soleimanifar, Manijeh; Arab, A M; Hamneshin Behbahani, Shirin

    Randomized clinical trial. KinesioTape (KT) is a noninvasive method to treat pain and muscular dysfunction. To investigate the effect of KT with and without tension on pain intensity, pain pressure threshold, grip strength and disability in individuals with lateral epicondylitis, and myofacial trigger points in forearm muscles. Thirty women with lateral epicondylitis and myofacial trigger point in forearm muscles were randomly assigned to KT with tension and placebo (KT without tension). The treatment was provided 3 times in one week, and outcome measures were assess pre-post treatment. The mean score of visual analogue scale (VAS) during activity decreased significantly from 6.4 and 6 pretest to 2.53 and 4.66 posttest, respectively, for the KT with and without tension groups. The mean score of Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand decreased significantly from 16.82 and 22.79 pretest to 8.65 and 8.29 posttest, respectively, for the KT with and without tension groups. A paired t-test revealed a significant reduction in VAS during activity and Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand before and after treatment in both groups (P < .05). Pain pressure threshold, grip strength, and VAS using an algometer revealed no significant differences. The study showed no significant difference in variables immediately after intervention. Improvements in functional disability were superior when KT was used with tension, than obtained with a placebo-no tension application. The application of KT produces an improvement in pain intensity and upper extremity disability in subjects with LE and MTP in forearm muscles, and KT with tension was more effective than placebo group. NA. 100-216. Copyright © 2017 Hanley & Belfus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A Shot Number Based Approach to Performance Analysis in Table Tennis

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Kazuto; Yamada, Koshi

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The current study proposes a novel approach that improves the conventional performance analysis in table tennis by introducing the concept of frequency, or the number of shots, of each shot number. The improvements over the conventional method are as follows: better accuracy of the evaluation of skills and tactics of players, additional insights into scoring and returning skills and ease of understanding the results with a single criterion. The performance analysis of matches played at the 2012 Summer Olympics in London was conducted using the proposed method. The results showed some effects of the shot number and gender differences in table