Science.gov

Sample records for epidemiology donor study

  1. The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute retrovirus epidemiology donor studies (Retrovirus Epidemiology Donor Study and Retrovirus Epidemiology Donor Study-II): twenty years of research to advance blood product safety and availability.

    PubMed

    Kleinman, Steven; King, Melissa R; Busch, Michael P; Murphy, Edward L; Glynn, Simone A

    2012-10-01

    The Retrovirus Epidemiology Donor Study (REDS), conducted from 1989 to 2001, and the REDS-II, conducted from 2004 to 2012, were National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute-funded, multicenter programs focused on improving blood safety and availability in the United States. The REDS-II also included international study sites in Brazil and China. The 3 major research domains of REDS/REDS-II have been infectious disease risk evaluation, blood donation availability, and blood donor characterization. Both programs have made significant contributions to transfusion medicine research methodology by the use of mathematical modeling, large-scale donor surveys, innovative methods of repository sample storage, and establishing an infrastructure that responded to potential emerging blood safety threats such as xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus. Blood safety studies have included protocols evaluating epidemiologic and/or laboratory aspects of human immunodeficiency virus, human T-lymphotropic virus 1/2, hepatitis C virus, hepatitis B virus, West Nile virus, cytomegalovirus, human herpesvirus 8, parvovirus B19, malaria, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, influenza, and Trypanosoma cruzi infections. Other analyses have characterized blood donor demographics, motivations to donate, factors influencing donor return, behavioral risk factors, donors' perception of the blood donation screening process, and aspects of donor deferral. In REDS-II, 2 large-scale blood donor protocols examined iron deficiency in donors and the prevalence of leukocyte antibodies. This review describes the major study results from over 150 peer-reviewed articles published by these 2 REDS programs. In 2011, a new 7-year program, the Recipient Epidemiology and Donor Evaluation Study-III, was launched. The Recipient Epidemiology and Donor Evaluation Study-III expands beyond donor-based research to include studies of blood transfusion recipients in the hospital setting and adds a third country, South Africa

  2. 77 FR 62518 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request: Recipient Epidemiology and Donor Evaluation Study-III (REDS...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-15

    ... Epidemiology and Donor Evaluation Study-III (REDS-III) Request for Generic Clearance SUMMARY: In compliance...: Recipient Epidemiology and Donor Evaluation Study-III (REDS-III). Type of Information Collection Request... Evaluation ] Study-III (REDS-III) program is to ensure safe and effective blood banking and transfusion...

  3. Hepatitis B surface antigen in blood donors. An epidemiologic study.

    PubMed

    Jayaprakash, P A; Shanmugam, J; Hariprasad, D

    1983-01-01

    Of 8085 volunteer donors attending the blood bank at SCTIMST screened for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) carrier state by counterimmunoelectrophoresis, 103 (1.27%) were HBsAg positive. The personal data of donors showed a higher rate of HBsAg among men than women and in the age group of 21 to 30 years than in the other age groups. A significantly higher rate was noted among donors belonging to the lower socioeconomic group (p less than 0.05).

  4. Retrovirus Epidemiology Donor Study-II (REDS-II)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-04-14

    Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome; Blood Donors; Blood Transfusion; HIV Infections; HIV-1; HIV-2; HTLV-I; HTLV-II; Retroviridae Infections; Hepatitis, Viral, Human; Hepatitis B; Hepacivirus; West Nile Virus

  5. The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Recipient Epidemiology and Donor Evaluation Study (REDS-III): A research program striving to improve blood donor and transfusion recipient outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Kleinman, Steven; Busch, Michael P; Murphy, Edward L; Shan, Hua; Ness, Paul; Glynn, Simone A.

    2014-01-01

    Background The Recipient Epidemiology and Donor Evaluation Study -III (REDS-III) is a 7-year multicenter transfusion safety research initiative launched in 2011 by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Study design The domestic component involves 4 blood centers, 12 hospitals, a data coordinating center, and a central laboratory. The international component consists of distinct programs in Brazil, China, and South Africa which involve US and in-country investigators. Results REDS-III is using two major methods to address key research priorities in blood banking/transfusion medicine. First, there will be numerous analyses of large “core” databases; the international programs have each constructed a donor/donation database while the domestic program has established a detailed research database that links data from blood donors and their donations, the components made from these donations, and data extracts from the electronic medical records of the recipients of these components. Secondly, there are more than 25 focused research protocols involving transfusion recipients, blood donors, or both that are either in progress or scheduled to begin within the next 3 years. Areas of study include transfusion epidemiology and blood utilization; transfusion outcomes; non-infectious transfusion risks; HIV-related safety issues (particularly in the international programs); emerging infectious agents; blood component quality; donor health and safety; and other donor issues. Conclusions It is intended that REDS-III serve as an impetus for more widespread recipient and linked donor-recipient research in the US as well as to help assure a safe and available blood supply in the US and in international locations. PMID:24188564

  6. The NHLBI Retrovirus Epidemiology Donor Studies (REDS and REDS-II): Twenty years of research to advance blood product safety and availability

    PubMed Central

    Kleinman, Steven; King, Melissa R; Busch, Michael P; Murphy, Edward L; Glynn, Simone A.

    2012-01-01

    The Retrovirus Epidemiology Donor Study (REDS), conducted from 1989–2001, and the Retrovirus Epidemiology Donor Study-II (REDS-II), conducted from 2004–2012, were National Heart Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI) funded multicenter programs focused on improving blood safety and availability in the United States. REDS-II also included international study sites in Brazil and China. The three major research domains of REDS/REDS-II have been infectious disease risk evaluation, blood donation availability, and blood donor characterization. Both programs have made significant contributions to transfusion medicine research methodology by the use of mathematical modeling, large-scale donor surveys, innovative methods of repository sample storage, and establishing an infrastructure that responded to potential emerging blood safety threats such as XMRV. Blood safety studies have included protocols evaluating epidemiologic and/or laboratory aspects of HIV, HTLV I/II, HCV, HBV, WNV, CMV, HHV-8, B19V, malaria, CJD, influenza, and T. cruzi infections. Other analyses have characterized: blood donor demographics, motivations to donate, factors influencing donor return, behavioral risk factors, donors’ perception of the blood donation screening process, and aspects of donor deferral. In REDS-II, two large-scale blood donor protocols examined iron deficiency in donors and the prevalence of leukocyte antibodies. This review describes the major study results from over 150 peer-reviewed articles published by these two REDS programs. In 2011, a new seven year program, the Recipient Epidemiology and Donor Evaluation Study-III (REDS-III), was launched. REDS-III expands beyond donor-based research to include studies of blood transfusion recipients in the hospital setting, and adds a third country, South Africa, to the international program. PMID:22633182

  7. Epidemiology of Chikungunya Virus Outbreaks in Guadeloupe and Martinique, 2014: An Observational Study in Volunteer Blood Donors

    PubMed Central

    Gallian, Pierre; Leparc-Goffart, Isabelle; Richard, Pascale; Maire, Françoise; Flusin, Olivier; Djoudi, Rachid; Chiaroni, Jacques; Charrel, Remi; Tiberghien, Pierre; de Lamballerie, Xavier

    2017-01-01

    Background During Dec-2013, a chikungunya virus (CHIKV) outbreak was first detected in the French-West Indies. Subsequently, the virus dispersed to other Caribbean islands, continental America and many islands in the Pacific Ocean. Previous estimates of the attack rate were based on declaration of clinically suspected cases. Methods/Principal findings Individual testing for CHIKV RNA of all (n = 16,386) blood donations between Feb-24th 2014 and Jan-31st 2015 identified 0·36% and 0·42% of positives in Guadeloupe and Martinique, respectively. The incidence curves faithfully correlated with those of suspected clinical cases in the general population of Guadeloupe (abrupt epidemic peak), but not in Martinique (flatter epidemic growth). No significant relationship was identified between CHIKV RNA detection and age-classes or blood groups. Prospective (Feb-2014 to Jan-2015; n = 9,506) and retrospective (Aug-2013 to Feb-2014; n = 6,559) seroepidemiological surveys in blood donors identified a final seroprevalence of 48·1% in Guadeloupe and 41·9% in Martinique. Retrospective survey also suggested the absence or limited "silent" CHIKV circulation before the outbreak. Parameters associated with increased seroprevalence were: Gender (M>F), KEL-1, [RH+1/KEL-1], [A/RH+1] and [A/RH+1/KEL-1] blood groups in Martiniquan donors. A simulation model based on observed incidence and actual seroprevalence values predicted 2·5 and 2·3 days of asymptomatic viraemia in Martiniquan and Guadeloupian blood donors respectively. Conclusions/Significance This study, implemented promptly with relatively limited logistical requirements during CHIKV emergence in the Caribbean, provided unique information regarding retrospective and prospective epidemiology, infection risk factors and natural history of the disease. In the stressful context of emerging infectious disease outbreaks, blood donor-based studies can serve as robust and cost-effective first-line tools for public health surveys. PMID

  8. Epidemiology of Chikungunya Virus Outbreaks in Guadeloupe and Martinique, 2014: An Observational Study in Volunteer Blood Donors.

    PubMed

    Gallian, Pierre; Leparc-Goffart, Isabelle; Richard, Pascale; Maire, Françoise; Flusin, Olivier; Djoudi, Rachid; Chiaroni, Jacques; Charrel, Remi; Tiberghien, Pierre; de Lamballerie, Xavier

    2017-01-01

    During Dec-2013, a chikungunya virus (CHIKV) outbreak was first detected in the French-West Indies. Subsequently, the virus dispersed to other Caribbean islands, continental America and many islands in the Pacific Ocean. Previous estimates of the attack rate were based on declaration of clinically suspected cases. Individual testing for CHIKV RNA of all (n = 16,386) blood donations between Feb-24th 2014 and Jan-31st 2015 identified 0·36% and 0·42% of positives in Guadeloupe and Martinique, respectively. The incidence curves faithfully correlated with those of suspected clinical cases in the general population of Guadeloupe (abrupt epidemic peak), but not in Martinique (flatter epidemic growth). No significant relationship was identified between CHIKV RNA detection and age-classes or blood groups. Prospective (Feb-2014 to Jan-2015; n = 9,506) and retrospective (Aug-2013 to Feb-2014; n = 6,559) seroepidemiological surveys in blood donors identified a final seroprevalence of 48·1% in Guadeloupe and 41·9% in Martinique. Retrospective survey also suggested the absence or limited "silent" CHIKV circulation before the outbreak. Parameters associated with increased seroprevalence were: Gender (M>F), KEL-1, [RH+1/KEL-1], [A/RH+1] and [A/RH+1/KEL-1] blood groups in Martiniquan donors. A simulation model based on observed incidence and actual seroprevalence values predicted 2·5 and 2·3 days of asymptomatic viraemia in Martiniquan and Guadeloupian blood donors respectively. This study, implemented promptly with relatively limited logistical requirements during CHIKV emergence in the Caribbean, provided unique information regarding retrospective and prospective epidemiology, infection risk factors and natural history of the disease. In the stressful context of emerging infectious disease outbreaks, blood donor-based studies can serve as robust and cost-effective first-line tools for public health surveys.

  9. Use of replacement blood donors to study the epidemiology of major blood-borne viruses in the general population of Maputo, Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Lina; Plouzeau, Chloé; Ingrand, Pierre; Gudo, Joël Paulo Samo; Ingrand, Isabelle; Mondlane, José; Beauchant, Michel; Agius, Gérard

    2007-12-01

    The seroprevalence rates of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), human T-cell leukemia/lymphoma virus (HTLV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis D virus (HDV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV) in Mozambique are poorly documented. The epidemiology of these infections was studied in the Maputo region. All donors attending the blood bank during the study period were interviewed and underwent serological and molecular tests for markers of virus exposure. Thus, 1,578 consecutive replacement blood donors were investigated, as they undergo no selection (other than their relation with a patient needing a transfusion), and may thus provide reliable estimates of the prevalence rates in the general population. The age-standardized prevalence rates among 15- to 49-year-old men and women were, respectively, 12.3 and 15.4% for HIV and 0.9 and 1.2% for HTLV. Low educational status (P = 0.014) and tattooing/scarification (P = 0.023) were predictive of HIV infection in multivariate analysis. The age-adjusted prevalence rates of markers of hepatotropic virus among men and women were, respectively, 10.6 and 4.5% for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), 1.2 and 1.0% for anti-HCV, and 0 and 0% for anti-HDV. Two percent of donors had viral co-infections, involving most frequently the combination of HIV and HBsAg +. A significant association was found between anti-HIV and anti-HBc (P = 0.012). HBsAg was associated with the place of birth (P = 0.011) and a history of transfusion (P = 0.069). Smokers had higher seroprevalence rates than nonsmokers for HIV (P < 0.0001) and HBsAg (P = 0.045). Genotype A was the most frequent HBV genotype (86.3%) followed by E and D. HCV genotypes were 1a, 1b, 3a, and 5a. These results show that HBV vaccination and HIV-preventive measures need to be reinforced in Mozambique. (c) Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Epidemiologic and laboratory findings from 3 years of testing United States blood donors for Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Custer, Brian; Agapova, Maria; Bruhn, Roberta; Cusick, Robin; Kamel, Hany; Tomasulo, Peter; Biswas, Hope; Tobler, Leslie; Lee, Tzong-Hae; Caglioti, Sally; Busch, Michael

    2012-09-01

    At most blood centers in the United States routine testing of donations for Trypanosoma cruzi using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is followed by supplemental testing by radioimmunoprecipitation assay (RIPA). The objective of this study was to report the results of routine testing and risk factor data from allogeneic blood donors. T. cruzi testing data from January 2007 through December 2009 were analyzed, and risk factor interviews and follow-up studies were conducted on seroreactive donors. Prevalences of confirmed infection and risk factors associated with infection were assessed using logistic and multivariable logistic regression. Of 2,940,491 allogeneic donations from 1,183,076 donors, 305 (0.01% per donation tested and 0.026% per blood donor) were repeat reactive (RR) and 89 of those were confirmed positive by RIPA, yielding an overall seroprevalence of 1 per 33,039 donations and 1 per 13,292 donors. Country of birth and US blood center location differences in the seroprevalence of T. cruzi were evident. The odds of confirmed infection were highest if the donor reported having been bitten by the reduviid (kissing) bug (odds ratio [OR], 76.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 11.1-3173) followed by having lived in a rural area of Latin America (OR, 38.6; 95% CI, 15.1-102.5). In multivariable analyses, having spent 3 months or more in Mexico or Central and/or South America was associated with the highest odds of RIPA-confirmed infection (OR, 8.5; 95% CI, 2.7-26.5). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing of ELISA RR donors exhibited low sensitivity (1/22 [4%] RIPA-confirmed donors was PCR positive). Risk factors for confirmed infection in US blood donors are consistent with the known epidemiology of Chagas disease. Blood donors or transfusions do not substantially contribute to the burden of T. cruzi infection in the United States. © 2012 American Association of Blood Banks.

  11. Epidemiological trends of HIV-1 infection in blood donors from Catalonia, Spain (2005-2014).

    PubMed

    Bes, Marta; Piron, Maria; Casamitjana, Natàlia; Gregori, Josep; Esteban, Juan Ignacio; Ribera, Esteban; Quer, Josep; Puig, Lluís; Sauleda, Sílvia

    2017-09-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) subtype B is predominant in Spain. However, the recent arrival of immigrant populations has increased the prevalence of non-B subtypes and circulating recombinant forms. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of HIV-1 subtypes and transmitted drug-resistance mutations in blood donors from the Catalonian region (northeastern Spain). HIV-1-positive blood donors identified in Catalonia from 2005 to 2014 were included. Demographic variables and risk factors for HIV-1 acquisition were recorded. HIV-1 subtyping was carried out by HIV-1 DNA polymerase region sequencing, and phylogenetic analyses were performed using the neighbor-joining method. During the study period, 2.8 million blood donations were screened, and 214 HIV-1-positive donors were identified, yielding an overall prevalence of 7.7 per 100,000 donations (89% men; mean age, 34 ± 10 years). Most HIV-1-positive donors were native to Spain (81%), and 61% were regular blood donors. When risk factors were known, 62% reportedly were men who had sex with men. HIV-1 subtyping was possible in 176 HIV-1-positive individuals: 143 (81%) had HIV-1 subtype B, and 33 (19%) had non-B subtypes. Most HIV-1 non-B subtypes were circulating recombinant forms (n = 20; 61%). Factors associated with HIV-1 subtype B were male sex (p = 0.007) and men who had sex with men (p < 0.001). The overall prevalence of transmitted drug-resistance mutations was 14%. Non-B subtypes, circulating recombinant forms, and transmitted drug-resistance mutation sequences circulate among HIV-1-positive blood donors in Catalonia. Continuous local epidemiological surveillance is required to implement optimal prevention strategies for controlling transfusion-transmitted HIV and to improve health policies regarding HIV infection. © 2017 AABB.

  12. The epidemiology of HIV transmission among paid plasma donors, Mexico City, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Avila, C; Stetler, H C; Sepúlveda, J; Dickinson, E; Castro, K G; Ward, J W; Romero, G; Valdespino, J L

    1989-10-01

    Screening of blood product donations for antibody to HIV began in Mexico in May 1986. From June to October 1986, the HIV cumulative seroprevalence increased from 6.3 to 9.2% in a commercial plasma collection center. Of the 281 people who donated the antibody-positive units, 62 (22.1%) had documented seroconversion during these 5 months. An epidemiologic study of 54 seropositive and 58 seronegative donors was carried out. The HIV serologic status did not change in any of these donors after repeat testing. Only 13.0% of the seropositives and 15.5% of the seronegatives had any of the known risk factors for AIDS. There was a direct relationship between frequency of plasma donation and the risk of being seropositive. A survey of employees disclosed the frequent re-use of disposable blood collection equipment. We conclude that HIV transmission had probably occurred in this plasma collection center.

  13. Molecular subtyping of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 2 by single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis. Retrovirus Epidemiology Donor Study Group.

    PubMed Central

    Heneine, W; Switzer, W M; Busch, M; Khabbaz, R F; Kaplan, J E

    1995-01-01

    Molecular subtyping of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 2 (HTLV-2) by the currently used method of restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis may not be sufficiently discriminatory for transmission studies because of the predominance of single restriction types in various HTLV-2-infected populations. The utility of single-strand conformations polymorphism (SSCP) analysis was evaluated as a tool to improve the sensitivity of the subtyping of HTLV-2. The assay was designed to target a highly variable region in the long terminal repeat and was shown to be able to detect single nucleotide changes in cloned HTLV-2 sequences. Analysis of 52 HTLV-2 samples, of which 32 were from 16 sex partner pairs (16 males, 16 females), showed nine different SSCP patterns. Identical SSCP results were obtained for each of the 16 couples, suggesting the presence of similar viral genotypes and, therefore, supporting the likelihood of sexual transmission of HTLV-2 in each of these couples. Furthermore, SSCP analysis of seven HTLV-2 samples of the same restriction type (b5) showed five different SSCP patterns. Nucleotide sequencing of two samples with distinct SSCP patterns confirmed the sequence differences. SSCP provides a facile and discriminatory tool for the differentiation of HTLV-2 strains, including those previously indistinguishable by restriction fragment length polymorphism. PMID:8586713

  14. Donation frequency of blood donors participating in a prospective cohort study of iron status

    PubMed Central

    Bahrami, Shrein H.; Guiltinan, Anne M.; Schlumpf, Karen S.; Scott, Erik; Banks, Linda L.; D’Andrea, Pam; Hartman, Elizabeth L.; Vij, Vibha; Wright, David J.; Spencer, Bryan; Murphy, Edward L.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Blood centers are interested in understanding determinants of frequent blood donation. We hypothesized that participation in uncompensated research could result in higher donation rates. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS Donation rates for 2425 subjects from six US blood centers enrolled in the Retrovirus Epidemiology Donor Study-II Donor Iron Status Evaluation Study were compared to those of nonenrolled donors (n = 202,383). Over 15 months, we compared mean donation rates and adjusted rate ratios (RRs) between enrolled and nonenrolled for three subgroups, first-time, reactivated, and frequent donors, and donation rates before and after the study enrollment period for frequent donors only. RESULTS Enrolled donors had higher 15-month mean donation rates than nonenrolled donors (first-time, 1.21 [RR = 1.91]; reactivated, 1.68 [RR = 1.83]; frequent, 3.40 [RR = 1.12]). However, frequent donors donated at approximately the same rate after enrollment as they did before enrollment in the study (3.62 per 15 months [RR = 1.12]). CONCLUSION Donors enrolled in the study donated at a higher rate than nonenrolled donors, but frequent donors remained consistent in their donation frequency both before and after enrollment. Although increased donation rates could have been causally related to study enrollment, we cannot rule out an enrollment bias whereby more committed donors were more likely to enroll in the study. PMID:21658037

  15. Donation frequency of blood donors participating in a prospective cohort study of iron status.

    PubMed

    Bahrami, Shrein H; Guiltinan, Anne M; Schlumpf, Karen S; Scott, Erik; Banks, Linda L; D'Andrea, Pam; Hartman, Elizabeth L; Vij, Vibha; Wright, David J; Spencer, Bryan; Murphy, Edward L

    2011-06-01

    Blood centers are interested in understanding determinants of frequent blood donation. We hypothesized that participation in uncompensated research could result in higher donation rates. Donation rates for 2425 subjects from six US blood centers enrolled in the Retrovirus Epidemiology Donor Study-II Donor Iron Status Evaluation Study were compared to those of nonenrolled donors (n = 202,383). Over 15 months, we compared mean donation rates and adjusted rate ratios (RRs) between enrolled and nonenrolled for three subgroups, first-time, reactivated, and frequent donors, and donation rates before and after the study enrollment period for frequent donors only. Enrolled donors had higher 15-month mean donation rates than nonenrolled donors (first-time, 1.21 [RR = 1.91]; reactivated, 1.68 [RR = 1.83]; frequent, 3.40 [RR = 1.12]). However, frequent donors donated at approximately the same rate after enrollment as they did before enrollment in the study (3.62 per 15 months [RR = 1.12]). Donors enrolled in the study donated at a higher rate than nonenrolled donors, but frequent donors remained consistent in their donation frequency both before and after enrollment. Although increased donation rates could have been causally related to study enrollment, we cannot rule out an enrollment bias whereby more committed donors were more likely to enroll in the study. © 2010 American Association of Blood Banks.

  16. Epidemiologic characteristics of blood donors with antibody to human immunodeficiency virus: Thailand.

    PubMed

    Nuchprayoon, C; Tanprasert, S; Chumnijarakij, T; Thanomchat, S; O'Prasert, B; Adulwijit, S

    1995-03-01

    Of 782,190 volunteer blood donors in Bangkok and nearby areas, who were screened for infection with human immunodeficiency type 1 (HIV-1) from January 1988 through December 1992, 3,219 tested positive on both enzyme immuno assay and Western blot assay. The identification variables of the donor were collected. The majority of HIV seropositive blood donors were male. The average age (median) of HIV seropositive was 26-29 years all through 1988-2992. The prevalence of HIV seropositive in male donors was higher than that in females. HIV seropositivity was confirmed in blood donations from first-time male donors in this study during 1988-1992. This rate has increased progressively from 0.87/1,000 in 1988 to 15.95/1,000 in 1992 with much higher rates in repeat donors. The repeat male donors increased from 0.77/1,000 in 1988 to 5.26/1,000 in 1991 and since then showed a decreased rate to 3.93/1,000 in 1992. Female donors were infected with HIV more frequently with the prevalence by sex ratio M:F rising from 27:1 in 1988 to 6.6:1 in 1992. Comparing the seropositive rate between first time and repeat female donors, the results showed an increase in rate from 0.11/1,000 in 1990 to 2.02/1,000 in 1992, but essentially the same rate in report donors. A majority of HIV seropositive blood donors (1990-1992) lived in Bangkok (42-49%) and among those who lived in one eastern province (Samut Prakan), 90-93% lived in the industrial areas. Of those who lived in Chon Buri Province, 73-88% lived in Sattaheep District, which is a naval base.

  17. Epidemiology of viral infections in the Swedish blood-donor population.

    PubMed

    Lindholm, A

    1994-12-01

    The epidemiological situation regarding blood-borne infections in Sweden is favourable and under very good control. The prevalence of infectious markers in the blood-donor population is low. In 1993 the frequencies of confirmed positive tests were three in 1,000,000 for human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1), one in 100,000 for hepatitis B virus (HBV) and three in 100,000 for hepatitis C virus (HCV). The safety of the blood supply is high and relies on strict donor selection, information on risky behaviour, and screening for syphilis, HBV and antibodies to hepatitis B core antigen, HCV, HIV-1, HIV-2 and human T-cell leukaemia virus type I and II (HTLV-I/-II). No donors with syphilis have been identified for many years. Screening for anti-HTLV-I/-II was introduced in February 1994 and no results have been reported yet. Donation is usually not permitted at the first visit, as the risk of transfusion-transmitted infections is greater in first-time donors. The risk of acquiring a transfusion-transmitted infection is low, but still a few cases of HBV and HCV infection occur each year among about 150,000 patients receiving transfusions. As far as we know, HIV infection has not been transmitted by blood components in Sweden since 1985.

  18. Epidemiology of Kidney Discard from Expanded Criteria Donors Undergoing Donation after Circulatory Death

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Sunita K.

    2016-01-01

    Background and objectives The broader use of combined expanded criteria donor and donation after circulatory death (ECD/DCD) kidneys may help expand the deceased donor pool. The purpose of our study was to evaluate discard rates of kidneys from ECD/DCD donors and factors associated with discard. Design, setting, participants, & measurements ECD/DCD donors and kidneys were evaluated from January 1, 2000 to March 31, 2011 using data from the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients. The kidney donor risk index was calculated for all ECD/DCD kidneys. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to determine risk factors for discarding both donor kidneys. The Kaplan–Meier product limit method and the log-rank statistic were used to assess the cumulative probability of graft failure for transplants from ECD/DCD donors where the mate kidney was discarded versus both kidneys were used. Results There were 896 ECD/DCD donors comprising 1792 kidneys. Both kidneys were discarded in 44.5% of donors, whereas 51.0% of all available kidneys were discarded. The kidney donor risk index scores were higher among donors of discarded versus transplanted kidneys (median, 1.82; interquartile range, 1.60, 2.07 versus median, 1.67; interquartile range, 1.49, 1.87, respectively; P<0.001); however, the distributions showed considerable overlap. The adjusted odds ratios for discard were higher among donors who were older, diabetic, AB blood type, and hepatitis C positive. The cumulative probabilities of total graft failure at 1, 3, and 5 years were 17.3%, 36.5%, and 55.4% versus 13.8%, 24.7%, and 40.5% among kidneys from donors where only one versus both kidneys were transplanted, respectively (log rank P=0.04). Conclusions Our study shows a significantly higher discard rate for ECD/DCD kidneys versus prior reports. Some discarded ECD/DCD kidneys may be acceptable for transplantation. Additional studies are needed to evaluate the factors that influence decision making around the

  19. Epidemiology of Kidney Discard from Expanded Criteria Donors Undergoing Donation after Circulatory Death.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sunita K; Kim, S Joseph

    2016-02-05

    The broader use of combined expanded criteria donor and donation after circulatory death (ECD/DCD) kidneys may help expand the deceased donor pool. The purpose of our study was to evaluate discard rates of kidneys from ECD/DCD donors and factors associated with discard. ECD/DCD donors and kidneys were evaluated from January 1, 2000 to March 31, 2011 using data from the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients. The kidney donor risk index was calculated for all ECD/DCD kidneys. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to determine risk factors for discarding both donor kidneys. The Kaplan-Meier product limit method and the log-rank statistic were used to assess the cumulative probability of graft failure for transplants from ECD/DCD donors where the mate kidney was discarded versus both kidneys were used. There were 896 ECD/DCD donors comprising 1792 kidneys. Both kidneys were discarded in 44.5% of donors, whereas 51.0% of all available kidneys were discarded. The kidney donor risk index scores were higher among donors of discarded versus transplanted kidneys (median, 1.82; interquartile range, 1.60, 2.07 versus median, 1.67; interquartile range, 1.49, 1.87, respectively; P<0.001); however, the distributions showed considerable overlap. The adjusted odds ratios for discard were higher among donors who were older, diabetic, AB blood type, and hepatitis C positive. The cumulative probabilities of total graft failure at 1, 3, and 5 years were 17.3%, 36.5%, and 55.4% versus 13.8%, 24.7%, and 40.5% among kidneys from donors where only one versus both kidneys were transplanted, respectively (log rank P=0.04). Our study shows a significantly higher discard rate for ECD/DCD kidneys versus prior reports. Some discarded ECD/DCD kidneys may be acceptable for transplantation. Additional studies are needed to evaluate the factors that influence decision making around the use of ECD/DCD kidneys. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  20. Differences in social representation of blood donation between donors and non-donors: an empirical study.

    PubMed

    Guarnaccia, Cinzia; Giannone, Francesca; Falgares, Giorgio; Caligaris, Aldo Ozino; Sales-Wuillemin, Edith

    2015-11-04

    Both donors and non-donors have a positive image of blood donation, so donors and non-donors do not differ regarding their views on donation but do differ in converting their opinion into an active deed of donation. Several studies have identified altruism and empathy as the main factors underlying blood donation. However, a mixture of various motivational factors mould the complex behaviour of donation. This paper presents an exploratory study on differences of social representations of blood donation between blood donors and non-donors, in order to understand the reasons that bring someone to take the decision to become a blood donor. Participants filled in the Adapted Self-Report Altruism Scale, Toronto Empathy Questionnaire and answered a test of verbal association. Descriptive and correlation analyses were carried out on quantitative data, while a prototypic analysis was used for qualitative data. The study was carried out on a convenience sample of 786 individuals, 583 donors (mean age: 35.40 years, SD: 13.01 years; 39.3% female) and 203 non-donors (mean age: 35.10 years, SD: 13.30 years; 67.5% female). Social representations of donors seem to be more complex and articulated than those of non-donors. The terms that appear to be central were more specific in donors (life, needle, blood, help, altruism were the words most associated by non-donors; life, aid, altruism, solidarity, health, love, gift, generosity, voluntary, control, needed, useful, needle were the words most associated by donors). Furthermore, non-donors associated a larger number of terms referring to negative aspects of blood donation. Aspects related to training and the accuracy of any information on blood donation seem to be important in the decision to become a donor and stabilise the behaviour of donation over time, thus ensuring the highest levels of quality and safety in blood establishments.

  1. Differences in social representation of blood donation between donors and non-donors: an empirical study

    PubMed Central

    Guarnaccia, Cinzia; Giannone, Francesca; Falgares, Giorgio; Caligaris, Aldo Ozino; Sales-Wuillemin, Edith

    2016-01-01

    Background Both donors and non-donors have a positive image of blood donation, so donors and non-donors do not differ regarding their views on donation but do differ in converting their opinion into an active deed of donation. Several studies have identified altruism and empathy as the main factors underlying blood donation. However, a mixture of various motivational factors mould the complex behaviour of donation. This paper presents an exploratory study on differences of social representations of blood donation between blood donors and non-donors, in order to understand the reasons that bring someone to take the decision to become a blood donor. Materials and methods Participants filled in the Adapted Self-Report Altruism Scale, Toronto Empathy Questionnaire and answered a test of verbal association. Descriptive and correlation analyses were carried out on quantitative data, while a prototypic analysis was used for qualitative data. Results The study was carried out on a convenience sample of 786 individuals, 583 donors (mean age: 35.40 years, SD: 13.01 years; 39.3% female) and 203 non-donors (mean age: 35.10 years, SD: 13.30 years; 67.5% female). Social representations of donors seem to be more complex and articulated than those of non-donors. The terms that appear to be central were more specific in donors (life, needle, blood, help, altruism were the words most associated by non-donors; life, aid, altruism, solidarity, health, love, gift, generosity, voluntary, control, needed, useful, needle were the words most associated by donors). Furthermore, non-donors associated a larger number of terms referring to negative aspects of blood donation. Discussion Aspects related to training and the accuracy of any information on blood donation seem to be important in the decision to become a donor and stabilise the behaviour of donation over time, thus ensuring the highest levels of quality and safety in blood establishments. PMID:26674814

  2. Iron deficiency in blood donors: a national cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Salvin, Hannah E; Pasricha, Sant-Rayn; Marks, Denese C; Speedy, Joanna

    2014-10-01

    Iron deficiency (ID) is an important consequence of blood donation. The epidemiology of this problem in the blood donor population was therefore studied to enable appropriate targeting of potential solutions to donor ID. A nationally representative, cluster-based cross-sectional study of Australian blood donors was performed. Donors were eligible for inclusion if they fulfilled criteria for blood donation or were deferred due to low or falling hemoglobin. Ferritin was measured and demographic and donation data were collected. A total of 3094 blood donors were recruited, of which samples were collected from 3049 donors; 1873 had exclusively donated whole blood (WB only), 242 had exclusively made apheresis donations, and 530 had not donated ("new" donors) in the previous 24 months. The prevalence of ID in new female donors was 12.0% compared with 1.3% in males. The prevalence of ID in female WB-only donors was 26.4%; it increased with donation frequency and decreased with age. The prevalence in male WB-only donors was 6.3% with no evident change with age or donation frequency. The prevalence of ID in apheresis-only donors (females 6.3%; males 2.2%) did not significantly exceed that of new donors nor did it change with donation frequency. Importantly, the risk of ID could not be satisfactorily predicted in an individual donor by his or her anemia status or with predictive modeling incorporating demographic and donation data. ID is especially prevalent in female, premenopausal, frequent WB donors. Strategies to combat ID should be implemented, specifically targeting this group. © 2014 The Australian Red Cross Blood Service. Transfusion © 2014 AABB.

  3. Brain death: epidemiology and quality control of solid organ donor generation.

    PubMed

    Mizraji, R; Pérez, S; Alvarez, I

    2004-01-01

    Successful solid organ transplant programs need effective organ procurement systems. Evaluating and maintaining the quality of an organ procurement system requires multilevel institutional coordination as well as reliable information regarding potential donors. The objective of this study was to analyze the potential to generate adult solid organ donors at a countrywide level as well as at individual hospital levels in Uruguay from 2000 to 2002. The analyzed factors included: encephalic deaths (brain deaths) officially registered by the National Bank of Organs and Tissues (BNOT), the distribution of these individuals among the intensive care units (ICUs) located at various hospitals, the number of Real Donors at each hospital, and the relation between the brain deaths and the number of ICU beds equipped with artificial respirators. The Uruguayan solid organ donation rate is relatively high among Latin American Countries, but low in relation to developed countries. The conversion of potential donors to actual donors is similar to that seen in developed countries. However, the registered incidence of brain deaths in relation to the number of ICU beds is surprisingly below the recognized standard figure. To approach the reasons for this difference, efficient quality control mechanisms are needed in the various ICUs as well as comprehensive medical case history reviews of all patient records.

  4. Donor Retention in Online Crowdfunding Communities: A Case Study of DonorsChoose.org

    PubMed Central

    Althoff, Tim; Leskovec, Jure

    2016-01-01

    Online crowdfunding platforms like DonorsChoose.org and Kick-starter allow specific projects to get funded by targeted contributions from a large number of people. Critical for the success of crowdfunding communities is recruitment and continued engagement of donors. With donor attrition rates above 70%, a significant challenge for online crowdfunding platforms as well as traditional offline non-profit organizations is the problem of donor retention. We present a large-scale study of millions of donors and donations on DonorsChoose.org, a crowdfunding platform for education projects. Studying an online crowdfunding platform allows for an unprecedented detailed view of how people direct their donations. We explore various factors impacting donor retention which allows us to identify different groups of donors and quantify their propensity to return for subsequent donations. We find that donors are more likely to return if they had a positive interaction with the receiver of the donation. We also show that this includes appropriate and timely recognition of their support as well as detailed communication of their impact. Finally, we discuss how our findings could inform steps to improve donor retention in crowdfunding communities and non-profit organizations. PMID:27077139

  5. Donor Retention in Online Crowdfunding Communities: A Case Study of DonorsChoose.org.

    PubMed

    Althoff, Tim; Leskovec, Jure

    2015-05-01

    Online crowdfunding platforms like DonorsChoose.org and Kick-starter allow specific projects to get funded by targeted contributions from a large number of people. Critical for the success of crowdfunding communities is recruitment and continued engagement of donors. With donor attrition rates above 70%, a significant challenge for online crowdfunding platforms as well as traditional offline non-profit organizations is the problem of donor retention. We present a large-scale study of millions of donors and donations on DonorsChoose.org, a crowdfunding platform for education projects. Studying an online crowdfunding platform allows for an unprecedented detailed view of how people direct their donations. We explore various factors impacting donor retention which allows us to identify different groups of donors and quantify their propensity to return for subsequent donations. We find that donors are more likely to return if they had a positive interaction with the receiver of the donation. We also show that this includes appropriate and timely recognition of their support as well as detailed communication of their impact. Finally, we discuss how our findings could inform steps to improve donor retention in crowdfunding communities and non-profit organizations.

  6. Epidemiologic studies of microwave effects

    SciTech Connect

    Silverman, C.

    1980-01-01

    Presented is a selective review of human epidemiological studies and related information concerning biological and health effects of microwave (MW) radiation. Two unpublished studies of MW effects are discussed: a study of U.S. Navy personnel occupationally exposed to radar, and a study of U.S. Embassy personnel in Moscow. MW effects in the following categories are discussed: ocular effects, nervous and behavioral effects, congenital anomalies, and cancer. Areas for future research are outlined.

  7. The Effect of Donor Age on Corneal Transplantation Outcome: Results of the Cornea Donor Study

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    patients now have evidence that corneas comparable in quality to those used in this study from donors through age 75 years are suitable for transplantation. PMID:18387407

  8. Do affective attitudes predict organ donor registration? A prospective study.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, Lee; O'Carroll, Ronan E

    2014-10-01

    This study assessed whether people's affective attitudes predicted organ donor registration at a later time. People who were not registered as an organ donor prior to completing the study (N = 150) first rated their affective attitudes towards organ donation. We then measured whether they clicked on a hyperlink to register as an organ donor. Believing that the body should be kept whole for burial (bodily integrity) was the only affective attitude to predict this organ donation behaviour. Future campaigns should target this concern in order to increase organ donor registration and the availability of donor organs.

  9. Liver regeneration after living donor transplantation: adult-to-adult living donor liver transplantation cohort study.

    PubMed

    Olthoff, Kim M; Emond, Jean C; Shearon, Tempie H; Everson, Greg; Baker, Talia B; Fisher, Robert A; Freise, Chris E; Gillespie, Brenda W; Everhart, James E

    2015-01-01

    Adult-to-adult living donors and recipients were studied to characterize patterns of liver growth and identify associated factors in a multicenter study. Three hundred and fifty donors and 353 recipients in the Adult-to-Adult Living Donor Liver Transplantation Cohort Study (A2ALL) receiving transplants between March 2003 and February 2010 were included. Potential predictors of 3-month liver volume included total and standard liver volumes (TLV and SLV), Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score (in recipients), the remnant and graft size, remnant-to-donor and graft-to-recipient weight ratios (RDWR and GRWR), remnant/TLV, and graft/SLV. Among donors, 3-month absolute growth was 676 ± 251 g (mean ± SD), and percentage reconstitution was 80% ± 13%. Among recipients, GRWR was 1.3% ± 0.4% (8 < 0.8%). Graft weight was 60% ± 13% of SLV. Three-month absolute growth was 549 ± 267 g, and percentage reconstitution was 93% ± 18%. Predictors of greater 3-month liver volume included larger patient size (donors and recipients), larger graft volume (recipients), and larger TLV (donors). Donors with the smallest remnant/TLV ratios had larger than expected growth but also had higher postoperative bilirubin and international normalized ratio at 7 and 30 days. In a combined donor-recipient analysis, donors had smaller 3-month liver volumes than recipients adjusted for patient size, remnant or graft volume, and TLV or SLV (P = 0.004). Recipient graft failure in the first 90 days was predicted by poor graft function at day 7 (HR = 4.50, P = 0.001) but not by GRWR or graft fraction (P > 0.90 for each). Both donors and recipients had rapid yet incomplete restoration of tissue mass in the first 3 months, and this confirmed previous reports. Recipients achieved a greater percentage of expected total volume. Patient size and recipient graft volume significantly influenced 3-month volumes. Importantly, donor liver volume is a

  10. Lung donor treatment protocol in brain dead-donors: A multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Miñambres, Eduardo; Pérez-Villares, Jose Miguel; Chico-Fernández, Mario; Zabalegui, Arturo; Dueñas-Jurado, Jose María; Misis, Maite; Mosteiro, Fernando; Rodriguez-Caravaca, Gil; Coll, Elisabeth

    2015-06-01

    The shortage of lung donors for transplantation is the main limitation among patients awaiting this type of surgery. We previously demonstrated that an intensive lung donor-treatment protocol succeeded in increasing the lung procurement rate. We aimed to validate our protocol for centers with or without lung transplant programs. A quasi-experimental study was performed to compare lung donor rate before (historical group, 2010 to 2012) and after (prospective group, 2013) the application of a lung management protocol for donors after brain death (DBDs) in six Spanish hospitals. Lung donor selection criteria remained unchanged in both periods. Outcome measures for lung recipients were early survival and primary graft dysfunction (PGD) rates. A total of 618 DBDs were included: 453 in the control period and 165 in the protocol period. Donor baseline characteristics were similar in both periods. Lung donation rate in the prospective group was 27.3%, more than twice that of the historical group (13%; p < 0.001). The number of lungs retrieved, grafts transplanted, and transplants performed more than doubled over the study period. No differences in early recipients' survival between groups were observed (87.6% vs. 84.5%; p = 0.733) nor in the rate of PGD. Implementing our intensive lung donor-treatment protocol increases lung procurement rates. This allows more lung transplants to be performed without detriment to either early survival or PGD rate. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Bias in occupational epidemiology studies

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, Neil; Checkoway, Harvey; Kriebel, David

    2007-01-01

    The design of occupational epidemiology studies should be based on the need to minimise random and systematic error. The latter is the focus of this paper, and includes selection bias, information bias and confounding. Selection bias can be minimised by obtaining a high response rate (and by appropriate selection of the control group in a case‐control study). In general, it is important to ensure that information bias is minimised and is also non‐differential (for example, that the misclassification of exposure is not related to disease status) by collecting data in a standardised manner. A major concern in occupational epidemiology studies usually relates to confounding, because exposure has not been randomly allocated, and the groups under study may therefore have different baseline disease risks. For each of these types of bias, the goal should be to avoid the bias by appropriate study design and/or appropriate control in the analysis. However, it is also important to attempt to assess the likely direction and strength of biases that cannot be avoided or controlled. PMID:17053019

  12. Heart transplantation using allografts from older donors: Multicenter study results.

    PubMed

    Roig, Eulàlia; Almenar, Luís; Crespo-Leiro, Marisa; Segovia, Javier; Mirabet, Sònia; Delgado, Juan; Pérez-Villa, Felix; Luís Lambert, Jose; Teresa Blasco, M; Muñiz, Javier

    2015-06-01

    The lengthy waiting time for heart transplantation is associated with high mortality. To increase the number of donors, new strategies have emerged, including the use of hearts from donors ≥50 years old. However, this practice remains controversial. The aim of this study was to evaluate outcomes of patients receiving heart transplants from older donors. We retrospectively analyzed 2,102 consecutive heart transplants in 8 Spanish hospitals from 1998 to 2010. Acute and overall mortality were compared in patients with grafts from donors ≥50 years old versus grafts from younger donors. There were 1,758 (84%) transplanted grafts from donors < 50 years old (Group I) and 344 (16%) from donors ≥50 years old (Group II). Group I had more male donors than Group II (71% vs. 57%, p = 0.0001). The incidence of cardiovascular risk factors was higher in older donors. There were no differences in acute mortality or acute rejection episodes between the 2 groups. Global mortality was higher in Group II (rate ratio, 1.40; 95% confidence interval, 1.18-1.67; p = 0.001) than in Group I. After adjusting for donor cause of death, donor smoking history, recipient age, induction therapy, and cyclosporine therapy, the differences lost significance. Group II had a higher incidence of coronary allograft vasculopathy at 5 years (rate ratio, 1.67; 95% confidence interval, 1.22-2.27; p = 0.001). There were no differences in acute and overall mortality after adjusting for confounding factors. However, there was a midterm increased risk of coronary allograft vasculopathy with the use of older donors. Careful selection of recipients and close monitoring of coronary allograft vasculopathy are warranted in these patients. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Snowboard traumatology: an epidemiological study.

    PubMed

    Pigozzi, F; Santori, N; Di Salvo, V; Parisi, A; Di-Luigi, L

    1997-06-01

    In the past 10 years, snowboarding has become a popular winter sport among young people, and the number of accidents has increased proportionately. The incidence of traumas from snowboarding is shown to be 4 to 6 for every 1000 medical examinations, which is similar to that of downhill skiing. However, other important statistical differences exist between the two sports. This study of 106 snowboarding-related injury cases analyzes the epidemiology of these injuries in Italy. Results found that 45.1% of injuries are located in the upper limbs and that significant advantages are obtained with the introduction of guards to protect the upper limbs during descent. Serious ligament injuries to the knee are more rare in snowboarding than in downhill skiing. In both sports, injuries are more common with rigid boots, which lead to a higher incidence of injury to the upper limbs. Finally, a high percentage of injury to beginners was found in this study. Training courses for those who are considering taking up the sport of snowboarding could significantly lower their risk of trauma.

  14. Cardiovascular disease in kidney donors: matched cohort study.

    PubMed

    Garg, Amit X; Meirambayeva, Aizhan; Huang, Anjie; Kim, Joseph; Prasad, G V Ramesh; Knoll, Greg; Boudville, Neil; Lok, Charmaine; McFarlane, Philip; Karpinski, Martin; Storsley, Leroy; Klarenbach, Scott; Lam, Ngan; Thomas, Sonia M; Dipchand, Christine; Reese, Peter; Doshi, Mona; Gibney, Eric; Taub, Ken; Young, Ann

    2012-03-01

    To determine whether people who donate a kidney have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Retrospective population based matched cohort study. All people who were carefully selected to become a living kidney donor in the province of Ontario, Canada, between 1992 and 2009. The information in donor charts was manually reviewed and linked to provincial healthcare databases. Matched non-donors were selected from the healthiest segment of the general population. A total of 2028 donors and 20,280 matched non-donors were followed for a median of 6.5 years (maximum 17.7 years). Median age was 43 at the time of donation (interquartile range 34-50) and 50 at the time of follow-up (42-58). The primary outcome was a composite of time to death or first major cardiovascular event. The secondary outcome was time to first major cardiovascular event censored for death. The risk of the primary outcome of death and major cardiovascular events was lower in donors than in non-donors (2.8 v 4.1 events per 1000 person years; hazard ratio 0.66, 95% confidence interval 0.48 to 0.90). The risk of major cardiovascular events censored for death was no different in donors than in non-donors (1.7 v 2.0 events per 1000 person years; 0.85, 0.57 to 1.27). Results were similar in all sensitivity analyses. Older age and lower income were associated with a higher risk of death and major cardiovascular events in both donors and non-donors when each group was analysed separately. The risk of major cardiovascular events in donors is no higher in the first decade after kidney donation compared with a similarly healthy segment of the general population. While we will continue to follow people in this study, these interim results add to the evidence base supporting the safety of the practice among carefully selected donors.

  15. Iron Deficiency in Blood Donors: The REDS-II Donor Iron Status Evaluation (RISE) Study

    PubMed Central

    Cable, Ritchard G.; Glynn, Simone A.; Kiss, Joseph E.; Mast, Alan E.; Steele, Whitney R.; Murphy, Edward L.; Wright, David J.; Sacher, Ronald A.; Gottschall, Jerry L.; Tobler, Leslie H.; Simon, Toby L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Blood donors are at risk of iron deficiency. We evaluated the effects of blood donation intensity on iron and hemoglobin in a prospective study. Methods Four cohorts of frequent and first time or reactivated blood donors (no donation in 2 years), female and male, totaling 2425 were characterized and followed as they donated blood frequently. At enrollment and the final visit, ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), and hemoglobin were determined. Models to predict iron deficiency and hemoglobin deferral were developed. Iron depletion was defined at two levels: Iron Deficient Erythropoiesis (IDE) [log (soluble transferrin receptor/ferritin ≥ 2.07)] and Absent Iron Stores (AIS) (ferritin < 12 ng/mL). Results Among returning female first time/reactivated donors, 20% and 51% had AIS and IDE at their final visit, respectively; corresponding proportions for males were 8% and 20%. Among female frequent donors who returned, 27% and 62% had AIS and IDE, respectively, while corresponding proportions for males were 18% and 47%. Predictors of IDE and/or AIS included a higher frequency of blood donation in the last 2 years, a shorter interdonation interval, and being female and young; conversely, taking iron supplements reduced the risk of iron depletion. Predictors of hemoglobin deferral included female gender, Black race and a shorter interdonation interval. Conclusions There is a high prevalence of iron depletion in frequent blood donors. Increasing the interdonation interval would reduce the prevalence of iron depletion and hemoglobin deferral. Alternatively, replacement with iron supplements may allow frequent donation without the adverse outcome of iron depletion. PMID:22023513

  16. Iron deficiency in blood donors: the REDS-II Donor Iron Status Evaluation (RISE) study.

    PubMed

    Cable, Ritchard G; Glynn, Simone A; Kiss, Joseph E; Mast, Alan E; Steele, Whitney R; Murphy, Edward L; Wright, David J; Sacher, Ronald A; Gottschall, Jerry L; Tobler, Leslie H; Simon, Toby L

    2012-04-01

    Blood donors are at risk of iron deficiency. We evaluated the effects of blood donation intensity on iron and hemoglobin (Hb) in a prospective study. Four cohorts of frequent and first-time or reactivated (FT/RA) blood donors (no donation in 2 years), female and male, totaling 2425, were characterized and followed as they donated blood frequently. At enrollment and the final visit, ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), and Hb were determined. Models to predict iron deficiency and Hb deferral were developed. Iron depletion was defined at two levels: iron deficiency erythropoiesis (IDE) [log(sTfR/ferritin) ≥ 2.07] and absent iron stores (AIS; ferritin < 12 ng/mL). Among returning female FT and RA donors, 20 and 51% had AIS and IDE at their final visit, respectively; corresponding proportions for males were 8 and 20%. Among female frequent donors who returned, 27 and 62% had AIS and IDE, respectively, while corresponding proportions for males were 18 and 47%. Predictors of IDE and/or AIS included a higher frequency of blood donation in the past 2 years, a shorter interdonation interval, and being female and young; conversely, taking iron supplements reduced the risk of iron depletion. Predictors of Hb deferral included female sex, black race, and a shorter interdonation interval. There is a high prevalence of iron depletion in frequent blood donors. Increasing the interdonation interval would reduce the prevalence of iron depletion and Hb deferral. Alternatively, replacement with iron supplements may allow frequent donation without the adverse outcome of iron depletion. © 2011 American Association of Blood Banks.

  17. "Just" blood donors? A study on the multi-affiliations of blood donors.

    PubMed

    Alfieri, Sara; Pozzi, Maura; Marta, Elena; Saturni, Vincenzo; Aresi, Giovanni; Guiddi, Paolo

    2017-07-25

    The present work proposes to explore a phenomenon well known in the world of blood donation, but little explored by literature: multi-affiliations. By that term, in this paper we mean blood donors' engagement in multiple associations of various natures (donation, recreation, sports, etc.) simultaneously. The first objective proposes to explore the phenomenon of multi-affiliations in descriptive terms; the second is to look into the differences-in terms of motivations, family-work-volunteerism reconciliation, life satisfaction, and membership satisfaction-between those who "only" carry out blood donation activity and those who instead participate in multiple associative realities concurrently. Participating in the research were 2674 donors from the Italian Association of Blood Donors (AVIS) (age range 18-65; 66.6% male) to which a self-report questionnaire was administered in the waiting rooms of numerous blood donation centers. Regarding the first objective, it emerged that only 35.9% of the participants "only" donate blood, while a good 64.1% is engaged also in other associations. Regarding the second objective, statistically significant differences emerge regarding many of the variables considered: social, values, ego-protection, and career motivation; capacity to reconcile family-volunteering and work-volunteering; life satisfaction; and membership satisfaction. The study offers precious information to the agencies that handle recruiting and retaining of donors. The agencies in fact can take away information on how to improve the multi-affiliations of their donors, an aspect that can facilitate their long-term retention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Frequency of Mia antigen: A pilot study among blood donors

    PubMed Central

    Makroo, Raj Nath; Bhatia, Aakanksha; Chowdhry, Mohit; Rosamma, N.L.; Karna, Prashant

    2016-01-01

    The Miltenberger (Mi) classes represent a group of phenotypes for red cells that carry low frequency antigens associated with the MNSs blood group system. This pilot study was aimed at determining the Mia antigen positivity in the blood donor population in a tertiary care hospital in New Delhi, India. The study was performed between June to August 2014 on eligible blood donors willing to participate. Antigen typing was performed using monoclonal anti-Mia antiserum by tube technique. Only one of the 1000 blood donors (0.1%) tested was found to be Mia antigen positive. The Mia antigen can, therefore, be considered as being rare in the Indian blood donor population. PMID:27488007

  19. Yersinia enterocolitica: Epidemiological Studies and Outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Atiqur; Bonny, Tania S.; Stonsaovapak, Siriporn; Ananchaipattana, Chiraporn

    2011-01-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica is the most common bacteriological cause of gastrointestinal disease in many developed and developing countries. Although contaminated food is the main source of human infection due to Y. enterocolitica, animal reservoir and contaminated environment are also considered as other possible infection sources for human in epidemiological studies. Molecular based epidemiological studies are found to be more efficient in investigating the occurrence of human pathogenic Y. enterocolitica in natural samples, in addition to conventional culture based studies. PMID:22567324

  20. [Epidemiological surveillance of blood donors and residual risk of blood-borne infections in France, 2001 to 2003].

    PubMed

    Pillonel, J; Le Marrec, N; Girault, A; David, D; Laperche, S

    2005-07-01

    The national surveillance of French blood donors is performed by the Institut de Veille Sanitaire and the National Reference Center for Hepatitis B and C in transfusion in collaboration with the Etablissement Français du Sang and the Army blood center. The main objectives of this surveillance are to evaluate trends in prevalence and incidence rates of blood-borne infections in the blood donor population, to identify routes of contamination and to assess residual risk. This exhaustive surveillance also contributes to evaluate the blood donor selection and the impact of measures taken to prevent infections in the general population. The analyse of the database of all blood donations obtained from 2001 to 2003 has shown that prevalence rates were stable in the study period (0.60 per 10(4) donors for HIV, 8.0 per 10(4) donors for HCV, 1.8 per 10(4) first-time donors for HBs Ag and 0.56 per 10(4) donors for HTLV), The incidence rate of HIV and HBV (1 per 10(5) person-years) was three-times higher than for HCV (0.35 per 10(5) person-years) and eleven times higher than for HTLV (0.09 per 10(5) person-years). At least, the residual risk of transfusion-transmitted viral infections is very low: 1/3,150,000 donations for HIV, 1/10,000,000 donations for HCV and 1/640,000 donations for HBV. The yield of Nucleic Acid Testing (NAT) is limited since only 2 donations for HIV and 3 for HCV which were negative for antibodies were discarded thank to the NAT.

  1. Transfusion-transmitted malaria in endemic zone: epidemiological profile of blood donors at the Fundação HEMOAM and use of rapid diagnostic tests for malaria screening in Manaus.

    PubMed

    Torres, Kátia Luz; Dos Santos Moresco, Mônica Nascimento; Sales, Luciane Rodrigues; da Silva Abranches, Josilene; Araújo Alexandre, Márcia Almeida; Malheiro, Adriana

    2014-01-01

    With 99% of the cases in Brazil, malaria is endemic in the Amazon region. Transfusion-transmitted malaria, an important risk in endemic areas, has been reported. The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiological profile of blood donor candidates at the Fundação de Hematologia e Hemoterapia do Amazonas and evaluate the efficacy of rapid diagnostic tests used for malaria screening of blood donors within endemic regions. Between May 2008 and May 2009, 407 blood donor candidates were selected and grouped based on the Malaria Annual Parasite Index of the geographic area in which they originated: Group 1 (eligible donors - n=265) originated from areas of low to medium risk of exposure to malaria and Group 2 (ineligible donors - n=142) originated from high-risk areas. All samples were concurrently screened using two immunochromatic antigen-based rapid tests and by the thick smear test. All samples were negative by all three methods. The demographic profile indicated that the majority of participants were male, ages ranged from 18 to 39 years and less than half the candidates had only elementary schooling. Two issues need to be addressed: one is the ineligibility of donors and its impact on blood donor centers as, in this study, 22.7% of the donors were considered ineligible. The other is the limited sensitivity of the parasitological tests used, allowing a risk of false-negative results. New methods are needed to ensure transfusion safety without rejecting potential donors, which would ensure safe transfusion without harming the blood supply. Copyright © 2014 Associação Brasileira de Hematologia, Hemoterapia e Terapia Celular. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  2. Donor versus no-donor comparison of newly diagnosed myeloma patients included in the HOVON-50 multiple myeloma study.

    PubMed

    Lokhorst, Henk M; van der Holt, Bronno; Cornelissen, Jan J; Kersten, Marie-José; van Oers, Marinus; Raymakers, Reinier; Minnema, Monique C; Zweegman, Sonja; Janssen, Jeroen J; Zijlmans, Mark; Bos, Gerard; Schaap, Nicolaas; Wittebol, Shulamiet; de Weerdt, Okke; Ammerlaan, Rianne; Sonneveld, Pieter

    2012-06-28

    To prospectively evaluate allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) for myeloma as part of first-line therapy, a donor versus no-donor analysis was performed of patients treated in the HOVON-50 study, a study that was originally designed to examine thalidomide combined with intensive therapy. Two hundred sixty patients having received an autologous-SCT fulfilled the criteria to be included, 138 patients without an HLA-identical sibling donor and 122 patients with a donor. After a median follow-up of 77 months, complete remission, progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival were not significantly different between the 2 groups. PFS at 6 years was 28% for patients with a donor versus 22% for patients without a donor (P = .19) and overall survival at 6 years from high-dose melphalan was 55%, irrespective of having a donor (P = .68). Cumulative incidence of nonrelapse mortality at 6 years after autologous-SCT was 16% in the donor group versus 3% in the no-donor group (P < .001). However, PFS was significantly prolonged in the 99 patients who actually proceeded to allo-SCT compared with the 115 patients who continued maintenance or received a second high-dose melphalan, but the difference did not translate into a prolonged survival benefit. These results do not support a general application of allo-SCT in all myeloma patients as part of first-line therapy.

  3. Intention of future donations: a study of donors versus non-donors.

    PubMed

    Martín-Santana, J D; Beerli-Palacio, A

    2013-04-01

    Recent years have seen the level of blood donation at a world level come to a standstill or even decline. This situation requires blood donation services to make efforts to increase donor recruitment and retention, as well as to increase the frequency of donations among current donors. In order to obtain good results, it is essential to understand the factors that affect intention to donate. To determine the explanatory power of a set of factors on intention to donate blood, as well as evaluating the ability of current donors to motivate others. A questionnaire was administered to a sample of 1015 Spanish individuals. Results indicate that (i) motivations and hindering factors have the greatest explanatory power on intention to donate, (ii) experience as a donor is the most explanatory factor on future intention and (iii) there are significant behavioural and sociodemographic differences between donors and non-donors. These findings suggest that it is necessary (i) to enhance the donor retention for maintaining the donation system using a personal and frequent communication with donors not only to remind them to schedule their next donation, but also to attract more donors; (ii) to recapture temporarily deferred donors, as they are less reluctant towards donation; (iii) to describe in detail how donation affects donors and clarify the importance of donation for society and (iv) to develop member get member programs in which current donors act as motivators amongst friends, coworkers and family. © 2012 The Authors. Transfusion Medicine © 2012 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  4. Study of iron stores in regular plateletpheresis donors.

    PubMed

    Page, E A; Coppock, J E; Harrison, J F

    2010-02-01

    Plateletpheresis donors will lose up to 100 mL of blood at each donation, leading to concern that they may become iron deficient, particularly if donating at the maximum allowed frequency under National Blood Service policy of every 2 weeks. The serum ferritin levels of 508 regular plateletpheresis donors and 101 non-donors were measured to indicate the level of their iron stores. About 33.9% (156/460) of platelet donors had depleted iron stores compared with 3.1% (3/97) non-donors. Results for male and post-menopausal female donors were similar with 36.2% (131/362) of males and 37.7% (20/53) of post-menopausal females showing iron depletion. There was clear correlation with donation frequency in males with 63.9% (46/72) of males donating at 2 weekly intervals found to be iron depleted. The percentage of iron depleted male subjects decreased as donation intervals increased. Correlation with lifetime donations of platelets was not demonstrated, although no donor who had given fewer than 14 blood and/or platelet donations was found to be iron depleted. In males there was a clear correlation between iron depletion and frequency of donation. There appeared to be no correlation with lifetime number of platelet donations. As a result of this study, we have advised that volunteers should not donate platelets more than 15 times per year, so that red cell loss is no more than the equivalent of three whole blood donations (1500 mL).

  5. Epidemiology of hepatitis B virus infection in first-time blood donors in the southwestern region of Goiás, central Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dos Anjos, Giulena Rosa Leite Cardoso; Martins, Regina Maria Bringel; Carneiro, Megmar Aparecida Dos Santos; Brunini, Sandra Maria; Teles, Sheila Araujo

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the epidemiology of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in populations from inner cities, especially in Central Brazil. Thus the objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of HBV infection, and to analyze the factors associated with HBV infection, in a population of first-time blood donors in the southwestern region of Goiás, Central Brazil. A total of 984 individuals were interviewed and gave blood samples to detect serological markers of HBV (HBsAg, anti-HBs, and anti-HBc) by enzyme linked immunosorbent assays. An overall prevalence of 6.9% was found for HBV, with constituent prevalence rates of 3.6% and 11.6%, in subjects classified as fit and unfit to donate blood according the epidemiological screening, respectively. Only three individuals were positive for anti-HBs alone, suggesting previous vaccination against HBV. The variables of prior blood transfusion (OR = 2.3), tattoo/piercing (OR = 2.1), illicit drug use (OR = 2.3), sex with a partner with hepatitis (OR = 14.7), and history of sexually transmitted diseases (OR = 2.9) were independently associated with HBV-positivity. These data suggested a low endemicity of hepatitis B in the studied population. The findings of low hepatitis B immunization coverage and the association of hepatitis B with risky behavior highlight that there is a need to intensify hepatitis B prevention programs in the southwest region of Goiás.

  6. Donor-Sperm Kids No Different from Their Peers: Study

    MedlinePlus

    ... study says. "For prospective parents, the decision to use donor sperm can seem like a step into the unknown," said study researcher David Amor, a professor and clinical geneticist at Murdoch Children's Research Institute in Parkville, Victoria. "Our results should provide ...

  7. Better the donor you know? A qualitative study of renal patients' views on 'altruistic' live-donor kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Phillippa K; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; de Salis, Isabel; Tomson, Charles; Owen-Smith, Amanda

    2016-02-01

    In the UK there is a short-fall between individuals requiring a renal transplant and kidneys available for transplantation. Non-directed 'altruistic' living kidney donation has emerged as a strategy for bridging this gap between supply and demand, with the number increasing each year. This study aimed to explore the views of potential recipients towards non-directed 'altruistic' live-donor kidney transplantation. Semi-structured interviews with 32 UK deceased-donor kidney transplant recipients were performed. Interviews explored willingness to consider directed and non-directed live-donor kidney transplants (LDKTs). Interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and transcripts were analysed using the constant comparison method described in Grounded Theory. For those not willing to accept a non-directed 'altruistic' LDKT, the following themes were identified: i) Prioritising other recipients above self; ii) Fear of acquiring an unknown donor's characteristics, and iii) Concern for the donor - unnecessary risk. For those willing to accept a non-directed 'altruistic' LDKT the following themes were identified: iv) Prioritising known above unknown persons, v) Belief that they are as deserving as other potential recipients, and vi) Advantages of a LDKT. Drawing on 'gift exchange theory', this study contributes to our understanding of the experience of the intended recipient of a gift. The anonymity of the donor-recipient appears to be seen as a benefit of non-directed 'altruistic' live-donor transplants, freeing recipients from the obligations of the gift. However, those who feel unworthy of the 'gifted transplant' are concerned about the donor and by the lack of opportunity for direct reciprocity. Highlighting the 'reciprocal benefits' reported by donors may allow individuals whose preference is a live-donor transplant to accept one if offered. These insights provide the transplant community with targets for intervention, through which the concerns of potential

  8. Twin Studies: A Unique Epidemiological Tool

    PubMed Central

    Sahu, Monalisha; Prasuna, Josyula G

    2016-01-01

    Twin studies are a special type of epidemiological studies designed to measure the contribution of genetics as opposed to the environment, to a given trait. Despite the facts that the classical twin studies are still being guided by assumptions made back in the 1920s and that the inherent limitation lies in the study design itself, the results suggested by earlier twin studies have often been confirmed by molecular genetic studies later. Use of twin registries and various innovative yet complex software packages such as the (SAS) and their extensions (e.g., SAS PROC GENMOD and SAS PROC PHREG) has increased the potential of this epidemiological tool toward contributing significantly to the field of genetics and other life sciences. PMID:27385869

  9. Epidemiological study of dental caries.

    PubMed

    Venugopal, T; Kulkarni, V S; Nerurker, R A; Damle, S G; Patnekar, P N

    1998-01-01

    A total of 2000 children (1-14 year age group) attending pediatric OPD, school clinic & well body clinic of Dr. R.N. Cooper Municipal Hospital & K.E.M Hospital, Mumbai were examined for caries prevalence and 35.6% had dental caries. Parental income was not shown to have any bearing on caries prevalence. Parental literacy, particularly maternal literacy was shown to influence caries prevalence in children. The prevalence was low in well-nourished children and in those taking vegetarian type of diet. Frequency of sweet consumption was shown to be associated with prevalence of dental caries. In 1-4 year age group it was noted that bottle fed children were more affected by dental caries. Tooth brush with paste was the commonest method used for cleaning their teeth in all age groups in our study. Caries prevalence was low in those children using tooth brush than in those using tooth powder. Those children who were using neem datun were found to be less affected with dental caries. Dental caries was also found to be low in those who rinsed their mouth with water after food.

  10. Examination of Different Exposure Metrics in an Epidemiological Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological studies of air pollution have traditionally relied upon measurements of ambient concentration from central-site monitoring stations as surrogates of population exposures. However, depending on the epidemiological study design, this approach may introduce exposure...

  11. Examination of Different Exposure Metrics in an Epidemiological Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological studies of air pollution have traditionally relied upon measurements of ambient concentration from central-site monitoring stations as surrogates of population exposures. However, depending on the epidemiological study design, this approach may introduce exposure...

  12. [Social inequality and epidemiological studies: a reflection].

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Maria Angela Fernandes; Latorre, Maria do Rosário Dias de Oliveira

    2012-09-01

    Social indicators are now indispensable in the list of variables of epidemiological studies, based on the fact that the determination of health complaints is complex and multidimensional. From this perspective, social inequality has gained prominence as an explanatory factor for the health conditions of populations. The scope of this article is to discuss the different concepts that underpin the selection of the indicators used in epidemiological studies and examine the psychosocial effects on human beings caused by social inequality. A literature review of epidemiological studies that used social inequality and social capital indicators was conducted for a better understanding of health problems, as well as an investigation in the fields of sociology and social psychology. The research revealed that there is some controversy surrounding the effect of social inequality on health, possibly because these indicators are predominantly based on income and individual consumption capacity. Likewise, social capital indicators at cognitive and structural levels are too limited to understand the dynamism of social relations. Accordingly, further studies are needed for the construction of social indicators capable of examining the complexity of modern societies.

  13. Epidemiology of hepatitis B virus infection in first-time blood donors in the southwestern region of Goiás, central Brazil

    PubMed Central

    dos Anjos, Giulena Rosa Leite Cardoso; Martins, Regina Maria Bringel; Carneiro, Megmar Aparecida dos Santos; Brunini, Sandra Maria; Teles, Sheila Araujo

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Little is known about the epidemiology of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in populations from inner cities, especially in Central Brazil. Thus the objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of HBV infection, and to analyze the factors associated with HBV infection, in a population of first-time blood donors in the southwestern region of Goiás, Central Brazil. Methods A total of 984 individuals were interviewed and gave blood samples to detect serological markers of HBV (HBsAg, anti-HBs, and anti-HBc) by enzyme linked immunosorbent assays. Results An overall prevalence of 6.9% was found for HBV, with constituent prevalence rates of 3.6% and 11.6%, in subjects classified as fit and unfit to donate blood according the epidemiological screening, respectively. Only three individuals were positive for anti-HBs alone, suggesting previous vaccination against HBV. The variables of prior blood transfusion (OR = 2.3), tattoo/piercing (OR = 2.1), illicit drug use (OR = 2.3), sex with a partner with hepatitis (OR = 14.7), and history of sexually transmitted diseases (OR = 2.9) were independently associated with HBV-positivity. These data suggested a low endemicity of hepatitis B in the studied population. Conclusion The findings of low hepatitis B immunization coverage and the association of hepatitis B with risky behavior highlight that there is a need to intensify hepatitis B prevention programs in the southwest region of Goiás. PMID:23284242

  14. A Multicenter Study: North American Islet Donor Score in Donor Pancreas Selection for Human Islet Isolation for Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    O’Gorman, Doug; Shapiro, A.M. James; Naziruddin, Bashoo; Takita, Morihito; Levy, Marlon F.; Posselt, Andrew M.; Szot, Gregory L.; Savari, Omid; Barbaro, Barbara; McGarrigle, James; Yeh, Chun Chieh; Oberholzer, Jose; Lei, Ji; Chen, Tao; Lian, Moh; Markmann, James F.; Alvarez, Alejandro; Linetsky, Elina; Ricordi, Camillo; Balamurugan, A. N.; Loganathan, Gopalakrishnan; Wilhelm, Joshua J.; Hering, Bernhard J.; Bottino, Rita; Trucco, Massimo; Liu, Chengyang; Min, Zaw; Li, Yanjing; Naji, Ali; Fernandez, Luis A.; Ziemelis, Martynas; Danobeitia, Juan S.; Millis, J. Michael; Witkowski, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Selection of an optimal donor pancreas is the first key task for successful islet isolation. We conducted a retrospective multicenter study in 11 centers in North America to develop an islet donor scoring system using donor variables. The data set consisting of 1,056 deceased donors was used for development of scoring system to predict islet isolation success (defined as post-purification islet yield >400,000 islet equivalents). With an aid of univariate logistic regression analyses, we developed North American Islet Donor Score (NAIDS) ranging 0 through 100 points. The c-index in the development cohort was 0.73 [95% confidence interval 0.70 - 0.76]. The success rate increased proportionally as NAIDS increased, from 6.8% success in NAIDS < 50 points to 53.7% success in NAIDS ≥ 80 points. We further validated NAIDS using a separate set of data consisting of 179 islet isolations. Comparable outcome of NAIDS was observed in the validation cohort. The NAIDS may be a useful tool for donor pancreas selection in the clinical practice. Apart from its utility in clinical decision-making, the NAIDS may also be used in research setting as a standardized measurement of pancreas quality. PMID:26922947

  15. Epidemiologic study of tumors in dinosaurs.

    PubMed

    Rothschild, B M; Tanke, D H; Helbling, M; Martin, L D

    2003-11-01

    Occasional reports in isolated fragments of dinosaur bones have suggested that tumors might represent a population phenomenon. Previous study of humans has demonstrated that vertebral radiology is a powerful diagnostic tool for population screening. The epidemiology of tumors in dinosaurs was here investigated by fluoroscopically screening dinosaur vertebrae for evidence of tumors. Computerized tomography (CT) and cross-sections were obtained where appropriate. Among more than 10,000 specimens x-rayed, tumors were only found in Cretaceous hadrosaurs (duck-billed dinosaurs). These included hemangiomas and metastatic cancer (previously identified in dinosaurs), desmoplastic fibroma, and osteoblastoma. The epidemiology of tumors in dinosaurs seems to reflect a familial pattern. A genetic propensity or environmental mutagens are suspected.

  16. ADHD in the Arab World: A Review of Epidemiologic Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farah, Lynn G.; Fayyad, John A.; Eapen, Valsamma; Cassir,Youmna; Salamoun, Mariana M.; Tabet, Caroline C.; Mneimneh, Zeina N.; Karam, Elie G.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Epidemiological studies on psychiatric disorders are quite rare in the Arab World. This article reviews epidemiological studies on ADHD in all the Arab countries. Method: All epidemiological studies on ADHD conducted from 1966 through th present were reviewed. Samples were drawn from the general community, primary care clinical…

  17. ADHD in the Arab World: A Review of Epidemiologic Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farah, Lynn G.; Fayyad, John A.; Eapen, Valsamma; Cassir,Youmna; Salamoun, Mariana M.; Tabet, Caroline C.; Mneimneh, Zeina N.; Karam, Elie G.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Epidemiological studies on psychiatric disorders are quite rare in the Arab World. This article reviews epidemiological studies on ADHD in all the Arab countries. Method: All epidemiological studies on ADHD conducted from 1966 through th present were reviewed. Samples were drawn from the general community, primary care clinical…

  18. Ethics of future disclosure of individual risk information in a genetic cohort study: a survey of donor preferences.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Kenji; Lie, Reidar K; Kita, Yoshikuni; Ueshima, Hirotsugu

    2008-01-01

    Although genetic epidemiologic research has added an element of individualization to epidemiologic research, there is neither agreement nor much discussion on whether donors of genetic samples should be offered an opportunity to receive individualized results regarding their genetic susceptibility to disease. Little is known regarding donors' preferences for future disclosure of individual results. The purpose of this study is to investigate the actual preferences of such donors with regard to receiving individual results, to explore the factors related to their decision, and then to discuss ethical issues regarding the disclosure of results. Participants (n = 1857) of an ongoing Japanese population-based genetic cohort study in Takashima, Shiga, in 2003, were asked at entry about their preferences with regard being recontacted by researchers in the future and whether they wanted to receive reports on their individual genetic results if genetic problems relevant to their health are discovered for which efficacious interventions might be available. Most of the donors wished to be recontacted and receive reports, but some did not want any reports. Those who were younger, former/current drinkers, or had at least 1 parent who had had cancer were more likely to want the results, while those who had at least 1 sibling with a medical history of cancer were less likely to want the results. We observed a high level of positive preference for future disclosure of individual genetic results, which is in line with the professional views on the ethics of this issue. A well-considered procedure for ascertaining donors' preferences for receiving the results of the research is required from an ethical perspective.

  19. Satellite remote sensing in epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Sorek-Hamer, Meytar; Just, Allan C; Kloog, Itai

    2016-04-01

    Particulate matter air pollution is a ubiquitous exposure linked with multiple adverse health outcomes for children and across the life course. The recent development of satellite-based remote-sensing models for air pollution enables the quantification of these risks and addresses many limitations of previous air pollution research strategies. We review the recent literature on the applications of satellite remote sensing in air quality research, with a focus on their use in epidemiological studies. Aerosol optical depth (AOD) is a focus of this review and a significant number of studies show that ground-level particulate matter can be estimated from columnar AOD. Satellite measurements have been found to be an important source of data for particulate matter model-based exposure estimates, and recently have been used in health studies to increase the spatial breadth and temporal resolution of these estimates. It is suggested that satellite-based models improve our understanding of the spatial characteristics of air quality. Although the adoption of satellite-based measures of air quality in health studies is in its infancy, it is rapidly growing. Nevertheless, further investigation is still needed in order to have a better understanding of the AOD contribution to these prediction models in order to use them with higher accuracy in epidemiological studies.

  20. Live liver donors' information needs: A qualitative study of practical implications for informed consent.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Elisa J; Mullee, Jack; Skaro, Anton; Baker, Talia

    2016-09-01

    As live donor liver transplantation is increasingly used to expand the donor pool, concerns remain regarding how best to obtain live liver donors' informed consent. This study assessed donors' information preferences and their perceptions of informed consent. Cognitive interviews were conducted with donors by telephone about how knowledge items in a new survey instrument were material to informed consent, between November 2011 and April 2012. Thematic analysis was used to analyze qualitative data until reaching saturation. Twenty-nine liver donors participated (85% participation). Donors commonly reported being unable to understand or retain much information disclosed during education. Donors preferred information about major donation risks, eg, death and minor risks that would likely affect their daily lives, eg, wound infection. Donors expressed less interest in information about their rights, confidentiality, or the medical procedure itself. Donors' preferences varied regarding statistical information. Many perceived the disclosure of risk information to be excessive, and rationalized risks they believed to be uncommon or not serious. Donors were disappointed by the brevity of the postdonation hospital stay. Our findings suggest that the complexity and volume of disclosed information during evaluation were difficult for donors to adequately comprehend. Donors' lack of appreciation for the seriousness of complications may undermine their ability to provide informed consent. Future research should develop effective methods of information delivery to enhance informed consent. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The changing donor landscape of health sector aid to Vietnam: a qualitative case study.

    PubMed

    Pallas, Sarah Wood; Khuat, Thi Hai Oanh; Le, Quang Duong; Ruger, Jennifer Prah

    2015-05-01

    The study objective was to identify how donors and government agencies in Vietnam responded to donor proliferation in health sector aid between 1995 and 2012. Interviews were conducted with key informants from donor agencies, central government, and civil society in Hanoi in 2012 (n = 34 interviews), identified through OECD Creditor Reporting System data, internet research, and snowball sampling. Interview transcripts were coded for key themes using the constant comparative method. Documentary materials were used in triangulation and validation of key informant accounts. The study identified a timeline of key events and key themes. The number of donors providing health sector aid to Vietnam increased sharply during the late 1990s and early 2000s, then leveled off and declined between 2008 and 2012. Reasons for donor entry included Vietnam's health needs, perceptions of health as less politically sensitive, and donor interests in facilitating market access. Reasons for donor withdrawal included Vietnam's achievement of middle-income status, the global financial crisis, and donors' shifting global priorities. Key themes included high competition among donors, strategic actions by government to increase its control over aid, and the multiplicity of government units involved with health sector aid. The study concludes that central government and donor agencies in Vietnam responded to donor proliferation in health sector aid by endorsing aid effectiveness policies but implementing these policies inconsistently in practice. Whereas previous literature has emphasized donor proliferation's transaction costs, this study finds that the benefits of a large number of less coordinated donors may outweigh the increased administrative costs under certain conditions. In Vietnam, these conditions included relatively high capacity within government, low government dependence on aid, and government interest in receiving diverse donor recommendations. Vietnam's experience of donor

  2. Assessment of donor/recipient ratios in permethrin transfer studies with Reticulitermes virginicus Banks

    Treesearch

    T. G. Shelton

    2012-01-01

    Crowding of termites may influence observed recipient mortality in donor-recipient toxicant transfer studies. It was hypothesized that if crowding were important, any termiticide (particularly repellent termiticides, which were not thought to transfer) could be transferred by contact among termites when the donor complement was sufficient. Termiticide transfer donor-...

  3. Mental and physical quality of life in actual living liver donors versus potential living liver donors: a prospective, controlled, multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Karl-Heinz; Kroencke, Sylvia; Beckmann, Mingo; Nadalin, Silvio; Paul, Andreas; Fischer, Lutz; Nashan, Björn; Senf, Wolfgang; Erim, Yesim

    2009-12-01

    In a quasi-experimental design, we investigated the quality of life (QOL) in actual liver donors (n = 43) and potential liver donors (n = 33) before and 3 months after liver transplantation. This is the first study in this field combining a prospective design with an adequate control group. Potential donors served as a control group because they also had a relative in need of a liver transplant and were as emotionally involved with the recipient as actual donors, but they were not subjected to the donor operation. Groups did not differ in age, gender, marital status, donor-recipient relationship, urgency of transplantation, or recipient group (adult versus child). Actual donors showed decreased physical QOL, whereas potential donors were not affected. However, for both groups, a decrease in anxiety was found. Furthermore, actual donors showed a better mental QOL postoperatively than potential donors. The recipients of these 2 groups did not differ with respect to postoperative complications. Furthermore, the groups did not report a different caregiver burden, but actual donors showed higher self-esteem. Because of the surgery, the worsening of physical symptoms in actual donors was expected. It is remarkable, however, that although actual donors still showed a limited physical QOL 3 months after the operation, in both groups, a similar reduction in anxiety could be observed, and actual donors even demonstrated a better mental QOL postoperatively than potential donors. The latter might be due to a psychological benefit that actual donors derived from the fact that they were able to help the recipients.

  4. Urolithiasis in Italy: an epidemiological study.

    PubMed

    Prezioso, Domenico; Illiano, Ester; Piccinocchi, Gaetano; Cricelli, Claudio; Piccinocchi, Roberto; Saita, Alberto; Micheli, Carla; Trinchieri, Alberto

    2014-06-30

    Worldwide the urolithiasis is the third most frequent urological disease affecting both males and females. In literature there are not recent Italian epidemiological data about stone disease. The objective of this study is the evaluation of current epidemiology of urolithiasis in Italy using the Health Search/CSD Longitudinal Patient Database (HS) database. An observational, descriptive, retrospective trial was conducted. Inclusion criteria were: family physician- assisted Italian living population member of HS database within 31 December 2012, both genders, age over 17 years, at least two years of clinical history recorded from the beginning the trial. Data were collected by HS database and elaborated by its software Millewin®. In Italy prevalence of urolithiasis in 2012 was 4.14%, it was higher in males than in females (4.53% versus 3.78%) with a positive relation with increasing age. The highest prevalence rate of urolithiasis was reported in the region Campania (6.08%). The general incidence was 2.23 * 1000, with the highest incidence in the region Sicilia (3.15 * 1000). Incidence was higher in group age 65-74 years (3.18 * 1000). In Italy the incidence and prevalence of urolithiasis is increasing with particular distribution in relation to gender, age and regional position.

  5. Emotional and Financial Experiences of Kidney Donors over the Past 50 Years: The RELIVE Study.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Cheryl L; Gross, Cynthia R; Messersmith, Emily E; Hong, Barry A; Gillespie, Brenda W; Hill-Callahan, Peg; Taler, Sandra J; Jowsey, Sheila G; Beebe, Tim J; Matas, Arthur J; Odim, Jonah; Ibrahim, Hassan N

    2015-12-07

    Most kidney donors view their experience positively, but some may experience psychosocial and financial burdens. We hypothesized that certain donor characteristics, poor outcome of the recipient, negative perceptions of care, and lack of support may be associated with poor psychosocial outcomes for donors. The Renal and Lung Living Donors Evaluation Study (RELIVE) examined long-term medical and psychosocial outcomes for kidney donors (at three U.S. transplant centers) who donated between 1963 and 2005. Standardized questionnaires evaluated donor perspectives, recovery time, social support, motivation, financial impact, insurability after donation, and current psychological status. Questionnaires were mailed to 6909 donors. Questionnaires were returned by 2455 donors, who had donated 17 ± 10 years earlier (range, 5-48 years), a response rate of 36%. Most (95%) rated their overall donation experience as good to excellent. Rating the overall donor experience more negatively was associated with donor complications, psychological difficulties, recipient graft failure, and longer time since donation. Nine percent (n=231) reported one or more of the following poor psychosocial outcomes: fair or poor overall donor experience, financial burden, regret or discomfort with decision to donate, or psychological difficulties since donation. Recipient graft failure was the only predictor for reporting one or more of these poor psychosocial outcomes (odds ratio, 1.77; 95% confidence interval, 1.33 to 2.34). Donors with lower educational attainment experienced greater financial burden. One of five employed donors took unpaid leave; 2% reported health and life insurability concerns. Although the majority of donors viewed their overall donation experience positively, almost 1 in 10 donors reported at least one negative consequence related to donation. Recipient graft failure was associated with poor psychosocial outcome, defined as one or more of these negative consequences. Some

  6. Emotional and Financial Experiences of Kidney Donors over the Past 50 Years: The RELIVE Study

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Cynthia R.; Messersmith, Emily E.; Hong, Barry A.; Gillespie, Brenda W.; Hill-Callahan, Peg; Taler, Sandra J.; Jowsey, Sheila G.; Beebe, Tim J.; Matas, Arthur J.; Odim, Jonah; Ibrahim, Hassan N.

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives Most kidney donors view their experience positively, but some may experience psychosocial and financial burdens. We hypothesized that certain donor characteristics, poor outcome of the recipient, negative perceptions of care, and lack of support may be associated with poor psychosocial outcomes for donors. Design, setting, participants, & measurements The Renal and Lung Living Donors Evaluation Study (RELIVE) examined long-term medical and psychosocial outcomes for kidney donors (at three U.S. transplant centers) who donated between 1963 and 2005. Standardized questionnaires evaluated donor perspectives, recovery time, social support, motivation, financial impact, insurability after donation, and current psychological status. Questionnaires were mailed to 6909 donors. Results Questionnaires were returned by 2455 donors, who had donated 17±10 years earlier (range, 5–48 years), a response rate of 36%. Most (95%) rated their overall donation experience as good to excellent. Rating the overall donor experience more negatively was associated with donor complications, psychological difficulties, recipient graft failure, and longer time since donation. Nine percent (n=231) reported one or more of the following poor psychosocial outcomes: fair or poor overall donor experience, financial burden, regret or discomfort with decision to donate, or psychological difficulties since donation. Recipient graft failure was the only predictor for reporting one or more of these poor psychosocial outcomes (odds ratio, 1.77; 95% confidence interval, 1.33 to 2.34). Donors with lower educational attainment experienced greater financial burden. One of five employed donors took unpaid leave; 2% reported health and life insurability concerns. Conclusions Although the majority of donors viewed their overall donation experience positively, almost 1 in 10 donors reported at least one negative consequence related to donation. Recipient graft failure was associated

  7. Epidemiological study of equine piroplasmosis in Mongolia.

    PubMed

    Boldbaatar, Damdinsuren; Xuan, Xuenan; Battsetseg, Badgar; Igarashi, Ikuo; Battur, Banzragch; Batsukh, Zayat; Bayambaa, Badarch; Fujisaki, Kozo

    2005-01-04

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the occurrence of equine piroplasmosis in Mongolia, a country in which the disease occurs epidemically in different climatic conditions. Antibodies to Babesia equi and B. caballi were determined in serum samples of 254 pastured horses in different locations of Mongolia using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with recombinant antigens. One hundred and eighty-five (72.8%) and 102 (40.1%) of all serum samples were positive for B. equi and B. caballi infections, respectively. In addition, 78 (30.7%) samples were positive for both B. equi and B. caballi infections. These results indicate that equine piroplasmosis is widespread in Mongolia. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing an epidemiological study on equine piroplasmosis in different geographic regions in Mongolia.

  8. Pilot Cross-Sectional Study of Three Zoonoses (Lyme Disease, Tularaemia, Leptospirosis) among Healthy Blood Donors in Eastern Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Zákutná, Ľubica; Dorko, Erik; Rimárová, Kvetoslava; Kizeková, Marianna

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the seroprevalence of three zoonotic infections among healthy blood donors/volunteers in Eastern Slovakia. Sera from 124 blood donors were investigated for the presence of antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi, Francisella tularensis and Leptospira pomona. The participants also completed the questionnaire about demographic, exposure and epidemiological characteristics. Two serological methods were used for the diagnosis: the enzyme linked protein A/G assay (ELPAGA) and the Western blot (WB). First, sera were screened by ELPAGA (except for leptospirosis). The observed seroprevalence was 15% for Lyme borreliosis (LB) and 4% for tularaemia (TUL). The results were confirmed by WB. Positive IgG antibodies (WB method) were detected only in 1.6% of examined for LB and 0.8% for TUL. Our results did not identify any antibodies against Leptospira pomona agent in the examined healthy blood donors group. ELPAGA seroprevalence for TUL was significantly higher in blood donors working in the agricultural area in the direct contact with hay, straw, manure, and agricultural land. Our outputs determine tick bite as a significant risk factor for LB. The study confirms the explosion of tick-borne diseases in the healthy population of people. The exposure risk for leptospirosis seems to be minimal. Copyright© by the National Institute of Public Health, Prague 2015.

  9. NASA Remote Sensing Data for Epidemiological Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maynard, Nancy G.; Vicente, G. A.

    2002-01-01

    In response to the need for improved observations of environmental factors to better understand the links between human health and the environment, NASA has established a new program to significantly improve the utilization of NASA's diverse array of data, information, and observations of the Earth for health applications. This initiative, lead by Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has the following goals: (1) To encourage interdisciplinary research on the relationships between environmental parameters (e.g., rainfall, vegetation) and health, (2) Develop practical early warning systems, (3) Create a unique system for the exchange of Earth science and health data, (4) Provide an investigator field support system for customers and partners, (5) Facilitate a system for observation, identification, and surveillance of parameters relevant to environment and health issues. The NASA Environment and Health Program is conducting several interdisciplinary projects to examine applications of remote sensing data and information to a variety of health issues, including studies on malaria, Rift Valley Fever, St. Louis Encephalitis, Dengue Fever, Ebola, African Dust and health, meningitis, asthma, and filariasis. In addition, the NASA program is creating a user-friendly data system to help provide the public health community with easy and timely access to space-based environmental data for epidemiological studies. This NASA data system is being designed to bring land, atmosphere, water and ocean satellite data/products to users not familiar with satellite data/products, but who are knowledgeable in the Geographic Information Systems (GIS) environment. This paper discusses the most recent results of the interdisciplinary environment-health research projects and provides an analysis of the usefulness of the satellite data to epidemiological studies. In addition, there will be a summary of presently-available NASA Earth science data and a description of how it may be obtained.

  10. NASA Remote Sensing Data for Epidemiological Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maynard, Nancy G.; Vicente, G. A.

    2002-01-01

    In response to the need for improved observations of environmental factors to better understand the links between human health and the environment, NASA has established a new program to significantly improve the utilization of NASA's diverse array of data, information, and observations of the Earth for health applications. This initiative, lead by Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has the following goals: (1) To encourage interdisciplinary research on the relationships between environmental parameters (e.g., rainfall, vegetation) and health, (2) Develop practical early warning systems, (3) Create a unique system for the exchange of Earth science and health data, (4) Provide an investigator field support system for customers and partners, (5) Facilitate a system for observation, identification, and surveillance of parameters relevant to environment and health issues. The NASA Environment and Health Program is conducting several interdisciplinary projects to examine applications of remote sensing data and information to a variety of health issues, including studies on malaria, Rift Valley Fever, St. Louis Encephalitis, Dengue Fever, Ebola, African Dust and health, meningitis, asthma, and filariasis. In addition, the NASA program is creating a user-friendly data system to help provide the public health community with easy and timely access to space-based environmental data for epidemiological studies. This NASA data system is being designed to bring land, atmosphere, water and ocean satellite data/products to users not familiar with satellite data/products, but who are knowledgeable in the Geographic Information Systems (GIS) environment. This paper discusses the most recent results of the interdisciplinary environment-health research projects and provides an analysis of the usefulness of the satellite data to epidemiological studies. In addition, there will be a summary of presently-available NASA Earth science data and a description of how it may be obtained.

  11. Multicenter Epidemiological Studies of Atherosclerosis Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Songtao; Bluemke, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading course of death and disability. Conventional cardiac risk factors do not fully explain the level of cardiovascular risk, incidence of coronary artery disease, and coronary events. Risk stratification and therapy based solely on these conventional risk factors may overlook a population who would benefit from lifestyle and risk factor modification. Thus, research has recently focused on improving risk assessment with new tools in an effort to better identify subjects at highest risk and in need of aggressive management. Cardiovascular imaging, both in coronary and extracoronary arterial beds, has proven to be very helpful in this regard. In this article, we review the current literature from multicenter epidemiology studies on the utility of noninvasive imaging modalities for risk stratification in the context of conventional risk factor evaluation. PMID:20805734

  12. An epidemiological study of histrionic personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Nestadt, G; Romanoski, A J; Chahal, R; Merchant, A; Folstein, M F; Gruenberg, E M; McHugh, P R

    1990-05-01

    In conjunction with the Epidemiological Catchment Area (ECA) survey conducted in Baltimore, MD, a two-stage probability sample of community subjects was developed with a full psychiatric examination employing DSM-III criteria. This report details the observations on those subjects diagnosed with the DSM-III diagnosis Histrionic Personality Disorder. The results indicate that this condition can be diagnosed reliably and that it is a valid construct. It has a prevalence of 2.1% in a general population. Males and females are equally affected, suggesting that prior reports of an increased prevalence in females was an expression of ascertainment bias found in hospital-based studies. The diagnosis is associated with clear evidence of disturbance in the emotional, behavioural, and social realms. Individuals with this disorder tend to use health care facilities more frequently than others.

  13. Autologous blood donor screening indicated a lower prevalence of viral hepatitis in East vs West Germany: epidemiological benefit from established health resources.

    PubMed

    Wiegand, J; Luz, B; Mengelkamp, A-K; Moog, R; Koscielny, J; Halm-Heinrich, I; Susemihl, C; Bentzien, F; Diekmann, J; Wernet, D; Karger, R; Angert, K; Schmitt-Thomssen, A; Kiefel, V; Lutter, K; Hesse, R; Kätzel, R; Opitz, A; Luhm, J; Barz, D; Leib, U; Matthes, G; Tillmann, H L

    2009-10-01

    Prevalence data concerning viral hepatitis and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in the general population are usually scarce. We aimed for a large cohort representative of the general population that required little funding. Autologous blood donors are relatively representative of the general population, and are tested for viral hepatitis and HIV in many countries. However, frequently these data are not captured for epidemiologic purposes. We analysed data from well over 35,000 autologous blood donors as recorded in 21 different transfusion centres for anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV), HBsAg and anti-HIV, as well as TPHA if available. We found a lower prevalence of hepatitis B virus and HCV in East vs West Germany, 0.2%vs 0.32% and 0.16%vs 0.32% respectively, which confirms earlier data in smaller cohorts, thus supporting the value of our approach. HIV was too rare to disclose significant differences, 0.01%vs 0.02%. TPHA was higher in East (0.34%) vs West Germany (0.29%) without significant differences. HCV was more frequent in women vs men. Transfusion institutes managing autologous blood donations should be used as a resource for epidemiological data relating to viral hepatitis and HIV, if such testing is performed routinely. This approach generates data relating to the general population with special emphasis on undiagnosed cases.

  14. Genotyping of Mycobacterium tuberculosis: application in epidemiologic studies

    PubMed Central

    Kato-Maeda, Midori; Metcalfe, John Z.; Flores, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Genotyping is used to track specific isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in a community. It has been successfully used in epidemiologic research (termed ‘molecular epidemiology’) to study the transmission dynamics of TB. In this article, we review the genetic markers used in molecular epidemiologic studies including the use of whole-genome sequencing technology. We also review the public health application of molecular epidemiologic tools. PMID:21366420

  15. Comparative study between kidney transplantation with deceased donor expanded criteria and donor standard criteria in a single center in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mota, Luana Soriano; Oliveira, Claudia Maria Costa de; Pinheiro, Francisco Martho Leal; Santos, Larissa Costa de Oliveira; Nóbrega, Danilo Gonçalves; Fernandes, Paula Fbc; Costa, Alda Angélica de Melo; Silva, Sônia Leite da

    2016-01-01

    Kidney transplants with expanded criteria donor have been associated with improved patient survival compared to those who remain on dialysis. To compare renal function and survival of the kidney graft of deceased donor with expanded criteria and standard criteria over a year in a single transplant center. 255 kidney transplant recipients with deceased donor were included in the study between the years 2011 to 2013 and they were separated into two groups according to the type of donor (expanded criteria donor - ECD - and standard criteria donor - SCD). 231 deceased donor transplants (90.6%) were performed with standard criteria donor (SCD) and 24 (9.4%) with expanded criteria donor (ECD). There was no difference in the prevalence of delayed graft function - DGF - (62.9% vs. 70.8%; p = 0.44). Expanded criteria donor group had lower glomerular filtration rate (GFR) at the end of the 1st year (56.8 ± 26.9 vs. 76.9 ± 23.7; p = 0.001). Patient survival was significantly lower in the ECD group, but the graft survival was not different after death-censored analysis. The ECD group was associated with significantly lower levels of GFR during the first year of transplant and a lower patient survival at the 1st year when compared to the SCD. A aceitação dos rins com critério expandido de doação tem sido associada com melhor sobrevida do paciente em comparação àqueles que permanecem em terapia dialítica. Comparar a função renal e a sobrevida do enxerto renal de doador falecido critério expandido com os de doador falecido critério padrão ao longo de um ano em um único centro de transplantes. Foram incluídos 255 receptores de transplante renal com doador falecido, realizados entre os anos de 2011 a 2013, sendo divididos em dois grupos segundo o tipo de doador (critério expandido - DCE - ou padrão -DCP). Foram avaliados 231 receptores com doador critério ideal (90,6%) e 24 com doador critério expandido (9,4%). Não houve diferença na prevalência de fun

  16. A study of the predonation hemoglobin and iron status among Hong Kong Chinese blood donors.

    PubMed

    Lee, C K; Wong, H K; Hong, J; Leung, J N S; Tsoi, W C; Lin, C K

    2013-02-01

    Predonation hemoglobin (PDH) is used to safeguard donors' welfare, and low hemoglobin (Hb) is known to be the most frequent reason for donor deferral. A study was initiated to assess the PDH and iron status of blood donors in Hong Kong. This observational study was designed with four groups of whole blood donors invited (group 1-eligible first time donors, group 2-eligible repeat donors with zero or one donation in preceding 12 months, group 3-eligible repeat donors with at least two donations in preceding 12 months, group 4-repeat donors being deferred for low PDH). Predonation blood samples were obtained for blood counts and iron status. Mann-Whitney test, Kruskal-Wallis test, and chi-square test for trend were applied for statistical analysis. A total of 836 donors were recruited, of which 35 were excluded because of hemoglobinopathy. An inverse relationship between serum ferritin level and number of donations in the preceding 12 months was observed in both sexes. Iron deficiency was significantly seen in 35.1% of male and 65.3% of female deferred donors. More importantly, up to 7.2, 5.8, and 29.5% of the female donors in groups 1, 2, and 3 were found to be iron deficient despite having a high enough PDH. This is the first study to assess PDH and iron status in Chinese blood donors. Iron depletion is noted with increasing number of blood donations in the preceding 12 months. Advice on iron repletion is a necessary step for donor welfare and strategies should be developed to ensure that donors have adequate PDH. © 2012 American Association of Blood Banks.

  17. Activation of hemostasis in brain dead organ donors: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Lisman, T; Leuvenink, H G D; Porte, R J; Ploeg, R J

    2011-10-01

    Brain death is associated with a systemic inflammatory response resulting in diminished organ function in individuals transplanted with organs from brain dead donors. As inflammation is accompanied by activation of coagulation, we hypothesized that activation of hemostasis occurs in brain dead organ donors. To assess the hemostatic status in brain dead organ donors. In this study, we systematically assessed the hemostatic system in samples taken from 30 brain dead donors. As controls, blood samples from 30 living kidney donors were included. Compared with the living donors, brain dead donors showed significant platelet activation (assessed by glycocalicin plasma levels), and a profound dysbalance in the von Willebrand factor/ADAMTS13 axis, which is key in platelet attachment to damaged vasculature. Furthermore, compared with the living donors, brain dead donors showed a significantly increased activation of secondary hemostasis with formation of fibrin (assessed by plasma levels of prothrombin fragment 1 + 2, fibrinopeptide A and D-dimer). Finally, brain dead donors showed profound hypofibrinolysis as assessed by a global clot lysis assay, which was attributed to substantially elevated plasma levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1. Collectively, our results show activation of hemostasis and dysregulated fibrinolysis in brain dead organ donors. This prothrombotic state may contribute to formation of microthrombi in transplantable organs, which potentially contributes to deterioration of organ function. © 2011 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  18. The fate of epidemiologic manuscripts: a study of papers submitted to epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Hall, Susan A; Wilcox, Allen J

    2007-03-01

    Little is known about the success rate of epidemiologic manuscripts, or the number of rejections they may go through before being published. In late 2004 we conducted a retrospective follow-up study of the cohort of manuscripts submitted to Epidemiology in 2002. Using an e-mailed invitation, we conducted an online survey of authors identified from journal records. Authors were asked about submission attempts before and after their submission to Epidemiology. Epidemiology received 371 original articles in 2002, of which it published 101 (27%). Survey response rates were 68% among the authors of accepted manuscripts, and 58% among authors of manuscripts rejected by Epidemiology. These responses provided a total sample of 223 manuscripts for analysis. Of the cohort, 83% (n = 184) were eventually accepted for publication (by Epidemiology or others). The acceptance rate by Epidemiology was the same whether or not the manuscripts had been previously rejected by another journal. Of the 155 manuscripts rejected by Epidemiology, 116 (75%) were eventually published or accepted for publication, 11 (7%) were being prepared for resubmission at the time of follow-up (19-34 months after rejection), 5 (3%) were under review by a journal, and 23 (15%) were inactive. Among the papers we could follow from first submission, 62% of those eventually published had been rejected at least once. In general, papers rejected by one journal were subsequently sent to a journal with lower impact factor. These data suggest most epidemiology manuscripts are eventually published, although some persistence on the part of the authors may be necessary.

  19. VDTs: Field levels, epidemiology, and laboratory studies

    SciTech Connect

    Kavet, R.; Tell, R.A. )

    1991-07-01

    As the use of video display terminals (VDTs) has expanded, questions have been raised as to whether working at a VDT affects the risk of adverse pregnancy outcome. A particular focus for these questions has been the very low frequency (VLF) magnetic field produced by a VDT's horizontal deflection coil. VDTs also produce VLF electric fields, extremely low frequency (ELF) electric and magnetic fields, and static electric fields, Ten studies of pregnancy outcome in VDT operators have been conducted in six countries, and with one exception, none has concluded that magnetic fields from VDTs may predispose pregnant operators to spontaneous abortion or congenital malformation. The epidemiologic studies conducted thus far do not provide a basis for concluding that VDT work and adverse pregnancy outcome are associated. Studies of fetal resorptions and malformations in rodents exposed to VLF magnetic fields have produced inconsistent findings. Two laboratories in Sweden that studied mice have reported positive results, one laboratory showing field-related malformations (but not resorptions) and the other showing field-related resorptions (but not malformations). Two Canadian laboratories have reported negative results in rats and mice. Studies of avian embryos have also yielded inconsistent results, but lacking a maternal-fetal placental interface, avian embryos are a questionable model for evaluating human reproductive risks. Finally, VLF electric and magnetic fields measured at the operator position are in compliance with field strength standards and guidelines that have been established around the world. 55 refs.

  20. Epidemiological and Clinical Studies of Nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Todd M.; Ferrucci, Leah M.; Tangrea, Joseph A.; Schatzkin, Arthur

    2010-01-01

    In this review, we briefly summarize some of the key developments in nutritional epidemiology and cancer over the past two decades with a focus on the strengths and limitations of study designs and dietary assessment methods. We present the evidence on dietary fat, meat, fiber, antioxidant nutrients, and calcium in relation to carcinogenesis from large cohort studies and randomized clinical trials (RCTs) and refer to the conclusions of the 2007 World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research summary report. One prominent theme that emerged is the lack of concordance of results from RCTs and observational studies. There are multiple potential reasons for these discrepancies, including differences in study population, dose and timing of the exposure, adherence to an intervention, length of follow-up, and the primary endpoint. Therefore, null findings of RCTs do not necessarily indicate a lack of effect for the tested dietary factors on cancer risk, as some of these nutrients may have chemopreventive effects if given at the right time and in the right dose. It is likely that potential benefits from the diet are due to a combination of food constituents rather than single components acting in isolation. Future efforts need to recognize the integrative nature of dietary exposures and attempt to study nutrients in the larger context of the foods and diets in which they are consumed. PMID:20709210

  1. Trends in hepatitis B virus infection among blood donors in Kelantan, Malaysia: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Yousuf, R; Rapiaah, M; Ahmed, S A; Rosline, H; Salam, A; Selamah, S; Roshan, T M

    2007-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and trends in hepatitis B infection among blood donors attending the Transfusion Medicine Unit at the Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kelantan, Malaysia. A retrospective study was carried out by reviewing the results of HBsAg among blood donors for the years 2000 to 2004. During this period, 44,658 blood donors were studied. We noted that there was a significant difference in the prevalence of hepatitis B infection between regular and first time donors. There was also a decreasing trend noticed in both study groups. The mean prevalence was significantly different between first time (1.83%) and regular donors (0.45%) (p < 0.005). There is a need to improve public awareness programs to lower the incidence of hepatitis B infection in the general population and consequently first time blood donors. Future studies are also required to determine the trends and outcomes of these programs.

  2. Negative and non-positive epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Axelson, Olav

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify and discuss validity aspects on so called negative and non-positive studies. Arguments and examples are drawn from experiences in occupational health epidemiology regarding the interpretation of more or less equivocal study results. A negative study may be defined as showing a result that goes against the investigated hypothesis of an increased (or prevented) risk. Traditionally, studies with a risk estimate (relative risk or odds ratio) above, but close to unity are also referred to as negative, given a narrow confidence interval (CI) that includes unity. A risk estimate above unity with the CI including unity is non-positive, however, but an estimate below unity with upper CI bond exceeding unity might be seen as possibly negative or non-negative. A weaker "significance" than usually required should perhaps be accepted when evaluating serious hazards. In contrast to positive studies, the negative and non-positive studies tend to escape criticism in spite of questionable validity that may have obscured existing risks (or preventive effects). Even stronger arguments can be made in criticising negative and non-positive studies than positive studies, for example, regarding selection phenomena, and observational problems regarding exposure and outcome. Negative confounding should be considered although usually weak. In case-control studies, so called over-matching may obscure an existing risk as could the "healthy worker effect" in cohort studies. Small scale non-positive studies should be made available for meta-analyses and when considering studies that do not convincingly show a risk; those who are exposed should be given the "benefit of the doubt".

  3. Predictors of iron levels in 14,737 Danish blood donors: results from the Danish Blood Donor Study

    PubMed Central

    Rigas, Andreas Stribolt; Sørensen, Cecilie Juul; Pedersen, Ole Birger; Petersen, Mikkel Steen; Thørner, Lise Wegner; Kotzé, Sebastian; Sørensen, Erik; Magnussen, Karin; Rostgaard, Klaus; Erikstrup, Christian; Ullum, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Background Dietary studies show a relationship between the intake of iron enhancers and inhibitors and iron stores in the general population. However, the impact of dietary factors on the iron stores of blood donors, whose iron status is affected by blood donations, is incompletely understood. Study Design and Methods In the Danish Blood Donor Study, we assessed the effect of blood donation frequency, physiologic factors, lifestyle and supplemental factors, and dietary factors on ferritin levels. We used multiple linear and logistic regression analyses stratified by sex and menopausal status. Results Among high-frequency donors (more than nine donations in the past 3 years), we found iron deficiency (ferritin below 15 ng/mL) in 9, 39, and 22% of men, premenopausal women, and postmenopausal women, respectively. The strongest predictors of iron deficiency were sex, menopausal status, the number of blood donations in a 3-year period, and the time since last donation. Other significant factors included weight, age, intensity of menstruation, iron tablets, vitamin pills, and consumption of meat and wine. Conclusion The study confirms iron deficiency as an important problem, especially among menstruating women donating frequently. The risk of iron depletion was largely explained by sex, menopausal status, and donation frequency. Other factors, including dietary and supplemental iron intake, had a much weaker effect on the risk of iron depletion. PMID:24372094

  4. Tea and cancer prevention: epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jian-Min; Sun, Canlan; Butler, Lesley M

    2011-08-01

    Experimental studies have consistently shown the inhibitory activities of tea extracts on tumorigenesis in multiple model systems. Epidemiological studies, however, have produced inconclusive results in humans. A comprehensive review was conducted to assess the current knowledge on tea consumption and risk of cancers in humans. In general, consumption of black tea was not associated with lower risk of cancer. High intake of green tea was consistently associated with reduced risk of upper gastrointestinal tract cancers after sufficient control for confounders. Limited data support a protective effect of green tea on lung and hepatocellular carcinogenesis. Although observational studies do not support a beneficial role of tea intake on prostate cancer risk, phase II clinical trials have demonstrated an inhibitory effect of green tea extract against the progression of prostate pre-malignant lesions. Green tea may exert beneficial effects against mammary carcinogenesis in premenopausal women and recurrence of breast cancer. There is no sufficient evidence that supports a protective role of tea intake on the development of cancers of the colorectum, pancreas, urinary tract, glioma, lymphoma, and leukemia. Future prospective observational studies with biomarkers of exposure and phase III clinical trials are required to provide definitive evidence for the hypothesized beneficial effect of tea consumption on cancer formation in humans.

  5. Mandibular Fractures in Iraq: An Epidemiological Study

    PubMed Central

    Bede, Salwan

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the epidemiological characteristics of the mandibular fractures relating to gender, age, the etiology of injury, and the rendered treatment modalities and complications. The data of the patients who sustained mandibular fractures were retrieved and were analyzed retrospectively, and based on these data a descriptive analysis was conducted. A total of 112 patients were included in this study; the most common cause was road traffic accidents (RTAs) followed by assaults and missile injuries. The most frequently involved age group was 11 to 20 years, treatment modalities included conservative, closed reduction and indirect fixation, and open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) in 11.6, 79.5, and 8.9% of the cases, respectively. Most of the major complications were injury related. This study showed RTAs to be the most frequent cause followed by assaults, it also showed that a high percentage of assault victims were females mainly of low socioeconomic status. Another distinguishing feature in this study was the high incidence of missile injuries in the form of bullets and blasts. Closed reduction still has an important role in the treatment of fractures of mandible especially when the necessary equipments for ORIF are not readily available. A higher complication rate was observed in patients diagnosed with multiple and comminuted fractures as well as those caused by violence in the form of missile and assault injuries. PMID:25709754

  6. DESIGN OF EXPOSURE MEASUREMENTS FOR EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will describe the following items: (1) London daily air pollution and deaths that demonstrate how time series epidemiology can indicate that air pollution caused death; (2) Sophisticated statistical models required to establish this relationship for lower pollut...

  7. Motivational factors for blood donation in first-time donors and repeat donors: a cross-sectional study in West Pomerania.

    PubMed

    Suemnig, A; Konerding, U; Hron, G; Lubenow, N; Alpen, U; Hoffmann, W; Kohlmann, T; Greinacher, A

    2017-08-07

    This study aimed to analyse motivational factors for blood donation in different donor groups. As the demographic change will result in a decrease of the population in age groups of blood donors, the risk of blood product shortage increases. During a 12-month period, every sixth blood donor presenting at the blood donation centre of the University Hospital was asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire assessing motivational factors for blood donation. Despite the formalised enrolment protocol, frequent donors were over-represented in the study cohort, which was adjusted by weighting donors with different numbers of donations per year in such a way that the distribution of numbers of donations per year was the same in the sample as in the donor population. Of 2443 participants, 14·3% were first-time and 85·3% repeat donors. To "help other people" (>90%) and receiving "medical assessment of my blood values" (63-69%) were the strongest motivational factors in all donor groups. Receiving remuneration (49·2% vs 38·1%) was more important for repeat donors than for first-time donors, whereas it was the opposite for "being taken by a friend to the donor clinic" (47·0% vs 15·5%). A potentially important observation is that 33·9% of frequent donors reported feeling physically better after blood donation compared to infrequent donors (29·5%). Identification of motivational factors can lead to the design of targeted motivation campaigns for blood donation. The underlying cause of the perceived well-being after blood donation requires further studies. © 2017 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  8. Predictors of iron levels in 14,737 Danish blood donors: results from the Danish Blood Donor Study.

    PubMed

    Rigas, Andreas Stribolt; Sørensen, Cecilie Juul; Pedersen, Ole Birger; Petersen, Mikkel Steen; Thørner, Lise Wegner; Kotzé, Sebastian; Sørensen, Erik; Magnussen, Karin; Rostgaard, Klaus; Erikstrup, Christian; Ullum, Henrik

    2014-03-01

    Dietary studies show a relationship between the intake of iron enhancers and inhibitors and iron stores in the general population. However, the impact of dietary factors on the iron stores of blood donors, whose iron status is affected by blood donations, is incompletely understood. In the Danish Blood Donor Study, we assessed the effect of blood donation frequency, physiologic factors, lifestyle and supplemental factors, and dietary factors on ferritin levels. We used multiple linear and logistic regression analyses stratified by sex and menopausal status. Among high-frequency donors (more than nine donations in the past 3 years), we found iron deficiency (ferritin below 15 ng/mL) in 9, 39, and 22% of men, premenopausal women, and postmenopausal women, respectively. The strongest predictors of iron deficiency were sex, menopausal status, the number of blood donations in a 3-year period, and the time since last donation. Other significant factors included weight, age, intensity of menstruation, iron tablets, vitamin pills, and consumption of meat and wine. The study confirms iron deficiency as an important problem, especially among menstruating women donating frequently. The risk of iron depletion was largely explained by sex, menopausal status, and donation frequency. Other factors, including dietary and supplemental iron intake, had a much weaker effect on the risk of iron depletion. © 2013 The Authors. Transfusion published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of AABB.

  9. Studies of Photosystem II using artificial donors: Progress report, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    The ''electrochemical activities'' of various substituted hydroxylamine and hydrazine compounds were compared with respect to their ability to interact with the intact O/sub 2/-evolving system. In addition it was shown that Mn/sup 2 +/ is a very effective donor to inactivated PSII centers (reaction rate of approximately 10/sup 2/ s/sup -1/ ..mu..M/sup -1/) but acts no differently than other artificial donors, and is not prebound at the inactivated centers.

  10. Socioeconomic deprivation and barriers to live-donor kidney transplantation: a qualitative study of deceased-donor kidney transplant recipients

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Phillippa K; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Tomson, Charles R V; Owen-Smith, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Socioeconomically deprived individuals with renal disease are less likely to receive a live-donor kidney transplant than less-deprived individuals. This qualitative study aimed to identify reasons for the observed socioeconomic disparity in live-donor kidney transplantation. Design A qualitative study using face-to-face in-depth semistructured interviews. Setting A UK tertiary renal referral hospital and transplant centre. Participants Purposive sampling was used to select deceased-donor transplant recipients from areas of high socioeconomic deprivation (SED) (19 participants), followed by a low SED comparison group (13 participants), aiming for maximum diversity in terms of age, gender, ethnicity, primary renal disease and previous renal replacement therapy. Methods Participants were interviewed following their routine transplant clinic review. Interviews were digitally audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were coded using NVivo software and analysed using the constant comparison method described in Grounded Theory. Results Themes common and distinct to each socioeconomic group emerged. 6 themes appeared to distinguish between individuals from areas of high and low SED. 4 themes were distinct to participants from areas of high SED: (1) Passivity, (2) Disempowerment, (3) Lack of social support and (4) Short-term focus. 2 themes were distinct to the low SED group: (1) Financial concerns and (2) Location of donor. Conclusions Several of the emerging themes from the high SED individuals relate to an individual's lack of confidence and skill in managing their health and healthcare; themes that are in keeping with low levels of patient activation. Inadequate empowerment of socioeconomically deprived individuals by healthcare practitioners was also described. Financial concerns did not emerge as a barrier from interviews with the high SED group. Interventions aiming to redress the observed socioeconomic inequity should be targeted at both

  11. Systemic Amyloidosis in England: an epidemiological study

    PubMed Central

    Pinney, Jennifer H; Smith, Colette J; Taube, Jessi B; Lachmann, Helen J; Venner, Christopher P; Gibbs, Simon D J; Dungu, Jason; Banypersad, Sanjay M; Wechalekar, Ashutosh D; Whelan, Carol J; Hawkins, Philip N; Gillmore, Julian D

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological studies of systemic amyloidosis are scarce and the burden of disease in England has not previously been estimated. In 1999, the National Health Service commissioned the National Amyloidosis Centre (NAC) to provide a national clinical service for all patients with amyloidosis. Data for all individuals referred to the NAC is held on a comprehensive central database, and these were compared with English death certificate data for amyloidosis from 2000 to 2008, obtained from the Office of National Statistics. Amyloidosis was stated on death certificates of 2543 individuals, representing 0·58/1000 recorded deaths. During the same period, 1143 amyloidosis patients followed at the NAC died, 903 (79%) of whom had amyloidosis recorded on their death certificates. The estimated minimum incidence of systemic amyloidosis in the English population in 2008, based on new referrals to the NAC, was 0·4/100 000 population. The incidence peaked at age 60–79 years. Systemic AL amyloidosis was the most common type with an estimated minimum incidence of 0·3/100 000 population. Although there are various limitations to this study, the available data suggest the incidence of systemic amyloidosis in England exceeds 0·8/100 000 of the population. PMID:23480608

  12. Economic Consequences Incurred by Living Kidney Donors: A Canadian Multi-Center Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Klarenbach, S; Gill, J S; Knoll, G; Caulfield, T; Boudville, N; Prasad, G V R; Karpinski, M; Storsley, L; Treleaven, D; Arnold, J; Cuerden, M; Jacobs, P; Garg, A X

    2014-01-01

    Some living kidney donors incur economic consequences as a result of donation; however, these costs are poorly quantified. We developed a framework to comprehensively assess economic consequences from the donor perspective including out-of-pocket cost, lost wages and home productivity loss. We prospectively enrolled 100 living kidney donors from seven Canadian centers between 2004 and 2008 and collected and valued economic consequences ($CAD 2008) at 3 months and 1 year after donation. Almost all (96%) donors experienced economic consequences, with 94% reporting travel costs and 47% reporting lost pay. The average and median costs of lost pay were $2144 (SD 4167) and $0 (25th–75th percentile 0, 2794), respectively. For other expenses (travel, accommodation, medication and medical), mean and median costs were $1780 (SD 2504) and $821 (25th–75th percentile 242, 2271), respectively. From the donor perspective, mean cost was $3268 (SD 4704); one-third of donors incurred cost >$3000, and 15% >$8000. The majority of donors (83%) reported inability to perform usual household activities for an average duration of 33 days; 8% reported out-of-pocket costs for assistance with these activities. The economic impact of living kidney donation for some individuals is large. We advocate for programs to reimburse living donors for their legitimate costs. In a prospective costing study, the authors find that economic consequences incurred by living kidney donors are frequent and nontrivial, and a notable proportion of donors experience significant costs. PMID:24597854

  13. [Importance of the pre-donation epidemiological survey to detect donors with a risk of transmitting HCV].

    PubMed

    Gimeno, J; Franco, E; Buñuel, C; Marzo, L; Giraldo, P; Giralt, M

    1994-06-01

    To determine if the investigation of previous clinical features through an inquiry could be useful to predict HCV infection in blood donors as assessed by recombinant immunoblot assay. From january 1990 to august 1991, 79 HCV seropositive blood donors by recombinant immunoblot assays (58 RIBA 1 and 21 RIBA II) were selected to be inquired and to perform a clinical examination. The inquiry included the following parameters: age, sex, social environment, history of liver disease, presence or absence for parenteral risk factors (surgery, blood transfusion, odontological procedures, acupuncture, tattoos, etc...). 1) General data: mean age, 43 years (range 20-65); male/female 54/25 (ratio 2.16); urban/rural environment 50/29 (ratio 1.72); new/regular blood donors 17/62 (ratio 0.27). 2) Inquiry results: In seven cases (8.9%) previous symptoms were detected. Hepatic stigmata were present in 12 donors (15.2%). A 67.0 showed previous surgical procedures; 48.1% had odontological history; 24.0% were recipients for blood transfusion; parenteral treatment using nondisposable material were detected in 19 cases (24.0%); acupuncture in 4 donors (5.0%); tattoos in only one case. Social habits were: alcoholic consumption in 44.3% and regular medicine ingestion in 19.0%; a 81.0% had a unique partner and a 8.9% preferred multiple heterosexual contacts. A 29.1% inhabit in unfamiliar house and the remaining 70.9% lived in apartments buildings; the mean of family members was 3.7 persons (range 2-8). a) It is pointed out the scarce and physical expression of the HCV infection. So in many aspects the inquiry is useless and time consuming. b) Nevertheless, we have detected some parenteral risk factors in seropositive cases. Regarding this particular aspect the inquiry is useful. Taken into account the previous we suggest to add an item with the parenteral risk factors to the ordinary self-answering inquire, addressed to all blood donors in each donation.

  14. A comparative study of reduced dose alemtuzumab in matched unrelated donor and related donor reduced intensity transplants.

    PubMed

    Jardine, Laura; Publicover, Amy; Bigley, Venetia; Hale, Geoff; Pearce, Kim; Dickinson, Anne; Jackson, Graham; Collin, Matthew

    2015-03-01

    In vivo T cell depletion with 100 mg alemtuzumab prevents graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) in reduced intensity conditioned transplants but is associated with delayed immune reconstitution, a higher risk of infection and relapse. De-escalation studies have shown that a reduced dose of 30 mg is as effective as 100 mg in preventing GVHD in matched related donor (MRD) transplants. Dose reduction in matched unrelated donor (MUD) transplants is feasible but the comparative efficacy of alemtuzumab in this setting is not known and opinions vary widely concerning the optimal level of GVHD prophylaxis that should be achieved. Through retrospective analysis we made an objective comparison of MUD transplants receiving an empirically reduced dose of 60 mg, with MRD transplants receiving a 30 mg dose. We observed proportionate levels of alemtuzumab according to dose but an inverse relationship with body surface area particularly in MRD transplants. MUD transplants experienced more acute and chronic GVHD, higher T cell chimerism, more sustained use of ciclosporin and less need for donor lymphocyte infusion than MRD transplants. Thus, doubling the dose of alemtuzumab to 60 mg did not provide equivalent prevention of GVHD after MUD transplant although there was no difference in non-relapse mortality or survival compared with MRD transplants.

  15. [Mental disorders and migraine: epidemiologic studies].

    PubMed

    Guillem, E; Pelissolo, A; Lepine, J P

    1999-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies in the general population, taking into account certain bias inherent to the clinical observation have confirmed the clinical impression reporting a higher psychiatric comorbidity with persons suffering from migraine than in persons without migraine. Persons with migraine are at increased risk for affective and anxiety disorders, personality traits disorders (neuroticism), suicide attempts, but not for alcohol or illicit drug abuse. The comorbidity is more important in migraine with aura than in migraine without aura. Concerning affective disorders, the lifetime prevalence of major depression is 34.4% in persons with migraine and 10.4% in persons without migraine. For bipolar I disorder, prevalence is 6.8% in migraine with aura versus 0.9% when no migraine. Compared to no migraine, the lifetime prevalence of anxiety disorders in migraine is significantly increased in: panic disorder (10.9% vs 1.8%); generalized anxiety disorder (10.2% vs 1.9%); obsessive-compulsive disorder (8.6% vs 1.8%); phobic disorder (39.8% vs 20.6%). In addition, no psychopathological, biological or genetic explanation seems to be meaningful for the comprehension of this comorbidity pattern. These results remain primarily descriptive but they justify a clinical investigation of affective and anxiety disorders, and suicide attempts, in all person with migraine, and it also justifies the treatment of pain associated with the treatment of eventual affective or anxiety disorders.

  16. Time series regression studies in environmental epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Bhaskaran, Krishnan; Gasparrini, Antonio; Hajat, Shakoor; Smeeth, Liam; Armstrong, Ben

    2013-01-01

    Time series regression studies have been widely used in environmental epidemiology, notably in investigating the short-term associations between exposures such as air pollution, weather variables or pollen, and health outcomes such as mortality, myocardial infarction or disease-specific hospital admissions. Typically, for both exposure and outcome, data are available at regular time intervals (e.g. daily pollution levels and daily mortality counts) and the aim is to explore short-term associations between them. In this article, we describe the general features of time series data, and we outline the analysis process, beginning with descriptive analysis, then focusing on issues in time series regression that differ from other regression methods: modelling short-term fluctuations in the presence of seasonal and long-term patterns, dealing with time varying confounding factors and modelling delayed (‘lagged’) associations between exposure and outcome. We finish with advice on model checking and sensitivity analysis, and some common extensions to the basic model. PMID:23760528

  17. Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology - nutritional epidemiology (STROBE-nut): An extension of the STROBE statement.

    PubMed

    Lachat, C; Hawwash, D; Ocké, M C; Berg, C; Forsum, E; Hörnell, A; Larsson, C L; Sonestedt, E; Wirfält, E; Åkesson, A; Kolsteren, P; Byrnes, G; De Keyzer, W; Van Camp, J; Cade, J E; Slimani, N; Cevallos, M; Egger, M; Huybrechts, I

    2016-09-01

    Concerns have been raised about the quality of reporting in nutritional epidemiology. Research reporting guidelines such as the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) statement can improve quality of reporting in observational studies. Herein, we propose recommendations for reporting nutritional epidemiology and dietary assessment research by extending the STROBE statement into Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology - Nutritional Epidemiology (STROBE-nut). Recommendations for the reporting of nutritional epidemiology and dietary assessment research were developed following a systematic and consultative process, co-ordinated by a multidisciplinary group of 21 experts. Consensus on reporting guidelines was reached through a three-round Delphi consultation process with 53 external experts. In total, 24 recommendations for nutritional epidemiology were added to the STROBE checklist. When used appropriately, reporting guidelines for nutritional epidemiology can contribute to improve reporting of observational studies with a focus on diet and health.

  18. Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology-Nutritional Epidemiology (STROBE-nut): An Extension of the STROBE Statement.

    PubMed

    Lachat, Carl; Hawwash, Dana; Ocké, Marga C; Berg, Christina; Forsum, Elisabet; Hörnell, Agneta; Larsson, Christel; Sonestedt, Emily; Wirfält, Elisabet; Åkesson, Agneta; Kolsteren, Patrick; Byrnes, Graham; De Keyzer, Willem; Van Camp, John; Cade, Janet E; Slimani, Nadia; Cevallos, Myriam; Egger, Matthias; Huybrechts, Inge

    2016-06-01

    Concerns have been raised about the quality of reporting in nutritional epidemiology. Research reporting guidelines such as the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) statement can improve quality of reporting in observational studies. Herein, we propose recommendations for reporting nutritional epidemiology and dietary assessment research by extending the STROBE statement into Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology-Nutritional Epidemiology (STROBE-nut). Recommendations for the reporting of nutritional epidemiology and dietary assessment research were developed following a systematic and consultative process, coordinated by a multidisciplinary group of 21 experts. Consensus on reporting guidelines was reached through a three-round Delphi consultation process with 53 external experts. In total, 24 recommendations for nutritional epidemiology were added to the STROBE checklist. When used appropriately, reporting guidelines for nutritional epidemiology can contribute to improve reporting of observational studies with a focus on diet and health.

  19. Review, discussion, and summary of epidemiological studies

    SciTech Connect

    Shy, C.M.

    1989-02-01

    This paper reviews and summarizes the epidemiological studies presented at the Symposium on the Health Effects of Acid Aerosols. Two studies of acute episodes examined different indicators of respiratory morbidity before, during, and after the January 1985 air pollution event in western Europe. In the U.K. no increase in respiratory morbidity, as reported by a group of general practitioners, was observed, but measured concentrations of air pollutants failed to substantiate the existence of an identifiable episode. In the Federal Republic of Germany, the air pollution episode was documented and was associated with a 10 to 25% increase in several indicators of respiratory and cardiovascular morbidity, but could not be attributed to acidic aerosols as such. In two further studies, investigators related day-to-day variations in air pollution with admissions to acute care hospitals in southern Ontario for respiratory disease over a 9-year period, and with daily mortality in London from 1963 to 1972. In the study of hospital admissions, significant correlations were observed with sulfate, ozone, and SO/sub 2/ pollution, but the data were insufficient to isolate the separate or combined effects of these pollutants. In the London mortality analysis, the strongest correlations were observed for sulfuric acid levels of the prior day, but prefiltering of the mortality data may have dampened the true relationship, and age- and cause-specific analyses would have been desirable. Finally two reports on chronic effects of residence in high air pollution areas have thus far made little contribution to the evidence for an adverse effect of specific pollutants.

  20. 40 CFR 159.170 - Human epidemiological and exposure studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Human epidemiological and exposure... Information § 159.170 Human epidemiological and exposure studies. Information must be submitted which concerns... that a correlation may exist between exposure to a pesticide and observed adverse effects in...

  1. 40 CFR 159.170 - Human epidemiological and exposure studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Human epidemiological and exposure... Information § 159.170 Human epidemiological and exposure studies. Information must be submitted which concerns... that a correlation may exist between exposure to a pesticide and observed adverse effects in...

  2. 40 CFR 159.170 - Human epidemiological and exposure studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Human epidemiological and exposure... Information § 159.170 Human epidemiological and exposure studies. Information must be submitted which concerns... that a correlation may exist between exposure to a pesticide and observed adverse effects in humans...

  3. EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES OF DISINFECTANTS AND DISINFECTANT BY-PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This article provides a review of the epidemiologic evidence for human health effects that may be associated with the disinfection of drinking water. An epidemiologic study attempts to link human health effects with exposure to a specific agent (e.g., DBCM), agents (e.g., THMs or...

  4. 40 CFR 159.170 - Human epidemiological and exposure studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Human epidemiological and exposure... Information § 159.170 Human epidemiological and exposure studies. Information must be submitted which concerns... that a correlation may exist between exposure to a pesticide and observed adverse effects in...

  5. Why Alumni Don't Give: A Qualitative Study of What Motivates Non-Donors to Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wastyn, M. Linda

    2009-01-01

    This project explores why non-donors do not give to their alma mater by interviewing 12 non-donors for an in-depth examination of their decision-making processes. The Van Slyke and Brooks (2005) model of alumni giving provides the conceptual framework. This study concludes that where donors and non-donors differ is in the ways in which they…

  6. Donors' health state the year after peripheral haematopoietic progenitor cell collection: A prospective follow-up study in related and unrelated donors compared to first-time platelet donors.

    PubMed

    Bank, I; Wiersum-Osselton, J C; Van Walraven, S M; Netelenbos, T; Fechter, M; Marijt-van der Kreek, T; Bär, B M A M; Van der Bom, J G; Brand, A

    2016-12-01

    Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) mobilized peripheral haematopoietic progenitor cells collected by apheresis (HPC-A) are the most common source used for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Retrospective short and long-term donor follow-up studies show very low risks of serious complications and do not report compelling evidence of increased cancer occurrence. Some studies reported a prolonged period of leucopenia without an obvious association with infectious complications. However, beyond the first few weeks after the procedure a relationship between events is elusive. We therefore evaluated medical service utilization by prospectively recruited HPC-A donors and first-time platelet apheresis donors for comparison for 1 year after donation. Data were prospectively collected using questionnaires and by medical record review. A total of 215 HPC-A donors (111 unrelated donors and 104 related donors) and 96 first-time platelet donors consented to participation in the study. Follow-up was available for 202 (96%): questionnaires were returned by 74% and records from nonstudy contacts were available for 94% of donors. During the 1-year follow-up, 94 of the donors who returned questionnaires sought medical attention for diagnostic evaluation and/or treatment: 41% of HPC-A donors and 40% of platelet donors. Medical service utilization the first year after HPC-A donation is similar to that after first-time platelet donation. The occurrence of serious medical conditions in both related and unrelated HPC-A donors underscores the importance of participation in long-term follow-up in large cohorts. The findings in this relatively small cohort contribute to evidence on the safety of G-CSF mobilization and HPC-A. J. Clin. Apheresis 31:523-528, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. [Clinico-epidemiologic study of microtia].

    PubMed

    Sánchez, O; Méndez, J R; Gómez, E; Guerra, D

    1997-12-01

    Microtia is a congenital malformation characterized by total or partial absence of the whole auricle or any of its components, varying from a small auricle to the total absence (anotia). There may be associated atresia of the external auditory meatus. The frequency varies in different parts of the world between 0.4 and 5.5/10,000 newborns. In this paper we report the clinical and epidemiological characterization of this congenital malformation in a sample of 97.759 neonates born at the Ruíz y Páez Hospital in Ciudad Bolivar, Venezuela, between April 1978 and December 1994. A total of 38 patients with microtia were identified. The global frequency was 3.8 per 10,000/newborns. In 47.4% of the patients microtia was an isolated malformation and in 52.6% was associated to other malformations. Sixty three percent of the affected were males. The unilateral form was present in 81.5% of the cases, more frequently on the right side. The annual frequency of the defect was stable over the studied years. The clinical classification of the cases with associated malformations allowed us to establish that 18.4% of the cases correspond to developmental fields defects, associated to preauricular dimples and/or tags, 7.8% were cases of the facio-auriculo-vertebral spectrum and in 15.7% the microtia was part of a monogenic or chromosomal syndrome. In 10.5% it was not possible to define any etiological or pathogenic mechanism. The frequency obtained in this study for microtia shows intermediate values when compared with others reports from Latin America.

  8. Mental health status after living donor hepatectomy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Szu-Han; Lin, Ping-Yi; Wang, Jiun-Yi; Huang, Mei-Feng; Lin, Hui-Chuan; Hsieh, Chia-En; Hsu, Ya-Lan; Chen, Yao-Li

    2017-05-01

    Donor safety and preservation of donor health after living liver donation are of paramount importance. In addition, the preoperative mental state of a donor is an important factor in determining the psychological impact of donor hepatectomy. Thus, we aimed to explore the mental health status of living liver donors after hepatectomy. We enrolled 60 donors who were scheduled to undergo living donor hepatectomy during the period January 2014 to March 2015 at a single medical center. Mental health status was measured before and 3 months after surgery using 3 self-report questionnaires, namely the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) to assess depressive symptoms, the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL-BREF) questionnaire to measure quality of life, and the Chinese Health Questionnaire (CHQ) to screen for minor psychiatric disorders. A comparison of the pre- and postdonation CES-D scores revealed a significant reduction in depressive symptoms after surgery (P = .031). There were significant improvements in the physical health domain (P = .031), the psychological health domain (P = .005), the social relationships domain (P = .005), and the environmental health domain (P = .010) of the WHOQOL-BREF. There were no significant changes in CHQ scores after donor hepatectomy (P = .136). All donors reported that they would donate again if required. Approximately one-third (33.3%) of donors experienced more pain than they had anticipated in the immediate postoperative period, and 20.0% of donors had complications after donor hepatectomy. Donor mental health status tended to improve as donors regained physical function during the 1st 3 months of recovery. Long-term monitoring of living donors' mental health is needed to minimize the adverse psychological outcomes of living liver donation.

  9. PRELIMINARY HEALTH BURDEN ANALYSIS FOR EPIDEMIOLOGIC RECREATIONAL WATER STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Introduction: The National Epidemiological and Environmental Assessment of Recreational Water Study (NEEAR) offers a rare opportunity for researchers. The study's design involves the collection of health data before and after visiting the beach in conjunction with water quality...

  10. Ethics of Future Disclosure of Individual Risk Information in a Genetic Cohort Study: A Survey of Donor Preferences

    PubMed Central

    Matsui, Kenji; Lie, Reidar K.; Kita, Yoshikuni; Ueshima, Hirotsugu

    2008-01-01

    Background Although genetic epidemiologic research has added an element of individualization to epidemiologic research, there is neither agreement nor much discussion on whether donors of genetic samples should be offered an opportunity to receive individualized results regarding their genetic susceptibility to disease. Little is known regarding donors’ preferences for future disclosure of individual results. The purpose of this study is to investigate the actual preferences of such donors with regard to receiving individual results, to explore the factors related to their decision, and then to discuss ethical issues regarding the disclosure of results. Methods Participants (n = 1857) of an ongoing Japanese population-based genetic cohort study in Takashima, Shiga, in 2003, were asked at entry about their preferences with regard being recontacted by researchers in the future and whether they wanted to receive reports on their individual genetic results if genetic problems relevant to their health are discovered for which efficacious interventions might be available. Results Most of the donors wished to be recontacted and receive reports, but some did not want any reports. Those who were younger, former/current drinkers, or had at least 1 parent who had had cancer were more likely to want the results, while those who had at least 1 sibling with a medical history of cancer were less likely to want the results. Conclusion We observed a high level of positive preference for future disclosure of individual genetic results, which is in line with the professional views on the ethics of this issue. A well-considered procedure for ascertaining donors’ preferences for receiving the results of the research is required from an ethical perspective. PMID:18776708

  11. Donor and Recipient Views on Their Relationship in Living Kidney Donation: Thematic Synthesis of Qualitative Studies.

    PubMed

    Ralph, Angelique F; Butow, Phyllis; Hanson, Camilla S; Chadban, Steve J; Chapman, Jeremy R; Craig, Jonathan C; Kanellis, John; Luxton, Grant; Tong, Allison

    2017-05-01

    Many donors and recipients report an improved relationship after transplantation; however, tension, neglect, guilt, and proprietorial concern over the recipient can impede donor and recipient well-being and outcomes. We aimed to describe donor and recipient expectations and experiences of their relationship in the context of living kidney donation. Thematic synthesis of qualitative studies. Living kidney donors and recipients. Electronic databases were searched to October 2015. Thematic synthesis. From 40 studies involving 1,440 participants (889 donors and 551 recipients) from 13 countries, we identified 6 themes. "Burden of obligation" described the recipient's perpetual sense of duty to demonstrate gratitude to the donor. "Earning acceptance" was the expectation that donation would restore relationships. "Developing a unique connection" reflected the inexplicable bond that donor-recipient dyads developed postdonation. "Desiring attention" was expressed by donors who wanted recognition for the act of donation and were envious and resentful of the attention the recipient received. "Retaining kidney ownership" reflected the donor's inclination to ensure that the recipient protected "their" kidney. "Enhancing social participation" encompassed relieving both the caregiver from the constraints of dialysis and the recipient from increased involvement and contribution in family life. Non-English articles were excluded. Living kidney donation can strengthen donor-recipient relationships but may trigger or exacerbate unresolved angst, tension, jealousy, and resentment. Facilitating access to pre- and posttransplantation psychological support that addresses potential relationship changes may help donors and recipients better adjust to changes in the relationship dynamics, which in turn may contribute to improved psychosocial and transplantation outcomes following living kidney donation. Copyright © 2016 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  12. Dengue antibodies in blood donors

    PubMed Central

    Ribas-Silva, Rejane Cristina; Eid, Andressa Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    Background Dengue is an urban arbovirus whose etiologic agent is a virus of the genus Flavorius with four distinct antigen serotypes (DENV-1, DENV-2, DENV-3 and DENV-4) that is transmitted to humans through the bite of the mosquito Aedes aegypti. The Campo Mourão region in Brazil is endemic for dengue fever. Obtective The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of IgG and IgM antibodies specific to the four serotypes of dengue in donors of the blood donor service in the city of Campo Mourão. Methods Epidemiological records were evaluated and 4 mL of peripheral blood from 213 blood donors were collected in tubes without anticoagulant. Serum was then obtained and immunochromatographic tests were undertaken (Imuno-Rápido Dengue IgM/IgGTM). Individuals involved in the study answered a social and epidemiological questionnaire on data which included age, gender and diagnosis of dengue. Results Only three (1.4%) of the 213 blood tests were positive for IgG anti-dengue antibodies. No donors with IgM antibody, which identifies acute infection, were identified. Conclusions The results of the current analysis show that the introduction of quantitative or molecular serological methods to determine the presence of anti-dengue antibodies or the detection of the dengue virus in blood donors in endemic regions should be established so that the quality of blood transfusions is guaranteed. PMID:23049418

  13. Risk factors for complications in donors at first and repeat whole blood donation: a cohort study with assessment of the impact on donor return.

    PubMed

    Wiersum-Osselton, Johanna C; Marijt-van der Kreek, Tanneke; Brand, Anneke; Veldhuizen, Ingrid; van der Bom, Johanna G; de Kort, Wim

    2014-01-01

    First-time donation is among recognised risk factors for vasovagal reactions to blood donation and reactions are known to reduce donor return. We assessed associations between potential risk factors and vasovagal reactions and needle-related complications in first-time whole blood donation in comparison to repeat donation and analysed the impact of complications on donor return. We performed a cohort study on whole blood donations in The Netherlands from 1/1/2010 to 31/12/2010 using data extracted from the blood service information system. Donation data up to 31/12/2011 were used to ascertain donor return. In 2010 28,786 donors made first whole blood donations and there were 522,958 repeat donations. Vasovagal reactions occurred in 3.9% of first donations by males and 3.5% of first donations by females compared to in 0.2% and 0.6%, respectively, of repeat donations. Associations of vasovagal reactions with other factors including age, body weight, systolic and diastolic blood pressure were similar in first-time and repeat donors. Needle-related complications occurred in 0.2% of male and 0.5% of female first-time donations and in 0.1% and 0.3%, respectively, of repeat donations. Among first-time donors, the return rate within 1 year was 82% following an uncomplicated first donation, but 55% and 61% following vasovagal reactions and needle-related complications, respectively; the corresponding percentages among repeat donors were 86%, 58% and 82%. Among first-time donors, females suffered less than males from vasovagal reactions. Other risk factors had similar associations among first-time and repeat donors. Vasovagal reactions and needle-related complications in both first-time and repeat donors are followed by reduced donor return.

  14. Risk factors for complications in donors at first and repeat whole blood donation: a cohort study with assessment of the impact on donor return

    PubMed Central

    Wiersum-Osselton, Johanna C.; Marijt-van derKreek, Tanneke; Brand, Anneke; Veldhuizen, Ingrid; van der Bom, Johanna G.; de Kort, Wim

    2014-01-01

    Background First-time donation is among recognised risk factors for vasovagal reactions to blood donation and reactions are known to reduce donor return. We assessed associations between potential risk factors and vasovagal reactions and needle-related complications in first-time whole blood donation in comparison to repeat donation and analysed the impact of complications on donor return. Materials and methods We performed a cohort study on whole blood donations in The Netherlands from 1/1/2010 to 31/12/2010 using data extracted from the blood service information system. Donation data up to 31/12/2011 were used to ascertain donor return. Results In 2010 28,786 donors made first whole blood donations and there were 522,958 repeat donations. Vasovagal reactions occurred in 3.9% of first donations by males and 3.5% of first donations by females compared to in 0.2% and 0.6%, respectively, of repeat donations. Associations of vasovagal reactions with other factors including age, body weight, systolic and diastolic blood pressure were similar in first-time and repeat donors. Needle-related complications occurred in 0.2% of male and 0.5% of female first-time donations and in 0.1% and 0.3%, respectively, of repeat donations. Among first-time donors, the return rate within 1 year was 82% following an uncomplicated first donation, but 55% and 61% following vasovagal reactions and needle-related complications, respectively; the corresponding percentages among repeat donors were 86%, 58% and 82%. Discussion Among first-time donors, females suffered less than males from vasovagal reactions. Other risk factors had similar associations among first-time and repeat donors. Vasovagal reactions and needle-related complications in both first-time and repeat donors are followed by reduced donor return. PMID:23867173

  15. Donor Characteristics of Pancreas Transplantation in Australia and New Zealand: A Cohort Study 1984-2014.

    PubMed

    Peng, Xi Alex; Kelly, Patrick J; Mulley, William R; Pleass, Henry; Pilmore, Helen; Webster, Angela C

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to audit the characteristics of pancreas donors over time in Australia and New Zealand. Pancreas transplantation was introduced in Australian and New Zealand in 1984. We analyzed data from the Australia and New Zealand Islet and Pancreas Transplant Registry, 1984 to 2014. We investigated the variation of donor characteristics of sex, age, body mass index, smoking status, blood group, multiple organ donation, cytomegalovirus status, terminal creatinine, hypertension, and cause of death for pancreas transplantation over time. We used χ(2) test (Fisher test when necessary) or analysis of variance to test difference for categorical or continuous characteristics, respectively. There were 628 pancreas donors from 1984 to 2014. Donor body mass index (from 21.9 to 24.0, P < 0.001) and age (from 23.9 to 28.5, P = 0.02) have both increased while terminal creatinine has decreased (86.3 to 73.3, P = 0.01) from 1995 to 2014. In the meantime, the proportions of donors with hypertension (from 19% to 1%, P < 0.001) and who were smokers (from 54% to 15%, P < 0.001) have decreased. Profile of cause of donor death has also changed over time (P = 0.06) with increase in cerebral hypoxia/ischemia (from 3% to 17%) and reductions in intracranial hemorrhage (27% to 13%). Many donor characteristics have changed over time. The most significant changes appear to reflect changes in the general population, rather than changes in donor selection.

  16. Living kidney donors--a prospective study of quality of life before and after kidney donation.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Márcia Fátima Faraldo Martinez; Andrade, Luis Gustavo M; Carvalho, Maria Fernanda C

    2013-01-01

    Although the safety of living kidney donation has been well established, prospective studies examining the physical and psychosocial aspects of the donor's quality of life are still scarce. Thus, the purpose of this prospective work was to assess the quality of life of 50 consecutive donors before and after kidney transplantation. All donors were asked to respond to both a donor questionnaire and the short-form 36-item health survey (SF-36). Interviews were individually conducted before, three months after, and over one yr after transplantation. Donation was considered a positive experience by all patients and had no impact on any physical or psychosocial aspect of the donor's life. Improved self-esteem and better quality of life after donation were reported in 52% of the cases. All donors would donate again and encouraged donation. SF-36 data indicated improvement in post-donation mental and physical scores among living donors closely related to recipient. Overall, most donors had a positive experience, felt no changes in quality of life, experienced enhanced self-esteem, would donate again, and recommended donation.

  17. FRET study in oligopeptide-linked donor-acceptor system in PVA matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Sunil; Mandecki, Wlodek; Li, Ji; Gryczynski, Zygmunt; Borejdo, Julian; Gryczynski, Ignacy; Fudala, Rafal

    2016-12-01

    An oligopeptide: Lys-Gly-Pro-Arg-Ser-Leu-Ser-Gly-Lys-NH2, cleaved specifically by a matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) at the Ser-Leu bond, was labeled on the ɛ-NH2 groups of lysine with donor (5, 6 TAMRA) and acceptor (HiLyte647) dye. The donor control was a peptide labeled with 5, 6 TAMRA only on the C-terminal lysine, and the acceptor control was free HiLyte647. Following three products were studied by dissolving in 10% (w/w) poly(vinyl alcohol) and dried on glass slides forming 200 micron films. Absorption spectra of the films show full additivity of donor and acceptor absorptions. A strong Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) with an efficiency of about 85% was observed in the fluorescence emission and excitation spectra. The lifetime of the donor was shorter and heterogeneous compared with the donor control.

  18. How to design a (good) epidemiological observational study: epidemiological research protocol at a glance.

    PubMed

    Fronteira, Ines

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we propose a general structure for designing a research protocol of an observational epidemiological study. We start by highlighting the importance of the research protocol, namely in accounting for some bias and guaranteeing methodologic rigor and study reproductability. Next, we reflect on some of the essential elements of a research protocol no matter its objective. We further present some specific issues to be included according to the type of study: cross-sectional, case-control and cohort.

  19. Donor-site Morbidity of Medial and Lateral Thigh-based Flaps: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Purnell, Chad A.; Lewis, Kevin C.; Mioton, Lauren M.; Hanwright, Philip J.; Galiano, Robert D.; Dumanian, Gregory A.; Alghoul, Mohammed S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Free and pedicled medial and lateral thigh-based flaps are common reconstructive procedures. However, there have been no comparative studies of morbidity between medial and lateral donor sites. Methods: We conducted an Enterprise Data Warehouse-based review of all the senior authors’ (R.D.G., G.A.D., and M.S.A.) thigh-based free and pedicled flaps. Patient demographic data, donor-site complications, drain duration, and number of postoperative visits were collected and compared. Complications were also compared between fasciocutaneous flaps and muscle or myocutaneous flaps, and skin grafted donor sites. Results: We analyzed 352 flap donor sites, with 155 medial and 197 lateral. Two hundred seventeen (217) flaps were pedicled. Flap types included 127 gracilis, 27 rectus femoris, 134 anterolateral thigh, and 36 vastus lateralis-only flaps. There were no significant differences in complications between medial (17.4%) and lateral thigh (21.3%) donor sites, although lateral thigh flaps had a mean of 1 additional postoperative visit. Rates of wound dehiscence/healing issues were significantly higher in both gracilis myocutaneous flaps (25.9%) and flaps requiring a skin grafted donor site (31.2%). Postoperative therapeutic anticoagulation was the only significant risk factor for a donor-site complication. Flap complications resulted in increased drain duration and postoperative office visits. Conclusions: Donor-site morbidity is similar in both lateral and medial thigh-based flaps. The inclusion of muscle in the flap from either donor site does not seem to increase complications, but the inclusion of a skin paddle with gracilis muscle, or a skin grafted lateral thigh donor site, results in increased wound healing complications. PMID:27975004

  20. [Commitment in plasmapheresis donation: A study of determinants among regular donors in plasmapheresis].

    PubMed

    Delépine-Farvacques, S; Terrade, Florence; Danic, B; Lebaudy, J-P

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study, based on the Theory of planned behavior, is to identify and ultimately better understand what determines the fidelity and the regularity of donors committed in plasmapheresis donation. This qualitative study is a primary stage to establish a classification of donors in a French socio-cultural context. For this reason, we have carried out a survey among 16 regular plasmapheresis donors, by way of semi-structured individual interviews at the Établissement français du sang - Brittany. The level of commitment of these regular donors is considered as a level of appropriation. If subjective norms have initially influenced their decision to donate blood, no specific motivation has been highlighted for them to donate plasma except a generally favourable attitude towards the voluntary donation process. The perception of control over their environment is a variable which played a decisive role in the donor's intention to give, with little cost associated to plasmapheresis donation and recourse to internal causal explanations. A better comprehension of the plasmapheresis donors' determinants should lead us to a more efficient awareness of new potential donors, thereby enhancing recruitment and retention. Due to the increasing need for plasma-derived products, this study's ultimate issue is closely correlated both with ethical and socio-economic aspects. Following which, after analysing the results, a certain number of recommendations will be made. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Long-term safety in living kidney donors for paediatric transplantation. Single-centre prospective study.

    PubMed

    Martin Benlloch, J; Román Ortiz, E; Mendizabal Oteiza, S

    There is enough evidence concerning the short-term safety of living donors after kidney transplantation. However, long-term complications continue to be studied, with a particular interest in young donors. Previous studies have been conducted in older donors for adult renal patients. We present a study of long-term complications in kidney donors for our paediatric population. We carried out a long-term donor study for the 54 living kidney-donor transplantations performed at our department from 1979 to June 2014. We monitored the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) on the basis of 24-hour urine creatinine clearance, 24-hour proteinuria and the development of arterial hypertension in the 48 donors who were followed up for more than one year. Only the 39 patients who were exclusively followed up by our department have been included in the results analysis. GFR through creatinine clearance was stable after an initial decrease. No proteinuria was observed in any of the cases. One patient developed chronic kidney disease (CKD), which resulted in a cumulative incidence of 2%. GFR below 60mL/min/1.73 m(2) was not reported in any other patients. Arterial hypertension was diagnosed in 25% of donors, 90% of which were treated with antihypertensives. Risk of CKD and hypertension in living kidney donors for paediatric recipients, who are carefully monitored throughout their evolution, is similar to that of the general population. Therefore, this technique appears to be safe in both the short and long term. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Family Communication about Donor Conception: A Qualitative Study with Lesbian Parents.

    PubMed

    Van Parys, Hanna; Wyverkens, Elia; Provoost, Veerle; De Sutter, Petra; Pennings, Guido; Buysse, Ann

    2016-03-01

    In this qualitative study of 10 lesbian couples who built their families through anonymous donor conception, we explore how lesbian parents experience communication about the donor conception within the family. While for these families "disclosure" of donor conception is often seen as evident, the way parents and children discuss this subject and how this is experienced by the parents themselves has not received much research attention. To meet this gap in the literature, in-depth interviews with lesbian couples were conducted. An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis showed that this family communication process can be understood within the broader relational context of parent-child relationships. Even though parents handled this family communication in many different ways, these were all inspired by the same motives: acting in the child's best interest and-on a more implicit level-maintaining good relations within the family. Furthermore, parents left the initiative for talking about the DC mostly to the child. Overall, parents aimed at constructing a donor conception narrative that they considered acceptable for both the children and themselves. They used different strategies, such as gradual disclosure, limiting the meaning of the donor, and justifying the donor conception. Building an acceptable donor conception narrative was sometimes challenged by influences from the social environment. In the discussion, we relate this qualitative systemic study to the broader issues of selective disclosure and bidirectionality within families. © 2014 Family Process Institute.

  3. Donor bone marrow in laryngeal transplantation: results of a rat study.

    PubMed

    Khariwala, Samir S; Dan, Olivia; Lorenz, Robert R; Klimczak, Aleksandra; Siemionow, Maria; Strome, Marshall

    2008-01-01

    The concept of donor bone marrow transplantation has been successfully used in human solid organ transplantation to increase recipient chimerism. The development of recipient chimerism is associated with a decreased need for immunosuppression and even donor-specific tolerance. In this study, we attempted to augment recipient chimerism by the transfer of donor bone marrow at the time of rat laryngeal transplant. Experimental study in rats. The study used a well-established semiallogeneic rat laryngeal transplant model with partial major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-mismatched Lewis-Brown-Norway donors and Lewis recipients. Donor bone marrow was introduced at transplantation via (1) intravascular injection and (2) transfer of a vascularized femoral bone graft. Recipients were treated with an established immunosuppressive regimen consisting of everolimus and anti-alphabetaTCR monoclonal antibody for a 7-day perioperative course. Animals received a 5-day boost of the same regimen at 90 days posttransplantation. Parathyroid hormone levels and histological examination were used for rejection surveillance and scoring. Animals treated with intravenous bone marrow injection followed by perioperative and pulsed immunosuppression commonly demonstrated early rejection (90%). Animals receiving transfer of vascularized donor femur had an average rejection score of 2.9 (scale, 1-6) at 180 days posttransplantation. Mixed-lymphocyte reaction did not demonstrate donor-specific tolerance in the latter group, and chimerism was less than 1%. In the rat laryngeal transplant model, donor bone marrow does not consistently lead to augmentation of peripheral chimerism using our established pulsed immunosuppression protocol. In many cases, rejection occurred earlier than animals not receiving bone marrow. This may be due to several different factors including (1) an element of graft-vs-host disease, (2) inability to establish bone marrow engraftment due to our short-term perioperative

  4. Iron Deficiency in Blood Donors: Analysis of Enrollment Data from the REDS-II Donor Iron Status Evaluation (RISE) Study

    PubMed Central

    Cable, Ritchard G.; Glynn, Simone A.; Kiss, Joseph E.; Mast, Alan E.; Steele, Whitney R.; Murphy, Edward L.; Wright, David J.; Sacher, Ronald A.; Gottschall, Jerry L.; Vij, Vibha; Simon, Toby L.

    2010-01-01

    Background Regular blood donors are at risk of iron deficiency, but characteristics which predispose to this condition are poorly defined. Methods 2425 red cell donors, either first time (FT) or reactivated donors (no donations for 2 years) or frequent donors were recruited for follow-up. At enrollment, ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), and hemoglobin were determined. Donor variables included demographics, smoking, dietary intake, use of iron supplements, and menstrual/pregnancy history. Models to predict two measures of iron deficiency were developed: Absent iron stores (AIS) were indicated by ferritin < 12 ng/mL and iron deficient erythropoiesis (IDE) by log (sTfR/ferritin) ≥ 2.07. Results 15.0% of donors had AIS, 41.7% IDE. In frequent donors, 16.4% and 48.7% of males had AIS and IDE, respectively, with corresponding proportions of 27.1% and 66.1% for females. Donation intensity was most closely associated with AIS/IDE (ORs from 5.3 to 52.2 for different donation intensity compared to FT donors). Being female, younger, and/or menstruating also increased the likelihood of having AIS/IDE, as did having a lower weight. Marginally significant variables for AIS and/or IDE were being a non-smoker, previous pregnancy and not taking iron supplements. Dietary variables were in general unrelated to AIS/IDE, as was race/ethnicity. Conclusion A large proportion of both female and male frequent blood donors have iron depletion. Donation intensity, gender/menstrual status, weight, and age are important independent predictors of AIS/IDE. Reducing the frequency of blood donation is likely to reduce the prevalence of iron deficiency among blood donors, as might implementing routine iron supplementation. PMID:20804527

  5. Iron deficiency in blood donors: analysis of enrollment data from the REDS-II Donor Iron Status Evaluation (RISE) study.

    PubMed

    Cable, Ritchard G; Glynn, Simone A; Kiss, Joseph E; Mast, Alan E; Steele, Whitney R; Murphy, Edward L; Wright, David J; Sacher, Ronald A; Gottschall, Jerry L; Vij, Vibha; Simon, Toby L

    2011-03-01

    Regular blood donors are at risk of iron deficiency, but characteristics that predispose to this condition are poorly defined. A total of 2425 red blood cell donors, either first-time (FT) or reactivated donors (no donations for 2 years) or frequent donors, were recruited for follow-up. At enrollment, ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), and hemoglobin were determined. Donor variables included demographics, smoking, dietary intake, use of iron supplements, and menstrual and/or pregnancy history. Models to predict two measures of iron deficiency were developed: Absent iron stores (AIS) were indicated by a ferritin level of less than 12 ng/mL and iron-deficient erythropoiesis (IDE) by a log(sTfR/ferritin) value of 2.07 or greater. A total of 15.0% of donors had AIS and 41.7% IDE. In frequent donors, 16.4 and 48.7% of males had AIS and IDE, respectively, with corresponding proportions of 27.1 and 66.1% for females. Donation intensity was most closely associated with AIS and/or IDE (odds ratios from 5.3 to 52.2 for different donation intensity compared to FT donors). Being female, younger, and/or menstruating also increased the likelihood of having AIS and/or IDE, as did having a lower weight. Marginally significant variables for AIS and/or IDE were being a nonsmoker, previous pregnancy, and not taking iron supplements. Dietary variables were in general unrelated to AIS and/or IDE, as was race and/or ethnicity. A large proportion of both female and male frequent blood donors have iron depletion. Donation intensity, sex and/or menstrual status, weight, and age are important independent predictors of AIS and/or IDE. Reducing the frequency of blood donation is likely to reduce the prevalence of iron deficiency among blood donors, as might implementing routine iron supplementation. © 2010 American Association of Blood Banks.

  6. Can right-sided hand-assisted retroperitoneoscopic donor nephrectomy be advocated above standard laparoscopic donor nephrectomy: a randomized pilot study.

    PubMed

    Klop, Karel W J; Kok, Niels F M; Dols, Leonienke F C; Dor, Frank J M F; Tran, Khe T C; Terkivatan, Türkan; Weimar, Willem; Ijzermans, Jan N M

    2014-02-01

    Endoscopic techniques have contributed to early recovery and increased quality of life (QOL) of live kidney donors. However, laparoscopic donor nephrectomy (LDN) may have its limitations, and hand-assisted retroperitoneoscopic donor nephrectomy (HARP) has been introduced, mainly as a potentially safer alternative. In a randomized fashion, we explored the feasibility and potential benefits of HARP for right-sided donor nephrectomy in a referral center with longstanding expertise on the standard laparoscopic approach. Forty donors were randomly assigned to either LDN or HARP. Primary outcome was operating time, and secondary outcomes included QOL, complications, pain, morphine requirement, blood loss, warm ischemia time, and hospital stay. Follow-up time was 1 year. Skin-to-skin time did not significantly differ between both groups (162 vs. 158 min, P = 0.98). As compared to LDN, HARP resulted in a shorter warm ischemia time (2.8 vs. 3.9 min, P < 0.001) and increased blood loss (187 vs. 50 ml, P < 0.001). QOL, complication rate, pain, or hospital stay was not significantly different between the groups. Right-sided HARP is feasible but does not confer clear benefits over standard right-sided LDN yet. Further studies should explore the value of HARP in difficult cases such as the obese donor and the value of HARP for transplantation centers starting a live kidney donation program (Dutch Trial Register number: NTR3096). Nevertheless, HARP is a valuable addition to the surgical armamentarium in live donor surgery.

  7. Beyond sperm cells: a qualitative study on constructed meanings of the sperm donor in lesbian families.

    PubMed

    Wyverkens, E; Provoost, V; Ravelingien, A; De Sutter, P; Pennings, G; Buysse, A

    2014-06-01

    What meanings do lesbian couples construct regarding their sperm donor? For some parents, the donor was increasingly presented as a person, whereas for other parents, the donor was seen as an instrument from the moment they received the sperm donation. Few studies specifically focus on how lesbian couples deal with the issue of third-party anonymous gamete donation. It is often assumed that they have fewer difficulties than heterosexual couples with the involvement of a male procreator, since their status as a donor conception family is 'socially visible' and there is no social father who fears exclusion. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 lesbian couples (20 participants), recruited via the Ghent University Hospital. All couples had at least one child, conceived through anonymous donor insemination, between 7 and 10 years old. Within the data corpus, a particular data set was analyzed where couples referred to their donor and his position in their family. Step-by-step inductive thematic analysis was performed resulting in themes that are grounded in the data. All phases of the analysis were followed by team discussion. This study reveals different donor constructs, indicating different ways of dealing with the third-party involvement in the family. Some parents diminish the role of the donor throughout family life and continue to present him as an instrument: something they needed in order to become parents. Others show an increasing interest in the donor as the children mature, which results in a more personalized account of the donor. In our qualitative cross-sectional study, we collected retrospectively constructed stories. Longitudinal qualitative and quantitative research is required to allow for an extrapolation of the conclusions made. This study shows how the concept of the donor is constructed within lesbian families and how it is challenged by the child's developing personality and features. When counseling prospective parents, it could

  8. Epidemiological study air disaster in Amsterdam (ESADA): study design

    PubMed Central

    Slottje, Pauline; Huizink, Anja C; Twisk, Jos WR; Witteveen, Anke B; van der Ploeg, Henk M; Bramsen, Inge; Smidt, Nynke; Bijlsma, Joost A; Bouter, Lex M; van Mechelen, Willem; Smid, Tjabe

    2005-01-01

    Background In 1992, a cargo aircraft crashed into apartment buildings in Amsterdam, killing 43 victims and destroying 266 apartments. In the aftermath there were speculations about the cause of the crash, potential exposures to hazardous materials due to the disaster and the health consequences. Starting in 2000, the Epidemiological Study Air Disaster in Amsterdam (ESADA) aimed to assess the long-term health effects of occupational exposure to this disaster on professional assistance workers. Methods/Design Epidemiological study among all the exposed professional fire-fighters and police officers who performed disaster-related task(s), and hangar workers who sorted the wreckage of the aircraft, as well as reference groups of their non-exposed colleagues who did not perform any disaster-related tasks. The study took place, on average, 8.5 years after the disaster. Questionnaires were used to assess details on occupational exposure to the disaster. Health measures comprised laboratory assessments in urine, blood and saliva, as well as self-reported current health measures, including health-related quality of life, and various physical and psychological symptoms. Discussion In this paper we describe and discuss the design of the ESADA. The ESADA will provide additional scientific knowledge on the long-term health effects of technological disasters on professional workers. PMID:15921536

  9. Field epidemiologic studies of populations exposed to waste dumps.

    PubMed

    Heath, C W

    1983-02-01

    Epidemiologic studies are required for assessing health risks related to toxic waste exposure. Since the settings in which such studies must be performed are extremely diverse, epidemiologic approaches must be versatile. For any particular study, three fundamental requirements are to assess what toxic materials are present, understand how human exposure may occur, and objectively measure possible biologic effects. In assessing links between exposure and disease, epidemiologists must be particularly aware of: expected disease frequencies in relation to the size of populations studied, implications of long or varied disease latencies for study design and competing causes of disease and associated confounding variables. These concepts are illustrated by discussion of epidemiologic studies related to the Love Canal toxic waste dump site in Niagara Falls, NY.

  10. The Glasgow Prognostic Score and its variants predict mortality in living donor but not in deceased donor liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma: A double-center validation study.

    PubMed

    Kaltenborn, Alexander; Schrem, Harald; Reichert, Benedikt; Braun, Felix; Emmanouilidis, Nikos; Klempnauer, Jürgen; Becker, Thomas; Heits, Nils

    2017-07-01

    This study aimed to evaluate whether the Glasgow Prognostic Score (GPS) and its variants are able to predict mortality in live donor and deceased donor liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma. Data of 29 live donor and 319 deceased donor transplantations from two German transplant centers was analyzed. The GPS, modified GPS, hepatic GPS, and Abe score were investigated. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was carried out to calculate the sensitivity, specificity, and overall model correctness of the investigated scores as a predictive model. Study end-points were 1-year, 3-year, and long-term mortality. A 1-year mortality of 19.1% (n = 61), 3-year mortality of 26.3% (n = 84), and overall mortality of 37.3% (n = 119) was observed. All investigated scores failed to predict outcome in deceased donor liver transplantation (areas under ROC curves <0.700), whereas GPS, hepatic GPS, modified GPS, and the Abe score reached areas under ROC curves >0.700 for the prediction of 1-year mortality in live donor transplantation. The GPS and Abe score were also able to predict 3-year mortality. None of the investigated scores was a reliable predictor of long-term mortality. Systemic inflammation-based scores have great prognostic potential in live donor transplantation. Abe score could be successfully externally validated in the current study for the first time. In deceased donor transplantation, none of the analyzed scores was able to allow reliable prediction for the investigated study end-points. © 2016 The Japan Society of Hepatology.

  11. 40 CFR 159.170 - Human epidemiological and exposure studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... studies. 159.170 Section 159.170 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Information § 159.170 Human epidemiological and exposure studies. Information must be submitted which concerns any study that a person described in § 159.158(a) has concluded, or might reasonably conclude,...

  12. Molecular epidemiology: issues in study design and statistical analysis.

    PubMed

    Chia, K S; Shi, C Y; Lee, J; Seow, A; Lee, H P

    1996-01-01

    Traditional analytical epidemiology is directed at identifying the association between risk factors and occurrence of disease by using crude exposure data derived from questionnaires or clinical measures, and taking clinical disease as the end point. With the rapid development in molecular biology and laboratory methods, it is now possible to use biomarkers which are capable of identifying molecular events for epidemiologic research. This improved sensitivity enables us to develop a mechanistic understanding of disease causation: a step closer to the unravelling of the "black box" of traditional epidemiology. Biomarkers may be classified as internal indicators of exposure (biomarkers of exposure), indicators of preclinical adverse effect (biomarkers of effect) or indicators of an intrinsic or acquired susceptibility to disease (biomarkers of susceptibility). Biomarkers provide a better definition of exposure and disease status and consequently they could help to reduce misclassification bias in both exposure and disease, reduce the follow-up time in prospective studies, as well as identify possible interactions between risk factors on disease occurrence. However, a biomarker needs to be validated and its distribution in large populations described before it can be used profitably for aetiologic research. Also, the use of biomarkers in epidemiologic research raises other interesting epidemiological and statistical issues like confounding, effect modification and the analysis of repeated measurements. Molecular epidemiology is a multidisciplinary endeavour which comprises molecular biology, epidemiology and biostatistics. Clearly then, to carry out research in this field profitably, the molecular biologist, epidemiologist and biostatistician must acquire not only expertise in their respective fields, but also an integrated understanding of all three fields. The molecular biologist is not merely a laboratory bench worker; the epidemiologist, a field data-collector and

  13. The long-term quality of life of living kidney donors: a multicenter cohort study.

    PubMed

    Clemens, K; Boudville, N; Dew, M A; Geddes, C; Gill, J S; Jassal, V; Klarenbach, S; Knoll, G; Muirhead, N; Prasad, G V R; Storsley, L; Treleaven, D; Garg, A X; Garg, A

    2011-03-01

    Previous studies that described the long-term quality of life of living kidney donors were conducted in single centers, and lacked data on a healthy nondonor comparison group. We conducted a retrospective cohort study to compare the quality of life of 203 kidney donors with 104 healthy nondonor controls using validated scales (including the SF36, 15D and feeling thermometer) and author-developed questions. Participants were recruited from nine transplant centers in Canada, Scotland and Australia. Outcomes were assessed a median of 5.5 years after the time of transplantation (lower and upper quartiles of 3.8 and 8.4 years, respectively). 15D scores (scale of 0 to 1) were high and similar between donors and nondonors (mean 0.93 (standard deviation (SD) 0.09) and 0.94 (SD 0.06), p = 0.55), and were not different when results were adjusted for several prognostic characteristics (p = 0.55). On other scales and author-developed questions, groups performed similarly. Donors to recipients who had an adverse outcome (death, graft failure) had similar quality of life scores as those donors where the recipient did well. Our findings are reassuring for the practice of living transplantation. Those who donate a kidney in centers that use routine pretransplant donor evaluation have good long-term quality of life. ©2011 The Authors Journal compilation©2011 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  14. Epidemiological studies relating genital herpetic infection to cervical carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Nahmias, A J; Naib, Z M; Josey, W E

    1974-05-01

    Epidemiological studies relating genital herpetic infection to cervical carcinoma are reviewed. The high frequency of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) antibodies in young women (21 years or younger) with cervical carcinoma in situ and in women with dysplasia or carcinoma in situ, matched for various sexual attributes to control women, provide support for a causal relation. However, various laboratory, histopathological, and statistical problems associated with all epidemiological studies do not yet permit a firm conclusion as to the etiological role to the genital virus in cervical carcinogenesis. With the use of herpes-related cancer antigens or purified HSV-2 type-specific antigens, and with the possible development of protective HSV-2 vaccines, the application of epidemiological approaches may be necessary to provide the most finite evidence of causality.

  15. Epidemiological studies are like cherries, one draws another.

    PubMed

    Lunet, Nuno

    2009-01-01

    The proverb "Words are like cherries", meaning that when you start talking subjects pop up and you end up with long conversations, just like cherries coming out of the plate in chains when you pick one, may also be applied to epidemiological research. A sequence of epidemiological studies, each being drawn from the previous, is presented as an example of how each investigation may raise new questions to be addressed in following studies. This description stresses the need for appropriate planning and the usefulness of pilot testing to depict inadequacies that can hardly be anticipated without field work. I intend to illustrate how epidemiological research can provide a deep approach to research questions, as long as findings are properly interpreted and suboptimal methodological options are taken into account in future investigations.

  16. The characteristics of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-negative hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in Chinese blood donors: a follow-up study of donors tested negative for HBsAg and reactive for simultaneous nucleic acid testing of HBV, hepatitis C virus, and human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhaofu; Fu, Ping; Yin, Yijin; Wang, Funeng; Yin, Yiqing; Wang, Jingxing; Liu, Yu

    2017-03-01

    The real infection status of hepatitis B virus (HBV) of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-negative yet nucleic acid test (NAT)-positive blood donors is difficult to clarify. Detailed follow-up study is needed for analyzing the infectivity of these blood donors. Blood donors who screened negative for HBsAg and reactive for simultaneous NAT of HBV, hepatitis C virus (HCV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) were included in a follow-up epidemiologic questionnaire survey and contributed follow-up samples for further testing. The follow-up samples were tested repeatedly for the serologic markers and HBV DNA. The genotypes and sequence mutations of HBV infected by 11 HBV DNA-positive donors were analyzed through the amplification and sequencing of HBV S region. Of the 46 donors included in this study, 89.1% were infected with HBV (41/46), including one (2.2%) window period infection, three (6.5%) recovered infections, and 37 (80.4%) occult HBV infections (OBIs). The S region of HBV was successfully amplified and sequenced for seven donors, five infected with Genotype B (71.4%), one with Genotype C (14.3%), and one with Genotype D (14.3%). Mutations in the S region were detected in four donors (57.1%) CONCLUSIONS: This is the first detailed study with multiple follow-up testing of the HBV infection status among blood donors who were tested negative for HBsAg and reactive for simultaneous NAT of HBV, HCV, and HIV. Most of these donors were infected with HBV with very low viral load. Our findings indicate that it is important to improve the sensitivity of NAT so as to decrease the residual risk of transfusion-transmitted HBV infection. © 2017 AABB.

  17. Immune transfer studies in canine allogeneic marrow graft donor-recipient pairs

    SciTech Connect

    Grosse-Wilde, H.; Krumbacher, K.; Schuening, F.D.; Doxiadis, I.; Mahmoud, H.K.; Emde, C.; Schmidt-Weinmar, A.; Schaefer, U.W.

    1986-07-01

    Transfer of immunity occurring with bone marrow grafting was studied using the dog as a preclinical model. Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) was performed between DLA-identical beagle litter-mates. The donors were immunized with tetanus toxoid (TT) or sheep red blood cells (SRBC), and their humoral response was monitored by hemagglutination. The recipients of bone marrow from TT-immunized donors showed a marked increase of antibody titer one week posttransplantation, while in the recipients of marrow from SRBC immunized donors the antibody titers were considerably lower. Within the following 60 days the antibody titers in both groups diminished gradually to pregrafting levels. Control experiments in which cell-free plasma from donors immunized with TT and SRBC respectively was transfused indicated that the initial rise of specific antibody titers after marrow grafting is likely to be due to a passive transfer of humoral immunity. A single challenge of these marrow graft recipients with the respective antigen 15-18 weeks posttransplantation led to a secondary type of humoral immune response. It could be demonstrated that transfer of memory against TT or SRBC was independent from the actual antibody titer and the time of vaccination of the donor. One dog was immunized with TT after serving as marrow donor. When the donor had shown an antibody response, a peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) transfusion was given to his chimera. Subsequent challenge of the latter resulted in a secondary type of specific antibody response. This indicates that specific cellular-bound immunological memory can be transferred after BMT from the donor to his allogeneic bone marrow chimera by transfusion of peripheral blood leukocytes. The data may be of importance in clinical BMT to protect patients during the phase of reduced immune reactivity by transfer of memory cells.

  18. Donor Characteristics of Pancreas Transplantation in Australia and New Zealand: A Cohort Study 1984-2014

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Xi (Alex); Kelly, Patrick J.; Mulley, William R.; Pleass, Henry; Pilmore, Helen; Webster, Angela C.

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to audit the characteristics of pancreas donors over time in Australia and New Zealand. Pancreas transplantation was introduced in Australian and New Zealand in 1984. Methods We analyzed data from the Australia and New Zealand Islet and Pancreas Transplant Registry, 1984 to 2014. We investigated the variation of donor characteristics of sex, age, body mass index, smoking status, blood group, multiple organ donation, cytomegalovirus status, terminal creatinine, hypertension, and cause of death for pancreas transplantation over time. We used χ2 test (Fisher test when necessary) or analysis of variance to test difference for categorical or continuous characteristics, respectively. Results There were 628 pancreas donors from 1984 to 2014. Donor body mass index (from 21.9 to 24.0, P < 0.001) and age (from 23.9 to 28.5, P = 0.02) have both increased while terminal creatinine has decreased (86.3 to 73.3, P = 0.01) from 1995 to 2014. In the meantime, the proportions of donors with hypertension (from 19% to 1%, P < 0.001) and who were smokers (from 54% to 15%, P < 0.001) have decreased. Profile of cause of donor death has also changed over time (P = 0.06) with increase in cerebral hypoxia/ischemia (from 3% to 17%) and reductions in intracranial hemorrhage (27% to 13%). Conclusions Many donor characteristics have changed over time. The most significant changes appear to reflect changes in the general population, rather than changes in donor selection. PMID:27795991

  19. Donor Descemet-off versus Descemet-on deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty: a confocal scan study.

    PubMed

    Feizi, Sepehr; Zare, Mohammad; Hosseini, Seyed Bagher; Kanavi, Mozhgan Rezaee; Yazdani, Shahin

    2015-01-01

    To compare confocal features of grafts following deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK) using a donor without Descemet membrane (DM) versus a full-thickness donor with intact DM and endothelium. This retrospective comparative study examined 45 eyes from patients with keratoconus who underwent DALK using the big-bubble technique. The big-bubble technique yielded a bared DM in all keratoconic eyes. Twenty-seven eyes received tissue from a donor without DM (group 1), while 18 received tissue from a full-thickness donor with an intact DM and endothelium (group 2). A group of normal eyes (n = 28, group 3) served as controls. Confocal microscopy was used to determine keratocyte density, explore the donor-recipient interface including clarity and reflectivity, evaluate endothelial cell density and morphology, as well as measure interface depth and central corneal thickness. Mean follow-up duration was 20.2 ± 8.6 months and 29.6 ± 17.0 months in groups 1 and 2, respectively (p = 0.13). Confocal scan demonstrated that the keratocyte profiles and distribution were more similar to normal corneas in group 2. Significantly more severe interface haziness was observed when donor DM and endothelium was retained (mean interface reflectivity value of 102.7 ± 22.1 versus 161.7 ± 30.0 light reflectance units in groups 1 and 2, respectively, p<0.001). Graft cellular profiles and healing response at the donor-recipient interface can be profoundly affected depending on whether donor DM and endothelium is removed or retained.

  20. Overview of risk assessment in new EPA epidemiology studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Since 2003, the Office of Research and Development of the US Environmental Protection Agency has conducted a series of epidemiology studies of water quality and health effects among beach goers at beaches across the United States. These studies are designed to establish associati...

  1. Overview of risk assessment in new EPA epidemiology studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Since 2003, the Office of Research and Development of the US Environmental Protection Agency has conducted a series of epidemiology studies of water quality and health effects among beach goers at beaches across the United States. These studies are designed to establish associati...

  2. ADenoVirus Initiative Study in Epidemiology (ADVISE): Results of a multicentric epidemiology study in Spain.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Hernández, A M; Duquesroix, B; Benítez-Del-Castillo, J M

    2017-09-07

    Non-interventional, observational, epidemiology study to assess clinical characteristics and frequency of adenovirus conjunctivitis diagnosed by AdenoPlus(®) in patients who presented with signs and symptoms of acute conjunctivitis. Safety aspects during use of the test were analyzed as well. This analysis presents the data obtained from the 386 patients enrolled in Spain. Patients had to present with acute signs and symptoms of conjunctivitis ≤7days. The minimum age was 1year old. Patients who had already used local antiviral therapies, topical steroids or immuno-modulators were not allowed to enter the study. A standardized questionnaire was used to collect patient's ocular history and test results. A total of 386 patients were recruited in 22 sites, being analyzed 329 patients. Among them, the percentage of "AdenoPlus(®) positive" was 36,2% (119/329). Before the test was performed, in 84,1% of the cases, investigators believed that the conjunctivitis was of viral origin but only 50,3% of the investigators had their clinical assessment confirmed by the test. Patients who tested positive for adenoviral conjunctivitis presented higher percentages of signs and symptoms than the rest of the patients. None of the signs or symptoms could be qualified as pathognomonic of the disease, being difficult for the clinicians to perform an accurate diagnosis. AdenoPlus(®) test is an antigen based immunoassay test that detects the presence of adenovirus directly from tears, and it can be an useful tool to help early differential diagnosis in patients with conjunctivitis signs and symptoms lasting for less than or equal to 7days. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. [Epidemiological study of hepatitis A and E viruses in different populations in Uruguay].

    PubMed

    Cruells, M R; Mescia, G; Gaibisso, R; Ramírez, M; Gutiérrez, M; Kohen, S; González, M; Russi, J; Chiparelli, H; Ucar, L; Pérez, M T

    1997-01-01

    The hepatitis A and E virus (HAV and HEV) share the fecal-oral mechanism. Hepatitis A is an endemo-epidemic disease in Uruguay but no data on the epidemiologic pattern of the HEV is available. The aims of this study were to update the epidemiologic behavior of the HAV in Montevideo and demonstrate the circulation of the HEV in Uruguay. Two hundred fourteen patients who consulted in the Policlínica de Nutrición y Digestivo were studied, 185 (86%) of whom were anti HAV (HAVAB, Abbot) positive. 81.8% (117/143) of those residents in Montevideo and 95.7% (68/71) of those who were from the inland were anti-HAV positive. From the Montevideo population 55.8% cases under the age of 40 years were anti-HAV positive and occurred in 97.6% of those older (p < 0.001). Considering the health care conditions of the positive patients in Montevideo, 95.6% (43/45) had septic chambers and 75.5% (74/98) disposed of toilet facilities (p < 0.001). It is concluded that although the global prevalence has been maintained since 1982, there is a change in the epidemiologic pattern with greater risk of infection in patients under the age of 40 years proceeding from areas without toilet facilities. The prevalence of total antibodies for HEV (EIA, Abbot) was 2.8% in this population. An association was observed with HAV in 2.2% (4/185). Moreover, a sample of 252 blood donors from the National Blood Service was analyzed with 5 being found to be anti HEV positive, with only 3 (1.2%) being confirmed in the Center for Disease Control in the United States. Although no definitive conclusions may be drawn from the present study, from an epidemiologic point of view, it has been shown that there is evidence of the circulation of HEV in Uruguay, in both the out patient and in blood donor populations.

  4. Differences between blood donors and a population sample: implications for case–control studies

    PubMed Central

    Golding, Jean; Northstone, Kate; Miller, Laura L; Davey Smith, George; Pembrey, Marcus

    2013-01-01

    Background Selecting appropriate controls for studies of genetic variation in case series is important. The two major candidates involve the use of blood donors or a random sample of the population. Methods We compare and contrast the two different populations of controls for studies of genetic variation using data from parents enrolled in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). In addition we compute different biases using a series of hypothetical assumptions. Results The study subjects who had been blood donors differed markedly from the general population in social, health-related, anthropometric, and personality-related variables. Using theoretical examples, we show that blood donors are a poor control group for non-genetic studies of diseases related to environmentally, behaviourally, or socially patterned exposures. However, we show that if blood donors are used as controls in genetic studies, these factors are unlikely to make a major difference in detecting true associations with relatively rare disorders (cumulative incidence through life of <10%). Nevertheless, for more common disorders, the reduction in accuracy resulting from the inclusion in any control population of individuals who have or will develop the disease in question can create a greater bias than can socially patterned factors. Conclusions Information about the medical history of a control and the parents of the control (as a proxy for whether the control will develop the disease) is more important with regard to the choice of controls than whether the controls are a random population sample or blood donors. PMID:23825379

  5. Screening of blood donors for IgA deficiency: a study of the donor population of south-west England.

    PubMed Central

    Holt, P D; Tandy, N P; Anstee, D J

    1977-01-01

    Altogether 29 745 English blood donors were screened for IgA deficiency by double diffusion analysis; 57 had apparent absence of IgA, a frequency of 1:522. Further examination by the more sensitive haemagglutination inhibition assay revealed 34 samples having no detectable IgA, a frequency of 1:875. All donors negative by double diffusion analysis were tested for the presence of antibodies to IgA. Six class specific anti IgA antibodies and four anti IgA antibodies of limited specificity were detected. Three of these had the specificity anti alpha2 and one anti A2m(2). The 34 IgA deficient donors detected provide a source of IgA deficient blood for transfusion to patients with anti IgA antibodies. PMID:304071

  6. Mental Subnormality in the Community: A Clinical and Epidemiologic Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birch, Herbert G.; And Others

    The book reports a clinical and epidemiologic study of the prevalence, distribution, and antecedents of mental subnormality in 8 to 10 year old children living in Aberdeen, Scotland (population 187,000). Utilizing three types of data (differential clinical diagnoses, biological background information, and social characteristics), the study…

  7. An epidemiological and genetic study of facial clefting in France. I. Epidemiology and frequency in relatives.

    PubMed Central

    Bonaiti, C; Briard, M L; Feingold, J; Pavy, B; Psaume, J; Migne-Tufferaud, G; Kaplan, J

    1982-01-01

    The frequencies of cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL(P)) and isolated cleft palate (CP) have been estimated in France to be 0.082% and 0.035%, respectively, after exclusion of malformation syndromes. A genetic and epidemiological study has been carried out on 468 patients with CL(P) and 163 with CP. The results are given in detail and some specific points are discussed: the apparently low incidence in France, the relationship between sex ratio and abortion rates, the maternal effects, and the possibility of an association between CL(P) and CP. PMID:7200146

  8. Being an identity-release donor: a qualitative study exploring the motivations, experiences and future expectations of current UK egg donors.

    PubMed

    Graham, Susanna; Jadva, Vasanti; Freeman, Tabitha; Ahuja, Kamal; Golombok, Susan

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the motivations, experiences and future expectations of identity-release egg donors in the UK following the removal of donor anonymity and the increase in financial compensation for egg donation. This exploratory, in-depth qualitative study comprised semi-structured interviews with 11 women who had attended an egg donation screening appointment at a UK clinic during a four-month period in 2014. Interviews were conducted two to six weeks after the woman had donated or had withdrawn/been rejected from the donation process. Participants' primary motivation for donating was to help infertile women have their 'own child', and the recent increase in financial compensation did not seem to play a significant role in their decision. All were happy to be identifiable and contacted by children born as a result of their donation. However, some were hesitant about providing non-identifying information about themselves for these offspring and wished for further information about the recipient(s) of their eggs and the outcome of their donation. Whilst this study was limited due to the small sample size, it is the first study of UK egg donors following the rise in donor compensation and suggests that other strategies may be more effective in increasing donor numbers.

  9. Computer-assisted audiovisual health history self-interviewing. Results of the pilot study of the Hoxworth Quality Donor System.

    PubMed

    Zuck, T F; Cumming, P D; Wallace, E L

    2001-12-01

    The safety of blood for transfusion depends, in part, on the reliability of the health history given by volunteer blood donors. To improve reliability, a pilot study evaluated the use of an interactive computer-based audiovisual donor interviewing system at a typical midwestern blood center in the United States. An interactive video screening system was tested in a community donor center environment on 395 volunteer blood donors. Of the donors using the system, 277 completed surveys regarding their acceptance of and opinions about the system. The study showed that an interactive computer-based audiovisual donor screening system was an effective means of conducting the donor health history. The majority of donors found the system understandable and favored the system over a face-to-face interview. Further, most donors indicated that they would be more likely to return if they were to be screened by such a system. Interactive computer-based audiovisual blood donor screening is useful and well accepted by donors; it may prevent a majority of errors and accidents that are reportable to the FDA; and it may contribute to increased safety and availability of the blood supply.

  10. IDGenerator: unique identifier generator for epidemiologic or clinical studies.

    PubMed

    Olden, Matthias; Holle, Rolf; Heid, Iris M; Stark, Klaus

    2016-09-15

    Creating study identifiers and assigning them to study participants is an important feature in epidemiologic studies, ensuring the consistency and privacy of the study data. The numbering system for identifiers needs to be random within certain number constraints, to carry extensions coding for organizational information, or to contain multiple layers of numbers per participant to diversify data access. Available software can generate globally-unique identifiers, but identifier-creating tools meeting the special needs of epidemiological studies are lacking. We have thus set out to develop a software program to generate IDs for epidemiological or clinical studies. Our software IDGenerator creates unique identifiers that not only carry a random identifier for a study participant, but also support the creation of structured IDs, where organizational information is coded into the ID directly. This may include study center (for multicenter-studies), study track (for studies with diversified study programs), or study visit (baseline, follow-up, regularly repeated visits). Our software can be used to add a check digit to the ID to minimize data entry errors. It facilitates the generation of IDs in batches and the creation of layered IDs (personal data ID, study data ID, temporary ID, external data ID) to ensure a high standard of data privacy. The software is supported by a user-friendly graphic interface that enables the generation of IDs in both standard text and barcode 128B format. Our software IDGenerator can create identifiers meeting the specific needs for epidemiologic or clinical studies to facilitate study organization and data privacy. IDGenerator is freeware under the GNU General Public License version 3; a Windows port and the source code can be downloaded at the Open Science Framework website: https://osf.io/urs2g/ .

  11. Importance of allele frequency estimates in epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Taioli, Emanuela; Pedotti, Paola; Garte, Seymour

    2004-09-01

    This study addresses the issue of appropriate allelic frequency estimates in epidemiological studies. Reasons for imprecise estimate of allele frequency may be population stratification, and lack of power of many published studies to define true allele frequencies in the general population. As an example of the lack of power of epidemiological studies, we plot the frequency of GSTM1 deletion versus sample size for the 79 studies from the GSEC pooled analysis. The estimate of allele frequency derived from small groups of controls deviates more from the true frequency than the estimate derived from larger studies. We discuss the possible consequences of not properly defining allele frequencies in the population. This may reflect on the conduct of association studies, on assessment of the effects of multigenic mechanisms, and on the determination of genetic diversity.

  12. Hepatitis E virus seroepidemiology: a post-earthquake study among blood donors in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Ashish C; Flower, Robert L P; Seed, Clive R; Rajkarnikar, Manita; Shrestha, Shrawan K; Thapa, Uru; Hoad, Veronica C; Faddy, Helen M

    2016-11-25

    As one of the causative agents of viral hepatitis, hepatitis E virus (HEV) has gained public health attention globally. HEV epidemics occur in developing countries, associated with faecal contamination of water and poor sanitation. In industrialised nations, HEV infections are associated with travel to countries endemic for HEV, however, autochthonous infections, mainly through zoonotic transmission, are increasingly being reported. HEV can also be transmitted by blood transfusion. Nepal has experienced a number of HEV outbreaks, and recent earthquakes resulted in predictions raising the risk of an HEV outbreak to very high. This study aimed to measure HEV exposure in Nepalese blood donors after large earthquakes. Samples (n = 1,845) were collected from blood donors from Kathmandu, Chitwan, Bhaktapur and Kavre. Demographic details, including age and sex along with possible risk factors associated with HEV exposure were collected via a study-specific questionnaire. Samples were tested for HEV IgM, IgG and antigen. The proportion of donors positive for HEV IgM or IgG was calculated overall, and for each of the variables studied. Chi square and regression analyses were performed to identify factors associated with HEV exposure. Of the donors residing in earthquake affected regions (Kathmandu, Bhaktapur and Kavre), 3.2% (54/1,686; 95% CI 2.7-4.0%) were HEV IgM positive and two donors were positive for HEV antigen. Overall, 41.9% (773/1,845; 95% CI 39.7-44.2%) of donors were HEV IgG positive, with regional variation observed. Higher HEV IgG and IgM prevalence was observed in donors who reported eating pork, likely an indicator of zoonotic transmission. Previous exposure to HEV in Nepalese blood donors is relatively high. Detection of recent markers of HEV infection in healthy donors suggests recent asymptomatic HEV infection and therefore transfusion-transmission in vulnerable patients is a risk in Nepal. Surprisingly, this study did not provide evidence of a large

  13. Disclosure Decisions among Pregnant Women who Received Donor Oocytes: A Phenomenological Study

    PubMed Central

    Hershberger, Patricia; Klock, Susan C.; Barnes, Randall B.

    2007-01-01

    Capsule Controversy surrounding disclosure among donor oocyte recipients is escalating worldwide. This in-depth analysis captures the voice of pregnant women who received donor oocytes and the factors that influence their decision to disclosure. OBJECTIVE Controversy surrounding disclosure among donor oocyte recipients is escalating worldwide, yet little research has sought to understand the disclosure experience of pregnant, donor oocyte recipient women. The purpose of this study was to provide an in-depth description of the disclosure experience, and identify factors that were significant to recipient women which influenced their reasoning as they formulated disclosure decisions. DESIGN Qualitative, naturalistic design using a phenomenological approach. SETTING The home or private office of the recipient woman. PARTICIPANTS Donor oocyte recipient women between 9 and 23 weeks gestation. RESULTS Disclosure decisions were influenced by multiple factors emerging from the women’s values and beliefs and their social and cultural environment. Values and beliefs consisted of the right to know and the duty to protect. Social and cultural factors included social support, culture of the family, evolution of the social process, and personal testimonials. Women’s age and selection of donor type are interrelated with disclosure decisions. CONCLUSIONS Disclosing women voiced the right of the child to know and perceived social and cultural factors as conducive to disclosure. Non-disclosing and undecided women emphasized protecting normative relationships, perceived social stigma, and were unable to identify a benefit to disclosing. Women’s age and choice of oocyte donor should be considered when counseling recipient women. PMID:17094982

  14. [Ecological studies in environmental health: Beyond epidemiology].

    PubMed

    Blanco-Becerra, Luis C; Pinzón-Flórez, Carlos E; Idrovo, Álvaro J

    2015-08-01

    Ecological studies provide important and frequent sources of evidence of environmental health, since their unit of analysis is populations. This review summarizes the foundations of ecological studies with the premise that they can be performed using quantitative, qualitative or mixed methods. It presents the logic behind their design, their role in exploring causality, the variables and categories of analysis and the design principles and techniques used to collect data. Examples of ecological studies performed in Latin America are then presented, as well as some common methodological problems and options to address them. Lastly, the relevance of quantitative and qualitative ecological studies to environmental health as a way to overcome the dominance of conceptual and methodological individualism is highlighted, though ecological studies alone do not suffice for studying population health.

  15. Retinoblastoma in Jordan: an epidemiological study (2006-2010).

    PubMed

    Jaradat, Imad; Yousef, Yacoub A; Mehyar, Mustafa; Sultan, Iyad; Khurma, Samer; Al-Rawashded, Khalil; Wilson, Matt; Qaddoumi, Ibrahim; Salem, Ahmed; Alnawaiseh, Ibrahim

    2011-01-01

    The epidemiological characteristics of retinoblastoma have been extensively studied in developed countries, however epidemiological data is scarce in the Middle East. We present a de- tailed epidemiological analysis of retinoblastoma in Jordan in an attempt to aid national and regional strategies for improved cancer surveillance and control. Retrospective review of retinoblastoma cases presenting to the sole and exclusive ocular oncology referral center in Jordan. Forty children (59 eyes) presenting with clinically and/or histologically confirmed retinoblastomas were treated at King Hussein Cancer Center (Amman, Jordan) between January 2006 and December 2010. This case series included 28 boys and 12 girls. Data relating to age at diagnosis, laterality, gender, treatment modality and survival were recorded. The mean age-adjusted incidence of retinoblastoma in Jordan was 9.32 cases per million children per year for children aged 0-5 years. The male: female ratio was 2.3:1. Bilateral cases were encountered in 19 pa- tients (47.5%) while 21 patients (52.5%) harbored unilateral retinoblastoma. At the time of follow-up, 38 patients (95%) were alive. Overall, 40 eyes (67.8%) were successfully preserved without the need for enucleation. The national epidemiological data gathered in this study indicates that the incidence of retinoblastoma in Jordan is similar to that reported in various countries of the world. Jordanian boys, however, are at significantly higher risk for developing retinoblastoma than age-matched girls. Furthermore, Jordanian patients are more likely to harbor bilateral retinoblastoma.

  16. Clinical and Epidemiological Studies on Rickettsial Infections.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-01

    EPIDEMOLOGICAL STUDIES ON RICKETTSIAL INFECTI011-"- APPLICATION FOR RENEWAL FOR TEAR-7 (1979-1980) Pase 2 Repor Page 11 effective control of the infection were...34CLINICAL AND EPIDEMOLOGICAL STUDIES ON RICKETTSIAL INFECTIONS" ANINUAL REPORT. YFAR-7(1979-1980) Page 62 Report Page 31 OFFICE OF NAVAL RESEARCH

  17. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected blood donors: behavioral characteristics and reasons for donation. The HIV Blood Donor Study Group.

    PubMed

    Doll, L S; Petersen, L R; White, C R; Ward, J W

    1991-10-01

    Between May 1988 and September 1989, 829 human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-seropositive donors were identified from 3,919,000 units of blood donated at 20 United States (US) blood centers. Of the 829,512 (62%) were interviewed to assess behavioral characteristics of the largest subgroup, men reporting sex with men, use of the confidential unit exclusion (CUE) and reasons for donation among all donors. Among 216 men reporting sex with men, 97 percent had male and 72 percent had female sexual contact since 1978. The majority identified themselves as bisexual (29%) or heterosexual (26%). Although 61 percent of 512 donors were aware of their risk behavior at donation, including 57 percent of those infected through heterosexual transmission, only 5 percent used the CUE. Reasons for donation included failure to read carefully (46%) or comprehend (15%) the deferral materials, pressure to donate (27%), a desire to be tested for HIV-1 (15%), and a reliance on screening to identify infected blood (10%). Reasons given for a perception of being at low risk included no recent risk behaviors, infrequent risk behaviors, or modification of risk behaviors. To reach high-risk donors, centers should assess whether referral materials provide necessary medical information and are clearly written for persons with diverse cultural and language backgrounds. Staff should be encouraged to avoid the use of culturally stigmatized terms and behaviors that may be perceived as high pressure.

  18. Prospective multicentre study of the effect of voluntary plasmapheresis on plasma cholesterol levels in donors

    PubMed Central

    Rosa-Bray, M; Wisdom, C; Wada, S; Johnson, BR; Grifols-Roura, V; Grifols-Lucas, V

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives LDL apheresis is used to treat patients with familial hypercholesterolaemia, and low-volume plasmapheresis for plasma donation may similarly lower cholesterol levels in some donors. This study was designed to assess the effect of plasmapheresis on total, LDL and HDL cholesterol levels in a plasma donor population. Materials and Methods This was a prospective, unblinded longitudinal cohort study in which a blood sample was obtained for analysis before each donation. Data from 663 donors were analysed using a multivariable repeated measures regression model with a general estimating equations approach with changes in cholesterol as the primary outcome measure. Results The model predicted a significant decrease in total and LDL cholesterol for both genders and all baseline cholesterol levels (P < 0·01). The greatest total cholesterol decreases (women, −46·8 mg/dL; men, −32·2 mg/dL) were associated with high baseline levels and 2–4 days between donations. Small but statistically significant increases (P ≤ 0·01) in HDL cholesterol were predicted for donors with low baseline levels. Conclusions These results suggest that, in donors with elevated baseline cholesterol levels, total and LDL cholesterol levels may decrease during routine voluntary plasmapheresis. PMID:23517282

  19. Intra-osseous injection of donor mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) into the bone marrow in living donor kidney transplantation; a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyunah; Park, Jae Berm; Lee, Sanghoon; Baek, Soyoung; Kim, HyunSoo; Kim, Sung Joo

    2013-04-11

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multi-potent non-hematopoietic progenitor cells possessing an immune-regulatory function, with suppression of proliferation of activated lymphocytes. In this study, adult living donor kidney transplantation (LDKT) recipients were given MSCs derived from the donor bone marrow to evaluate the safety and the feasibility of immunological changes related to the intra-osseous injection of MSC into the bone marrow. MSCs were derived from negative HLA cross-match donors. Donor bone marrow was harvested 5 weeks prior to KT. At the time of transplantation, 1 x 106 cell/kg of donor MSC was directly injected into the bone marrow of the recipient's right iliac bone. Patients' clinical outcomes, presence of mixed chimerism by short tandem repeat polymerase chain reaction, analysis of plasma FoxP3 mRNA and cytokine level, and mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) were performed. Seven patients enrolled in this study and received donor MSC injections simultaneously with LDKT. The median age of recipients was 36 years (32 ~ 48). The number of HLA mismatches was 3 or less in 5 and more than 3 in 2. No local complications or adverse events such as hypersensitivity occurred during or after the injection of donor MSC. There was no graft failure, but the biopsy-proven acute rejections were observed in 3 recipients during the follow-up period controlled well with steroid pulse therapy (SPT). The last serum creatinine was a median of 1.23 mg/dL (0.83 ~ 2.07). Mixed chimerism was not detected in the peripheral blood of the recipients at 1 and 8 week of post-transplantation. Donor-specific lymphocyte or T cell proliferation and Treg priming responses were observed in some patients. Plasma level of IL-10, a known mediator of MSC-induced immune suppression, increased in the patients with Treg induction. Donor MSC injection into the iliac bone at the time of KT was feasible and safe. A possible correlation was observed between the induction of inhibitory

  20. Genetic Epidemiology of COPD (COPDGene) Study Design

    PubMed Central

    Regan, Elizabeth A.; Hokanson, John E.; Murphy, James R.; Make, Barry; Lynch, David A.; Beaty, Terri H.; Curran-Everett, Douglas; Silverman, Edwin K.; Crapo, James D.

    2010-01-01

    Background COPDGeneis a multicenter observational study designed to identify genetic factors associated with COPD. It will also characterize chest CT phenotypes in COPD subjects, including assessment of emphysema, gas trapping, and airway wall thickening. Finally, subtypes of COPD based on these phenotypes will be used in a comprehensive genome-wide study to identify COPD susceptibility genes. Methods/Results COPDGene will enroll 10,000 smokers with and without COPD across the GOLD stages. Both Non-Hispanic white and African-American subjects are included in the cohort. Inspiratory and expiratory chest CT scans will be obtained on all participants. In addition to the cross-sectional enrollment process, these subjects will be followed regularly for longitudinal studies. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) will be done on an initial group of 4000 subjects to identify genetic variants associated with case-control status and several quantitative phenotypes related to COPD. The initial findings will be verified in an additional 2000 COPD cases and 2000 smoking control subjects, and further validation association studies will be carried out. Conclusions COPDGene will provide important new information about genetic factors in COPD, and will characterize the disease process using high resolution CT scans. Understanding genetic factors and CT phenotypes that define COPD will potentially permit earlier diagnosis of this disease and may lead to the development of treatments to modify progression. PMID:20214461

  1. Communication to workers of epidemiology study results: an industry approach.

    PubMed

    Collins, J J; Conner, P R

    1994-02-01

    Communication to workers of epidemiology study results is gaining increasing emphasis because of the need to notify study subjects and the responsibility to warn workers of potential workplace hazards. Industry has a unique responsibility in this regard both for ethical reasons and for gains in improving workers' knowledge of workplace hazards. We describe our recent efforts to notify 9648 workers potentially interested in the results of an epidemiology study that found increased rates for cancer. We found that both study and nonstudy subjects were equally interested the findings. We conclude that most workers view the notification as evidence of the company's commitment to maintain a safe workplace, and are pleased that the company undertook the study and reported the results to them. Unfavorable comments comprised less than 1% of the responses.

  2. Dengue seroprevalence in the French West Indies: a prospective study in adult blood donors.

    PubMed

    L'Azou, Maïna; Jean-Marie, Janick; Bessaud, Maël; Cabié, André; Césaire, Raymond; de Lamballerie, Xavier; Courbil, Rémi; Richard, Pascale

    2015-06-01

    Using an anti-dengue immunoglobulin G (IgG) indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, seroprevalence was determined among 783 adult blood donors in the French Caribbean islands of Guadeloupe and Martinique in 2011. Overall, 93.5% [91.5; 95.1] samples were positive for dengue antibodies, 90.7% (350 of 386) in Martinique and 96.2% (382 of 397) in Guadeloupe. Only 30% of these adults recalled having had dengue disease before. Serotype-specific neutralization assays applied to a subset of IgG-positive samples indicated that a majority (77 of 96; 80%) reacted to the four serotypes. These seroprevalence findings are the first reported for Guadeloupe and Martinique and are consistent with the dengue epidemiology in these territories.

  3. Dengue Seroprevalence in the French West Indies: A Prospective Study in Adult Blood Donors

    PubMed Central

    L'Azou, Maïna; Jean-Marie, Janick; Bessaud, Maël; Cabié, André; Césaire, Raymond; de Lamballerie, Xavier; Courbil, Rémi; Richard, Pascale

    2015-01-01

    Using an anti-dengue immunoglobulin G (IgG) indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, seroprevalence was determined among 783 adult blood donors in the French Caribbean islands of Guadeloupe and Martinique in 2011. Overall, 93.5% [91.5; 95.1] samples were positive for dengue antibodies, 90.7% (350 of 386) in Martinique and 96.2% (382 of 397) in Guadeloupe. Only 30% of these adults recalled having had dengue disease before. Serotype-specific neutralization assays applied to a subset of IgG-positive samples indicated that a majority (77 of 96; 80%) reacted to the four serotypes. These seroprevalence findings are the first reported for Guadeloupe and Martinique and are consistent with the dengue epidemiology in these territories. PMID:25846291

  4. Epidemiologic studies of isoflavones & mammographic density.

    PubMed

    Maskarinec, Gertraud; Verheus, Martijn; Tice, Jeffrey A

    2010-01-01

    Isoflavones, phytoestrogens in soy beans with estrogen-like properties, have been examined for their cancer protective effects. Mammographic density is a strong predictor of breast cancer. This review summarizes studies that have examined the association between isoflavones and breast density. Observational investigations in Hawaii and Singapore suggest slightly lower breast density among women of Asian descent with regular soy intake, but two larger studies from Japan and Singapore did not observe a protective effect. The findings from seven randomized trials with primarily Caucasian women indicate that soy or isoflavones do not modify mammographic density. Soy foods and isoflavone supplements within a nutritional range do not appear to modify breast cancer risk as assessed by mammographic density.

  5. Smile line and occlusion: An epidemiological study

    PubMed Central

    Harati, Mahsa; Mostofi, Shahbaz Naser; Jalalian, Ezzatollah; Rezvani, Gholamreza

    2013-01-01

    Background: The purpose of the present study was to discuss some new concepts of the desirable characteristics of smile tooth display. Due to the increasing application of cosmetic dental treatments, there is an increasing need for better understanding of the esthetic principles. Materials and Methods: In the present descriptive study, with 212 participants, included were patients with no history of orthodontic treatment, loss or prosthetic replacement of anterior teeth, extracted teeth, lips with asymmetry or a history of trauma. Chi-square test was used to determine possible significances in the relation of smile line to Angle occlusion class, overbite and overjet and arch form. A P level of <0.05 was set as to be significant. Results: Chi-square test indicated that there was a significant difference between the smile design and overbite, overjet and gender but no statistically significant association was found between the smile design and crossbite, molar Angle classification and arch form. Conclusion: Within the limitations of such studies, it might be concluded that there is a significant and important relation between some occlusal parameters and smile design, which must be considered. PMID:24379858

  6. Pediatric burns in Mosul: an epidemiological study.

    PubMed

    Al-Zacko, S M; Zubeer, H G; Mohammad, A S

    2014-06-30

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the characteristics and case fatality rate of pediatric burns in Mosul, Iraq. The study group was burn patients aged 14 years and under who were admitted to the Burns Unit in Al-Jamhoori Teaching Hospital from the 1(st) of March 2011 to the 1(st) of March 2012. Of the 459 emergency burn admissions, 209 (45.53%) were pediatric patients up to 14 years of age, with a mean age of 4.73±3.61 years. Scald was the most common type of burn and occurred mainly in domestic settings. The mean total body surface area (TBSA) burned was 19.73±17.15%. Thirty-five patients died during the study period, giving a case fatality rate of 16.75%. The maximum number of deaths occurred in the 2-4 years age group. The case fatality rate was high in patients having more than 40% TBSA involvement. Flame burns were significantly more fatal than scalds, with a fatality rate of 35.35% and 12.05% respectively; (p=0.0001). In conclusion, given that most pediatric burn accidents occur at home, burn prevention should be focused on improving living conditions and on providing an educational program for parents.

  7. Descriptive epidemiological study of equine laminitis.

    PubMed

    Slater, M R; Hood, D M; Carter, G K

    1995-09-01

    A descriptive and matched case-control study of laminitis was conducted in 7 private practices and at the Texas Veterinary Medical Centre (TVMC) between May 1992 and July 1993. Out of 108 horses with laminitis, 19 acute (49%) and 20 chronic (51%) cases were seen in private practice and 16 acute (23%) and 53 (77%) cases at the TVMC. Gastrointestinal disease was the most common problem in 19/35 horses (54%), occurring just prior to the onset of acute laminitis in all hospitals. Among all horses in the study, most commonly used drugs were phenylbutazone (68%), acepromazine (34%), dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) (27%), antibiotics of various types (19%) and flunixin meglumine (19%). Acepromazine, DMSO and flunixin meglumine were used more commonly in acute cases of laminitis compared to chronic cases. In acutely affected horses, DMSO and flunixin meglumine were used significantly more often at the TVMC. In chronic cases, phenylbutazone and antibiotics were used more often in private practice. Shoeing and trimming were more commonly part of the treatment protocol for chronic cases. There were no significant associations between age, breed, sex or weight and the occurrence of acute laminitis. Horses with chronic laminitis were significantly older (P=0.04) and more females tended to be affected (P=0.08).

  8. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY OF CHILDREN DIAPHYSEAL FEMORAL FRACTURES

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Cassiano Ricardo; Traldi, Eduardo Franceschini; Posser, Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the personal, fracture, treatment and complication characteristics among patients with pediatric femoral shaft fractures attended at the pediatric orthopedic service of the Joana de Gusmão Children's Hospital. Methods: This was a retrospective cross-sectional study on a population consisting of patients with femoral shaft fractures, aged between birth and 14 years and 11 months, who were divided into four age groups. Information was obtained from medical records and was transferred to a survey questionnaire to present personal, fracture, treatment and complication variables. Results: The study population consisted of 96 patients. Their mean age was 6.8 years. The cases were predominantly among males, comprising closed fractures on the right side, in the middle third with a single line. Regarding fracture etiology, traffic accidents predominated overall in the sample. Most of the patients (74 to 77.1%) presented femoral fractures as their only injury. Conservative treatment predominated in the group younger than six years of age, and surgical treatment in the group aged 6 to 14 years and 11 months. The complications observed until bone union were: discrepancy, infection and movement limitation. The mean time taken for consolidation was 9.6 ± 2.4 weeks, varying with age. Conclusion: The features of these fractures were similar to those described in the literature and the treatment used showed good results. The Joana de Gusmão Children's Hospital has used the treatment proposed in the literature for pediatric femoral shaft fractures. PMID:27042619

  9. Doses for post-Chernobyl epidemiological studies: are they reliable?

    PubMed

    Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Chumak, Vadim; Kesminiene, Ausrele; Ostroumova, Evgenia; Bouville, André

    2016-09-01

    On 26 April 2016, thirty years will have elapsed since the occurrence of the Chernobyl accident, which has so far been the most severe in the history of the nuclear reactor industry. Numerous epidemiological studies were conducted to evaluate the possible health consequences of the accident. Since the credibility of the association between the radiation exposure and health outcome is highly dependent on the adequacy of the dosimetric quantities used in these studies, this paper makes an effort to overview the methods used to estimate individual doses and the associated uncertainties in the main analytical epidemiological studies (i.e. cohort or case-control) related to the Chernobyl accident. Based on the thorough analysis and comparison with other radiation studies, the authors conclude that individual doses for the Chernobyl analytical epidemiological studies have been calculated with a relatively high degree of reliability and well-characterized uncertainties, and that they compare favorably with many other non-Chernobyl studies. The major strengths of the Chernobyl studies are: (1) they are grounded on a large number of measurements, either performed on humans or made in the environment; and (2) extensive effort has been invested to evaluate the uncertainties associated with the dose estimates. Nevertheless, gaps in the methodology are identified and suggestions for the possible improvement of the current dose estimates are made.

  10. CFS: A Review of Epidemiology and Natural History Studies

    PubMed Central

    Jason, Leonard A.; Porter, Nicole; Brown, Molly; Anderson, Valerie; Brown, Abigail; Hunnell, Jessica; Lerch, Athena

    2010-01-01

    Almost all studies with samples of patients who have chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) have relied on referrals from physicians or health facilities. Under-served minorities, who not only tend to manifest higher levels of chronic illness, but are also less likely to seek and receive adequate medical care, have not been represented in these studies (1). This may have contributed to an under-estimation of CFS among minority groups (2). Few studies have derived their samples from socioeconomically and ethnically diverse community-based populations. A technical report issued by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (3) concluded that estimating rates of recovery/improvement or relapse from CFS are not possible because there are so few natural history studies and those that are available have involved selected referral populations. This paper provides a review of epidemiologic studies of CFS followed by a discussion of diagnostic issues and risk factors for the illness. Findings from Jason et al.’s (4) epidemiologic study in a multi-ethnic, economically diverse urban area are highlighted as this research group is now examining the natural course of CFS over the past 10 years with this community-based sample. The current study will add to current epidemiologic and risk factors research by assessing the course, progression, and risk factors of CFS among a demographically diverse sample of participants who are unbiased by illness, help-seeking behaviors, or differential access to the health care system. PMID:21243091

  11. A Molecular Epidemiologic Case-Case Study of Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-03-01

    AD__ _ _ _ Award Number: DAMD17-98-1-8471 TITLE: A Molecular Epidemiologic Case-Case Study of Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Sara S. Strom...Molecular Epidmeiologic Case-Case Study of Prostate DAMD17-98-1-8471 Cancer Susceptibility 6. AUTHOR(S) Sara S. Strom, Ph.D. Sue-Hwa Lin 7. PERFORMING...DISTRIBUTION CODE Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited 13. ABSTRACT (Maximum 200 Words) Although prostate cancer is the most common cancer in

  12. MIH: epidemiologic clinic study in paediatric patient

    PubMed Central

    CONDÒ, R.; PERUGIA, C.; MATURO, P.; DOCIMO, R.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY The Molar Incisor Hypomineralization (MIH) is a qualitative and quantitative defect of the enamel structure of the first permanent molars, which may vary from 1 to 4 with involvement of maxillary and jaw permanent incisors. Aim. Aim of this study is that to evaluate, among 1500 paediatric patients chosen at random aged between 0 and 14 years, afferent by the Paediatric Dentistry of the Azienda Ospedialiera Policlinico Tor Vergata of Rome from 1996 to 2011, the incidents and the prevalence of the MIH distribution, and furthermore to ascertain the possible relationship with the data described in the literature. Results and discussion. From the sample of 1500 paediatric patients, the number of those affections from MIH has turned out to be pairs to 110 (7.3%) aged between 4 and 15 years, and an average age equal to 9.7. The incidence of the hypoplastic defects is greater in the elements of the permanents series in which the functional class mainly interested is that of the first molars, with a percentage of 39.8%. Regarding the elements of the deciduous series affections from hypoplasia, they turn out to be in all in number of 20 represented in 80% of the cases from the seconds molars while in the remaining 20% of the cases the items involved are the central incisors. About the percentage of elements involved in the MIH: the molars, involved with a frequency of 56%, turn out to be more hit regarding incisors (44%). As reported in the literature, it can be asserted that the MIH can hit in equal measure both the male sex that feminine one. Conclusions. MIH represents a condition quite frequent in the paediatric population. In managing this anomaly takes an essential role in the early diagnosis and in the differential one. The study done underlined the importance of a correct application of the therapeutic protocol which, starting from a careful diagnosis and articulating themselves in the execution of preventive treatments and in severe cases restorative and

  13. An epidemiologic study of gypsy moth rash.

    PubMed

    Tuthill, R W; Canada, A T; Wilcock, K; Etkind, P H; O'Dell, T M; Shama, S K

    1984-08-01

    In 1981, outbreaks of itchy skin rashes were reported accompanying the heavy infestation of gypsy moths (GM) in the Northeastern United States. The rash problem was widespread and a considerable public annoyance. In the spring of 1982, during the period of greatest contact with the caterpillars, a telephone survey was carried out in a highly infested community (HI) and a minimally infested community (LO). Information was collected from 1,000 persons, representing more than 90 per cent of those selected for study. The one-week risk of rash was 10.4 per cent in the HI area and 1.6 per cent in the LO area, for a risk ratio (RR) of 6.5. The occurrence of rash was strongly related to a history of having had a rash in the previous year or having had a caterpillar crawl on the affected area. The combination of both factors additively increased the risk of rash. Hay fever and hanging the wash outside were other related variables. History of allergies other than hay fever since childhood and the use of insecticides were unrelated to rash occurrence.

  14. Operational definitions of asthma in recent epidemiological studies are inconsistent.

    PubMed

    Sá-Sousa, Ana; Jacinto, Tiago; Azevedo, Luís Filipe; Morais-Almeida, Mário; Robalo-Cordeiro, Carlos; Bugalho-Almeida, António; Bousquet, Jean; Fonseca, João Almeida

    2014-01-01

    The best combination of questions to define asthma in epidemiological asthma studies is not known. We summarized the operational definitions of asthma used in prevalence studies and empirically assess how asthma prevalence estimates vary depending on the definition used. We searched the Thomson Reuters ISI Web of knowledge and included (1) cross-sectional studies (2) on asthma prevalence (3) conducted in the general population and (4) containing an explicit definition of asthma. The search was limited to the 100 most-cited papers or published since January 2010. For each paper, we recorded the asthma definition used and other variables. Then we applied the definitions to the data of the Portuguese National Asthma survey (INAsma) and of the 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) computing asthma prevalence estimates for the different definitions. Of 1738 papers retrieved, 117 were included for analysis. Lifetime asthma, diagnosed asthma and current asthma were defined in 8, 12 and 29 different ways, respectively. By applying definitions of current asthma on INAsma and NHANES data, the prevalence ranged between 5.3%-24.4% and 1.1%-17.2%, respectively. There is considerable heterogeneity in the definitions of asthma used in epidemiological studies leading to highly variable estimates of asthma prevalence. Studies to inform a standardized operational definition are needed. Meanwhile, we propose a set of questions to be reported when defining asthma in epidemiological studies.

  15. Epidemiological studies of radio frequency exposures and human cancer.

    PubMed

    Elwood, J Mark

    2003-01-01

    Epidemiological studies of radio frequency (RF) exposures and human cancers include studies of military and civilian occupational groups, people who live near television and radio transmitters, and users of mobile phones. Many types of cancer have been assessed, with particular attention given to leukemia and brain tumors. The epidemiological results fall short of the strength and consistency of evidence that is required to come to a conclusion that RF emissions are a cause of human cancer. Although the epidemiological evidence in total suggests no increased risk of cancer, the results cannot be unequivocally interpreted in terms of cause and effect. The results are inconsistent, and most studies are limited by lack of detail on actual exposures, short follow-up periods, and the limited ability to deal with other relevant factors. In some studies, there may be substantial biases in the data used. For these same reasons, the studies are unable to confidently exclude any possibility of an increased risk of cancer. Further research to clarify the situation is justified. Priorities include further studies of leukemia in both adults and children, and of cranial tumors in relationship to mobile phone use. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Operational definitions of asthma in recent epidemiological studies are inconsistent

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective The best combination of questions to define asthma in epidemiological asthma studies is not known. We summarized the operational definitions of asthma used in prevalence studies and empirically assess how asthma prevalence estimates vary depending on the definition used. Methods We searched the Thomson Reuters ISI Web of knowledge and included (1) cross-sectional studies (2) on asthma prevalence (3) conducted in the general population and (4) containing an explicit definition of asthma. The search was limited to the 100 most-cited papers or published since January 2010. For each paper, we recorded the asthma definition used and other variables. Then we applied the definitions to the data of the Portuguese National Asthma survey (INAsma) and of the 2005–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) computing asthma prevalence estimates for the different definitions. Results Of 1738 papers retrieved, 117 were included for analysis. Lifetime asthma, diagnosed asthma and current asthma were defined in 8, 12 and 29 different ways, respectively. By applying definitions of current asthma on INAsma and NHANES data, the prevalence ranged between 5.3%-24.4% and 1.1%-17.2%, respectively. Conclusions There is considerable heterogeneity in the definitions of asthma used in epidemiological studies leading to highly variable estimates of asthma prevalence. Studies to inform a standardized operational definition are needed. Meanwhile, we propose a set of questions to be reported when defining asthma in epidemiological studies. PMID:25136441

  17. Epidemiology of participation: an Australian community study

    PubMed Central

    Baum, F.; Bush, R.; Modra, C.; Murray, C.; Cox, E.; Alexander, K.; Potter, R.

    2000-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE—To determine the levels of participation in social and civic community life in a metropolitan region, and to assess differential levels of participation according to demographic, socioeonomic and health status. To contribute to policy debates on community participation, social capital and health using these empirical data.
DESIGN—Cross sectional, postal, self completed survey on health and participation.
SETTING—Random sample of the population from the western suburbs of Adelaide, the capital city of South Australia, a population of approximately 210 000.
PARTICIPANTS—2542 respondents from a sample of 4000 people aged 18 years and over who were registered on the electoral roll.
MAIN RESULTS—The response rate to the survey was 63.6% (n=2542). Six indices of participation, on range of social and civic activities, with a number of items in each, were created. Levels of participation were highest in the informal social activities index (46.7-83.7% for individual items), and lowest in the index of civic activities of a collective nature (2.4-5.9% for individual items). Low levels of involvement in social and civic activities were reported more frequently by people of low income and low education levels.
CONCLUSIONS—Levels of participation in social and civic community life in an urban setting are significantly influenced by individual socioeconomic status, health and other demographic characteristics. An understanding of the pattern of participation is important to inform social and health policy making. Increasing levels of participation will reduce social exclusion and is likely to improve the overall quality of community life.


Keywords: community participation; social capital; health promotion PMID:10818116

  18. Lookback study of HTLV-1 and 2 seropositive donors and their recipients in Belo Horizonte, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Namen-Lopes, M S S; Martins, M L; Drummond, P C; Lobato, R R; Carneiro-Proietti, A B F

    2009-08-01

    The objective of this study was to perform lookback study in recipients of blood components from human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV) seropositive donors. HTLV-1/2 may be transmitted by blood transfusion. Brazil is an endemic area for the virus and its screening in blood donors is mandatory since 1993. Hemominas Foundation (HF) is the public transfusion centre in Minas Gerais, Brazil. Data on HTLV-1/2 seropositive donors and recipients from 1993 to 2004 were obtained at HF and 24 contracting hospitals. From 1993 to 2004, HTLV-1/2 enzyme immunoassay (EIA) was performed in 918 678 donations of approximately 422 600 blood donor candidates. Of these, 456 donors (0.1%) were reactive and confirmed by Western blot (WB): 449 HTLV-1 and 7 HTLV-2. Sixty-six (14.5%) were repeat donors and had 194 blood cellular components produced from their previous donations. Of the distributed components, 119/146 (81.5%) had the recipient traced, with a total of 114 individuals. Of these, only 13 recipients were tested: six (46%) were HTLV-1 positive (four recipients of red cell units, two of platelets) and seven (54%) were negative (six of red cell units and one of platelets). Eleven did not respond and 62/114 (54.0%) were deceased. Another 28/114 (25.0%) could not be located. All six seropositive HTLV-1 recipients identified had no symptoms suggestive of HTLV-1-associated diseases. Acellular components, when used alone, were not associated with HTLV seropositivity. HTLV-1 transmission by cellular blood components occurred before screening for the virus was introduced. Haemovigilance was difficult to perform due to unavailability of computer systems before 1999 and to inadequate medical records at hospitals.

  19. Overview of Recent Marine and Freshwater Recreational Epidemiology Studies and Their Findings

    EPA Science Inventory

    Overview of Recent Marine and Freshwater Recreational Epidemiology Studies and Their Findings Timothy J. Wade, Elizabeth A. Sams, Rich Haugland, Alfred P. Dufour The National Epidemiologic and Environmental Assessment of Recreational Water Study was conducted to address aspects...

  20. Overview of Recent Marine and Freshwater Recreational Epidemiology Studies and Their Findings

    EPA Science Inventory

    Overview of Recent Marine and Freshwater Recreational Epidemiology Studies and Their Findings Timothy J. Wade, Elizabeth A. Sams, Rich Haugland, Alfred P. Dufour The National Epidemiologic and Environmental Assessment of Recreational Water Study was conducted to address aspects...

  1. A molecular epidemiological study of rabies in Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Nadin-Davis, Susan A; Velez, Jafet; Malaga, Carlos; Wandeler, Alexander I

    2008-01-01

    The mongoose is the principal reservoir for rabies on the island of Puerto Rico. This report describes a molecular epidemiological study of representative rabies viruses recovered from the island in 1997. Two closely related but distinct variants circulating in regionally localised parts of the island were identified. The lack of a monophyletic relationship of these viruses suggests that two independent incursions of rabies onto the island have occurred. Both of these Puerto Rican variants were closely related to a variant, known as the north central skunk strain, currently circulating in North American skunk populations and all are members of the cosmopolitan rabies lineage spread during the colonial period. However, the Puerto Rican viruses are clearly distinct from those presently circulating in mongooses in Cuba and which are epidemiologically closely linked to the Mexican dog rabies virus. This study clearly establishes the distinct origins of the rabies viruses now circulating on these two Caribbean islands.

  2. Epidemiological study on feline gastric Helicobacter spp. in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kubota-Aizawa, Sanae; Ohno, Koichi; Kanemoto, Hideyuki; Nakashima, Ko; Fukushima, Kenjiro; Uchida, Kazuyuki; Chambers, James K; Goto-Koshino, Yuko; Mimuro, Hitomi; Watanabe, Takayasu; Sekizaki, Tsutomu; Tsujimoto, Hajime

    2017-03-26

    Epidemiological and pathological studies on Helicobacter spp. in feline stomachs in Japan were conducted using genus- and species-specific (H. felis, H. bizzozeronii, H. heilmannii sensu stricto[s.s.] and H. pylori) polymerase chain reactions (PCRs), ureAB gene sequencing and histopathology. PCR results showed that 28 of 56 cats were infected with Helicobacter spp., and H. heilmannii s.s. was the most prevalent species by both PCR (28/28) and ureAB gene sequencing (26/28). Some of the sequences showed high similarities with those from human patients with gastric diseases (99%). There were no significant differences between Helicobacter spp.-positive and -negative cats in the severity of chronic gastritis (P=0.69). This is the first extensive epidemiological study on feline gastric Helicobacter spp. in Japan.

  3. Single molecule-level study of donor-acceptor interactions and nanoscale environment in blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quist, Nicole; Grollman, Rebecca; Rath, Jeremy; Robertson, Alex; Haley, Michael; Anthony, John; Ostroverkhova, Oksana

    2017-02-01

    Organic semiconductors have attracted considerable attention due to their applications in low-cost (opto)electronic devices. The most successful organic materials for applications that rely on charge carrier generation, such as solar cells, utilize blends of several types of molecules. In blends, the local environment strongly influences exciton and charge carrier dynamics. However, relationship between nanoscale features and photophysics is difficult to establish due to the lack of necessary spatial resolution. We use functionalized fluorinated pentacene (Pn) molecule as single molecule probes of intermolecular interactions and of the nanoscale environment in blends containing donor and acceptor molecules. Single Pn donor (D) molecules were imaged in PMMA in the presence of acceptor (A) molecules using wide-field fluorescence microscopy. Two sample configurations were realized: (i) a fixed concentration of Pn donor molecules, with increasing concentration of acceptor molecules (functionalized indenflouorene or PCBM) and (ii) a fixed concentration of acceptor molecules with an increased concentration of the Pn donor. The D-A energy transfer and changes in the donor emission due to those in the acceptor- modified polymer morphology were quantified. The increase in the acceptor concentration was accompanied by enhanced photobleaching and blinking of the Pn donor molecules. To better understand the underlying physics of these processes, we modeled photoexcited electron dynamics using Monte Carlo simulations. The simulated blinking dynamics were then compared to our experimental data, and the changes in the transition rates were related to the changes in the nanoscale environment. Our study provides insight into evolution of nanoscale environment during the formation of bulk heterojunctions.

  4. Focus group study of public opinion about paying living kidney donors in Australia.

    PubMed

    Tong, Allison; Ralph, Angelique F; Chapman, Jeremy R; Wong, Germaine; Gill, John S; Josephson, Michelle A; Craig, Jonathan C

    2015-07-07

    The unmet demand for kidney transplantation has generated intense controversy about introducing incentives for living kidney donors to increase donation rates. Such debates may affect public perception and acceptance of living kidney donation. This study aims to describe the range and depth of public opinion on financial reimbursement, compensation, and incentives for living kidney donors. Twelve focus groups were conducted with 113 participants recruited from the general public in three Australian states in February 2013. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the transcripts. Five themes were identified: creating ethical impasses (commodification of the body, quandary of kidney valuation, pushing moral boundaries), corrupting motivations (exposing the vulnerable, inevitable abuse, supplanting altruism), determining justifiable risk (compromising kidney quality, undue harm, accepting a confined risk, trusting protective mechanisms, right to autonomy), driving access (urgency of organ shortage, minimizing disadvantage, guaranteeing cost-efficiency, providing impetus, counteracting black markets), and honoring donor deservingness (fairness and reason, reassurance and rewards, merited recompense). Reimbursement and justifiable recompense are considered by the Australian public as a legitimate way of supporting donors and reducing disadvantage. Financial payment beyond reimbursement is regarded as morally reprehensible, with the potential for exploitative commercialism. Some contend that regulated compensation could be a defensible strategy to increased donation rates provided that mechanisms are in place to protect donors. The perceived threat to community values of human dignity, goodwill, and fairness suggests that there could be strong public resistance to any form of financial inducements for living kidney donors. Policy priorities addressing the removal of disincentives may be more acceptable to the public. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  5. Focus Group Study of Public Opinion About Paying Living Kidney Donors in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Ralph, Angelique F.; Chapman, Jeremy R.; Wong, Germaine; Gill, John S.; Josephson, Michelle A.; Craig, Jonathan C.

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives The unmet demand for kidney transplantation has generated intense controversy about introducing incentives for living kidney donors to increase donation rates. Such debates may affect public perception and acceptance of living kidney donation. This study aims to describe the range and depth of public opinion on financial reimbursement, compensation, and incentives for living kidney donors. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Twelve focus groups were conducted with 113 participants recruited from the general public in three Australian states in February 2013. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the transcripts. Results Five themes were identified: creating ethical impasses (commodification of the body, quandary of kidney valuation, pushing moral boundaries), corrupting motivations (exposing the vulnerable, inevitable abuse, supplanting altruism), determining justifiable risk (compromising kidney quality, undue harm, accepting a confined risk, trusting protective mechanisms, right to autonomy), driving access (urgency of organ shortage, minimizing disadvantage, guaranteeing cost-efficiency, providing impetus, counteracting black markets), and honoring donor deservingness (fairness and reason, reassurance and rewards, merited recompense). Reimbursement and justifiable recompense are considered by the Australian public as a legitimate way of supporting donors and reducing disadvantage. Financial payment beyond reimbursement is regarded as morally reprehensible, with the potential for exploitative commercialism. Some contend that regulated compensation could be a defensible strategy to increased donation rates provided that mechanisms are in place to protect donors. Conclusions The perceived threat to community values of human dignity, goodwill, and fairness suggests that there could be strong public resistance to any form of financial inducements for living kidney donors. Policy priorities addressing the removal of disincentives

  6. GESDB: a platform of simulation resources for genetic epidemiology studies.

    PubMed

    Yao, Po-Ju; Chung, Ren-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Computer simulations are routinely conducted to evaluate new statistical methods, to compare the properties among different methods, and to mimic the observed data in genetic epidemiology studies. Conducting simulation studies can become a complicated task as several challenges can occur, such as the selection of an appropriate simulation tool and the specification of parameters in the simulation model. Although abundant simulated data have been generated for human genetic research, currently there is no public database designed specifically as a repository for these simulated data. With the lack of such a database, for similar studies, similar simulations may have been repeated, which resulted in redundant work. Thus, we created an online platform, the Genetic Epidemiology Simulation Database (GESDB), for simulation data sharing and discussion of simulation techniques for genetic epidemiology studies. GESDB consists of a database for storing simulation scripts, simulated data and documentation from published articles as well as a discussion forum, which provides a platform for discussion of the simulated data and exchanging simulation ideas. Moreover, summary statistics such as the simulation tools that are most commonly used and datasets that are most frequently downloaded are provided. The statistics will be informative for researchers to choose an appropriate simulation tool or select a common dataset for method comparisons. GESDB can be accessed at http://gesdb.nhri.org.twDatabase URL: http://gesdb.nhri.org.tw. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  7. Assessing the first wave of epidemiological studies of nanomaterial workers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liou, Saou-Hsing; Tsai, Candace S. J.; Pelclova, Daniela; Schubauer-Berigan, Mary K.; Schulte, Paul A.

    2015-10-01

    The results of early animal studies of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) and air pollution epidemiology suggest that it is important to assess the health of ENM workers. Initial epidemiological studies of workers' exposure to ENMs (<100 nm) are reviewed and characterized for their study designs, findings, and limitations. Of the 15 studies, 11 were cross-sectional, 4 were longitudinal (1 was both cross-sectional and longitudinal in design), and 1 was a descriptive pilot study. Generally, the studies used biologic markers as the dependent variables. All 11 cross-sectional studies showed a positive relationship between various biomarkers and ENM exposures. Three of the four longitudinal studies showed a negative relationship; the fourth showed positive findings after a 1-year follow-up. Each study considered exposure to ENMs as the independent variable. Exposure was assessed by mass concentration in 10 studies and by particle count in six studies. Six of them assessed both mass and particle concentrations. Some of the studies had limited exposure data because of inadequate exposure assessment. Generally, exposure levels were not very high in comparison to those in human inhalation chamber studies, but there were some exceptions. Most studies involved a small sample size, from 2 to 258 exposed workers. These studies represent the first wave of epidemiological studies of ENM workers. They are limited by small numbers of participants, inconsistent (and in some cases inadequate) exposure assessments, generally low exposures, and short intervals between exposure and effect. Still, these studies are a foundation for future work; they provide insight into where ENM workers are experiencing potentially adverse effects that might be related to ENM exposures.

  8. Assessing the first wave of epidemiological studies of nanomaterial workers

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Candace S. J.; Pelclova, Daniela; Schubauer-Berigan, Mary K.; Schulte, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    The results of early animal studies of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) and air pollution epidemiology suggest that it is important to assess the health of ENM workers. Initial epidemiological studies of workers’ exposure to ENMs (<100 nm) are reviewed and characterized for their study designs, findings, and limitations. Of the 15 studies, 11 were cross-sectional, 4 were longitudinal (1 was both cross-sectional and longitudinal in design), and 1 was a descriptive pilot study. Generally, the studies used biologic markers as the dependent variables. All 11 cross-sectional studies showed a positive relationship between various biomarkers and ENM exposures. Three of the four longitudinal studies showed a negative relationship; the fourth showed positive findings after a 1-year follow-up. Each study considered exposure to ENMs as the independent variable. Exposure was assessed by mass concentration in 10 studies and by particle count in six studies. Six of them assessed both mass and particle concentrations. Some of the studies had limited exposure data because of inadequate exposure assessment. Generally, exposure levels were not very high in comparison to those in human inhalation chamber studies, but there were some exceptions. Most studies involved a small sample size, from 2 to 258 exposed workers. These studies represent the first wave of epidemiological studies of ENM workers. They are limited by small numbers of participants, inconsistent (and in some cases inadequate) exposure assessments, generally low exposures, and short intervals between exposure and effect. Still, these studies are a foundation for future work; they provide insight into where ENM workers are experiencing potentially adverse effects that might be related to ENM exposures. PMID:26635494

  9. Epidemiological aspects of studying work-related musculoskeletal disorders.

    PubMed

    Driscoll, Tim

    2011-02-01

    There are many challenges to conducting valid epidemiological research of work-related musculoskeletal disorders and interpreting reports describing the results. In particular, these concern the basic study design, selection of subjects, measurement of exposure and outcome, control of confounding and the limitations of workers' compensation data systems. Researchers and people interested in the research results need to be aware of the major potential problems and pay careful attention to them when designing, conducting and using the results of such research.

  10. Biologically based epidemiological studies of electric power and cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, R.G.

    1993-12-01

    Use of electricity is a hallmark of the industrialization process, but there has been no suspicion that electricity could increase the risk of cancer. Recently, however, a number of epidemiologic studies have suggested that electromagnetic fields (EMF) may do just that. Although few cancer experiments have been done yet, there are a number of biological effects of EMF reported in the literature that might provide bases for designing cancer experiments and epidemiologic studies. These include effects of EMF on: (a) DNA transcription and translation, (b) calcium balance in cells, and (c) pineal production of melatonin. Alterations in DNA transcription and translation could have pleiotropic effects. Disruption of calcium homeostasis has many implications including oncogene activation, promotional activity via protein kinases and ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), and increasing oxidative stress. Reduction of melatonin suggests a possible increased risk of cancers of hormone-dependent tissues such as breast and prostate. The idea that a cancer-causing agent must either be an initiator or a promoter should be discarded; indeed, the phenomenologic meaning of these two terms has become confused with imputed mechanistic necessity in recent years. Agents that affect division of normal cells or of fully transformed cells can play an important role in clinical cancer development quite apart from initiation or promotion. Epidemiologic studies of EMF and cancer should attempt to take account of other products of electric power (e.g., light at night) or factors associated with occupational EMF exposure (e.g., toxic chemicals) that may increase cancer risk and therefore act as cofactors or confounders. Epidemiology and laboratory studies should act synergistically in determining if there is a problem and identifying mitigation strategies if needed. 84 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  11. [COMPARATIVE STUDY ON THE SECRET OF THE DONOR'S IDENTITY OF DONATED GAMETES].

    PubMed

    Tisseyre, Sandrine

    2015-07-01

    French law lies down a principle of anonymity of donated gametes. This principle is ignored by English law. Moreover, English law has established, few years ago, the contrary principle: the one of transparency of the donor's identity. This study of English law reports this evolution and its consequences.

  12. A Qualitative Study of Alumni Non-Donors of Historically Black Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foxx, Laura R.

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative research study was designed as an exploration of the phenomena of alumni non-donors of Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs). Successfully securing private voluntary support is one of the most critical challenges for higher education institutions as traditional sources of financial support diminish, and alumni…

  13. An Emerging Donor in Education and Development: A Case Study of China in Cameroon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordtveit, Bjorn H.

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes China's new approaches of education aid to Africa through a case study of Cameroon. China's cooperation has been characterized by different discourses and different historic relationships with recipient countries than those of traditional donors. Sino-African policies have gone through different stages, each connected to wider…

  14. Molecular epidemiological approaches to study the epidemiology of tuberculosis in low-incidence settings receiving immigrants.

    PubMed

    Garzelli, Carlo; Rindi, Laura

    2012-06-01

    Although in most wealthy western countries the total incidence of tuberculosis (TB) steadily decreased in the last decades, the proportion of cases in immigrants from high-burden TB countries generally increased and to date a large proportion of all new active cases, often exceeding 50%, occurs among foreign-born individuals. In this context, molecular typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates has significantly contributed to understand the epidemiology of TB, allowing an objective evaluation of the dynamics and the risk of TB importation and transmission within low-incidence host countries. Many molecular studies have shown that a large part of active TB cases in immigrants yield unique, unclustered DNA fingerprints; this finding reflects reactivation of remote latent infections, rather than recent TB infections, and, at the same time, indicates a low rate of disease transmission within the host country. Some studies however express more concern on the basis of higher rates of transmission within the host country with foreign-born index cases. Molecular analysis of isolates also showed that TB infections in migrants may be acquired after arrival in the host country and that TB transmission between foreign-born and autochthonous individuals may occur in both directions. Molecular typing of isolates has been also profitably used to evaluate the diffusion of M. tuberculosis strain families across different geographic areas and human populations and to monitor the diffusion of threatening strains, such as Beijing and/or (multi)drug-resistant strains. To date, based on the contribution of molecular epidemiology, it is possible to adapt or design appropriate strategies for a rational control of TB in low-incidence countries.

  15. Colorectal Cancer Epidemiology in the Nurses' Health Study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong Hoon; Keum, NaNa; Giovannucci, Edward L

    2016-09-01

    To review the contribution of the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) to identifying risk and protective factors for colorectal adenomas and colorectal cancer (CRC). We performed a narrative review of the publications using the NHS between 1976 and 2016. Existing epidemiological studies using the NHS have reported that red and processed meat, alcohol, smoking, and obesity were associated with an increased risk of CRC, whereas folate, calcium, vitamin D, aspirin, and physical activity were associated with decreased risk of CRC. Moreover, modifiable factors, such as physical activity, vitamin D, folate, insulin and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1, and diet quality, were identified to be associated with survival among CRC patients. In recent years, molecular pathological epidemiological studies have been actively conducted and have shown refined results by molecular subtypes of CRC. The NHS has provided new insights into colorectal adenomas, CRC etiology, and pathogenic mechanisms. With its unique strengths, the NHS should continue to contribute to the field of CRC epidemiology and play a major role in public health.

  16. Colorectal Cancer Epidemiology in the Nurses’ Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong Hoon; Giovannucci, Edward L.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To review the contribution of the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS) to identifying risk and protective factors for colorectal adenomas and colorectal cancer (CRC). Methods. We performed a narrative review of the publications using the NHS between 1976 and 2016. Results. Existing epidemiological studies using the NHS have reported that red and processed meat, alcohol, smoking, and obesity were associated with an increased risk of CRC, whereas folate, calcium, vitamin D, aspirin, and physical activity were associated with decreased risk of CRC. Moreover, modifiable factors, such as physical activity, vitamin D, folate, insulin and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1, and diet quality, were identified to be associated with survival among CRC patients. In recent years, molecular pathological epidemiological studies have been actively conducted and have shown refined results by molecular subtypes of CRC. Conclusions. The NHS has provided new insights into colorectal adenomas, CRC etiology, and pathogenic mechanisms. With its unique strengths, the NHS should continue to contribute to the field of CRC epidemiology and play a major role in public health. PMID:27459444

  17. A social epidemiological study on HIV/AIDS in a village of Henan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jin; Xiao, Shuiyuan; Zhou, Liang; Tang, Yong; Xu, Guangming; Luo, Dan; Yi, Qifeng

    2013-01-01

    The HIV/AIDS epidemic caused by commercial blood donation in rural Henan Province of China in the early- to mid-1990s is the largest known cohort in the world related to blood donation but is not fully described. The objectives of this study were to describe the epidemic, epidemiology, and social epidemiology of commercial blood donation and HIV/AIDS. Both qualitative and quantitative mixed methods were used. A village was randomly selected from the 38 key HIV/AIDS pandemic villages in Henan Province. "Demographic Data Form" was applied to collect demographic information of each resident. Focus groups were held for the managers, some residents, members of "HIV/AIDS Work-Team" (organized by the Henan Provincial Government) in the village. Every village physician, people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA), school header, and other stakeholders were interviewed individually. The social epidemiology of HIV/AIDS was analyzed under three perspectives of the framework: individual, social, and structural perspectives. In this village, there were 2335 residents, 484 (20.3%) were former donors, 107 (4.6%) were PLWHA, and 96.3% of PLWHA were infected through commercial blood donation. Individually, low education and plasma donation were the risky factors of HIV/AIDS infection. Socially, the epidemic was geography-, kinship-, and conformity-related. Structurally, the related macrostructure factor was policy endorsement of national blood products. The microstructure factors were poverty and value belief on male child in passing down generations. It is concluded that commercial blood donation and HIV/AIDS epidemic in the village are symbiotically related. The epidemic is temporary and socially determined.

  18. Prevalence of blood donor iron deficiency and feasibility ferritin-based iron replacement: a blood collection agency-based study.

    PubMed

    Gorlin, J; Katz, L; Elsmore, D; Kirbach, K; Erickson, Y; Hove, A; Black, C; Walsh-Jahnke, R

    2016-08-01

    Iron depletion is high in frequent whole-blood donors. It is of interest to blood centres to develop ways to mitigate this risk while maintaining the current blood supply. Our feasibility study shows that blood collection agencies can measure iron stores and safely offer iron replacement in frequent blood donors with low ferritin to reduce the risk of iron depletion and future donor deferrals for low haemoglobin. © 2016 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  19. Communicable disease epidemiology following migration: studies from the African famine.

    PubMed

    Shears, P; Lusty, T

    1987-01-01

    Few epidemiological studies have been undertaken of morbidity and mortality due to communicable disease in mass migration. This article reviews data from refugee displacement areas in north-east Africa. Risk factors to increase morbidity and mortality include 1) breakdown of health services, 2) movement to new ecological zones, 3) malnutrition, and 4) crowding and poor sanitation in relief camps. Highest mortalities are recorded in children under 5 years old, principal causes being measles, gastro-enteritis, chest infections, and malaria. The greatest morbidity and mortality occurs after arrival in relief camps, and could be reduced by epidemiologically based, selective health programs. This article stresses the importance of regional level coordination between relief agencies and the need for an effective disease surveillance system.

  20. Consistency of external dosimetry in epidemiologic studies of nuclear workers

    SciTech Connect

    Fix, J.J.; Gilbert, E.S.

    1991-10-01

    To make the best use of available epidemiologic data in assessing risks from exposure to low-level radiation, it is important that biases and uncertainties in estimated doses be understood and documented. With this understanding, analyses of mortality data can be strengthened by including the use of correction factors where judged appropriate, excluding portions of the data where uncertainty in dose estimates is judged to be very large, and conducting sensitivity analyses to examine the effect of alternative assumptions about dosimetry errors and biases on results. It is hoped that the pooling of data from several epidemiologic studies and improved understanding of dosimetry will lead to better estimates of radiation risks. 10 refs., 4 tabs.

  1. Genotyping of Giardia isolates in Scotland: a descriptive epidemiological study.

    PubMed

    Alexander, C; Jones, B; Inverarity, D; Pollock, K G J

    2014-08-01

    Giardiasis, caused by the intestinal protozoan parasite Giardia intestinalis (synonyms: G. lamblia, G. duodenalis), is one of the most frequent parasites to infect the Scottish population. Transmission of the infective cysts in faecal matter is commonly via food and/or water. Giardia is subdivided into assemblages, where clinical and epidemiological differences have been described between assemblages A and B. This snapshot descriptive epidemiological study examines 30 positive cases of Giardia of which 72% (n = 21) were shown to be assemblage A, 14% (n = 4) assemblage B and 10% (n = 3) mixed assemblages (A and B). There was a 2:3 female:male ratio of affected individuals with foreign travel recorded in 22 of these cases. The commonest symptom was diarrhoea which was reported in 80% of cases followed by tiredness. Five cases required hospitalization emphasizing the importance of gaining a greater understanding of how Giardia assemblages influence clinical outcomes to assist in formulating guidelines to manage potential Giardia outbreaks.

  2. The Epidemiology of Delirium: Challenges and Opportunities for Population Studies

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Daniel H.J.; Kreisel, Stefan H.; Muniz Terrera, Graciela; Hall, Andrew J.; Morandi, Alessandro; Boustani, Malaz; Neufeld, Karin J.; Lee, Hochang Benjamin; MacLullich, Alasdair M.J.; Brayne, Carol

    2013-01-01

    Delirium is a serious and common acute neuropsychiatric syndrome that is associated with short- and long-term adverse health outcomes. However, relatively little delirium research has been conducted in unselected populations. Epidemiologic research in such populations has the potential to resolve several questions of clinical significance in delirium. Part 1 of this article explores the importance of population selection, case-ascertainment, attrition, and confounding. Part 2 examines a specific question in delirium epidemiology: What is the relationship between delirium and trajectories of cognitive decline? This section assesses previous work through two systematic reviews and proposes a design for investigating delirium in the context of longitudinal cohort studies. Such a design requires robust links between community and hospital settings. Practical considerations for case-ascertainment in the hospital, as well as the necessary quality control of these programs, are outlined. We argue that attention to these factors is important if delirium research is to benefit fully from a population perspective. PMID:23907068

  3. 10 CFR 602.5 - Epidemiology and Other Health Studies Financial Assistance Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Epidemiology and Other Health Studies Financial Assistance Program. 602.5 Section 602.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS EPIDEMIOLOGY AND OTHER HEALTH STUDIES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAM § 602.5 Epidemiology and Other Health Studies...

  4. 10 CFR 602.5 - Epidemiology and Other Health Studies Financial Assistance Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Epidemiology and Other Health Studies Financial Assistance Program. 602.5 Section 602.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS EPIDEMIOLOGY AND OTHER HEALTH STUDIES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAM § 602.5 Epidemiology and Other Health Studies...

  5. 10 CFR 602.5 - Epidemiology and Other Health Studies Financial Assistance Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Epidemiology and Other Health Studies Financial Assistance Program. 602.5 Section 602.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS EPIDEMIOLOGY AND OTHER HEALTH STUDIES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAM § 602.5 Epidemiology and Other Health Studies...

  6. A Systematic Study of Thermochromic Aromatic Donor-Acceptor Materials

    PubMed Central

    Alvey, Paul M.; Reczek, Joseph J.; Lynch, Vincent; Iverson, Brent L.

    2010-01-01

    1:1 molar mixtures of electron rich dialkoxynapthalene (Dan) and electron deficient 1,4,5,8-napthalenetetracarboxylic diimide (Ndi) derivatives form highly tunable, columnar mesophases with a dark red color due to a charge transfer absorbance derived from alternating face-centered stacking. Certain Dan-Ndi mixtures undergo a dramatic color change from dark red to an almost colorless material upon crystallizing from the mesophase. Macroscopic morphology of the solid is not changed during this process. In order to investigate the origins of this interesting thermochromic behavior, Dan and Ndi side chains were systematically altered and their 1:1 mixtures studied. We have previously speculated that the presence or absence of steric interactions due to side chain branching on the aromatic units controlled the level of color change associated with crystallization. Results from the present study further refine this conclusion including a key crystal structure that provides a structural rationale for the observed results. PMID:20973470

  7. A systematic study of thermochromic aromatic donor-acceptor materials.

    PubMed

    Alvey, Paul M; Reczek, Joseph J; Lynch, Vincent; Iverson, Brent L

    2010-11-19

    Molar mixtures (1:1) of electron-rich dialkoxynapthalene (Dan) and electron-deficient 1,4,5,8-napthalenetetracarboxylic diimide (Ndi) derivatives form highly tunable, columnar mesophases with a dark red color due to a charge transfer absorbance derived from alternating face-centered stacking. Certain Dan-Ndi mixtures undergo a dramatic color change from dark red to an almost colorless material upon crystallizing from the mesophase. Macroscopic morphology of the solid is not changed during this process. In order to investigate the origins of this interesting thermochromic behavior, Dan and Ndi side chains were systematically altered and their 1:1 mixtures were studied. We have previously speculated that the presence or absence of steric interactions due to side chain branching on the aromatic units controlled the level of color change associated with crystallization. Results from the present study further refine this conclusion including a key crystal structure that provides a structural rationale for the observed results.

  8. [Molecular epidemiology studies on the immigrant population in Spain].

    PubMed

    González-Candelas, Fernando; Alma Bracho, María; Comas, Iñaki; d'Auria, Giuseppe; D Unková, Mária; García, Rodrigo; Gosalbes, María José; Isaac, Sandrine; Latorre, Amparo; López-Labrador, Francisco Xavier; Patiño Galindo, Juan Ángel; Palero, Ferran; Pérez-Brocal, Vicente; Pérez-Cobas, Ana Elena; Sánchez-Busó, Leonor; Silva, Francisco J; Vázquez-Castellanos, Jorge F; Moya, Andrés

    2014-01-01

    Molecular epidemiology is a new scientific discipline which allows to integrate information on the genetic variation of infectious pathogens with their diffusion in a population and its subgroups including, for instance, resistance mutations to antibiotics and antiretrovirals. We present the results of an analysis of scientific publications that analyze the health status of the immigrant population in Spain from a molecular epidemiology perspective. We reviewed original articles published in 1998-2014 with the keywords "molecular epidemiology", "molecular typing", "sequencing", "immigrant", and "Spain". From a total of 267 articles identified initially, only 50 passed through the established filters. Most of them (36) analyzed infections by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (3) and HIV (3), followed at a large distance by Staphylococcus aureus and hepatitis B virus. The main goal of these works was the typing of the pathogen and to determine the frequency of resistance mutations. Is difficult to generalize the conclusions from the analyzed articles because most of them have a purely descriptive and quite restricted scope, considering the type and size of the samples studied. Several studies are focused on the most likely origin for the strains or variants of the pathogen but others also reveal transmissions from the local to the immigrant populations.

  9. Diagnostic Studies of Temporomandibular Disorders: Challenges From an Epidemiologic Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Dworkin, Samuel F.; LeResche, Linda; Von Korff, Michael R.

    1990-01-01

    Adequate data on the incidence, prevalence, natural history, and clinical course of temperomandibular disorders (TMD) and other chronic pain conditions are largely lacking, though the need to derive such basic data is recognized by clinicians, researchers, and public health agencies. This paper discusses challenges to the epidemiologic study of TMD diagnosis. These challenges include: • Case definition: There is currently poor agreement regarding which combinations of clinical and psychosocial findings differentially define cases of TMD • Differentiation of normal variation v pathophysiologic signs: To what extent do commonly gathered clinical measurements constitute pathophysiologic signs of TMD v reflect normal biologic variation • Reliability of clinical measurement: Factors influencing reliability of clinical signs and reliability of examiners have not been adequately assessed • Progressive v self-limiting disease activity: Do TMD subtypes represent a continuum of pathologic disease activity, or nonmutually exclusive categories describing largely symptomatic pain conditions that are selflimiting or stable. It is recommended that epidemiologic studies not be constrained by a priori definitions of TMD subtypes, but continue to gather data on clinical signs and symptoms that have theoretical and clinical relevance to mandibular dysfunction and psychosocial status. An approach is proposed for development of reliable and valid criteria of TMD subtypes suitable for epidemiologic research. PMID:2085194

  10. Risk factors for human immunodeficiency virus infection among Brazilian blood donors: a multicentre case-control study using audio computer-assisted structured interviews.

    PubMed

    de Almeida-Neto, C; Goncalez, T T; Birch, R J; de Carvalho, S M F; Capuani, L; Leão, S C; Miranda, C; Rocha, P C; Carneiro-Proietti, A B; Johnson, B R; Wright, D J; Murphy, E L; Custer, B

    2013-08-01

    Although risk factors for HIV infection are known, it is important for blood centres to understand local epidemiology and disease transmission patterns. Current risk factors for HIV infection in blood donors in Brazil were assessed. A case-control study was conducted at large public blood centres located in four major cities between April 2009 and March 2011. Cases were persons whose donations were confirmed positive by enzyme immunoassays followed by Western blot confirmation. Audio computer-assisted structured interviews (ACASI) were completed by all cases and controls. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (AORs) and associated 95% confidence intervals (CIs). There were 341 cases, including 47 with recently acquired infection, and 791 controls. Disclosed risk factors for both females and males were sex with an HIV-positive person AOR 11.3, 95% CI (4.1, 31.7) and being an IVDU or sexual partner of an IVDU [AOR 4.65 (1.8, 11.7)]. For female blood donors, additional risk factors were having male sex partners who also are MSM [AOR 13.5 (3.1, 59.8)] and having unprotected sex with multiple sexual partners [AOR 5.19 (2.1, 12.9)]. The primary risk factor for male blood donors was MSM activity [AOR 21.6 (8.8, 52.9)]. Behaviours associated with recently acquired HIV were being a MSM or sex partner of MSM [13.82, (4.7, 40.3)] and IVDU [11.47, (3.0, 43.2)]. Risk factors in blood donors parallel those in the general population in Brazil. Identified risk factors suggest that donor compliance with selection procedures at the participating blood centres is inadequate. © 2013 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  11. Advanced far infrared detector and double donor studies in Ge

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, Christopher Sean

    1994-12-01

    This has application to astronomy and astrophysics. Selenium in Ge has been studied with a doping technique which limits complex formation. Only one ionization level has been found to correspond to selenium, which presumably occupies a substitutional site. This level is extremely unstable and its concentration decreases after annealing at 400C. Future work is planned to anneal the fast neutron damage before much selenium has formed in the {sup 74/76}Ge samples. It is expected that the observed selenium level can be better characterized and the missing selenium level is more likely to be discovered if other defects are removed before {sup 77}Se formation.

  12. Elderly living donor kidney transplantation allows worthwhile outcomes: The Japan Academic Consortium of Kidney Transplantation study.

    PubMed

    Okumi, Masayoshi; Unagami, Kohei; Kakuta, Yoichi; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Takagi, Toshio; Ishida, Hideki; Tanabe, Kazunari

    2017-09-14

    To compare transplant outcomes among elderly (aged ≥60 years) and non-elderly recipients, and to evaluate the acceptability of elderly living donor kidney transplantation in practice after consideration of living donor type. We included 830 adult patients with living donor kidney transplantation between 2000 and 2011 in this retrospective cohort study. We compared death-censored graft survival, patient survival, biopsy-proven rejection, complications, and renal function in elderly (n = 119) and non-elderly recipients (n = 278). There was no significant difference in 10-year death-censored graft survival (P = 0.980). Corresponding patient survival rates in the elderly and non-elderly groups were 84.1% and 98.1%, respectively (hazard ratio 6.15, 95% confidence interval 2.12-17.82, P < 0.001). Elderly patients had more complications and chronic T-cell-mediated rejection. Factors associated with death in elderly recipients with functioning grafts were residual advanced recipient age (hazard ratio 1.39), decreased hemoglobin (hazard ratio 4.10), hepatitis B virus (hazard ratio 7.89), hepatitis C virus (hazard ratio 13.12) and elevated alanine aminotransferase (hazard ratio 1.13). Elderly living donor kidney transplantation seems to provide adequate acceptable outcomes. However, physicians should be cautious when evaluating elderly patients with hepatitis, and further studies are required to improve long-term outcomes. © 2017 The Japanese Urological Association.

  13. Quality control of a national bone marrow donor registry: results of a pilot study and proposal for a standardized approach.

    PubMed

    Tiercy, J-M; Stadelmann, S; Chapuis, B; Gratwohl, A; Schanz, U; Seger, R A; Faveri, G Nicoloso de; Kern, M; Morell, A; Schwabe, R; Schneider, P

    2003-09-01

    Unrelated hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a recognized therapy for hematological diseases and over 8 million HLA-typed donors are ready to donate. Increased international exchanges and rapid requests through the Bone Marrow Donor Worldwide (BMDW) ask for standardized quality assurance. Since no such standards have been established to date, we tested a pilot program in order to evaluate donor availability and quality of HLA typing of the Swiss Registry. The 18500 donors of the registry have been analyzed by serology for HLA-AB and by molecular typing for HLA-DR. Through three successive annual quality control (QC) exercises, a total of 114 donor requests were sent to 13 blood transfusion centers responsible for donor recruitment asking for a blood sample. Donors were randomly selected according to recruitment periods (1988-1993; 1994-1997; 1998-2000), and to homozygosity for HLA-A and/or -B antigens. An additional 80 frozen blood samples from the repository corresponding to the three periods (n=26) and to the 2001 period (n=54) were also included in the HLA study. HLA-AB typings were done by polymerase chain reaction-sequence specific primers (PCR-SSP) and all discrepancies were retyped. The results showed that 79 samples provided by 69.3% of the requested donors were received within 14 days, and 19 samples (16.7%) were received in >14 days. Altogether, an 86% rate of donor availability was observed, independent of the recruitment period. Among the requested donors, 16 (14%) were not available: for medical reasons (two), for personal reasons (eight), for loss (one), and for an unknown reason (five). The HLA-A/B DNA typing results of 166 homozygous and 12 heterozygous blood samples showed that 437/439 (99.5%) of the assigned A/B antigens were correct. However in 36/178 donors (20.2%) an HLA-A or -B antigen had been missed (34 donors) or misassigned (two donors) by serology, with a decreasing discrepancy rate of 30% (1988-1993) to 18.5% in 2001

  14. TIME-INTEGRATED EXPOSURE MEASURES TO IMPROVE THE PREDICTIVE POWER OF EXPOSURE CLASSIFICATION FOR EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Accurate exposure classification tools are required to link exposure with health effects in epidemiological studies. Although long-term integrated exposure measurements are a critical component of exposure assessment, the ability to include these measurements into epidemiologic...

  15. TIME-INTEGRATED EXPOSURE MEASURES TO IMPROVE THE PREDICTIVE POWER OF EXPOSURE CLASSIFICATION FOR EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Accurate exposure classification tools are required to link exposure with health effects in epidemiological studies. Although long-term integrated exposure measurements are a critical component of exposure assessment, the ability to include these measurements into epidemiologic...

  16. Consensus statement on assessment of waterpipe smoking in epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Maziak, Wasim; Ben Taleb, Ziyad; Jawad, Mohammed; Afifi, Rima; Nakkash, Rima; Akl, Elie A; Ward, Kenneth D; Salloum, Ramzi G; Barnett, Tracey E; Primack, Brian A; Sherman, Scott; Cobb, Caroline O; Sutfin, Erin L; Eissenberg, Thomas

    2016-05-10

    Numerous epidemiological accounts suggest that waterpipe smoking (aka hookah, shisha, narghile) has become a global phenomenon, especially among youth. The alarming spread of waterpipe and accumulating evidence of its addictive and harmful effects represent a new threat in the global fight to limit tobacco-related morbidity and mortality. In response to waterpipe's alarming trends, major public health and tobacco control organisations have started or are considering systematic collection of data about waterpipe smoking to monitor its trends and assess its harmful effects in different societies. Such plans require coordination and agreement on epidemiological measurement tools that reflect the uniqueness of this tobacco use method, and at the same time allow comparison of waterpipe trends across time and place, and with other tobacco use methods. We started a decade ago our work to develop standardised measures and definitions for the assessment of waterpipe smoking in epidemiological studies. In this communication, we try to expand and update these assessment tools in light of our increased knowledge and understanding of waterpipe use patterns, its context and marketing, as well as the need for evidence-guided policies and regulations to curb its spread. We have assembled for this purpose a group of leading waterpipe researchers worldwide, and worked through an iterative process to develop the suggested instruments and definitions based on what we know currently about the waterpipe epidemic. While the suggested measures are by no means comprehensive, we hope that they can provide the building blocks for standard and comparable surveillance of waterpipe smoking globally.

  17. An epidemiological study of epilepsy in Hong Kong SAR, China.

    PubMed

    Fong, Gardian C Y; Kwan, Patrick; Hui, Andrew C F; Lui, Colin H T; Fong, Jason K Y; Wong, Virginia

    2008-07-01

    Several specialist clinic-based epidemiology studies suggested low prevalence in Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR) of China. Population-based epidemiological data for epilepsy is not available. We performed the first population-based epidemiological survey of epilepsy in this locality. We conducted a territory-wide survey. We randomly selected 9547 households from fixed-line telephone directory. We successfully surveyed 17,783 persons of 5178 households by telephone interview. All positive respondents 685 (3.85%) were invited for clinical validation. 127 subjects were validated by board-certified neurologists. Seizure disorders were confirmed in 28 subjects. The crude prevalence of active epilepsy and seizure disorder were estimated to be 3.94/1000 (95% confidence interval (CI): 2.10-6.74/1000) and 8.49/1000 (95% CI: 5.64-12.27/1000), respectively. The prevalence of epilepsy in HKSAR is more common than previously thought. The data retrieved is useful for planning and allocation of health resources for patients with seizure disorders.

  18. Effectiveness of DNA-recombinant anti-hepatitis B vaccines in blood donors: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Kupek, Emil; de Souza, Denise ER; Petry, Andrea

    2007-01-01

    Background Although various studies have demonstrated efficacy of DNA-recombinant anti-hepatitis B vaccines, their effectiveness in health care settings has not been researched adequately. This gap is particularly visible for blood donors, a group of significant importance in the reduction of transfusion-transmitted hepatitis B. Methods This is a double cohort study of 1411 repeat blood donors during the period 1998–2002, involving a vaccinated and an unvaccinated cohort, with matching of the two in terms of sex, age and residence. Average follow-up was 3.17 person-years. The outcome measure was infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV), defined by testing positive on serologic markers HBsAg or anti-HBC. All blood donors were from the blood bank in Joaçaba, federal state of Santa Catarina, Brazil. Results The cohorts did not differ significantly regarding sex, age and marital status but the vaccinated cohort had higher mean number of blood donations and higher proportion of those residing in the county capital Joaçaba. Hepatitis B incidences per 1000 person-years were zero among vaccinated and 2,33 among non-vaccinated, resulting in 100% vaccine effectiveness with 95% confidence interval from 30,1% to 100%. The number of vaccinated persons necessary to avoid one HBV infection in blood donors was estimated at 429 with 95% confidence interval from 217 to 21422. Conclusion The results showed very high effectiveness of DNA-recombinant anti-HBV vaccines in blood donors. Its considerable variation in this study is likely due to the limited follow-up and the influence of confounding factors normally balanced out in efficacy clinical trials. PMID:17986330

  19. Iranian nurses’ experiences of brain dead donors care in intensive care units: A phenomenological study

    PubMed Central

    Salehi, Shayesteh; Kanani, Tahereh; Abedi, Heidarali

    2013-01-01

    Background: Care of brain dead donors is complex, critical, and sensitive and has a direct and positive impact on the end result of organ and tissue transplantation process. This study describes the nurses’ experiences of care of brain dead donors in intensive care units (ICU). Materials and Methods: This research was performed by phenomenological method that is a qualitative approach. Purposive sampling was used to gather the data. The researcher reached to data saturation by deep interviews conducted with eight participants from ICU nurses in Isfahan hospitals who cooperated in care of brain dead donors. Data analysis was performed according to Colaizzi analysis method. Results: Interviews were analyzed and the results of analysis led to “Excruciating tasks” as the main theme formed by psychological effects of facing the situation, heavy and stressful care, defect of scientific knowledge, conflict between feeling and duty, outcome of attitude change in behavior, emotional responses to perceived psychological afflictions, doubt to medical diagnosis, spiritual perceptions, and biological responses when faced with the situation. Conclusion: Caring of brain dead organ donors is difficult and stressful for intensive care nurses and can be a threat for nurses’ health and quality of nursing care. So, providing suitable physical, mental, and working conditions is necessary to make suitable background to maintain and increase nurses’ health and quality of care and effective cooperation of this group of health professionals in organ procurement process. PMID:24554946

  20. A retrospective cohort study of blood hemoglobin levels in blood donors and competitive rowers.

    PubMed

    Johansson, P I; Ullum, H; Jensen, K; Secher, N H

    2009-02-01

    To investigate the distribution of blood hemoglobin levels in healthy blood donors and elite athletes, a retrospective cohort study from 2001 to 2005 of candidate blood donors and elite rowers in Denmark was performed. Eighty-five thousand eight hundred and forty-six blood donors were identified (36 962 males), and 3.9% of the males had a blood hemoglobin above 10.5 mM, equalling a hematocrit of 51% and, 1.6% of the females had hemoglobin above 9.7 mM, corresponding to a hematocrit above 47%. One thousand four hundred and six rowers (1116 males) were investigated and 10.4% of the males and 8.3% of the females demonstrated values above the recommended limit for athletic competition. Thus, the prevalence of a high hemoglobin value was greater in the rowers, of both gender, than in the candidate blood donors (P<0.0001). The data demonstrate that high hemoglobin levels in blood are seen regularly in normal people and especially in competition athletes.

  1. Donor spectroscopy at large hydrostatic pressures and transport studies in compound semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, Leonardo

    1997-06-01

    In the first part of this work, the author describes studies of donors in AlSb and in GaAs at large hydrostatic pressures, two materials in which the conduction band minimum is not parabolic, but has a camel`s back shape. These donors were found to display only one or two absorption lines corresponding to ground to bound excited state transitions. It is shown that due to the non-parabolic dispersion, camel's back donors may have as few as one bound excited state and that higher excited states are auto-ionized. Thus, it is possible that transitions to these other states may be lost in the continuum. In the second part, calculations of mobilities in GaN and other group III-Nitride based structures were performed. GaN is interesting in that the carriers in nominally undoped material are thought to originate from impurities which have an ionization energy level resonant with the conduction band, rather than located in the forbidden gap. These donors have a short range potential associated with them which can be effective in scattering electrons in certain situations. It was found that effects of these resonant donors can be seen only at high doping levels in III-Nitride materials and in AlxGa1-xN alloys, where the defect level can be pushed into the forbidden gap. Calculations were also performed to find intrinsic mobility limits in AlxGa1-xN/GaN modulation doped heterostructures. Theoretical predictions show that electron mobilities in these devices are capable of rivaling those found in the best AlxGa1-xAs/GaAs heterostructures structures today. However, the currently available nitride heterostructures, while displaying mobilities superior to those in bulk material, have sheet carrier concentrations too large to display true two-dimensional electron gas behavior.

  2. Serum S100B protein concentration in brain-dead organ donors: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Krzych, Łukasz J; Czempik, Piotr Filip; Saucha, Wojciech; Kokocińska, Danuta; Knapik, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    Protein S100B is considered to be a marker of brain damage, but there is a paucity of data regarding the utility of its assessment in brain-dead organ donors. The aim of the study was to compare serum protein S100B concentrations between brain-dead organ donors and patients with a confirmed permanent neurological deficit but without signs of brain death. The concentration of serum S100B protein was measured in 12 brain-dead organ donors (including 7 males with a median age of 40 years). All measurements were taken when brain death was confirmed by the commission. Twenty-nine patients (including 13 males with a median age of 63 years) who died in the medical ICU with confirmed permanent brain injury without signs of brain death acted as controls. In these patients, S-100B protein measurements were performed upon ICU admission. In brain-dead organ donors, the median values of serum S100B protein were much higher in comparison to the control group (median and IQR, respectively: 5.04 μg L⁻¹; 1.775-6.765 vs 0.897 μg L⁻¹; 0.324-1.880, P < 0.001). S100B serum values > 1.81 μg L⁻¹ predicted brain death with the highest accuracy (AUROC = 0.83; 95% CI 0.68-0.93; P < 0.001). Concentrations of serum S100B protein in brain-dead organ donors are extremely high and may support the diagnosis of brain death. This fact may be of value when the presence of reflex movements (frequently reported despite brain death) might delay determination of brain death and result in the failure of organ donation.

  3. Some applications of categorical data analysis to epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Grizzle, J E; Koch, G G

    1979-10-01

    Several examples of categorized data from epidemiological studies are analyzed to illustrate that more informative analysis than tests of independence can be performed by fitting models. All of the analyses fit into a unified conceptual framework that can be performed by weighted least squares. The methods presented show how to calculate point estimate of parameters, asymptotic variances, and asymptotically valid chi 2 tests. The examples presented are analysis of relative risks estimated from several 2 x 2 tables, analysis of selected features of life tables, construction of synthetic life tables from cross-sectional studies, and analysis of dose-response curves.

  4. Cohort profile: Epidemiological Clinicopathological studies in Europe (EClipSE).

    PubMed

    2009-01-01

    Epidemiological Clinicopathological Studies in Europe (EClipSE) is the harmonization of neuropathological and longitudinal clinical data from three population-based prospective longitudinal studies of aging. The EClipSE database (Version 1.0) comprises data from the first 970 people who donated their brain at death and this number will increase. EClipSE enables sociodemographic, health, cognitive, and genetic measures collected during life to be related to neuropathology at death, testing hypotheses which require more power than has been previously possible. EClipSE aims to help throw light on relationships between biological, health and psychological factors underlying ageing and the manifestation of clinical dementia.

  5. Epidemiologic studies of glyphosate and cancer: a review.

    PubMed

    Mink, Pamela J; Mandel, Jack S; Sceurman, Bonnielin K; Lundin, Jessica I

    2012-08-01

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency and other regulatory agencies around the world have registered glyphosate as a broad-spectrum herbicide for use on multiple food and non-food use crops. Glyphosate is widely considered by regulatory authorities and scientific bodies to have no carcinogenic potential, based primarily on results of carcinogenicity studies of rats and mice. To examine potential cancer risks in humans, we reviewed the epidemiologic literature to evaluate whether exposure to glyphosate is associated causally with cancer risk in humans. We also reviewed relevant methodological and biomonitoring studies of glyphosate. Seven cohort studies and fourteen case-control studies examined the association between glyphosate and one or more cancer outcomes. Our review found no consistent pattern of positive associations indicating a causal relationship between total cancer (in adults or children) or any site-specific cancer and exposure to glyphosate. Data from biomonitoring studies underscore the importance of exposure assessment in epidemiologic studies, and indicate that studies should incorporate not only duration and frequency of pesticide use, but also type of pesticide formulation. Because generic exposure assessments likely lead to exposure misclassification, it is recommended that exposure algorithms be validated with biomonitoring data.

  6. TCDD and cancer: A critical review of epidemiologic studies

    PubMed Central

    Boffetta, Paolo; Mundt, Kenneth A; Adami, Hans-Olov; Cole, Philip; Mandel, Jack S

    2011-01-01

    The authors reviewed the epidemiologic studies on exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and cancer risk, published since the last full-scale review made by the International Agency for Research on Cancer Monographs program in 1997. The update of a cohort of US herbicide producers generated negative results overall; the internal analysis provided evidence of an increased “all-cancer” risk in the highest exposure category, with a statistically significant exposure-response association in some of the many analyses performed.The update of a similar Dutch cohort did not confirm the previously observed association with TCDD exposure. The updated surveillance of the Seveso population provided evidence of increased all-cancer mortality 15-20 years after exposure among those living in the most contaminated area but might also reflect random variation, as overall excesses in the most recent follow-up were not observed. Corresponding data on cancer incidence offer little support to the mortality results. Updated results from cohort studies of Vietnam veterans potentially exposed to TCDD did not consistently suggest an increased risk of cancer. Results of additional, smaller studies of other occupational groups potentially exposed to TCDD, and of community-based case-control studies, did not provide consistent evidence of an increased cancer risk. In conclusion, recent epidemiological evidence falls far short of conclusively demonstrating a causal link between TCDD exposure and cancer risk in humans. The emphasis on results for overall cancer risk—rather than risk for specific neoplasms—is notjustified on epidemiologic grounds and is nota reason for ignoring the weaknesses of the available evidence. PMID:21718216

  7. Epidemiological studies of esophageal cancer in the era of genome-wide association studies

    PubMed Central

    Wang, An-Hui; Liu, Yuan; Wang, Bo; He, Yi-Xuan; Fang, Ye-Xian; Yan, Yong-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Esophageal cancer (EC) caused about 395000 deaths in 2010. China has the most cases of EC and EC is the fourth leading cause of cancer death in China. Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is the predominant histologic type (90%-95%), while the incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) remains extremely low in China. Traditional epidemiological studies have revealed that environmental carcinogens are risk factors for EC. Molecular epidemiological studies revealed that susceptibility to EC is influenced by both environmental and genetic risk factors. Of all the risk factors for EC, some are associated with the risk of ESCC and others with the risk of EAC. However, the details and mechanisms of risk factors involved in the process for EC are unclear. The advanced methods and techniques used in human genome studies bring a great opportunity for researchers to explore and identify the details of those risk factors or susceptibility genes involved in the process of EC. Human genome epidemiology is a new branch of epidemiology, which leads the epidemiology study from the molecular epidemiology era to the era of genome wide association studies (GWAS). Here we review the epidemiological studies of EC (especially ESCC) in the era of GWAS, and provide an overview of the general risk factors and those genomic variants (genes, SNPs, miRNAs, proteins) involved in the process of ESCC. PMID:25133033

  8. Environmental tobacco smoke: Exposure-response relationships in epidemiologic studies

    SciTech Connect

    Wu-Williams, A.H. ); Samet, J.M. )

    1990-01-01

    Demonstration of a dose-response relationship for environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is an important indication of causality. Central to the analysis and interpretation of dose-response relations as described in epidemiological studies is the relationship between dose and exposure. It must be recognized that in studies of ETS the authors have only surrogate measures of dose, and these surrogate measures (based on exposure) are imperfect. The question-based measures of ETS exposure generally have not been standardized, may have limited validity and reliability, and cannot comprehensively describe total ETS exposure, exposure to individual ETS components, nor doses of biologically relevant agents at target sites. Nevertheless, useful data have been yielded in epidemiologic studies linking ETS exposure to increased respiratory infection and symptoms, reduced lung growth in children, and increased lung cancer in nonsmoking adults. The more consistent exposure-response data for studies on acute health in children may reflect the greater difficulty in measuring exposure in studies of chronic health in adults.

  9. The Use of Satellite Remote Sensing in Epidemiological Studies

    PubMed Central

    Sorek-Hamer, Meytar; Just, Allan C.; Kloog, Itai

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review Particulate matter (PM) air pollution is a ubiquitous exposure linked with multiple adverse health outcomes for children and across the life course. The recent development of satellite based remote sensing models for air pollution enables the quantification of these risks and addresses many limitations of previous air pollution research strategies. We review the recent literature on the applications of satellite remote sensing in air quality research, with a focus on their use in epidemiological studies. Recent findings Aerosol optical depth (AOD) is a focus of this review and a significant number of studies show that ground-level PM can be estimated from columnar AOD. Satellite measurements have been found to be an important source of data for PM model-based exposure estimates, and recently have been used in health studies to increase the spatial breadth and temporal resolution of these estimates. Summary It is suggested that satellite-based models improve our understanding of the spatial characteristics of air quality. Although the adoption of satellite-based measures of air quality in health studies is in its infancy, it is rapidly growing. Nevertheless, further investigation is still needed in order to have a better understanding of the AOD contribution to these prediction models in order to use them with higher accuracy in epidemiological studies. PMID:26859287

  10. The maintenance care of potential organ donors: ethnographic study on the experience of a nursing team.

    PubMed

    Lemes, Maria Madalena Del Duqui; Bastos, Marisa Antonini Ribeiro

    2007-01-01

    This ethnographic study aimed to understand a nursing team's experience on the maintenance of potential organ donors. Data were collected through ethnographic interview, participative observation and documental analysis and analyzed in thematic, cultural domain and taxonomical terms. The research enabled us to identify the meaning of brain death, revealing the interrelation between the categories (units, nursing team and patient), which constituted this study main theme: "it is not a person". The transplant meaning held by the nursing team is marked by disbelief due to some previous experiences in the Intensive Therapy Unit. Thus, beliefs and values of this subculture interfere or determine a distancing from the patient with a consequent loss in the maintenance of the potential donor and quality of the organs donated.

  11. Critical review of epidemiologic studies related to ingested asbestos

    SciTech Connect

    Marsh, G.M.

    1983-11-01

    Thirteen epidemiologic studies of ingested asbestos conducted in five areas of the US and Canada were evaluated for the definitiveness and applicability regarding the development of ambient water quality standards. Associations between asbestos in water supplies and cancer mortality or incidence in humans were found in one or more studies dealing with neoplasms in the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, colon, rectum, gallbaldder, pancreas, peritoneum, lungs, pleura, prostate, kidneys, brain and thyroid as well as leukemia. However, no single study nor aggregate of studies existed that would establish risk levels from ingested asbestos. It is recommended that the integrated ecologic data to date be used to generate a rough priority of specific etiologic hypotheses that should be tested in the original settings or in independent study populations using studies designed at the more definitive individual level, such as case-control studies. 25 references, 7 tables.

  12. Epidemiological study of primary systemic vasculitides among adults in southern Spain and review of the main epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Romero-Gómez, C; Aguilar-García, J A; García-de-Lucas, M D; Cotos-Canca, R; Olalla-Sierra, J; García-Alegría, J J; Hernández-Rodríguez, J

    2015-01-01

    To study the incidence and prevalence of primary systemic vasculitides (PSV) in the Costa del Sol region (southern Spain) and to compare the major epidemiological studies in PSV with the results obtained in our area. Retrospective study including permanent residents ≥14 years (or older) diagnosed with PSV at the Hospital Costa del Sol (Marbella, Spain) between 1994 and 2010. Epidemiological data were collected and the annual incidence rate during the study period and the prevalence in 2010 were calculated per million population, except for GCA, which was estimated per 100,000 population >50 years. Seventy-four adult patients were diagnosed with PSV, representing an annual incidence of 15.8 (95%CI 12.2-19.4) patients/million population. These diagnoses included 29 (39.1%) giant cell arteritis (GCA), 5 (6.7%) Takayasu's arteritis (TKA), 3 (4%) poly-arteritis nodosa (PAN), 29 (39.1%) antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV) [10 (13.5%) granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) (Wegener), 16 (21.6%) microscopic polyangiitis (MPA) and 3 (4%) eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA) (Churg-Strauss)], 7 (9.4%) IgA vasculitis (Henoch-Schönlein) (IgAV) and one (1.3%) cryobulinaemic vasculitis (CV). The annual incidence and 2010 prevalence for each of the PSV, respectively, were: GCA: 2.2/12.2; TKA: 1.1/10.5; PAN: 0.6/2.6; AAV: 6.2/44.8 (GPA: 2.1/15.8; MPA: 3.4/23.8; EGPA: 0.6/5.3); IgAV: 1.5/7.9; and CV: 0.2/0. The first epidemiological study of PSV in southern Spain corroborates their infrequency, with GCA and AAV as the PSV most often diagnosed. In southern Spain, the incidence and prevalence of PSV are lower than in northern Spain and in countries in the Northern Hemisphere.

  13. Backfill for iliac-crest donor sites: a prospective, randomized study of coralline hydroxyapatite.

    PubMed

    Bojescul, John A; Polly, David W; Kuklo, Timothy R; Allen, Thomas W; Wieand, Kay E

    2005-08-01

    We report on a prospective randomized study of coralline hydroxyapatite (CH) used as backfill for iliac-crest donor sites. Autogenous iliac-crest bone graft is routinely harvested for spinal fusion. Donor-site morbidity is underappreciated; the presumption is that donor sites regenerate. In this study, we assessed the biological viability of the backfill CH (Pro OsteonTM Implant 500 Hydroxyapatite Bone Void Filler; Interpore, Irvine, Calif) and compared donor-site morbidity after harvest. Twelve patients (11 men, 1 woman) were enrolled: 5 in the backfill group and 7 in the no-backfill group. As part of routine evaluations done preoperatively and 6 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year postoperatively, plain radiographs and computed tomography (CT) scans were used to assess bone ingrowth, and technetium bone scans were used to assess biological activity. Postoperative pain analysis was also done. Ten patients (9 men, 1 woman) completed the study. Of the 4 completers in the backfill group, 3 (75%) showed bony ingrowth on plain radiographs and CT scans at 1 year; the fourth patient showed bony ingrowth only on plain radiographs. All 4 patients showed biological activity on bone scans and reported mild pain to no pain. Of the 6 completers in the no-backfill group, 1 (17%) showed bony ingrowth on plain radiographs and CT scans. No patient showed biological activity on bone scans at 1 year. CH aids in iliac-crest healing after bone-graft harvesting by acting as a biological osteoconductive matrix. Postoperative pain at the bone-graft site is potentially reduced. More studies of larger numbers of patients are needed to assess the true long-term benefits of this material in a clinical setting.

  14. MODELING AN IRRITANT GAS PLUME FOR EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Jani, Dev D.; Reed, David; Feigley, Charles E.

    2015-01-01

    Plume dispersion modeling systems are often used in assessing human exposures to chemical hazards for epidemiologic study. We modeled the 2005 Graniteville, South Carolina, 54,915 kg railcar chlorine release using both the Areal Locations of Hazardous Atmospheres (ALOHA) and Hazard Prediction and Assessment Capability (HPAC) plume modeling systems. We estimated the release rate by an engineering analysis combining semi-quantitative observations and fundamental physical principles. The use of regional meteorological conditions was validated by comparing concentration estimates generated by two source-location weather data sets. The HPAC model estimated a chlorine plume with 20 ppm outdoor concentrations up to 7 km downwind and 0.25 km upwind/downgrade. A comparative analysis of our two models showed that HPAC was the best candidate for use as a model system on which epidemiologic studies could be based after further model validation. Further validation studies are needed before individual exposure estimates can be reliable and the chlorine plume more definitively modeled. PMID:25772143

  15. Serum Biomarkers of (Anti)Oxidant Status for Epidemiological Studies

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Eugène; Ruskovska, Tatjana

    2015-01-01

    In this review, we disclose a selection of serum/plasma biomarkers of (anti)oxidant status related to nutrition, which can be used for measurements in large-scale epidemiological studies. From personal experience, we have come to the following proposal of a set of biomarkers for nutritional intake, (anti)oxidant status, and redox status. We have selected the individual antioxidant vitamins E and A, and the carotenoids which can be measured in large series by HPLC. In addition, vitamin C was selected, which can be measured by an auto-analyzer or HPLC. As a biomarker for oxidative stress, the ROM assay (reactive oxygen metabolites) was selected; for the redox status, the total thiol assay; and for the total antioxidant status the BAP assay (biological antioxidant potential). All of these biomarkers can be measured in large quantities by an auto-analyzer. Critical points in biomarker validation with respect to blood sampling, storage conditions, and measurements are discussed. With the selected biomarkers, a good set is presented for use in the risk assessment between nutrition and (chronic) diseases in large-scale epidemiological studies. Examples of the successful application of these biomarkers in large international studies are presented. PMID:26580612

  16. Serum Biomarkers of (Anti)Oxidant Status for Epidemiological Studies.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Eugène; Ruskovska, Tatjana

    2015-11-16

    In this review, we disclose a selection of serum/plasma biomarkers of (anti)oxidant status related to nutrition, which can be used for measurements in large-scale epidemiological studies. From personal experience, we have come to the following proposal of a set of biomarkers for nutritional intake, (anti)oxidant status, and redox status. We have selected the individual antioxidant vitamins E and A, and the carotenoids which can be measured in large series by HPLC. In addition, vitamin C was selected, which can be measured by an auto-analyzer or HPLC. As a biomarker for oxidative stress, the ROM assay (reactive oxygen metabolites) was selected; for the redox status, the total thiol assay; and for the total antioxidant status the BAP assay (biological antioxidant potential). All of these biomarkers can be measured in large quantities by an auto-analyzer. Critical points in biomarker validation with respect to blood sampling, storage conditions, and measurements are discussed. With the selected biomarkers, a good set is presented for use in the risk assessment between nutrition and (chronic) diseases in large-scale epidemiological studies. Examples of the successful application of these biomarkers in large international studies are presented.

  17. First molecular epidemiological study of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Libya.

    PubMed

    Amro, Ahmad; Gashout, Aisha; Al-Dwibe, Hamida; Zahangir Alam, Mohammad; Annajar, Badereddin; Hamarsheh, Omar; Shubar, Hend; Schönian, Gabriele

    2012-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a major public health problem in Libya. The objective of this study was to investigate, for the first time, epidemiological features of CL outbreaks in Libya including molecular identification of parasites, the geographical distribution of cases and possible scenarios of parasite transmission. We studied 450 patients that came from 49 areas distributed in 12 districts in north-west Libya. The patients' ages ranged from 9 months to 87 years (median age 25 years); 54% of the cases were males. Skin scrapings spotted on glass slides were collected for molecular identification of causative agent. The ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) was amplified and subsequently characterized by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. In total, 195 samples were successfully identified of which 148 (75.9%) were Leishmania major, and 47 (24.1%) Leishmania tropica. CL cases infected with L. major were found in all CL areas whereas L. tropica cases came mainly from Al Jabal Al Gharbi (46.4%), Misrata (17.8%) and Tarhuna districts (10.7%). A trend of seasonality was noticed for the infections with L. major which showed a clear peak between November and January, but was less pronounced for infections by L. tropica. The first molecular study on CL in Libya revealed that the disease is caused by L. major and L. tropica and the epidemiological patterns in the different foci were the same as in other Mediterranean foci of CL.

  18. First Molecular Epidemiological Study of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Libya

    PubMed Central

    Amro, Ahmad; Gashout, Aisha; Al-Dwibe, Hamida; Zahangir Alam, Mohammad; Annajar, Badereddin; Hamarsheh, Omar; Shubar, Hend; Schönian, Gabriele

    2012-01-01

    Background Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a major public health problem in Libya. The objective of this study was to investigate, for the first time, epidemiological features of CL outbreaks in Libya including molecular identification of parasites, the geographical distribution of cases and possible scenarios of parasite transmission. Methodology/Principal Findings We studied 450 patients that came from 49 areas distributed in 12 districts in north-west Libya. The patients' ages ranged from 9 months to 87 years (median age 25 years); 54% of the cases were males. Skin scrapings spotted on glass slides were collected for molecular identification of causative agent. The ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) was amplified and subsequently characterized by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. In total, 195 samples were successfully identified of which 148 (75.9%) were Leishmania major, and 47 (24.1%) Leishmania tropica. CL cases infected with L. major were found in all CL areas whereas L. tropica cases came mainly from Al Jabal Al Gharbi (46.4%), Misrata (17.8%) and Tarhuna districts (10.7%). A trend of seasonality was noticed for the infections with L. major which showed a clear peak between November and January, but was less pronounced for infections by L. tropica. Conclusion The first molecular study on CL in Libya revealed that the disease is caused by L. major and L. tropica and the epidemiological patterns in the different foci were the same as in other Mediterranean foci of CL. PMID:22724036

  19. Theoretical Study of Donor - Spacer - Acceptor Structure Molecule for Molecular Rectifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizuseki, Hiroshi; Kenji, Niimura; Belosludov, Rodion; Farajian, Amir; Kawazoe, Yoshiyuki

    2003-03-01

    Recently, the molecular electronics has attracted strong attention as a ``post-silicone technology'' to establish a future nanoscale electronic devices. To realize this molecular device, unimolecular rectifiering function is one of the most important constituents in nanotechnology [C. Majumder, H. Mizuseki, and Y. Kawazoe, Molecular Scale Rectifier: Theoretical Study, J. Phys. Chem. A, 105 (2001) 9454-9459.]. In the present study, the geometric and electronic structure of alkyl derivative C37H50N4O4 (PNX) molecule, (donor - spacer - acceptor), a leading candidate of molecular rectifying device, has been investigated theoretically using ab initio quantum mechanical calculation. The results suggest that in such donor-acceptor molecular complexes, while the lowest unoccupied orbital concentrates on the acceptor subunit, the highest occupied molecular orbital is localized on the donor subunit. The approximate potential differences for optimized PNX molecule have been estimated at the B3PW91/6-311g++(d,p) level of theory, which achieves quite good agreement with experimentally reported results. This study was performed through Special Coordination Funds for Promoting Science and Technology of the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of the Japanese Government.

  20. Which dressing do donor site wounds need?: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Donor site wounds after split-skin grafting are rather 'standard' wounds. At present, lots of dressings and topical agents for donor site wounds are commercially available. This causes large variation in the local care of these wounds, while the optimum 'standard' dressing for local wound care is unclear. This protocol describes a trial in which we investigate the effectiveness of various treatment options for these donor site wounds. Methods A 14-center, six-armed randomized clinical trial is being carried out in the Netherlands. An a-priori power analysis and an anticipated dropout rate of 15% indicates that 50 patients per group are necessary, totaling 300 patients, to be able to detect a 25% quicker mean time to complete wound healing. Randomization has been computerized to ensure allocation concealment. Adult patients who need a split-skin grafting operation for any reason, leaving a donor site wound of at least 10 cm2 are included and receive one of the following dressings: hydrocolloid, alginate, film, hydrofiber, silicone dressing, or paraffin gauze. No combinations of products from other intervention groups in this trial are allowed. Optimum application and changes of these dressings are pursued according to the protocol as supplied by the dressing manufacturers. Primary outcomes are days to complete wound healing and pain (using a Visual Analogue Scale). Secondary outcomes are adverse effects, scarring, patient satisfaction, and costs. Outcome assessors unaware of the treatment allocation will assess whether or not an outcome has occurred. Results will be analyzed according to the intention to treat principle. The first patient was randomized October 1, 2009. Discussion This study will provide comprehensive data on the effectiveness of different treatment options for donor site wounds. The dressing(s) that will prevail in effectiveness, satisfaction and costs will be promoted among clinicians dealing with such patients. Thus, we aim to

  1. Which dressing do donor site wounds need?: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Eskes, Anne M; Brölmann, Fleur E; Gerbens, Louise A A; Ubbink, Dirk T; Vermeulen, Hester

    2011-10-17

    Donor site wounds after split-skin grafting are rather 'standard' wounds. At present, lots of dressings and topical agents for donor site wounds are commercially available. This causes large variation in the local care of these wounds, while the optimum 'standard' dressing for local wound care is unclear. This protocol describes a trial in which we investigate the effectiveness of various treatment options for these donor site wounds. A 14-center, six-armed randomized clinical trial is being carried out in the Netherlands. An a-priori power analysis and an anticipated dropout rate of 15% indicates that 50 patients per group are necessary, totaling 300 patients, to be able to detect a 25% quicker mean time to complete wound healing. Randomization has been computerized to ensure allocation concealment. Adult patients who need a split-skin grafting operation for any reason, leaving a donor site wound of at least 10 cm2 are included and receive one of the following dressings: hydrocolloid, alginate, film, hydrofiber, silicone dressing, or paraffin gauze. No combinations of products from other intervention groups in this trial are allowed. Optimum application and changes of these dressings are pursued according to the protocol as supplied by the dressing manufacturers. Primary outcomes are days to complete wound healing and pain (using a Visual Analogue Scale). Secondary outcomes are adverse effects, scarring, patient satisfaction, and costs. Outcome assessors unaware of the treatment allocation will assess whether or not an outcome has occurred. Results will be analyzed according to the intention to treat principle. The first patient was randomized October 1, 2009. This study will provide comprehensive data on the effectiveness of different treatment options for donor site wounds. The dressing(s) that will prevail in effectiveness, satisfaction and costs will be promoted among clinicians dealing with such patients. Thus, we aim to contribute a well-designed trial

  2. Device fabrication of insoluble donor-acceptor-donor structured molecule by pulsed laser deposition: a comparative study using different laser source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swathi, S. K.; Rao, Arun D.; Ranjith, K.; Kumar, Rajneesh; Ramakrishna, S. A.; Ramamurthy, Praveen C.

    2013-06-01

    Many of the conducting polymers though having good material property are not solution processable. Hence an alternate method of fabrication of film by pulsed laser deposition, was explored in this work. PDTCPA, a donor- acceptor- donor type of polymer having absorption from 900 nm to 300 nm was deposited by both UV and IR laser to understand the effect of deposition parameters on the film quality. It was observed that the laser ablation of PDTCPA doesn't alter its chemical structure hence retaining the chemical integrity of the polymer. Microscopic studies of the ablated film shows that the IR laser ablated films were particulate in nature while UV laser ablated films are deposited as smooth continuous layer. The morphology of the film influences its electrical characteristics as current- voltage characteristic of these films shows that films deposited by UV laser are p rectifying while those by IR laser are more of resistor in nature.

  3. Combined DFT and NBO study on the electronic basis of Si...N-beta-donor bond.

    PubMed

    Yin, Bing; Huang, YuanHe; Wang, Guo; Wang, Yang

    2010-03-01

    Two groups of isoelectronic molecules with different SiXN (X=C, N, O ) units are analyzed by a combined DFT and NBO study to investigate the electronic basis of Si...N-beta-donor bond. The influence of various energy components on the formation of Si...N-beta-donor bond is explored. The importance of the electron delocalization from the lone pair of nitrogen atom into the acceptor-orbitals connected with Si atom is elicited by our calculations. The electron delocalization from the lone pair of nitrogen atom into the antibonding orbital of Si-X bond is quite different among the isoelectronic molecules with various types of SiXN units.

  4. Dosimetric calculations for uranium miners for epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Marsh, J W; Blanchardon, E; Gregoratto, D; Hofmann, W; Karcher, K; Nosske, D; Tomásek, L

    2012-05-01

    Epidemiological studies on uranium miners are being carried out to quantify the risk of cancer based on organ dose calculations. Mathematical models have been applied to calculate the annual absorbed doses to regions of the lung, red bone marrow, liver, kidney and stomach for each individual miner arising from exposure to radon gas, radon progeny and long-lived radionuclides (LLR) present in the uranium ore dust and to external gamma radiation. The methodology and dosimetric models used to calculate these organ doses are described and the resulting doses for unit exposure to each source (radon gas, radon progeny and LLR) are presented. The results of dosimetric calculations for a typical German miner are also given. For this miner, the absorbed dose to the central regions of the lung is dominated by the dose arising from exposure to radon progeny, whereas the absorbed dose to the red bone marrow is dominated by the external gamma dose. The uncertainties in the absorbed dose to regions of the lung arising from unit exposure to radon progeny are also discussed. These dose estimates are being used in epidemiological studies of cancer in uranium miners.

  5. Study of Resource Recovery and Epidemiology in an Anaerobic Digester

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, K. Y.; Cao, Song; Hunt, M. D.; Fu, Xuping

    1995-01-01

    Three 4-liter packed bed anaerobic digesters were fabricated and operated at 35 degrees C, pH around 7, and hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 20, 10 and 5 days to study the resource recovery and epidemiology in a controlled ecological life support system (CELSS). A simulated wastewater, consisted of shower water, clothwash water, dishwasher water, handwash water, and urine flush water was used as the feeding solution. Under steady-state operation, chemical oxygen demand (COD), total organic carbon (TOC), pH, nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium wer monitored in the digester input and output solutions. The volume and the CH4/CO2 ratios in the biogas produced from the anaerobic digesters were measured. The results indicate about 90 percent of TOC is converted while only 5-8 percent of N-P-K are consumed in the digester. A multi-drug resistant strain of Salmonella choleraesuis was used as the indicator bacterium in the epidemiology study. The levels of Salmonella choleraesuis in the influent and the effluent wer determined and decimal decay rate constants, k(d), were estimated. The k(d) values were greater at higher initial doses than lower doses for the same HR, and greater for batch digestion (7.89/d) than for continuous digestion (4.28, 3.82, and 3.82/d for 20, 10, and 5 d HRT, respectively).

  6. Interpreting epidemiologic studies of developmental neurotoxicity: conceptual and analytic issues.

    PubMed

    Bellinger, David C

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses issues pertaining to the validity, precision, and interpretation of epidemiologic studies of neurotoxicity. With regard to validity, the critical issues pertain to the appropriate strategy for confounder adjustment, particularly when confounders are complex, multi-faceted constructs, and to the need for greater clarity and transparency in articulating the causal relationships implicit in the analytic approach applied. With regard to precision, the critical issue is a need to identify the contributors to the substantial variability observed in the effect estimates that describe dose-response and dose-effect relationships. In addition to methodological sources, such as imprecision in estimating dose at the critical organ site(s), true inter-individual differences in susceptibility to a neurotoxicant could also contribute to the variability. Variability might be reduced by taking full account of factors such as co-exposures or health co-morbidities, genetic polymorphisms, and the social ecology of exposure. With regard to interpretation, we need to do a better job as a field conveying to risk assessors and others the ecological significance of the types of performance deficits observed following neurotoxicant exposure, emphasizing the distinction between individual and population risk. A final issue discussed is the need to define standards for the conduct, analysis, and reporting of epidemiologic studies of neurotoxicity, similar to those developed for other fields.

  7. Epidemiologic study of ankle fractures in a tertiary hospital

    PubMed Central

    Sakaki, Marcos Hideyo; Matsumura, Bruno Akio Rodrigues; Dotta, Thiago De Angelis Guerra; Pontin, Pedro Augusto; dos Santos, Alexandre Leme Godoy; Fernandes, Tulio Diniz

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the epidemiology of ankle fractures surgically treated at the Instituto de Ortopedia e Traumatologia do Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade de São Paulo. METHODS: Medical records of patients admitted with foot and ankle fractures between 2006 and 2011 were revised. Seventy three ankle fractures that underwent surgical treatment were identified. The parameters analyzed included age, gender, injured side, AO and Gustilo & Anderson classification, associated injuries, exposure, need to urgent treatment, time to definitive treatment and early post-operative complications. Study design: retrospective epidemiological study. RESULTS: Male gender was predominant among subjects and the mean age was 27.5 years old. Thirty nine fractures resulted from traffic accidents and type B fracture according to AO classification was the most common. Twenty one were open fractures and 22 patients had associated injuries. The average time to definitive treatment was 6.5 days. Early post-operative complications were found in 21.3% of patients. CONCLUSIONS: Ankle fractures treated in a tertiary hospital of a large city in Brazil affect young people victims of high-energy accidents and present significant rates of associated injuries and post-operative complications. Level of Evidence IV, Cases Series. PMID:24868187

  8. [Possibilities of epidemiological studies via automated veterinary practice administration].

    PubMed

    Brouwer, H; Schouten, E G; Noordhuizen, J P; van Voorthuysen, P F

    1995-05-15

    This study of the occurrence of tumours in dogs was carried out in order to see whether veterinary medical records can be used for epidemiological research. The relationship between tumour occurrence and breed, sex, and age was investigated by using the electronic tumourcards for 16049 dogs from three veterinary practices. Striking results include the difference in tumour occurrence between sprayed bitches (11.31%) and intact bitches (6.58%), and the high percentage of mongrels with a tumour (78.15%). Such unexpected results may be the result of selection processes underlying the composition of the population. Because these registers do not use a standard diagnostic classification system, it is difficult to identify all dogs with a specific diagnosis. This means that registers cannot be used for aetiological epidemiological research. However, they do contain valuable information for veterinary health care research and can be used as a source of cases for case-control studies, provided that a suitable mans of standardization is used.

  9. The epidemiology of sports-related injuries in older adults: a central European epidemiologic study.

    PubMed

    Kammerlander, Christian; Braito, Matthias; Kates, Stephen; Jeske, Christian; Roth, Tobias; Blauth, Michael; Dallapozza, Christian

    2012-10-01

    The population is rapidly aging and remaining more active over the age of 65. An increasing number of sports related injuries in individuals 65 and older are thus anticipated. The aim of this study is to analyze the epidemiology of sports injuries in the age group aged 65 and older. Data from the medical records of adults aged 65 years and older who were treated for sports-related injuries at a level one trauma center between December 1994 and February 2008 was collected and statistically analyzed. A total of 2635 patients met our inclusion criteria. There were 1647 men (62.5%) and 988 women (37.5%) with a mean age of 70.9 years. The yearly number of injuries doubled during the study period (1996-2007). The most common mechanism of injury was a simple fall from standing height (69%). Nearly 75% of all injuries occurred during alpine skiing, cycling or mountain climbing. The median Injury Severity Score was 4. Minor injuries and wounds (40%) were recorded most commonly followed by fractures (27%), sprains, ligament injuries (19%) and injuries of muscles and tendons (6%). The most frequent diagnoses were minor injuries to the head and ligament injuries around the knee joint. Injuries to the upper extremities occurred in 33.7%, injuries to the lower extremities in 29.4% and injuries to the head occurred in 20% of the patients. Women sustained substantially more fractures than men. Adults aged 65 and older are remaining active in sports, which results in higher numbers of sports related injuries in this age group. Identification of type, mechanism and distribution of the injuries can help with the recognition of risk factors for injury. This may enable us to develop appropriate preventative measures to reduce the incidence, and morbidity of such injuries.

  10. Systemic immunologic and inflammatory response after transperitoneal versus retroperitoneal laparoscopic donor nephrectomy: A prospective observational study.

    PubMed

    Gogoi, Debojit; Pal, Dilip Kumar; Bera, Malay K

    2016-01-01

    Laparoscopic donor nephrectomy (LDN) can be performed via either transperitoneal or retroperitoneal approach. Very few studies have been carried out till now, comparing immunologic and inflammatory responses in donors after these two approaches. This is a prospective observational study. Selection of approach was decided by the operating surgeon. All patients underwent peripheral venous blood sampling preoperatively and 24 h postoperatively for the measurement of C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukein-6 (IL-6), total leukocyte count (TLC), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and serum creatinine (SCr). Operative time, warm ischemia time, hospital stay, requirement of analgesia, and complications were also recorded. From February 2013 to January 2015, we performed 54 LDNs (38 transperitoneal and 16 retroperitoneal). There were 49 females and five males. Mean operative time was not significantly different in these two approaches, but warm ischemia time was significantly less in the retroperitoneal laparoscopic donor nephrectomy (RLN) group. Postoperative inflammatory markers' (IL-6, CRP, and TLC) levels, BUN, and SCr rise in both of these approaches, but there was no significant difference observed between these two approaches. RLN is a safe and effective approach to preserve a longer right renal vein. It combines the benefit of both hand assistance and retroperitoneal approach. Warm ischemic time is significantly less in RLN group.

  11. First epidemiologic study in Argentina of the prevalence of BK viruria in kidney transplant patients.

    PubMed

    Schiavelli, R; Bonaventura, R; Rial, M C; Petrone, H; Pujol, G Soler; Gaite, L J; Acosta, M; Gutierrez, A; Acosta, F; Valdez, G; Raffaele, P; Chanta, G; Perez, M; Potes, L; Suso, E; Cremades, G; Ibañez, J; Imperiali, N; Luxardo, R; Castellanos, M; Maggiora, E; Carreño, C Agost; Cobos, M; Marinic, K; Sinchi, J L; Otero, A B; Freire, M C

    2014-11-01

    The worldwide seroprevalence of human BK polyomavirus (BKV) in adults is 80%. About 10%-60% of renal transplant recipients experience BKV infection, nephropathy of the graft may occur in 5% of the cases, and up to 45% lose the graft. The aim of this work was to describe the prevalence of BK viruria during the 1st year after transplantation. An epidemiologic multicenter cross-sectional study was carried out in consecutive patients at each site with kidney transplantation from August 2011 to July 2012. Clinically significant viruria was defined as >10(7) copies/mL. Viral DNA was extracted with the use of silica columns. Quantification was performed with the use of real-time polymerase chain reaction with primers that amplify a fragment of the large T-antigen gene and with a specific Taqman-MGB probe for BKV. For each assay, a standard curve with a quantified plasmid was included. Of 402 renal transplant recipients at 18 renal transplant sites, we analyzed 382; median age was 46.33 years, and 46.40% were female. The median of the temporal distribution for urine samples was 153 days. BK virus was detected in 50/382 samples (13%), 18 with values >10(7) copies/mL (4.7%). The median of the distribution of positive values was 123 days and the highest frequency of positive values was in months 3-7. The conditions of recipient older than 34 years and donor older than 41 years were the only ones that showed statistically significant association with BK viruria. No association with any specific immunosuppressive drug was observed. This is the first multicenter study conducted in Argentina to determine the prevalence of BK viruria in renal transplant recipients. Because of the growing number of the population susceptible to this infection, it is important to register and describe data about its epidemiology and associated risk factors.

  12. Computerized Assessment of Competence-Related Abilities in Living Liver Donors: The Adult-to-Adult Living Donor Liver Transplantation Cohort Study (A2ALL)

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Jason; Emond, Jean; Gillespie, Brenda W.; Appelbaum, Paul S.; Weinrieb, Robert; Hill-Callahan, Peg; Gordon, Elisa J.; Terrault, Norah; Trotter, James; Ashworth, April; Dew, Mary Amanda; Pruett, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite its importance, determination of competence to consent to organ donation varies widely based on local standards. We piloted a new tool to aid transplant centers in donor assessment. Methods We assessed competence-related abilities among potential living liver donors (LDs) in the 9-center A2ALL study. Prospective LDs viewed an educational video, and were queried to assess Understanding, Appreciation, Reasoning, and ability to express a Final Choice using the MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool for Clinical Research, adapted for computerized administration in LDs (“MacLiver”). Videotaped responses were scored by a clinical neuropsychologist (JF). Results Ninety-three LDs were assessed. Mean (standard deviation; domain maximum) scores were: Understanding: 18.1 (2.6; max=22), Appreciation: 5.1 (1.0; max=6), Reasoning: 3.1 (0.8; max=4), and Final Choice: 3.8 (0.5; max=4). Scores did not differ by demographics, relationship to the recipient, eligibility to donate, or eventual donation (p>0.4). Higher education was associated with greater Understanding (p=0.004) and Reasoning (p=0.03). Conclusion Standardized, computerized education with independent ratings of responses may (1) alert the clinical staff to potential donors who may not be competent to donate, and (2) highlight areas needing further assessment and education, leading to better informed decision-making. PMID:23859354

  13. Progress of epidemiological and molecular epidemiological studies on benzene in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Guilan; Yin, Songnian

    2006-09-01

    Benzene is an organic solvent that has been used in industry for about 100 years throughout the world. Since 1973, a series of toxicological and molecular epidemiological studies on benzene were conducted by researchers at the Chinese Academy of Preventive Medicine (CAPM) (1973-1986) and subsequently by a collaboration between the CAPM and the National Cancer Institute (NCI) in the United States that began in 1986, which was joined by investigators from the University of California at Berkeley, the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, and New York University. The findings demonstrated that the risk of leukemia and lymphoma among benzene-exposed workers was significantly increased, with elevated risks for leukemia present not only at higher exposure but also among workers exposed to under 10 ppm. Therefore, the benzene permissible level was decreased to 1.8 ppm (6 mg/m(3)) and benzene-induced leukemia is treated as an occupational cancer in China. The benzene permissible level is 1.0 in the United States and in several other developed countries and it has been suggested to be decreased to 0.5 ppm (ACGIH). A number of potential biomarkers are related to benzene exposure and poisoning. Some of these are benzene oxide-protein adducts, chromosome aberration of lymphocytes, and GPA mutations in erythrocytes, a decrease in B cell and CD4(-)T cell counts in peripheral blood, and altered expression of CXCL16, ZNF331, JUN, and PF4 in lymphocytes. Variation in multiple benzene metabolizing genes may be associated with risk of benzene hematotoxicity, including CYP2E1, MPO, NQO1, and GSTT1.

  14. Spectrophotometric study of the charge transfer complexation of some porphyrin derivatives as electron donors with tetracyanoethylene.

    PubMed

    El-Zaria, Mohamed E

    2008-01-01

    Charge transfer complexes (CTC) of 5,10,15,20-tetraphenylporphyrin (TPP), 5,10,15,20-tetra(4-tolyl)porphyrin (TTP), 5,10,15,20-tetra(4-methoxyphenyl)porphyrin (TMP), Zn-5,10,15,20-tetraphenylporphyrin (Zn-TPP), and Zn-5,10,15,20-tetra(4-tolyl)porphyrin (Zn-TTP) with tetracyanoethylene (TCNE) have been studied at various temperatures in CH(2)Cl(2) and CCl(4). The data are discussed in terms of equilibrium constant (K(CT)), molar extinction coefficient (epsilon(CT)), thermodynamic standard reaction quantities (DeltaG degrees , DeltaH degrees and DeltaS degrees ), oscillator strength (f), and transition dipole moment (mu). The spectrum obtained for TPP/TCNE, TTP/TCNE, and TMP/TCNE systems shows two main absorption bands at 475 and 690nm, which are not due to the absorption of any of the reactants. These bands are characteristic of an intermolecular charge transfer involving the overlap of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) of the acceptor with the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) of the donor. The results reveal that the interaction between the donors and acceptor is due to pi-pi(*) transitions by the formation of radical ion pairs. The stoichiometry of the complexes was found to be 1:1 ratio by the Job and straight line methods between donors and acceptor with the maximum absorption bands at wavelengths of 475 and 690nm. The observed data show salvation effects on the spectral and thermodynamics properties of CTC. The ionization potential of the donors and the dissociation energy of the CTC were also determined and are found to be constant.

  15. Spectrophotometric study of the charge transfer complexation of some porphyrin derivatives as electron donors with tetracyanoethylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Zaria, Mohamed E.

    2008-01-01

    Charge transfer complexes (CTC) of 5,10,15,20-tetraphenylporphyrin (TPP), 5,10,15,20-tetra(4-tolyl)porphyrin (TTP), 5,10,15,20-tetra(4-methoxyphenyl)porphyrin (TMP), Zn-5,10,15,20-tetraphenylporphyrin (Zn-TPP), and Zn-5,10,15,20-tetra(4-tolyl)porphyrin (Zn-TTP) with tetracyanoethylene (TCNE) have been studied at various temperatures in CH 2Cl 2 and CCl 4. The data are discussed in terms of equilibrium constant ( KCT), molar extinction coefficient ( ɛCT), thermodynamic standard reaction quantities (Δ G°, Δ H° and Δ S°), oscillator strength ( f), and transition dipole moment ( μ). The spectrum obtained for TPP/TCNE, TTP/TCNE, and TMP/TCNE systems shows two main absorption bands at 475 and 690 nm, which are not due to the absorption of any of the reactants. These bands are characteristic of an intermolecular charge transfer involving the overlap of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) of the acceptor with the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) of the donor. The results reveal that the interaction between the donors and acceptor is due to π-π * transitions by the formation of radical ion pairs. The stoichiometry of the complexes was found to be 1:1 ratio by the Job and straight line methods between donors and acceptor with the maximum absorption bands at wavelengths of 475 and 690 nm. The observed data show salvation effects on the spectral and thermodynamics properties of CTC. The ionization potential of the donors and the dissociation energy of the CTC were also determined and are found to be constant.

  16. Quantum chemical study on the circular dichroism spectra and specific rotation of donor-acceptor cyclophanes.

    PubMed

    Mori, Tadashi; Inoue, Yoshihisa; Grimme, Stefan

    2007-08-16

    The structures of donor,acceptor-substituted cyclophanes were optimized by DFT and MP2 methods and compared with the X-ray crystallographic structures. The electronic circular dichroism (CD) spectra of these chiral cyclophanes were simulated by time dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) with several functionals including different amounts of "exact" Hartree-Fock exchange. The experimental oscillator and rotatory strengths were best reproduced by the BH-LYP/TZV2P method. The specific rotation and vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) spectra were also calculated at the BH-LYP/aug-cc-pVDZ and B3-LYP/6-31G(d) levels, respectively, and compared with the experimental data. Better performance was obtained with the ECD, rather than the specific rotation or the VCD spectral calculations in view of the computation time and accuracy for the determination of absolute configuration (AC). The exciton coupling model can be applied only for the cyclophanes without CT-character. However, the split pattern found in the experiment does not appear to originate from a simple two-transition coupling, indicating that this method should be applied with caution to the AC determination. This conclusion was supported by the TD-DFT investigations of the transition moments and the roles of excited-state electronic configuration associated with these split bands. Cyclophanes with donor-acceptor interactions showed Cotton effects at the CT band and couplets at the 1La and 1Lb bands. Although the degree of charge transfer between the rings is very small, as revealed by a Mulliken-Hash analysis, the split Cotton effects are due to a large separation in energy of the donor and acceptor orbitals. The effect of the distance and angle between the donor and acceptor moieties in model (intermolecular) CT complexes on the calculated CD spectra was also studied and compared with those obtained for various paracyclophanes.

  17. Procedure control and acceptance sampling plans for donor sperm banks: a theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Castilla, Jose Antonio; Sánchez-León, Maria; Garrido, Antonio; Ramirez, Juan P; Clavero, Ana; Martínez, Luis

    2007-01-01

    The publication of European Directive 2004/23/EC in the European Parliament and in the European Council on 31 March 2004 concerning the setting of standards of quality and safety for the donation, procurement, testing, processing, preservation, storage and distribution of human cells and tissues made it obligatory for sperm banks to set up quality control systems to ensure, among other goals, the satisfactory control of all procedures carried out. The objective of the present study is to set out guidelines that will make it possible to ensure the quality of the donors and frozen specimens accepted and the homogeneity of the samples supplied by a sperm bank. For this purpose, we shall describe clear-cut criteria for the acceptance of donors and frozen sperm, taking into account both analytic variability and the biological variations to be expected in semen parameters. Furthermore, we shall show how the evaluation of the results of a frozen semen specimen, on the basis of analysing a single straw after such freezing, does not guarantee the homogeneity of all the straws. Therefore, we must design a sampling plan to take into consideration all the straws obtained from a donor. This kind of plan will depend on different parameters, such as acceptable levels of quality and the tolerable rate of straws with defective semen, and will involve certain risks, both for the sperm bank and for the client. The establishment of these acceptance control criteria for frozen specimens and for donors could be of practical use for the control of the procedures applied in the operation of a sperm bank.

  18. Epidemiologic study of ankle fractures in a tertiary hospital.

    PubMed

    Sakaki, Marcos Hideyo; Matsumura, Bruno Akio Rodrigues; Dotta, Thiago De Angelis Guerra; Pontin, Pedro Augusto; Dos Santos, Alexandre Leme Godoy; Fernandes, Tulio Diniz

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the epidemiology of ankle fractures surgically treated at the Instituto de Ortopedia e Traumatologia do Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade de São Paulo. Medical records of patients admitted with foot and ankle fractures between 2006 and 2011 were revised. Seventy three ankle fractures that underwent surgical treatment were identified. The parameters analyzed included age, gender, injured side, AO and Gustilo & Anderson classification, associated injuries, exposure, need to urgent treatment, time to definitive treatment and early post-operative complications. retrospective epidemiological study. Male gender was predominant among subjects and the mean age was 27.5 years old. Thirty nine fractures resulted from traffic accidents and type B fracture according to AO classification was the most common. Twenty one were open fractures and 22 patients had associated injuries. The average time to definitive treatment was 6.5 days. Early post-operative complications were found in 21.3% of patients. Ankle fractures treated in a tertiary hospital of a large city in Brazil affect young people victims of high-energy accidents and present significant rates of associated injuries and post-operative complications. Level of Evidence IV, Cases Series.

  19. [Surveillance of hepatitis A by molecular epidemiologic studies].

    PubMed

    Stene-Johansen, K; Skaug, K; Blystad, H

    1999-10-20

    Hepatitis A virus was studied by molecular epidemiology in connection with an outbreak of hepatitis A associated with intravenous drug users (IVDU) in Norway. Hepatitis A virus was characterised by sequencing 114 of 1,242 notified cases of hepatitis A from January 1995 to July 1998. One hepatitis A variant (IVDU variant I) was detected among IVDU during an outbreak of hepatitis A, as well as among 19 out of 49 cases with no apparent association to this outbreak. During the autumn of 1997, a new variant (IVDU variant II) was detected in the IVDU communities. Genotyping of virus from imported cases associated with travel to endemic regions, revealed that they were distinct from the two other IVDU variants. Hepatitis A has disseminated among IVDU over years; this indicates that hepatitis A is endemic in these communities. At the turn of the year 1997/98, there was a smaller outbreak of hepatitis A among homosexual men in Oslo, distinguished by genotyping from the outbreaks in the IVDU communities. By molecular epidemiology we have been able to identify individual outbreaks of hepatitis A and distinguish them from the IVDU outbreak.

  20. Epidemiological study of epilepsy by monitoring prescriptions of antiepileptic drugs.

    PubMed

    Banfi, R; Borselli, G; Marinai, C; Borgheresi, A; Cavalieri, A

    1995-07-28

    The aim of this study is to evaluate a simple and effective method of acquiring epidemiological information about epilepsy. Data on antiepileptic drug prescriptions was collected, the utilization pattern being based on defined daily doses (DDDs). Antiepileptic drugs are epidemiological tracers of epilepsy due to their chronic and highly specific usage. Consequently, a prevalence rate for the whole population may be obtained by using DDDs. Data on antiepileptic drug prescriptions for a period of 6 months in 1992 and 6 months in 1993 indicate a utilization of approximately 7 DDDs of antiepileptic drugs per 1,000 inhabitants. The prevalence of epilepsy was estimated by correcting the exposure calculated in DDDs by a factor of 0.68. In our sample, the prevalence of the disease was 5.2 per 1,000 inhabitants in 1992 and 4.9 per 1,000 in 1993. Physician prescriptions were concentrated on four compounds, namely phenobarbital, carbamazepine, valproic acid and phenytoin, which together represented 90% of total antiepileptic drug prescriptions.

  1. Particulate matter and heart disease: Evidence from epidemiological studies

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, Annette . E-mail: peters@gsf.de

    2005-09-01

    The association between particulate matter and heart disease was noted in the mid-nineties of last century when the epidemiological evidence for an association between air pollution and hospital admissions due to cardiovascular disease accumulated and first hypotheses regarding the pathomechanism were formulated. Nowadays, epidemiological studies have demonstrated coherent associations between daily changes in concentrations of ambient particles and cardiovascular disease mortality, hospital admission, disease exacerbation in patients with cardiovascular disease and early physiological responses in healthy individuals consistent with a risk factor profile deterioration. In addition, evidence was found that annual average PM{sub 2.5} exposures are associated with increased risks for mortality caused by ischemic heart disease and dysrhythmia. Thereby, evidence is suggesting not only a short-term exacerbation of cardiovascular disease by ambient particle concentrations but also a potential role of particles in defining patients' vulnerability to acute coronary events. While this concept is consistent with the current understanding of the factors defining patients' vulnerability, the mechanisms and the time-scales on which the particle-induced vulnerability might operate are unknown.

  2. The contribution of epidemiology to the study of traumatic stress.

    PubMed

    McFarlane, Alexander

    2004-11-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been a controversial construct because of the complex set of factors that have been hypothesized to influence its onset and prevalence, such as compensation and withdrawal from combat duty. Epidemiology has done much to objectively clarify these controversies in the study of stratified population samples. The symptoms characterizing PTSD have been repeatedly described in large population samples where compensation is not a confounding issue and this has done much to support the validity of the construct. Epidemiology has also highlighted that the prevalence of exposure to traumatic events is far greater than was previously estimated. Emphasizing the importance of these events is accounting for the major burden of disease. Kessler (2000) has suggested the socio-economic effects of PTSD represent a burden of disease not dissimilar to that associated with depression. Traumatic events provide a unique opportunity to implement a preventative and public health approach to the management of psychiatric morbidity. Of particular importance is the apparent longevity of the influence that these events have on psychological adjustment.

  3. Study of microbial perchlorate reduction: considering of multiple pH, electron acceptors and donors.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xing; Gao, Baoyu; Jin, Bo; Zhen, Hu; Wang, Xiaoyi; Dai, Ming

    2015-03-21

    Bioremediation of perchlorate-cotaminated water by a heterotrophic perchlorate reducing bacterium creates a multiple electron acceptor-donor system. We experimentally determined the perchlorate reduction by Azospira sp. KJ at multiple pH, electron acceptors and donors systems; this was the aim of this study. Perchlorate reduction was drastically inhibited at the pH 6.0, and the maximum reduction of perchlorate by Azospira sp. KJ was observed at pH value of 8.0. Perchlorate reduction was retarded in ClO4(-)-ClO3(-), ClO4(-)-ClO3(-)-NO3(-),and ClO4(-)-NO3(-) acceptor systems, while being completely inhibited by the additional O2 in the ClO4(-)-O2 acceptor system. The reduction proceeded as an order of ClO3(-), ClO4(-), and NO3(-) in the ClO4(-)-ClO3(-)-NO3(-) system. K(S), v(max), and q(max) obtained at different e(-) acceptor and donor conditions are calculated as 140.5-190.6 mg/L, 8.7-13.2 mg-perchlorate/L-h, and 0.094-0.16 mg-perchlorate/mg-DW-h, respectively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. [A psychological study, using interviews and projective tests, of patients seeking anonymous donor artificial insemination].

    PubMed

    Van Thiel, M; Mantadakis, E; Vekemans, M; Gillot de Vries, F

    1990-01-01

    A Thematic Aperception Test was used with 13 male and 16 female patients who were requesting A.I.D. The following main psychological reactions were found in women: anxiety and depression (fear of rejection by their family and friends; lowering the image of the husband--the donor being considered as a rival), aggression (the narcissistic woman "demands" A.I.D.; the donor is esteemed highly); mother is protective ("true" paternity comes through love of the child and the need to forget the donor). They found, in men: an inability to abandon fertility as lost (with denial of sterility); ambivalence, castration anxiety and a feeling of being excluded from the mother-child symbiosis with later acceptance of loss of fertility and (sometimes excessively) identification with the "mother". Most subjects studied were not intending telling the child about his true origin; because disclosure would be tantamount to transgressing twice over the laws of paternity and the rules against Oedipus behaviour. There is often a great difference between the ways the partners view the matter and inter-relate. We strongly recommend that psychological advice should be taken before treatment with A.I.D. is started.

  5. Asymptomatic infection with American cutaneous leishmaniasis: epidemiological and immunological studies

    PubMed Central

    Andrade-Narvaez, Fernando J; Loría-Cervera, Elsy Nalleli; Sosa-Bibiano, Erika I; Van Wynsberghe, Nicole R

    2016-01-01

    American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) is a major public health problem caused by vector-borne protozoan intracellular parasites from the genus Leishmania, subgenera Viannia and Leishmania. Asymptomatic infection is the most common outcome after Leishmania inoculation. There is incomplete knowledge of the biological processes explaining the absence of signs or symptoms in most cases while other cases present a variety of clinical findings. Most studies of asymptomatic infection have been conducted in areas of endemic visceral leishmaniasis. In contrast, asymptomatic ACL infection has been neglected. This review is focused on the following: (1) epidemiological studies supporting the existence of asymptomatic ACL infection and (2) immunological studies conducted to understand the mechanisms responsible for controlling the parasite and avoiding tissue damage. PMID:27759762

  6. [Vascular risk factors and Alzheimer disease risk: epidemiological studies review].

    PubMed

    Cowppli-Bony, Pascale; Dartigues, Jean-François; Orgogozo, Jean-Marc

    2006-03-01

    Etiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is still undefined in its most frequent sporadic type, but a role of vascular risk factor is more and more evocated in its pathophysiology. This role enables to hope that preventive or curative care of vascular risk factors could decrease AD incidence. Among these factors, high blood pressure, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia and tobacco consumption were the most studied. We review the risk for AD, which had been associated with each of these factors in epidemiological studies. High blood pressure is associated with an increased risk of AD in most studies while the results are more controversial for the others factors. All these four vascular risk factors have variable interaction with the presence of cerebrovascular diseases and of the epsilon 4 allele of the apolipoprotein E gene which is a predisposition factor for sporadic AD.

  7. Methodological issues of confounding in analytical epidemiologic studies.

    PubMed

    Hajian Tilaki, Karimollah

    2012-01-01

    Confounding can be thought of as mixing the effect of exposure on the risk of disease with a third factor which distorts the measure of association such as risk ratio or odds ratio. This bias arises because of complex functional relationship of confounder with both exposure and disease (outcome). In this article, we provided a conceptual framework review of confounding issues in epidemiologic studies, in particular in observational studies and nonrandomized experimental studies. We have shown in 2 by 2 tables with analytical examples how the index of association will be distorted when confounding is present. The criteria, source of confounding and several points in confounding issues have been addressed. The advantages and disadvantages of several strategies for control of confounding have been discussed.

  8. Adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and obesity: epidemiological study.

    PubMed

    Cortese, Samuele; Faraone, Stephen V; Bernardi, Silvia; Wang, Shuai; Blanco, Carlos

    2013-07-01

    A significant association between attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obesity has been reported. This study addresses unexplored aspects of this relationship. To evaluate the association between adult obesity and: (a) persistent, remitted or lifetime ADHD; (b) number of childhood ADHD symptoms, controlling for socioeconomic status and mood, anxiety and substance use disorders. Face-to-face psychiatric interviews in 34 653 US adults from the National Epidemiologic Study on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Obesity was defined as a body mass index ≥30. Persistent, lifetime or remitted ADHD were not associated with obesity after controlling for confounders. The number of childhood ADHD symptoms was significantly associated with adult obesity, even after adjustment, in women. Childhood ADHD symptoms are associated with obesity in women even after comorbid psychiatric disorders are accounted for. This provides a rationale for longitudinal studies assessing the impact of the treatment of childhood ADHD symptoms on obesity in women.

  9. Adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and obesity: epidemiological study

    PubMed Central

    Cortese, Samuele; Faraone, Stephen V.; Bernardi, Silvia; Wang, Shuai; Blanco, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Background A significant association between attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obesity has been reported. This study addresses unexplored aspects of this relationship. Aims To evaluate the association between adult obesity and: (a) persistent, remitted or lifetime ADHD; (b) number of childhood ADHD symptoms, controlling for socioeconomic status and mood, anxiety and substance use disorders. Method Face-to-face psychiatric interviews in 34 653 US adults from the National Epidemiologic Study on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Obesity was defined as a body mass index ⩾30. Results Persistent, lifetime or remitted ADHD were not associated with obesity after controlling for confounders. The number of childhood ADHD symptoms was significantly associated with adult obesity, even after adjustment, in women. Conclusions Childhood ADHD symptoms are associated with obesity in women even after comorbid psychiatric disorders are accounted for. This provides a rationale for longitudinal studies assessing the impact of the treatment of childhood ADHD symptoms on obesity in women. PMID:23661765

  10. A qualitative study exploring counselling for release of information to participants of a donor-assisted conception programme.

    PubMed

    Rodino, Iolanda S; Chester, Helen; Harris, Maureen; Maslin-Prothero, Sian

    2015-06-01

    Worldwide, donor-assisted conceptions are increasing with legislative reforms in some countries providing opportunities for participants of a donor-assisted conception programme, i.e. recipients, donors, donor-conceived adults and their genetically related siblings and half-siblings, to access information. Whilst policy and practice for accessing donor-identifying information vary, there has been no research exploring the perceptions and experiences of those who provide the service. This study aimed to explore the perceptions and experiences of Australian and New Zealand infertility counsellors who provide counselling for release of information to participants of a donor-assisted conception programme. Using a qualitative research design, in-depth interview data of six infertility counsellors were thematically analysed to identify key themes. We report the primary themes that emerged from the data which include professional perspectives on the role of counsellor in the counselling process, the professional and societal responsibility to provide counselling, and influences on professional practice. Findings from this qualitative study can be used as a platform for larger international studies on the clinical practice of donor information release and to inform clinical practice and service delivery. The implications of these results for policy and future longitudinal research are also discussed.

  11. Optimising expanded donor organs through dual kidney transplantation: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Frutos, Miguel Á; Mansilla, Juan J; Cabello, Mercedes; Soler, Jorge; Ruiz, Pilar; Lebron, Miguel; Baena, Víctor; Hernández, Domingo

    2012-05-14

    In order to take full advantage of ECD kidneys, which may not provide sufficient renal mass if used individually, it has been suggested that such organs be used in dual or bilateral kidney transplantation (DTx). We analysed the experience in a single hospital between May 2007 and March 2011 in a case-control study. Criteria for determining whether to perform single or dual Tx were defined in a protocol in which the biopsy score was important, but not the only factor. Donor's age, medical history, kidney size and creatinine clearance were also considered. During this time period, 80 kidneys from donors over age 65 were transplanted. Single transplants (STx) accounted for 40 of the organs, and another 40 were used in DTx. Mean donor age for STx was 68.7 ± 3.0 years; for DTx, it was 74.2 ± 4.3 years (P<.001), with more female donors for DTx (75%) than for STx (40%) (P<.001). There were no differences between groups with regard to glomerular filtration rate or proteinuria. Kidneys assigned to DTx received higher biopsy scores than those assigned to STx (2.95 ± 1.01 vs 1.8 ± 1.04; P<.001). DTx recipients were older than STx recipients. There were no differences between the groups regarding cold ischaemia time, delayed graft function, haemorrhagic complications or re-surgeries. However, DTx recipients achieved better creatinine clearance at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months, although the difference was only statistically significant at 6 months (53.4 ± 19.5ml/min vs 44.5 ± 15.6ml/min; P<.05). Renal artery thrombosis appeared in 2 STx patients and in both kidneys of 1 DTx patient. Another 2 patients in the DTx group each lost 1 kidney due to thrombosis and ureteral necrosis respectively, but were able to remain dialysis-free. Graft survival at 3 years was 90% for both groups. During the study period 3 patients died (2 in the STx group and 1 in the DTx group). Our preliminary experience indicates that DTx provides good results in terms of survival and renal function data

  12. [Prevalence of antitoxoplasma antibodies in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and blood donors in Bamako].

    PubMed

    Maïga, I; Kiemtoré, P; Tounkara, A

    2001-08-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a cosmopolitan disease. Our aim was to evaluate the epidemiological importance of toxoplasmosis in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and blood donors in Bamako (Mali, West Africa). A one year study of toxoplasmosis prevalence was carried out among patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and blood donors in Bamako. The toxoplasmosis prevalence was 60% from AIDS patients, 22.6% from the HIV-seropositive blood donors and 21% from the HIV-seronegative blood donors. The specific antibodies were IgG and IgA. The specific IgM were not detected.

  13. Epidemiologic studies of the human microbiome and cancer.

    PubMed

    Vogtmann, Emily; Goedert, James J

    2016-02-02

    The human microbiome, which includes the collective genome of all bacteria, archaea, fungi, protists, and viruses found in and on the human body, is altered in many diseases and may substantially affect cancer risk. Previously detected associations of individual bacteria (e.g., Helicobacter pylori), periodontal disease, and inflammation with specific cancers have motivated studies considering the association between the human microbiome and cancer risk. This short review summarises microbiome research, focusing on published epidemiological associations with gastric, oesophageal, hepatobiliary, pancreatic, lung, colorectal, and other cancers. Large, prospective studies of the microbiome that employ multidisciplinary laboratory and analysis methods, as well as rigorous validation of case status, are likely to yield translational opportunities to reduce cancer morbidity and mortality by improving prevention, screening, and treatment.

  14. Hodgkin's disease: case control epidemiological study in Yorkshire.

    PubMed Central

    Bernard, S. M.; Cartwright, R. A.; Darwin, C. M.; Richards, I. D.; Roberts, B.; O'Brien, C.; Bird, C. C.

    1987-01-01

    This is the first report of a case-control epidemiological study on lymphomas and leukaemias occurring in Yorkshire during 1979-84. This paper deals with the results of the Hodgkin's disease analysis comprising 248 cases and 489 controls. The results indicate support for previous work with respect to small family size and past history of infectious mononucleosis. Positive observations made in a previous pilot study are also confirmed and extended with respect to associations with certain chronic skin lesions, dental anaesthesia and familial factors. Negative associations are described with respect to X-ray exposures and cigarette smoking. It is proposed that these results fit into a general hypothesis that these conditions are the result of interaction between infectious agents and altered immunity in those persons genetically predisposed. PMID:3814482

  15. Hodgkin's disease: case control epidemiological study in Yorkshire.

    PubMed

    Bernard, S M; Cartwright, R A; Darwin, C M; Richards, I D; Roberts, B; O'Brien, C; Bird, C C

    1987-01-01

    This is the first report of a case-control epidemiological study on lymphomas and leukaemias occurring in Yorkshire during 1979-84. This paper deals with the results of the Hodgkin's disease analysis comprising 248 cases and 489 controls. The results indicate support for previous work with respect to small family size and past history of infectious mononucleosis. Positive observations made in a previous pilot study are also confirmed and extended with respect to associations with certain chronic skin lesions, dental anaesthesia and familial factors. Negative associations are described with respect to X-ray exposures and cigarette smoking. It is proposed that these results fit into a general hypothesis that these conditions are the result of interaction between infectious agents and altered immunity in those persons genetically predisposed.

  16. Exposure Assessment Issues in Epidemiology Studies of Phthalates

    PubMed Central

    Johns, Lauren E.; Cooper, Glinda S.; Galizia, Audrey; Meeker, John D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to review exposure assessment issues that need to be addressed in designing and interpreting epidemiology studies of phthalates, a class of chemicals commonly used in consumer and personal care products. Specific issues include population trends in exposure, temporal reliability of a urinary metabolite measurement, and how well a single urine sample may represent longer-term exposure. The focus of this review is on seven specific phthalates: diethyl phthalate (DEP); di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP); diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP); butyl benzyl phthalate (BBzP); di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP); diisononyl phthalate (DiNP); and diisodecyl phthalate (DiDP). Methods Comprehensive literature search using multiple search strategies Results Since 2001, declines in population exposure to DEP, BBzP, DBP, and DEHP have been reported in the United States and Germany, but DEHP exposure has increased in China. Although the half-lives of various phthalate metabolites are relatively short (3 to 18 hours), the intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) for phthalate metabolites, based on spot and first morning urine samples collected over a week to several months, range from weak to moderate, with a tendency toward higher ICCs (greater temporal stability) for metabolites of the shorter-chained (DEP, DBP, DiBP and BBzP, ICCs generally 0.3 to 0.6) compared with those of the longer-chained (DEHP, DiNP, DiDP, ICCs generally 0.1 to 0.3) phthalates. Additional research on optimal approaches to addressing the issue of urine dilution in studies of associations between biomarkers and different type of health effects is needed. Conclusions In conclusion, the measurement of urinary metabolite concentrations in urine could serve as a valuable approach to estimating exposure to phthalates in environmental epidemiology studies. Careful consideration of the strengths and limitations of this approach when interpreting study results is required. PMID:26313703

  17. Ultraviolet radiation and the eye: an epidemiologic study.

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, H R

    1989-01-01

    Circumstantial evidence from biochemical, animal, and epidemiologic studies suggests an association between exposure to UV-B radiation (290 nm to 320 nm) and cataract. Such an association had not been proven because it had not been possible to quantify ocular UV-B exposure of individuals or to reliably grade the type and severity of cataract in field studies. We undertook an epidemiologic survey of cataract among 838 watermen who work on the Chesapeake Bay. Their individual ocular UV-B exposure was quantified for each year of life over the age of 16, on the basis of a detailed occupational history combined with laboratory and field measurements of ocular UV-B exposure. Cataracts were graded by both type and severity through clinical and photographic means. SMD changes were ascertained by fundal photography. A general medical history was taken to discover potentially confounding factors. This study showed that people with cortical lens opacities had a 21% higher UV-B exposure at each year of life than people without these opacities. A doubling in lifetime UV-B exposure led to a 60% increase in the risk of cortical cataract, and those with a high annual UV-B exposure increased their risk of cortical cataract over threefold. Corneal changes, namely pterygium and CDK, were also strongly associated with high UV-B exposure. No association was found between nuclear lens opacities or macular degeneration and UV-B exposure. This study also indicated several simple, practical measures, such as wearing spectacles or a hat, that effectively protect the eye from UV-B exposure. Thus it is easily within the power of individuals to protect their eyes from excessive UV-B exposure and reduce their risk of cortical cataract. A program of public education in this area could be a cost-effective means of reducing this important disease. PMID:2562534

  18. Epidemiological study of autism spectrum disorder in China.

    PubMed

    Wong, Virginia C N; Hui, Stella L H

    2008-01-01

    The object of this study was to investigate the epidemiologic pattern of autism spectrum disorder in Chinese children. An autism spectrum disorder registry has been established in Hong Kong since 1986 by collecting data in a single center (the only university-affiliated child assessment center in Hong Kong). Since 1997, inpatient data from all public hospitals under the Hospital Authority have been stored in a central computerized program and retrieved from the Clinical Data Analysis and Reporting System. Clinical data have also been retrieved through the Clinical Data Analysis and Reporting System to ensure the completion of the registry, and these suspected cases have undergone the same diagnostic evaluation for autism spectrum disorder, as some of the new autism cases might be hospitalized in the public hospital. The incidence and prevalence of autism spectrum disorder have been calculated for the period of 1986 to 2005 using the population statistics available in the government for children less than 15 years old in Hong Kong. This study has included 4 247 206 person-years from 1986 to 2005 for children less than 15 years old and 1 174 322 person-years for those less than 5 years old in Hong Kong. Altogether, 645 children 0 to 4 years old with diagnoses of autism spectrum disorder were identified from 1986 to 2005. The estimated incidence of autism spectrum disorder was 5.49 per 10 000. The prevalence was 16.1 per 10 000 for children less than 15 years old for the same period. The male to female ratio was 6.58:1. This is the first reported epidemiologic study of autism spectrum disorder in Chinese children. The incidence rate is similar to those reported in Australia and North America and is lower than Europeans.

  19. Cardiac arrest and resuscitation epidemiology in Singapore (CARE I study).

    PubMed

    Eng Hock Ong, Marcus; Chan, Yiong Huak; Anantharaman, Venkataraman; Lau, Siew Tiang; Lim, Swee Han; Seldrup, Jorgen

    2003-01-01

    To describe the epidemiology of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) in Singapore, the emergency medical services (EMS) response, and to identify possible areas for improvement. This prospective observational study constitutes phase I of the Cardiac Arrest and Resuscitation Epidemiology (CARE) project. Included were all patients with nontraumatic OHCA conveyed by the national emergency ambulance service. Patient characteristics, cardiac arrest circumstances, EMS response, and outcomes were recorded according to the Utstein style. From October 1, 2001, to April 30, 2002, 548 patients were enrolled into the study. Mean (standard deviation [SD]) age was 62.2 (17.9) years, with a male predominance (65.6%). A total of 59.8% of collapses occurred at home, 35.3% of arrests were not witnessed, and bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation was present for 20.6%. Mean (SD) time from collapse to call received by EMS was 10.6 (13.1) minutes. Mean (SD) EMS response time was 10.2 (4.3) minutes. Mean (SD) time from call to defibrillation was 16.7 (7.2) minutes. Mean (SD) on-scene time was 9.9 (4.5) minutes. First presenting rhythm at the scene was asystole in 54.5%, pulseless electrical activity 22.9%, ventricular fibrillation 19.6%, and ventricular tachycardia 0.4%. Of all cardiac arrests, 351 had resuscitation attempted and were of cardiac origin. Among these patients, 17.9% had return of spontaneous circulation, 8.5% survived to hospital admission, and 2.0% survived to discharge. CARE I establishes the baseline for the evaluation of incremental introduction of prehospital Advanced Cardiac Life Support interventions planned for future phases. Continuing efforts should be made to strengthen all chains of survival. This represents the most comprehensive OHCA study yet conducted in Singapore.

  20. A Descriptive Epidemiology Study of Oral Cleft in Sergipe, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Luiza, Andrea; Noronha de Góis, Diego; Santos, Jadson Alípio Santana de Sousa; Brito de Oliveira, Rosany Larissa; Ferreira da Silva, Luiz Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The nonsyndromic orofacial cleft is the fourth most common birth defect, but in Brazil, data about the cleft epidemiology are not accurate. Objective This study aimed to describe the epidemiologic characteristics of oral cleft cases at Specialized Society Attending Cleft Patient in Sergipe State. Methods Data were obtained from patients' medical records in relation to the following characteristics: age; gender; race; origin; cleft type; additional malformations and/or complications; prenatal accomplishment; treatment applied. For diagnosis analysis, it was noted if mothers had received prenatal care and if they had ultrasonography performed and if the cleft was viewed in it. Results We observed a prevalence of male gender (54%). Age between 0 and 4 years old was most prevalent (53%), and pheoderma race was observed in 47%. Transincisive foramen cleft was found in 52.3% of the individuals. The prevalence of pre- and transincisive foramen cleft was higher in men (66.3 and 55.7%), women accounted for 65.0% of postincisive foramen, and atypical facial cleft (0.3%) occurred in one case. Associated malformations and complications were present in 12% of patients. Prenatal care was reported by 48% of the mothers. Conclusion In this study male gender was the most affected, and 0 to 4 years was the most frequent age group. Transincisive foramen cleft type was most frequently encountered. Prenatal care was reported by most mothers. So, this study found that early treatment is a reality in SEAFESE (Service Specializing in Cleft Care of Sergipe), and consequently the chances of successful integration of the child to society will be better. PMID:25992043

  1. Epidemiological study of multiple sclerosis in La Rioja.

    PubMed

    Bártulos Iglesias, M; Marzo Sola, M E; Estrella Ruiz, L A; Bravo Anguiano, Y

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is a demyelinating disease that causes severe disability in younger patients. Many epidemiology studies have confirmed a variable prevalence. The objective of this study was to analyse the prevalence of this disease in La Rioja (Spain), using such variables as age and sex; type of progression, initial form of the disease, EDSS and number of relapses; disease-modifying treatment and reasons for treatment withdrawal; personal and family history of cancer; and incidence and mortality. Analysis of patients in La Rioja diagnosed with MS (according to Poser criteria or the 2005 McDonald criteria) during a 10-year period (2001-2011). Data were collected from hospital records, multiple sclerosis associations, and personal records kept by neurologists. The MS prevalence rate in La Rioja is 65 patients/100 000 inhabitants with an incidence rate of 3.5 cases/100 000 residents per year. Relapsing-remitting MS is present in 67.6% of the patient total. Mean age of onset is 20-29 years (range, 12 to 70). Most EDSS scores were mostly ≤ 2. Untreated MS cases account for 47.6% of the total and the most commonly used therapy is interferon. We detected 4 haematological tumours and 7 families with multiple members affected by MS. Prevalence and incidence are similar to those found in other regions Spain. The average age at onset age for primary progressive MS is slightly higher than in other papers (40-49 years). In families with multiple patients, MS may be more aggressive. Disability in these patients remains very severe. We require more epidemiology studies with a variety of data gathering methods to support findings for prevalence obtained in different provinces. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Epidemiology and Registry Studies of Stroke in Japan

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Stroke is the most prevalent cardiovascular disease in Japan. This review introduces two epidemiologic studies and four registry studies of stroke in Japan. The Hisayama Study was begun as a population-based prospective cohort study of cerebrovascular and cardiovascular diseases in 1961 in the town of Hisayama. Most of the deceased subjects of the study underwent autopsy examinations from the beginning of the study. Changes in stroke trends in the last 50 years were clarified by comparison of data from different study cohorts registered every 13 to 14 years. The Suita Study was based on a random sampling of Japanese urban residents. Several reports from this study showed the significance of pre-hypertension, as well as hypertension, as a risk factor for stroke by itself and in combination with other underlying characteristics. In addition, the Japan Multicenter Stroke Investigators' Collaboration (J-MUSIC), the Japan Standard Stroke Registry Study, the Fukuoka Stroke Registry, and the Stroke Acute Management with Urgent Risk-factor Assessment and Improvement (SAMURAI) rt-PA Registry are explained as registry studies involving Japanese stroke patients. PMID:24324936

  3. Epidemiology and registry studies of stroke in Japan.

    PubMed

    Toyoda, Kazunori

    2013-01-01

    Stroke is the most prevalent cardiovascular disease in Japan. This review introduces two epidemiologic studies and four registry studies of stroke in Japan. The Hisayama Study was begun as a population-based prospective cohort study of cerebrovascular and cardiovascular diseases in 1961 in the town of Hisayama. Most of the deceased subjects of the study underwent autopsy examinations from the beginning of the study. Changes in stroke trends in the last 50 years were clarified by comparison of data from different study cohorts registered every 13 to 14 years. The Suita Study was based on a random sampling of Japanese urban residents. Several reports from this study showed the significance of pre-hypertension, as well as hypertension, as a risk factor for stroke by itself and in combination with other underlying characteristics. In addition, the Japan Multicenter Stroke Investigators' Collaboration (J-MUSIC), the Japan Standard Stroke Registry Study, the Fukuoka Stroke Registry, and the Stroke Acute Management with Urgent Risk-factor Assessment and Improvement (SAMURAI) rt-PA Registry are explained as registry studies involving Japanese stroke patients.

  4. Advances in clinical NK cell studies: Donor selection, manufacturing and quality control.

    PubMed

    Koehl, U; Kalberer, C; Spanholtz, J; Lee, D A; Miller, J S; Cooley, S; Lowdell, M; Uharek, L; Klingemann, H; Curti, A; Leung, W; Alici, E

    2016-04-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are increasingly used in clinical studies in order to treat patients with various malignancies. The following review summarizes platform lectures and 2013-2015 consortium meetings on manufacturing and clinical use of NK cells in Europe and United States. A broad overview of recent pre-clinical and clinical results in NK cell therapies is provided based on unstimulated, cytokine-activated, as well as genetically engineered NK cells using chimeric antigen receptors (CAR). Differences in donor selection, manufacturing and quality control of NK cells for cancer immunotherapies are described and basic recommendations are outlined for harmonization in future NK cell studies.

  5. Advances in clinical NK cell studies: Donor selection, manufacturing and quality control

    PubMed Central

    Koehl, U.; Kalberer, C.; Spanholtz, J.; Lee, D. A.; Miller, J. S.; Cooley, S.; Lowdell, M.; Uharek, L.; Klingemann, H.; Curti, A.; Leung, W.; Alici, E.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Natural killer (NK) cells are increasingly used in clinical studies in order to treat patients with various malignancies. The following review summarizes platform lectures and 2013–2015 consortium meetings on manufacturing and clinical use of NK cells in Europe and United States. A broad overview of recent pre-clinical and clinical results in NK cell therapies is provided based on unstimulated, cytokine-activated, as well as genetically engineered NK cells using chimeric antigen receptors (CAR). Differences in donor selection, manufacturing and quality control of NK cells for cancer immunotherapies are described and basic recommendations are outlined for harmonization in future NK cell studies. PMID:27141397

  6. Epidemiological studies on ethylene oxide and cancer: an updating.

    PubMed

    Hogstedt, L C

    1988-01-01

    In 1959, Dr Lars Ehrenberg and a coworker warned the Swedish authorities that ethylene oxide, a common chemical, constituted a potential cancer hazard. Twenty years later, the first epidemiological study and case reports were published indicating an increased cancer risk after occupational exposure to ethylene oxide. An updating of three small Swedish cohorts comprising 709 employees revealed 33 deaths from cancer whereas 20 were expected from national average rates. The excess was due mainly to an increased risk of stomach cancer in one production plant and an excess of blood and lymphatic malignancies in all three cohorts. The results are in accordance with the results of clastogenic, animal and short-term tests and support Professor Ehrenberg's hypothesis, formulated 28 years ago.

  7. An epidemiological study of lens opacities among steel workers

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, J.; Sweetnam, P. M.; Warner, C. G.; Graham, P. A.; Cochrane, A. L.

    1971-01-01

    Wallace, J., Sweetnam, P. M., Warner, C. G., Graham, P. A., and Cochrane, A. L. (1971).Brit. J. industr. Med.,28, 265-271. An epidemiological study of lens opacities among steel workers. To investigate the relationship between the prevalence of cataract and heat exposure, two groups of steel workers, differing widely in their heat exposure, were examined. Estimates of heat exposure were based on detailed industrial histories and (a) subjective estimates of heat exposure associated with various occupations and (b) actual measurements. Only two cases of cataract were found that would be generally accepted as `occupational' in origin, but a higher prevalence of the common form of cataract was found in the heat-exposed group than in the non-exposed group. PMID:5557847

  8. Probabilistic Approaches to Better Quantifying the Results of Epidemiologic Studies

    PubMed Central

    Gustafson, Paul; McCandless, Lawrence C.

    2010-01-01

    Typical statistical analysis of epidemiologic data captures uncertainty due to random sampling variation, but ignores more systematic sources of variation such as selection bias, measurement error, and unobserved confounding. Such sources are often only mentioned via qualitative caveats, perhaps under the heading of ‘study limitations.’ Recently, however, there has been considerable interest and advancement in probabilistic methodologies for more integrated statistical analysis. Such techniques hold the promise of replacing a confidence interval reflecting only random sampling variation with an interval reflecting all, or at least more, sources of uncertainty. We survey and appraise the recent literature in this area, giving some prominence to the use of Bayesian statistical methodology. PMID:20617044

  9. [Epidemiologic Study of Mortality during summer 2003 in Italy].

    PubMed

    Conti, Susanna; Meli, Paola; Minelli, Giada; Solimini, Renata; Toccaceli, Virgilia; Vichi, Monica; Beltrano, M Carmen; Perini, Luigi

    2004-01-01

    Following the unusually hot summer this year and the dramatic news from neighboring countries such as France, the Italian Minister of Health requested an epidemiologic mortality study during summer 2003, to investigate whether there had been an excess of deaths in Italy, particularly for the elderly population. Communal offices, which provide vital statistics, were asked for the number of deaths among resident people, occurred from June 1 to August 31, for 2003 and 2002, for the 21 Italian regions capitals. A mortality increase of 3,134 deaths was observed for 2003; most of them (92%) were people aged 75 years and older. The highest increases were observed in the North Western cities (Turin, Milan, Genoa). The relationship between mortality and climatic indexes (T. max, Humidex) was investigated and a clear correlation was observed.

  10. Motivations, experiences, and perspectives of bone marrow and peripheral blood stem cell donors: thematic synthesis of qualitative studies.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Maria C; Chapman, Jeremy R; Shaw, Peter J; Gottlieb, David J; Ralph, Angelique; Craig, Jonathan C; Tong, Allison

    2013-07-01

    Hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation using bone marrow and peripheral blood stem cells is a lifesaving treatment for patients with leukemia or other blood disorders. However, donors face the risk of physical and psychosocial complications. We aimed to synthesize qualitative studies on the experiences and perspectives of HSC donors. We searched MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Google Scholar, and reference lists of relevant articles to November 13, 2012. Thematic synthesis was used to analyze the findings. Thirty studies involving 1552 donors were included. The decision to donate included themes of saving life, family loyalty, building a positive identity, religious conviction, fear of invasive procedures, and social pressure and obligation. Five themes about the donation experience were identified: mental preparedness (pervasive pain, intense disappointment over recipient death, exceeding expectations, and valuing positive recipient gains), burden of responsibility (striving to be a quality donor, unresolved guilt, and exacerbated grief), feeling neglected (medical dismissiveness and family inattention), strengthened relationships (stronger family ties, establishing blood bonds), and personal sense of achievement (satisfaction and pride, personal development, hero status, and social recognition). Although HSC donation was appreciated as an opportunity to save life, some donors felt anxious and unduly compelled to donate. HSC donors became emotionally invested and felt responsible for their recipient's outcomes and were profoundly grieved and disappointed if the transplantation was unsuccessful. To maximize donor satisfaction and mitigate the psychosocial risks for HSC donors, strategies to address the emotional challenges of anxiety, sense of coercion, guilt, and grief in donors are warranted. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Bat Rabies in France: A 24-Year Retrospective Epidemiological Study

    PubMed Central

    Picard-Meyer, Evelyne; Robardet, Emmanuelle; Arthur, Laurent; Larcher, Gérald; Harbusch, Christine; Servat, Alexandre; Cliquet, Florence

    2014-01-01

    Since bat rabies surveillance was first implemented in France in 1989, 48 autochthonous rabies cases without human contamination have been reported using routine diagnosis methods. In this retrospective study, data on bats submitted for rabies testing were analysed in order to better understand the epidemiology of EBLV-1 in bats in France and to investigate some epidemiological trends. Of the 3176 bats submitted for rabies diagnosis from 1989 to 2013, 1.96% (48/2447 analysed) were diagnosed positive. Among the twelve recognised virus species within the Lyssavirus genus, two species were isolated in France. 47 positive bats were morphologically identified as Eptesicus serotinus and were shown to be infected by both the EBLV-1a and the EBLV-1b lineages. Isolation of BBLV in Myotis nattereri was reported once in the north-east of France in 2012. The phylogenetic characterisation of all 47 French EBLV-1 isolates sampled between 1989 and 2013 and the French BBLV sample against 21 referenced partial nucleoprotein sequences confirmed the low genetic diversity of EBLV-1 despite its extensive geographical range. Statistical analysis performed on the serotine bat data collected from 1989 to 2013 showed seasonal variation of rabies occurrence with a significantly higher proportion of positive samples detected during the autumn compared to the spring and the summer period (34% of positive bats detected in autumn, 15% in summer, 13% in spring and 12% in winter). In this study, we have provided the details of the geographical distribution of EBLV-1a in the south-west of France and the north-south division of EBLV-1b with its subdivisions into three phylogenetic groups: group B1 in the north-west, group B2 in the centre and group B3 in the north-east of France. PMID:24892287

  12. Pontiac fever: an operational definition for epidemiological studies

    PubMed Central

    Tossa, Paul; Deloge-Abarkan, Magali; Zmirou-Navier, Denis; Hartemann, Philippe; Mathieu, Laurence

    2006-01-01

    Background Pontiac fever is usually described in epidemic settings. Detection of Pontiac fever is a marker of an environmental contamination by Legionella and should thereby call for prevention measures in order to prevent outbreak of Legionnaire's disease. The objective of this study is to propose an operational definition of Pontiac fever that is amenable to epidemiological surveillance and investigation in a non epidemic setting. Methods A population of 560 elderly subjects residing in 25 nursing homes was followed during 4 months in order to assess the daily incidence of symptoms associated, in the literature, with Pontiac fever. The water and aerosol of one to 8 showers by nursing home were characterized combining conventional bacterial culture of Legionella and the Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) technique that used oligonucleotides probes specific for Legionellaceae. A definition of Pontiac fever was devised based on clinical symptoms described in epidemic investigations and on their timing after the exposure event. The association between incidence of Pontiac fever and shower contamination levels was evaluated to test the relevance of this definition. Results The proposed definition of Pontiac fever associated the following criteria: occurrence of at least one symptom among headache, myalgia, fever and shivers, possibly associated with other 'minor' symptoms, within three days after a shower contaminated by Legionella, during a maximum of 8 days (minimum 2 days). 23 such cases occurred during the study (incidence rate: 0.125 cases per person-year [95% CI: 0.122–0.127]). A concentration of Legionella in water equal to or greater than 104.L-1 (FISH method) was associated with a significant increase of incidence of Pontiac fever (p = 0.04). Conclusion Once validated in other settings, the proposed definition of Pontiac fever might be used to develop epidemiological surveillance and help draw attention on sources of Legionella. PMID:16646972

  13. [Tinea capitis: Main mycosis child. Epidemiological study on 10years].

    PubMed

    Kallel, A; Hdider, A; Fakhfakh, N; Belhadj, S; Belhadj-Salah, N; Bada, N; Chouchen, A; Ennigrou, S; Kallel, K

    2017-09-01

    Despite the changes in their epidemiology, and the improving level of hygiene of the population, tinea capitis is still considered a public health problem in our country, and is the most common type of dermatophytosis in our country. The aim of our study was to evaluate the epidemiological, clinical and mycological features of tinea capitis in children encountered in the Tunis region. A retrospective study concerned 1600 children aged 6 months to 15 years suspected to have tinea capitis was conducted in Parasitology-Mycology laboratory, Rabta hospital, over a 10-years period (2005-2014). Dermatophyte infections were confirmed using scalp scrapings examinated with direct microscopy using potash at 30% and/or culture on Sabouraud medium agar. Tinea capitis diagnosis was confirmed in 947 cases (59.18%). The sex ratio was 2.61 and the average age of 6.28 years with predominance in the age group of 4 to 8 years (52.27%). The most common clinical presentation was ringworm (87.65%). Ringworm large plaque was predominant (65.9%). Direct examination was positive in 884 cases (93.35%). Microsporic tinea was the most frequent (63.25%) followed by trichophytic tinea (29.78%). Positive cultures of dermatophytes were obtained in 912 cases (96.30%). The following dermatophyte species were isolated: Microsporum canis (67%), Trichophyton violaceum (31.68%), Trichophyton mentagrophytes (0.66%), Microsporum audouinii (0.22%), Trichophyton schoenleinii (0.22%) and Microsporum gypseum (0.22%). M. canis is currently the most frequently incriminated species in tinea capitis in Tunisia. This change is related to a change in behavior of our population, in fact the cat; main reservoir of M. canis cohabiting increasingly with Tunisian families. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Bat rabies in France: a 24-year retrospective epidemiological study.

    PubMed

    Picard-Meyer, Evelyne; Robardet, Emmanuelle; Arthur, Laurent; Larcher, Gérald; Harbusch, Christine; Servat, Alexandre; Cliquet, Florence

    2014-01-01

    Since bat rabies surveillance was first implemented in France in 1989, 48 autochthonous rabies cases without human contamination have been reported using routine diagnosis methods. In this retrospective study, data on bats submitted for rabies testing were analysed in order to better understand the epidemiology of EBLV-1 in bats in France and to investigate some epidemiological trends. Of the 3176 bats submitted for rabies diagnosis from 1989 to 2013, 1.96% (48/2447 analysed) were diagnosed positive. Among the twelve recognised virus species within the Lyssavirus genus, two species were isolated in France. 47 positive bats were morphologically identified as Eptesicus serotinus and were shown to be infected by both the EBLV-1a and the EBLV-1b lineages. Isolation of BBLV in Myotis nattereri was reported once in the north-east of France in 2012. The phylogenetic characterisation of all 47 French EBLV-1 isolates sampled between 1989 and 2013 and the French BBLV sample against 21 referenced partial nucleoprotein sequences confirmed the low genetic diversity of EBLV-1 despite its extensive geographical range. Statistical analysis performed on the serotine bat data collected from 1989 to 2013 showed seasonal variation of rabies occurrence with a significantly higher proportion of positive samples detected during the autumn compared to the spring and the summer period (34% of positive bats detected in autumn, 15% in summer, 13% in spring and 12% in winter). In this study, we have provided the details of the geographical distribution of EBLV-1a in the south-west of France and the north-south division of EBLV-1b with its subdivisions into three phylogenetic groups: group B1 in the north-west, group B2 in the centre and group B3 in the north-east of France.

  15. Pontiac fever: an operational definition for epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Tossa, Paul; Deloge-Abarkan, Magali; Zmirou-Navier, Denis; Hartemann, Philippe; Mathieu, Laurence

    2006-04-28

    Pontiac fever is usually described in epidemic settings. Detection of Pontiac fever is a marker of an environmental contamination by Legionella and should thereby call for prevention measures in order to prevent outbreak of Legionnaire's disease. The objective of this study is to propose an operational definition of Pontiac fever that is amenable to epidemiological surveillance and investigation in a non epidemic setting. A population of 560 elderly subjects residing in 25 nursing homes was followed during 4 months in order to assess the daily incidence of symptoms associated, in the literature, with Pontiac fever. The water and aerosol of one to 8 showers by nursing home were characterized combining conventional bacterial culture of Legionella and the Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) technique that used oligonucleotides probes specific for Legionellaceae. A definition of Pontiac fever was devised based on clinical symptoms described in epidemic investigations and on their timing after the exposure event. The association between incidence of Pontiac fever and shower contamination levels was evaluated to test the relevance of this definition. The proposed definition of Pontiac fever associated the following criteria: occurrence of at least one symptom among headache, myalgia, fever and shivers, possibly associated with other 'minor' symptoms, within three days after a shower contaminated by Legionella, during a maximum of 8 days (minimum 2 days). 23 such cases occurred during the study (incidence rate: 0.125 cases per person-year [95% CI: 0.122-0.127]). A concentration of Legionella in water equal to or greater than 10(4).L(-1) (FISH method) was associated with a significant increase of incidence of Pontiac fever (p = 0.04). Once validated in other settings, the proposed definition of Pontiac fever might be used to develop epidemiological surveillance and help draw attention on sources of Legionella.

  16. Evolutionary analysis of HBV "S" antigen genetic diversity in Iranian blood donors: a nationwide study.

    PubMed

    Pourkarim, Mahmoud Reza; Sharifi, Zohre; Soleimani, Ali; Amini-Bavil-Olyaee, Samad; Elsadek Fakhr, Ahmed; Sijmons, Steven; Vercauteren, Jurgen; Karimi, Gharib; Lemey, Philippe; Maes, Piet; Alavian, Seyed Moayed; Van Ranst, Marc

    2014-01-01

    The genetic diversity of the HBV S gene has a significant impact on the prophylaxis and treatment of hepatitis B infection. The effect of selective pressure on this genetic alteration has not yet been studied in Iranian blood donors. To explore HBV evolution and to analyze the effects and patterns of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) mutations on blood screening assays, 358 Iranian blood donors diagnosed as asymptomatic HBV carriers were enrolled in this nationwide study. Large S and partial S genes were amplified and sequenced. HBV (sub) genotypes and synonymous and nonsynonymous mutations were investigated. The impact of naturally occurring mutations on HBsAg ELISA results was explored. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that isolated strains were of genotype D. The dominant subgenotype/subtype was D1/ayw2. Deletions and naturally occurring stop codons in the pre-S1 and major hydrophilic region (MHR) were identified. In total, 32.8% of the studied strains harbored 195 single or multiple mutations in the MHR, the majority of which were located at the first loop of the "a determinant" domain. The ayw2 subtype showed a significant effect on the ELISA signal/cut-off value and carried fewer mutations in the MHR. Nonsynonymous/synonymous substitution value indicated that negative selection was the dominant evolutionary force in the HBV S gene. This nationwide study revealed that mutation frequency of HBsAg among Iranian blood donors was much higher than previous reports from the different local regions. These findings regarding the significant differences in reactivity of ELISA among different subtypes of HBV and its correlation with the number of mutations at the MHR will be valuable to public health authorities.

  17. Introduction of a potent single-donor fibrin glue for vascular anastomosis: An animal study

    PubMed Central

    Ardakani, Mehdi Rasti; Hormozi, Abdoljalil Kalantar; Ardakani, Jalal Rasti; Davarpanahjazi, Amir Hossein; Moghadam, Ali Shayesteh

    2012-01-01

    Background: Vascular anastomosis is considered as a difficult surgical procedure. Although different alternative methods have been tried to tackle these difficulties, none were found to be successful. Commercial fibrin glue has recently been used for vascular anastomosis. However, it did not gain popularity due to some limitations such as low tensile strength, rapid removal by the immune system, and risk of transmission of blood-borne viral infections. In this article, we presented a novel method for producing single-donor human fibrin glue and determined its success rate for vascular anastomosis in an animal model. Materials ans Methods: In this study, 3 mL of single-donor fibrin sealant was prepared from 150 mL of whole blood containing 50-70 mg/mL of fibrinogen. The study was performed on 10 dogs and 5 cats. After transection of the carotid artery, both ends were anastomosed by means of 3-4 sutures (Prolene 8-0). The suture line was then sealed with one layer of the new fibrin sealant. After 3-8 weeks, the site of anastomosis was evaluated angiographically and morphologically for healing and possible complications such as thrombosis or aneurysm. Results: In evaluations 3 weeks after the surgery, all arterial anastomoses were patent in dogs, but some degree of subintimal hyperplasia was noted. After 8 weeks, all anastomoses were patent and the degree of subintimal hyperplasia was decreased. In cats on the other hand, after 4 weeks, all anastomoses were patent and subintimal hyperplasia was absent. Conclusions: Single-donor fibrin glue was a quite reliable and practical alternative to minimize suturing and therefore operative time in our animal model. This sealant can easily be obtained from the patient's whole blood. Its application in humans would require further studies. PMID:23626612

  18. Cycloplegic refraction is the gold standard for epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Ian G; Iribarren, Rafael; Fotouhi, Akbar; Grzybowski, Andrzej

    2015-09-01

    Many studies on children have shown that lack of cycloplegia is associated with slight overestimation of myopia and marked errors in estimates of the prevalence of emmetropia and hyperopia. Non-cycloplegic refraction is particularly problematic for studies of associations with risk factors. The consensus around the importance of cycloplegia in children left undefined at what age, if any, cycloplegia became unnecessary. It was often implicitly assumed that cycloplegia is not necessary beyond childhood or early adulthood, and thus, the protocol for the classical studies of refraction in older adults did not include cycloplegia. Now that population studies of refractive error are beginning to fill the gap between schoolchildren and older adults, whether cycloplegia is required for measuring refractive error in this age range, needs to be defined. Data from the Tehran Eye Study show that, without cycloplegia, there are errors in the estimation of myopia, emmetropia and hyperopia in the age range 20-50, just as in children. Similar results have been reported in an analysis of data from the Beaver Dam Offspring Eye Study. If the only important outcome measure of a particular study is the prevalence of myopia, then cycloplegia may not be crucial in some cases. But, without cycloplegia, measurements of other refractive categories as well as spherical equivalent are unreliable. In summary, the current evidence suggests that cycloplegic refraction should be considered as the gold standard for epidemiological studies of refraction, not only in children, but in adults up to the age of 50.

  19. An observational study of Donor Ex Vivo Lung Perfusion in UK lung transplantation: DEVELOP-UK.

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Andrew; Andreasson, Anders; Chrysos, Alexandros; Lally, Joanne; Mamasoula, Chrysovalanto; Exley, Catherine; Wilkinson, Jennifer; Qian, Jessica; Watson, Gillian; Lewington, Oli; Chadwick, Thomas; McColl, Elaine; Pearce, Mark; Mann, Kay; McMeekin, Nicola; Vale, Luke; Tsui, Steven; Yonan, Nizar; Simon, Andre; Marczin, Nandor; Mascaro, Jorge; Dark, John

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Many patients awaiting lung transplantation die before a donor organ becomes available. Ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP) allows initially unusable donor lungs to be assessed and reconditioned for clinical use. OBJECTIVE The objective of the Donor Ex Vivo Lung Perfusion in UK lung transplantation study was to evaluate the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of EVLP in increasing UK lung transplant activity. DESIGN A multicentre, unblinded, non-randomised, non-inferiority observational study to compare transplant outcomes between EVLP-assessed and standard donor lungs. SETTING Multicentre study involving all five UK officially designated NHS adult lung transplant centres. PARTICIPANTS Patients aged ≥ 18 years with advanced lung disease accepted onto the lung transplant waiting list. INTERVENTION The study intervention was EVLP assessment of donor lungs before determining suitability for transplantation. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES The primary outcome measure was survival during the first 12 months following lung transplantation. Secondary outcome measures were patient-centred outcomes that are influenced by the effectiveness of lung transplantation and that contribute to the health-care costs. RESULTS Lungs from 53 donors unsuitable for standard transplant were assessed with EVLP, of which 18 (34%) were subsequently transplanted. A total of 184 participants received standard donor lungs. Owing to the early closure of the study, a non-inferiority analysis was not conducted. The Kaplan-Meier estimate of survival at 12 months was 0.67 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.40 to 0.83] for the EVLP arm and 0.80 (95% CI 0.74 to 0.85) for the standard arm. The hazard ratio for overall 12-month survival in the EVLP arm relative to the standard arm was 1.96 (95% CI 0.83 to 4.67). Patients in the EVLP arm required ventilation for a longer period and stayed longer in an intensive therapy unit (ITU) than patients in the standard arm, but duration of overall hospital

  20. Design, synthesis and study of supramolecular donor-acceptor systems mimicking natural photosynthesis processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bikram, Chandra

    This dissertation investigates the chemical ingenuity into the development of various photoactive supramolecular donor -- acceptor systems to produce clean and carbon free energy for the next generation. The process is inspired by the principles learned from nature's approach where the solar energy is converted into the chemical energy through the natural photosynthesis process. Owing to the importance and complexity of natural photosynthesis process, we have designed ideal donor-acceptor systems to investigate their light energy harvesting properties. This process involves two major steps: the first step is the absorption of light energy by antenna or donor systems to promote them to an excited electronic state. The second step involves, the transfer of excitation energy to the reaction center, which triggers an electron transfer process within the system. Based on this principle, the research is focused into the development of artificial photosynthesis systems to investigate dynamics of photo induced energy and electron transfer events. The derivatives of Porphyrins, Phthalocyanines, BODIPY, and SubPhthalocyanines etc have been widely used as the primary building blocks for designing photoactive and electroactive ensembles in this area because of their excellent and unique photophysical and photochemical properties. Meanwhile, the fullerene, mainly its readily available version C60 is typically used as an electron acceptor component because of its unique redox potential, symmetrical shape and low reorganization energy appropriate for improved charge separation behavior. The primary research motivation of the study is to achieve fast charge separation and slow charge recombination of the system by stabilizing the radical ion pairs which are formed from photo excitation, for maximum utility of solar energy. Besides Fullerene C60, this dissertation has also investigated the potential application of carbon nanomaterials (Carbon nanotubes and graphene) as primary

  1. Atopy and Specific Cancer Sites: a Review of Epidemiological Studies.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yubao; Hill, Andrew W

    2016-12-01

    Mounting evidence appears to link asthma and atopy to cancer susceptibility. This review presents and discusses published epidemiological studies on the association between site-specific cancers and atopy. PubMed was searched electronically for publications between 1995 and 2015, and cited references were researched manually. Quantitative studies relating to atopy, allergy, or asthma and cancer were identified and tabulated. Despite many exposure-related limitations, patterns in the studies were observed. Asthma, specifically, has been observed to be a risk factor for lung cancer. A protective effect of atopic diseases against pancreatic cancer has been shown consistently in case-control studies but not in cohort studies. Allergy of any type appears to be protective against glioma and adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Most studies on atopic diseases and non-Hodgkin lymphoma or colorectal cancer reported an inverse association. The other sites identified had varying and non-significant outcomes. Further research should be dedicated to carefully defined exposure assessments of "atopy" as well as the biological plausibility in the association between atopic diseases and cancer.

  2. Donor-Acceptor Conjugated Linear Polyenes: A Study of Excited State Intramolecular Charge Transfer, Photoisomerization and Fluorescence Probe Properties.

    PubMed

    Hota, Prasanta Kumar; Singh, Anil Kumar

    2014-07-27

    Numerous studies of donor-acceptor conjugated linear polyenes have been carried out with the goal to understand the exact nature of the excited state electronic structure and dynamics. In this article we discuss our endeavours with regard to the excited state intramolecular charge transfer, photoisomerization and fluorescence probe properties of various donor-acceptor substituted compounds of diphenylpolyene [Ar(CH = CH) n Ar] series and ethenylindoles.

  3. Obesity effects on depression: systematic review of epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Atlantis, E; Baker, M

    2008-06-01

    Obesity is a well-known cause of cardiovascular disease burden and premature death, but effects on psychological morbidity remain uncertain. This article reports findings following a systematic review of epidemiological studies to determine whether obesity causes depression. Multiple databases were searched for English-language studies of etiology of obesity (exposure variable, analyzed as an ordered category) on depression outcomes (dependent variables, continuous or categorical). Studies in children and in women during pregnancy or postpartum were excluded, as were nonrepresentative cross-sectional studies. Searches and identification of studies for inclusion were performed by EA, whereas a descriptive synthesis of important study characteristics was undertaken independently by us. We reviewed 24 out of approximately 4500 potentially relevant studies; 4 were prospective cohort studies and 20 were cross-sectional studies (10 from the United States). Effect measures reported in all prospective cohort studies were consistent and suggested that obesity may increase the odds of future depression outcomes (symptoms or nonclinical diagnosis of depression). Effect measures reported in most cross-sectional studies from the United States supported the hypothesized association between obesity and prevalence of depression outcomes for women but not men, in contrast most cross-sectional studies from populations other than the United States consistently failed to find such associations. Overall, there is a weak level of evidence supporting the hypothesis that obesity increases the incidence of depression outcomes. Few high-quality prospective cohort studies exist, and cross-sectional studies account for the vast body of published evidence, and therefore firm conclusions for causality cannot yet be drawn. Our finding warrants additional high-quality etiological research on this topic.

  4. Parental occupation and childhood cancer: review of epidemiologic studies.

    PubMed Central

    Savitz, D A; Chen, J H

    1990-01-01

    Parental occupational exposures might affect childhood cancer in the offspring through genetic changes in the ovum or sperm or through transplacental carcinogenesis. The 24 published epidemiologic studies of this association have all used case-control designs, with controls generally selected from birth certificates or from general population sampling. Occupational exposures were inferred from job titles on birth certificates or through interviews. A large number of occupation-cancer associations have been reported, many of which were not addressed or not confirmed in other studies. Several associations have been found with consistency: paternal exposures in hydrocarbon-associated occupations, the petroleum and chemical industries, and especially paint exposures have been associated with brain cancer; paint exposures have also been linked to leukemias. Maternal exposures have received much less attention, but studies have yielded strongly suggestive results linking a variety of occupational exposures to leukemia and brain cancer. The primary limitations in this literature are the inaccuracy inherent in assigning exposure based on job title alone and imprecision due to limited study size. Although no etiologic associations have been firmly established by these studies, the public health concerns and suggestive data warrant continued research. PMID:2272330

  5. 10 CFR 602.5 - Epidemiology and Other Health Studies Financial Assistance Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Epidemiology and Other Health Studies Financial Assistance... AND OTHER HEALTH STUDIES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAM § 602.5 Epidemiology and Other Health Studies Financial Assistance Program. (a) DOE may issue under this part awards for research,...

  6. Role of apheresis and dialysis in pediatric living donor liver transplantation: a single center retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Sanada, Yukihiro; Mizuta, Koichi; Urahashi, Taizen; Ihara, Yoshiyuki; Wakiya, Taiichi; Okada, Noriki; Yamada, Naoya; Koinuma, Toshitaka; Koyama, Kansuke; Tanaka, Shinichiro; Misawa, Kazuhide; Wada, Masahiko; Nunomiya, Shin; Yasuda, Yoshikazu; Kawarasaki, Hideo

    2012-08-01

    In the field of pediatric living donor liver transplantation, the indications for apheresis and dialysis, and its efficacy and safety are still a matter of debate. In this study, we performed a retrospective investigation of these aspects, and considered its roles. Between January 2008 and December 2010, 73 living donor liver transplantations were performed in our department. Twenty seven courses of apheresis and dialysis were performed for 19 of those patients (19/73; 26.0%). The indications were ABO incompatible-liver transplantation in 11 courses, fluid management in seven, acute liver failure in three, renal replacement therapy in two, endotoxin removal in two, cytokine removal in one, and liver allograft dysfunction in one. Sixteen courses of apheresis and dialysis were performed prior to liver transplantation for 14 patients. The median IgM antibody titers before and after apheresis for ABO blood type-incompatible liver transplantation was 128 and eight, respectively (P < 0.05). Eleven courses of apheresis and dialysis were performed post liver transplantation for 10 patients. The median PaO2/FiO2 ratio before and after dialysis for fluid overload was 159 and 339, respectively (P < 0.05). No bleeding or technical complications attributable to apheresis and dialysis occurred. The 1-year survival rate of the patients was 100%. Apheresis and dialysis in pediatric living donor liver transplantation are effective for antibody removal in ABO-incompatible liver transplantation, and fluid management for acute respiratory failure. © 2012 The Authors. Therapeutic Apheresis and Dialysis © 2012 International Society for Apheresis.

  7. Donor-specific antibodies after pediatric liver transplantation: a cross-sectional study of 50 patients.

    PubMed

    Kivelä, Jesper M; Kosola, Silja; Peräsaari, Juha; Mäkisalo, Heikki; Jalanko, Hannu; Holmberg, Christer; Pakarinen, Mikko P; Lauronen, Jouni

    2016-04-01

    The role of donor-specific HLA antibodies (DSAs) after pediatric liver transplantation (LT) is inadequately established. We conducted a cross-sectional study on the prevalence of DSAs and their association with liver histology and biochemical variables after pediatric LT. Serum samples were drawn for HLA antibody analyses from 50 patients (76% of 66 eligible patients) operated on at age <18 years between 1987 and 2007 with a median of 10.0 (interquartile range 4.0-16.4) years after deceased donor LT. Mixed and single-antigen beads with Luminex were used for HLA antibody screening and detection. A mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) value of 1000 was used for positive cutoff. Twenty-six patients (52%; 95% confidence interval (CI) 39% to 65%) had DSAs. In 22 (85%) patients, DSAs were against class II HLA antigens with a mean (standard deviation) MFI of 13,481 (4727). The unadjusted prevalence ratio for portal inflammation in DSA-positive compared to DSA-negative patients (n = 47; 9/24 vs. 1/23) was 8.6 (95% CI 1.6 to 50.9). Laboratory values at the time of study were comparable between DSA-positive and DSA-negative patients. In conclusion, approximately half of patients studied had DSAs after pediatric LT. Portal inflammation was associated with DSA positivity although the wide confidence interval around the ratio estimate warrants cautious interpretation. © 2016 Steunstichting ESOT.

  8. Factors associated with corneal graft survival in the cornea donor study.

    PubMed

    Sugar, Alan; Gal, Robin L; Kollman, Craig; Raghinaru, Dan; Dontchev, Mariya; Croasdale, Christopher R; Feder, Robert S; Holland, Edward J; Lass, Jonathan H; Macy, Jonathan I; Mannis, Mark J; Smith, Patricia W; Soukiasian, Sarkis H; Beck, Roy W

    2015-03-01

    The Cornea Donor Study (CDS) showed that donor age is not a factor in survival of most penetrating keratoplasties for endothelial disease. Secondary analyses confirm the importance of surgical indication and presence of glaucoma in outcomes at 10 years. To assess the relationship between donor and recipient factors and corneal graft survival in the CDS. Multicenter prospective, double-masked, controlled clinical trial conducted at 80 clinical sites. One hundred five surgeons enrolled 1090 participants undergoing corneal transplant for a moderate-risk condition, principally Fuchs dystrophy or pseudophakic or aphakic corneal edema (PACE). Forty-three eye banks provided corneas. Corneas from donors younger than 66 years and donors 66 years or older were assigned, masked to donor age. Surgery and postoperative care were performed according to the surgeons' usual routines. Participants were followed up for as long as 12 years. Graft failure, defined as a regrafting procedure or a cloudy cornea for 3 consecutive months. The 10-year cumulative probability of graft failure was higher in participants with PACE than in those with Fuchs dystrophy (37% vs 20%; hazard ratio [HR], 2.1 [99% CI, 1.4-3.0]; P < .001) and in participants with a history of glaucoma before penetrating keratoplasty, particularly with prior glaucoma surgery (58% with prior glaucoma surgery and use of medications to lower intraocular pressure at the time of surgery vs 22% with no history of glaucoma surgery or medication use; HR, 4.1 [99% CI, 2.2-7.5]; P < .001). We found trends toward increased graft failure in recipients who were 70 years or older compared with those younger than 60 years (29% vs 19%; HR, 1.2 [99% CI, 0.7-2.1]; P = .04) or were African American (HR, 1.5; P = .11) or who had a history of smoking (35% vs 24%; HR, 1.6 [99% CI, 0.9-2.8]; P = .02). Lower endothelial cell density (ECD) and higher corneal thickness (CT) at 6 months (6% vs 41% for ECD ≥2700 vs <1700 cells

  9. Endometriosis and breast cancer: A survey of the epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Pontikaki, A; Sifakis, S; Spandidos, D A

    2016-01-01

    Endometriosis is a chronic gynecological disease with a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations that affects approximately 10% of women of reproductive age. Recent reviews have demonstrated the connection between endometriosis and breast cancer, which represents the most frequently diagnosed female cancer and the most common cause of cancer-related mortality among women worldwide. The aim of this study was to conduct a survey of available published epidemiological studies indicating the association between endometriosis and breast cancer, and simultaneously to categorize the results based on the strength of the association, with the intention of the critical evaluation of the existing data. We performed a rigorous search of the PubMed/Medline database, using the key words 'endometriosis' and 'breast cancer' for all studies published in the English language until September 2015. We found 4 retrospective cohort studies, 4 case-control studies and 3 case-cohort studies that demonstrated a notable risk for developing breast cancer among women with endometriosis. By contrast, we also found 5 case-control studies, 1 prospective cohort study, 1 case-cohort study and 1 cross-sectional study that demonstrated a negative association between endometriosis and breast cancer. In conclusion, as regards the clarification of a 'robust' or 'weak' association between endometriosis and breast cancer, no definite conclusions could be drawn, due to the limited number of studies and the limitations of each of these studies. New well-designed, prospective cohort or randomized control trials with long-term follow-up are warranted in order to provide evidence-based clinical recommendations for proper counseling, screening and treatment strategies for patients with endometriosis, and hence to improve public health.

  10. Cancer prevention by green tea: evidence from epidemiologic studies1234

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    In contrast to the consistent results of an inhibitory effect of green tea extracts and tea polyphenols on the development and growth of carcinogen-induced tumors in experimental animal models, results from human studies are mixed. Both observational and intervention studies have provided evidence in support of a protective role of green tea intake in the development of oral–digestive tract cancer or an inhibitory role of oral supplementation of green tea extract on a precancerous lesion of oral cavity. Evidence in support of green tea intake against the development of liver cancer risk is limited and inconsistent. An inverse association between green tea intake and lung cancer risk has been observed among never smokers but not among smokers. Although observational studies do not support a beneficial role of tea intake against the development of prostate cancer, several phase 2 clinical trials have shown an inhibitory effect of green tea extract against the progression of prostate premalignant lesions to malignant tumors. Prospective epidemiologic studies so far have not provided evidence for a protective effect of green tea consumption on breast cancer development. Current data neither confirm nor refute a definitive cancer-preventive role of green tea intake. Large randomized intervention trials on the efficacy of green tea polyphenols or extracts are required before a recommendation for green tea consumption for cancer prevention should be made. PMID:24172305

  11. Chapter 8. Tea and Cancer Prevention: Epidemiological Studies

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Jian-Min; Sun, Canlan; Butler, Lesley M.

    2011-01-01

    Experimental studies have consistently shown the inhibitory activities of tea extracts on tumorigenesis in multiple model systems. Epidemiologic studies, however, have produced inconclusive results in humans. A comprehensive review was conducted to assess the current knowledge on tea consumption and risk of cancers in humans. In general, consumption of black tea was not associated with lower risk of cancer. High intake of green tea was consistently associated with reduced risk of upper gastrointestinal tract cancers after sufficient control for confounders. Limited data support a protective effect of green tea on lung and hepatocellular carcinogenesis. Although observational studies do not support a beneficial role of tea intake on prostate cancer risk, phase II clinical trials have demonstrated an inhibitory effect of green tea extract against the progression of prostate pre-malignant lesions. Green tea may exert beneficial effects against mammary carcinogenesis in premenopausal women and recurrence of breast cancer. There is no sufficient evidence that supports a protective role of tea intake on the development of cancers of the colorectum, pancreas, urinary tract, glioma, lymphoma, and leukemia. Future prospective observational studies with biomarkers of exposure and phase III clinical trials are required to provide definitive evidence for the hypothesized beneficial effect of tea consumption on cancer formation in humans. PMID:21419224

  12. Invited commentary: recruiting for epidemiologic studies using social media.

    PubMed

    Allsworth, Jenifer E

    2015-05-15

    Social media-based recruitment for epidemiologic studies has the potential to expand the demographic and geographic reach of investigators and identify potential participants more cost-effectively than traditional approaches. In fact, social media are particularly appealing for their ability to engage traditionally "hard-to-reach" populations, including young adults and low-income populations. Despite their great promise as a tool for epidemiologists, social media-based recruitment approaches do not currently compare favorably with gold-standard probability-based sampling approaches. Sparse data on the demographic characteristics of social media users, patterns of social media use, and appropriate sampling frames limit our ability to implement probability-based sampling strategies. In a well-conducted study, Harris et al. (Am J Epidemiol. 2015;181(10):737-746) examined the cost-effectiveness of social media-based recruitment (advertisements and promotion) in the Contraceptive Use, Pregnancy Intention, and Decisions (CUPID) Study, a cohort study of 3,799 young adult Australian women, and the approximate representativeness of the CUPID cohort. Implications for social media-based recruitment strategies for cohort assembly, data accuracy, implementation, and human subjects concerns are discussed.

  13. Cancer prevention by green tea: evidence from epidemiologic studies.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jian-Min

    2013-12-01

    In contrast to the consistent results of an inhibitory effect of green tea extracts and tea polyphenols on the development and growth of carcinogen-induced tumors in experimental animal models, results from human studies are mixed. Both observational and intervention studies have provided evidence in support of a protective role of green tea intake in the development of oral-digestive tract cancer or an inhibitory role of oral supplementation of green tea extract on a precancerous lesion of oral cavity. Evidence in support of green tea intake against the development of liver cancer risk is limited and inconsistent. An inverse association between green tea intake and lung cancer risk has been observed among never smokers but not among smokers. Although observational studies do not support a beneficial role of tea intake against the development of prostate cancer, several phase 2 clinical trials have shown an inhibitory effect of green tea extract against the progression of prostate premalignant lesions to malignant tumors. Prospective epidemiologic studies so far have not provided evidence for a protective effect of green tea consumption on breast cancer development. Current data neither confirm nor refute a definitive cancer-preventive role of green tea intake. Large randomized intervention trials on the efficacy of green tea polyphenols or extracts are required before a recommendation for green tea consumption for cancer prevention should be made.

  14. Epidemiological study of fixed drug eruption in Pointe-Noire.

    PubMed

    Ognongo-Ibiaho, A N; Atanda, H L

    2012-11-01

    A prospective study was conducted over a 27 month period in order to determine the epidemiological profile of fixed drug eruption (FDE) observed during a dermatological consultation at Pointe-Noire. During the study period 54 out of 9,070 persons consulting (0.6%) suffered from clinically diagnosed FDE. The variables studied were: age, sex, medicine and point of sale. The average age of onset was 30 years. The frequency of onset was higher in males (38 patients) than in females (16 patients). The incriminated medicines were: the sulfamides (48 patients) including Cotrimoxazole (45 patients ) and Sulfadoxine and Pyremethamine (3 patients) Coartem(®) + Doliprane(®) (1 patient), Chloramphenicol(®) (1 patient), Amidol(®) (1 patient), Duocotexin(®) + Paracetamol(®) (1 patient), Surquina(®) (1 patient), Amodiaquine(®) (1 patient). The point of sale was illicit (peddlers, markets) for 44 patients; for 10 patients it was a lawful outlet (pharmacies). This study shows that cotrimoxazole bought at illicit points of sale is the main etiology of FDE in the department, confirming that these medicines are counterfeit. The involvement of dermatologists in the fight against the illicit sale of medicines should be made a priority. © 2012 The International Society of Dermatology.

  15. [Oral contraceptive pill and thrombotic risk: epidemiological studies].

    PubMed

    Fruzzetti, F; Perini, D; Spirito, N; Manca, R

    2012-12-01

    The venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a rare event during childbearing age and during the assumption of combined oral contraceptive. The absolute risk of VTE in users of combined oral contraceptives is 20-30 per 100000 women years. A number of case-control studies published in recent years have shown an apparent increase in the risk of VTE among users of oral contraceptives (OCs) containing desogestrel, gestodene, drospirenone and cyproterone, relative to the use of levonorgestrel. The data derived from these recent studies is of borderline statistical significance because any important factors are not considered to evaluate the real correlation between the assumption of OCs and risk of venous thromboembolism. Among the factors that should be considered, there are: EE dose, duration of use, coexistance of other risk factors of venous thromboembolism (age, BMI, familiarity, surgical interventions) and other prescription bias. The lack of these factors is likely to contribute to the increased risk of venous thromboembolism observed in users of third-generation OCs when compared to that in users of second-generation OCs. To date, because of the inadequacy of epidemiological studies, the data about the correlation between OCs and TVE, are not conclusive and it will be necessary to carry out other studies to clarify this debating point, definitively.

  16. [Prevalence of types of hepatitis C virus in Spanish blood donors: results of a state-based multicenter study. Spanish Group for the Study of Blood Donors with Risk of HCV Transmission].

    PubMed

    León, P; López, J A; Amela, C; Elola, C; Echevarría, J M

    1999-11-01

    The prevalences established up to the present in Spain for the different types of hepatitis C virus are based on data obtained in populations in which the nature of the population itself may have based the data in favor of certain types of the virus. The study of seropositive blood donors identified through screening of blood donations may provide prevalences closer to the truth among the general population. Typing of genomes in samples from 441 donors was performed using the blood bank generated during the multicenter study performed by the Spanish Study Group of Blood Donors with Risk of Transmission of the Hepatitis C Virus. The antibodies present were typed in the seropositive samples in the above donors and in 337 more in whom a viral genoma was not detected. In total, the infection was typed in 685 donors. On analysis of the results corresponding to 386 donors, whose number and distribution by autonomous communities were previously fixed to represent all of Spain, type 1 was largely the more prevalent (85.5%) followed by types 3 (4.4%), 2 (4.1%), 4 (3.4%) and 5 (0.5%) and by a group of apparent mixed infections which altogether represented 2.1% of the total. Among the donors in whom the genomes were typed, infectious due to the 1b subtype (78% of the 441 samples genotypes) clearly predominated. The participation of the different types of type 1 was significantly greater in those lacking antibodies detectable versus epitopes codified in the NS4 region of the viral genome. This study avoids some bias in sampling which may have affected previous studies and provides data which should more closely approach the real prevalence in the general Spanish population. Thus, it should provide a better base of comparison for any study on the distribution of the types of the hepatitis C virus in selected populations or others performed during tha investigation of outbreaks of hepatitis C virus infection.

  17. Delirium epidemiology in critical care (DECCA): an international study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Delirium is a frequent source of morbidity in intensive care units (ICUs). Most data on its epidemiology is from single-center studies. Our aim was to conduct a multicenter study to evaluate the epidemiology of delirium in the ICU. Methods A 1-day point-prevalence study was undertaken in 104 ICUs from 11 countries in South and North America and Spain. Results In total, 975 patients were screened, and 497 fulfilled inclusion criteria and were enrolled (median age, 62 years; 52.5% men; 16.7% and 19.9% for ICU and hospital mortality); 64% were admitted to the ICU because of medical causes, and sepsis was the main diagnosis (n = 76; 15.3%). In total, 265 patients were sedated with the Richmond agitation and sedation scale (RASS) deeper than -3, and only 232 (46.6%) patients could be evaluated with the confusion-assessment method for the ICU. The prevalence of delirium was 32.3%. Compared with patients without delirium, those with the diagnosis of delirium had a greater severity of illness at admission, demonstrated by higher sequential organ-failure assessment (SOFA (P = 0.004)) and simplified acute physiology score 3 (SAPS3) scores (P < 0.0001). Delirium was associated with increased ICU (20% versus 5.7%; P = 0.002) and hospital mortality (24 versus 8.3%; P = 0.0017), and longer ICU (P < 0.0001) and hospital length of stay (LOS) (22 (11 to 40) versus 7 (4 to 18) days; P < 0.0001). Previous use of midazolam (P = 0.009) was more frequent in patients with delirium. On multivariate analysis, delirium was independently associated with increased ICU mortality (OR = 3.14 (1.26 to 7.86); CI, 95%) and hospital mortality (OR = 2.5 (1.1 to 5.7); CI, 95%). Conclusions In this 1-day international study, delirium was frequent and associated with increased mortality and ICU LOS. The main modifiable risk factors associated with the diagnosis of delirium were the use of invasive devices and sedatives (midazolam). PMID:21092264

  18. Low-dose radiation epidemiology studies: status and issues.

    PubMed

    Shore, Roy E

    2009-11-01

    Although the Japanese atomic bomb study and radiotherapy studies have clearly documented cancer risks from high-dose radiation exposures, radiation risk assessment groups have long recognized that protracted or low exposures to low-linear energy transfer radiations are key radiation protection concerns because these are far more common than high-exposure scenarios. Epidemiologic studies of human populations with low-dose or low dose-rate exposures are one approach to addressing those concerns. A number of large studies of radiation workers (Chernobyl clean-up workers, U.S. and Chinese radiological technologists, and the 15-country worker study) or of persons exposed to environmental radiation at moderate to low levels (residents near Techa River, Semipalatinsk, Chernobyl, or nuclear facilities) have been conducted. A variety of studies of medical radiation exposures (multiple-fluoroscopy, diagnostic (131)I, scatter radiation doses from radiotherapy, etc.) also are of interest. Key results from these studies are summarized and compared with risk estimates from the Japanese atomic bomb study. Ideally, one would like the low-dose and low dose-rate studies to guide radiation risk estimation regarding the shape of the dose-response curve, DDREF (dose and dose-rate effectiveness factor), and risk at low doses. However, the degree to which low-dose studies can do so is subject to various limitations, especially those pertaining to dosimetric uncertainties and limited statistical power. The identification of individuals who are particularly susceptible to radiation cancer induction also is of high interest in terms of occupational and medical radiation protection. Several examples of studies of radiation-related cancer susceptibility are discussed, but none thus far have clearly identified radiation-susceptible genotypes.

  19. Blood donations from previously transfused or pregnant donors: a multicenter study to determine the frequency of alloexposure

    PubMed Central

    Rios, Jorge A.; Schlumpf, Karen S.; Kakaiya, Ram M.; Triulzi, Darrell J.; Roback, John D.; Kleinman, Steve H.; Murphy, Edward L.; Gottschall, Jerome L.; Carey, Patricia M.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) mitigation strategies include the deferral of female donors from apheresis platelet (PLT) donations and the distribution of plasma for transfusion from male donors only. We studied the implications of these policies in terms of component loss at six blood centers in the United States. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS We collected data from allogeneic blood donors making whole blood and blood component donations during calendar years 2006 through 2008. We analyzed the distribution of donations in terms of the sex, transfusion and pregnancy histories, and blood type. RESULTS A TRALI mitigation policy that would not allow plasma from female whole blood donors to be prepared into transfusable plasma components would result in nearly a 50% reduction in the units of whole blood available for plasma manufacturing and would decrease the number of type AB plasma units that could be made from whole blood donations by the same amount. Deferral of all female apheresis PLT donors, all female apheresis PLT donors with histories of prior pregnancies, or all female apheresis PLT donors with histories of prior pregnancies and positive screening test results for antibodies to human leukocyte antigens (HLAs) will result in a loss of 37.1, 22.5, and 5.4% of all apheresis PLT donations, respectively. CONCLUSION A TRALI mitigation policy that only defers female apheresis PLT donors with previous pregnancies and HLAs would result in an approximately 5% decrease in the inventory of apheresis PLTs, but would eliminate a large proportion of components that are associated with TRALI. PMID:21182532

  20. Donor Age and Corneal Endothelial Cell Loss 5 Years after Successful Corneal Transplantation: Specular Microscopy Ancillary Study Results

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine whether endothelial cell loss 5 years after successful corneal transplantation is related to the age of the donor. Design Multicenter, prospective, double-masked clinical trial. Participants Three hundred forty-seven subjects participating in the Cornea Donor Study who had not experienced graft failure 5 years after corneal transplantation for a moderate-risk condition (principally Fuchs’ dystrophy or pseudophakic corneal edema). Testing Specular microscopic images of donor corneas obtained before surgery and postoperatively at 6 months, 12 months, and then annually through 5 years were submitted to a central reading center to measure endothelial cell density (ECD). Main Outcome Measure Endothelial cell density at 5 years. Results At 5 years, there was a substantial decrease in ECD from baseline for all donor ages. Subjects who received a cornea from a donor 12 to 65 years old experienced a median cell loss of 69% in the study eye, resulting in a 5-year median ECD of 824 cells/mm2 (interquartile range, 613–1342), whereas subjects who received a cornea from a donor 66 to 75 years old experienced a cell loss of 75%, resulting in a median 5-year ECD of 654 cells/mm2 (interquartile range, 538–986) (P [adjusted for baseline ECD] = 0.04). Statistically, there was a weak negative association between ECD and donor age analyzed as a continuous variable (r [adjusted for baseline ECD] = −0.19; 95% confidence interval, −0.29 to −0.08). Conclusions Endothelial cell loss is substantial in the 5 years after corneal transplantation. There is a slight association between cell loss and donor age. This finding emphasizes the importance of longer-term follow-up of this cohort to determine if this relationship affects graft survival. PMID:18387408

  1. Experiences of donor families after consenting to organ donation: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Berntzen, Helene; Bjørk, Ida Torunn

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the experience of Norwegian donor families during organ donation after brain death. This was a qualitative study using personal interviews. Twenty donor-family members from thirteen different situations were interviewed about their experience of being a close relative in an organ donation situation. The principles of qualitative content analysis were used. An experience of strain caused by the organ donation situation was identified. Lack of comprehension and awareness of the process of organ donation contributed to this, and continuing information after the consent was given appeared to be necessary. Reconciliation with the decision of organ donation and the subsequent situation was gained through understanding the organ donation process, through recognition of the increased strain and through satisfaction resulting from the contribution made by organ donation. Healthcare personnel were key persons in contributing to such understanding and recognition. When attending to families in an organ donation situation, the focus must be on ensuring comprehension of the situation both through information provided in the hospital and during follow-up. It seems essential to arrange for a period of parting that can contribute to reconciliation, and to offer follow-up according to individual needs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Potential impact on blood availability and donor iron status of changes to donor hemoglobin cutoff and interdonation intervals.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Bryan R; Johnson, Bryce; Wright, David J; Kleinman, Steven; Glynn, Simone A; Cable, Ritchard G

    2016-08-01

    A minimum male hemoglobin (Hb) level of 13.0 g/dL becomes a Food and Drug Administration requirement effective May 2016. In addition, extending whole blood (WB) interdonation intervals (IDIs) beyond 8 weeks has been considered to reduce iron depletion in repeat blood donors. This study estimates the impact these changes might have on blood availability and donor iron status. Six blood centers participating in Retrovirus Epidemiology Donor Study-II (REDS-II) collected information on all donation visits from 2006 to 2009. Simulations were developed from these data using a multistage approach that first sought to adequately reproduce the patterns of donor return, Hb and ferritin levels, and outcomes of a donor's visit (successful single- or double-red blood cell donation, deferral for low Hb) observed in REDS-II data sets. Modified simulations were used to predict the potential impact on the blood supply and donor iron status under different Hb cutoff and IDI qualification criteria. More than 10% of WB donations might require replacement under many simulated scenarios. Longer IDIs would reduce the proportion of donors with iron depletion, but 80% of these donors may remain iron-depleted if minimal IDIs increased to 12 or 16 weeks. Higher Hb cutoffs and longer IDIs are predicted to have a potentially large impact on collections but only a modest impact on donor iron depletion. Efforts to address iron depletion should be targeted to at-risk donors, such as iron supplementation programs for frequent donors, and policy makers should try to avoid broadly restrictive donation requirements that could substantially reduce blood availability. © 2016 AABB.

  3. Kidney transplantation with organs from donors after circulatory death type 3: a prospective multicentric Spanish study (GEODAS 3).

    PubMed

    Portolés Pérez, J; Lafuente, O; Sánchez-Sobrino, B; Pérez Sáez, M J; Fernández García, A; Llamas, F; López-Sánchez, P; Rodriguez-Ferrero, M L; Zarraga, S; Ramos, A; Pascual, J

    2015-01-01

    To increase the number of kidney donors, new strategies are needed such as living donor programs, expanded criteria donors, or donors after circulatory death (DCD) kidney transplantation programs. The GEODAS group has started an observational, prospective, multicenter clinical study, collecting data from all DCD type-3 kidney transplantations performed in seven Spanish hospitals from January 2012 to January 2014. The preliminary results have shown a delayed graft function of 40.4% and graft survival of 93.7% with a nadir creatinine of 1.3 mg/dL. From all 33 potential donors included in the study, 32 were effective and 63 kidney grafts were transplanted with a utilization rate of 98.5%. Creatinine evolution (median [range]) was in the first month: 2.1 [0.6-5.6]; third month: 1.6 [0.8, 4.2]; first year: 1.6 [0.9-2.2]. These results are similar to kidney transplantation from donors after brain death as shown in the literature, especially in the graft and recipient survival rates. In addition, the controlled programs are easier and less expensive than uncontrolled DCD programs with a higher rate of graft use.

  4. Characteristics of primary nocturnal enuresis in adults: an epidemiological study.

    PubMed

    Yeung, C K; Sihoe, J D Y; Sit, F K Y; Bower, W; Sreedhar, B; Lau, J

    2004-02-01

    To evaluate the prevalence and characteristics of primary nocturnal enuresis (PNE) in adults in Hong Kong, as there are currently limited epidemiological data in adults. After a telephone survey, 8534 respondents (3996 males and 4538 females) aged 16-40 years were selected for the study and stratified in age groups. The questionnaire used comprised two parts; the first started with questions mainly about the general demographic background to decrease the sensitivity of the study and to establish rapport. The second part was conducted through an automated telephone interview service, with the questions being asked by recorded messages and the respondents then keying in their responses with no need to converse with an interviewer. This part included questions about enuretic symptoms and a subjective assessment of social and psychological effects of bedwetting, and measurements of the individual's self-esteem (Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale) and depression (The Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale). Of the 8534 subjects interviewed, 196 had PNE, giving an overall prevalence of 2.3% (2.7% males and 2.0% females); of these 196, 36 (18.4%) also had daytime urinary incontinence. Hence, 1.9% of adults (2.2% males and 1.7% females) had monosymptomatic PNE. Of these, 53% wet >3 nights/week and 26% wet every night. Prevalence rates remained relatively stable among different age groups, with no apparent trend of a reduction with age. Compared with nonenuretic normal controls, significantly fewer enuretics reached tertiary education (33.4% vs 17.8%, P < 0.01). Bedwetters had a significantly higher incidence of depression and lower self-esteem, and a higher incidence of sleep disturbances than the control group. Among bedwetters, 32-40% felt that there was some effect on their choice of job, work performance and social activities, whilst 23% felt the condition affected their family life and in making friends of either sex. However, there was no significant difference

  5. Epidemiological Assessments of Skin Outcomes in the Nurses’ Health Studies

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wen-Qing; Cho, Eunyoung; Weinstock, Martin A.; Mashfiq, Hasan

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To review the contribution of the Nurses’ Health Studies (NHSs) to identifying epidemiological factors associated with multiple skin diseases, including skin cancer, psoriasis, and other inflammatory and autoimmune skin diseases. Methods. We carried out a narrative review of NHS articles published between 1976 and 2016. Results. The NHSs have identified environmental and lifestyle factors related to psoriasis, supporting obesity and smoking as psoriasis risk factors; associations between psoriasis and diabetes, myocardial infarction, and Crohn’s disease, supporting psoriasis as a systemic disorder; and associations of pigmentary traits, ultraviolet radiation, and lifestyle factors such as citrus consumption with risk of skin cancer. Genetic studies have identified novel genetic loci for skin pigmentation (e.g., IRF4, SLC24A4, NID1, and EDNRB) and skin cancer (e.g., TET2 and HERC2-OCA2). Work continues on highly prevalent but less studied skin conditions such as rosacea, acne, and atopic dermatitis. The NHS results have influenced public health policies on indoor tanning devices. Conclusions. The NHSs have provided invaluable resources on skin disease population science and contributed to the etiological understanding of multiple skin disorders. PMID:27459457

  6. Epidemiological Assessments of Skin Outcomes in the Nurses' Health Studies.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen-Qing; Cho, Eunyoung; Weinstock, Martin A; Mashfiq, Hasan; Qureshi, Abrar A

    2016-09-01

    To review the contribution of the Nurses' Health Studies (NHSs) to identifying epidemiological factors associated with multiple skin diseases, including skin cancer, psoriasis, and other inflammatory and autoimmune skin diseases. We carried out a narrative review of NHS articles published between 1976 and 2016. The NHSs have identified environmental and lifestyle factors related to psoriasis, supporting obesity and smoking as psoriasis risk factors; associations between psoriasis and diabetes, myocardial infarction, and Crohn's disease, supporting psoriasis as a systemic disorder; and associations of pigmentary traits, ultraviolet radiation, and lifestyle factors such as citrus consumption with risk of skin cancer. Genetic studies have identified novel genetic loci for skin pigmentation (e.g., IRF4, SLC24A4, NID1, and EDNRB) and skin cancer (e.g., TET2 and HERC2-OCA2). Work continues on highly prevalent but less studied skin conditions such as rosacea, acne, and atopic dermatitis. The NHS results have influenced public health policies on indoor tanning devices. The NHSs have provided invaluable resources on skin disease population science and contributed to the etiological understanding of multiple skin disorders.

  7. Epidemiology of melasma in Brazilian patients: a multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Hexsel, Doris; Lacerda, Davi A; Cavalcante, Andrea S; Machado Filho, Carlos A S; Kalil, Célia Luiza P V; Ayres, Eloísa L; Azulay-Abulafia, Luna; Weber, Magda B; Serra, Marcio S; Lopes, Nádya F P; Cestari, Tania F

    2014-04-01

    Melasma is an acquired, irregularly patterned, light to dark-brown hypermelanosis, with symmetric distribution mostly over the face. The aim of this study was to evaluate clinical characteristics and factors related to melasma in Brazilian patients. This was a cross-sectional, multicenter study performed in Brazil. Investigators examined and questioned 953 patients over 18 years of age on clinical characteristics and other factors related to their melasma. Melasma was more prevalent in women (97.5%) and in Fitzpatrick skin phototypes II (12.8%), III (36.3%), and IV (39.7%). Skin phototypes II and III and family history of melasma had early onset of the disorder when compared with skin phototypes IV, V, and VI (P<0.0001). Similar results were also observed when these same groups were compared with the absence of family history (P<0.0001). Extra-facial melasma was more frequent in postmenopausal women compared with those who were not experiencing menopause (14.2% vs. 3.5%, P<0.0001). Data suggested that the age of melasma onset are related to skin phototypes and family history. Additionally, extra-facial melasma was more common in menopausal women. This is the first study on the epidemiology of melasma in Brazil involving a large sample of the population. These data can be a source of new relevant research on the cause and development of melasma. © 2013 The International Society of Dermatology.

  8. An epidemiological study of workers potentially exposed to ethylene oxide.

    PubMed

    Wong, O; Trent, L S

    1993-04-01

    This epidemiological study was of 18,728 employees at 14 United States facilities producing sterilised medical supplies and spices, who were potentially exposed to ethylene oxide (EO) for at least 90 days. The mortality of the cohort was studied to the end of 1988. A total of 1353 deaths was identified. The cohort had a significantly lower mortality than the general population from all causes, all cancers, and non-malignant diseases. In the entire cohort, mortality was not significantly increased from any of the cancer sites examined. In particular, no significant increase in mortality was found in the cancer sites of interest based on previous studies--namely, stomach, leukaemia (including major specific cell types), pancreas, and brain. The lack of an increased mortality for these cancer sites was further strengthened by the lack of a dose-response relation with duration of employment and latency. Among the men, a statistically significant increase in mortality from non-Hodgkin's lymphoma was found. There was no indication for a dose-response relation for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and no specific job categories seemed to be responsible for the increase. Among the women, a deficit of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma was found, which was not consistent with the finding in the men. Therefore, the increase among the men did not seem to be related to exposure to EO.

  9. An epidemiological study of workers potentially exposed to ethylene oxide.

    PubMed Central

    Wong, O; Trent, L S

    1993-01-01

    This epidemiological study was of 18,728 employees at 14 United States facilities producing sterilised medical supplies and spices, who were potentially exposed to ethylene oxide (EO) for at least 90 days. The mortality of the cohort was studied to the end of 1988. A total of 1353 deaths was identified. The cohort had a significantly lower mortality than the general population from all causes, all cancers, and non-malignant diseases. In the entire cohort, mortality was not significantly increased from any of the cancer sites examined. In particular, no significant increase in mortality was found in the cancer sites of interest based on previous studies--namely, stomach, leukaemia (including major specific cell types), pancreas, and brain. The lack of an increased mortality for these cancer sites was further strengthened by the lack of a dose-response relation with duration of employment and latency. Among the men, a statistically significant increase in mortality from non-Hodgkin's lymphoma was found. There was no indication for a dose-response relation for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and no specific job categories seemed to be responsible for the increase. Among the women, a deficit of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma was found, which was not consistent with the finding in the men. Therefore, the increase among the men did not seem to be related to exposure to EO. PMID:8494770

  10. ESTIMATING RESIDENTIAL EXPOSURE TO DRINKING WATER ARSENIC IN INNER MONGOLIA, CHINA FOR EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    ESTIMATING RESIDENTIAL EXPOSURE TO DRINKING WATER ARSENIC IN INNER MONGOLIA, CHINA FOR EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES

    Richard Kwok1, Pauline Mendola1 Zhixiong Ning2, Zhiyi Liu2 and Judy Mumford1

    1) Epidemiology and Biomarkers Branch, Human Studies Division, NHEERL, US EPA, R...

  11. ESTIMATING RESIDENTIAL EXPOSURE TO DRINKING WATER ARSENIC IN INNER MONGOLIA, CHINA FOR EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    ESTIMATING RESIDENTIAL EXPOSURE TO DRINKING WATER ARSENIC IN INNER MONGOLIA, CHINA FOR EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES

    Richard Kwok1, Pauline Mendola1 Zhixiong Ning2, Zhiyi Liu2 and Judy Mumford1

    1) Epidemiology and Biomarkers Branch, Human Studies Division, NHEERL, US EPA, R...

  12. Sequencing Strategies for Population and Cancer Epidemiology Studies (SeqSPACE) Webinar Series

    Cancer.gov

    The Sequencing Strategies for Population and Cancer Epidemiology Studies (SeqSPACE) Webinar Series provides an opportunity for our grantees and other interested individuals to share lessons learned and practical information regarding the application of next generation sequencing to cancer epidemiology studies.

  13. Blood donations from previously transfused or pregnant donors: a multicenter study to determine the frequency of alloexposure.

    PubMed

    Rios, Jorge A; Schlumpf, Karen S; Kakaiya, Ram M; Triulzi, Darrell J; Roback, John D; Kleinman, Steve H; Murphy, Edward L; Gottschall, Jerome L; Carey, Patricia M

    2011-06-01

    Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) mitigation strategies include the deferral of female donors from apheresis platelet (PLT) donations and the distribution of plasma for transfusion from male donors only. We studied the implications of these policies in terms of component loss at six blood centers in the United States. We collected data from allogeneic blood donors making whole blood and blood component donations during calendar years 2006 through 2008. We analyzed the distribution of donations in terms of the sex, transfusion and pregnancy histories, and blood type. A TRALI mitigation policy that would not allow plasma from female whole blood donors to be prepared into transfusable plasma components would result in nearly a 50% reduction in the units of whole blood available for plasma manufacturing and would decrease the number of type AB plasma units that could be made from whole blood donations by the same amount. Deferral of all female apheresis PLT donors, all female apheresis PLT donors with histories of prior pregnancies, or all female apheresis PLT donors with histories of prior pregnancies and positive screening test results for antibodies to human leukocyte antigens (HLAs) will result in a loss of 37.1, 22.5, and 5.4% of all apheresis PLT donations, respectively. A TRALI mitigation policy that only defers female apheresis PLT donors with previous pregnancies and HLAs would result in an approximately 5% decrease in the inventory of apheresis PLTs, but would eliminate a large proportion of components that are associated with TRALI. © 2010 American Association of Blood Banks.

  14. A randomized study of intravenous fluid replacement following living-donor renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Hatch, D A; Barry, J M; Norman, D J

    1985-12-01

    Fourteen adult recipients of living-donor kidneys preserved with ice-cold intracellular electrolyte solution were randomly assigned to receive either high fluid replacement (total volume of urine output + 30 ml/hr) or low fluid replacement (constant 125 ml/hr) during the first 48 hr after grafting. High replacement recipients had significantly higher fluid intake and urine output than did low replacement recipients. However, net fluid balance at the end of the 48-hr study period was positive for both groups and not significantly different. Fractional excretion of sodium was directly related to urine output in all patients. Serum osmolality, serum sodium concentration, and urine sodium concentration were not significantly different in the treatment groups. Urine osmolality was significantly higher in the low-replacement group at 24 and 36 hr after transplantation. The i.v. replacement of total urinary output is unnecessary in adult recipients of living-donor kidneys preserved with ice-cold intracellular electrolyte solution because such grafts can conserve sodium and water immediately after transplantation.

  15. [Hereditary deafness in Kirov oblast: a genetic epidemiological study].

    PubMed

    Zinchenko, R A; Osetrova, A A; Sharonova, E I; El'chinova, G I

    2012-03-01

    The results of a genetic epidemiological study of hereditary deafness (HD) in ten raions (districts) of Kirov oblast (administrative region), Russia, are presented. A total of 122 075 people have been examined. Segregation analysis of all families with diagnosed HD has demonstrated a good fit to either the autosomal dominant (AD) or autosomal recessive (AR) mode of inheritance. The total prevalence rates of AD and AR HDs, as well as the specific prevalence rates of nonsyndromic and syndromic forms of HD, have been calculated for the population often raions. The HD prevalence rate in Kirov oblast has been found to be 1 : 1043 people (1 : 1453 and 1 : 3699 for the nonsyndromic and syndromic forms, respectively). This value has been found to vary in different raions, which is explained by differences in the genetic subdivision levels of the populations studied; the correlation coefficient between the HD load and random inbreeding (F(ST)) in district populations is r = 0.81 +/- 0.22. The diversity of syndromic hearing disorders is described.

  16. An Epidemiological Study of Neuropathic Pain Symptoms in Canadian Adults

    PubMed Central

    VanDenKerkhof, Elizabeth G.; Mann, Elizabeth G.; Torrance, Nicola; Smith, Blair H.; Johnson, Ana; Gilron, Ian

    2016-01-01

    The reported prevalence of neuropathic pain ranges from 6.9% to 10%; however the only Canadian study reported 17.9%. The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiology of neuropathic pain in Canada. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a random sample of Canadian adults. The response rate was 21.1% (1504/7134). Likely or possible neuropathic pain was defined using a neuropathic pain-related diagnosis and a positive outcome on the Self-Report Leeds Assessment of Neuropathic Symptoms and Signs pain scale (S-LANSS) or the Douleur Neuropathique 4 (DN4) Questions. The prevalence of likely neuropathic pain was 1.9% (S-LANSS) and 3.4% (DN4) and that of possible neuropathic pain was 5.8% (S-LANSS) and 8.1% (DN4). Neuropathic pain was highest in economically disadvantaged males. There is a significant burden of neuropathic pain in Canada. The low response rate and a slightly older and less educated sample than the Canadian population may have led to an overestimate of neuropathic pain. Population prevalence varies by screening tool used, indicating more work is needed to develop reliable measures. Population level screening targeted towards high risk groups should improve the sensitivity and specificity of screening, while clinical examination of those with positive screening results will further refine the estimate of prevalence. PMID:27445636

  17. Maximizing DNA Yield for Epidemiologic Studies: No More Buffy Coats?

    PubMed Central

    Gail, Mitchell H.; Sheehy, Tim; Cosentino, Mark; Pee, David; Diaz-Mayoral, Norma A.; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Caporaso, Neil E.; Pitt, Karen; Ziegler, Regina G.

    2013-01-01

    Some molecular analyses require microgram quantities of DNA, yet many epidemiologic studies preserve only the buffy coat. In Frederick, Maryland, in 2010, we estimated DNA yields from 5 mL of whole blood and from equivalent amounts of all-cell-pellet (ACP) fraction, buffy coat, and residual blood cells from fresh blood (n = 10 volunteers) and from both fresh and frozen blood (n = 10). We extracted DNA with the QIAamp DNA Blood Midi Kit (Qiagen Sciences, Germantown, Maryland) for silica spin column capture and measured double-stranded DNA. Yields from frozen blood fractions were not statistically significantly different from those obtained from fresh fractions. ACP fractions yielded 80.6% (95% confidence interval: 66, 97) of the yield of frozen whole blood and 99.3% (95% confidence interval: 86, 100) of the yield of fresh blood. Frozen buffy coat and residual blood cells each yielded only half as much DNA as frozen ACP, and the yields were more variable. Assuming that DNA yield and quality from frozen ACP are stable, we recommend freezing plasma and ACP. Not only does ACP yield twice as much DNA as buffy coat but it is easier to process, and its yield is less variable from person to person. Long-term stability studies are needed. If one wishes to separate buffy coat before freezing, one should also save the residual blood cell fraction, which contains just as much DNA. PMID:23857774

  18. Is standard multivariate analysis sufficient in clinical and epidemiological studies?

    PubMed

    Cova, Tânia F G G; Pereira, Jorge L G F S C; Pais, Alberto A C C

    2013-02-01

    Clinical tests and epidemiological studies often produce large amounts of data, being multivariate in nature. The respective analysis is, in most cases, of importance comparable to the clinical and sampling tasks. Simple, easily interpretable techniques from chemometrics provide most of the ingredients to carry out this analysis. We have selected available data from different sources pertaining to cancer diagnosis and incidence: (1) cytological diagnosis of breast cancer, (2) classification of breast tissues through parameters obtained from impedance spectra and (3) distribution of new cancer cases in the United States. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) is needed especially in cases where there is no a priori identification of classes, suggesting a structure of the data based on clusters. These clusters or the classes, are then further detailed and rationalized by principal component analysis (PCA). Partial least squares (PLS) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) provide further insight into the systems. An additional step for understanding the data set is the removal of less characteristic data (NR) using a density-based approach, so as to make it more clearly defined. Results clearly reveal that breast cytology diagnosis relies on variables conveying mostly the same type of information, being thus interchangeable in nature. In the study on tissue characterization by electrical measurements, the distribution of the different types of tissues can be easily constructed. Finally, the distribution of new cancer cases possesses clear, easily unravelled, geographical patterns. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Problem gambling among ethnic minorities: results from an epidemiological study.

    PubMed

    Caler, Kyle R; Vargas Garcia, Jose Ricardo; Nower, Lia

    2017-01-01

    A few studies have examined gambling behavior and problem gambling among minorities and reported higher rates of both participation and gambling problems among particular minority groups in comparison to Whites who gamble. The present study utilized a representative, epidemiological sample of adults in New Jersey to explore gambling behavior, gambling problem severity, substance use, problem behavior, and mental health issues among minorities. Univariate analyses were conducted, comparing Whites (n = 1341) to respondents who identified as Hispanic (n = 394), Black (n = 261), or Asian/other (n = 177). Overall, the highest proportion of Hispanics were high-risk problem gamblers. Hispanic participants were also significantly more likely than other groups to use and abuse substances and to report mental health problems in the past month, behavioral addictions, and/or suicidal ideation in the past year. Primary predictors of White high risk problem gamblers were being young and male with friends or family who gambled, fair to poor health status, substance use, gambling once a week or more both online and in land-based venues, and engaging in a number of gambling activities. In contrast, gender was not a predictor of minority high risk problem gamblers, who were characterized primarily by having friends or family who gambled, gambling online only, having a behavioral addiction and playing instant scratch-offs and gaming machines. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

  20. Cognition and Vascular Risk Factors: An Epidemiological Study

    PubMed Central

    Vicario, Augusto; Del Sueldo, Mildren; Fernández, Ruth A.; Enders, Julio; Zilberman, Judith; Cerezo, Gustavo H.

    2012-01-01

    We conducted an epidemiological approach to identify the negative impact of the vascular risk factors (such as hypertension, diabetes and hypercholesterolemia) over cognition. The interesting aspect of this study was that the survey was conducted in all age groups through a voluntary call (n = 1365; ≥18 years old, both sexes; age 49 ± 15 y, female 75.7%). Thus, we demonstrated that the use of a Minimum Cognitive Examination (MCE), a brief, simple, and easy managed neuropsychological evaluation, detected a greater number of people with cognitive decline surpassing to the Minimal Mental Statement Examination alone (14.5% of the participants showed MMSE ≤24, 34,6% showed dys-executive function, and 45,8% memory impairment. Out of the 4 studied RF, the only one that was not related to cognitive impairment was dyslipemia. Finally, we noted the importance of cognitive state early detection in all age groups, even in the youngest group. Acting in the middle of the life stages, we can prevent or delay the onset of a disease in adults, nowadays incurable: dementia. PMID:22988488

  1. Lower limb-length discrepancy. An epidemiologic study.

    PubMed

    Guichet, J M; Spivak, J M; Trouilloud, P; Grammont, P M

    1991-11-01

    Two retrospective epidemiologic studies have examined the incidence and prevalence of significant lower limb-length discrepancy and the number of surgical corrections by lengthening in 1987 in France. The incidence of apparatus prescriptions for asymmetry correction filled was 2.16 per 100,000 population. The prevalence of people using a corrective apparatus was one per 1000 population. The male-to-female ratio was 1.95:1. Because of biases in the study population, the actual incidence and prevalence of significant limb-length discrepancies is likely to be considerably higher. A questionnaire administered to surgeons of the French Orthopedic Society revealed that the majority of surgical lengthenings were performed by large orthopedic teams. In the 418 procedures reported, the tibia was lengthened more often than the femur (ratio 1.1:1). Gradual distraction techniques were used in 89.4% of cases, with the Ilizarov apparatus used in 57.4%, the Wagner apparatus in 20.6%, and the Orthofix fixator in 11.2%. Immediate distraction techniques were used in 7.9% of cases, 85% of which were done on the femur. Average total lengthening was 51 mm for tibia and femur. Average lengthening was greater for methods of gradual distraction (53.5 mm) than for immediate distraction (31.4 mm).

  2. A Randomized, Prospective, Parallel Group Study of Laparoscopic vs. Laparoendoscopic Single Site Donor Nephrectomy for Kidney Donation

    PubMed Central

    Aull, Meredith J.; Afaneh, Cheguevara; Charlton, Marian; Serur, David; Douglas, Melissa; Christos, Paul J.; Kapur, Sandip; Del Pizzo, Joseph J.

    2014-01-01

    Few prospective, randomized studies have assessed benefits of laparoendoscopic single site donor nephrectomy (LESS-DN) over laparoscopic donor nephrectomy (LDN). Our center initiated such a trial in January 2011, following subjects randomized to LESS-DN vs. LDN from surgery through 5 years post-donation. Subjects complete recovery/satisfaction questionnaires at 2, 6, and 12 months post-donation; transplant recipient outcomes are also recorded. 100 subjects (49 LESS-DN, 51 LDN) underwent surgery; donor demographics were similar between groups, and included a predominance of female, living unrelated donors, mean age of 47 years who underwent left donor nephrectomy. Operative parameters (overall time, time to extraction, warm ischemia time, blood loss) were similar between groups. Conversion to hand-assist laparoscopy was required in 3 LESS-DN (6.1%) vs. 2 LDN (3.9%; P=0.67). Questionnaires revealed 97.2% of LESS-DN vs. 79.5% of LDN (P=0.03) were 100% recovered by two months after donation. No significant difference was seen in satisfaction scores between the groups. Recipient outcomes were similar between groups. Our randomized trial comparing LESS donor nephrectomy to LDN confirms that LESS-DN offers a safe alternative to conventional LDN in terms of intra- and post-operative complications. LDN and LESS-DN offer similar recovery and satisfaction after donation. PMID:24934732

  3. A randomized, prospective, parallel group study of laparoscopic versus laparoendoscopic single site donor nephrectomy for kidney donation.

    PubMed

    Aull, M J; Afaneh, C; Charlton, M; Serur, D; Douglas, M; Christos, P J; Kapur, S; Del Pizzo, J J

    2014-07-01

    Few prospective, randomized studies have assessed the benefits of laparoendoscopic single site donor nephrectomy (LESS-DN) over laparoscopic donor nephrectomy (LDN). Our center initiated such a trial in January 2011, following subjects randomized to LESS-DN versus LDN from surgery through 5 years postdonation. Subjects complete recovery/satisfaction questionnaires at 2, 6 and 12 months postdonation; transplant recipient outcomes are also recorded. One hundred subjects (49 LESS-DN, 51 LDN) underwent surgery; donor demographics were similar between groups, and included a predominance of female, living-unrelated donors, mean age of 47 years who underwent left donor nephrectomy. Operative parameters (overall time, time to extraction, warm ischemia time, blood loss) were similar between groups. Conversion to hand-assist laparoscopy was required in 3 LESS-DN (6.1%) versus 2 LDN (3.9%; p = 0.67). Questionnaires revealed that 97.2% of LESS-DN versus 79.5% of LDN (p = 0.03) were 100% recovered by 2 months after donation. No significant difference was seen in satisfaction scores between the groups. Recipient outcomes were similar between groups. Our randomized trial comparing LESS donor nephrectomy to LDN confirms that LESS-DN offers a safe alternative to conventional LDN in terms of intra- and post-operative complications. LDN and LESS-DN offer similar recovery and satisfaction after donation. © Copyright 2014 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  4. Epidemiological study of mortality in epilepsy in a Spanish population.

    PubMed

    Chamorro-Muñoz, María Isabel; García-Martín, Guillermina; Pérez-Errazquin, Francisco; Romero-Acebal, Manuel; García-Rodríguez, Antonio; Gutiérrez-Bedmar, Mario

    2017-03-01

    Studies concerning mortality in epilepsy have been performed primarily in Northern-Central Europe and US. The aim of this study was to provide information about mortality in people with epilepsy in Southern European countries. We studied a Spanish prevalence and incidence cohort of 2309 patients aged ≥14 years with epilepsy who were treated in an outpatient epilepsy clinic between 2000 and 2013. The deceased were identified through Civil Registries. Causes of death were determined using death certificates, forensic autopsies, hospital reports, family practitioners, and care-givers' records. Standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated. In a total of 15,865 person-years of follow-up, 152 patients died, resulting in an SMR of 2.11 (95% CI 1.79-2.47), which was higher for those aged 14-24. There was also a high rate of death for symptomatic epilepsies, progressive causes (SMR=6.12, CI 3.50-9.94), and remote causes (SMR=2.62, CI 2.12-3.21). High SMRs were found for all kinds of epilepsy and for respiratory and tumoural causes. Patients who died of epilepsy itself were 12.5%. Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy incidence was 0.44:1000. Death from status epilepticus incidence was 20:100,000. SMRs for external causes were of no statistical significance. This is the first epidemiological study to examine rate of mortality in epilepsy in a Southern European country. The identified mortality pattern is similar to the one provided by researchers from developed countries. The similarities between our results concerning epilepsy-related deaths and those provided by population-based studies are the result of the scarcely selected character of our study cohort. Copyright © 2017 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. [Linburg-Comstock syndrome. Epidemiologic and anatomic study, clinical applications].

    PubMed

    Hamitouche, K; Roux, J L; Baeten, Y; Allieu, Y

    2000-05-01

    The Linburg-Comstock (LC) syndrome is distinguished by the inability to actively flex the interphalangeal (IP) joint of the thumb without simultaneously flexing the distal IP joint of the index finger. Any resistance to this 'parasitic' reaction causes pain on the palmar side of the wrist or in the distal part of the forearm; this is due to an anomalous tendinous connection between the flexor pollicus longus (FPL) and the flexor digitorum profundus (FDP). An epidemiological study was carried out on 264 individuals (a total of 528 hands were examined), and the LC syndrome was found in 98 subjects (37%); women were more frequently affected than men, and bilaterally rather than unilaterally. In addition, we dissected 26 fresh cadaver upper limbs, and in seven cases found an anomalous connection between FPL and FDP. We also examined the case of a young violinist with bilateral LC syndrome, who complained of pain in the distal part of the left forearm after prolonged musical exercises. Surgical investigation determined a complete fusion between FPL and FDP of the index with a common tendon. Treatment consisted of splitting this common tendon to form two separate tendons, thereby permitting a certain degree of independence between the thumb and index finger, and which considerably improved the violinist's musical performance. A review of the literature showed that there was a large quantity of anatomical descriptions available on these types of connection. Certain publications also provide an extremely precise report on the anthropological significance of these anomalies.

  6. Comparison of Mycotic Keratitis with Nonmycotic Keratitis: An Epidemiological Study

    PubMed Central

    Khater, Mohammad M.; Shehab, Nehal S.; El-Badry, Anwar S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. This work aims to study the problems encountered with and the different epidemiological features of patients with fungal keratitis. Patients and Methods. All cases with keratitis attending the Outpatient Clinic of Ophthalmology Department at Tanta University Hospital during three years from the first of January 2011 to the end of December 2013 were selected and carefully examined and cases with mycotic keratitis were further examined and investigated. Results. From 66303 attendants during this period with different complaints, there were 361 cases (0.54%) with mycotic keratitis and 473 cases (0.71%) of nonmycotic origin. Mycotic keratitis is common between 40 and 60 years, more in farmers (64%), families with large number and large crowding index, rural than urban residence, and patients with outdoor water sources and insanitary sewage disposal. Positive fungal cultures were obtained in 84.5% and were negative in 15.5% of cases in spite of their typical clinical findings for diagnosis and their improvement with antifungal therapy. Conclusion. Mycotic keratitis is more frequent in farmers, rural areas, outdoor water supply, insanitary sewage disposal, and patients preceded with organic trauma. Atypical clinical findings were found in some cases and not all cases improved with specific antifungal therapy. PMID:25548657

  7. Histopathologic reproducibility of thyroid disease in an epidemiologic study

    SciTech Connect

    Ron, E.; Griffel, B.; Liban, E.; Modan, B.

    1986-03-01

    An investigation of the long-term effects of childhood scalp irradiation demonstrated a significantly increased risk of thyroid tumors in the irradiated population. Because of the complexity of thyroid cancer diagnosis, a histopathologic slide review of 59 of the 68 patients (irradiated and nonirradiated) with thyroid disease was undertaken. The review revealed 90% agreement (kappa = +0.85, P less than 0.01) between the original and review diagnosis. Four of 27 cases previously diagnosed as malignant were reclassified as benign, yielding a cancer misdiagnosis rate of 14.8%. All four of the misdiagnosed cancers were of follicular or mixed papillary-follicular type. As a result of the histologic review, the ratio of malignant to benign tumors decreased from 2.55 to 1.75. Since disagreement in diagnosis was similar in the irradiated and nonirradiated groups, the relative risk of radiation-associated neoplasms did not change substantially. The histopathologic review shows that although there were some problems in diagnostic reproducibility, they were not statistically significant and did not alter our previous conclusions regarding radiation exposure. However, a 15% reduction in the number of malignancies might affect epidemiologic studies with an external comparison as well as geographic or temporal comparisons.

  8. Assessment of health effects in epidemiologic studies of air pollution.

    PubMed Central

    Samet, J M; Speizer, F E

    1993-01-01

    As we increasingly recognize the complexity of the pollutants in indoor and outdoor microenvironments, a broad array of inhaled mixtures has assumed scientific, public health, and regulatory importance. Few adverse effects of environmental pollutants are specific, that is, uniquely associated with a single agent; the adverse effects that might be considered in an investigation of the consequences of exposure to an inhaled complex mixture are generally nonspecific. In the context of this paper, we will refer to binary mixtures as complex, though we realize that a more precise definition of complexity would restrict the term to mixtures of three or more constituents. Their causes potentially include not only pollutant exposures through the medium of inhaled air but other environmental agents, such as infectious organisms and radiation, and inherent characteristics of the exposed persons, such as atopy. We review the outcome measures that have been used in epidemiologic studies of the health effects of single pollutants and complex mixtures. Some of these outcome measures have been carefully standardized, whereas others need similar standardization and modification to improve sensitivity and specificity for investigating the health effects of air pollution. PMID:8206024

  9. [Acute and overuse injuries in elite paracycling - an epidemiological study].

    PubMed

    Kromer, P; Röcker, K; Sommer, A; Baur, H; Konstantinidis, L; Gollhofer, A; Südkamp, N P; Hirschmüller, A

    2011-09-01

    Although paracycling is a growing discipline in high level competitive sports as well as in posttraumatic rehabilitation, epidemiological data of resulting injuries is still missing. Therefore, 19 athletes of the German national paracycling team were asked about their injuries during the 2008 season using a standardized questionnaire. Overall, 18 (94.7 %) of 19 athletes reported overuse injuries; most commonly localized at the back (83.3 %), neck/shoulder (77.8 %), knee (50 %), groin/buttock (50 %) and hands/wrists (38.9 %). Altogether, 18 accidents were registered, corresponding to an injury rate of 0,95 acute injuries per athlete per year (0,07 / 1000 km). The most common acute injuries were abrasions (69.2 %) and contusions (61.5 %), whereas fractures were stated only twice (11.8 %). The anatomical distribution of overuse injuries in disabled cyclists confirms the results of studies in able-bodied cycling, although the incidences in low-back pain and neck/shoulder pain is clearly higher in disabled cycling, as well as the rate of traumatic injuries.

  10. Donor Telomere Length SAA

    Cancer.gov

    A new NCI study has found that, among patients with severe aplastic anemia who received a hematopoietic cell transplant from an unrelated donor, those whose donor white blood cells had longer telomeres had higher survival rates five-years after transplant

  11. Blood Donor Screening for West NiIe Virus in Oklahoma and Its Contribution to Disease Surveillance, 2003 -2013.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Walter E; Bradley, Kristy; Duncan, Ashten; Smith, James

    2015-08-01

    Upon recognition that West Nile virus (WNV) was transmissible by transfusion, universal testing of blood donors by nucleic acid testing (NAT) was initiated in 2003. A retrospective review of 2003-2013 blood donor records and public health surveillance data in Oklahoma was undertaken to determine the percentage of WNV-positive blood donors who developed clinical symptoms post-donation and to examine the incidence and timing of WNV viremic donors in the context of WNV disease reported statewide. Among all WNV NAT-positive blood donors, 19% had self-described symptoms consistent with WNV disease. A viremic blood donor was the seasonal index case of WNV transmission in Oklahoma during one year [2006] of the study period. Blood donors remain an important surveillance component for epidemiologic monitoring of WNV in Oklahoma.

  12. Analysis of the transcriptome in molecular epidemiology studies

    PubMed Central

    McHale, Cliona M.; Zhang, Luoping; Thomas, Reuben; smith, Martyn T.

    2016-01-01

    The human transcriptome is complex, comprising multiple transcript types, mostly in the form of non-coding RNA (ncRNA). The majority of ncRNA is of the long form (lncRNA, ≥200bp), which plays an important role in gene regulation through multiple mechanisms including epigenetics, chromatin modification, control of transcription factor binding, and regulation of alternative splicing. Both mRNA and ncRNA exhibit additional variability in the form of alternative splicing and RNA editing. All aspects of the human transcriptome can potentially be dysregulated by environmental exposures. Next-generation RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) is the best available methodology to measure this although it has limitations, including experimental bias. The third phase of the MicroArray Quality Control Consortium project (MAQC-III), also called Sequencing Quality Control (SeQC), aims to address these limitations through standardization of experimental and bioinformatic methodologies. A limited number of toxicogenomic studies have been conducted to date using RNA-Seq. This review describes the complexity of the human transcriptome, the application of transcriptomics by RNA-Seq or microarray in molecular epidemiology studies, and limitations of these approaches including the type of cell or tissue analyzed, experimental variation, and confounding. By using good study designs with precise, individual exposure measurements, sufficient power and incorporation of phenotypic anchors, studies in human populations can identify biomarkers of exposure and/or early effect and elucidate mechanisms of action underlying associated diseases, even at low doses. Analysis of datasets at the pathway level can compensate for some of the limitations of RNA-Seq and, as more datasets become available, will increasingly elucidate the exposure-disease continuum. PMID:23907930

  13. Problem gambling and homelessness: results from an epidemiologic study.

    PubMed

    Nower, Lia; Eyrich-Garg, Karin M; Pollio, David E; North, Carol S

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of gambling disorder and comorbid psychiatric disorders in a homeless population and identify features related to potential subtypes. At baseline, participants were administered a structured interview including socio-demographic sections of the National Comorbidity Study (NCS) interview; seven diagnostic sections of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule (DIS); the alcohol and drug abuse sections of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview-Substance Abuse Module (CIDI-SAM); and the Homeless Supplement to the DIS. At nine months post-baseline assessment, participants were administered additional NCS family history questions and the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS). Participants were an epidemiologic sample of 275 predominately African-American homeless individuals, grouped as lifetime non-gamblers (n = 60), recreational gamblers (n = 152), and problem gamblers (n = 63), recruited on the street and through homeless shelters. Results indicate that lifetime rates of sub-clinical problem (46.2%) and disordered (12.0%) gambling were significantly higher than in the general population. Problem gamblers were more likely than non-problem gamblers to meet diagnostic criteria for antisocial personality disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, bipolar disorder, and any psychiatric disorder, and more likely than non-gamblers to use illicit drugs or meet criteria for abuse/dependence for nicotine, alcohol, or any substance. This study provides evidence that problem gambling is a significant public health issue among the African-American homeless population. Homeless services should include assessment for problem gambling along with psychiatric disorders and referrals to resources and treatment programs. Future studies should explore the relationship of the onset and course of problem gambling and other psychiatric disorders with homelessness as well as racial differences in gambling patterns and problem severity

  14. Prevalence of restless legs syndrome and associated factors in an otherwise healthy population: results from the Danish Blood Donor Study.

    PubMed

    Didriksen, Maria; Rigas, Andreas S; Allen, Richard P; Burchell, Brendan J; Di Angelantonio, Emanuele; Nielsen, Maria H; Jennum, Poul; Werge, Thomas; Erikstrup, Christian; Pedersen, Ole B; Bruun, Mie T; Burgdorf, Kristoffer S; Sørensen, Erik; Ullum, Henrik

    2017-08-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a neurological sensorimotor disorder characterized by uncomfortable sensations in the legs. RLS often occurs as a comorbid condition. Besides an increased risk of iron deficiency, blood donors are considered to be generally healthy. Blood donors are therefore an ideal population for studying factors associated with RLS occurrence, herein the role of iron. It is suggested that RLS is linked to sex, age, low socioeconomic status, unhealthy lifestyle, and iron deficiency. The objective of this study is therefore to estimate the RLS prevalence and identify associated biological, sociodemographic, economic, and lifestyle factors in a population of blood donors. A total of 13,448 blood donors enrolled in the Danish Blood Donor Study from May 2015 to May 2016. RLS cases were identified using the validated Cambridge-Hopkins RLS-questionnaire. Logistic regression models were applied to assess the relationship between RLS and data on socially related factors collected using questionnaires and population registers. In this study, 7.2% women and 4.5% men were classified with RLS. RLS was associated with: female sex, high age, smoking, frequent alcohol consumption, and low education. RLS-related symptoms were associated with obesity, parity and donation intensity three years prior to inclusion among women. RLS was not related to: reduced plasma ferritin, employment status, and income. RLS is a frequent disorder in otherwise healthy individuals. The associations discovered in this study can be utilized in preventing or reducing RLS symptoms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Case studies in the use of toxicological measures in epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Sim, Malcolm

    2002-12-27

    One of the major limitations in environmental epidemiological studies investigating associations between chemical exposures and the risk of disease is the use of crude exposure metrics. This increases the risk of exposure misclassification, reducing the chance of finding a real association, where one exists. In environmental epidemiological studies, surrogate exposure measures, such as time living in a contaminated area, do not adequately reflect the true nature and/or degree of real exposure to the chemical substance(s) of interest. Also, as they are not quantitative measures of absorbed dose, the data provided by such measures cannot give numerical measures of a dose response relationship, limiting their use in quantitative risk assessment. In epidemiological studies, biological measures of exposure should be used, if available, as they are close to the target organ dose and provide greater precision in risk estimates and dose response relationships. Examples are the measurement of speciated arsenic in the urine of subjects when investigating health effects from arsenic exposure, and the use of breast milk lipid concentration to measure body burden when conducting epidemiological studies of health effects from persistent lipophilic compounds, such as the endocrine disruptors. This paper discusses the main uses of such exposure measures, using several case studies, their limitations and some challenges in the future for toxicologists to develop more suitable measures for epidemiologists to use in population studies.

  16. Carpal joint injuries in cats - an epidemiological study.

    PubMed

    Nakladal, B; vom Hagen, F; Brunnberg, M; Gross, M; Nietz, H; Brunnberg, L

    2013-01-01

    Injuries of the carpal joint are rare in cats. The most common cause is a fall from a height, known as 'high-rise syndrome'. So far, only limited data about carpal joint injuries (CJI) in cats are available. The aim of this study was to investigate the epidemiology, aetiology, location, and type of CJI in cats. Case records of cats diagnosed with CJI between 1998 and 2010 were retrospectively analysed. Data concerning signalment, history and type of CJI, accompanying systemic injuries and further orthopaedic injuries were collected. During the study period, 73 cats were diagnosed with CJI (87 injured carpal joints) and the prevalence in our hospital population was 0.26% (73 out of  28,482). Cats with CJI were more likely to be presented in the period from April-October (85%, p = 0.003) compared with the rest of the year. Carpal joint injuries were caused by a fall from a height in 72.6% of the cases. Of all carpal joints, the antebrachiocarpal joint was predominantly injured (50.6%, p = 0.001) and this was commonly caused by a fall from the fourth floor or higher (p = 0.002). The carpometacarpal joint was predominantly affected by a fall from heights up to the third floor (p = 0.004). The data of this study confirm previous data with respect to time of occurrence and cause of injury. Of note, the height of the fall appears to influence the location of the injury within the carpus of cats.

  17. Descriptive Epidemiology of Somatising Tendency: Findings from the CUPID Study

    PubMed Central

    Vargas-Prada, Sergio; Coggon, David; Ntani, Georgia; Walker-Bone, Karen; Palmer, Keith T.; Felli, Vanda E.; Harari, Raul; Barrero, Lope H.; Felknor, Sarah A.; Gimeno, David; Cattrell, Anna; Bonzini, Matteo; Solidaki, Eleni; Merisalu, Eda; Habib, Rima R.; Sadeghian, Farideh; Kadir, M. Masood; Warnakulasuriya, Sudath S. P.; Matsudaira, Ko; Nyantumbu, Busisiwe; Sim, Malcolm R.; Harcombe, Helen; Cox, Ken; Sarquis, Leila M. M.; Marziale, Maria H.; Harari, Florencia; Freire, Rocio; Harari, Natalia; Monroy, Magda V.; Quintana, Leonardo A.; Rojas, Marianela; Harris, E. Clare; Serra, Consol; Martinez, J. Miguel; Delclos, George; Benavides, Fernando G.; Carugno, Michele; Ferrario, Marco M.; Pesatori, Angela C.; Chatzi, Leda; Bitsios, Panos; Kogevinas, Manolis; Oha, Kristel; Freimann, Tiina; Sadeghian, Ali; Peiris-John, Roshini J.; Sathiakumar, Nalini; Wickremasinghe, A. Rajitha; Yoshimura, Noriko; Kelsall, Helen L.; Hoe, Victor C. W.; Urquhart, Donna M.; Derrett, Sarah; McBride, David; Herbison, Peter; Gray, Andrew; Vega, Eduardo J. Salazar

    2016-01-01

    Somatising tendency, defined as a predisposition to worry about common somatic symptoms, is importantly associated with various aspects of health and health-related behaviour, including musculoskeletal pain and associated disability. To explore its epidemiological characteristics, and how it can be specified most efficiently, we analysed data from an international longitudinal study. A baseline questionnaire, which included questions from the Brief Symptom Inventory about seven common symptoms, was completed by 12,072 participants aged 20–59 from 46 occupational groups in 18 countries (response rate 70%). The seven symptoms were all mutually associated (odds ratios for pairwise associations 3.4 to 9.3), and each contributed to a measure of somatising tendency that exhibited an exposure-response relationship both with multi-site pain (prevalence rate ratios up to six), and also with sickness absence for non-musculoskeletal reasons. In most participants, the level of somatising tendency was little changed when reassessed after a mean interval of 14 months (75% having a change of 0 or 1 in their symptom count), although the specific symptoms reported at follow-up often differed from those at baseline. Somatising tendency was more common in women than men, especially at older ages, and varied markedly across the 46 occupational groups studied, with higher rates in South and Central America. It was weakly associated with smoking, but not with level of education. Our study supports the use of questions from the Brief Symptom Inventory as a method for measuring somatising tendency, and suggests that in adults of working age, it is a fairly stable trait. PMID:27128094

  18. An epidemiological study of RSV infection in the Gambia.

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Martin W.; Milligan, Paul; Sanneh, Mariama; Awemoyi, Agnes; Dakour, Raduwan; Schneider, Gisela; Palmer, Ayo; Jallow, Mariatou; Oparaogu, Anslem; Whittle, Hilton; Mulholland, E. Kim; Greenwood, Brian M.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the epidemiology of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection in a developing country. METHODS: The work was carried out in three hospitals for primary cases and in the community for secondary cases in the western region of the Gambia, West Africa. RSV infection was diagnosed by immunofluorescence of nasopharyngeal aspirate samples in children younger than two years admitted to hospital with acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI). Routine records of all children with ALRI were analysed, and the incidence rates of ALRI, severe RSV-associated respiratory illness and hypoxaemic RSV infections were compared. A community-based study was undertaken to identify secondary cases and to obtain information about spread of the virus. FINDINGS: 4799 children with ALRI who were younger than two years and lived in the study area were admitted to the study hospitals: 421 had severe RSV-associated respiratory illness; 55 of these were hypoxaemic. Between 1994 and 1996, the observed incidence rate for ALRI in 100 children younger than one year living close to hospital was 9.6 cases per year; for severe RSV-associated respiratory illness 0.83; and for hypoxaemic RSV-associated respiratory illness 0.089. The proportion of all ALRI admissions due to RSV was 19%. Overall, 41% of children younger than five years in compounds in which cases lived and 42% in control compounds had evidence of RSV infection during the surveillance period. CONCLUSION: RSV is an important cause of ALRI leading to hospital admission in the Gambia. Morbidity is considerable and efforts at prevention are worthwhile. PMID:12163920

  19. MELASMA: A CLINICO-EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY OF 312 CASES

    PubMed Central

    Achar, Arun; Rathi, Sanjay K

    2011-01-01

    Background: Melasma is an acquired increased pigmentation of the skin, characterized by gray-brown symmetrical patches, mostly in the sun-exposed areas of the skin. The pathogenesis is unknown, but genetic or hormonal influences with UV radiation are important. Aims: Our present research aims to study the clinico-epidemiological pattern and the precipitating or provocation factors in melasma. Materials and Methods: A total of 312 patients were enrolled for the study over a period of one year. Results: The mean age of patients with melasma was 33.45 years, ranging from 14 to 54 years. There was female preponderance with a female to male ratio of approximately 4 : 1. The mean age of onset was 29.99 years, with the youngest and oldest being 11 and 49 years, respectively. The patients sought medical treatment on an average of 3.59 years after appearance of melasma. About 55.12% of our patients reported that their disease exacerbated during sun exposure. Among 250 female patients, 56 reported pregnancy and 46 reported oral contraceptive as the precipitating factors. Only 34 patients had given history of exacerbation of melasma during pregnancy. A positive family history of melasma was observed in 104 (33.33%) patients. Centrofacial was the most common pattern (55.44%) observed in the present study. Wood light examination showed the dermal type being the most common in 54.48% and epidermal and mixed were seen in 21.47% and 24.03% of the cases, respectively. We tried to find an association with endocrinal diseases and observed that 20 of them had hypothyroidism. Conclusion: The exact cause of melasma is unknown. However, many factors have been implicated in the etiopathogenesis of this disorder. Here we try to identify the causative factors and provocation to develop melasma. PMID:21965843

  20. Descriptive Epidemiology of Somatising Tendency: Findings from the CUPID Study.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Prada, Sergio; Coggon, David; Ntani, Georgia; Walker-Bone, Karen; Palmer, Keith T; Felli, Vanda E; Harari, Raul; Barrero, Lope H; Felknor, Sarah A; Gimeno, David; Cattrell, Anna; Bonzini, Matteo; Solidaki, Eleni; Merisalu, Eda; Habib, Rima R; Sadeghian, Farideh; Kadir, M Masood; Warnakulasuriya, Sudath S P; Matsudaira, Ko; Nyantumbu, Busisiwe; Sim, Malcolm R; Harcombe, Helen; Cox, Ken; Sarquis, Leila M M; Marziale, Maria H; Harari, Florencia; Freire, Rocio; Harari, Natalia; Monroy, Magda V; Quintana, Leonardo A; Rojas, Marianela; Harris, E Clare; Serra, Consol; Martinez, J Miguel; Delclos, George; Benavides, Fernando G; Carugno, Michele; Ferrario, Marco M; Pesatori, Angela C; Chatzi, Leda; Bitsios, Panos; Kogevinas, Manolis; Oha, Kristel; Freimann, Tiina; Sadeghian, Ali; Peiris-John, Roshini J; Sathiakumar, Nalini; Wickremasinghe, A Rajitha; Yoshimura, Noriko; Kelsall, Helen L; Hoe, Victor C W; Urquhart, Donna M; Derrett, Sarah; McBride, David; Herbison, Peter; Gray, Andrew; Vega, Eduardo J Salazar

    2016-01-01

    Somatising tendency, defined as a predisposition to worry about common somatic symptoms, is importantly associated with various aspects of health and health-related behaviour, including musculoskeletal pain and associated disability. To explore its epidemiological characteristics, and how it can be specified most efficiently, we analysed data from an international longitudinal study. A baseline questionnaire, which included questions from the Brief Symptom Inventory about seven common symptoms, was completed by 12,072 participants aged 20-59 from 46 occupational groups in 18 countries (response rate 70%). The seven symptoms were all mutually associated (odds ratios for pairwise associations 3.4 to 9.3), and each contributed to a measure of somatising tendency that exhibited an exposure-response relationship both with multi-site pain (prevalence rate ratios up to six), and also with sickness absence for non-musculoskeletal reasons. In most participants, the level of somatising tendency was little changed when reassessed after a mean interval of 14 months (75% having a change of 0 or 1 in their symptom count), although the specific symptoms reported at follow-up often differed from those at baseline. Somatising tendency was more common in women than men, especially at older ages, and varied markedly across the 46 occupational groups studied, with higher rates in South and Central America. It was weakly associated with smoking, but not with level of education. Our study supports the use of questions from the Brief Symptom Inventory as a method for measuring somatising tendency, and suggests that in adults of working age, it is a fairly stable trait.

  1. [Loxoscelism in Chile. Epidemiologic, clinical and experimental studies].

    PubMed

    Schenone, H; Saavedra, T; Rojas, A; Villarroel, F

    1989-01-01

    A panoramic sight of epidemiological, clinical and experimental studies, referring to Loxosceles laeta and loxoscelism, carried out in 1955-1988, in Santiago, Chile is presented. Two-hundred and sixteen cases of loxoscelism were studied. The most relevant features were: 84.3% corresponded to cutaneous loxoscelism (CL) and 15.7% to viscerocutaneous loxoscelism (VCL); 73.6% occurred in hot season; in 86.6% of cases the accident happened in the house, particularly in bedrooms, while the people were sleeping or dressing. The spider was seen in 60.2% of cases and identified in the laboratory as L. laeta in 10.6% of all cases. The sites more frequently bitten were the limbs with 67.6%; a burning-stinging was the most frequent initial symptom. Pain, edema and livedoid plaque, which developed later into a necrotic eschar, were the predominant local manifestations. In VCL, hematuria and hemoglobinuria were constant, while jaundice, fever and sensorial involvement were present in most of the cases. CL patients were parenterally treated with antihistaminic drugs or corticoids, while VCL ones were treated with corticoids by injection. The condition of patients in the last follow up was: complete cure in 75.5%, cure with a scarfed sequela in 8.3%, death in 3.7% (all VCL) and abandonment in 12.5%. Additionally, a series of experimental studies, both in vivo and in vitro, has been performed in order to clarify basic aspects on L. laeta venom and the treatment of loxoscelism.

  2. Cornea preservation time study: methods and potential impact on the cornea donor pool in the United States.

    PubMed

    Lass, Jonathan H; Szczotka-Flynn, Loretta B; Ayala, Allison R; Benetz, Beth A; Gal, Robin L; Aldave, Anthony J; Corrigan, Michelle M; Dunn, Steven P; McCall, Ty L; Pramanik, Sudeep; Rosenwasser, George O; Ross, Kevin W; Terry, Mark A; Verdier, David D

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the aims, methods, donor and recipient cohort characteristics, and potential impact of the Cornea Preservation Time Study (CPTS). The CPTS is a randomized clinical trial conducted at 40 clinical sites (70 surgeons) designed to assess the effect of donor cornea preservation time (PT) on graft survival 3 years after Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK). Eyes undergoing surgery for Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy or pseudophakic/aphakic corneal edema were randomized to receive donor corneas stored ≤7 days or 8 to 14 days. Donor and patient characteristics, tissue preparation and surgical parameters, recipient and donor corneal stroma clarity, central corneal thickness, intraocular pressure, complications, and a reading center-determined central endothelial cell density were collected. Surveys were conducted to evaluate pre-CPTS PT practices. The 1330 CPTS donors were: 49% >60 years old, 27% diabetic, had a median eye bank-determined screening endothelial cell density of 2688 cells/mm, and 74% eye bank prepared for DSAEK. A total of 1090 recipients (1330 eyes including 240 bilateral cases) had: median age of 70 years, were 60% female, 90% white, 18% diabetic, 52% phakic, and 94% had Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy. Before the CPTS, 19 eye banks provided PT data on 20,852 corneas domestically placed for DSAEK in 2010 to 2011; 96% were preserved ≤7 days. Of 305 American Academy of Ophthalmology members responding to a pre-CPTS survey, 233 (76%) set their maximum PT preference at 8 days or less. The CPTS will increase understanding of factors related to DSAEK success and, if noninferiority of longer PT is shown, will have great potential to extend the available pool of endothelial keratoplasty donors.Clinical Trial Registration-URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01537393.

  3. Economic consequences incurred by living kidney donors: a Canadian multi-center prospective study.

    PubMed

    Klarenbach, S; Gill, J S; Knoll, G; Caulfield, T; Boudville, N; Prasad, G V R; Karpinski, M; Storsley, L; Treleaven, D; Arnold, J; Cuerden, M; Jacobs, P; Garg, A X

    2014-04-01

    Some living kidney donors incur economic consequences as a result of donation; however, these costs are poorly quantified. We developed a framework to comprehensively assess economic consequences from the donor perspective including out-of-pocket cost, lost wages and home productivity loss. We prospectively enrolled 100 living kidney donors from seven Canadian centers between 2004 and 2008 and collected and valued economic consequences ($CAD 2008) at 3 months and 1 year after donation. Almost all (96%) donors experienced economic consequences, with 94% reporting travel costs and 47% reporting lost pay. The average and median costs of lost pay were $2144 (SD 4167) and $0 (25th-75th percentile 0, 2794), respectively. For other expenses (travel, accommodation, medication and medical), mean and median costs were $1780 (SD 2504) and $821 (25th-75th percentile 242, 2271), respectively. From the donor perspective, mean cost was $3268 (SD 4704); one-third of donors incurred cost >$3000, and 15% >$8000. The majority of donors (83%) reported inability to perform usual household activities for an average duration of 33 days; 8% reported out-of-pocket costs for assistance with these activities. The economic impact of living kidney donation for some individuals is large. We advocate for programs to reimburse living donors for their legitimate costs. © 2014 The Authors. American Journal of Transplantation Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  4. [Donor cell leukemia (DCL): A prospective study of its identification and treatment].

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Delgado, Guillermo J; Hernández-Reyes, Jesús; González-Ramírez, Mónica Patricia; Martagón-Herrera, Nora Ángela; Garcés-Eisele, Javier; Ruiz-Argüelles, Alejandro; González-Cortés, Angélica; Ruiz-Argüelles, Guillermo J

    2015-01-01

    Donor-derived malignancies after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and after solid organ transplantation are considered as rare diseases. We have prospectively searched for donor cell leukemia in a 12-year period, in a single institution, in a group of 106 consecutive patients allografted because of leukemia. We have identified seven cases of donor cell leukemia; six were allografted because of relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukemia and one because of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria/aplastic anemia. These figures suggest that the real incidence of donor cell leukemia has been underestimated. The six patients with lymphoblastic donor cell leukemia were treated prospectively with a pediatric-inspired combined chemotherapy schedule designed for de novo acute leukemia. A complete response was obtained in three out of six patients with lymphoblastic donor cell leukemia. It is possible to obtain favorable responses in donor cell leukemia patients employing combined chemotherapy. The long-term donor cell leukemia survivors remain as full chimeras and have not needed a second transplant.

  5. Epidemiological studies on radiation carcinogenesis in human populations following acute exposure: nuclear explosions and medical radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1982-08-01

    The present review provides an understanding of our current knowledge of the carcinogenic effect of low-dose radiation in man, and surveys the epidemiological studies of human populations exposed to nuclear explosions and medical radiation. Discussion centers on the contributions of quantitative epidemiology to present knowledge, the reliability of the dose-incidence data, and those relevant epidemiological studies that provide the most useful information for risk estimation of cancer-induction in man. Reference is made to dose-incidence relationships from laboratory animal experiments where they may obtain for problems and difficulties in extrapolation from data obtained at high doses to low doses, and from animal data to the human situation. The paper describes the methods of application of such epidemiological data for estimation of excess risk of radiation-induced cancer in exposed human populations, and discusses the strengths and limitations of epidemiology in guiding radiation protection philosophy and public health policy.

  6. The expectations and attitudes of patients with chronic kidney disease toward living kidney donor transplantation: a thematic synthesis of qualitative studies.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Camilla S; Chadban, Steve J; Chapman, Jeremy R; Craig, Jonathan C; Wong, Germaine; Ralph, Angelique F; Tong, Allison

    2015-03-01

    Living kidney donation offers superior outcomes over deceased organ donation, but incurs psychosocial and ethical challenges for recipients because of the risks imposed on their donor. We aimed to describe the beliefs, attitudes, and expectations of patients with chronic kidney disease toward receiving a living kidney donor transplant. We conducted a systematic review of qualitative studies of patients' attitudes toward living kidney donation using a comprehensive literature search of electronic databases to February 2013. The findings were analyzed using thematic synthesis. Thirty-nine studies (n ≥ 1791 participants) were included. We identified six themes: prioritizing own health (better graft survival, accepting risk, and desperate aversion to dialysis), guilt and responsibility (jeopardizing donor health, anticipating donor regret, and causing donor inconvenience), ambivalence and uncertainty (doubting transplant urgency, insufficient information, confronted by unfamiliarity, and prognostic uncertainty), seeking decisional validation (a familial obligation, alleviating family burden, reciprocal benefits for donors, respecting donor autonomy, external reassurance, and religious approval), needing social support (avoiding family conflict, unrelenting indebtedness, and emotional isolation), and cautious donor recruitment (self-advocacy, lacking self-confidence, avoiding donor coercion, emotional vulnerability, respecting cultural, and religious taboos). Enhanced education and psychosocial support may help clarify, validate, and address patients' concerns regarding donor outcomes, guilt, relationship tensions, and donor recruitment. This may encourage informed decision-making, increase access to living kidney donation, and improve psychosocial adjustment for transplant recipients.

  7. New insights into handling missing values in environmental epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Roda, Célina; Nicolis, Ioannis; Momas, Isabelle; Guihenneuc, Chantal

    2014-01-01

    Missing data are unavoidable in environmental epidemiologic surveys. The aim of this study was to compare methods for handling large amounts of missing values: omission of missing values, single and multiple imputations (through linear regression or partial least squares regression), and a fully Bayesian approach. These methods were applied to the PARIS birth cohort, where indoor domestic pollutant measurements were performed in a random sample of babies' dwellings. A simulation study was conducted to assess performances of different approaches with a high proportion of missing values (from 50% to 95%). Different simulation scenarios were carried out, controlling the true value of the association (odds ratio of 1.0, 1.2, and 1.4), and varying the health outcome prevalence. When a large amount of data is missing, omitting these missing data reduced statistical power and inflated standard errors, which affected the significance of the association. Single imputation underestimated the variability, and considerably increased risk of type I error. All approaches were conservative, except the Bayesian joint model. In the case of a common health outcome, the fully Bayesian approach is the most efficient approach (low root mean square error, reasonable type I error, and high statistical power). Nevertheless for a less prevalent event, the type I error is increased and the statistical power is reduced. The estimated posterior distribution of the OR is useful to refine the conclusion. Among the methods handling missing values, no approach is absolutely the best but when usual approaches (e.g. single imputation) are not sufficient, joint modelling approach of missing process and health association is more efficient when large amounts of data are missing.

  8. New Insights into Handling Missing Values in Environmental Epidemiological Studies

    PubMed Central

    Roda, Célina; Nicolis, Ioannis; Momas, Isabelle; Guihenneuc, Chantal

    2014-01-01

    Missing data are unavoidable in environmental epidemiologic surveys. The aim of this study was to compare methods for handling large amounts of missing values: omission of missing values, single and multiple imputations (through linear regression or partial least squares regression), and a fully Bayesian approach. These methods were applied to the PARIS birth cohort, where indoor domestic pollutant measurements were performed in a random sample of babies' dwellings. A simulation study was conducted to assess performances of different approaches with a high proportion of missing values (from 50% to 95%). Different simulation scenarios were carried out, controlling the true value of the association (odds ratio of 1.0, 1.2, and 1.4), and varying the health outcome prevalence. When a large amount of data is missing, omitting these missing data reduced statistical power and inflated standard errors, which affected the significance of the association. Single imputation underestimated the variability, and considerably increased risk of type I error. All approaches were conservative, except the Bayesian joint model. In the case of a common health outcome, the fully Bayesian approach is the most efficient approach (low root mean square error, reasonable type I error, and high statistical power). Nevertheless for a less prevalent event, the type I error is increased and the statistical power is reduced. The estimated posterior distribution of the OR is useful to refine the conclusion. Among the methods handling missing values, no approach is absolutely the best but when usual approaches (e.g. single imputation) are not sufficient, joint modelling approach of missing process and health association is more efficient when large amounts of data are missing. PMID:25226278

  9. Poliomyelitis, measles and neonatal tetanus: a hospital based epidemiological study.

    PubMed

    El Shazly, M K; Atta, H Y; Kishk, N A

    1997-01-01

    Vaccine-preventable diseases constitute a major health problem contributing to the morbidity and mortality in many developing countries including Egypt. WHO adopted resolutions to eradicate poliomyelitis by the year 2000, eliminate neonatal tetanus by the year 1995, and reduce measles mortality by 95% and morbidity by 90%, compared to the pre-immunization levels by 1995. Evaluation of preventive programs for these diseases necessitates availability of up to date information on their occurrence. The present study was undertaken to determine the current epidemiological features of poliomyelitis, neonatal tetanus and measles, to identify the trends of these diseases as well as to determine their outcomes and hospital loads. Data about the admitted cases of poliomyelitis, neonatal tetanus and measles were collected from the hospital register of Alexandria fever hospital for five successive years (1992-96). Available information on age, sex, residence, diagnosis, outcome of treatment, dates of admission and discharge were collected. The total number of cases of the three diseases admitted to the hospital during the period 1992-96 were 1406, measles represented 85.4%, neonatal tetanus 13.9% and poliomyelitis 0.7%. The results revealed that in the year 1994 only one case of poliomyelitis was admitted and since then no other cases were reported. The number of measles cases increased gradually in the latter years and about 78% of them were older than five years of age. A significant increase in the age of measles occurrence was observed. A gradual decline in the number of neonatal tetanus cases was observed. These cases were more apt to occur among early neonates but still clustered in certain geographical areas. The results of the study pinpoint the long term impact of the well run program aiming at eradicating poliomyelitis in Alexandria. However, for elimination of neonatal tetanus and controlling measles morbidity, further activities are required including strengthening

  10. Epidemiological study on food intake and Helicobacter pylori infection.

    PubMed

    Toyonaga, A; Okamatsu, H; Sasaki, K; Kimura, H; Saito, T; Shimizu, S; Fukuizumi, K; Tsuruta, O; Tanikawa, K; Sata, M

    2000-01-01

    We conducted an epidemiological study to investigate the relation of food intake to Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection in an area endemic for H. pylori. In this study, 365 subjects, 104 men and 261 women, were randomly selected from 7,389 adult (over age 20) inhabitants of town A, Japan. The prevalence of immunoglobulin G (IgG) class antibody to H. pylori (anti-H. pylori) was 83.7% and the prevalence of anti-H. pylori increased with age significantly (P < 0.05). Subjects with anamnesis of gastritis, gastroduodenal ulcer and gastric cancer tended to have a higher anti-H. pylori positive ratio (93.5%) than those without (81.0%). But there was no relationship between anti-H. pylori prevalence and sex, blood type, smoking or drinking habits. Daily intake of foods by food groups, nutrients and the concentrations of serum ingredients were compared between 37 anti-H. pylori-positive and 40 negative subjects selected from 365 inhabitants by matching up according to sex and age. The daily intake of cereals, potatoes and starches, and milks tended to be higher in positive than negative subjects, while the daily intake of algae and tea appeared to be a little higher in negative than in positive subjects. The daily zinc intake of antibody-positive subjects was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than in antibody negative subjects. On the other hand, the daily iron intake in negative subjects was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than in positive subjects. The serum concentrations of copper, zinc, and vitamin E tended to be higher in positive than negative subjects. But there were no significant differences in serum ingredients concentrations between antibody negative and positive subjects. Our findings suggest that iron and zinc intakes may effect on H. pylori infection.

  11. True Vertigo Patients in Emergency Department; an Epidemiologic Study

    PubMed Central

    Shahrami, Ali; Norouzi, Mehdi; Kariman, Hamid; Hatamabadi, Hamid Reza; Arhami Dolatabadi, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Vertigo prevalence is estimated to be 1.8% among young adults and more than 30% in the elderly. 13-38% of the referrals of patients over 65 years old in America are due to vertigo. Vertigo does not increase the risk of mortality but it can affect the patient’s quality of life. Therefore, this study was designed to evaluate the epidemiologic characteristics of vertigo patients referred to the emergency department (ED). Methods: In this 6-month retrospective cross-sectional study, the profiles of all vertigo patients referred to the ED of Imam Hossein Hospital, Tehran, Iran, from October 2013 to March 2014 were evaluated. Demographic data and baseline characteristics of the patients were recorded and then patients were divided into central and peripheral vertigo. The correlation of history and clinical examination with vertigo type was evaluated and screening performance characteristics of history and clinical examination in differentiating central and peripheral vertigo were determined. Results: 379 patients with the mean age of 50.69 ± 11.94 years (minimum 18 and maximum 86) were enrolled (58.13% female). There was no sex difference in vertigo incidence (p = 0.756). A significant correlation existed between older age and increase in frequency of central cases (p < 0.001). No significant difference was detected between the treatment protocols regarding ED length of stay (p = 0.72). There was a significant overlap between the initial diagnosis and the final decision based on imaging and neurologist’s final opinion (p < 0.001). In the end, 361 (95.3%) patients were discharged from ED, while 18 were disposed to the neurology ward. No case of mortality was reported. Conclusion: Sensitivity and specificity of history and clinical examination in differentiating central and peripheral vertigo were 99 (95% CI: 57-99) and 99 (95% CI: 97-99), respectively PMID:26862546

  12. Responses to donor proliferation in Ghana's health sector: a qualitative case study.

    PubMed

    Pallas, Sarah Wood; Nonvignon, Justice; Aikins, Moses; Ruger, Jennifer Prah

    2015-01-01

    To investigate how donors and government agencies responded to a proliferation of donors providing aid to Ghana's health sector between 1995 and 2012. We interviewed 39 key informants from donor agencies, central government and nongovernmental organizations in Accra. These respondents were purposively selected to provide local and international views from the three types of institutions. Data collected from the respondents were compared with relevant documentary materials - e.g. reports and media articles - collected during interviews and through online research. Ghana's response to donor proliferation included creation of a sector-wide approach, a shift to sector budget support, the institutionalization of a Health Sector Working Group and anticipation of donor withdrawal following the country's change from low-income to lower-middle income status. Key themes included the importance of leadership and political support, the internalization of norms for harmonization, alignment and ownership, tension between the different methods used to improve aid effectiveness, and a shift to a unidirectional accountability paradigm for health-sector performance. In 1995-2012, the country's central government and donors responded to donor proliferation in health-sector aid by promoting harmonization and alignment. This response was motivated by Ghana's need for foreign aid, constraints on the capacity of governmental human resources and inefficiencies created by donor proliferation. Although this decreased the government's transaction costs, it also increased the donors' coordination costs and reduced the government's negotiation options. Harmonization and alignment measures may have prompted donors to return to stand-alone projects to increase accountability and identification with beneficial impacts of projects.

  13. FEASIBILITY OF MATCHING STUDY PARTICIPANT RESIDENCE WITH SPECIFIC WATER UTILITY TRIHALOMETHANE (THM) DATA IN EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many epidemiologic studies concerning by-products of water disinfection use utility monitoring data to estimate exposure. Use of such data requires linkage of residence location to a specific water utility and associated monitoring data during a given exposure period. The inabil...

  14. FEASIBILITY OF MATCHING STUDY PARTICIPANT RESIDENCE WITH SPECIFIC WATER UTILITY TRIHALOMETHANE (THM) DATA IN EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many epidemiologic studies concerning by-products of water disinfection use utility monitoring data to estimate exposure. Use of such data requires linkage of residence location to a specific water utility and associated monitoring data during a given exposure period. The inabil...

  15. China's role as a global health donor in Africa: what can we learn from studying under reported resource flows?

    PubMed

    Grépin, Karen A; Fan, Victoria Y; Shen, Gordon C; Chen, Lucy

    2014-12-30

    There is a growing recognition of China's role as a global health donor, in particular in Africa, but there have been few systematic studies of the level, destination, trends, or composition of these development finance flows or a comparison of China's engagement as a donor with that of more traditional global health donors. Using newly released data from AidData on China's development finance activities in Africa, developed to track under reported resource flows, we identified 255 health, population, water, and sanitation (HPWS) projects from 2000-2012, which we descriptively analyze by activity sector, recipient country, project type, and planned activity. We compare China's activities to projects from traditional donors using data from the OECD's Development Assistance Committee (DAC) Creditor Reporting System. Since 2000, China increased the number of HPWS projects it supported in Africa and health has increased as a development priority for China. China's contributions are large, ranking it among the top 10 bilateral global health donors to Africa. Over 50% of the HPWS projects target infrastructure, 40% target human resource development, and the provision of equipment and drugs is also common. Malaria is an important disease priority but HIV is not. We find little evidence that China targets health aid preferentially to natural resource rich countries. China is an important global health donor to Africa but contrasts with traditional DAC donors through China's focus on health system inputs and on malaria. Although better data are needed, particularly through more transparent aid data reporting across ministries and agencies, China's approach to South-South cooperation represents an important and distinct source of financial assistance for health in Africa.

  16. The Biomonitoring, Environmental Epidemiology, and Short-Lived Chemicals (BEES-C) Instrument for Assessing Study Quality

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental epidemiology studies can be an effective means to assess impacts on human health from exposure to environmental stressors. Exposure scenarios are often extremely complex and proper assessment is critical for interpreting epidemiological study results. Biomarkers are...

  17. The Biomonitoring, Environmental Epidemiology, and Short-Lived Chemicals (BEES-C) Instrument for Assessing Study Quality

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental epidemiology studies can be an effective means to assess impacts on human health from exposure to environmental stressors. Exposure scenarios are often extremely complex and proper assessment is critical for interpreting epidemiological study results. Biomarkers are...

  18. The potential impact of selective donor deferrals based on estimated blood volume on vasovagal reactions and donor deferral rates.

    PubMed

    Rios, Jorge A; Fang, Junyong; Tu, Yongling; Wright, David J; Spencer, Bryan; Hillyer, Christopher D; Hillyer, Krista L; Eder, Anne F; Benjamin, Richard J

    2010-06-01

    Whole blood donation in the United States is restricted in volume to 10.5 mL/kg or less in an effort to prevent hypovolemic reactions, but still may exceed more than 15% of a donor's estimated blood volume (EBV). We analyzed the association of EBV with prefaint and systemic vasovagal reactions (SVRs) among whole blood donors and the potential impact of an EBV-based deferral policy. Independent predictors for prefaint reactions and SVRs were assessed by multivariate logistic regression analysis on 591,177 unique donors participating in the Retrovirus Epidemiology Donor Study-II study. Young age (16 years old odds ratio [OR], 3.70; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.78-4.94), low EBV (<3.5 L OR, 3.30; 95% CI, 2.57-4.23), and first-time donation status (OR, 2.33; 95% CI, 2.03-2.67) were the strongest predictors for SVRs, with similar trends seen for prefaint reactions. Sex, height, race, blood center, and donation site were weakly associated predictors. A total of 5.6% of all donors had an EBV of less than 3.5 L and experienced 12.5% of all prefaint reactions and 14.5% of SVRs. The highest reaction rates were seen in donors less than 23 years old with an EBV of less than 3.5 L who comprised 2.7% of all donors, who were mostly female (99.9%), and who experienced 8.8% of prefaint reactions and 11.0% of SVRs. Young age, low EBV, and first-time donation status are the major correlates of prefaint reactions and SVRs, suggesting that high school and college donors are at particular risk. Deferral of donors with low EBV who are less than 23 years old may offer a rational approach to protecting donors at greater risk of reactions without jeopardizing the adequacy of the blood supply.

  19. Effect of donor smoking on survival after lung transplantation: a cohort study of a prospective registry.

    PubMed

    Bonser, Robert S; Taylor, Rhiannon; Collett, David; Thomas, Helen L; Dark, John H; Neuberger, James

    2012-08-25

    The risk that a positive smoking history in lung donors could adversely affect survival of transplant recipients causes concern. Conversely, reduction of the donor pool by exclusion of donors with positive smoking histories could compromise survival of patients waiting to receive a transplant. We examined the consequences of donor smoking on post-transplantation survival, and the potential effect of not transplanting lungs from such donors. We analysed the effect of donor smoking on 3 year survival after first adult lung transplantation from brain-dead donors done between July 1, 1999, and Dec 31, 2010, by Cox regression modelling of data from the UK Transplant Registry. We estimated the effect of acceptance of lungs from donors with positive smoking histories on survival and compared it with the effect of remaining on the waiting list for a potential transplant from a donor with a negative smoking history donor, by analysing all waiting-list registrations during the same period with a risk-adjusted sequentially stratified Cox regression model. Of 1295 lung transplantations, 510 (39%) used lungs from donors with positive smoking histories. Recipients of such lungs had worse 3 year survival after transplantation than did those who received lungs from donors with negative smoking histories (unadjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1·46, 95% CI 1·20-1·78; adjusted HR 1·36, 1·11-1·67). Independent factors affecting survival were recipient's age, donor-recipient cytomegalovirus matching, donor-recipient height difference, donor's sex, and total ischaemic time. Of 2181 patients registered on the waiting list, 802 (37%) died or were removed from the list without receiving a transplant. Patients receiving lungs from donors with positive smoking histories had a lower unadjusted hazard of death after registration than did those who remained on the waiting list (0·79, 95% CI 0·70-0·91). Patients with septic or fibrotic lung disease registered in 1999-2003 had risk

  20. Evaluation of cardiovascular risk in blood donors: results of the CARDIORISK study in the Parma Transfusion Service.

    PubMed

    Dell'anna, Paolo; Adorni, Daniela; Bernuzzi, Gino; Cantarelli, Stefano; Cepparulo, Alberto; Cocchi, Tiziano; Dell'anna, Loretana; Formentini, Alessandro; Sassi, Maria; Scognamiglio, Fiorella; Vescovi, Maurizio; Franchini, Massimo

    2010-07-01

    Cardiovascular disease, which is one of the main causes of mortality in industrialised countries, is ever increasingly the focus of prevention. In this study, called "Cardiorisk", we evaluated cardiovascular risk in the population of blood donors at the Service of Immunohaematology and Transfusion Medicine in Parma. Between January 2007 and December 2008, 6,172 consecutive blood donors (aged 35-65 years) were enrolled in this project which entailed calculating each subject's cardiovascular risk score, based on an evaluation of both unalterable risk factors (age and gender) and modifiable risk factors (total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, triglycerides, glycaemia, smoking, hypertension) as well as anti-hypertensive and/or cholesterol-lowering therapy. Of the 6,172 donors enrolled in the study, 5,039 (81.7%) had a low cardiovascular risk (score from 0-10), 774 (12.5%) had a moderate cardiovascular risk (score from 11-19) and 359 (5.8%) donors had a high cardiovascular risk (score from 20-28). In our opinion, the calculation of cardiovascular risk is an important instrument for preventive medicine in blood donors.

  1. Idiopathic chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy: an epidemiological study in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Chiò, A; Cocito, D; Bottacchi, E; Buffa, C; Leone, M; Plano, F; Mutani, R; Calvo, A

    2007-01-01

    Aim The clinical and epidemiological characteristics of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) in an Italian population were assessed. Subjects and methods All subjects with a diagnosis of demyelinating neuropathy after 1990 in Piemonte and Valle d'Aosta (4 334 225 inhabitants) were considered. The diagnosis of CIDP was based on the research criteria of the American Academy of Neurology. 165 of 294 patients met the diagnostic criteria. Results The crude prevalence rate was 3.58/100 000 population (95% CI 3.02 to 4.20). At the prevalence day, 76 (49.0%) cases had definite, 67 (43.2%) probable and 12 (7.7%) possible CIDP; disability was mild in 105 (67.7%) cases, moderate in 32 (20.6%) and severe in 18 (11.6%). The course was remitting–relapsing in 40 cases (25.8%), chronic progressive in 96 (61.9%) and monophasic in 19 (12.3%). Considering the 95 patients whose disorder presented in the period 1995–2001, the mean annual crude incidence rate was 0.36/100 000 population (95% CI 0.29 to 0.44), with a male to female ratio of 2.3:1. 14 cases were affected by diabetes mellitus. In multivariate analysis, factors related to severe disability at the prevalence day were: age>60 years; failure of immunomodulating therapies at the time of diagnosis; worse disability at nadir; and chronic course. Conclusion Incidence and prevalence rates of CIDP in Italy were higher than those observed in most previous studies. At the prevalence day, more than 80% of cases had a mild or moderate disability, indicating either a good response to immunomodulating therapy or a tendency of CIDP to have a mild course in most cases. PMID:17494979

  2. Epidemiology of aplastic anemia: a prospective multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Montané, Eva; Ibáñez, Luisa; Vidal, Xavier; Ballarín, Elena; Puig, Ramon; García, Nuria; Laporte, Joan-Ramon

    2008-04-01

    Aplastic anemia is a rare and severe disease. Its incidence varies considerably worldwide. We aimed at describing the epidemiology of this disease, including the incidence, mortality and survival trends, in a well-defined population. Since 1980, a case-control surveillance study of aplastic anemia has been carried out by a cooperative group, in the metropolitan area of Barcelona. Inclusion is dependent on the patient having at least two of the following features: white blood cell count < or = 3.5 x 10(9)/L, platelet count < or = 50 x 10(9)/L, hemoglobin <10 g/L or hematocrit of <30%; when only one of these last two criteria is fulfilled, a reticulocyte count of < or = 30 x 10(9)/L is also required. The bone marrow biopsy has to be compatible with the diagnosis of aplastic anemia. Between 1980 and 2003, a total of 235 cases of aplastic anemia were identified. The overall incidence was 2.34 per million inhabitants per year and the incidence increased with age. Most of the cases were classified as severe or very severe aplastic anemia. Survival rates at 3 months, and at 2 and 15 years after the diagnosis were 73%, 57%, and 51%, respectively. Advanced age and more severe disease at the time of diagnosis were associated with a lower survival rate. There was a trend to a better 2-year survival rate among patients treated with bone marrow transplantation. Forty-nine cases (20.8%) were exposed to drugs reported to be associated with aplastic anemia, and 21 (8.9%) to toxic agents. The incidence of aplastic anemia in Barcelona is low but the case fatality rate is high. Advanced age and severe disease at the time of diagnosis were associated with decreased survival.

  3. International Biological Engagement Programs Facilitate Newcastle Disease Epidemiological Studies

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Patti J.; Dimitrov, Kiril M.; Williams-Coplin, Dawn; Peterson, Melanie P.; Pantin-Jackwood, Mary J.; Swayne, David E.; Suarez, David L.; Afonso, Claudio L.

    2015-01-01

    Infections of poultry species with virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) cause Newcastle disease (ND), one of the most economically significant and devastating diseases for poultry producers worldwide. Biological engagement programs between the Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory (SEPRL) of the United States Department of Agriculture and laboratories from Russia, Pakistan, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, and Indonesia collectively have produced a better understanding of the genetic diversity and evolution of the viruses responsible for ND, which is crucial for the control of the disease. The data from Kazakhstan, Russia, and Ukraine identified possible migratory routes for birds that may carry both virulent NDV (vNDV) and NDV of low virulence into Europe. In addition, related NDV strains were isolated from wild birds in Ukraine and Nigeria, and from birds in continental USA, Alaska, Russia, and Japan, identifying wild birds as a possible mechanism of intercontinental spread of NDV of low virulence. More recently, the detection of new sub-genotypes of vNDV suggests that a new, fifth, panzootic of ND has already originated in Southeast Asia, extended to the Middle East, and is now entering into Eastern Europe. Despite expected challenges when multiple independent laboratories interact, many scientists from the collaborating countries have successfully been trained by SEPRL on molecular diagnostics, best laboratory practices, and critical biosecurity protocols, providing our partners the capacity to further train other employes and to identify locally the viruses that cause this OIE listed disease. These and other collaborations with partners in Mexico, Bulgaria, Israel, and Tanzania have allowed SEPRL scientists to engage in field studies, to elucidate more aspects of ND epidemiology in endemic countries, and to understand the challenges that the scientists and field veterinarians in these countries face on a daily basis. Finally, new viral characterization tools

  4. Epidemiological study of the cystic echinococcosis in Morocco.

    PubMed

    Azlaf, Rkia; Dakkak, Allal

    2006-04-15

    The objectives of this epidemiological study on cystic echinococcosis (CE) in Morocco (2001-2004) were to update the prevalence of CE in different animal species living in the most important areas of the country and to collect protoscoleces and germinal layers for genetic research purposes. The post mortem inspection concerned 2948 sheep, 2337 goats, 618 cattle, 482 camels and 455 equines (325 horses, 60 mules and 70 donkeys) in five different regions: the Rif (Mediterranean coast and high mountains of the Rif), the Loukkos (Atlantic northwest plain), the center (Rabat and Casablanca regions), the Middle Atlas mountains and the south (arid and semi desert areas). The global CE infection prevalence rates obtained were 22.98% in cattle, 10.58% in sheep, 12.03% in camels, 17.80% in equines and 1.88% in goats. The infection rates were especially high in the Middle Atlas in cattle (48.72%) and in the Loukkos in cattle and sheep (37.61 and 31.65%, respectively). The majority of infected cattle (49.6%) and sheep (52.1%) had hydatid cysts in both liver and lungs. Except for cattle, the liver was more infected than lungs in all the other animal species. Animals more than 5 years old were the most infected in all species. The mean CE infection rates of these animals were about 56% in cattle, 40% in sheep, 20% in camels, 17.80% in equines and 7% in goats. These rates were much higher in the Loukkos (85% of cattle and 59% of sheep) and in the Middle Atlas (68% of cattle and 45% of sheep) than in the other regions. Results showed that Echinococcus granulosus is in an endemic steady state with no evidence of protective immunity in the intermediate hosts. The mean numbers of infections per year are 0.099 for cattle, 0.063 for sheep, 0.03 for camels and 0.010 for goats.

  5. [Systemic lupus erythematosus in Martinique: an epidemiologic study].

    PubMed

    Deligny, C; Thomas, L; Dubreuil, F; Théodose, C; Garsaud, A M; Numéric, P; Ranlin, A; Jean-Baptiste, G; Arfi, S

    2002-01-01

    To review epidemiological and clinical aspects of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in Martinique, French West Indies. Cases of SLE were identified by attending physicians. Patients who presented with at least four of the criteria defined by the American College of Rheumatology were included. Determination of incidence and prevalence included the new cases arising during the 1990-1999 period and 1999 population census results. Probability of survival was based on the use of the Kaplan-Meier estimator. Two hundred and eighty-six patients were studied, including 265 females (92.7%). The average annual incidence was 4.7 cases per 100,000 inhabitants (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.5-6.9). The prevalence for 1999 was 64.2 cases per 100,000 inhabitants (CI: 56.2-72.2). The mean age at onset was 30 years. Eleven percent of all patients had at least one parent with SLE. Renal disease was present in 139 patients (48.6%), and neurological disorders were diagnosed in 70 patients (24.5%). Patients tested positive for the following antibodies: anti-Sm (37.1%), anti-RNP (58.7%), anti-SSA (47.2%). Mean survival time was: 96.4% (CI: 94.1-98.7) at 5 years, 91.8% (CI: 87.9-95.7) at 10 years. Survival was significantly reduced in patients with end-stage renal disease (n = 40, chi 2 = 6.96, P < 0.01). The high incidence of SLE in Martinique and the immunological characteristics of patients were found to be similar to those described in other populations of African descent. The frequency of renal disease and survival rates were identical to those reported in Caucasians.

  6. Adiposity and hand osteoarthritis: the Netherlands Epidemiology of Obesity study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Obesity, usually characterized by the body mass index (BMI), is a risk factor for hand osteoarthritis (OA). We investigated whether adipose tissue and abdominal fat distribution are associated with hand OA. Methods The Netherlands Epidemiology of Obesity (NEO) study is a population-based cohort aged 45 to 65 years, including 5315 participants (53% women, median BMI 29.9 kg/m2). Fat percentage and fat mass (FM) (kg) were estimated using bioelectrical impedance analysis. The waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) was calculated. In 1721 participants, visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) (cm2) were assessed using abdominal MR imaging. Hand OA was defined according to the ACR criteria. Odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for the association of fat percentage, FM, WHR, VAT and SAT with hand OA using logistic regression analyses per standard deviation, stratified by sex and adjusted for age. Results Hand OA was present in 8% of men and 20% of women. Fat percentage was associated with hand OA in men (OR 1.34 (95% CI 1.11 to 1.61)) and women (OR 1.26 (1.05 to 1.51)), as was FM. WHR was associated with hand OA in men (OR 1.45 (1.13 to 1.85)), and to a lesser extent in women (OR 1.17 (1.00 to 1.36)). Subgroup analysis revealed that VAT was associated with hand OA in men (OR1.33 (1.01 to 1.75)). This association increased after additional adjustment for FM (OR 1.51 (1.13 to 2.03)). Conclusions Fat percentage, FM and WHR were associated with hand OA. VAT was associated with hand OA in men, suggesting involvement of visceral fat in hand OA. PMID:24447395

  7. Leprosy in Kuwait: an epidemiological study of new cases.

    PubMed

    al-Kandari, S; al-Anezi, A; Pugh, R N; al-Qasaf, F; al-Abyad, S

    1990-10-01

    The latency of infection in leprosy is long so that new cases may present several years after emigration from endemic areas. This is of concern to the health authorities in Kuwait, since there is a sizeable immigrant population. An epidemiological study of new cases was, therefore, conducted to assess the extent of the leprosy problem. A total of 121 (99 male, 22 female) consecutive new leprosy patients were diagnosed nationwide over a six-year period (1983-1988). Over 95% of the patients were foreign born, emphasizing that the problem in Kuwait is mainly a reflection of immigration patterns. There were 74 cases of Asio-Indian origin, 13 Oriental and 34 Arab (including two Kuwaiti). This represents a respective mean incidence of the disease in Kuwaitis and other nationalities of 0.49 and 18.92 per 100,000 per year. Polar lepromatous (LL) leprosy was the most frequent type in the Arab group (44.1%) and polar tuberculoid (TT) the most frequent in the Asio-Indian group (37.8%). LL and borderline lepromatous (BL) types of leprosy were significantly more frequent in patients over 45-years-old and in females (P less than 0.05), contributing to the higher rate of LL in the Arab cases. The mean lag time from symptoms onset to presentation to doctor was 9.4 (range 0-192) months, with lepromatous cases tending to present later than other types. The longest lag times occurred in Arab women with LL, suggesting that cultural influences may delay presentation of leprosy. The mean interval from presentation to diagnosis was 4.1 weeks. The mean latency from entry into Kuwait to diagnosis was 44.7 (range 0-180) months; which stresses the need for physicians to remain vigilant in considering leprosy, especially in any patient with dermatological, neurological or ophthalmic manifestations of disease.

  8. Fraser syndrome: epidemiological study in a European population.

    PubMed

    Barisic, Ingeborg; Odak, Ljubica; Loane, Maria; Garne, Ester; Wellesley, Diana; Calzolari, Elisa; Dolk, Helen; Addor, Marie-Claude; Arriola, Larraitz; Bergman, Jorieke; Bianca, Sebastiano; Boyd, Patricia A; Draper, Elizabeth S; Gatt, Miriam; Haeusler, Martin; Khoshnood, Babak; Latos-Bielenska, Anna; McDonnell, Bob; Pierini, Anna; Rankin, Judith; Rissmann, Anke; Queisser-Luft, Annette; Verellen-Dumoulin, Christine; Stone, David; Tenconi, Romano

    2013-05-01

    Fraser syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by cryptophthalmos, cutaneous syndactyly, laryngeal, and urogenital malformations. We present a population-based epidemiological study using data provided by the European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies (EUROCAT) network of birth defect registries. Between January 1990 and December 2008, we identified 26 cases of Fraser syndrome in the monitored population of 12,886,464 births (minimal estimated prevalence of 0.20 per 100,000 or 1:495,633 births). Most cases (18/26; 69%) were registered in the western part of Europe, where the mean prevalence is 1 in 230,695 births, compared to the prevalence 1 in 1,091,175 for the rest of Europe (P = 0.0003). Consanguinity was present in 7/26 (27%) families. Ten (38%) cases were liveborn, 14 (54%) pregnancies were terminated following prenatal detection of a serious anomaly, and 2 (8%) were stillborn. Eye anomalies were found in 20/24 (83%), syndactyly in 14/24 (58%), and laryngeal anomalies in 5/24 (21%) patients. Ambiguous genitalia were observed in 3/24 (13%) cases. Bilateral renal agenesis was present in 12/24 (50%) and unilateral in 4/24 (17%) cases. The frequency of anorectal anomalies was particularly high (42%). Most cases of Fraser syndrome (85%) are suspected prenatally, often due to the presence of the association of renal agenesis and cryptophthalmos. In the European population, a high proportion (82%) of pregnancies is terminated, thus reducing the live birth prevalence to a third of the total prevalence rate.

  9. International Biological Engagement Programs Facilitate Newcastle Disease Epidemiological Studies.

    PubMed

    Miller, Patti J; Dimitrov, Kiril M; Williams-Coplin, Dawn; Peterson, Melanie P; Pantin-Jackwood, Mary J; Swayne, David E; Suarez, David L; Afonso, Claudio L

    2015-01-01

    Infections of poultry species with virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) cause Newcastle disease (ND), one of the most economically significant and devastating diseases for poultry producers worldwide. Biological engagement programs between the Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory (SEPRL) of the United States Department of Agriculture and laboratories from Russia, Pakistan, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, and Indonesia collectively have produced a better understanding of the genetic diversity and evolution of the viruses responsible for ND, which is crucial for the control of the disease. The data from Kazakhstan, Russia, and Ukraine identified possible migratory routes for birds that may carry both virulent NDV (vNDV) and NDV of low virulence into Europe. In addition, related NDV strains were isolated from wild birds in Ukraine and Nigeria, and from birds in continental USA, Alaska, Russia, and Japan, identifying wild birds as a possible mechanism of intercontinental spread of NDV of low virulence. More recently, the detection of new sub-genotypes of vNDV suggests that a new, fifth, panzootic of ND has already originated in Southeast Asia, extended to the Middle East, and is now entering into Eastern Europe. Despite expected challenges when multiple independent laboratories interact, many scientists from the collaborating countries have successfully been trained by SEPRL on molecular diagnostics, best laboratory practices, and critical biosecurity protocols, providing our partners the capacity to further train other employes and to identify locally the viruses that cause this OIE listed disease. These and other collaborations with partners in Mexico, Bulgaria, Israel, and Tanzania have allowed SEPRL scientists to engage in field studies, to elucidate more aspects of ND epidemiology in endemic countries, and to understand the challenges that the scientists and field veterinarians in these countries face on a daily basis. Finally, new viral characterization tools

  10. [Traumatic dental injuries in Serbian children--epidemiological study].

    PubMed

    Vuković, Ana; Marković, Dejan; Petrović, Bojan; Apostolović, Mirjana; Golijanin, Ranko; Kanjevac, Tatjana; Stojković, Branislava; Perić, Tamara; Blagojević, Duska

    2013-01-01

    Comprehensive epidemiological data regarding factors associated with traumatic dental injuries are scarce. The aim of the present study was to assess the frequency and analyze the factors associated with traumatic dental injuries in Serbian children. Research included children and adolescents with traumatic dental injury aged 0-19 year during the period from 2003 to 2010, in four University Dental Centres in Serbia: Belgrade, Nis, Novi Sad and Kragujevac. Patient history, demographic, clinical and radiographic data were obtained from dental trauma forms. Total of 2,194 patients (748 girls, 1,446 boys) (chi2 = 222.1; p < 0.01) with 3,077 injured teeth in permanent and 953 in primary dentition were observed. Most of patients were aged 7 to 12 years (n = 1,191). The most frequent injuries in primary and permanent dentition were dislocations (87.4%) and teeth fractures (50.8%), respectively (chi2 = 706.1; p < 0.01). The most frequent mechanism of injury was fall in children aged 0 to 12 years, while the collisions were most frequent in adolescents (53.9%). The most frequent injuries in adolescents were inflicted outdoor (66.8%), while the injuries in children aged 0 to 3 years occurred at home (68.2%), (chi2 = 360.8; p < 0.01). The most frequent injuries in girls were accidental (48.3%), and in boys these were sport injuries (20.4%) and violence (10.4%) (chi2 = 79.9; p < 0.01). The most frequent cause of injury in children aged 0 to 3 years was accidental (75.6%), while in adolescents it was sport (34.1%) (chi2 = 1102.7; p < 0.01). Dental injuries in preschool children most frequently resulted from fall at home. Schoolchildren most frequently injured teeth outdoor during play. Violence and sport injuries were most frequent cause of injury in adolescents.

  11. Epidemiological study of Toxoplasma gondii infection in ovine breeding.

    PubMed

    Zedda, M T; Rolesu, S; Pau, S; Rosati, I; Ledda, S; Satta, G; Patta, C; Masala, G

    2010-12-01

    An outbreak of toxoplasmosis occurring in a typical farm of 524 ovines was monitored for 1 year after the occurrence of 31 abortions. Abortion events involved 7.2% of 430 pregnant sheep. Presence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in sheep sera was investigated by the indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT). A total of 422 ewes were bled four times during the year, and an epidemiological analysis was performed on all serology data collected in this subgroup. The prevalence of IgG positives ranged from 31.52% (133/422) at the first sampling to 62.56% (264/422) at the fourth sampling. Incidence of IgG antibodies was 38.75% at the second sampling, 14.92% at the third and 29.28% at the fourth sampling. At the beginning of the study, prevalence was 70.7% in primiparous sheep and 20.9% in sheep older than 5 years; at the third sampling, prevalence was stable at 70% in pluriparous sheep. The mean prevalence of IgM antibodies was 14.87%. A total of 147 out of all 524 ovines of the flock tested positive for IgM in more than one sampling. After an initial positivity, 60 sheep tested negative for IgG at the following serological controls (4 between the first and the second sampling, 30 between the second and the third and 28 between the third and the fourth sampling). One stray cat was positive for IgG, with a titre of 1 : 320. Moreover, one of the farmers was also positive, with a titre of 1 : 160 for IgG. A positive PCR result for T. gondii DNA was also observed in aliquots of grain and pellets taken from feed stocks amassed inside the sheds without protection, suggesting that an adequate management of the farm might be useful, if not essential, for controlling T. gondii outbreaks in ovine flocks.

  12. A linked donor-recipient study to evaluate parvovirus B19 transmission by blood component transfusion.

    PubMed

    Kleinman, Steven H; Glynn, Simone A; Lee, Tzong-Hae; Tobler, Leslie H; Schlumpf, Karen S; Todd, Deborah S; Qiao, Hannah; Yu, Mei-Ying W; Busch, Michael P

    2009-10-22

    Parvovirus B19V infection can be a serious infection for hematology patients with underlying hemolysis or compromised erythropoiesis syndromes. Although case reports of B19V transmission by blood component transfusion (as contrasted to manufactured plasma derivatives) are rare, no studies have systematically determined a rate of transmission to recipients transfused with B19V DNA-positive components. We used a linked donor and recipient repository and a sensitive, quantitative B19V DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay to assess such transmission in B19V-susceptible (ie, anti-B19V immunoglobulin G [IgG] negative) recipients. We assessed 112 B19V DNA-positive components from 105 donors (of 12 529 tested donations) transfused into a population of surgical patients with a pretransfusion B19V IgG seroprevalence of 78%. We found no transmission to 24 susceptible recipients from transfusion of components with B19V DNA at concentrations less than 10(6) IU/mL (upper 95% confidence interval, 11.7%). We found an anamnestic IgG response in one pretransfusion seropositive recipient transfused with a component containing greater than 10(10) IU/mL B19V DNA. These findings show either that transmission from components with less than 10(6) IU/mL does not occur, or, if it does, it is an uncommon event. These data do not support the need to routinely screen blood donations with a sensitive B19V DNA nucleic acid assay.

  13. Chemostat Studies of TCE-Dehalogenating Anaerobic Consortia under Excess and Limited Electron Donor Addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semprini, L.; Azizian, M.; Green, J.; Mayer-Blackwell, K.; Spormann, A. M.

    2015-12-01

    Two cultures - the Victoria Strain (VS) and the Evanite Strain (EV), enriched with the organohalide respiring bacteria Dehalococcoides mccartyi - were grown in chemostats for more than 4 years at a mean cell residence time of 50 days. The slow doubling rate represents growth likely experienced in the subsurface. The chemostats were fed formate as an electron donor and trichloroethene (TCE) as the terminal electron acceptor. Under excess formate conditions, stable operation was observed with respect to TCE transformation, steady-state hydrogen (H2) concentrations (40 nM), and the structure of the dehalogenating community. Both cultures completely transformed TCE to ethene, with minor amounts of vinyl chloride (VC) observed, along with acetate formation. When formate was limited, TCE was transformed incompletely to ethene (40-60%) and VC (60- 40%), and H2 concentrations ranged from 1 to 3 nM. The acetate concentration dropped below detection. Batch kinetic studies of TCE transformation with chemostat harvested cells found transformation rates of c-DCE and VC were greatly reduced when the cells were grown with limited formate. Upon increasing formate addition to the chemostats, from limited to excess, essentially complete transformation of TCE to ethene was achieved. The increase in formate was associated with an increase in H2 concentration and the production of acetate. Results of batch kinetic tests showed increases in transformation rates for TCE and c-DCE by factors of 3.5 and 2.5, respectively, while VC rates increased by factors of 33 to 500, over a six month period. Molecular analysis of chemostat samples is being performed to quantify the changes in copy numbers of reductase genes and to determine whether shifts in the strains of Dehalococcoides mccartyi where responsible for the observed rate increases. The results demonstrate the importance of electron donor supply for successful in-situ remediation.

  14. Corneal graft rejection 10 years after penetrating keratoplasty in the cornea donor study.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Steven P; Gal, Robin L; Kollman, Craig; Raghinaru, Dan; Dontchev, Mariya; Blanton, Christopher L; Holland, Edward J; Lass, Jonathan H; Kenyon, Kenneth R; Mannis, Mark J; Mian, Shahzad I; Rapuano, Christopher J; Stark, Walter J; Beck, Roy W

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of donor and recipient factors on corneal allograft rejection and evaluate whether a rejection event was associated with graft failure. One thousand ninety subjects undergoing penetrating keratoplasty for a moderate risk condition (principally Fuchs dystrophy or pseudophakic corneal edema) were followed for up to 12 years. Associations of baseline recipient and donor factors with the occurrence of a rejection event were assessed in univariate and multivariate proportional hazards models. Among 651 eyes with a surviving graft at 5 years, the 10-year graft failure (±99% confidence interval) rates were 12% ± 4% among eyes with no rejection events in the first 5 years, 17% ± 12% in eyes with at least 1 probable, but no definite rejection event, and 22% ± 20% in eyes with at least 1 definite rejection event. The only baseline factor significantly associated with a higher risk of definite graft rejection was a preoperative history of glaucoma, particularly when previous glaucoma surgery had been performed and glaucoma medications were being used at the time of transplant (10-year incidence 35% ± 23% compared with 14% ± 4% in eyes with no history of glaucoma/intraocular pressure treatment, P = 0.008). Patients who experienced a definite rejection event frequently developed graft failure raising important questions as to how we might change acute and long-term corneal graft management. Multivariate analysis indicated that previous use of glaucoma medications and glaucoma filtering surgery was a significant risk factor related to a definite rejection event.

  15. Specific autoantibodies precede the symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis: a study of serial measurements in blood donors.

    PubMed

    Nielen, Markus M J; van Schaardenburg, Dirkjan; Reesink, Henk W; van de Stadt, Rob J; van der Horst-Bruinsma, Irene E; de Koning, Margret H M T; Habibuw, Moud R; Vandenbroucke, Jan P; Dijkmans, Ben A C

    2004-02-01

    Autoantibodies have been demonstrated in single serum samples from healthy subjects up to 10 years before they developed rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, the time course for the development of antibodies before onset of clinical RA is unknown, nor is it known which antibody, or combinations of antibodies, might be most sensitive or specific for predicting future development of the disease. The present study was undertaken to investigate this. Patients with RA who had been blood donors before the onset of disease symptoms were enrolled. Frozen serum samples from each donor were retrieved, together with 2 serum samples from controls matched for age, sex, and date of donation. All samples were tested for IgM rheumatoid factor (IgM-RF) and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) antibodies. Seventy-nine patients with RA (62% female; mean age at onset of symptoms 51 years) were included. A median of 13 samples (range 1-51) per patient were available; the earliest samples had been collected a median of 7.5 years (range 0.1-14.5) before the onset of symptoms. Thirty-nine patients (49%) were positive for IgM-RF and/or anti-CCP on at least one occasion before the development of RA symptoms, a median of 4.5 years (range 0.1-13.8) before symptom onset. Of the 2,138 control samples, 1.1% were positive for IgM-RF, and 0.6% were positive for anti-CCP. Approximately half of patients with RA have specific serologic abnormalities several years before the onset of symptoms. A finding of an elevated serum level of IgM-RF or anti-CCP in a healthy individual implies a high risk for the development of RA. We conclude that IgM-RF and anti-CCP testing with appropriately high specificity may assist in the early detection of RA in high-risk populations.

  16. Donor organ shortage crisis: a case study review of a financial incentive-based system.

    PubMed

    Al Sebayel, M; Alenazi, A M; Sabbagh, R; Al Ageel, T; Al Enazi, M; Al Bahili, H; Elsiesy, H

    2014-01-01

    Current organ supply system depends on altruistic noncoercive donation, which has failed to meet the demand of organ transplantation. Providing financial incentives to donors is one of several approaches to address organ shortage. However, its feasibility is debatable as it relates to medical, ethical, and economic dimensions. An incentive-based procurement system (IBPS) applied by the Mobile Donor Action Team (MDAT) was instituted in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, resulting in a 3-fold increase in donation rate. The goal of this study was to provide a qualitative review of a 7-year experience with IBPS. A qualitative approach was used. Documents were reviewed to create a chronological audit and shape interview questions. Sampling was purposeful and inclusive of MDAT members. Semi-structured interviews were conducted, and findings were subjected to thematic analysis. Documents reflected the evolution of MDAT. The essence of MDAT is field work and liberal use of financial incentives, which resulted in a 3-fold increase in the donation rate. MDAT members believed that IBPS is the main reason behind this increase. Moreover, IBPS is viewed as acceptable from a moral, ethical, and religious standpoint, with a high degree of professional satisfaction. Theoretical assumptions doubted the feasibility of IBPS. This real-life experience with IBPS proved the contrary. The findings may be applicable only to the setting in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, however; further research is thus needed to explore its transferability to other settings. IBPS may be an alternative to altruistic noncoercive donation and should be piloted in different settings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Use of Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment to Improve Interpretation of a Recreational Water Epidemiological Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    We conducted a supplemental water quality monitoring study and quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) to complement the United States Environmental Protection Agency’s (U.S. EPA) National Epidemiological and Environmental Assessment of Recreational Water study at Boq...

  18. Use of Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment to Improve Interpretation of a Recreational Water Epidemiological Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    We conducted a supplemental water quality monitoring study and quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) to complement the United States Environmental Protection Agency’s (U.S. EPA) National Epidemiological and Environmental Assessment of Recreational Water study at Boq...

  19. EPIDEMIOLOGIC CONCEPTS FOR INTERPRETING FINDINGS IN STUDIES OF DRINKING WATER EXPOSURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    To the inexperienced, environmental epidemiology may appear to be an uncomplicated, straightforward approach to studying exposure-disease associations in human populations. The studies can provide useful information about the risks of environmental exposures that human populatio...

  20. [Neonatal meningitis. Epidemiological study of the Grupo de Hospitales Castrillo].

    PubMed

    2002-06-01

    significantly higher in VLBW infants and 18.5 % of survivors showed sequelae. The incidence, mortality and sequelae of neonatal meningitis in Spain were similar to those reported in recent studies. The most commonly isolated pathogens were group B Streptococcus in vertically transmitted meningitis and E. coli and S. epidermidis in nosocomial meningitis. We believe the distinction between vertical and nosocomial meningitis to be appropriate because the epidemiology of these diseases is different, which implies a different therapeutic approach. The high percentage of positive blood cultures indicates the need to include lumbar puncture whenever systemic infection is suspected in the neonatal period.

  1. Responses to donor proliferation in Ghana’s health sector: a qualitative case study

    PubMed Central

    Nonvignon, Justice; Aikins, Moses; Ruger, Jennifer Prah

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To investigate how donors and government agencies responded to a proliferation of donors providing aid to Ghana’s health sector between 1995 and 2012. Methods We interviewed 39 key informants from donor agencies, central government and nongovernmental organizations in Accra. These respondents were purposively selected to provide local and international views from the three types of institutions. Data collected from the respondents were compared with relevant documentary materials – e.g. reports and media articles – collected during interviews and through online research. Findings Ghana’s response to donor proliferation included creation of a sector-wide approach, a shift to sector budget support, the institutionalization of a Health Sector Working Group and anticipation of donor withdrawal following the country’s change from low-income to lower-middle income status. Key themes included the importance of leadership and political support, the internalization of norms for harmonization, alignment and ownership, tension between the different methods used to improve aid effectiveness, and a shift to a unidirectional accountability paradigm for health-sector performance. Conclusion In 1995–2012, the country’s central government and donors responded to donor proliferation in health-sector aid by promoting harmonization and alignment. This response was motivated by Ghana’s need for foreign aid, constraints on the capacity of governmental human resources and inefficiencies created by donor proliferation. Although this decreased the government’s transaction costs, it also increased the donors’ coordination costs and reduced the government’s negotiation options. Harmonization and alignment measures may have prompted donors to return to stand-alone projects to increase accountability and identification with beneficial impacts of projects. PMID:25558103

  2. Risk of Cancer in relation to Natural Radiation, including Radon: Evidence from Epidemiological Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baysson, Hélène; Tirmarche, Margot; Laurier, Dominique

    2008-08-01

    A review of recently published epidemiological studies on populations exposed to natural background ionizing radiation is proposed. The advantages and disadvantages of different types of epidemiological studies as well as the uncertainty linked to multiple exposures are discussed. As radon is the greatest source of natural radiation, particular attention is given to quantification of risk obtained through cohort studies of uranium miners and after joint analysis of case-control studies on lung cancer and residential radon.

  3. Epidemiological Study of Road Traffic Accident Cases from Western Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Badrinarayan; Sinha (Mishra), Nidhi D; Sukhla, SK; Sinha, AK

    2010-01-01

    Background: Road Traffic Accident (RTA) is one among the top five causes of morbidity and mortality in South-East Asian countries.(1) Its socioeconomic repercussions are a matter of great concern. Efficient addressing of the issue requires quality information on different causative factors. Research Question: What are different epidemiological determinants of RTA in western Nepal? Objective: To examine the factors associated with RTA. Study Design: Prospective observational. Setting: Study was performed in a tertiary healthcare delivery institute in western Nepal. Participants: 360 victims of RTA who reported to Manipal Teaching hospital in one year. Study Variables: Demographic, human, vehicular, environmental and time factors. Statistical analysis: Percentages, linear and logarithmic trend and Chi-square. Results: Most of the victims i.e. 147 (40.83%) were young (15 to 30 years); from low i.e. 114 (31.66%) and mid i.e. 198 (55%) income families and were passengers i.e. 153 (42.50%) and pedestrians i.e. 105 (29.16%). Sever accidents leading to fatal outcome were associated with personal problems (P<0.01, χ2 - 8.03), recent or on-day conflicts (P<0.001, χ2 - 18.88) and some evidence of alcohol consumptions (P<0.001, χ2 - 30.25). Increased prevalence of RTA was also noticed at beginning i.e. 198 (55%) and end i.e. 69 (19.16%) of journey; in rainy and cloudy conditions (269 i.e. 74.72%) and in evening hours (3 to 7 p.m. 159 i.e. 44.16%). Out of 246 vehicles involved; 162 (65.85%) were old and ill maintained. The contributions of old vehicle to fatal injuries were 33 (50%). Head injury was found in 156 (43.33 %) cases and its associated case fatality rate was 90.90%. In spite of a good percentage receiving first aid i.e. 213 (59.16%) after RTA; there was a notable delay (174 i.e. 48.33% admitted after 6 h) in shifting the cases to the hospitals. The estimated total days lost due to hospital stay was 4620 with an average of 12.83 days per each case. Conclusion: Most

  4. Epidemiological studies on forestomach disorders in cattle and buffaloes

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, A. K.; Dhaliwal, P. S.; Randhawa, C. S.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To study epidemiology of forestomach (reticuloruminal, omasal, and abomasal) disorders in cattle and buffaloes. Materials and Methods: The 106 buffaloes and 32 cattle referred for treatment to the university large animals teaching hospital with the complaint of gastrointestinal diseases constituted the study material. The cases were diagnosed based on history, clinical examination, hematology, biochemistry, radiography, peritoneal fluid analysis and ultrasonography, rumenotomy, and postmortem. A questionnaire was prepared containing important information on housing, husbandry practices, including feeding practices and individual animal information viz. age, species, month of the year, parity, gestation (month), and recent parturition. The animals were divided into eight groups and analysis of variance was performed to study risk factors associated with each condition. Results: The forestomach disorders are widely prevalent in cattle and buffaloes between April and October, during summer and rainy season (90%) and constituted a significant proportion of diseased cows and buffaloes (138/1840) at the hospital. Different forestomach disorders and their prevalence was: Diaphragmatic hernia (DH) 17%, traumatic reticuloperitonitis (TRP) 14%, idiopathic motility disorder or vagus indigestion (VI) 22%, adhesive peritonitis (AP) 13%, frank exudative peritonitis (FEP) 12%, reticular abscess (RA) 8%, ruminal and omasal impaction (RI) 5%, and abomaso duodenal ulceration (ADU) 9%. DH and RA were significantly more common in buffaloes as compared to cattle. Similarly, impactions were more in buffaloes but its incidence was very low (5%). ADU was present in buffalo as commonly as in cows. Exclusive feeding of wheat straw was present in an abysmally low number of animals and hence could not be considered the cause of these disorders. DH was significantly higher in buffaloes (>5 years) of 5-8 years of age and TRP, VI and AP were observed in cattle and buffalo of 2-8 years of

  5. [Kidney grafts from elderly donors].

    PubMed

    Hiesse, Christian; Pessione, Fabienne; Cohen, Sophie

    2003-06-07

    FROM AN EPIDEMIOLOGICAL POINT OF VIEW: The epidemiology of renal transplantation had greatly changed over the past 10 years. The increasing number of patients with renal failure and candidates for transplantation increases the demand for grafts, whereas the sampling rate of organs remains stable. The mean age of the donors is rising, hence underlining the question of the use of organs of so-called "borderline" quality. THE WEAK POINTS OF ELDERLY GRAFTS: Aging of the kidneys affects the structure of the parenchyma and renal function, which decreases, notably in hypertensive persons. The elderly graft exhibits a critical mass of nephrons that is insufficient to fulfil the functional requirements of a poorly equipped recipient. The recipient is more sensitive to the added agressions: prolonged ischemia and immunological and medicinal agressions. THE RESULTS OF RENAL GRAFT FROM ELDERLY DONORS: They are quantitatively and qualitatively inferior to those of renal transplants from "ideal" donors. The donor's age is a significant factor influencing negatively influences the survival of the transplanted kidney, but dependent on past vascular history. Good results regarding the maintenance of dialysis are obtained by selecting the donors and by avoiding added risk factors. THE ASSESSMENT OF A GRAFT FROM AN ELDERLY DONOR: This, basically, relies on clinical criteria: donor's history, cause of death and accurate measurement of the renal function. A biopsy of the graft, at the time of sampling, provides useful information. TRANSPLANTATION STRATEGY OF A GRAFT FROM AN ELDERLY DONOR: Donor-recipient matching by age is a common approach. Grafting of both kidneys in the same recipient is a method presently under assessment. The episode of ischemia must be reduced and the immunosuppressive therapy adapted.

  6. Gifts on a High Note: A Case Study of Major Donors to Music Programs in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barascout, Roger

    2012-01-01

    This study is an examination of the giving decision-making process, as well as the factors, characteristics, and motivators of major donors to music programs in higher education. The college and the conservatory of music selected for this study are part of large, public, doctoral, research universities in metropolitan areas with at least three…

  7. Gifts on a High Note: A Case Study of Major Donors to Music Programs in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barascout, Roger

    2012-01-01

    This study is an examination of the giving decision-making process, as well as the factors, characteristics, and motivators of major donors to music programs in higher education. The college and the conservatory of music selected for this study are part of large, public, doctoral, research universities in metropolitan areas with at least three…

  8. Effect of unilateral nephrectomy on urinary angiotensinogen levels in living kidney donors: 1 year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Kendi Celebi, Zeynep; Peker, Ahmet; Kutlay, Sim; Kocak, Senem; Tuzuner, Acar; Erturk, Sehsuvar; Keven, Kenan; Sengul, Sule

    2017-01-01

    Urinary angiotensinogen (uAGT) has recently been proposed as a marker of kidney injury and activated intrarenal renin-angiotensin system. We investigated the effects of living donor nephrectomy on uAGT levels, blood pressure, estimated glomerular filtration rate, proteinuria and compensatory hypertrophy in the remaining kidney of living kidney donors. Twenty living kidney donors were included in the study and followed for 1 year. uAGT levels were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay preoperatively and postoperatively at the 15th day, 1, 6 and 12 months. Four donors were excluded from the study due to lack of data. The mean baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate was 98 ± 15 ml/min/1.73 m². Serum creatinine, uAGT/creatinine, uAGT/protein levels were higher and estimated glomerular filtration rate was lower than baseline values at all time periods. Urinary protein/creatinine levels increased after donor nephrectomy, but after 6 months they returned to baseline values. Renal volume increased after nephrectomy, but these changes did not show any correlation with uAGT/creatinine, uAGT/protein, estimated glomerular filtration rate or systolic/diastolic blood pressures. uAGT/creatinine at 6 months and urinary protein/creatinine ratio at 12 months showed a positive correlation ( P=0.008, r=0.639). After donor nephrectomy, increasing uAGT levels can be the result of activation of the intrarenal renin-angiotensin system affecting the compensatory changes in the remaining kidney. The long-term effects of increased uAGT levels on the remaining kidney should be examined more closely in future studies.

  9. Defining the Long-Toss: A Professional Baseball Epidemiological Study

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Austin V.; Mannava, Sandeep; Patel, Anita; Marquez-Lara, Alejandro; Freehill, Michael T.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Despite widespread use of long-toss throwing in baseball as a component of arm conditioning, interval throwing programs, and rehabilitation, long-toss distance and throwing mechanics remain controversial. Purpose: To ascertain the perceived definition of long-toss throwing through a survey of professional pitchers, pitching coaches (PCs), and certified athletic trainers (ATCs) associated with Major League Baseball. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiology study. Methods: Pitchers, PCs, and ATCs associated with 5 Major League Baseball organizations completed an anonymous survey that collected demographic data, personal use of long-toss throwing, and their perception of the distance and throwing mechanics that comprised long-toss. Results: A total of 321 surveys were completed by 271 pitchers, 19 PCs, and 31 ATCs. For all respondents, the mean distance considered as long-toss was 175 ft (95% CI, 170-181 ft). Respondents categorized the throwing mechanics of long-toss, with 36% reporting throwing “on a line” and 70% reporting long-toss as “not on a line.” Of those throwing “on a line,” 28% reported using crow-hop footwork while 60% used crow-hop footwork when throwing “not on a line.” Interpretation of long-toss distance significantly varied by position: pitchers, 177 ft (95% CI, 171-183 ft); PCs, 177 ft (95% CI, 155-200 ft); and ATCs, 157 ft (95% CI, 144-169 ft) (P = .048). When asked when long-toss throwing is used, pitchers reported using it more frequently in preseason (P = .007), during the season (P = .015), and in the off-season (P = .002) compared with that by ATCs. Functional goals for long-toss throwing demonstrated that pitchers and PCs use long-toss for shoulder stretching more frequently than ATCs (P < .001 and P = .026, respectively). ATCs used long-toss more than pitchers for interval throwing programs (P < .001). Conclusion: The definition varies for long-toss throwing distance and throwing mechanics. Pitchers and PCs believe

  10. [Epidemiologic warnings from studies on alcohol use disorders].

    PubMed

    Limosin, F

    2014-04-01

    The highest consumption levels of alcohol are found in the developed world, mostly the Northern Hemisphere. After a slight decrease at the beginning of the 1990s, alcohol use in the European Region increased with an average adult per capita consumption amounting to 12.5 litres of pure alcohol per capita for the year 2009. In France, adult consumption was 12.7 litres of pure alcohol per capita for the year 2009, and it is estimated that 1.5 to 2 million of adults are alcohol-dependent (4-5% of the adult population) and 5 million are excessive drinkers. The harmful use of alcohol is one of the world's leading health risks. Alcohol is the direct cause of more than 30 diseases and a causal factor in more than 60 major types of diseases and injuries, resulting in approximately 2.5 million deaths each year. Approximately 4% of all deaths worldwide and 4.5% (7.4% for men and 1.4% for women) of the global burden of disease and injury are attributable to alcohol. In 2004 in the EU, 15.2% of all disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) in men and 3.9% of all DALYs in women were lost due to alcohol. While the impact of alcohol consumption and dependence on mortality and disease is substantial, there are also many psychosocial consequences, including violence, family problems, child neglect and abuse, absenteeism and lost productivity in the workplace. This means that alcohol consumption and dependence have sizable impacts on many people other than the drinker. These effects add up to a staggering number of alcohol-attributable social costs, which can be estimated at € 155.8 billion a year in Europe. Despite all these consequences, many individuals with alcohol use disorders remain untreated although effective treatments exist. From 37 community-based psychiatric epidemiology studies that used standardized diagnostic instruments and included data on the percentage of individuals receiving care for alcohol abuse or dependence, the median rate of untreated cases of these

  11. Population studies: an integrated course in epidemiology and sociology for medical students.

    PubMed

    Elford, J; Chapman, G E; Boothroyd Brooks, E M; Shaper, A G

    1985-05-01

    At the Royal Free Hospital School of Medicine, London, an integrated course in epidemiology and sociology for preclinical students was introduced in 1979. The course--Population Studies--is taken by the 100 second-year medical students in the summer term before they enter their clinical years. It occupies one full day and one half day each week for 8 weeks--approximately 80 hours of tuition. Population Studies is unusual in two respects. Firstly, it introduces a substantial amount of epidemiology into the preclinical curriculum. And, secondly, this is the only London medical school to integrate the teaching of sociology and epidemiology into the one course.

  12. The Exposure Dimension of Environmental Epidemiology: A Critical but Under-ExploredStudy Quality Issue in Environmental Health

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological research plays a critical role in assessing the effects of various chemical, physical, oiological, and social exposures on human health both in the general population and the workplace. However, even epidemiological studies that are specifically designed to test c...

  13. The Exposure Dimension of Environmental Epidemiology: A Critical but Under-ExploredStudy Quality Issue in Environmental Health

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological research plays a critical role in assessing the effects of various chemical, physical, oiological, and social exposures on human health both in the general population and the workplace. However, even epidemiological studies that are specifically designed to test c...

  14. Lessons learned from epidemiologic studies of environmental exposure and genetic disease.

    PubMed

    Olshan, A F

    1995-01-01

    The induction of germ cell mutations with ionizing radiation and chemicals has been clearly demonstrated in experimental animal test systems. Less is known about the effects of environmental and other exposures on human germ cells. Epidemiologic studies of atomic bomb and childhood cancer survivors and their offspring have generally not indicated an excess risk for a variety of adverse reproductive outcomes and childhood diseases, including those due to germ cell mutations. Other epidemiologic studies, including the investigation of cancer among the offspring of fathers employed at the Sellafield nuclear facility in Great Britain and studies of paternal occupation and birth defects, have found associations. This paper reviews these studies and the methodologic problems inherent in the epidemiologic approach to evaluating environmentally induced germ cell mutagenesis in humans. Epidemiologic studies incorporating newly developed techniques for the detection of mutations and abnormalities in sperm may provide the sensitivity needed to determine precisely the magnitude of risk.

  15. What is desirable and feasible in dose reconstruction for application in epidemiological studies?

    SciTech Connect

    Bouville, A.; Beebe, G.W.; Anspaugh, L.

    1996-02-01

    Epidemiological studies of populations are of two general forms, monitoring or formal, and serve several possible purposes. Monitoring studies inform members of potentially affected population groups of the nature and magnitude of the risks that might have been imposed on them. Formal epidemiological studies can increase scientific knowledge about the quantitative risk that attends exposure. Risks of human health due to radiation exposure are most appropriately estimated by means of formal epidemiological studies. Dosimetric data are essential for any epidemiological study, but the detail and accuracy needed depend on the purposes to be served. If the need is for a monitoring study, then general information about doses will suffice. However, a formal study that is expected to contribute to scientific information about quantitative radiation risk requires careful individual dose estimation. This paper is devoted to the discussion of dosimetric data needed for formal epidemiological studies of populations exposed as a result of nuclear power operations. The recommendations made by the National Research Council have largely been followed. The examples used in this paper are relevant to the Chernobyl accident, which caused a large number of people to be exposed at relatively high doses and provided an opportunity for formal epidemiological studies to be initiated. The studies that are singled out are those of thyroid cancer among children who resided in Belarus and in Ukraine at the time of the accident, and those of leukemia among workers involved in the mitigation of the accident and in clean-up operations.

  16. Selecting the best haploidentical donor.

    PubMed

    McCurdy, Shannon R; Fuchs, Ephraim J

    2016-10-01

    The substantial evidence of the safety of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-haploidentical (haplo) blood or marrow transplantation (BMT) has led to its increasing utilization. When prioritizing HLA-matched grafts, patients frequently have few or no donors from whom to choose. However, a given patient may have multiple suitable haplo donors. Therefore factors other than HLA-match become critical for selecting the best donor. We recommend a donor selection algorithm based on the donor-specific antibodies, ABO match, donor age, donor sex, and cytomegalovirus (CMV) serostatus match. Despite provocative initial evidence, further studies are warranted to determine whether there is any benefit to selecting a haplo donor based on the number of HLA-mismatches, natural killer cell alloreactivity, or the presence of non-inherited maternal HLA antigens. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A nationwide study of the epidemiology of relapsing polychondritis

    PubMed Central

    Horváth, Anna; Páll, Nóra; Molnár, Katalin; Kováts, Tamás; Surján, György; Vicsek, Tamás; Pollner, Péter

    2016-01-01

    Objective Relapsing polychondritis (RP) is a rare autoimmune inflammatory disease that attacks mainly cartilaginous structures or causes serious damage in proteoglycan-rich structures (the eyes, heart, blood vessels, inner ear). This study shows results regarding the epidemiology, progression, and associations of this highly variable disease by collecting all cases from a 124-million-person-year Central European nationwide cohort. Methods We used the Hungarian Health Care Database to identify all persons with possible RP infection. We followed patients who had International Classification of Diseases 10th edition code M94.1 at least once in their inpatient or outpatient records between January 1, 2002 and December 31, 2013 in Hungary. We classified these patients into disease severity groups by their drug consumption patterns between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2013. We analyzed the regional distribution of RP incidences as well. Overall maps of comorbidity are presented with network layouts. Results We identified 256 patients with RP among cumulatively 11.5 million registered inhabitants. We classified these patients into four severity classes as “extremely mild” (n=144), “mild” (n=22), “moderate” (n=41), and “severe” (n=4). Two additional groups were defined for patients without available drug data as “suspected only” (n=23) and “confirmed but unknown treatment” (n=22). The age and sex distributions of patients were similar to worldwide statistics. Indeed, the overall survival was good (95% confidence interval for 5 years was 83.6%–92.9% and for 10 years was 75.0%–88.3% which corresponds to the overall survival of the general population in Hungary), and the associations with other autoimmune disorders were high (56%) in Hungary. Almost any disease can occur with RP; however, the symptoms of chromosomal abnormalities are only incidental. Spondylosis can be a sign of the activation of RP, while Sjögren syndrome is the most frequent

  18. The New Zealand Blood Donors' Health Study: baseline findings of a large prospective cohort study of injury.

    PubMed

    Ameratunga, S N; Norton, R N; Whitlock, G; Macmahon, S; Coggan, C; Jackson, R T; Langley, J D; Parag, V; Smith, D; Woodfield, D G

    2002-03-01

    Cohort studies have contributed important scientific knowledge regarding the determinants of chronic diseases. Despite the need for etiologic investigations, this design has been infrequently used in injury prevention research. To describe the baseline findings of the New Zealand Blood Donors' Health Study, a large prospective study designed to investigate relationships between lifestyle, psychosocial factors, and serious injury due to road crashes, falls, self harm, assault, work, sport, and recreation. Participants were recruited from fixed and mobile collection sites of a voluntary non-profit blood donor program. Baseline exposure data (for example risk taking behaviors, alcohol and marijuana use, sleep habits, and depression) were collected using a self administered questionnaire. Outcome data regarding serious injury will be collected prospectively through computerized record linkage of participants' unique identifiers to national morbidity and mortality databases. In total, 22 389 participants enrolled in the study (81% response rate). The diverse study population included 36% aged 16-24 years, 20% rural residents, and large variability in exposures of interest. For example, in the 12 months before recruitment, 21% had driven a motor vehicle when they considered themselves over the legal limit for alcohol, and 11% had been convicted of traffic violations (excluding parking infringements). Twelve per cent had seriously considered attempting suicide sometime in their life. This is the first, large scale cohort study investigating determinants of serious injury in New Zealand and among the largest worldwide. Preliminary findings from prospective analyses that can inform injury prevention policy are expected within five years.

  19. Effects of nephrectomy on respiratory function and quality of life of living donors: a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Moraes, Karen; Paisani, Denise M.; Pacheco, Nathália C. T.; Chiavegato, Luciana D.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A living donor transplant improves the survival and quality of life of a transplant patient. However, the impact of transplantation on postoperative lung function and respiratory muscular strength in kidney donors remains unknown. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate pulmonary function, respiratory muscle strength, quality of life and the incidence of postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs) in kidney donors undergoing nephrectomy. METHOD: This prospective cohort enrolled 110 consecutive kidney donors undergoing nephrectomy. Subjects underwent pulmonary function (using spirometry) and respiratory muscular strength (using manovacuometry) assessments on the day prior to surgery and 1, 2, 3 and 5 days postoperatively. Quality of life (measured by the SF-36) was evaluated preoperatively and 30 days postoperatively. PPCs were assessed daily by a blinded assessor. RESULTS: Donors exhibited a decrease of 27% in forced vital capacity, 58% in maximum inspiratory capacity and 51% in maximum expiratory pressure on the 1stpostoperative day (p<0.001) but this improved over days 2, 3 and 5 but had not returned to preoperative levels. Patient quality of life was still impaired at 30 days with regards to functional capacity, physical role, pain, vitality and social functioning (p<0.05) but these parameters improved slowly. None of the patients developed PPCs. CONCLUSION: Kidney donors submitted to nephrectomy exhibited a reduction in pulmonary function, respiratory muscular strength and quality of life, most of which were improving toward pre-surgical levels. PMID:26443973

  20. Development and Evaluation of Alternative Metrics of Ambient Air Pollution Exposure for Use in Epidemiologic Studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Population-based epidemiologic studies of air pollution have traditionally relied upon imperfect surrogates of personal exposures, such as area-wide ambient air pollution levels based on readily available outdoor concentrations from central monitoring sites. This practice may in...

  1. Development and Evaluation of Alternative Metrics of Ambient Air Pollution Exposure for Use in Epidemiologic Studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Population-based epidemiologic studies of air pollution have traditionally relied upon imperfect surrogates of personal exposures, such as area-wide ambient air pollution levels based on readily available outdoor concentrations from central monitoring sites. This practice may in...

  2. Air pollution exposure prediction approaches used in air pollution epidemiology studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological studies of the health effects of air pollution have traditionally relied upon surrogates of personal exposures, most commonly ambient concentration measurements from central-site monitors. However, this approach may introduce exposure prediction errors and miscla...

  3. Air pollution exposure prediction approaches used in air pollution epidemiology studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological studies of the health effects of air pollution have traditionally relied upon surrogates of personal exposures, most commonly ambient concentration measurements from central-site monitors. However, this approach may introduce exposure prediction errors and miscla...

  4. Equivalency of risk for a modified health endpoint: a case from recreational water epidemiology studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) and its predecessors have conducted three distinct series of epidemiological studies beginning in 1948 on the relationship between bathing water quality and swimmers' illnesses. Keeping pace with advances in microbial tec...

  5. Spot Sampling and Exposure Surrogate Selection as Sources of Bias in Environmental Epidemiology Studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Spot measurements of chemical biomarkers are often used as quantitative exposure surrogates in environmental epidemiology studies. These measures can be expressed a number of different ways – for example, urinary biomarkers can be expressed in units of concentration (&micr...

  6. Spot Sampling and Exposure Surrogate Selection as Sources of Bias in Environmental Epidemiology Studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Spot measurements of chemical biomarkers are often used as quantitative exposure surrogates in environmental epidemiology studies. These measures can be expressed a number of different ways – for example, urinary biomarkers can be expressed in units of concentration (&micr...

  7. Equivalency of risk for a modified health endpoint: a case from recreational water epidemiology studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) and its predecessors have conducted three distinct series of epidemiological studies beginning in 1948 on the relationship between bathing water quality and swimmers' illnesses. Keeping pace with advances in microbial tec...

  8. Webinar Presentation: Epidemiologic Studies of the Effects of Toxic Exposures on Brain and Behavior: Neuropsychological Assessment

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This presentation, Epidemiologic Studies of the Effects of Toxic Exposures on Brain and Behavior: Neuropsychological Assessment, was given at the NIEHS/EPA Children's Centers 2015 Webinar Series: Interdisciplinary Approaches to Neurodevelopment.

  9. Evaluating deceased donor registries: identifying predictive factors of donor designation.

    PubMed

    Hajhosseini, Babak; Stewart, Bryan; Tan, Jane C; Busque, Stephan; Melcher, Marc L

    2013-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate and compare the performance of the deceased donor registries of the 50 states and the District of Columbia and to identify possible predictive factors of donor designation. Data were collected retrospectively by Donate Life America using a questionnaire sent to Donor Designation Collaborative state teams between 2007 and 2010. By the end of 2010, there were 94,669,081 designated donors nationwide. This accounted for 39.8 per cent of the U.S. population aged 18 years and over. The number of designated organ donors and registry-authorized recovered donors increased each year; however, the total number of recovered donors in 2010 was the lowest since 2004. Donor designation rate was significantly higher when license applicants were verbally questioned at the Department of Motor Vehicles (DMV) regarding their willingness to register as a donor and when DMV applicants were not given an option on DMV application forms to contribute money to support organ donation, compared with not being questioned verbally, and being offered an option to contribute money. State registries continue to increase the total number of designated organ donors; however, the current availability of organs remains insufficient to meet the demand. These data suggest that DMV applicants who are approached verbally regarding their willingness to register as a donor and not given an option on DMV application forms to contribute money to support organ donation might be more likely to designate themselves to be a donor.

  10. A Comparative Study of Collagen Dressing versus Petrolatum Gauze Dressing in reducing Pain at the Donor Area

    PubMed Central

    Ramesh, BA; Jayalakshmi, BK; Mohan, J

    2017-01-01

    Background: Skin graft is one of the commonly done procedures by plastic surgeons, dermato surgeons and general surgeons. Pain at the donor area is a common complaint by the patient. The skin graft donor site area is usually covered with petrolatum dressing dermatosurgeons. Aim: This study was done to compare collagen dressing with petroleum gauze dressing in control of post-operative pain on skin graft donor area. Materials and Methods: The study was done on forty patients, twenty as study group who received collagen dressing and twenty as control group who received petroleum gauze dressing. The procedure was randomly selected by permutated block size of four. The post-operative pain was assessed with numerical pain rating scale 0 to 10. Nursing staff did the recording of pain scale. The nursing staff was not aware whether patient had collagen or petroleum gauze dressing. Statistics: Statistical analysis used was independent ‘t’-test (two-sample test) and Levene's test. Results: Statistics proved that study group (collagen dressing) had lesser pain than control group (petroleum gauze dressing). Conclusion: The collagen sheet dressing on skin graft donor area reduces pain in post-operative period. PMID:28529416

  11. National Marrow Donor Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-05

    AlGorithm to Predict Best Donor Task 1 -Incorporate Frequencies into Matchin" AI"orithm Open Task 2 - Enhancement of EM Algorithm Open Task 3 - Optimal...Immunooenetic Studies Ob.jective 1- Influence ofHLA Mismatches Task I - Donor Recipient Pair Project Open Objective 1- Role of Other Loci and GVHD Task I...typing can be used to design computer algorithms to predict the best matched donor. IIB.3. Task 1: Period 8 Activity: Phase I of EM Worked on a

  12. The need to label red blood cell units with their haemoglobin content: a single centre study on haemoglobin variations due to donor-related factors.

    PubMed

    Agnihotri, Naveen; Pal, Lokesh; Thakur, Manish; Kumar, Pravin

    2014-10-01

    Red blood cell (RBC) transfusions are given as "number of units" without considering the haemoglobin (Hb) content of these units. Donor factors influencing Hb level in whole blood donors and, ultimately, in RBC units have not been studied. Donor data for a period of 1.5 years were retrospectively analysed and the effects of age, gender and weight on the Hb level of the donors were determined. The correlation between donor's Hb concentration with total Hb in the RBC unit was analysed. Additionally, actual Hb content of 125 RBC units was determined. The total Hb content of these RBC units was also mathematically calculated based on the blood donors' Hb. The ability of this mathematically calculated Hb to predict actual Hb content per RBC unit was then analysed. The mean Hb level in female donors was 1.79 g/dL lower than in the male donors (p<0.001). Increasing age was associated with a lower mean Hb in the donors (p<0.01), while a higher body weight correlated weakly (r=0.06) but significantly with increased mean Hb (p<0.01). Logistic regression analysis showed that in blood donors, female gender had a stronger influence on lowering the mean Hb than either older age or lower weight. A variation of nearly 100% (42.3-80.8 g Hb per unit) was seen in the total Hb content of the RBC units tested. Mathematically calculated Hb content correlated well (r=0.6; p<0.01) with the actual Hb content of the RBC units. We demonstrated the effect of gender, age and weight on Hb levels in whole blood donors. Dissimilarities in the donor Hb caused nearly 100% variations in the Hb content of the RBC units. It would, therefore, be prudent to label RBC units with their total Hb content. This total Hb content can be predicted fairly accurately from the donor's pre-donation Hb level.

  13. Distribution of ABO and Rh types in voluntary Blood donors in Jharkhand area as a study conducted by RIMS, Ranchi.

    PubMed

    Singh, Anu; Srivastava, Ramesh Kumar; Deogharia, Kabita S; Singh, Kranti Kumar

    2016-01-01

    This study was done to know the distribution and frequencies of blood groups among blood donors attending voluntary blood donation camps organized by the Rajendra Institute of Medical Sciences (RIMS), Ranchi, Jharkhand so that demand and supply ratio of the four blood groups can be maintained so that no patient dies due to lack of a particular blood group. Up till now about 400 red cells antigen have been identified. The majority follow Mendelian inheritance. The ABO and Rhesus (Rh) blood group system are most important for blood transfusion purposes, parental testing, legal medicine, and in population genetic study. This study was conducted to determine and compare the frequency and distribution of ABO and Rh blood groups among voluntary blood donors attending blood donation camps in Jharkhand organized by RIMS. The aim is to know the demand and supply ratio of a particular blood group in light of their distribution in the society so that no patient dies due to the deficient supply of blood. It is a retrospective study carried out at blood bank. Materials and Methods: A study was conducted at Blood bank, RIMS, Ranchi, Jharkhand, over a period of 4 years from January 1, 2012, to December 31, 2015. Blood group of the blood donors was determined by commercially available standard monoclonal antisera by test tube agglutination technique accompanied by reverse grouping. Out of 20,455 subjects, 18,717 (91.73%) were male and 1738 (8.27%) were female subjects. The ABO blood group present was B (35.15%) followed by O (34.73%), A (22.09%), and AB (8.03%) in blood donors while in Rh system, (96.46%) donors were Rh +ve and (3.54%) donors were Rh -ve. The study has a significant implication regarding the inventory management of blood bank and transfusion services for the indoor patients of RIMS and for emergency supply to other hospitals of Jharkhand in dire need of blood. The knowledge of distribution of blood group is very important for blood banks and transfusion services

  14. Distribution of ABO and Rh types in voluntary Blood donors in Jharkhand area as a study conducted by RIMS, Ranchi

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Anu; Srivastava, Ramesh Kumar; Deogharia, Kabita S.; Singh, Kranti Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study was done to know the distribution and frequencies of blood groups among blood donors attending voluntary blood donation camps organized by the Rajendra Institute of Medical Sciences (RIMS), Ranchi, Jharkhand so that demand and supply ratio of the four blood groups can be maintained so that no patient dies due to lack of a particular blood group. Context: Up till now about 400 red cells antigen have been identified. The majority follow Mendelian inheritance. The ABO and Rhesus (Rh) blood group system are most important for blood transfusion purposes, parental testing, legal medicine, and in population genetic study. Aims: This study was conducted to determine and compare the frequency and distribution of ABO and Rh blood groups among voluntary blood donors attending blood donation camps in Jharkhand organized by RIMS. The aim is to know the demand and supply ratio of a particular blood group in light of their distribution in the society so that no patient dies due to the deficient supply of blood. Settings and Design: It is a retrospective study carried out at blood bank. Materials and Methods: A study was conducted at Blood bank, RIMS, Ranchi, Jharkhand, over a period of 4 years from January 1, 2012, to December 31, 2015. Blood group of the blood donors was determined by commercially available standard monoclonal antisera by test tube agglutination technique accompanied by reverse grouping. Results: Out of 20,455 subjects, 18,717 (91.73%) were male and 1738 (8.27%) were female subjects. The ABO blood group present was B (35.15%) followed by O (34.73%), A (22.09%), and AB (8.03%) in blood donors while in Rh system, (96.46%) donors were Rh +ve and (3.54%) donors were Rh −ve. The study has a significant implication regarding the inventory management of blood bank and transfusion services for the indoor patients of RIMS and for emergency supply to other hospitals of Jharkhand in dire need of blood. Conclusions: The knowledge of distribution of

  15. The Preliminary Study on Procurement Biliary Convergence from Donors with Complicated Bile Duct Variant in Emergency Right Lobe Living Donor Liver Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Ye, Sheng; Dong, Jia-Hong; Duan, Wei-Dong; Ji, Wen-Bing; Liang, Yu-Rong

    2017-03-01

    The incidence of biliary complications after living donor adult liver transplantation (LDALT) is still high due to the bile duct variation and necessity reconstruction of multiple small bile ducts. The current surgical management of the biliary variants is unsatisfactory. We evaluated the role of a new surgical approach in a complicated hilar bile duct variant (Nakamura type IV and Nakamura type II) under emergent right lobe LDALT for high model for end-stage liver disease score patients. The common hepatic duct (CHD) and the left hepatic duct (LHD) of the donor were transected in a right-graft including short common trunks with right posterior and anterior bile ducts, whereas the LHD of the donor was anastomosed to the CHD and the common trunks of a right-graft bile duct and the recipient CHD was end-to-end anastomosed. Ten of 13 grafts (Nakamura types II, III, and IV) had two or more biliary orifices after right graft lobectomy; seven patients had biliary complications (53.8%). Later, the surgical innovation was carried out in five donors with variant bile duct (four Nakamura type IV and one type II), and, consequently, no biliary or other complications were observed in donors and recipients during 47-53 months of follow-up; significant differences (P < 0.05) were found when two stages were compared. Our initial experience suggests that, in the urgent condition of LDALT when an alternative live donor was unavailable, a surgical innovation of cutting part of the CHD trunks including variant right hepatic ducts in a complicated donor bile duct variant may facilitate biliary reconstruction and reduce long-term biliary complications.

  16. Clinical epidemiological studies of women undergoing surgery for urogynaecological disorders.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Rikke Guldberg

    2015-10-01

    This PhD thesis was performed during my employment at the Center for Clinical Epidemiology, Odense University Hospital and University of Southern Denmark, 2010-2013. It comprises an overview and four papers, two published in international peer-reviewed scientific journals, one under review, and one in draft. Urinary incontinence (UI) and pelvic organ prolapse (POP) are prevalent disorders among women worldwide, affecting their psychological and social wellbeing, with reductions in quality of life. Treatment options are conservative (e.g. pelvic floor exercises, weight loss, and bladder training), pharmacological, and surgical. Surgery has especially for UI undergone an improvement during the last decades with development of minimally-invasive sub-urethral sling procedures, and the number of surgeries has increased in Denmark and other countries. In a population of Danish women undergoing surgery for UI or POP, we aimed: to describe the establishment of the Danish Urogynaecological Database (DugaBase), and to evaluate the completeness and the validity of surgery registration in the DugaBase; to study patient reported outcome measures in Danish women undergoing urogynaecological surgery; to study the use of symptom-relieving drugs before and after surgery for UI; to study the use of antibiotics for urinary tract infection (UTI) before and after surgery for UI METHODS: Study I The completeness of DugaBase was assessed by comparing procedure codes in the DugaBase to iodes registered in the National Patient Registry, 2006-2010. The study also included review of medical journals from 200 women (computed randomly from DugaBase), representing 22 departments in Denmark. Information on selected variables was compared to registered data in the DugaBase. the National Patient Registry, the DugaBase, and medical records. Study II was based on a national cohort of women undergoing surgery for UI and POP registered in the DugaBase, 2006-2011. Clinical data and data from patient

  17. Long-Term Structural and Functional Myocardial Adaptations in Healthy Living Kidney Donors: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Bellavia, Diego; Cataliotti, Alessandro; Clemenza, Francesco; Baravoglia, Cesar Hernandez; Luca, Angelo; Traina, Marcello; Gridelli, Bruno; Bertani, Tullio; Burnett, John C; Scardulla, Cesare

    2015-01-01

    Compensatory renal hypertrophy following unilateral nephrectomy (UNX) occurs in the remaining kidney. However, the long-term cardiac adaptive process to UNX remains poorly defined in humans. Our goal was to characterize myocardial structure and function in living kidney donors (LKDs), approximately 12 years after UNX. Cardiac function and structure in 15 Italian LKDs, at least 5 years after UNX (median time from donation = 8.4 years) was investigated and compared to those of age and sex matched U.S. citizens healthy controls (n = 15). Standard and speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) was performed in both LKDs and controls. Plasma angiotensin II, aldosterone, atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), N terminus pro B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), cyclic guanylyl monophosphate (cGMP), and amino-terminal peptide of procollagen III (PIIINP) were also collected. Median follow-up was 11.9 years. In LKDs, LV geometry and function by STE were similar to controls, wall thickness and volumes were within normal limits also by CMR. In LKDs, CMR was negative for myocardial fibrosis, but apical rotation and LV torsion obtained by STE were impaired as compared to controls (21.4 ± 7.8 vs 32.7 ± 8.9 degrees, p = 0.04). Serum creatinine and PIIINP levels were increased [1.1 (0.9-1.3) mg/dL, and 5.8 (5.4-7.6)] μg/L, respectively), while urinary cGMP was reduced [270 (250-355) vs 581 (437-698) pmol/mL] in LKDs. No LKD developed cardiovascular or renal events during follow-up. Long-term kidney donors have no apparent structural myocardial abnormalities as assessed by contrast enhanced CMR. However, myocardial deformation of the apical segments, as well as apical rotation, and LV torsion are reduced. The concomitant increase in circulating PIIINP level is suggestive of fibrosis. Further studies, focused on US and EU patients are warranted to evaluate whether these early functional modifications will progress to a more compromised cardiac function and structure at a later time.

  18. Design and analysis of metabolomics studies in epidemiologic research: a primer on -omic technologies.

    PubMed

    Tzoulaki, Ioanna; Ebbels, Timothy M D; Valdes, Ana; Elliott, Paul; Ioannidis, John P A

    2014-07-15

    Metabolomics is the field of "-omics" research concerned with the comprehensive characterization of the small low-molecular-weight metabolites in biological samples. In epidemiology, it represents an emerging technology and an unprecedented opportunity to measure environmental and other exposures with improved precision and far less measurement error than with standard epidemiologic methods. Advances in the application of metabolomics in large-scale epidemiologic research are now being realized through a combination of improved sample preparation and handling, automated laboratory and processing methods, and reduction in costs. The number of epidemiologic studies that use metabolic profiling is still limited, but it is fast gaining popularity in this area. In the present article, we present a roadmap for metabolomic analyses in epidemiologic studies and discuss the various challenges these data pose to large-scale studies. We discuss the steps of data preprocessing, univariate and multivariate data analysis, correction for multiplicity of comparisons with correlated data, and finally the steps of cross-validation and external validation. As data from metabolomic studies accumulate in epidemiology, there is a need for large-scale replication and synthesis of findings, increased availability of raw data, and a focus on good study design, all of which will highlight the potential clinical impact of metabolomics in this field. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Fluorinated arene, imide and unsaturated pyrrolidinone based donor acceptor conjugated polymers: Synthesis, structure-property and device studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liyanage, Arawwawala Don Thilanga

    After the discovery of doped polyacetylene, organic semiconductor materials are widely studied as high impending active components in consumer electronics. They have received substantial consideration due to their potential for structural tailoring, low cost, large area and mechanically flexible alternatives to common inorganic semiconductors. To acquire maximum use of these materials, it is essential to get a strong idea about their chemical and physical nature. Material chemist has an enormous role to play in this novel area, including development of efficient synthetic methodologies and control the molecular self-assembly and (opto)-electronic properties. The body of this thesis mainly focuses on the substituent effects: how different substituents affect the (opto)-electronic properties of the donor-acceptor (D-A) conjugated polymers. The main priority goes to understand, how different alkyl substituent effect to the polymer solubility, crystallinity, thermal properties (e.g.: glass transition temperature) and morphological order. Three classes of D-A systems were extensively studied in this work. The second chapter mainly focuses on the synthesis and structure-property study of fluorinated arene (TFB) base polymers. Here we used commercially available 1,4-dibromo-2,3,5,6-tetrafluorobenzene (TFB) as the acceptor material and prepare several polymers using 3,3'-dialkyl(3,3'-R2T2) or 3,3'-dialkoxy bithiophene (3,3'-RO2T2) units as electron donors. A detail study was done using 3,3'-bithiophene donor units incorporating branched alkoxy-functionalities by systematic variation of branching position and chain length. The study allowed disentangling the branching effects on (i) aggregation tendency, intermolecular arrangement, (iii) solid state optical energy gaps, and (iv) electronic properties in an overall consistent picture, which might guide future polymer synthesis towards optimized materials for opto-electronic applications. The third chapter mainly focused on

  20. [Study of the effects of the implementation of a human milk donor bank in preterm newborns in Aragon].

    PubMed

    Larena Fernández, Israel; Vara Callau, Marta; Royo Pérez, Delia; López Bernués, Ricardo; Cortés Sierra, Jesús; Samper Villagrasa, María Pilar

    2015-01-01

    Numerous obstacles may prevent a premature or sick neonate receiving their mother's milk. In these cases, pediatric scientific societies recommend feeding with donor human milk. In this article, it is explained what a milk bank is, how it works, the donors' selection method, and the benefits. We also describe the current situation in Aragon (Spain) is also described. A retrospective and descriptive study was conducted on the perinatal sample characteristics, as well as an analytical observational study, comparing two sample groups: pre- and post-human milk bank. Finally, differences in the post-bank stage between those patients fed with own-mother's or donor human milk were determined. The study included a total of 234 patients: 104 females and 130 males. Two groups: pre and post-bank, with 152 and 82 patients, respectively, which had similar characteristics at birth; length and head circumference were significantly higher in the post-bank group and a lower rate of necrotizing enterocolitis was also found. No statistically significant differences were found in other variables between subgroups fed with own-mother's milk and donor human milk. The establishment of the human milk donor bank has a beneficial effect, as it reduces neonatal morbidity in cases of necrotizing enterocolitis. Human milk feeding could be a protective factor against neonatal sepsis due to improve immunity. The incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis is lower after the establishment of the milk bank. Studies with more patients may demonstrate differences in other variables. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Primary health care and donor dependency: a case study of nongovernment assistance in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Maclure, R

    1995-01-01

    Primary health care assistance has become prominent in the rural development programs of many nongovernment organizations throughout sub-Saharan Africa. By emphasizing education and the promotion of new participatory health systems, most such programs aim to enhance the conditions of women as principal community care givers. Yet village-level health assistance in Africa is not without shortcomings. This is exemplified in a case study of two nongovernment programs in Burkina Faso's Namentenga Province. Although both programs have contributed to maternal health and infant survival, they have also induced new ties of donor dependency. This appears to present a conundrum for the sponsoring agencies which espouse self-reliance as a development assistance goal. In fact, however, where the intervention of nongovernment organizations helps to improve rural health, new dimensions of dependency may prove to be a positive first stage in the mobilization of women and the development of locally managed health systems. For this to be so, much is contingent on the capacity of these organizations to integrate local participation in their own planning and management processes, and to augment the professional status of indigenous health workers.

  2. Phenothiazine-Anthraquinone Donor-Acceptor Molecules: Synthesis, Electronic Properties and DFT-TDDFT Computational Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wen-Wei; Mao, Wei-Li; Hu, Yun-Xia; Tian, Zi-Qi; Wang, Zhi-Lin; Meng, Qing-Jin

    2009-08-01

    Two donor-acceptor molecules with different π-electron conjugative units, 1-((10-methyl-10H-phenothiazin-3-yl)ethynyl)anthracene-9,10-dione (AqMp) and 1,1'-(10-methyl-10H-phenothiazine-3,7-diyl)bis(ethyne-2,1-diyl)dianthracene-9,10-dione (Aq2Mp), have been synthesized and investigated for their photochemical and electrochemical properties. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations provide insights into their molecular geometry, electronic structures, and properties. These studies satisfactorily explain the electrochemistry of the two compounds and indicate that larger conjugative effect leads to smaller HOMO-LUMO gap (Eg) in Aq2Mp. Both compounds show ICT and π → π* transitions in the UV-visible range in solution, and Aq2Mp has a bathochromic shift and shows higher oscillator strength of the absorption, which has been verified by time-dependent DFT (TDDFT) calculations. The differences between AqMp and Aq2Mp indicate that the structural and conjugative effects have great influence on the electronic properties of the molecules.

  3. [Multicentric lymphoma in 411 dogs - an epidemiological study].

    PubMed

    Ernst, Theresa; Kessler, Martin; Lautscham, Esther; Willimzig, Lisanne; Neiger, Reto

    2016-08-17

    To provide an overview of the epidemiology of canine multicentric lymphoma in Germany. A total of 411 dogs with multicentric malignant lymphoma were retrospectively analysed regarding breed, age, sex, weight and the number of animals dogs with hypercalcaemic lymphoma and B-/T-immunophenotype, and compared to two reference populations (total own clinic population, n   =   52  142; dogs with health insurance in Germany, n   =   123  423). In total, 298 (72.5%) of the 411 dogs belonged to 86 different breeds, while 113 (27.5%) dogs were mixed breed. In comparison to both reference populations, a breed predisposition for the American Pitbull Terrier (odds ratio [OR] 5.2 and 18.5), American Staffordshire Terrier (OR 3.3 and 4.6), Briard (OR 5.6 and 9.5), Bullmastiff (OR 7.8 and 5.0), Irish Setter (OR 3.3 and 4.1) and Rottweiler (OR 2.8 and 3.6) was found. Golden Retrievers (n = 22, OR 1.3 and 0.9) and Bernese Mountain Dogs (n = 22, OR 2.4 and 2.0) were frequently affected in absolute numbers, but when compared to the reference populations an OR < 3 was detected. Mean body weight was 30.2 ± 13.7 kg; only 75 (18%) dogs weighed < 15 kg. Amongst the small dogs (< 15 kg), there was a large number of West Highland White Terriers (n = 12). Mean age of the dogs with lymphoma was 7.9 ± 2.7 years. Dogs weighing ≥ 15 kg were significantly (p < 0.001) younger (7.6 ± 2.4 years) compared to dogs weighing < 15 kg (9.3 ± 3.2 years). Dogs with a B-cell immunophenotype (8.5 ± 2.6 years) were significantly older compared to dogs with a T-cell immunophenotype (6.4 ± 1.8 years) (p < 0.001). There was no gender predisposition (54% male, 46% female). Hypercalcaemia as an indicator of T-cell lymphoma was present in 44 (11.4%) of the dogs. A T-cell and B-cell immunophenotype was found in 20.6% and 79.4% of the dogs, respectively. This study confirms previous data about breed predispositions for canine malignant multicentric

  4. Endodontic Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Shahravan, Arash; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiology is the study of disease distribution and factors determining or affecting it. Likewise, endodontic epidemiology can be defined as the science of studying the distribution pattern and determinants of pulp and periapical diseases; specially apical periodontitis. Although different study designs have been used in endodontics, researchers must pay more attention to study designs with higher level of evidence such as randomized clinical trials. PMID:24688577

  5. [Polish Multicenter Study on Diabetes Epidemiology (PMSDE)--1998-2000].

    PubMed

    Szybiński, Z

    2001-09-01

    increasing a burden of patients, theirs families, society and health care system. Within PMSDE programme elaboration of the model for calculation the direct costs about of diabetes and burden in terms of years of life lost using DALY measure was performed (K. Kissimova-Skarbek). Average diabetes type 1 patients costs 7 times and type 2 over 3 times higher than average health care cost and 95% of total time lost due to disability is caused by diabetes type 2. Therefor primary and secondary prevention of diabetes typ 2 have highest priority among strategic preventive targets. The Review Conference held in Warsaw at 24-25 February 2001 in the presence of WHO Experts formulated the recommendations focused on: 1. Elaboration of high risk strategy for early diagnosis of unknown diabetes type 2 based on the 2-hours OGTT (WHO 1985) 2. Continuation of the epidemiologic study in diabetes 3. Instituting the professional post for diabetes educator on the specialized and primary health care levels. 4. Further research are recommended for evaluation of the role of fasting glycemia and hyperinsulinemia as predictors and risk factors of diabetes type 2, for development of preventive models in diabetes type 2 and for development of the economical models to asses the costs of diabetes (Recommendations).

  6. Study of living kidney donor-recipient relationships: variation with socioeconomic deprivation in the white population of England.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Phillippa K; Tomson, Charles Rv; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav

    2013-01-01

    Socioeconomic deprivation is associated with higher renal replacement therapy acceptance rates in the UK but lower rates of living kidney transplantation. This study examines donor-recipient relationship patterns with socioeconomic deprivation in the white population of England. Demographic characteristics of all white live renal transplant donors and recipients between 2001 and 2010 in England were analyzed. Patterns of donor-recipient relationship were analyzed to see whether they differed according to an ecological measure of socioeconomic status (Index of Multiple Deprivation). Group comparisons were performed using chi-square tests and multivariable logistic regression. Sources of living kidney transplants differed with deprivation (p < 0.001). Recipients living in poorer areas were more likely to receive a kidney from a sibling, child, and "other relative" donor and less likely from spouses/partners. Logistic regression suggested differences seen with spouse/partner donations with deprivation were explained by differences in the age and gender of the recipients. The source of living kidneys differs by level of a