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Sample records for epidemiology strobe statement

  1. Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology - nutritional epidemiology (STROBE-nut): An extension of the STROBE statement.

    PubMed

    Lachat, C; Hawwash, D; Ocké, M C; Berg, C; Forsum, E; Hörnell, A; Larsson, C L; Sonestedt, E; Wirfält, E; Åkesson, A; Kolsteren, P; Byrnes, G; De Keyzer, W; Van Camp, J; Cade, J E; Slimani, N; Cevallos, M; Egger, M; Huybrechts, I

    2016-09-01

    Concerns have been raised about the quality of reporting in nutritional epidemiology. Research reporting guidelines such as the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) statement can improve quality of reporting in observational studies. Herein, we propose recommendations for reporting nutritional epidemiology and dietary assessment research by extending the STROBE statement into Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology - Nutritional Epidemiology (STROBE-nut). Recommendations for the reporting of nutritional epidemiology and dietary assessment research were developed following a systematic and consultative process, co-ordinated by a multidisciplinary group of 21 experts. Consensus on reporting guidelines was reached through a three-round Delphi consultation process with 53 external experts. In total, 24 recommendations for nutritional epidemiology were added to the STROBE checklist. When used appropriately, reporting guidelines for nutritional epidemiology can contribute to improve reporting of observational studies with a focus on diet and health.

  2. Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology-Nutritional Epidemiology (STROBE-nut): An Extension of the STROBE Statement.

    PubMed

    Lachat, Carl; Hawwash, Dana; Ocké, Marga C; Berg, Christina; Forsum, Elisabet; Hörnell, Agneta; Larsson, Christel; Sonestedt, Emily; Wirfält, Elisabet; Åkesson, Agneta; Kolsteren, Patrick; Byrnes, Graham; De Keyzer, Willem; Van Camp, John; Cade, Janet E; Slimani, Nadia; Cevallos, Myriam; Egger, Matthias; Huybrechts, Inge

    2016-06-01

    Concerns have been raised about the quality of reporting in nutritional epidemiology. Research reporting guidelines such as the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) statement can improve quality of reporting in observational studies. Herein, we propose recommendations for reporting nutritional epidemiology and dietary assessment research by extending the STROBE statement into Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology-Nutritional Epidemiology (STROBE-nut). Recommendations for the reporting of nutritional epidemiology and dietary assessment research were developed following a systematic and consultative process, coordinated by a multidisciplinary group of 21 experts. Consensus on reporting guidelines was reached through a three-round Delphi consultation process with 53 external experts. In total, 24 recommendations for nutritional epidemiology were added to the STROBE checklist. When used appropriately, reporting guidelines for nutritional epidemiology can contribute to improve reporting of observational studies with a focus on diet and health.

  3. Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology—Nutritional Epidemiology (STROBE-nut): An Extension of the STROBE Statement

    PubMed Central

    Hawwash, Dana; Ocké, Marga C.; Berg, Christina; Forsum, Elisabet; Sonestedt, Emily; Wirfält, Elisabet; Åkesson, Agneta; Kolsteren, Patrick; Byrnes, Graham; De Keyzer, Willem; Van Camp, John; Slimani, Nadia; Cevallos, Myriam; Egger, Matthias; Huybrechts, Inge

    2016-01-01

    Background Concerns have been raised about the quality of reporting in nutritional epidemiology. Research reporting guidelines such as the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) statement can improve quality of reporting in observational studies. Herein, we propose recommendations for reporting nutritional epidemiology and dietary assessment research by extending the STROBE statement into Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology—Nutritional Epidemiology (STROBE-nut). Methods and Findings Recommendations for the reporting of nutritional epidemiology and dietary assessment research were developed following a systematic and consultative process, coordinated by a multidisciplinary group of 21 experts. Consensus on reporting guidelines was reached through a three-round Delphi consultation process with 53 external experts. In total, 24 recommendations for nutritional epidemiology were added to the STROBE checklist. Conclusion When used appropriately, reporting guidelines for nutritional epidemiology can contribute to improve reporting of observational studies with a focus on diet and health. PMID:27270749

  4. Perspective: An Extension of the STROBE Statement for Observational Studies in Nutritional Epidemiology (STROBE-nut): Explanation and Elaboration.

    PubMed

    Hörnell, Agneta; Berg, Christina; Forsum, Elisabet; Larsson, Christel; Sonestedt, Emily; Åkesson, Agneta; Lachat, Carl; Hawwash, Dana; Kolsteren, Patrick; Byrnes, Graham; De Keyzer, Willem; Van Camp, John; Cade, Janet E; Greenwood, Darren C; Slimani, Nadia; Cevallos, Myriam; Egger, Matthias; Huybrechts, Inge; Wirfält, Elisabet

    2017-09-01

    Nutritional epidemiology is an inherently complex and multifaceted research area. Dietary intake is a complex exposure and is challenging to describe and assess, and links between diet, health, and disease are difficult to ascertain. Consequently, adequate reporting is necessary to facilitate comprehension, interpretation, and generalizability of results and conclusions. The STrengthening the Reporting of OBservational studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) statement is an international and collaborative initiative aiming to enhance the quality of reporting of observational studies. We previously presented a checklist of 24 reporting recommendations for the field of nutritional epidemiology, called "the STROBE-nut." The STROBE-nut is an extension of the general STROBE statement, intended to complement the STROBE recommendations to improve and standardize the reporting in nutritional epidemiology. The aim of the present article is to explain the rationale for, and elaborate on, the STROBE-nut recommendations to enhance the clarity and to facilitate the understanding of the guidelines. Examples from the published literature are used as illustrations, and references are provided for further reading.

  5. Perspective: An Extension of the STROBE Statement for Observational Studies in Nutritional Epidemiology (STROBE-nut): Explanation and Elaboration

    PubMed Central

    Berg, Christina; Forsum, Elisabet; Larsson, Christel; Sonestedt, Emily; Åkesson, Agneta; Lachat, Carl; Hawwash, Dana; Kolsteren, Patrick; Byrnes, Graham; De Keyzer, Willem; Van Camp, John; Cade, Janet E; Greenwood, Darren C; Slimani, Nadia; Cevallos, Myriam; Egger, Matthias; Huybrechts, Inge; Wirfält, Elisabet

    2017-01-01

    Nutritional epidemiology is an inherently complex and multifaceted research area. Dietary intake is a complex exposure and is challenging to describe and assess, and links between diet, health, and disease are difficult to ascertain. Consequently, adequate reporting is necessary to facilitate comprehension, interpretation, and generalizability of results and conclusions. The STrengthening the Reporting of OBservational studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) statement is an international and collaborative initiative aiming to enhance the quality of reporting of observational studies. We previously presented a checklist of 24 reporting recommendations for the field of nutritional epidemiology, called “the STROBE-nut.” The STROBE-nut is an extension of the general STROBE statement, intended to complement the STROBE recommendations to improve and standardize the reporting in nutritional epidemiology. The aim of the present article is to explain the rationale for, and elaborate on, the STROBE-nut recommendations to enhance the clarity and to facilitate the understanding of the guidelines. Examples from the published literature are used as illustrations, and references are provided for further reading. PMID:28916567

  6. Explanation and Elaboration Document for the STROBE-Vet Statement: Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology - Veterinary Extension.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, A M; Sargeant, J M; Dohoo, I R; Erb, H N; Cevallos, M; Egger, M; Ersbøll, A K; Martin, S W; Nielsen, L R; Pearl, D L; Pfeiffer, D U; Sanchez, J; Torrence, M E; Vigre, H; Waldner, C; Ward, M P

    2016-12-01

    The STROBE (Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology) statement was first published in 2007 and again in 2014. The purpose of the original STROBE was to provide guidance for authors, reviewers and editors to improve the comprehensiveness of reporting; however, STROBE has a unique focus on observational studies. Although much of the guidance provided by the original STROBE document is directly applicable, it was deemed useful to map those statements to veterinary concepts, provide veterinary examples and highlight unique aspects of reporting in veterinary observational studies. Here, we present the examples and explanations for the checklist items included in the STROBE-Vet Statement. Thus, this is a companion document to the STROBE-Vet Statement Methods and process document, which describes the checklist and how it was developed. © 2016 The Authors. Zoonoses and Public Health published by Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. [The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) statement: guidelines for reporting observational studies].

    PubMed

    von Elm, Erik; Altman, Douglas G; Egger, Matthias; Pocock, Stuart J; Gøtzsche, Peter C; Vandenbroucke, Jan P

    2008-01-01

    Much biomedical research is observational. The reporting of such research is often inadequate, which hampers the assessment of its strengths and weaknesses and of a study's generalisability. The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) initiative developed recommendations on what should be included in an accurate and complete report of an observational study. We defined the scope of the recommendations to cover three main study designs: cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional studies. We convened a 2-day workshop in September, 2004, with methodologists, researchers, and journal editors to draft a checklist of items. This list was subsequently revised during several meetings of the coordinating group and in e-mail discussions with the larger group of STROBE contributors, taking into account empirical evidence and methodological considerations. The workshop and the subsequent iterative process of consultation and revision resulted in a checklist of 22 items (the STROBE statement) that relate to the title, abstract, introduction, methods, results, and discussion sections of articles. 18 items are common to all three study designs and four are specific for cohort, case-control, or cross-sectional studies. A detailed explanation and elaboration document is published separately and is freely available on the websites of PLoS Medicine, Annals of Internal Medicine, and Epidemiology. We hope that the STROBE statement will contribute to improving the quality of reporting of observational studies.

  8. The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) Statement: guidelines for reporting observational studies.

    PubMed

    von Elm, Erik; Altman, Douglas G; Egger, Matthias; Pocock, Stuart J; Gøtzsche, Peter C; Vandenbroucke, Jan P

    2014-12-01

    Much biomedical research is observational. The reporting of such research is often inadequate, which hampers the assessment of its strengths and weaknesses and of a study's generalisability. The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) Initiative developed recommendations on what should be included in an accurate and complete report of an observational study. We defined the scope of the recommendations to cover three main study designs: cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional studies. We convened a 2-day workshop in September 2004, with methodologists, researchers, and journal editors to draft a checklist of items. This list was subsequently revised during several meetings of the coordinating group and in e-mail discussions with the larger group of STROBE contributors, taking into account empirical evidence and methodological considerations. The workshop and the subsequent iterative process of consultation and revision resulted in a checklist of 22 items (the STROBE Statement) that relate to the title, abstract, introduction, methods, results, and discussion sections of articles. 18 items are common to all three study designs and four are specific for cohort, case-control, or cross-sectional studies. A detailed Explanation and Elaboration document is published separately and is freely available on the Web sites of PLoS Medicine, Annals of Internal Medicine, and Epidemiology. We hope that the STROBE Statement will contribute to improving the quality of reporting of observational studies.

  9. Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology for Newborn Infection (STROBE-NI): an extension of the STROBE statement for neonatal infection research.

    PubMed

    Fitchett, Elizabeth J A; Seale, Anna C; Vergnano, Stefania; Sharland, Michael; Heath, Paul T; Saha, Samir K; Agarwal, Ramesh; Ayede, Adejumoke I; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Black, Robert; Bojang, Kalifa; Campbell, Harry; Cousens, Simon; Darmstadt, Gary L; Madhi, Shabir A; Meulen, Ajoke Sobanjo-Ter; Modi, Neena; Patterson, Janna; Qazi, Shamim; Schrag, Stephanie J; Stoll, Barbara J; Wall, Stephen N; Wammanda, Robinson D; Lawn, Joy E

    2016-10-01

    Neonatal infections are estimated to account for a quarter of the 2·8 million annual neonatal deaths, as well as approximately 3% of all disability-adjusted life-years. Despite this burden, few data are available on incidence, aetiology, and outcomes, particularly regarding impairment. We aimed to develop guidelines for improved scientific reporting of observational neonatal infection studies, to increase comparability and to strengthen research in this area. This checklist, Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology for Newborn Infection (STROBE- NI), is an extension of the STROBE (Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology) statement. STROBE-NI was developed following systematic reviews of published literature (1996-2015), compilation of more than 130 potential reporting recommendations, and circulation of a survey to relevant professionals worldwide, eliciting responses from 147 professionals from 37 countries. An international consensus meeting of 18 participants (with expertise in infectious diseases, neonatology, microbiology, epidemiology, and statistics) identified priority recommendations for reporting, additional to the STROBE statement. Implementation of these STROBE-NI recommendations, and linked checklist, aims to improve scientific reporting of neonatal infection studies, increasing data utility and allowing meta-analyses and pathogen-specific burden estimates to inform global policy and new interventions, including maternal vaccines.

  10. Methods and Processes of Developing the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology-Veterinary (STROBE-Vet) Statement.

    PubMed

    Sargeant, J M; O'Connor, A M; Dohoo, I R; Erb, H N; Cevallos, M; Egger, M; Ersbøll, A K; Martin, S W; Nielsen, L R; Pearl, D L; Pfeiffer, D U; Sanchez, J; Torrence, M E; Vigre, H; Waldner, C; Ward, M P

    2016-12-01

    Reporting of observational studies in veterinary research presents challenges that often are not addressed in published reporting guidelines. Our objective was to develop an extension of the STROBE (Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology) statement that addresses unique reporting requirements for observational studies in veterinary medicine related to health, production, welfare, and food safety. We conducted a consensus meeting with 17 experts in Mississauga, Canada. Experts completed a premeeting survey about whether items in the STROBE statement should be modified or added to address unique issues related to observational studies in animal species with health, production, welfare, or food safety outcomes. During the meeting, each STROBE item was discussed to determine whether or not rewording was recommended, and whether additions were warranted. Anonymous voting was used to determine consensus. Six items required no modifications or additions. Modifications or additions were made to the STROBE items 1 (title and abstract), 3 (objectives), 5 (setting), 6 (participants), 7 (variables), 8 (data sources and measurement), 9 (bias), 10 (study size), 12 (statistical methods), 13 (participants), 14 (descriptive data), 15 (outcome data), 16 (main results), 17 (other analyses), 19 (limitations), and 22 (funding). The methods and processes used were similar to those used for other extensions of the STROBE statement. The use of this STROBE statement extension should improve reporting of observational studies in veterinary research by recognizing unique features of observational studies involving food-producing and companion animals, products of animal origin, aquaculture, and wildlife.

  11. Strengthening the Reporting of Molecular Epidemiology for Infectious Diseases (STROME-ID): an extension of the STROBE statement.

    PubMed

    Field, Nigel; Cohen, Ted; Struelens, Marc J; Palm, Daniel; Cookson, Barry; Glynn, Judith R; Gallo, Valentina; Ramsay, Mary; Sonnenberg, Pam; Maccannell, Duncan; Charlett, Andre; Egger, Matthias; Green, Jonathan; Vineis, Paolo; Abubakar, Ibrahim

    2014-04-01

    Molecular data are now widely used in epidemiological studies to investigate the transmission, distribution, biology, and diversity of pathogens. Our objective was to establish recommendations to support good scientific reporting of molecular epidemiological studies to encourage authors to consider specific threats to valid inference. The statement Strengthening the Reporting of Molecular Epidemiology for Infectious Diseases (STROME-ID) builds upon the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) initiative. The STROME-ID statement was developed by a working group of epidemiologists, statisticians, bioinformaticians, virologists, and microbiologists with expertise in control of infection and communicable diseases. The statement focuses on issues relating to the reporting of epidemiological studies of infectious diseases using molecular data that were not addressed by STROBE. STROME-ID addresses terminology, measures of genetic diversity within pathogen populations, laboratory methods, sample collection, use of molecular markers, molecular clocks, timeframe, multiple-strain infections, non-independence of infectious-disease data, missing data, ascertainment bias, consistency between molecular and epidemiological data, and ethical considerations with respect to infectious-disease research. In total, 20 items were added to the 22 item STROBE checklist. When used, the STROME-ID recommendations should advance the quality and transparency of scientific reporting, with clear benefits for evidence reviews and health-policy decision making.

  12. Evaluating psychiatric case-control studies using the STROBE (STrengthening the Reporting of OBservational Studies in Epidemiology) statement.

    PubMed

    Goi, Pedro Domingues; Goi, Julia Domingues; Cordini, Kariny Larissa; Ceresér, Keila Mendes; Rocha, Neusa Sica da

    2014-01-01

    Case-control studies are important in developing clinical and public health knowledge. The STROBE statement (STrengthening the Reporting of OBservational Studies in Epidemiology) was developed to establish a checklist of items that should be included in articles reporting observational studies. Our aim was to analyze whether the psychiatric case-control articles published in Brazilian journals with CAPES Qualis rating B1/B2 in 2009 conformed with the STROBE statement. Descriptive study on psychiatric papers published in Brazilian journals, within the Postgraduate Medical Program on Psychiatry, at Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul. All psychiatric case-control studies from Brazilian Qualis B1/B2 journals of psychiatry, neurology and public health in 2009 were analyzed. The four most specific items of the STROBE statement were used to evaluate whether these studies fitted within the case-control parameters: 1) selection of cases and controls; 2) controlling for bias; 3) statistical analysis; and 4) presentation of results. Sixteen case-control studies were identified, of which eleven (68.75%) were in psychiatry-focused journals. From analysis using the STROBE statement, all of the articles conformed with item 1; two (12.5%) completely conformed with item 2; none completely conformed with item 3; and only three (18.8%) conformed with item 4. The case-control studies analyzed here did not completely conform with the four STROBE statement items for case-control design. In view of the inadequate methodology of the published studies, these findings justify focusing on research and methodology and expanding the investigations on adherence of studies to their designs.

  13. Methods and processes of developing the strengthening the reporting of observational studies in epidemiology - veterinary (STROBE-Vet) statement.

    PubMed

    Sargeant, J M; O'Connor, A M; Dohoo, I R; Erb, H N; Cevallos, M; Egger, M; Ersbøll, A K; Martin, S W; Nielsen, L R; Pearl, D L; Pfeiffer, D U; Sanchez, J; Torrence, M E; Vigre, H; Waldner, C; Ward, M P

    2016-11-01

    The reporting of observational studies in veterinary research presents many challenges that often are not adequately addressed in published reporting guidelines. To develop an extension of the STROBE (Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology) statement that addresses unique reporting requirements for observational studies in veterinary medicine related to health, production, welfare, and food safety. A consensus meeting of experts was organized to develop an extension of the STROBE statement to address observational studies in veterinary medicine with respect to animal health, animal production, animal welfare, and food safety outcomes. Consensus meeting May 11-13, 2014 in Mississauga, Ontario, Canada. Seventeen experts from North America, Europe, and Australia attended the meeting. The experts were epidemiologists and biostatisticians, many of whom hold or have held editorial positions with relevant journals. Prior to the meeting, 19 experts completed a survey about whether they felt any of the 22 items of the STROBE statement should be modified and if items should be added to address unique issues related to observational studies in animal species with health, production, welfare, or food safety outcomes. At the meeting, the participants were provided with the survey responses and relevant literature concerning the reporting of veterinary observational studies. During the meeting, each STROBE item was discussed to determine whether or not re-wording was recommended, and whether additions were warranted. Anonymous voting was used to determine whether there was consensus for each item change or addition. The consensus was that six items needed no modifications or additions. Modifications or additions were made to the STROBE items numbered: 1 (title and abstract), 3 (objectives), 5 (setting), 6 (participants), 7 (variables), 8 (data sources/measurement), 9 (bias), 10 (study size), 12 (statistical methods), 13 (participants), 14

  14. Explanation and Elaboration Document for the STROBE-Vet Statement: Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology-Veterinary Extension.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, A M; Sargeant, J M; Dohoo, I R; Erb, H N; Cevallos, M; Egger, M; Ersbøll, A K; Martin, S W; Nielsen, L R; Pearl, D L; Pfeiffer, D U; Sanchez, J; Torrence, M E; Vigre, H; Waldner, C; Ward, M P

    2016-11-01

    The STROBE (Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology) statement was first published in 2007 and again in 2014. The purpose of the original STROBE was to provide guidance for authors, reviewers, and editors to improve the comprehensiveness of reporting; however, STROBE has a unique focus on observational studies. Although much of the guidance provided by the original STROBE document is directly applicable, it was deemed useful to map those statements to veterinary concepts, provide veterinary examples, and highlight unique aspects of reporting in veterinary observational studies. Here, we present the examples and explanations for the checklist items included in the STROBE-Vet statement. Thus, this is a companion document to the STROBE-Vet statement methods and process document (JVIM_14575 "Methods and Processes of Developing the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology-Veterinary (STROBE-Vet) Statement" undergoing proofing), which describes the checklist and how it was developed. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  15. Methods and Processes of Developing the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology - Veterinary (STROBE-Vet) Statement.

    PubMed

    Sargeant, J M; O'Connor, A M; Dohoo, I R; Erb, H N; Cevallos, M; Egger, M; Ersbøll, A K; Martin, S W; Nielsen, L R; Pearl, D L; Pfeiffer, D U; Sanchez, J; Torrence, M E; Vigre, H; Waldner, C; Ward, M P

    2016-12-01

    The reporting of observational studies in veterinary research presents many challenges that often are not adequately addressed in published reporting guidelines. A consensus meeting of experts was organized to develop an extension of the STROBE statement to address observational studies in veterinary medicine with respect to animal health, animal production, animal welfare and food safety outcomes. The consensus meeting was held 11-13 May 2014 in Mississauga, Ontario, Canada. Seventeen experts from North America, Europe and Australia attended the meeting. The experts were epidemiologists and biostatisticians, many of whom hold or have held editorial positions with relevant journals. Prior to the meeting, 19 experts completed a survey about whether they felt any of the 22 items of the STROBE statement should be modified and whether items should be added to address unique issues related to observational studies in animal species with health, production, welfare or food safety outcomes. At the meeting, the participants were provided with the survey responses and relevant literature concerning the reporting of veterinary observational studies. During the meeting, each STROBE item was discussed to determine whether or not re-wording was recommended, and whether additions were warranted. Anonymous voting was used to determine whether there was consensus for each item change or addition. The consensus was that six items needed no modifications or additions. Modifications or additions were made to the STROBE items numbered as follows: 1 (title and abstract), 3 (objectives), 5 (setting), 6 (participants), 7 (variables), 8 (data sources/measurement), 9 (bias), 10 (study size), 12 (statistical methods), 13 (participants), 14 (descriptive data), 15 (outcome data), 16 (main results), 17 (other analyses), 19 (limitations) and 22 (funding). Published literature was not always available to support modification to, or inclusion of, an item. The methods and processes used in the

  16. Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE): Explanation and Elaboration

    PubMed Central

    Vandenbroucke, Jan P; von Elm, Erik; Altman, Douglas G; Gøtzsche, Peter C; Mulrow, Cynthia D; Pocock, Stuart J; Poole, Charles; Schlesselman, James J; Egger, Matthias

    2007-01-01

    Much medical research is observational. The reporting of observational studies is often of insufficient quality. Poor reporting hampers the assessment of the strengths and weaknesses of a study and the generalisability of its results. Taking into account empirical evidence and theoretical considerations, a group of methodologists, researchers, and editors developed the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) recommendations to improve the quality of reporting of observational studies. The STROBE Statement consists of a checklist of 22 items, which relate to the title, abstract, introduction, methods, results and discussion sections of articles. Eighteen items are common to cohort studies, case-control studies and cross-sectional studies and four are specific to each of the three study designs. The STROBE Statement provides guidance to authors about how to improve the reporting of observational studies and facilitates critical appraisal and interpretation of studies by reviewers, journal editors and readers. This explanatory and elaboration document is intended to enhance the use, understanding, and dissemination of the STROBE Statement. The meaning and rationale for each checklist item are presented. For each item, one or several published examples and, where possible, references to relevant empirical studies and methodological literature are provided. Examples of useful flow diagrams are also included. The STROBE Statement, this document, and the associated Web site (http://www.strobe-statement.org/) should be helpful resources to improve reporting of observational research. PMID:17941715

  17. Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE): explanation and elaboration.

    PubMed

    Vandenbroucke, Jan P; von Elm, Erik; Altman, Douglas G; Gøtzsche, Peter C; Mulrow, Cynthia D; Pocock, Stuart J; Poole, Charles; Schlesselman, James J; Egger, Matthias

    2014-12-01

    Much medical research is observational. The reporting of observational studies is often of insufficient quality. Poor reporting hampers the assessment of the strengths and weaknesses of a study and the generalisability of its results. Taking into account empirical evidence and theoretical considerations, a group of methodologists, researchers, and editors developed the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) recommendations to improve the quality of reporting of observational studies. The STROBE Statement consists of a checklist of 22 items, which relate to the title, abstract, introduction, methods, results and discussion sections of articles. Eighteen items are common to cohort studies, case-control studies and cross-sectional studies and four are specific to each of the three study designs. The STROBE Statement provides guidance to authors about how to improve the reporting of observational studies and facilitates critical appraisal and interpretation of studies by reviewers, journal editors and readers. This explanatory and elaboration document is intended to enhance the use, understanding, and dissemination of the STROBE Statement. The meaning and rationale for each checklist item are presented. For each item, one or several published examples and, where possible, references to relevant empirical studies and methodological literature are provided. Examples of useful flow diagrams are also included. The STROBE Statement, this document, and the associated Web site (http://www.strobe-statement.org/) should be helpful resources to improve reporting of observational research.

  18. Evaluation of the Quality of Reporting of Observational Studies in Otorhinolaryngology - Based on the STROBE Statement.

    PubMed

    Hendriksma, Martine; Joosten, Michiel H M A; Peters, Jeroen P M; Grolman, Wilko; Stegeman, Inge

    2017-01-01

    Observational studies are the most frequently published studies in literature. When randomized controlled trials cannot be conducted because of ethical or practical considerations, an observational study design is the first choice. The STROBE Statement (STrengthening the Reporting of OBservational studies in Epidemiology) was developed to provide guidance on how to adequately report observational studies. The objectives were 1) to evaluate the quality of reporting of observational studies of otorhinolaryngologic literature using the STROBE Statement checklist, 2) to compare the quality of reporting of observational studies in the top 5 Ear, Nose, Throat (ENT) journals versus the top 5 general medical journals and 3) to formulate recommendations to improve adequate reporting of observational research in otorhinolaryngologic literature. The top 5 general medical journals and top 5 otorhinolaryngologic journals were selected based on their ISI Web of Knowledge impact factors. On August 3rd, 2015, we performed a PubMed search using different filters to retrieve observational articles from these journals. Studies were selected from 2010 to 2014 for the general medical journals and from 2015 for the ENT journals. We assessed all STROBE items to examine how many items were reported adequately for each journal type. The articles in the top 5 general medical journals (n = 11) reported a mean of 69.2% (95% confidence interval (CI): 65.8%-72.7%; median 70.6%), whereas the top 5 ENT journals (n = 29) reported a mean of 51.4% (95% CI: 47.7%-55.0%; median 50.0%). The two journal types reported STROBE items significantly different (p < .001). Quality of reporting of observational studies in otorhinolaryngologic articles can considerably enhance. The quality of reporting was better in general medical journals compared to ENT journals. To improve the quality of reporting of observational studies, we recommend authors and editors to endorse and actively implement the STROBE

  19. Evaluation of the Quality of Reporting of Observational Studies in Otorhinolaryngology - Based on the STROBE Statement

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Jeroen P. M.; Grolman, Wilko; Stegeman, Inge

    2017-01-01

    Background Observational studies are the most frequently published studies in literature. When randomized controlled trials cannot be conducted because of ethical or practical considerations, an observational study design is the first choice. The STROBE Statement (STrengthening the Reporting of OBservational studies in Epidemiology) was developed to provide guidance on how to adequately report observational studies. Objectives The objectives were 1) to evaluate the quality of reporting of observational studies of otorhinolaryngologic literature using the STROBE Statement checklist, 2) to compare the quality of reporting of observational studies in the top 5 Ear, Nose, Throat (ENT) journals versus the top 5 general medical journals and 3) to formulate recommendations to improve adequate reporting of observational research in otorhinolaryngologic literature. Methods The top 5 general medical journals and top 5 otorhinolaryngologic journals were selected based on their ISI Web of Knowledge impact factors. On August 3rd, 2015, we performed a PubMed search using different filters to retrieve observational articles from these journals. Studies were selected from 2010 to 2014 for the general medical journals and from 2015 for the ENT journals. We assessed all STROBE items to examine how many items were reported adequately for each journal type. Results The articles in the top 5 general medical journals (n = 11) reported a mean of 69.2% (95% confidence interval (CI): 65.8%–72.7%; median 70.6%), whereas the top 5 ENT journals (n = 29) reported a mean of 51.4% (95% CI: 47.7%–55.0%; median 50.0%). The two journal types reported STROBE items significantly different (p < .001). Conclusion Quality of reporting of observational studies in otorhinolaryngologic articles can considerably enhance. The quality of reporting was better in general medical journals compared to ENT journals. To improve the quality of reporting of observational studies, we recommend authors and editors

  20. Using the STROBE statement to assess reporting in blindness prevalence surveys in low and middle income countries.

    PubMed

    Ramke, Jacqueline; Palagyi, Anna; Jordan, Vanessa; Petkovic, Jennifer; Gilbert, Clare E

    2017-01-01

    Cross-sectional blindness prevalence surveys are essential to plan and monitor eye care services. Incomplete or inaccurate reporting can prevent effective translation of research findings. The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) statement is a 32 item checklist developed to improve reporting of observational studies. The aim of this study was to assess the completeness of reporting in blindness prevalence surveys in low and middle income countries (LMICs) using STROBE. MEDLINE, EMBASE and Web of Science databases were searched on April 8 2016 to identify cross-sectional blindness prevalence surveys undertaken in LMICs and published after STROBE was published in December 2007. The STROBE tool was applied to all included studies, and each STROBE item was categorized as 'yes' (met criteria), 'no' (did not meet criteria) or 'not applicable'. The 'Completeness of reporting (COR) score' for each manuscript was calculated: COR score = yes / [yes + no]. In journals with included studies the instructions to authors and reviewers were checked for reference to STROBE. The 89 included studies were undertaken in 32 countries and published in 37 journals. The mean COR score was 60.9% (95% confidence interval [CI] 58.1-63.7%; range 30.8-88.9%). The mean COR score did not differ between surveys published in journals with author instructions referring to STROBE (10/37 journals; 61.1%, 95%CI 56.4-65.8%) or in journals where STROBE was not mentioned (60.9%, 95%CI 57.4-64.3%; p = 0.93). While reporting in blindness prevalence surveys is strong in some areas, others need improvement. We recommend that more journals adopt the STROBE checklist and ensure it is used by authors and reviewers.

  1. The STROBE statement and neuropsychology: lighting the way toward evidence-based practice.

    PubMed

    Loring, David W; Bowden, Stephen C

    2014-01-01

    Reporting appropriate research detail across clinical disciplines is often inconsistent or incomplete. Insufficient report detail reduces confidence in findings, makes study replication more difficult, and decreases the precision of data available for critical review including meta-analysis. In response to these concerns, cooperative attempts across multiple specialties have developed explicit research reporting standards to guide publication detail. These recommendations have been widely adopted by high impact medical journals, but have not yet been widely embraced by neuropsychology. The STROBE Statement (STrengthening the Reporting of Observational studies in Epidemiology) is particularly relevant to neuropsychology since clinical research is often based on non-funded studies of patient samples. In this paper we describe the STROBE Statement and demonstrate how STROBE criteria, applied to reporting of neuropsychological findings, will maintain neuropsychology's position as a leader in quantifying brain-behavior relationships. We also provide specific recommendations for data reporting and disclosure of perceived conflicts of interest that will further enhance reporting transparency for possible perceived sources of bias. In an era in which evidence-based practice assumes an increasingly prominent role, improved reporting standards will promote better patient care, assist in developing quality practice guidelines, and ensure that neuropsychology remains a vigorous discipline in the clinical neurosciences that consciously aspires to high methodological rigor.

  2. Reporting Guidelines for Health Care Simulation Research: Extensions to the CONSORT and STROBE Statements.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Adam; Kessler, David; Mackinnon, Ralph; Chang, Todd P; Nadkarni, Vinay M; Hunt, Elizabeth A; Duval-Arnould, Jordan; Lin, Yiqun; Cook, David A; Pusic, Martin; Hui, Joshua; Moher, David; Egger, Matthias; Auerbach, Marc

    2016-08-01

    Simulation-based research (SBR) is rapidly expanding but the quality of reporting needs improvement. For a reader to critically assess a study, the elements of the study need to be clearly reported. Our objective was to develop reporting guidelines for SBR by creating extensions to the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) and Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) Statements. An iterative multistep consensus-building process was used on the basis of the recommended steps for developing reporting guidelines. The consensus process involved the following: (1) developing a steering committee, (2) defining the scope of the reporting guidelines, (3) identifying a consensus panel, (4) generating a list of items for discussion via online premeeting survey, (5) conducting a consensus meeting, and (6) drafting reporting guidelines with an explanation and elaboration document. The following 11 extensions were recommended for item 1 (title/abstract), item 2 (background), item 5 (interventions), item 6 (outcomes), item 11 (blinding), item 12 (statistical methods), item 15 (baseline data), item 17 (outcomes/estimation), item 20 (limitations), item 21 (generalizability), and item 25 (funding). The following 10 extensions were recommended for STROBE: item 1 (title/abstract), item 2 (background/rationale), item 7 (variables), item 8 (data sources/measurement), item 12 (statistical methods), item 14 (descriptive data), item 16 (main results), item 19 (limitations), item 21 (generalizability), and item 22 (funding). An elaboration document was created to provide examples and explanation for each extension. We have developed extensions for the CONSORT and STROBE Statements that can help improve the quality of reporting for SBR.

  3. Impact of STROBE Statement Publication on Quality of Observational Study Reporting: Interrupted Time Series versus Before-After Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bastuji-Garin, Sylvie; Sbidian, Emilie; Gaudy-Marqueste, Caroline; Ferrat, Emilie; Roujeau, Jean-Claude; Richard, Marie-Aleth; Canoui-Poitrine, Florence

    2013-01-01

    Background In uncontrolled before-after studies, CONSORT was shown to improve the reporting of randomised trials. Before-after studies ignore underlying secular trends and may overestimate the impact of interventions. Our aim was to assess the impact of the 2007 STROBE statement publication on the quality of observational study reporting, using both uncontrolled before-after analyses and interrupted time series. Methods For this quasi-experimental study, original articles reporting cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional studies published between 2004 and 2010 in the four dermatological journals having the highest 5-year impact factors (≥4) were selected. We compared the proportions of STROBE items (STROBE score) adequately reported in each article during three periods, two pre STROBE period (2004–2005 and 2006–2007) and one post STROBE period (2008–2010). Segmented regression analysis of interrupted time series was also performed. Results Of the 456 included articles, 187 (41%) reported cohort studies, 166 (36.4%) cross-sectional studies, and 103 (22.6%) case-control studies. The median STROBE score was 57% (range, 18%–98%). Before-after analysis evidenced significant STROBE score increases between the two pre-STROBE periods and between the earliest pre-STROBE period and the post-STROBE period (median score2004–05 48% versus median score2008–10 58%, p<0.001) but not between the immediate pre-STROBE period and the post-STROBE period (median score2006–07 58% versus median score2008–10 58%, p = 0.42). In the pre STROBE period, the six-monthly mean STROBE score increased significantly, by 1.19% per six-month period (absolute increase 95%CI, 0.26% to 2.11%, p = 0.016). By segmented analysis, no significant changes in STROBE score trends occurred (−0.40%; 95%CI, −2.20 to 1.41; p = 0.64) in the post STROBE statement publication. Interpretation The quality of reports increased over time but was not affected by STROBE. Our findings raise

  4. STROBE-AMS: recommendations to optimise reporting of epidemiological studies on antimicrobial resistance and informing improvement in antimicrobial stewardship

    PubMed Central

    Tacconelli, Evelina; Cataldo, Maria A; Paul, M; Leibovici, L; Kluytmans, Jan; Schröder, Wiebke; Foschi, Federico; De Angelis, Giulia; De Waure, Chiara; Cadeddu, Chiara; Mutters, Nico T; Gastmeier, Petra; Cookson, Barry

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To explore the accuracy of application of the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) tool in epidemiological studies focused on the evaluation of the role of antibiotics in selecting resistance, and to derive and test an extension of STROBE to improve the suitability of the tool in evaluating the quality of reporting in these area. Methods A three-step study was performed. First, a systematic review of the literature analysing the association between antimicrobial exposure and acquisition of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and/or multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii was performed. Second, articles were reviewed according to the STROBE checklist for epidemiological studies. Third, a set of potential new items focused on antimicrobial-resistance quality indicators was derived through an expert two-round RAND-modified Delphi procedure and tested on the articles selected through the literature review. Results The literature search identified 78 studies. Overall, the quality of reporting appeared to be poor in most areas. Five STROBE items, comprising statistical analysis and study objectives, were satisfactory in <25% of the studies. Informative abstract, reporting of bias, control of confounding, generalisability and description of study size were missing in more than half the articles. A set of 21 new items was developed and tested. The new items focused particularly on the study setting, antimicrobial usage indicators, and patients epidemiological and clinical characteristics. The performance of the new items in included studies was very low (<25%). Conclusions Our paper reveals that reporting in epidemiological papers analysing the association between antimicrobial usage and development of resistance is poor. The implementation of the newly developed STROBE for antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) tool should enhance appropriate study design and reporting, and therefore contribute to the improvement of

  5. Weaknesses in the reporting of cross-sectional studies according to the STROBE statement

    PubMed Central

    Malaga, German; Miranda, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The inadequate reporting of cross-sectional studies, as in the case of the prevalence of metabolic syndrome, could cause problems in the synthesis of new evidence and lead to errors in the formulation of public policies. Objective: To evaluate the reporting quality of the articles regarding metabolic syndrome prevalence in Peruvian adults using the STROBE recommendations. Methods: We conducted a thorough literature search with the terms "Metabolic Syndrome", "Sindrome Metabolico" and "Peru" in MEDLINE/PubMed, LILACS, SciELO, LIPECS and BVS-Peru until December 2014. We selected those who were population-based observational studies with randomized sampling that reported prevalence of metabolic syndrome in adults aged 18 or more of both sexes. Information was analysed through the STROBE score per item and recommendation. Results: Seventeen articles were included in this study. All articles met the recommendations related to the report of the study's rationale, design, and provision of summary measures. The recommendations with the lowest scores were those related to the sensitivity analysis (8%, n= 1/17), participant flowchart (18%, n= 3/17), missing data analysis (24%, n= 4/17), and number of participants in each study phase (24%, n= 4/17). Conclusion: Cross-sectional studies regarding the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in peruvian adults have an inadequate reporting on the methods and results sections. We identified a clear need to improve the quality of such studies. PMID:26848197

  6. Cross-sectional studies published in Indian journal of community medicine: evaluation of adherence to strengthening the reporting of observational studies in epidemiology statement.

    PubMed

    Jeelani, A; Malik, Wr; Haq, I; Aleem, S; Mujtaba, M; Syed, N

    2014-11-01

    The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) statement is a set of recommendations about what should be included in a more accurate and complete description of observational studies. The aim was to assess the quality of reporting of cross-sectional studies by evaluating the extent to which they adhere to the STROBE statement. This study has a cross-sectional design. All the articles published as original articles in Indian Journal of Community Medicine from January 2010 to September 2011 were downloaded from the journal website. A total of 96 articles were downloaded out of which 80 were found to have a cross-sectional design. Variables were: (1) Percentage of STROBE items included in a report and (2) percentage of articles reporting each item in the STROBE checklist. Data analysis was done by descriptive statistics using frequencies and percentages. A total of 80 articles were evaluated. About 46% (37/80) articles reported 12-15 items of the STROBE checklist. Bias, nonparticipants and reasons for nonparticipation, other analyses done, generalizability, and source of funding were reported by < 25% of studies. The most frequently reported items of the checklist were summary of what was done and what was found in the abstract, background/rationale, objectives, setting, outcome data, key results in discussion, interpretation of results. None of the articles reported all items of the STROBE checklist. This study reveals that the quality of reporting cross-sectional studies in Indian Journal of Community Medicine is not satisfactory and there is room for improvement.

  7. Quality of Reporting and Study Design of CKD Cohort Studies Assessing Mortality in the Elderly Before and After STROBE: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Brück, Katharina; Methven, Shona; Evans, Rebecca; Stel, Vianda S.; Jager, Kitty J.; Hooft, Lotty; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Caskey, Fergus

    2016-01-01

    Background The STrengthening the Reporting of OBservational studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) statement was published in October 2007 to improve quality of reporting of observational studies. The aim of this review was to assess the impact of the STROBE statement on observational study reporting and study design quality in the nephrology literature. Study Design Systematic literature review. Setting & Population European and North American, Pre-dialysis Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) cohort studies. Selection Criteria for Studies Studies assessing the association between CKD and mortality in the elderly (>65 years) published from 1st January 2002 to 31st December 2013 were included, following systematic searching of MEDLINE & EMBASE. Predictor Time period before and after the publication of the STROBE statement. Outcome Quality of study reporting using the STROBE statement and quality of study design using the Newcastle Ottawa Scale (NOS), Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN) and Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) tools. Results 37 papers (11 Pre & 26 Post STROBE) were identified from 3621 potential articles. Only four of the 22 STROBE items and their sub-criteria (objectives reporting, choice of quantitative groups and description of and carrying out sensitivity analysis) showed improvements, with the majority of items showing little change between the period before and after publication of the STROBE statement. Pre- and post-period analysis revealed a Manuscript STROBE score increase (median score 77.8% (Inter-quartile range [IQR], 64.7–82.0) vs 83% (IQR, 78.4–84.9, p = 0.05). There was no change in quality of study design with identical median scores in the two periods for NOS (Manuscript NOS score 88.9), SIGN (Manuscript SIGN score 83.3) and CASP (Manuscript CASP score 91.7) tools. Limitations Only 37 Studies from Europe and North America were included from one medical specialty. Assessment of study design largely reliant on good

  8. Quality of Reporting and Study Design of CKD Cohort Studies Assessing Mortality in the Elderly Before and After STROBE: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Rao, Anirudh; Brück, Katharina; Methven, Shona; Evans, Rebecca; Stel, Vianda S; Jager, Kitty J; Hooft, Lotty; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Caskey, Fergus

    2016-01-01

    The STrengthening the Reporting of OBservational studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) statement was published in October 2007 to improve quality of reporting of observational studies. The aim of this review was to assess the impact of the STROBE statement on observational study reporting and study design quality in the nephrology literature. Systematic literature review. European and North American, Pre-dialysis Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) cohort studies. Studies assessing the association between CKD and mortality in the elderly (>65 years) published from 1st January 2002 to 31st December 2013 were included, following systematic searching of MEDLINE & EMBASE. Time period before and after the publication of the STROBE statement. Quality of study reporting using the STROBE statement and quality of study design using the Newcastle Ottawa Scale (NOS), Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN) and Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) tools. 37 papers (11 Pre & 26 Post STROBE) were identified from 3621 potential articles. Only four of the 22 STROBE items and their sub-criteria (objectives reporting, choice of quantitative groups and description of and carrying out sensitivity analysis) showed improvements, with the majority of items showing little change between the period before and after publication of the STROBE statement. Pre- and post-period analysis revealed a Manuscript STROBE score increase (median score 77.8% (Inter-quartile range [IQR], 64.7-82.0) vs 83% (IQR, 78.4-84.9, p = 0.05). There was no change in quality of study design with identical median scores in the two periods for NOS (Manuscript NOS score 88.9), SIGN (Manuscript SIGN score 83.3) and CASP (Manuscript CASP score 91.7) tools. Only 37 Studies from Europe and North America were included from one medical specialty. Assessment of study design largely reliant on good reporting. This study highlights continuing deficiencies in the reporting of STROBE items and their sub-criteria in cohort

  9. Weaknesses in the reporting of cross-sectional studies according to the STROBE statement: the case of metabolic syndrome in adults from Peru.

    PubMed

    Tapia, Jose Carlos; Ruiz, Eloy F; Ponce, Oscar J; Malaga, German; Miranda, Jaime

    2015-12-30

    The inadequate reporting of cross-sectional studies, as in the case of the prevalence of metabolic syndrome, could cause problems in the synthesis of new evidence and lead to errors in the formulation of public policies. To evaluate the reporting quality of the articles regarding metabolic syndrome prevalence in Peruvian adults using the STROBE recommendations. We conducted a thorough literature search with the terms "Metabolic Syndrome", "Sindrome Metabolico" and "Peru" in MEDLINE/PubMed, LILACS, SciELO, LIPECS and BVS-Peru until December 2014. We selected those who were population-based observational studies with randomized sampling that reported prevalence of metabolic syndrome in adults aged 18 or more of both sexes. Information was analysed through the STROBE score per item and recommendation. Seventeen articles were included in this study. All articles met the recommendations related to the report of the study's rationale, design, and provision of summary measures. The recommendations with the lowest scores were those related to the sensitivity analysis (8%, n= 1/17), participant flowchart (18%, n= 3/17), missing data analysis (24%, n= 4/17), and number of participants in each study phase (24%, n= 4/17). Cross-sectional studies regarding the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in peruvian adults have an inadequate reporting on the methods and results sections. We identified a clear need to improve the quality of such studies.

  10. Strobes: an oscillatory combustion.

    PubMed

    Corbel, Justine M L; Lingen, Joost N J; Zevenbergen, John F; Gijzeman, Onno L J; Meijerink, Andries

    2012-04-26

    Strobe compositions belong to the class of solid combustions. They are mixtures of powdered ingredients. When ignited, the combustion front evolves in an oscillatory fashion, and flashes of light are produced by intermittence. They have fascinated many scientists since their discovery at the beginning of the 20th century. However, the chemical and physical processes involved in this curious oscillatory combustion remain unknown. Several theories have been proposed: One claims that two different reactions occur: one during the slow dark phase and another during the fast flash phase. The alternation between the phases is ascribed to heat variations. Other theories suggest that the formation of intermediate species during the dark phase and the change of phase are caused by variations in their concentration. A ternary strobe composition with ammonium perchlorate, magnalium, and barium sulfate is analyzed. The role of barium sulfate is studied by replacing it by other metal sulfates that have different physical properties (melting points), and the burning of the compositions is recorded with a high-speed camera and a spectrometer coupled with a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera. Experimental results show noticeable differences in the physical and chemical processes involved in the strobe reactions.

  11. Inexpensive Strobe-Like Photographs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medeiros, Emil L.; Tavares, Odilon A. P.; Duarte, Sergio B.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on a technique the authors have developed to produce and analyze, at very low cost, good quality strobe-like photographs. While the concept is similar to the one described by Graney and DiNoto, the strategy described here benefits from recent advances in the fields of digital photography and related software to significantly…

  12. Inexpensive Strobe-Like Photographs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medeiros, Emil L.; Tavares, Odilon A. P.; Duarte, Sergio B.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on a technique the authors have developed to produce and analyze, at very low cost, good quality strobe-like photographs. While the concept is similar to the one described by Graney and DiNoto, the strategy described here benefits from recent advances in the fields of digital photography and related software to significantly…

  13. Consensus statement on assessment of waterpipe smoking in epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Maziak, Wasim; Ben Taleb, Ziyad; Jawad, Mohammed; Afifi, Rima; Nakkash, Rima; Akl, Elie A; Ward, Kenneth D; Salloum, Ramzi G; Barnett, Tracey E; Primack, Brian A; Sherman, Scott; Cobb, Caroline O; Sutfin, Erin L; Eissenberg, Thomas

    2016-05-10

    Numerous epidemiological accounts suggest that waterpipe smoking (aka hookah, shisha, narghile) has become a global phenomenon, especially among youth. The alarming spread of waterpipe and accumulating evidence of its addictive and harmful effects represent a new threat in the global fight to limit tobacco-related morbidity and mortality. In response to waterpipe's alarming trends, major public health and tobacco control organisations have started or are considering systematic collection of data about waterpipe smoking to monitor its trends and assess its harmful effects in different societies. Such plans require coordination and agreement on epidemiological measurement tools that reflect the uniqueness of this tobacco use method, and at the same time allow comparison of waterpipe trends across time and place, and with other tobacco use methods. We started a decade ago our work to develop standardised measures and definitions for the assessment of waterpipe smoking in epidemiological studies. In this communication, we try to expand and update these assessment tools in light of our increased knowledge and understanding of waterpipe use patterns, its context and marketing, as well as the need for evidence-guided policies and regulations to curb its spread. We have assembled for this purpose a group of leading waterpipe researchers worldwide, and worked through an iterative process to develop the suggested instruments and definitions based on what we know currently about the waterpipe epidemic. While the suggested measures are by no means comprehensive, we hope that they can provide the building blocks for standard and comparable surveillance of waterpipe smoking globally.

  14. Avoidance of strobe lights by zooplankton

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hamel, Martin J.; Richards, Nathan S.; Brown, Michael L.; Chipps, Steven R.

    2010-01-01

    Underwater strobe lights can influence the behavior and distribution of fishes and are increasingly used as a technique to divert fish away from water intake structures on dams. However, few studies examine how strobe lights may affect organisms other than targeted species. To gain insight on strobe lighting effects on nontarget invertebrates, we investigated whether underwater strobe lights influence zooplankton distributions and abundance in Lake Oahe, South Dakota. Zooplankton were collected using vertical tows at 3 discrete distances from an underwater strobe light to quantify the influence of light intensity on zooplankton density. Samples were collected from 3 different depth ranges (0–10 m, 10–20 m and 20–30 m) at <1 m, 15 m and ⩾100 m distance intervals away from the strobe light. Copepods represented 67.2% and Daphnia spp. represented 23.3% of all zooplankton sampled from 17 August to 15 September 2004. Night time zooplankton densities significantly decreased in surface waters when strobe lights were activated. Copepods exhibited the greatest avoidance patterns, while Daphnia avoidance varied throughout sampling depths. These results indicate that zooplankton display negative phototaxic behavior to strobe lights and that researchers must be cognizant of potential effects to the ecosystem such as altering predator–prey interactions or affecting zooplankton distribution and growth.

  15. Generating A Strobed Laser Light Sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leighty, Bradley D.; Franke, John M.; Rhodes, David B.; Jones, Stephen B.

    1994-01-01

    An optoelectronic system generating synchronous, strobed sheet of laser light developed for use in making visible flow of air about model helicopter rotor. Used in wind-tunnel tests to determine actual locations of vortices for comparison with locations predicted by mathematical models to validate models. Each blade tip produces vortex. By establishing successive vortex locations, researcher determines trajectory of vortex pattern. Light-sheet strobe circuits provide selection of blade positions, strobe-pulse durations, and multiple pulses per revolution for rotors having two to nine blades. To make flow visible, vaporizing propylene glycol injected upstream of model. System also provides calibrated trigger delay of strobe pulses, adjustable strobe-pulse durations, selectable number of blades, and slip-sync mode to make flow visible as though in slow motion.

  16. Inexpensive Strobe-like Photographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medeiros, Emil L.; Tavares, Odilon A. P.; Duarte, Sérgio B.

    2009-11-01

    This paper reports on a technique the authors have developed to produce and analyze, at very low cost, good quality strobe-like photographs like the one shown in Figs. 1(a) and 1(b). While the concept is similar to the one described by Graney and DiNoto, the strategy described here benefits from recent advances in the fields of digital photography and related software to significantly reduce the costs, simplify the production process, and enhance the final quality of photographs of this type, as well as to obtain greater accuracy in measurements made with them.

  17. Period and pulse duration with "strobe" lights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birriel, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Strobe lights have traditionally been discussed in The Physics Teacher in the context of stop action strobe photography. During the Halloween season most department and hardware stores sell inexpensive, compact "strobe" lights (although these can be found online year round). These lights generally sell for under 10 and usually employ LED lights. Most such devices have a rotary switch to adjust the rate at which the LED bulbs flash. This rotary switch is not calibrated—i.e., it has no markings to indicate the rate, but in general the greater the rotation of the switch from the off position, the faster the rate of flashing. We show how these simple devices can be used with a light sensor to study both the frequency of flashing and the duration of the light pulse. We briefly discuss if these devices are truly strobe lights.

  18. STROBE-based methodology for detection of adverse events across multiple communities.

    PubMed

    Sordo, Margarita; Colecchi, Judith; Dubey, Anil; Dubey, Anil Kumar; Gainer, Vivian; Murphy, Shawn N

    2008-11-06

    Partners Healthcare is one of five institutions in conjunction with eHealth Initiative (eHI) and the FDA that is collaborating in a nation-wide effort to develop novel health information technology tools to create an active drug safety surveillance system across the U.S. The STROBE statement serves as the standard for the definition of a structured, systematic, reproducible approach for detecting both the risks and benefits of drug treatments in multiple settings.

  19. Injury and illness definitions and data collection procedures for use in epidemiological studies in Athletics (track and field): consensus statement.

    PubMed

    Timpka, Toomas; Alonso, Juan-Manuel; Jacobsson, Jenny; Junge, Astrid; Branco, Pedro; Clarsen, Ben; Kowalski, Jan; Mountjoy, Margo; Nilsson, Sverker; Pluim, Babette; Renström, Per; Rønsen, Ola; Steffen, Kathrin; Edouard, Pascal

    2014-04-01

    Movement towards sport safety in Athletics through the introduction of preventive strategies requires consensus on definitions and methods for reporting epidemiological data in the various populations of athletes. To define health-related incidents (injuries and illnesses) that should be recorded in epidemiological studies in Athletics, and the criteria for recording their nature, cause and severity, as well as standards for data collection and analysis procedures. A 1-day meeting of 14 experts from eight countries representing a range of Athletics stakeholders and sport science researchers was facilitated. Definitions of injuries and illnesses, study design and data collection for epidemiological studies in Athletics were discussed during the meeting. Two members of the group produced a draft statement after this meeting, and distributed to the group members for their input. A revision was prepared, and the procedure was repeated to finalise the consensus statement. Definitions of injuries and illnesses and categories for recording of their nature, cause and severity were provided. Essential baseline information was listed. Guidelines on the recording of exposure data during competition and training and the calculation of prevalence and incidences were given. Finally, methodological guidance for consistent recording and reporting on injury and illness in athletics was described. This consensus statement provides definitions and methodological guidance for epidemiological studies in Athletics. Consistent use of the definitions and methodological guidance would lead to more reliable and comparable evidence.

  20. Strobes: pyrotechnic compositions that show a curious oscillatory combustion.

    PubMed

    Corbel, Justine M L; van Lingen, Joost N J; Zevenbergen, John F; Gijzeman, Onno L J; Meijerink, Andries

    2013-01-02

    Strobes are pyrotechnic compositions which show an oscillatory combustion; a dark phase and a flash phase alternate periodically. The strobe effect has applications in various fields, most notably in the fireworks industry and in the military area. All strobe compositions mentioned in the literature were discovered by trial and error methods and the mechanisms involved remain unclear. Many oscillatory systems such as Belousov-Zhabotinsky reactions, cool flames, self-propagating high-temperature synthesis have been observed and theories developed to elucidate their unstable behavior based on chemical interactions or based on physical processes. These systems are compared to experimental observations made on strobe mixtures.

  1. [The REporting of studies Conducted using Observational Routinely-collected health Data (RECORD) statement].

    PubMed

    Benchimol, Eric I; Smeeth, Liam; Guttmann, Astrid; Harron, Katie; Hemkens, Lars G; Moher, David; Petersen, Irene; Sørensen, Henrik T; von Elm, Erik; Langan, Sinéad M

    2016-10-01

    Routinely collected health data, obtained for administrative and clinical purposes without specific a priori research goals, are increasingly used for research. The rapid evolution and availability of these data have revealed issues not addressed by existing reporting guidelines, such as Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE). The REporting of studies Conducted using Observational Routinely collected health Data (RECORD) statement was created to fill these gaps. RECORD was created as an extension to the STROBE statement to address reporting items specific to observational studies using routinely collected health data. RECORD consists of a checklist of 13 items related to the title, abstract, introduction, methods, results, and discussion section of articles, and other information required for inclusion in such research reports. This document contains the checklist as well as explanatory and elaboration information to enhance the use of the checklist. Examples of good reporting for each RECORD checklist item are also included. This document, as well as the accompanying website and message board (http://www.record-statement.org), will improve the implementation and understanding of RECORD. By implementing RECORD, authors, journals editors, and peer reviewers can enhance transparency of research reporting.

  2. The REporting of studies Conducted using Observational Routinely-collected health Data (RECORD) Statement

    PubMed Central

    Benchimol, Eric I.; Smeeth, Liam; Guttmann, Astrid; Harron, Katie; Moher, David; Petersen, Irene; Sørensen, Henrik T.; von Elm, Erik; Langan, Sinéad M.

    2015-01-01

    Routinely collected health data, obtained for administrative and clinical purposes without specific a priori research goals, are increasingly used for research. The rapid evolution and availability of these data have revealed issues not addressed by existing reporting guidelines, such as Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE). The REporting of studies Conducted using Observational Routinely collected health Data (RECORD) statement was created to fill these gaps. RECORD was created as an extension to the STROBE statement to address reporting items specific to observational studies using routinely collected health data. RECORD consists of a checklist of 13 items related to the title, abstract, introduction, methods, results, and discussion section of articles, and other information required for inclusion in such research reports. This document contains the checklist and explanatory and elaboration information to enhance the use of the checklist. Examples of good reporting for each RECORD checklist item are also included herein. This document, as well as the accompanying website and message board (http://www.record-statement.org), will enhance the implementation and understanding of RECORD. Through implementation of RECORD, authors, journals editors, and peer reviewers can encourage transparency of research reporting. PMID:26440803

  3. Forum: Strobe Photography: A Brief History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edgerton, Harold E.

    1984-08-01

    The first known photograph taken by a flash of light from an electrical discharge (spark) was accomplished about 1850 by Henry Fox-Talbot in England shortly after he invented the negative-positive process that is used so widely today. However, electrically produced flashes did not become a commonly used method until quite recently. In this article I discuss some of the exciting developments of the recent past in strobe photography, and relate some of the history that brought about this remarkable revolution in the photographic world.

  4. Strobe Traffic Lights Warn of Approaching Emergency Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bachelder, Aaron

    2004-01-01

    Strobe-enhanced traffic signals have been developed to aid in the preemption of road intersections for emergency vehicles. The strobe-enhanced traffic signals can be incorporated into both new and pre-existing traffic-control systems in which the traffic-signal heads are of a relatively new type based on arrays of light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The strobe-enhanced traffic signals offer a less expensive, less complex alternative to a recently developed system of LED-based warning signs placed next to traffic signals. Because of its visual complexity, the combination of traffic signals and warning signs is potentially confusing to motorists. The strobe-enhanced traffic signals present less visual clutter. In a given traffic-signal head, the strobe-enhanced traffic signal is embedded in the red LED array of the stop signal. Two strobe LED strips one horizontal and one vertical are made capable of operating separately from the rest of the red LED matrix. When no emergency vehicle is approaching, the red LED array functions as a normal stop signal: all the red LEDs are turned on and off together. When the intersection is to be preempted for an approaching emergency vehicle, only the LEDs in one of the strobe strips are lit, and are turned on in a sequence that indicates the direction of approach. For example (see figure), if an emergency vehicle approaches from the right, the strobe LEDs are lit in a sequence moving from right to left. Important to the success of strobe-enhanced traffic signals is conformance to city ordinances and close relation to pre-existing traffic standards. For instance, one key restriction is that new icons must not include arrows, so that motorists will not confuse new icons with conventional arrows that indicate allowed directions of movement. It is also critical that new displays like strobe-enhanced traffic signals be similar to displays used in traffic-control systems in large cities. For example, Charleston, South Carolina uses horizontal

  5. Strobe-margin test for plated memory systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anspach, T. E.; Clarke, J. W.; Constable, R. C.

    1978-01-01

    Technique measures performance of plated-wire memories. Strobe-margin test (SMT) utilizes worst-case testing and automatically gives exact strobe margin. Test is automatic; thus, memory system-level test is superior to tests at component level that use artificial test conditions. Test is significant tool in design and test of plated-wire memory systems. It can rapidly quantify memory-system margin on each production unit and impact of any design changes.

  6. 2010 ACVIM small animal consensus statement on leptospirosis: diagnosis, epidemiology, treatment, and prevention.

    PubMed

    Sykes, J E; Hartmann, K; Lunn, K F; Moore, G E; Stoddard, R A; Goldstein, R E

    2011-01-01

    This report offers a consensus opinion on the diagnosis, epidemiology, treatment, and prevention of leptospirosis in dogs, an important zoonosis. Clinical signs of leptospirosis in dogs relate to development of renal disease, hepatic disease, uveitis, and pulmonary hemorrhage. Disease may follow periods of high rainfall, and can occur in dogs roaming in proximity to water sources, farm animals, or wildlife, or dogs residing in suburban environments. Diagnosis is based on acute and convalescent phase antibody titers by the microscopic agglutination test (MAT), with or without use of polymerase chain reaction assays. There is considerable interlaboratory variation in MAT results, and the MAT does not accurately predict the infecting serogroup. The recommended treatment for optimal clearance of the organism from renal tubules is doxycycline, 5 mg/kg p.o. q12h, for 14 days. Annual vaccination can prevent leptospirosis caused by serovars included in the vaccine and is recommended for dogs at risk of infection.

  7. 2010 ACVIM Small Animal Consensus Statement on Leptospirosis: Diagnosis, Epidemiology, Treatment, and Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Sykes, JE; Hartmann, K; Lunn, KF; Moore, GE; Stoddard, RA; Goldstein, RE

    2011-01-01

    This report offers a consensus opinion on the diagnosis, epidemiology, treatment, and prevention of leptospirosis in dogs, an important zoonosis. Clinical signs of leptospirosis in dogs relate to development of renal disease, hepatic disease, uveitis, and pulmonary hemorrhage. Disease may follow periods of high rainfall, and can occur in dogs roaming in proximity to water sources, farm animals, or wildlife, or dogs residing in suburban environments. Diagnosis is based on acute and convalescent phase antibody titers by the microscopic agglutination test (MAT), with or without use of polymerase chain reaction assays. There is considerable interlaboratory variation in MAT results, and the MAT does not accurately predict the infecting serogroup. The recommended treatment for optimal clearance of the organism from renal tubules is doxycycline, 5 mg/kg PO q12h, for 14 days. Annual vaccination can prevent leptospirosis caused by serovars included in the vaccine and is recommended for dogs at risk of infection. PMID:21155890

  8. Assessing the reporting of categorised quantitative variables in observational epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Mabikwa, Onkabetse V; Greenwood, Darren C; Baxter, Paul D; Fleming, Sarah J

    2017-03-14

    One aspect to consider when reporting results of observational studies in epidemiology is how quantitative risk factors are analysed. The STROBE (Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology) guidelines recommend that researchers describe how they handle quantitative variables when analysing data. For categorised quantitative variables, the authors are required to provide reasons and justifications informing their practice. We investigated and assessed the practices and reporting of categorised quantitative variables in epidemiology. The assessment was based on five medical journals that publish epidemiological research. Observational studies published between April and June 2015 and investigating the relationships between quantitative exposures (or risk factors) and the outcomes were considered for assessment. A standard form was used to collect the data, and the reporting patterns amongst eligible studies were quantified and described. Out of 61 articles assessed for eligibility, 23 observational studies were included in the assessment. Categorisation of quantitative exposures occurred in 61% of these studies and reasons informing the practice were rarely provided. Only one article explained the choice of categorisation in the analysis. Transformation of quantitative exposures into four or five groups was common and dominant amongst studies using equally spaced categories. Dichotomisation was not popular; the practice featured in one article. Overall, the majority (86%) of the studies preferred ordered or arbitrary group categories. Other criterions used to decide categorical boundaries were based on established guidelines such as consensus statements and WHO standards. Categorisation of continuous variables remains a dominant practice in epidemiological studies. The reasons informing the practice of categorisation within published work are limited and remain unknown in most articles. The existing STROBE guidelines could provide stronger

  9. Multi-Head Very High Power Strobe System For Motion Picture Special Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovoi, P. A.; Fink, Michael L.

    1983-10-01

    A very large camera synchronizable strobe system has been developed for motion picture special effects. This system, the largest ever built, was delivered to MGM/UA to be used in the movie "War Games". The system consists of 12 individual strobe heads and a power supply distribution system. Each strobe head operates independently and may be flashed up to 24 times per second under computer control. An energy of 480 Joules per flash is used in six strobe heads and 240 Joules per flash in the remaining six strobe heads. The beam pattern is rectangular with a FWHM of 60° x 48°.

  10. StRoBe: A Classroom-on-Task Measure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchant, Gregory J.

    Researchers as well as others evaluating teachers or programs are often interested in the verbal and non-verbal behaviors related to the learning of students in classrooms. The Student Record of Behavior (StRoBe) is a classroom observation instrument designed to provide simple low inference information concerning student behaviors related to…

  11. Pulse strobing in VLBI for observation of geostationary earth satellites.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorodetskij, V. M.

    The possibility of broadband synthesis by pulse strobing for observation of slow-moving objects using standard MARK-1 VLBI processing methods is discussed. The possibility of increasing the SNR by using a special type of pulse function is indicated. A specific scheme for application of the method in satellite radiointerferometry is examined.

  12. Coded strobing photography: compressive sensing of high speed periodic videos.

    PubMed

    Veeraraghavan, Ashok; Reddy, Dikpal; Raskar, Ramesh

    2011-04-01

    We show that, via temporal modulation, one can observe and capture a high-speed periodic video well beyond the abilities of a low-frame-rate camera. By strobing the exposure with unique sequences within the integration time of each frame, we take coded projections of dynamic events. From a sequence of such frames, we reconstruct a high-speed video of the high-frequency periodic process. Strobing is used in entertainment, medical imaging, and industrial inspection to generate lower beat frequencies. But this is limited to scenes with a detectable single dominant frequency and requires high-intensity lighting. In this paper, we address the problem of sub-Nyquist sampling of periodic signals and show designs to capture and reconstruct such signals. The key result is that for such signals, the Nyquist rate constraint can be imposed on the strobe rate rather than the sensor rate. The technique is based on intentional aliasing of the frequency components of the periodic signal while the reconstruction algorithm exploits recent advances in sparse representations and compressive sensing. We exploit the sparsity of periodic signals in the Fourier domain to develop reconstruction algorithms that are inspired by compressive sensing.

  13. Ultrafast lasers. Strobe light breaks the attosecond barrier.

    PubMed

    Service, R F

    2001-06-01

    On page 1689 of this issue, physicists report creating the fastest strobe light ever made, with individual pulses lasting just 220 attoseconds, or 220 billionths of a billionth of a second. These unimaginably short pulses are the first to be confirmed as breaking the attosecond barrier, a goal of high-speed-laser researchers for nearly a decade. Such pulses may one day serve as an ultrafast camera, allowing researchers to freeze action and perhaps to spot the gyrations of individual electrons whirling around an atomic nucleus.

  14. Asia Pacific Consensus Statements on Crohn's disease. Part 1: Definition, diagnosis, and epidemiology: (Asia Pacific Crohn's Disease Consensus--Part 1).

    PubMed

    Ooi, Choon Jin; Makharia, Govind K; Hilmi, Ida; Gibson, Peter R; Fock, Kwong Ming; Ahuja, Vineet; Ling, Khoon Lin; Lim, Wee Chian; Thia, Kelvin T; Wei, Shu-chen; Leung, Wai Keung; Koh, Poh Koon; Gearry, Richard B; Goh, Khean Lee; Ouyang, Qin; Sollano, Jose; Manatsathit, Sathaporn; de Silva, H Janaka; Rerknimitr, Rungsun; Pisespongsa, Pises; Abu Hassan, Muhamad Radzi; Sung, Joseph; Hibi, Toshifumi; Boey, Christopher C M; Moran, Neil; Leong, Rupert W L

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) was previously thought to be rare in Asia, but emerging data indicate rising incidence and prevalence of IBD in the region. The Asia Pacific Working Group on Inflammatory Bowel Disease was established in Cebu, Philippines, at the Asia Pacific Digestive Week conference in 2006 under the auspices of the Asian Pacific Association of Gastroenterology with the goal of developing best management practices, coordinating research, and raising awareness of IBD in the region. The consensus group previously published recommendations for the diagnosis and management of ulcerative colitis with specific relevance to the Asia-Pacific region. The present consensus statements were developed following a similar process to address the epidemiology, diagnosis, and management of Crohn's disease. The goals of these statements are to pool the pertinent literature specifically highlighting relevant data and conditions in the Asia-Pacific region relating to the economy, health systems, background infectious diseases, differential diagnoses, and treatment availability. It does not intend to be all comprehensive and future revisions are likely to be required in this ever-changing field.

  15. The strobe algorithms for multi-source warehouse consistency

    SciTech Connect

    Zhuge, Yue; Garcia-Molina, H.; Wiener, J.L.

    1996-12-31

    A warehouse is a data repository containing integrated information for efficient querying and analysis. Maintaining the consistency of warehouse data is challenging, especially if the data sources are autonomous and views of the data at the warehouse span multiple sources. Transactions containing multiple updates at one or more sources, e.g., batch updates, complicate the consistency problem. In this paper we identify and discuss three fundamental transaction processing scenarios for data warehousing. We define four levels of consistency for warehouse data and present a new family of algorithms, the Strobe family, that maintain consistency as the warehouse is updated, under the various warehousing scenarios. All of the algorithms are incremental and can handle a continuous and overlapping stream of updates from the sources. Our implementation shows that the algorithms are practical and realistic choices for a wide variety of update scenarios.

  16. Policy statement on antimicrobial stewardship by the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (SHEA), the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA), and the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society (PIDS).

    PubMed

    2012-04-01

    Antimicrobial resistance has emerged as a significant healthcare quality and patient safety issue in the twenty-first century that, combined with a rapidly dwindling antimicrobial armamentarium, has resulted in a critical threat to the public health of the United States. Antimicrobial stewardship programs optimize antimicrobial use to achieve the best clinical outcomes while minimizing adverse events and limiting selective pressures that drive the emergence of resistance and may also reduce excessive costs attributable to suboptimal antimicrobial use. Therefore, antimicrobial stewardship must be a fiduciary responsibility for all healthcare institutions across the continuum of care. This position statement of the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America, the Infectious Diseases Society of America, and the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society of America outlines recommendations for the mandatory implementation of antimicrobial stewardship throughout health care, suggests process and outcome measures to monitor these interventions, and addresses deficiencies in education and research in this field as well as the lack of accurate data on antimicrobial use in the United States.

  17. [Use of multiple regression models in observational studies (1970-2013) and requirements of the STROBE guidelines in Spanish scientific journals].

    PubMed

    Real, J; Cleries, R; Forné, C; Roso-Llorach, A; Martínez-Sánchez, J M

    In medicine and biomedical research, statistical techniques like logistic, linear, Cox and Poisson regression are widely known. The main objective is to describe the evolution of multivariate techniques used in observational studies indexed in PubMed (1970-2013), and to check the requirements of the STROBE guidelines in the author guidelines in Spanish journals indexed in PubMed. A targeted PubMed search was performed to identify papers that used logistic linear Cox and Poisson models. Furthermore, a review was also made of the author guidelines of journals published in Spain and indexed in PubMed and Web of Science. Only 6.1% of the indexed manuscripts included a term related to multivariate analysis, increasing from 0.14% in 1980 to 12.3% in 2013. In 2013, 6.7, 2.5, 3.5, and 0.31% of the manuscripts contained terms related to logistic, linear, Cox and Poisson regression, respectively. On the other hand, 12.8% of journals author guidelines explicitly recommend to follow the STROBE guidelines, and 35.9% recommend the CONSORT guideline. A low percentage of Spanish scientific journals indexed in PubMed include the STROBE statement requirement in the author guidelines. Multivariate regression models in published observational studies such as logistic regression, linear, Cox and Poisson are increasingly used both at international level, as well as in journals published in Spanish. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Meta-narrative analysis of sports injury reporting practices based on the Injury Definitions Concept Framework (IDCF): A review of consensus statements and epidemiological studies in athletics (track and field).

    PubMed

    Timpka, Toomas; Jacobsson, Jenny; Ekberg, Joakim; Finch, Caroline F; Bichenbach, Jerome; Edouard, Pascal; Bargoria, Victor; Branco, Pedro; Alonso, Juan Manuel

    2015-11-01

    Consistency in routines for reporting injury has been a focus of development efforts in sports epidemiology for a long time. To gain an improved understanding of current reporting practices, we applied the Injury Definitions Concept Framework (IDCF) in a review of injury reporting in a subset of the field. Meta-narrative review. An analysis of injury definitions reported in consensus statements for different sports and studies of injury epidemiology in athletics (track and field) published in PubMed between 1980 and 2013 was performed. Separate narratives for each of the three reporting contexts in the IDCF were constructed from the data. Six consensus statements and 14 studies reporting on athletics injury epidemiology fulfilled the selection criteria. The narratives on sports performance, clinical examination, and athlete self-report contexts were evenly represented in the eligible studies. The sports performance and athlete self-report narratives covered both professional and community athletes as well as training and competition settings. In the clinical examination narrative, data collection by health service professionals was linked to studies of professional athletes at international championships. From an application of the IDCF in a review of injury reporting in sports epidemiology we observed a parallel usage of reporting contexts in this field of research. The co-existence of reporting methodologies does not necessarily reflect a problematic situation, but only provided that firm precautions are taken when comparing studies performed in the different contexts. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A synchronous strobed laser light sheet for helicopter model rotor flow visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leighty, Bradley D.; Rhodes, David B.; Jones, Stephen B.; Franke, John M.

    1990-01-01

    A synchronous, strobed laser light sheet has been developed for use in flow visualization of a helicopter rotor model. The light sheet strobe circuit included selectable blade position, strobe duration, and multiple pulses per revolution for rotors having 2 to 9 blades. The flow was seeded with propylene glycol. Between runs, a calibration grid board was placed in the plane of the laser sheet and recorded with the video camera at the position used to record the flow field. A slip-sync mode permitted slow motion visualization of the flow field over complete rotations of the rotor. The system was used to make two-dimensional flow field cuts of a four-bladed rotor operating at advance ratio of 0.37 at wind tunnel speeds up to 79.25 meters per second (260 feet per second).

  20. Adaptability of the vestibulo-ocular reflex to vision reversal in strobe reared cats.

    PubMed

    Mandl, G; Melvill Jones, G; Cynader, M

    1981-03-23

    Optical reversal of vision brings about adaptive changes in the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) tending to reduce retinal image slip during head movement. The present experiments investigated this form of adaptation in cats whose complement of direction sensitive central visual cells had been substantially reduced by rearing in 8 Hz stroboscopic light. Horizontal vision reversal was produced by dove prisms carried in a skull-mounted mask. A scleral eye coil was used to measure horizontal eye movements. VOR gain and phase were measured in the dark during sinusoidal rotation using test stimuli of 1/8 Hz and 5- or 20 degrees/sec velocity amplitude. Initially, strobe reared cats produced virtually normal VOR in the dark, except for slight but significant exaggeration of the normal phase advancement to be expected at 1/8 Hz. Addition of their familiar strobe illumination produced almost perfect oculomotor compensation. Maintained vision reversal in both strobe and normal illumination produced similar patterns of adaptive change in normal and strobe reared subjects, i.e. all animals exhibited an initial fast, and subsequent much slower, stage of gain attenuation, with similar changes in phase. Thus, strobe rearing did not prevent the development of an essentially normal VOR, nor did it interfere significantly with the ability to adapt in response to vision reversal. Since strobe rearing depletes direction selective visual movement detectors in the cortex and superior colliculi, it is inferred that signals responsible for activating the adaptive process are probably carried mainly in the accessory optic, rather than cortical and collicular, visual system.

  1. Centering a DDR Strobe in the Middle of a Data Packet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Michael; Nelson, Dave; Seefeldt, James; Roper, Weston; Passow, Craig

    2014-01-01

    The Orion CEV Northstar ASIC (application- specific integrated circuit) project required a DDR (double data rate) memory bus driver/receiver (DDR PHY block) to interface with external DDR memory. The DDR interface (JESD79C) is based on a source synchronous strobe (DQS\\) that is sent along with each packet of data (DQ). New data is provided concurrently with each edge of strobe and is sent irregularly. In order to capture this data, the strobe needs to be delayed and used to latch the data into a register. A circuit solves the need for training a DDR PRY block by incorporating a PVT-compensated delay element in the strobe path. This circuit takes an external reference clock signal and uses the regular clock to calibrate a known delay through a data path. The compensated delay DQS signal is then used to capture the DQ data in a normal register. This register structure can be configured as a FIFO (first in first out), in order to transfer data from the DDR domain to the system clock domain. This design is different in that it does not rely upon the need for training the system response, nor does it use a PLL (phase locked loop) or a DLL (delay locked loop) to provide an offset of the strobe signal. The circuit is created using standard ASIC building blocks, plus the PVT (process, voltage, and temperature) compensated delay line. The design uses a globally available system clock as a reference, alleviating the need to operate synchronously with the remote memory. The reference clock conditions the PVT compensated delay line to provide a pre-determined amount of delay to any data signal that passes through this delay line. The delay line is programmed in degrees of offset, so that one could think of the clock period representing 360deg of delay. In an ideal environment, delaying the strobe 1/4 of a clock cycle (90deg) would place the strobe in the middle of the data packet. This delayed strobe can then be used to clock the data into a register, satisfying setup and

  2. Strobe Light Deterrent Efficacy Test and Fish Behavior Determination at Grand Coulee Dam Third Powerplant Forebay

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Robert L. ); Simmons, Mary Ann ); Simmons, Carver S. ); McKinstry, Craig A. ); Cook, Chris B. ); Thorsten, Susan L. ); Lecaire, Richard; Francis, Stephen

    2003-01-29

    This report describes the work conducted during the second year of a multi-year study to assess the efficacy of a prototype strobe light system in eliciting a negative phototactic response in kokanee and rainbow trout. The strobe light system is being evaluated as a means to prevent entrainment (and subsequent loss) of fish at the entrance to the forebay adjacent to the third powerplant at Grand Coulee Dam. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and the Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation are collaborating on the three-year study being conducted for the Bonneville Power Administration and the Northwest Power Planning Council.

  3. Evaluation of Infrasound and Strobe Lights to Elicit Avoidance Behavior in Juvenile Salmon and Char.

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, Robert, P.; Neitzel, Duane A.; Amidan, Brett G.

    1999-02-01

    Experimental tests were conducted using hatchery reared and wild juvenile chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, eastern brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis, and rainbow trout O. mykiss to determine specific behavior responses to infrasound (<20 Hz) and flashing strobe lights. Caged fish were acclimated in a static test tank and their behavior was recorded using low light cameras. Species specific behavior was characterized by measuring movements of the fish within the cage as well as observing startle and habituation responses. Wild chinook salmon (40-45 mm) and hatchery reared chinook salmon (45-50mm) exhibited avoidance responses when initially exposed to a 10 Hz volume displacement source. Rainbow and eastern brook trout (25-100 mm) did not respond with avoidance or other behaviors to infrasound. Habituation to the infrasound source was evident for chinook salmon during repeated exposures. Wild and hatchery chinook displayed a higher proportion of movement during the initial exposures to infrasound when the acclimation period in the test tank was 2-3 h as compared to a 12-15 h acclimation period. A flashing strobe light produced higher and more consistent movement rates in wild chinook (60% of the tests); hatchery reared chinook salmon (50%) and rainbow trout (80%). No measurable movement or other responses was observed for eastern brook trout. Little if any habituation was observed during repeated exposures to strobe lights. Results from this study indicate that consistent repeatable responses can be elicited from some fish using high intensity strobe lights under a controlled laboratory testing. The specific behaviors observed in these experiments might be used to predict how fish might react to low frequency sound and strobe lights in a screening facility. Because sub-yearling salmonids and resident species are susceptible from becoming entrained at water diversion structures we conducted tests in conjunction with our evaluation of juvenile fish screening

  4. Evaluation of the Endorsement of the STrengthening the REporting of Genetic Association Studies (STREGA) Statement on the Reporting Quality of Published Genetic Association Studies.

    PubMed

    Nedovic, Darko; Panic, Nikola; Pastorino, Roberta; Ricciardi, Walter; Boccia, Stefania

    2016-08-05

    The STrengthening the REporting of Genetic Association studies (STREGA) statement was based on the STrengthening the REporting of OBservational studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) statement, and it was published in 2009 in order to improve the reporting of genetic association (GA) studies. Our aim was to evaluate the impact of STREGA endorsement on the quality of reporting of GA studies published in journals in the field of genetics and heredity (GH). Quality of reporting was evaluated by assessing the adherence of papers to the STREGA checklist. After identifying the GH journals that endorsed STREGA in their instructions for authors, we randomly appraised papers published in 2013 from journals endorsing STREGA that published GA studies (Group A); in GH journals that never endorsed STREGA (Group B); in GH journals endorsing STREGA, but in the year preceding its endorsement (Group C); and in the same time period as Group C from GH journals that never endorsed STREGA (Group D). The STREGA statement was referenced in 29 (18.1%) of 160 GH journals, of which 18 (62.1%) journals published GA studies. Among the 18 journals endorsing STREGA, we found a significant increase in the overall adherence to the STREGA checklist over time (A vs C; P < 0.0001). Adherence to the STREGA checklist was significantly higher in journals endorsing STREGA compared to those that did not endorse the statement (A vs B; P = 0.04). No significant improvement was detected in the adherence to STREGA items in journals not endorsing STREGA over time (B vs D; P > 0.05). The endorsement of STREGA resulted in an increase in quality of reporting of GA studies over time, while no similar improvement was reported for journals that never endorsed STREGA.

  5. Evaluation of the Endorsement of the STrengthening the REporting of Genetic Association Studies (STREGA) Statement on the Reporting Quality of Published Genetic Association Studies

    PubMed Central

    Nedovic, Darko; Panic, Nikola; Pastorino, Roberta; Ricciardi, Walter; Boccia, Stefania

    2016-01-01

    The STrengthening the REporting of Genetic Association studies (STREGA) statement was based on the STrengthening the REporting of OBservational studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) statement, and it was published in 2009 in order to improve the reporting of genetic association (GA) studies. Our aim was to evaluate the impact of STREGA endorsement on the quality of reporting of GA studies published in journals in the field of genetics and heredity (GH). Quality of reporting was evaluated by assessing the adherence of papers to the STREGA checklist. After identifying the GH journals that endorsed STREGA in their instructions for authors, we randomly appraised papers published in 2013 from journals endorsing STREGA that published GA studies (Group A); in GH journals that never endorsed STREGA (Group B); in GH journals endorsing STREGA, but in the year preceding its endorsement (Group C); and in the same time period as Group C from GH journals that never endorsed STREGA (Group D). The STREGA statement was referenced in 29 (18.1%) of 160 GH journals, of which 18 (62.1%) journals published GA studies. Among the 18 journals endorsing STREGA, we found a significant increase in the overall adherence to the STREGA checklist over time (A vs C; P < 0.0001). Adherence to the STREGA checklist was significantly higher in journals endorsing STREGA compared to those that did not endorse the statement (A vs B; P = 0.04). No significant improvement was detected in the adherence to STREGA items in journals not endorsing STREGA over time (B vs D; P > 0.05). The endorsement of STREGA resulted in an increase in quality of reporting of GA studies over time, while no similar improvement was reported for journals that never endorsed STREGA. PMID:27349199

  6. Epidemiology of injuries in competition taekwondo: a meta-analysis of observational studies.

    PubMed

    Lystad, Reidar P; Pollard, Henry; Graham, Petra L

    2009-11-01

    This paper aims to review and collate the epidemiological data of injuries in competition taekwondo as reported in the literature, make recommendations, and suggest further research. The electronic databases AMED, AusportMed, CINAHL, MEDLINE, PubMed, and SPORTDiscus were searched from inception to March 2008. Fourteen prospective cohort studies reporting the incidence of injuries in taekwondo were included. Two reviewers independently extracted data and assessed trial quality using the STROBE statement. Homogenous studies were combined in a pooled analysis using a Poisson random effects regression model. Poisson regression showed an overall mean injury rate of 79.3 per 1000 athlete-exposures (95% confidence interval 22.8, 275.4). Neither age, gender nor level of play were significant in the analysis. The most common injury location and type were found to be the lower limb and contusion, respectively, and were invariably associated with contact. Although taekwondo players are exposed to a substantial risk of sustaining injuries, the majority of injuries appeared to be of minimal severity. Modifications to the competition rules and protective equipment may be warranted. Future studies should adhere to recommended operational definitions, utilise a standardised injury classification system, and report injury rates using multiple denominators in order to facilitate inter- and cross-sport comparisons.

  7. Evaluation of Infrasound and Strobe Lights for Eliciting Avoidance Behavior in Juvenile Salmon and Char

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, Robert P. ); Neitzel, Duane A. ); Amidan, Brett G. )

    2001-12-01

    Laboratory tests were conducted using juvenile chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis, and rainbow trout O. mykiss to determine specific behavior responses to infrasound (< 20 Hz) and flashing strobe lights. The objective of these tests was to determine if juvenile salmonids could be deterred from entrainment at water diversion structures. Caged fish were acclimated in a static test tank and their behavior was recorded using low light cameras. Species-specific behavior was characterized by measuring movements of the fish within the cage and by observing startle and habituation responses. Wild chinook salmon (40-45 mm TL) and hatchery reared chinook salmon (45-50 mm TL) exhibited avoidance responses when initially exposed to a 10-Hz volume displacement source of infrasound. Rainbow and eastern brook trout (25-100 mm TL) did not respond with avoidance or other behaviors to infrasound. Evidence of habituation to the infrasound source was evident for chinook salmon during repeated exposures. Wild and hatchery chinook displayed a higher proportion of movement during the initial exposures to infrasound when the acclimation period in the test tank was 2-3 h as compared to a 12-15 h acclimation period. A flashing strobe light produced consistent movement in wild chinook salmon (60% of the tests), hatchery reared chinook salmon (50%), and rainbow trout (80%). No measurable responses were observed for brook trout. Results indicate that consistent, repeatable responses can be elicited from some fish using high-intensity strobe lights under a controlled laboratory testing. The species specific behaviors observed in these experiments might be used to predict how fish might react to low-frequency sound and strobe lights in a screening facility.

  8. Strobe Light Deterrent Efficacy Test and Fish Behavior Determination at Grand Coulee Dam Third Powerplant Forebay

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Robert L.; Simmons, Mary Ann; McKinstry, Craig A.; Simmons, Carver S.; Cook, Chris B.; Brown, Richard S.; Tano, Daniel K.; Thorsten, Susan L.; Faber, Derrek M.; Lecaire, Richard; Francis, Stephen

    2005-02-25

    This report documents the fourth year of a four-year study to assess the efficacy of a prototype strobe light system to elicit a negative phototactic response in kokanee salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) and rainbow trout (O. mykiss) in the forebay to the third powerplant at Grand Coulee Dam. This work was conducted for the Bonneville Power Administration, U.S. Department of Energy, by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in conjunction with the Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation (Colville Confederated Tribes).

  9. Visualization of the multiple supersonic jet oscillations by swept focused strobed schlieren technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raman, Ganesh; Taghavi, Ray

    1994-01-01

    The natural flapping mode oscillations of a multiple rectangular supersonic jet is visualized by the newly developed strobed focusing schlieren technique. Four parallel underexpanded, converging rectangular jets, exhausting into ambient air at a fully expanded Mach number of 1.61 are visualized in this study. This technique clearly shows the oscillations at the natural screech frequency and offers tremendous flexibility in the study of these flow fields.

  10. Strobe Light Deterrent Efficacy Test and Fish Behavior Determination at Grand Coulee Dam Third Powerplant Forebay

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, Mary Ann; Johnson, Robert L.; McKinstry, Craig A.; Simmons, Carver S.; Cook, Chris B.; Brown, Richard S.; Tano, Daniel K.; Thorsten, Susan L.; Faber, Derrek M.; Lecaire, Richard; Francis, Stephen

    2004-01-01

    This report documents the third year of a four-year study to assess the efficacy of a prototype strobe light system to elicit a negative phototactic response in kokanee salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) and rainbow trout (O. mykiss) in the forebay to the third powerplant at Grand Coulee Dam. This work was conducted for the Bonneville Power Administration, U.S. Department of Energy, by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in conjunction with the Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation (Colville Confederated Tribes).

  11. Evaluation of strobe lights to reduce turbine entrainment of juvenile steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) at Cowlitz Falls Dam, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kock, Tobias J.; Evans, Scott D.; Liedtke, Theresa L.; Rondorf, Dennis W.; Kohn, Mike

    2009-01-01

    We conducted a radiotelemetry evaluation to determine if strobe lights could be used to decrease turbine entrainment of juvenile steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) at Cowlitz Falls Dam, Washington. We found that radio-tagged juvenile steelhead approached and entered two spillbays (one lighted, one unlighted) in equal proportions. However, the presence of strobe lights was associated with decreased spillbay residence time of juvenile steelhead and increased passage through induction slots (secondary turbine intakes located upstream of the ogee on the spillway). Mean residence time of tagged fish inside the lighted spillbay was 14 min compared to 62 min inside the unlighted spillbay. Radio-tagged steelhead passed through induction slots at a higher proportion in the lighted spillbay (55%) than in the unlighted spillbay (26%). Recent studies have suggested that strobe lights can induce torpor in juvenile salmonids. We believe that strobe light exposure affected fish in our study at a location where they were susceptible to high flows thereby reducing mean residence time and increasing the proportion of tagged fish entering induction slots in the lighted spillbay. Our results suggest that factors such as deployment location, exposure, and flow are important variables that should be considered when evaluating strobe lights as a potential fish-deterring management tool.

  12. Quality of reporting in sports injury prevention abstracts according to the CONSORT and STROBE criteria: an analysis of the World Congress of Sports Injury Prevention in 2005 and 2008.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Uzung; Knobloch, Karsten

    2012-03-01

    The quality of reporting in congress abstracts is likely to influence clinical decision-making. The quality of reporting in sports injury prevention abstracts has increased over the last 3 years, as did the number of randomised controlled trials (RCT). 154 abstracts from the 2005 and 186 abstracts from 2008 World Conferences on Sports Injury Prevention in Norway were analysed. Scores of 17 Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) criteria for RCT, or 22 Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) criteria for observational studies were determined. Improvement in reporting was evident in RCT (CONSORT score 5.8±0.9 vs 8.6±2.9, p=0.001, CI -4.29 to -1.43) as well as for observational studies (STROBE score 7.9±1.6 vs 9.9±1.7, p<0.001, CI -2.34 to -1.53) between 2005 and 2008. RCTs were published in 9.1% in 2005 versus 10.2% in 2008 (p=0.727). RCT demonstrated a significant improvement in main outcome (0% vs 57.9%, p<0.001). For observational studies, a significant improvement was reported in rationale (53.5% vs 98.2%, p<0.001), objectives (82.2% vs 95.1%, p=0.012), study design (25.2% vs 65%, p<0.001), setting (43.7% vs 65.6%, p=0.002), variables (20.7% vs 74.2%, p<0.001), participants (0.7% vs 10.4%, p=0.001) and funding (0% vs 5.5%, p=0.006). While the percentage of published RCTs in abstracts at the World Congress of Sports Injury Prevention remained unchanged, an improvement in reporting of abstracts was evident from 2005 to 2008, as determined by CONSORT/STROBE criteria. However, substantial and comprehensive use of the CONSORT and STROBE criteria might further increase the quality of reporting of sports injury conference abstracts in the future.

  13. Epidemiological causality.

    PubMed

    Morabia, Alfredo

    2005-01-01

    Epidemiological methods, which combine population thinking and group comparisons, can primarily identify causes of disease in populations. There is therefore a tension between our intuitive notion of a cause, which we want to be deterministic and invariant at the individual level, and the epidemiological notion of causes, which are invariant only at the population level. Epidemiologists have given heretofore a pragmatic solution to this tension. Causal inference in epidemiology consists in checking the logical coherence of a causality statement and determining whether what has been found grossly contradicts what we think we already know: how strong is the association? Is there a dose-response relationship? Does the cause precede the effect? Is the effect biologically plausible? Etc. This approach to causal inference can be traced back to the English philosophers David Hume and John Stuart Mill. On the other hand, the mode of establishing causality, devised by Jakob Henle and Robert Koch, which has been fruitful in bacteriology, requires that in every instance the effect invariably follows the cause (e.g., inoculation of Koch bacillus and tuberculosis). This is incompatible with epidemiological causality which has to deal with probabilistic effects (e.g., smoking and lung cancer), and is therefore invariant only for the population.

  14. Effects of a fire alarm strobe light on fecal corticosterone metabolite concentrations in mice.

    PubMed

    Godfrey, Denice; Silverman, Jerald

    2009-02-01

    The type and location of fire alarms are important considerations in animal facility design. The Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals recommends minimizing animal exposure to such alarms. Nevertheless, it is often necessary to maintain fire alarms within animal housing or procedural areas. The authors exposed male mice to the flashing strobe light component of a standard fire alarm and evaluated mouse fecal corticosterone concentration, which is known to be an indicator of stress. Mice were exposed to the strobe light for 5 min during either the light or the dark phase of the light:dark cycle. The authors collected fecal samples every 6 h for 24 h before exposing mice to the alarm and every 6 h for 24 h after exposure. Fecal samples taken before exposure (baseline samples) showed a normal circadian pattern of corticosterone metabolite excretion. In fecal samples taken after mice were exposed to the fire alarm, metabolite concentrations did not significantly differ from baseline concentrations over time.

  15. A Statement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mondale, Walter F.

    1973-01-01

    Article is a statement by Senator Walter F. Mondale, a Democrat from Minnesota, on the evaluation of social programs and a serious appraisal of social policy for the nation's children and their families. (Author/RK)

  16. Low-density lipoproteins cause atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. 1. Evidence from genetic, epidemiologic, and clinical studies. A consensus statement from the European Atherosclerosis Society Consensus Panel.

    PubMed

    Ference, Brian A; Ginsberg, Henry N; Graham, Ian; Ray, Kausik K; Packard, Chris J; Bruckert, Eric; Hegele, Robert A; Krauss, Ronald M; Raal, Frederick J; Schunkert, Heribert; Watts, Gerald F; Borén, Jan; Fazio, Sergio; Horton, Jay D; Masana, Luis; Nicholls, Stephen J; Nordestgaard, Børge G; van de Sluis, Bart; Taskinen, Marja-Riitta; Tokgözoglu, Lale; Landmesser, Ulf; Laufs, Ulrich; Wiklund, Olov; Stock, Jane K; Chapman, M John; Catapano, Alberico L

    2017-08-21

    To appraise the clinical and genetic evidence that low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) cause atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). We assessed whether the association between LDL and ASCVD fulfils the criteria for causality by evaluating the totality of evidence from genetic studies, prospective epidemiologic cohort studies, Mendelian randomization studies, and randomized trials of LDL-lowering therapies. In clinical studies, plasma LDL burden is usually estimated by determination of plasma LDL cholesterol level (LDL-C). Rare genetic mutations that cause reduced LDL receptor function lead to markedly higher LDL-C and a dose-dependent increase in the risk of ASCVD, whereas rare variants leading to lower LDL-C are associated with a correspondingly lower risk of ASCVD. Separate meta-analyses of over 200 prospective cohort studies, Mendelian randomization studies, and randomized trials including more than 2 million participants with over 20 million person-years of follow-up and over 150 000 cardiovascular events demonstrate a remarkably consistent dose-dependent log-linear association between the absolute magnitude of exposure of the vasculature to LDL-C and the risk of ASCVD; and this effect appears to increase with increasing duration of exposure to LDL-C. Both the naturally randomized genetic studies and the randomized intervention trials consistently demonstrate that any mechanism of lowering plasma LDL particle concentration should reduce the risk of ASCVD events proportional to the absolute reduction in LDL-C and the cumulative duration of exposure to lower LDL-C, provided that the achieved reduction in LDL-C is concordant with the reduction in LDL particle number and that there are no competing deleterious off-target effects. Consistent evidence from numerous and multiple different types of clinical and genetic studies unequivocally establishes that LDL causes ASCVD.

  17. STROBE-X: X-ray Timing & Spectroscopy on Dynamical Timescales from Microseconds to Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.; Ray, Paul S.; Gendreau, Keith; Chakrabarty, Deepto; Feroci, Marco; Maccarone, Tom; Arzoumanian, Zaven; Remillard, Ronald A.; Wood, Kent; Griffith, Christopher; STROBE-X Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    We describe a proposed probe-class mission concept that will provide an unprecedented view of the X-ray sky, performing timing and spectroscopy over a broad band (0.2-30 keV) probing timescales from microseconds to years. The Spectroscopic Time-Resolving Observatory for Broadband Energy X-rays (STROBE-X) comprises two primary instruments. The soft band (0.2-12 keV) will be covered by an array of lightweight optics (3-m focal length) that concentrate incident photons onto small solid state detectors with CCD-level (85-130 eV) energy resolution, 100 ns time resolution, and low background rates. This technology, fully developed for NICER, would be scaled up with enhanced optics to take advantage of the longer focal length of STROBE-X. The harder band (2 to at least 30 keV) would be covered by large-area collimated silicon drift detectors,developed for the European LOFT mission concept. Each instrument would provide an order of magnitude improvement in effective area compared with its predecessor (NICER in the soft band and RXTE in the hard band). A sensitive sky monitor would act as a trigger for pointed observations, provide high duty cycle, high time resolution, high spectral resolution monitoring of the X-ray sky with ~20 times the sensitivity of the RXTE ASM, and enable multi-wavelength and multi-messenger studies on a continuous, rather than scanning basis.The broad coverage will enable thermal components, non-thermal components, iron lines, and reflection features to be studied simultaneously from a single platform for the first time in accreting black holes at all scales. The enormous collecting area will enable studies of the dense matter equation of state using both soft thermal emission from rotation-powered pulsars and harder emission from X-ray burst oscillations. Revolutionary science, such as high quality spectroscopy of clusters of galaxies and unprecedented timing investigations of active galactic nuclei, would also be obtained.We describe the mission

  18. STROBE-X: X-Ray Timing Spectroscopy on Dynamical Timescales from Microseconds to Years

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.; Ray, P. S.; Gendreau, K.; Arzoumanian, Z.; Chakrabarty, D.; Remillard, R.; Feroci, M.; Maccarone, T.; Wood, K.; Jenke, P.

    2017-01-01

    We describe a probe-class mission concept that provides an unprecedented view of the X-ray sky, performing timing and 0.2-30 keV spectroscopy over timescales from microseconds to years. The Spectroscopic Time-Resolving Observatory for Broadband Energy X-rays (STROBE-X) comprises three primary instruments. The first uses an array of lightweight optics (3-m focal length) that concentrate incident photons onto solid state detectors with CCD-level (85-130 eV) energy resolution, 100 ns time resolution, and low background rates to cover the 0.2-12 keV band. This technology is scaled up from NICER, with enhanced optics to take advantage of the longer focal length of STROBE-X. The second uses large-area collimated silicon drift detectors, developed for ESA's LOFT, to cover the 2-30 keV band. These two instruments each provide an order of magnitude improvement in effective area compared with its predecessor (NICER and RXTE, respectively). Finally, a sensitive sky monitor triggers pointed observations, provides high duty cycle, high time resolution, high spectral resolution monitoring of the X-ray sky with approx. 20 times the sensitivity of the RXTE ASM, and enables multi-wavelength and multi-messenger studies on a continuous, rather than scanning basis.For the first time, the broad coverage provides simultaneous study of thermal components, non-thermal components, iron lines, and reflection features from a single platform for accreting black holes at all scales. The enormous collecting area allows detailed studies of the dense matter equation of state using both thermal emission from rotation-powered pulsars and harder emission from X-ray burst oscillations. The combination of the wide-field monitor and the sensitive pointed instruments enables observations of potential electromagnetic counterparts to LIGO and neutrino events. Additional extragalactic science, such as high quality spectroscopy of clusters of galaxies and unprecedented timing investigations of active

  19. STROBE-X: X-ray Timing & Spectroscopy on Dynamical Timescales from Microseconds to Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.; Ray, Paul S.; Gendreau, Keith; Chakrabarty, Deepto; Feroci, Marco; Maccarone, Thomas J.; Arzoumanian, Zaven; Remillard, Ronald A.; Wood, Kent; Griffith, Christopher; Jenke, Peter

    2017-08-01

    We describe a probe-class mission concept that provides an unprecedented view of the X-ray sky, performing timing and 0.2-30 keV spectroscopy over timescales from microseconds to years. The Spectroscopic Time-Resolving Observatory for Broadband Energy X-rays (STROBE-X) comprises three primary instruments. The first uses an array of lightweight optics (3-m focal length) that concentrate incident photons onto solid state detectors with CCD-level (85-130 eV) energy resolution, 100 ns time resolution, and low background rates to cover the 0.2-12 keV band. This technology is scaled up from NICER, with enhanced optics to take advantage of the longer focal length of STROBE-X. The second uses large-area collimated silicon drift detectors, developed for ESA's LOFT, to cover the 2-30 keV band. These two instruments each provide an order of magnitude improvement in effective area compared with its predecessor (NICER and RXTE, respectively). Finally, a sensitive sky monitor triggers pointed observations, provides high duty cycle, high time resolution, high spectral resolution monitoring of the X-ray sky with ~20 times the sensitivity of the RXTE ASM, and enables multi-wavelength and multi-messenger studies on a continuous, rather than scanning basis.For the first time, the broad coverage provides simultaneous study of thermal components, non-thermal components, iron lines, and reflection features from a single platform for accreting black holes at all scales. The enormous collecting area allows detailed studies of the dense matter equation of state using both thermal emission from rotation-powered pulsars and harder emission from X-ray burst oscillations. The combination of the wide-field monitor and the sensitive pointed instruments enables observations of potential electromagnetic counterparts to LIGO and neutrino events. Additional extragalactic science, such as high quality spectroscopy of clusters of galaxies and unprecedented timing investigations of active galactic

  20. STROBE-X: X-ray Timing & Spectroscopy on Dynamical Timescales from Microseconds to Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, Paul; Wilson-Hodge, Colleen; Gendreau, Keith; Chakrabarty, Deepto; Feroci, Marco; Maccarone, Thomas; Arzoumanian, Zaven; Remillard, Ron; Wood, Kent; Griffith, Chris; Strobe-X Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    We describe a proposed probe-class mission concept that will provide an unprecedented view of the X-ray sky, performing timing and spectroscopy over a broad band (0.2-30 keV) probing timescale from microseconds to years. The Spectroscopic Time-Resolving Observatory for Broadband Energy X-rays (STROBE-X) comprises two primary instruments, one based on technology developed for the NICER mission and the other based on the European LOFT mission. The broad coverage will enable thermal components, non-thermal components, iron lines, and reflection features to be studied simultaneously from a single platform for the first time in accreting black holes at all scales. The massive collecting area will enable studies of the dense matter equation of state using multiple techniques. A broad range of other revolutionary science, such as high quality spectroscopy of clusters of galaxies and unprecedented timing investigations of active galactic nuclei, would also be obtained. We describe the mission concept and the planned trade studies that will optimize the mission to maximize the science return. This mission is being developed in collaboration with members of the European LOFT team, and a hardware contribution from Europe is expected.

  1. Assessment of reporting quality of conference abstracts in sports injury prevention according to CONSORT and STROBE criteria and their subsequent publication rate as full papers.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Uzung; Knobloch, Karsten

    2012-04-11

    The preliminary results of a study are usually presented as an abstract in conference meetings. The reporting quality of those abstracts and the relationship between their study designs and full paper publication rate is unknown. We hypothesized that randomized controlled trials are more likely to be published as full papers than observational studies. 154 oral abstracts presented at the World Congress of Sports Injury Prevention 2005 Oslo and the corresponding full paper publication were identified and analysed. The main outcome measures were frequency of publication, time to publication, impact factor, CONSORT (for Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials) score, STROBE (for Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology) score, and minor and major inconsistencies between the abstract and the full paper publication. Overall, 76 of the 154 (49%) presented abstracts were published as full papers in a peer-reviewed journal with an impact factor of 1.946 ± 0.812. No significant difference existed between the impact factor for randomized controlled trials (2.122 ± 1.015) and observational studies (1.913 ± 0.765, p = 0.469). The full papers for the randomized controlled trials were published after an average (SD) of 17 months (± 13 months); for observational studies, the average (SD) was 12 months (± 14 months) (p = 0.323). A trend was observed in this study that a higher percentage of randomized controlled trial abstracts were published as full papers (71% vs. 47%, p = 0.078) than observational trials. The reporting quality of abstracts, published as full papers, significantly increased compared to conference abstracts both in randomized control studies ( 5.7 ± 0.7 to 7.2 ± 1.3; p = 0.018, CI -2.7 to -0.32) and in observational studies (STROBE: 8.2 ± 1.3 to 8.6 ± 1.4; p = 0.007, CI -0.63 to -0.10). All of the published abstracts had at least one minor inconsistency (title, authors, research center, outcome presentation, conclusion

  2. Geophysical variables and behavior: LXXX. Periodicities and energetic characteristics of a strobe-light luminosity during a geomagnetic storm.

    PubMed

    Persinger, M A; Hart, B; Thomas, A W

    1996-04-01

    A videotape of a "strobe-light" luminosity that occurred in northern Ontario for several minutes during the evening of 6 October, 1994, at the time of a geomagnetic storm, was analyzed frame by frame. Brightness of the flashes decreased over the time of the observation. The interflicker intervals displayed phase-shifted periodicities that would be compatible with a rotating electromagnetic dipole and with the observations of the witnesses. The time of the occurrence and the dynamics of the luminosity were consistent with the predictions of the tectonic strain hypothesis.

  3. Chief Joseph Kokanee Enhancement Project -- Strobe Light Deterrent Efficacy Test and Fish Behavior Determination at Grand Coulee Dam Third Powerplant Forebay

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, Mary Ann; Johnson, Robert L.; McKinstry, Craig A.; Anglea, Steven M.; Simmons, Carver S.; Thorsten, Susan L.; Lecaire, R; Francis, S

    2002-01-29

    This report describes the work conducted during the first year of a long-term study to assess the efficacy of a prototype strobe light system in eliciting a negative phototactic response in kokanee and rainbow trout. The strobe light system is being evaluated as a means to prevent entrainment (and subsequent loss) of fish at the entrance to the forebay adjacent to the third powerplant at Grand Coulee Dam. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and the Colville Confederated Tribes are collaborating on the three-year study being conducted for the Bonneville Power Administration and the Northwest Power Planning Council.

  4. Chief Joseph Kokanee Enhancement Project; Strobe Light Deterrent Efficacy Test and Fish Behavior Determination at the Grand Coulee Dam Third Powerplant Forebay, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, M.; McKinstry, C.; Cook, C.

    2004-01-01

    Since 1995, the Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation (Colville Confederated Tribes) have managed the Chief Joseph Kokanee Enhancement Project as part of the Northwest Power Planning Council (NWPPC) Fish and Wildlife Program. Project objectives have focused on understanding natural production of kokanee (a land-locked sockeye salmon) and other fish stocks in the area above Grand Coulee and Chief Joseph Dams on the Columbia River. A 42-month investigation from 1996 to 1999 determined that from 211,685 to 576,676 fish were entrained annually at Grand Coulee Dam. Analysis of the entrainment data found that 85% of the total entrainment occurred at the dam's third powerplant. These numbers represent a significant loss to the tribal fisheries upstream of the dam. In response to a suggestion by the NWPPC Independent Scientific Review Panel, the scope of work for the Chief Joseph Kokanee Enhancement Project was expanded to include a multiyear pilot test of a strobe light system to help mitigate fish entrainment. This report details the work conducted during the third year of the strobe light study by researchers of the Colville Confederated Tribes in collaboration with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The objective of the study is to determine the efficacy of a prototype strobe light system to elicit a negative phototactic response in kokanee and rainbow trout under field conditions. The prototype system consists of six strobe lights affixed to an aluminum frame suspended 15 m vertically underwater from a barge secured in the center of the entrance to the third powerplant forebay. The lights, controlled by a computer, illuminate a region directly upstream of the barge. The 2003 study period extended from June 16 through August 1. Three light treatments were used: all six lights on for 24 hours, all lights off for 24 hours, and three of six lights cycled on and off every hour for 24 hours. These three treatment conditions were assigned randomly within a

  5. Substance Abuse. Policy Statement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Collaboration for Youth, Washington, DC.

    This paper presents the policy statement on substance abuse from the National Collaboration for Youth (NCY). The policy statement section lists programs and activities supported by the NCY. A section on background includes a statement of the issue of substance abuse. Areas examined in this section include alcohol abuse and drunk driving among…

  6. School Library Policy Statement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg. Instructional Resources Branch.

    The School Library Policy Statement for Manitoba schools begins with the mission statement of Manitoba Education and Training and the Goals of Learning for Manitoba. Statements of Manitoba's School Library Policy and the Philosophy of the School Library Program are also provided, together with an outline of the responsibilities of both Manitoba's…

  7. Chief Joseph Kokanee Enhancement Project; Strobe Light Deterrent Efficacy Test and Fish Behavior Determination at the Grand Coulee Dam Third Powerplant Forebay, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R.; McKinstry, C.; Simmons, C.

    2003-01-01

    Since 1995, the Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation (Colville Confederated Tribes) have managed the Chief Joseph Kokanee Enhancement Project as part of the Northwest Power Planning Council (NWPPC) Fish and Wildlife Program. Project objectives have focused on understanding natural production of kokanee (a land-locked sockeye salmon) and other fish stocks in the area above Grand Coulee and Chief Joseph Dams on the Columbia River. A 42-month investigation concluded that entrainment at Grand Coulee Dam ranged from 211,685 to 576,676 fish annually. Further analysis revealed that 85% of the total entrainment occurred at the dam's third powerplant. These numbers represent a significant loss to the tribal fisheries upstream of the dam. In response to a suggestion by the NWPPC Independent Scientific Review Panel, the scope of work for the Chief Joseph Kokanee Enhancement Project was expanded to include a multiyear pilot test of a strobe light system to help mitigate fish entrainment. This report details the work conducted during the second year of the study by researchers of the Colville Confederated Tribes in collaboration with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The 2002 study period extended from May 18 through July 30. The objective of the study was to determine the efficacy of a prototype strobe light system to elicit a negative phototactic response in kokanee and rainbow trout. The prototype system consisted of six strobe lights affixed to an aluminum frame suspended vertically underwater from a barge secured in the center of the entrance to the third powerplant forebay. The lights, controlled by a computer, were aimed to illuminate a specific region directly upstream of the barge. Three light level treatments were used: 6 of 6 lights on, 3 of 6 lights on, and all lights off. These three treatment conditions were applied for an entire 24-hr day and were randomly assigned within a 3-day block throughout the study period. A seven-transducer splitbeam

  8. Teaching Philosophy Statements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faryadi, Qais

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the rationale for my teaching philosophy. Using a personal perspective, I explain my objectives, mission, and vision in writing my philosophy of teaching statements. This article also creates a road map and reference points for educators who want to write their own teaching philosophy statements to help them make informed…

  9. Drug Free Campus Statement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casper Coll., WY.

    These three brief documents, a policy statement, a summary of pertinent laws on alcohol and illegal drugs, and a substance addiction specialist curriculum description, taken together describe the Casper College (Wyoming) drug and alcohol abuse prevention program. The policy statement briefly summarizes the health risks associated with drug and…

  10. Using 3D Acoustic Telemetry to Assess the Response of Resident Salmonids to Strobe Lights in Lake Roosevelt, Washington; Chief Joseph Kokanee Enhancement Feasibility Study, Annual Report 2001-2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, Russlee; Farley, M.; Hansen, Gabriel

    2003-01-01

    In 1995, the Chief Joseph Kokanee Enhancement Project was established to mitigate the loss of anadromous fish due to the construction of Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee dams. The objectives of the Chief Joseph Enhancement Project are to determine the status of resident kokanee (Oncorhynchus nerka) populations above Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee dams and to enhance kokanee and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) populations. Studies conducted at Grand Coulee Dam documented substantial entrainment of kokanee through turbines at the third powerhouse. In response to finding high entrainment at Grand Coulee Dam, the Independent Scientific Review Panel (ISRP) recommended investigating the use of strobe lights to repel fish from the forebay of the third powerhouse. Therefore, our study focused on the third powerhouse and how strobe lights affected fish behavior in this area. The primary objective of our study was to assess the behavioral response of kokanee and rainbow trout to strobe lights using 3D acoustic telemetry, which yields explicit spatial locations of fish in three dimensions. Our secondary objectives were to (1) use a 3D acoustic system to mobile track tagged fish in the forebay and upriver of Grand Coulee Dam and (2) determine the feasibility of detecting fish using a hydrophone mounted in the tailrace of the third powerhouse. Within the fixed hydrophone array located in the third powerhouse cul-de-sac, we detected 50 kokanee and 30 rainbow trout, accounting for 47% and 45% respectively, of the fish released. Kokanee had a median residence time of 0.20 h and rainbow trout had a median residence time of 1.07 h. We detected more kokanee in the array at night compared to the day, and we detected more rainbow trout during the day compared to the night. In general, kokanee and rainbow trout approached along the eastern shore and the relative frequency of kokanee and rainbow trout detections was highest along the eastern shoreline of the 3D array. However, because we

  11. Endodontic Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Shahravan, Arash; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiology is the study of disease distribution and factors determining or affecting it. Likewise, endodontic epidemiology can be defined as the science of studying the distribution pattern and determinants of pulp and periapical diseases; specially apical periodontitis. Although different study designs have been used in endodontics, researchers must pay more attention to study designs with higher level of evidence such as randomized clinical trials. PMID:24688577

  12. DSCOVR Public Release Statement

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-11-23

    ... DSCOVR Public Release Statement Wednesday, July 20, 2016 The Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR) is a ... is limited to the near infrared solar reflected signal. The fourth detector is a high signal-to-noise photodiode spanning UV, Visible, and ...

  13. Aljoya Consensus Statement

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A consensus statement of 100 experts meeting at the Aljoya Conference Center in Seattle, Washington in July 2000 for the First International Conference on Trans-Pacific Transport of Atmospheric Contaminants.

  14. Statement on Human Cloning

    MedlinePlus

    ... form Search American Association for the Advancement of Science Statement on Human Cloning Tweet The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) recognizes the intense debates within our society ...

  15. Statement on Human Cloning

    MedlinePlus

    ... form Search American Association for the Advancement of Science Statement on Human Cloning Tweet The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) recognizes the intense debates within our society ...

  16. Environmental Impact Statements Defended

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Discusses a government report that claims that government decision making has improved since federal agencies have been required to submit any proposed action in the form of an environmental impact statement for comments by the public and other agencies. (MLH)

  17. Environmental epidemiology

    SciTech Connect

    Kopfler, F.C.; Craun, G.F.

    1986-01-01

    This volume is a compendium of peer-reviewed papers presented at the Symposium on Exposure Measurement and Evaluation Methods for Epidemiology, cosponsored in 1985 by the Health Effects Research Laboratory, USEPA, and the Division of Environmental Chemistry of the American Chemical Society. The book is divided into four sections: Use of Biological Monitoring to Assess Exposure, Epidemiologic Considerations for Assessing Exposure, Health and Exposure Data Bases, and Assessment of Exposure to Environmental Contaminants for Epidemiologic Studies. Both background papers and detailed reports of human studies are presented. The Biological Monitoring section contains reports of efforts to quantify adducts in blood and urine samples. In the section on Epidemiologic Considerations the feasibility of conducting epidemiologic studies of persons residing near hazardous waste sites and those exposed to arsenic in drinking water is described. The review of Data Bases includes government and industry water quality monitoring systems, the FDA Market Basket Study, major EPA air monitoring data, the National Database on Body Burden of Toxic chemicals, and the National Human Adipose Tissue Survey. Methods of assessing current exposure and estimating past exposure are detailed in the final section. Exposure to trichloroethylene in shower water, the relationship between water quality and cardiovascular disease, the contribution of environmental lead exposures to pediatric blood lead levels, and data from the TEAM study in which researchers compare indoor, outdoor, and breath analysis of air pollutant exposures are also discussed.

  18. Chief Joseph Kokanee Enhancement Project; Strobe Light Deterrent Efficacy Test and Fish Behavior Determination at Grand Coulee Dam Third Powerplant Forebay, 2005-2006 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, M.; Johnson, Robert; McKinstry, C.

    2006-03-01

    The construction of Grand Coulee and Chief Joseph dams on the Columbia River resulted in the complete extirpation of the anadromous fishery upstream of these structures. Today, this area is totally dependent upon resident fish resources to support local fisheries. The resident fishing is enhanced by an extensive stocking program for target species in the existing fishery, including kokanee (Oncorhynchus nerka kennerlyi) and rainbow trout (O. mykiss). The kokanee fishery in Lake Roosevelt has not been meeting the return goals set by fisheries managers despite the stocking program. Investigations of physical and biological factors that could affect the kokanee population found predation and entrainment had a significant impact on the fish population. In 1999 and 2000, walleye (Sander vitreum) consumed between 15% and 9%, respectively, of the hatchery kokanee within 41 days of their release, while results from a study in the late 1990s estimated that entrainment at Grand Coulee Dam could account for up to 30% of the total mortality of the stocked fish. To address the entrainment loss, the Bonneville Power Administration commissioned a study to determine if fish would avoid areas illuminated by strobe lights in the forebay of the third powerplant. This work was conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in conjunction with the Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation (Colville Confederated Tribes). From 2002 through 2004, six strobe lights were suspended in the center of the opening to the third powerplant forebay during summer months. Results from those studies indicated that fish appeared to be attracted to the illuminated area but only at night and when flow conditions within the third powerplant forebay were minimal. However, small but consistent results from these studies indicated that under high flow conditions, fish might be avoiding the lights. The 2005 study was designed to examine whether, under high flow conditions near the penstock

  19. Strobe Light Testing and Kokanee Population Monitoring : Dworshak Dam Impacts Assessment and Fisheries Investigation Project, 97-99 : annual Progress Report for 1998.

    SciTech Connect

    Maiolie, Melo A.; Harryman, Bill; Ament, William J.

    1999-12-01

    We tested the response of kokanee Oncorhynchus nerka to strobe lights. Testing was conducted on wild, free-ranging fish in their natural environment (i.e., the pelagic region of two large Idaho lakes). Split-beam hydroacoustics were used to record the distance kokanee moved away from the lights as well as the density of kokanee in the area near the lights. In control tests, where the strobe lights were lowered into the lake but kept turned off, kokanee remained within a few meters of the lights. Once the lights began flashing, kokanee quickly moved away from the light source. Kokanee were found to move an average of 30 to 136 m away from the lights in waters with Secchi transparencies from 2.8 to 17.5 m (p=0.00 to p=0.04). Kokanee densities near the lights were significantly lower (p=0.00 to p=0.07) when the lights were turned on than in control samples with no lights flashing. Flash rates of 300, 360, and 450 flashes/min elicited strong avoidance responses from the fish. Kokanee remained at least 24 m away from the lights during our longest test that lasted for 5 h 50 min. Kokanee appeared to be responding to flashes that were well less than 0.00016 lux above background lighting.

  20. Digital Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Salathé, Marcel; Bengtsson, Linus; Bodnar, Todd J.; Brewer, Devon D.; Brownstein, John S.; Buckee, Caroline; Campbell, Ellsworth M.; Cattuto, Ciro; Khandelwal, Shashank; Mabry, Patricia L.; Vespignani, Alessandro

    2012-01-01

    Mobile, social, real-time: the ongoing revolution in the way people communicate has given rise to a new kind of epidemiology. Digital data sources, when harnessed appropriately, can provide local and timely information about disease and health dynamics in populations around the world. The rapid, unprecedented increase in the availability of relevant data from various digital sources creates considerable technical and computational challenges. PMID:22844241

  1. Quality of reporting according to the CONSORT, STROBE and Timmer instrument at the American Burn Association (ABA) annual meetings 2000 and 2008

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The quality of oral and poster conference presentations differ. We hypothesized that the quality of reporting is better in oral abstracts than in poster abstracts at the American Burn Association (ABA) conference meeting. Methods All 511 abstracts (2000: N = 259, 2008: N = 252) from the ABA annual meetings in year 2000 and 2008 were screened. RCT's and obervational studies were analyzed by two independent examiners regarding study design and quality of reporting for randomized-controlled trials (RCT) by CONSORT criteria, observational studies by the STROBE criteria and additionally the Timmer instrument. Results Overall, 13 RCT's in 2000 and 9 in 2008, 77 observational studies in 2000 and 98 in 2008 were identified. Of the presented abstracts, 5% (oral; 7%(n = 9) vs. poster; 3%(n = 4)) in 2000 and 4% ((oral; 5%(n = 7) vs. poster; 2%(n = 2)) in 2008 were randomized controlled trials. The amount of observational studies as well as experimental studies accepted for presentation was not significantly different between oral and poster in both years. Reporting quality of RCT was for oral vs. poster abstracts in 2000 (CONSORT; 7.2 ± 0.8 vs. 7 ± 0, p = 0.615, CI -0.72 to 1.16, Timmer; 7.8 ± 0.7 vs. 7.5 ± 0.6,) and 2008 (CONSORT; 7.2 ± 1.4 vs. 6.5 ± 1, Timmer; 9.7 ± 1.1 vs. 9.5 ± 0.7). While in 2000, oral and poster abstracts of observational studies were not significantly different for reporting quality according to STROBE (STROBE; 8.3 ± 1.7 vs. 8.9 ± 1.6, p = 0.977, CI -37.3 to 36.3, Timmer; 8.6 ± 1.5 vs. 8.5 ± 1.4, p = 0.712, CI -0.44 to 0.64), in 2008 oral observational abstracts were significantly better than posters (STROBE score; 9.4 ± 1.9 vs. 8.5 ± 2, p = 0.005, CI 0.28 to 1.54, Timmer; 9.4 ± 1.4 vs. 8.6 ± 1.7, p = 0.013, CI 0.32 to 1.28). Conclusions Poster abstract reporting quality at the American Burn Association annual meetings in 2000 and 2008 is not necessarily inferior to oral abstracts as far as study design and reporting quality

  2. Position Statements, Issue Briefs, Resolutions and Consensus Statements. Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of School Nurses (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    This article presents position statements, issue briefs, and resolutions and consensus statements of the National Association of School Nurses (NASN). The Position Statements include: (1) Allergy/Anaphylaxis Management in the School Setting; (2) Caseload Assignments; (3) Child Mortality in the School Setting; (4) Chronic Health Conditions, Managed…

  3. Be Vigilant on Financial Statements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freed, DeBow

    2002-01-01

    Highlights areas on university's financial statements that warrant careful review by trustees and suggests ways they can check to see whether an institution's financial statements are clear and valid indicators of its financial status. (EV)

  4. Be Vigilant on Financial Statements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freed, DeBow

    2002-01-01

    Highlights areas on university's financial statements that warrant careful review by trustees and suggests ways they can check to see whether an institution's financial statements are clear and valid indicators of its financial status. (EV)

  5. Youth Employment. Policy Statement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Collaboration for Youth, Washington, DC.

    This paper presents the policy statement on youth employment from the National Collaboration for Youth (NCY). An introduction briefly explains the role of the NCY with regard to youth employment and describes the types of programs and services supported by NCY. A section on background provides statistics on teenagers and employment from the Bureau…

  6. Relatives' Responsibility; Policy Statement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Foundation for the Blind, New York, NY.

    Presented by the American Foundation for the Blind (AFB) are background information and a policy statement on responsibility laws pertaining to relatives of applicants for public assistance. The laws are said to date to the Elizabethan Poor Laws, to vary state to state, and to mandate eligibility for public assistance on requirements of residence,…

  7. Sustainability Statement and Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Education for Sustainable Development, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This article presents nine resources that focus on environmental education and sustainability. These include: (1) "Sustainability Statement and Policy," Dalhousie University, Nova Scotia, Canada, 2009, which is available at http://office.sustainability.dal.ca/Governance; (2) "Climate Literacy: The Essential Principles of Climate…

  8. Sustainability Statement and Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Education for Sustainable Development, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This article presents nine resources that focus on environmental education and sustainability. These include: (1) "Sustainability Statement and Policy," Dalhousie University, Nova Scotia, Canada, 2009, which is available at http://office.sustainability.dal.ca/Governance; (2) "Climate Literacy: The Essential Principles of Climate…

  9. Environmental Impact Statements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pietz, Reuel Henry

    The paper explores the role of geographers in preparing environmental impact statements (EISs). In 1969 the National Environmental Policy Act mandated that an EIS be prepared for every legislative proposal that significantly affects the environmental quality. EISs must be prepared by interdisciplinary teams representing natural and social sciences…

  10. Peer review statement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2017-09-01

    Peer review statement All papers published in this volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series have been peer reviewed through processes administered by the proceedings Editors. Reviews were conducted by expert referees to the professional and scientific standards expected of a proceedings journal published by IOP Publishing.

  11. Institutional VVM Statements on Websites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calder, Wm. B.

    2011-01-01

    Educational leaders rely on compelling statements of institutional beliefs, strategic direction, and purpose (i.e., values, vision, and mission statements or VVM statements) as the three major pillars by which to launch new program/service initiatives, to enhance academic and administrative operations, and to chart sustainable options in building…

  12. 3 CFR - Presidential Signing Statements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... issued statements addressing constitutional or other legal questions upon signing bills into law (signing statements). Particularly since omnibus bills have become prevalent, signing statements have often been used... veto of the entire bill. In recent years, there has been considerable public discussion and criticism...

  13. Priorities Statements of Community Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Community Coll. Board, Springfield.

    Each year since 1994, the 52 community colleges in Illinois prepare priority statements detailing specific college objectives for the current fiscal year (FY). This report provides the third update of the colleges' statements, covering FY 1998. Brief statements, from one to four pages, are provided for the following colleges: Belleville Area…

  14. Institutional VVM Statements on Websites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calder, Wm. B.

    2011-01-01

    Educational leaders rely on compelling statements of institutional beliefs, strategic direction, and purpose (i.e., values, vision, and mission statements or VVM statements) as the three major pillars by which to launch new program/service initiatives, to enhance academic and administrative operations, and to chart sustainable options in building…

  15. Chief Joseph Kokanee Enhancement Project; Strobe Light Deterrent Efficacy Test and Fish Behavior Determination at the Grand Coulee Dam Third Powerplant Forebay, 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R.; McKinstry, C.; Cook, C.

    2005-02-01

    This report documents a four-year study(a) to assess the efficacy of a prototype strobe light system to elicit a negative phototactic response in kokanee (Oncorhynchus nerka kennerlyi) and rainbow trout (O. mykiss) at the entrance to the forebay of the third powerplant at Grand Coulee Dam. The work was conducted for the Bonneville Power Administration, U.S. Department of Energy, by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in conjunction with the Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation (Colville Confederated Tribes). In this report, emphasis is placed on the methodology and results associated with the fourth project year and compared with findings from the previous years to provide an overall project summary. Since 1995, the Colville Confederated Tribes have managed the Chief Joseph Kokanee Enhancement Project as part of the Northwest Power and Conservation Council Fish and Wildlife Program. Project objectives have focused on understanding natural production of kokanee (a land-locked sockeye salmon) and other fish stocks in the area above Grand Coulee and Chief Joseph dams on the Columbia River (Figure S.1). A 42-month investigation from 1996 to 1999 determined that from 211,685 to 576,676 fish, including kokanee and rainbow trout, were entrained annually at Grand Coulee Dam. Analysis of the data found that 85% of the total entrainment occurred at the dam's third powerplant. Because these entrainment rates represent a significant loss to the tribal fisheries upstream of the dam, they have been judged unacceptable to fishery managers responsible for perpetuating the fishery in Lake Roosevelt. In an effort to reduce fish entrainment rates, the scope of work for the Chief Joseph Kokanee Enhancement Project was modified in 2001 to include a multiyear study of the efficacy of using strobe lights to deter fish from entering the third powerplant forebay. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory initiated the four-year study in collaboration with Colville Tribal

  16. Statement of Intent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walter, Charmian

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of writing a charter is to show adult learners that the people providing learning for them are willing to sign up publicly to a statement of their entitlement to the very best quality of information, guidance, teaching and support--and not only to sign up to it, but to be ready to be called to account if they do not live up to the…

  17. STROBE-compliant article

    PubMed Central

    Kao, Yu-Hsiang; Wu, Shiao-Chi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Continuity of care (COC) has a proven relationship with health care outcomes. However, evidence regarding an association between COC and avoidable hospitalization for elderly patients with asthma is insufficient. A retrospective cohort study was performed using Taiwanese National Health Insurance claim data from 2004 to 2013. Patients were retrospectively followed for 2 years; the COC index (COCI) for asthma was measured in the 1st year, and avoidable hospitalization for asthma and follow-up time were determined in the subsequent year. Cox proportional hazards regression was employed to examine hazard ratios (HRs) between COC and avoidable hospitalization for asthma after adjustment for confounding factors. Adjusted HR (aHR) was also calculated by stratifying each variable to investigate whether the effect of COC on hospitalization for asthma was avoidable and how this varied across levels of COCI. Of 3356 patients included in this study, 1648 patients (49%) had a COCI of 1, and the average COCI was 0.73. Compared with patients with high COC (COCI = 1), those with low COC (COCI < 0.5) had a significantly higher risk of avoidable hospitalization for asthma (aHR = 2.68; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.55–4.63). In addition, after stratified analysis, we determined that COC plays a much more important role for patients who were women, had low insurance premiums, and had no comorbidities. High continuity of ambulatory asthma care is linked to a reduced risk of avoidable hospitalization for asthma in elderly asthmatic patients. PMID:27661052

  18. ASD Strobe Light Evaluation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-06-01

    downtown Indianapolis, dark country side, and starlit sky. Viewing distances ranges from one-half mile to ten miles. From this evaluation by airline...background luminance in the range from total darkness to starlit sky. However, as background luminance increases above the starlit sky, threshold

  19. Experiences With Strobe Lights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edgerton, Harold E.

    1983-11-01

    Harold E. Edgerton was born in Fremont, Nebraska. He received the Bachelor of Science degree from the University of Nebraska in 1925. After one year with the General Electric Company, he entered the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and has been there, first as student and then as teacher, ever since. He received the .S. degree in 1927 and the hP octor of Science degree in electrical engineering four years later. At that time he was beginning his life's work, prefecting the stroboscope, which has revolutionized ultra-high-speed motion and still photography. Dr. Edgerton organized and helped in the initial operation and management of Edgerton, Germeshausen, and Grier, Inc. (EG&G). He has pioneered the development of flash photography in the ocean depths. Out of this work has grown the sonic probe of the ocean bottom. He has become widely known as an underwater explorer. Above all, Dr. Edgerton is a master teacher who understands well the meaning of relevance and the sources of motivation in education. He is a prolific contributor to scientific journals and the holder of over forty patents. He has received honorary degrees of Doctor of Engineering from the University of Nebraska, and Doctor of Laws from the University of South Carolina. A recipient of numerous awards from the foremost engineering and photographic societies of the world, he is a member of the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering.

  20. Chief Joseph Kokanee Enhancement Project : Strobe Light Deterrent Efficacy Test and Fish Behavior Determination at Grond Coulee Dam Third Powerplant Forebay.

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, M.A.; McKinstry, C.A.; Simmons, C.S.

    2002-01-01

    Since 1995, the Colville Confederated Tribes have managed the Chief Joseph Kokanee Enhancement Project as part of the Northwest Power Planning Council's (NWPPC) Fish and Wildlife Program. Project objectives have focused on understanding natural production of kokanee (a land-locked sockeye salmon) and other fish stocks in the area above Grand Coulee and Chief Joseph Dams on the Columbia River. A 42-month investigation concluded that entrainment at Grand Coulee Dam ranged from 211,685 to 576,676 fish annually. Further analysis revealed that 85% of the total entrainment occurred at the dam's third powerplant. These numbers represent a significant loss to the tribal fisheries upstream of the dam. In response to a suggestion by the NWPPC's Independent Scientific Review Panel, the scope of work for the Chief Joseph Kokanee Enhancement Project was expanded to include a multiyear pilot test of a strobe light system to help mitigate fish entrainment. This report details the work conducted during the first year of the study by researchers of the Colville Confederated Tribes in collaboration with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The objective of the study was to determine the efficacy of a prototype strobe light system to elicit a negative phototactic response in kokanee and rainbow trout. Analysis of the effect of strobe lights on the distribution (numbers) and behavior of kokanee and rainbow trout was based on 51, 683 fish targets detected during the study period (June 30 through August 1, 2001). Study findings include the following: (1) Analysis of the count data indicated that significantly more fish were present when the lights were on compared to off. This was true for both the 24-hr tests as well as the 1-hr tests. Powerplant discharge, distance from lights, and date were significant factors in the analysis. (2) Behavioral results indicated that fish within 14 m of the lights were trying to avoid the lights by swimming across the lighted region or

  1. Strobe Light Testing and Kokanee Population Monitoring : Dworshak Dam Impacts Assessment and Fisheries Investigation Project, 87-99 : Annual Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Maiolie, Melo A.; Harryman, Bill; Ament, Willaim J.

    1999-11-01

    We tested the response of kokanee Oncorhynchus nerka to strobe lights. Testing was conducted on wild, free-ranging fish in their natural environment (i.e., the pelagic region of two large Idaho lakes). Split-beam hydroacoustics were used to record the distance kokanee moved away from the lights, as well as the density of kokanee in the area near the lights. In control tests, where strobe lights were lowered into the lake but kept turned off, kokanee remained within a few meters of the lights. Once the lights began flashing, kokanee quickly moved away from the light source. Kokanee moved 20 to 40 m away from the lights in waters with Secchi transparencies from 3 to 5 m. Kokanee densities near the lights were significantly lower (p=0.07 to p=0.00) when the lights were turned on than in control samples with no lights flashing. Flash rates of 300, 360, and 450 flashes/min elicited strong avoidance responses from the fish. Kokanee remained at least 24 m from the lights during our longest test that lasted for 5 h 50 min. We also continued annual monitoring of the kokanee population in Dworshak Reservoir. Spawner counts in four tributary streams that were used as an index of the adult population reached a record low of 144 spawners. No age-1 or age-2 kokanee were caught in 15 trawl hauls used to make population estimates. The population estimate of fry was 65,000 fish, {+-} 76% (90% C.I.). Flooding during the spring of 1996 was responsible for the low kokanee population.

  2. Position statement on cannabis.

    PubMed

    Stein For The Executive Committee Of The Central Drug Authority, Dan Joseph

    2016-05-16

    There is an ongoing national debate around cannabis policy. This brief position statement by the Executive Committee of the Central Drug Authorityoutlines some of the factors that have contributed to this debate, delineates reduction strategies, summarises the harms and benefits ofmarijuana, and provides recommendations. These recommendations emphasise an integrated and evidence-based approach, the need forresources to implement harm reduction strategies against continued and chronic use of alcohol and cannabis, and the potential value of afocus on decriminalisation rather than the legalisation of cannabis.

  3. Management of Hypoparathyroidism: Summary Statement and Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Brandi, Maria Luisa; Bilezikian, John P; Shoback, Dolores; Bouillon, Roger; Clarke, Bart L; Thakker, Rajesh V; Khan, Aliya A; Potts, John T

    2016-06-01

    Hypoparathyroidism is a rare disorder characterized by hypocalcemia and absent or deficient PTH. This report presents a summary of current information about epidemiology, presentation, diagnosis, clinical features, and management and proposes guidelines to help clinicians diagnose, evaluate, and manage this disorder. Participants in the First International Conference on the Management of Hypoparathyroidism represented a worldwide constituency with acknowledged interest and expertise in key basic, translational, and clinical aspects of hypoparathyroidism. Three Workshop Panels were constituted to address questions for presentation and discussion at the Conference held in Florence, Italy, May 7-9, 2015. At that time, a series of presentations were made, followed by in-depth discussions in an open forum. Each Workshop Panel also met in closed sessions to formulate the three evidence-based reports that accompany this summary statement. An Expert Panel then considered this information, developed summaries, guidelines, and a research agenda that constitutes this summary statement. Preceding the conference, each Workshop Panel conducted an extensive literature search as noted in the individual manuscripts accompanying this report. All presentations were based upon the best peer-reviewed information taking into account the historical and current literature. This report represents the Expert Panel's synthesis of the conference material placed in a context designed to be relevant to clinicians and those engaged in cutting-edge studies of hypoparathyroidism. This document not only provides a summary of our current knowledge but also places recent advances in its management into a context that should enhance future advances in our understanding of hypoparathyroidism.

  4. 7 CFR 3052.310 - Financial statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Financial statements. 3052.310 Section 3052.310....310 Financial statements. (a) Financial statements. The auditee shall prepare financial statements... appropriate, cash flows for the fiscal year audited. The financial statements shall be for the same...

  5. 29 CFR 99.310 - Financial statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Financial statements. 99.310 Section 99.310 Labor Office of....310 Financial statements. (a) Financial statements. The auditee shall prepare financial statements... appropriate, cash flows for the fiscal year audited. The financial statements shall be for the same...

  6. 7 CFR 3052.310 - Financial statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Financial statements. 3052.310 Section 3052.310....310 Financial statements. (a) Financial statements. The auditee shall prepare financial statements... appropriate, cash flows for the fiscal year audited. The financial statements shall be for the same...

  7. 7 CFR 3052.310 - Financial statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Financial statements. 3052.310 Section 3052.310....310 Financial statements. (a) Financial statements. The auditee shall prepare financial statements... appropriate, cash flows for the fiscal year audited. The financial statements shall be for the same...

  8. [Eco-epidemiology: towards epidemiology of complexity].

    PubMed

    Bizouarn, Philippe

    2016-05-01

    In order to solve public health problems posed by the epidemiology of risk factors centered on the individual and neglecting the causal processes linking the risk factors with the health outcomes, Mervyn Susser proposed a multilevel epidemiology called eco-epidemiology, addressing the interdependence of individuals and their connection with molecular, individual, societal, environmental levels of organization participating in the causal disease processes. The aim of this epidemiology is to integrate more than a level of organization in design, analysis and interpretation of health problems. After presenting the main criticisms of risk-factor epidemiology focused on the individual, we will try to show how eco-epidemiology and its development could help to understand the need for a broader and integrative epidemiology, in which studies designed to identify risk factors would be balanced by studies designed to answer other questions equally vital to public health. © 2016 médecine/sciences – Inserm.

  9. Pediatrician workforce policy statement.

    PubMed

    Basco, William T; Rimsza, Mary E

    2013-08-01

    This policy statement reviews important trends and other factors that affect the pediatrician workforce and the provision of pediatric health care, including changes in the pediatric patient population, pediatrician workforce, and nature of pediatric practice. The effect of these changes on pediatricians and the demand for pediatric care are discussed. The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) concludes that there is currently a shortage of pediatric medical subspecialists in many fields, as well as a shortage of pediatric surgical specialists. In addition, the AAP believes that the current distribution of primary care pediatricians is inadequate to meet the needs of children living in rural and other underserved areas, and more primary care pediatricians will be needed in the future because of the increasing number of children who have significant chronic health problems, changes in physician work hours, and implementation of current health reform efforts that seek to improve access to comprehensive patient- and family-centered care for all children in a medical home. The AAP is committed to being an active participant in physician workforce policy development with both professional organizations and governmental bodies to ensure a pediatric perspective on health care workforce issues. The overall purpose of this statement is to summarize policy recommendations and serve as a resource for the AAP and other stakeholders as they address pediatrician workforce issues that ultimately influence the quality of pediatric health care provided to children in the United States.

  10. Commentary on Causal Prescriptive Statements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graesser, Arthur C.; Hu, Xiangen

    2011-01-01

    Causal prescriptive statements are valued in the social sciences when there is the goal of helping people through interventions. The articles in this special issue cover different methods for testing causal prescriptive statements. This commentary identifies both virtues and liabilities of these different approaches. We argue that it is extremely…

  11. Aerospace Education. NSTA Position Statement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Teachers Association (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) has developed a new position statement, "Aerospace Education." NSTA believes that aerospace education is an important component of comprehensive preK-12 science education programs. This statement highlights key considerations that should be addressed when implementing a high quality aerospace education…

  12. Priorities Statements of Community Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Community Coll. Board, Springfield.

    In response to recommendations in the Illinois Board of Higher Education's Priorities, Quality, and Productivity report of November 1994, the 52 community colleges in the state prepared priority statements detailing specific college objectives for the current fiscal year (FY). This report provides the second update of the colleges' statements,…

  13. Commentary on Causal Prescriptive Statements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graesser, Arthur C.; Hu, Xiangen

    2011-01-01

    Causal prescriptive statements are valued in the social sciences when there is the goal of helping people through interventions. The articles in this special issue cover different methods for testing causal prescriptive statements. This commentary identifies both virtues and liabilities of these different approaches. We argue that it is extremely…

  14. Reading and understanding financial statements.

    PubMed

    White, Joseph P

    2005-01-01

    Feeling comfortable reading and understanding financial statements is critical to the success of healthcare executives and physicians involved in management. Businesses use three primary financial statements: a balance sheet represents the equation, Assets = Liabilities + Equity; an income statement represents the equation, Revenues - Expenses = Net Income; a statement of cash flows reports all sources and uses of cash during the represented period. The balance sheet expresses financial indicators at one particular moment in time, whereas the income statement and the statement of cash flows show activity that occurred over a stretch of time. Additional information is disclosed in attached footnotes and other supplementary materials. There are two ways to prepare financial statements. Cash-basis accounting recognizes revenue when it is received and expenses when they are paid. Accrual-basis accounting recognizes revenue when it is earned and expenses when they are incurred. Although cash-basis is acceptable, periodically using the accrual method reveals important information about receivables and liabilities that could otherwise remain hidden. Become more engaged with your financial statements by spending time reading them, tracking key performance indicators, and asking accountants and financial advisors questions. This will help you better understand your business and build a successful future.

  15. Mission statements in Canadian hospitals.

    PubMed

    Bart, Christopher K; Hupfer, Maureen

    2004-01-01

    One of the most popular management tools in the world, the mission statement also is subject to widespread criticism. In order to improve our understanding of the mission statement's strategic value and to provide actionable recommendations for healthcare organizations, the paper adopted a social constructionist perspective in a mission statement study conducted among Canadian hospital executives. The paper found seven factors underlying 23 possible mission statement content items. Four of these (grand inspiration, benefactors, competitive orientation and business definition) corresponded to the dimensions of dominant managerial logic proposed by von Krogh and Grand, and were positively related to various behavioral, financial performance and mission achievement measures. The findings indicate that not all mission statement components are created equal and that the recommendations of major strategy texts may require reconsideration where this particular institutional context is concerned.

  16. Preventing Lead Poisoning in Young Children: A Statement by the Center for Disease Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Disease Control (DHEW/PHS), Atlanta, GA.

    The purpose of this statement by the Center for Disease Control is to reflect new data available from clinical, epidemiological and experimental studies by making revised recommendations regarding the screening, diagnosis, treatment, and followup of children with undue lead absorption and lead poisoning. The ultimate preventive goal is…

  17. Statement on virginity testing.

    PubMed

    2015-07-01

    Virginity testing (virginity examination) is a gynecological examination that is intended to correlate the status and appearance of the hymen with previous sexual contact to determine whether a female has had or is habituated to sexual intercourse. Virginity examinations are practiced in many countries, often forcibly, including in detention places; on women who allege rape or are accused of prostitution; and as part of public or social policies to control sexuality. The Independent Forensic Expert Group (IFEG) - thirty-five preeminent independent forensic experts from eighteen countries specialized in evaluating and documenting the physical and psychological effects of torture and ill-treatment - released a statement on the practice in December 2014. In its statement, the IFEG outlines the physical and psychological effects of forcibly conducting virginity examinations on females based on its collective experience. The Group assesses whether, based on the effects, forcibly conducted virginity examinations constitute cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment or torture. Finally, the IFEG addresses the medical interpretation, relevance, and ethical implications of such examinations. The IFEG concludes that virginity examinations are medically unreliable and have no clinical or scientific value. These examinations are inherently discriminatory and, in almost all instances, when conducted forcibly, result in significant physical and mental pain and suffering, thereby constituting cruel, inhuman and degrading treatment or torture. When virginity examinations are forcibly conducted and involve vaginal penetration, the examination should be considered as sexual assault and rape. Involvement of health professionals in these examinations violates the basic standards and ethics of the professions. Copyright © 2015 Torture. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. International Lymphoma Epidemiology Consortium

    Cancer.gov

    The InterLymph Consortium, or formally the International Consortium of Investigators Working on Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma Epidemiologic Studies, is an open scientific forum for epidemiologic research in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

  19. Epidemiology of Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helzer, John E.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews the application of epidemiology to alcoholism. Discusses measurement and diagnostic issues and reviews studies of the prevalence of alcoholism, its risk factors, and the contributions of epidemiology to our knowledge of treatment and prevention. (Author/KS)

  20. Epidemiology of IBD

    MedlinePlus

    ... IBD? Projects and Partners Data and Statistics Resources Epidemiology of the IBD Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... 5:1424-9. 2 Loftus EV, Jr. Clinical epidemiology of inflammatory bowel disease: Incidence, prevalence, and environmental ...

  1. Anaplasmosis: Statistics and Epidemiology

    MedlinePlus

    ... a tick Diseases transmitted by ticks Statistics and Epidemiology Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On This ... Holman RC, McQuiston JH, Krebs JW, Swerdlow DL. Epidemiology of human ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis in the United ...

  2. Ehrlichiosis: Statistics and Epidemiology

    MedlinePlus

    ... a tick Diseases transmitted by ticks Statistics and Epidemiology Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On This ... Holman RC, McQuiston JH, Krebs JW, Swerdlow DL. Epidemiology of human ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis in the United ...

  3. Childhood obesity case statement.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Paul W; Caskey, Paul; Heaton, Lisa E; Otsuka, Norman

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this publication is to raise awareness of the impact of childhood obesity on the musculoskeletal health of children and its potential long-term implications. Relevant articles dealing with musculoskeletal disorders either caused by or worsened by childhood obesity were reviewed through a Pub Med search. Efforts to recognize and combat the childhood obesity epidemic were also identified through Internet search engines. This case statement was then reviewed by the members of the pediatric specialty group of the US Bone and Joint Initiative, which represents an extensive number of organizations dealing with musculoskeletal health. Multiple musculoskeletal disorders are clearly caused by or worsened by childhood obesity. The review of the literature clearly demonstrates the increased frequency and severity of many childhood musculoskeletal disorders. Concerns about the long-term implications of these childhood onset disorders such as pain and degenerative changes into adulthood are clearly recognized by all the member organizations of the US Bone and Joint Initiative. It is imperative to recognize the long-term implications of musculoskeletal disorders caused by or worsened by childhood obesity. It is also important to recognize that the ability to exercise comfortably is a key factor to developing a healthy lifestyle and maintaining a healthy body weight. Efforts to develop reasonable and acceptable programs to increase physical activity by all facets of society should be supported. Further research into the long-term implications of childhood musculoskeletal disorders related to childhood obesity is necessary.

  4. Childhood obesity case statement.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Paul W; Caskey, Paul; Heaton, Lisa E; Otsuka, Norman

    2013-04-01

    The goal of this publication is to raise awareness of the impact of childhood obesity on the musculoskeletal health of children and its potential long-term implications. Relevant articles dealing with musculoskeletal disorders either caused by or worsened by childhood obesity were reviewed through a Pub Med search. Efforts to recognize and combat the childhood obesity epidemic were also identified through Internet search engines. This case statement was then reviewed by the members of the pediatric specialty group of the US Bone and Joint Initiative, which represents an extensive number of organizations dealing with musculoskeletal health. Multiple musculoskeletal disorders are clearly caused by or worsened by childhood obesity. The review of the literature clearly demonstrates the increased frequency and severity of many childhood musculoskeletal disorders. Concerns about the long-term implications of these childhood onset disorders such as pain and degenerative changes into adulthood are clearly recognized by all the member organizations of the US Bone and Joint Initiative. It is imperative to recognize the long-term implications of musculoskeletal disorders caused by or worsened by childhood obesity. It is also important to recognize that the ability to exercise comfortably is a key factor to developing a healthy lifestyle and maintaining a healthy body weight. Efforts to develop reasonable and acceptable programs to increase physical activity by all facets of society should be supported. Further research into the long-term implications of childhood musculoskeletal disorders related to childhood obesity is necessary. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Statement on intrauterine devices.

    PubMed

    1981-12-01

    These policy statements and guidelines from the International Planned Parenthood Federation's (IPPF) International Medical Advisory Panel (IMAP) concern IUDs. The following contraindications to IUD use are recognized: 1) pelvic inflaminatory disease, 2) known or suspected pregnancy, 3) history of previous ectopic pregnancy, 4) gynecological bleeding disorders, 5) suspected malignancy of the genital tract, 6) congenital uterine abnormalities or fibroids distorting the cavity, and 7) anemia, blood coagulation, severe cervical stenosis, copper allergy, Wilson's disease, and others. Generalities regarding appropriate IUDs are: 1) non-medicated devices (e.g. Lippes Loop) are studied for women who may not return for regular check-ups, 2) smaller medicated devices usually cause less menstrual blood loss than the non-medicated devices, 3) smaller devices are better for a smaller uterus and larger devices for the larger uterus, and 4) when a smaller device is expelled it is advisable to try a larger one and vice versa. Dalkon Shields should not be used by the IPPF system and all women using them should have the device removed. Correct insertion of IUDs is important and should be done by properly trained personnel. The timing of insertion is best during the menstrual period. Withdrawal of the applicator while leaving the device in place is the recommended insertion technique. Sterilization of IUDs should follow instructions on bulk-packaged IUDs. Complications include perforation, bleeding and pain, infection, and ectopic pregnancy. IUD removal should be done during menstruation. Good clinical management and follow-up care are recommended.

  6. Environmental Impact Statement Filing Guidance

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Describes how to submit an environmental impact statement through the e-NEPA electronic submission system. Describes how EPA submits a notice of availability in to the Federal Register and how the comment time period if set forth.

  7. Pajaro Dunes Conference Draft Statement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of College and University Law, 1982

    1982-01-01

    A statement of concerns and needs in the relationship between universities and industry for biomedical research addresses the issues of research agreements and their terms, patent licensing, university and faculty roles, and establishment of policy and procedures. (MSE)

  8. Investigation of the interaction dynamics of a pair of laser-induced bubbles generated at the same time through double-exposure strobe method and numerical simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Bing; Liu, Liu; Ni, Xiao-Wu

    2017-08-01

    In order to understand the interaction dynamics of a pair of laser-induced bubbles, a double-exposure strobe photography experimental setup is build up to study the temporal evolution of the bubble pairs and to measure the transient bubble-interface moving speed. The interaction mechanisms of the bubble pairs are discussed together with the numerical results obtained through OpenFOAM. It is shown that the direction and the velocity of the jetting could be controlled by the relative size and the relative initiation distance of the bubble pair, when the bubbles are generated at the same time, i.e., in-phase. The liquid jet is considered to be a penetrating jet. The jet is originated from the smaller bubble and clearly protruding outside of the bigger bubble. The parameter space of the relative size and the initiation distance of the bubble pair allowing the formation of the penetrating jet are very narrow. It is concluded that the liquid jet induced by the bubble interactions resulted from the collapse and the rebound of the smaller bubble nearby the bigger bubble. This is defined as the "catapult effect." Such a directional liquid transportation is a promising tool as a micro-injector or a micro-pump. The investigation results could be also supplementary to the understandings of the bubble dynamics.

  9. [Dermato-epidemiology].

    PubMed

    Apfelbacher, C J; Diepgen, T L; Weisshaar, E

    2011-11-01

    Dermato-epidemiology is an important scientific discipline which investigates skin diseases using epidemiological methods. Epidemiology is the science of the distribution and determinants of disease in specified populations. We describe fundamental terms of dermato-epidemiology (measures of disease occurrence, measures of risk), different study types (observational studies, interventional studies), the selection of statistical tests, bias and confounding as well as the principles of evidence-based dermatology, and give illustrative examples.

  10. It's Time to Implement GASB Statement 54

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinfeld, Gary; Nuehring, Bert

    2012-01-01

    In February 2009, the Governmental Accounting Standards Board (GASB) issued Statement No. 54, "Find Balance Reporting and Governmental Fund Type Definitions." This statement changes how a fund balance is classified on the face of the government fund financial statements and refines the definitions for government fund types. The statement's…

  11. GASB Statement No. 3 Guides Deposits, Investments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Linda A.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses an April 1986 Governmental Accounting Standards Board statement concerning disclosures of repurchase and reverse repurchase agreements. The statement tries to help financial statement users assess the risks a goverment entity takes when investing public funds. It is effective for financial statement periods ending after December 15,…

  12. 7 CFR 4279.137 - Financial statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Financial statements. 4279.137 Section 4279.137... § 4279.137 Financial statements. (a) The lender will determine the type and frequency of submission of financial statements by the borrower. At a minimum, annual financial statements prepared by an accountant in...

  13. 7 CFR 4279.137 - Financial statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Financial statements. 4279.137 Section 4279.137... § 4279.137 Financial statements. (a) The lender will determine the type and frequency of submission of financial statements by the borrower. At a minimum, annual financial statements prepared by an accountant in...

  14. 7 CFR 4279.137 - Financial statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Financial statements. 4279.137 Section 4279.137... § 4279.137 Financial statements. (a) The lender will determine the type and frequency of submission of financial statements by the borrower. At a minimum, annual financial statements prepared by an accountant in...

  15. 7 CFR 1221.113 - Financial statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Financial statements. 1221.113 Section 1221.113... Information Board § 1221.113 Financial statements. (a) As requested by the Secretary, the Board shall prepare and submit financial statements to the Secretary on a monthly basis. Each such financial statement...

  16. 7 CFR 1221.113 - Financial statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Financial statements. 1221.113 Section 1221.113... Information Board § 1221.113 Financial statements. (a) As requested by the Secretary, the Board shall prepare and submit financial statements to the Secretary on a monthly basis. Each such financial statement...

  17. 29 CFR 99.310 - Financial statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Financial statements. 99.310 Section 99.310 Labor Office of....310 Financial statements. (a) Financial statements. The auditee shall prepare financial statements that reflect its financial position, results of operations or changes in net assets, and,...

  18. 38 CFR 41.310 - Financial statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Financial statements. 41...) AUDITS OF STATES, LOCAL GOVERNMENTS, AND NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Auditees § 41.310 Financial statements. (a) Financial statements. The auditee shall prepare financial statements that reflect its...

  19. 7 CFR 4279.137 - Financial statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Financial statements. 4279.137 Section 4279.137... § 4279.137 Financial statements. (a) The lender will determine the type and frequency of submission of financial statements by the borrower. At a minimum, annual financial statements prepared by an accountant...

  20. 38 CFR 41.310 - Financial statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Financial statements. 41...) AUDITS OF STATES, LOCAL GOVERNMENTS, AND NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Auditees § 41.310 Financial statements. (a) Financial statements. The auditee shall prepare financial statements that reflect its...

  1. 29 CFR 99.310 - Financial statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Financial statements. 99.310 Section 99.310 Labor Office of....310 Financial statements. (a) Financial statements. The auditee shall prepare financial statements that reflect its financial position, results of operations or changes in net assets, and,...

  2. 7 CFR 4279.137 - Financial statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Financial statements. 4279.137 Section 4279.137... § 4279.137 Financial statements. (a) The lender will determine the type and frequency of submission of financial statements by the borrower. At a minimum, annual financial statements prepared by an accountant...

  3. It's Time to Implement GASB Statement 54

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinfeld, Gary; Nuehring, Bert

    2012-01-01

    In February 2009, the Governmental Accounting Standards Board (GASB) issued Statement No. 54, "Find Balance Reporting and Governmental Fund Type Definitions." This statement changes how a fund balance is classified on the face of the government fund financial statements and refines the definitions for government fund types. The statement's…

  4. Cancer Epidemiology Matters Blog

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Epidemiology Matters blog helps foster a dialogue between the National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program (EGRP), extramural researchers, and other individuals, such as clinicians, community partners, and advocates, who are interested in cancer epidemiology and genomics.

  5. European consensus statement on leptospirosis in dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Schuller, S; Francey, T; Hartmann, K; Hugonnard, M; Kohn, B; Nally, J E; Sykes, J

    2015-03-01

    Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease with a worldwide distribution affecting most mammalian species. Clinical leptospirosis is common in dogs but appears to be rare in cats. Both dogs and cats, however, can shed leptospires in the urine. This is problematic as it can lead to exposure of humans. The control of leptospirosis, therefore, is important not only from an animal but also from a public health perspective. The aim of this consensus statement is to raise awareness of leptospirosis and to outline the current knowledge on the epidemiology, clinical features, diagnostic tools, prevention and treatment measures relevant to canine and feline leptospirosis in Europe. © 2015 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  6. Cardiovascular risk reduction in high-risk pediatric patients: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association Expert Panel on Population and Prevention Science; the Councils on Cardiovascular Disease in the Young, Epidemiology and Prevention, Nutrition, Physical Activity and Metabolism, High Blood Pressure Research, Cardiovascular Nursing, and the Kidney in Heart Disease; and the Interdisciplinary Working Group on Quality of Care and Outcomes Research.

    PubMed

    Kavey, Rae-Ellen W; Allada, Vivek; Daniels, Stephen R; Hayman, Laura L; McCrindle, Brian W; Newburger, Jane W; Parekh, Rulan S; Steinberger, Julia

    2007-01-01

    Although for most children the process of atherosclerosis is subclinical, dramatically accelerated atherosclerosis occurs in some pediatric disease states, with clinical coronary events occurring in childhood and very early adult life. As with most scientific statements about children and the future risk for cardiovascular disease, there are no randomized trials documenting the effects of risk reduction on hard clinical outcomes. A growing body of literature, however, identifies the importance of premature cardiovascular disease in the course of certain pediatric diagnoses and addresses the response to risk factor reduction. For this scientific statement, a panel of experts reviewed what is known about very premature cardiovascular disease in 8 high-risk pediatric diagnoses and, from the science base, developed practical recommendations for management of cardiovascular risk.

  7. Nutritional epidemiology--there's life in the old dog yet!

    PubMed

    Potter, John D

    2015-02-01

    Consideration is given to the idea that the nutritional epidemiology of cancer is dead, as some in the media have claimed. The basis for the claim does not lie in science nor has anyone with relevant knowledge made such a statement-although that, too, has been claimed. Evidence is adduced for the importance of past achievements of nutritional epidemiology. Attention is similarly drawn to recent contributions. In particular, I note the state of play of cancer and plant foods, fat and breast cancer, meat and cancer, vegetarians, intervention studies, migrant studies, and westernization of diet and lifestyle. Some next steps and some currently important questions are outlined.

  8. CONSORT 2010 Statement: updated guidelines for reporting parallel group randomised trials

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The CONSORT statement is used worldwide to improve the reporting of randomised controlled trials. Kenneth Schulz and colleagues describe the latest version, CONSORT 2010, which updates the reporting guideline based on new methodological evidence and accumulating experience. To encourage dissemination of the CONSORT 2010 Statement, this article is freely accessible on bmj.com and will also be published in the Lancet, Obstetrics and Gynecology, PLoS Medicine, Annals of Internal Medicine, Open Medicine, Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, BMC Medicine, and Trials. PMID:20334633

  9. CONSORT 2010 Statement: updated guidelines for reporting parallel group randomised trials

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The CONSORT statement is used worldwide to improve the reporting of randomised controlled trials. Kenneth Schulz and colleagues describe the latest version, CONSORT 2010, which updates the reporting guideline based on new methodological evidence and accumulating experience. To encourage dissemination of the CONSORT 2010 Statement, this article is freely accessible on bmj.com and will also be published in the Lancet, Obstetrics and Gynecology, PLoS Medicine, Annals of Internal Medicine, Open Medicine, Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, BMC Medicine, and Trials. PMID:20334632

  10. Meta-epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Bae, Jong-Myon

    2014-01-01

    The concept of meta-epidemiology has been introduced with considering the methodological limitations of systematic review for intervention trials. The paradigm of meta-epidemiology has shifted from a statistical method into a new methodology to close gaps between evidence and practice. Main interest of meta-epidemiology is to control potential biases in previous quantitative systematic reviews and draw appropriate evidences for establishing evidence-base guidelines. Nowadays, the network meta-epidemiology was suggested in order to overcome some limitations of meta-epidemiology. To activate meta-epidemiologic studies, implementation of tools for risk of bias and reporting guidelines such as the Consolidated Standards for Reporting Trials (CONSORT) should be done.

  11. Environmental impact statements. Second edition

    SciTech Connect

    Bregman, J.I.

    1999-11-01

    This book covers all the requirements for a wide variety of environmental impact statements (EISs) on the federal, state, and local levels, including a new chapter devoted to environmental justice. Topics of discussion include the following: purpose of the environment; the legal basis for environmental impact statements; the process of preparing EISs; public participation; the natural environment earth resources; the natural environment: biology; the Man-made environment: surface water, groundwater, air, noise, hazards and nuisances, historic and cultural resources, transportation, socio-economics and environmental justice.

  12. [Molecular epidemiology in the epidemiological transition].

    PubMed

    Tapia-Conyer, R

    1997-01-01

    The epidemiological transition describes the changes in the health profile of populations where infectious diseases are substituted by chronic or non-communicable diseases. Even in industrialized countries, infectious diseases emerge as important public health problems and with a very important association with several type of neoplasm. Molecular epidemiology brings in new tools for the study of the epidemiological transition by discovering infectious agents as etiology of diseases, neither of both new. Much has been advanced in the understanding of the virulence and resistance mechanism of different strains, or improving the knowledge on transmission dynamics and dissemination pathways of infectious diseases. As to the non-communicable diseases, molecular epidemiology has enhanced the identification of endogenous risk factors link to alterations, molecular changes in genetic material, that will allow a more detail definition of risk and the identification of individual and groups at risk of several diseases. The potential impact of molecular epidemiology in other areas as environmental, lifestyles and nutritional areas are illustrated with several examples.

  13. 76 FR 63957 - Consumer Product Policy Statement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Consumer Product Policy Statement AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Proposed revision to policy statement; request for public comment. SUMMARY: The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC...

  14. The Impact Statement--Part II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Russell W.

    1976-01-01

    Discusses criticism of the Environmental Impact Statements now required for any proposed action by a federal agency. Stresses the advantages of using these statements, and how their quality standards can be raised. (MLH)

  15. Accounting Principles and Financial Statements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Daniel D.

    1973-01-01

    This document presents the background and analysis of the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA) guide to auditing colleges and universities. Highlights include the approval of the market value option, the treatment of endowment gains, debt services as transfers, the decisions on pledges, the use of financial statements, the…

  16. Consensus Statement Immunonutrition and Exercise.

    PubMed

    Bermon, Stephane; Castell, Lindy M; Calder, Philip C; Bishop, Nicolette C; Blomstrand, Eva; Mooren, Frank C; Krüger, Karsten; Kavazis, Andreas N; Quindry, John C; Senchina, David S; Nieman, David C; Gleeson, Michael; Pyne, David B; Kitic, Cecilia M; Close, Graeme L; Larson-Meyer, D Enette; Marcos, Ascension; Meydani, Simin N; Walsh, Neil P; Nagatomi, Ryochi

    2017-01-01

    In this consensus statement on immunonutrition and exercise, a panel of knowledgeable contributors from across the globe provides a consensus of updated science, including the background, the aspects for which a consensus actually exists, the controversies and, when possible, suggested directions for future research.

  17. 2009 Elections: The Candidates Statements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    TechTrends: Linking Research and Practice to Improve Learning, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the candidates for the 2009 Association for Educational Communications and Technology (AECT) election and their statements. The candidates are: (1) Andy Gibbons (President-Elect); (2) Barbara B. Lockee (President-Elect); (3) Mary Jean Bishop (At-Large Representative); and (4) Deepak Subramony (At-Large Representative). In…

  18. Financial Statements: Disclosures and Presentations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-01

    in the notes N, to the financial statements. (Church’s Fried Chicken , Inc., 1984 Annual Report, p. 31.) 5. Coatageies Th cmpnyidfedigliigatiomencd 91...expenditures incurred on the Company’s IlUinois coal property and of unrecovered advance royalties recorded on certain Kentucky coal leases. The realizable value

  19. Policy Statements and Position Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Dental Education, 1981

    1981-01-01

    The American Association of Dental Schools' policy statements on elements of preprofessional, predoctoral, advanced, continuing, and auxiliary education and research, and delivery of care are presented. Position papers on peer review, freedoms and responsibilities of individuals and institutions, national health programs, interdisciplinary…

  20. Paradigm Statements of Educational Objectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Peter J.

    Five distinct format categories are used in this study to describe the form of educational objectives: clarity, range, level of abstractness, behavioralness, and observability. These form concepts are used to describe paradigm statements of three kinds of educational objectives: goals, intended learning outcomes, and behavioral evidence. Goals are…

  1. Graphs as Statements of Belief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lake, David

    2002-01-01

    Identifies points where beliefs are important when making decisions about how graphs are drawn. Describes a simple case of the reaction between 'bicarb soda' and orange or lemon juice and discusses how drawing a graph becomes a statement of belief. (KHR)

  2. Statement on Spelling of Metre.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metric Association, Inc., Boulder, CO.

    This report was prepared by the United States Metric Association (USMA) to present supportive evidence on the desirability of using the international English language spelling, metre, for the International System of Units (SI) unit of length, and litre for the common metric unit of volume. It contains a statement by the USMA, some background…

  3. Yavapai College Community Benefits Statements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmon, Robert O.; Wing, Barbara; Fairchilds, Angie; Quinley, John W.

    The Yavapai College Districts Board and members of Yavapai College administration and staff developed this report. It contains 12 statements that compromise the core outcomes of the Yavapai College Mission. The extent to which each college addresses these outcomes is then reflected in a series of indicators that are tied to the individual…

  4. Expedition 40 Post Docking Statement

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-05-29

    General Director of the Russian Federal Space Agency, Roscosmos, left, and William Gerstenmaier, NASA Associate Administrator for Human Exploration and Operations, right, are seen during a joint statement after the docking of the Soyuz TMA-13M spacecraft with the International Space Station on Thursday, May 29, 2014 at the Baikonur Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. Photo Credit: (NASA/Joel Kowsky)

  5. Expedition 40 Post Docking Statement

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-05-29

    Oleg Ostapenko, General Director of the Russian Federal Space Agency, Roscosmos, left, and William Gerstenmaier, NASA Associate Administrator for Human Exploration and Operations, right, shake hands following a joint statement after the docking of the Soyuz TMA-13M spacecraft with the International Space Station on Thursday, May 29, 2014 at the Baikonur Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. Photo Credit: (NASA/Joel Kowsky)

  6. School Library Policy Statement. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education and Training, Winnipeg. Instructional Services Branch.

    A school library program is a basic component of education for all students. Manitoba Education and Training (MET) presents this policy statement to clarify the roles of the provincial government and the school districts in providing school library services. MET will provide policy and guideline documents to recommend standards, and funding…

  7. Early Childhood Education; Policy Statement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Foundation for the Blind, New York, NY.

    Provided by the American Foundation for the Blind are a background history and a policy statement on the early childhood education of blind or severely visually impaired children. Briefly reviewed is the prior trend of institutionalization for children with severe visual handicaps, subsequent development of organizations such as the Children's…

  8. Graphs as Statements of Belief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lake, David

    2002-01-01

    Identifies points where beliefs are important when making decisions about how graphs are drawn. Describes a simple case of the reaction between 'bicarb soda' and orange or lemon juice and discusses how drawing a graph becomes a statement of belief. (KHR)

  9. IFSP Outcome Statements Made Simple

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelden, M'Lisa L.; Rush, Dathan D.

    2014-01-01

    A critical component for implementing evidence-based early intervention supports and services is the ability to write family-centered, functional, participation-based outcomes. Participation-based outcome statements that are family-focused center on the desires and needs of the parents or other care providers and are based on their interest in…

  10. 2009 Elections: The Candidates Statements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    TechTrends: Linking Research and Practice to Improve Learning, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the candidates for the 2009 Association for Educational Communications and Technology (AECT) election and their statements. The candidates are: (1) Andy Gibbons (President-Elect); (2) Barbara B. Lockee (President-Elect); (3) Mary Jean Bishop (At-Large Representative); and (4) Deepak Subramony (At-Large Representative). In…

  11. Policy Statements and Position Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Dental Education, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Policy statements and position papers are presented that are intended as recommendations and guidelines for member institutions. They cover education, research, delivery of care, peer review, freedoms and responsibilities of individuals and institutions, national health programs, interdisciplinary education, radiation, and due process. (MLW)

  12. CRS Issue Statement on Terrorism

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-11

    JAN 2010 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2010 to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE CRS Issue Statement on Terrorism 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...Affairs cmigdalovitz@crs.loc.gov, 7-2667 Lauren Ploch Analyst in African Affairs lploch@crs.loc.gov, 7-7640 Elizabeth B. Bazan Legislative

  13. IFSP Outcome Statements Made Simple

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelden, M'Lisa L.; Rush, Dathan D.

    2014-01-01

    A critical component for implementing evidence-based early intervention supports and services is the ability to write family-centered, functional, participation-based outcomes. Participation-based outcome statements that are family-focused center on the desires and needs of the parents or other care providers and are based on their interest in…

  14. 10 CFR 51.29 - Scoping-environmental impact statement and supplement to environmental impact statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Scoping-environmental impact statement and supplement to environmental impact statement. 51.29 Section 51.29 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED... statement and supplement to environmental impact statement. (a) The scoping process for an environmental...

  15. 10 CFR 51.29 - Scoping-environmental impact statement and supplement to environmental impact statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Scoping-environmental impact statement and supplement to environmental impact statement. 51.29 Section 51.29 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED... statement and supplement to environmental impact statement. (a) The scoping process for an environmental...

  16. 10 CFR 51.29 - Scoping-environmental impact statement and supplement to environmental impact statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Scoping-environmental impact statement and supplement to environmental impact statement. 51.29 Section 51.29 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED... statement and supplement to environmental impact statement. (a) The scoping process for an environmental...

  17. 12 CFR 327.2 - Certified statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ASSESSMENTS In General § 327.2 Certified statements. (a) Required. (1) The certified statement shall also be...) The quarterly certified statement invoice shall reflect the institution's risk assignment, assessment base, assessment computation, and assessment amount, for each quarterly assessment period....

  18. Biological Awareness: Statements for Self-Discovery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edington, D.W.; Cunningham, Lee

    This guide to biological awareness through guided self-discovery is based on 51 single focus statements concerning the human body. For each statement there are explanations of the underlying physiological principles and suggested activities and discussion ideas to encourage understanding of the statement in terms of the human body's functions,…

  19. Mission Statement Analysis of CCCU Member Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Firmin, Michael W.; Gilson, Krista Merrick

    2010-01-01

    Assessed were the mission statements of 107 member institutions of the Coalition of Christian Colleges and Universities (CCCU). The analysis was conducted on a microlevel via appraising the frequency of words used in the statements as well as the general constructs expressed. The respective mission statements were coded for content and common…

  20. 75 FR 22577 - Proposed Privacy Policy Statement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-29

    ... COMMISSION Proposed Privacy Policy Statement AGENCY: U.S. Election Assistance Commission. ACTION: Notice and request for public comment on Proposed Privacy Policy Statement. SUMMARY: The U.S. Election Assistance Commission (EAC) seeks public comment on the Proposed Privacy Policy Statement. OMB Memorandum M-99-...

  1. 7 CFR 4280.140 - Financial statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Financial statements. 4280.140 Section 4280.140... statements. (a) The financial information required in § 4280.116(b)(3)(v) and (b)(4) is required for the... annual audited financial statements, at its sole discretion when the Agency is concerned about the...

  2. 7 CFR 4280.140 - Financial statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Financial statements. 4280.140 Section 4280.140... statements. (a) The financial information required in § 4280.116(b)(3)(v) and (b)(4) is required for the... annual audited financial statements, at its sole discretion when the Agency is concerned about the...

  3. 7 CFR 1217.51 - Financial statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Financial statements. 1217.51 Section 1217.51... Education, and Industry Information Order Expenses and Assessments § 1217.51 Financial statements. (a) The Board shall prepare and submit financial statements to the Department on a quarterly basis, or at any...

  4. 7 CFR 1217.51 - Financial statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Financial statements. 1217.51 Section 1217.51... Education, and Industry Information Order Expenses and Assessments § 1217.51 Financial statements. (a) The Board shall prepare and submit financial statements to the Department on a quarterly basis, or at any...

  5. 12 CFR 611.515 - Information statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Information statement. 611.515 Section 611.515... assets, a balance sheet and income statement of the bank and the association showing its financial... or association, as applicable, showing its financial condition after the transfer. The statements...

  6. 76 FR 54637 - Board Policy Statements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-01

    ... September 1, 2011 Part IV Farm Credit Administration 12 CFR Chapter VI Board Policy Statements; Rule #0;#0... CREDIT ADMINISTRATION 12 CFR Chapter VI Board Policy Statements AGENCY: Farm Credit Administration. ACTION: Policy statements. SUMMARY: The Farm Credit Administration (FCA) Board recently undertook its...

  7. Understanding Financial Statements. Financial Matters. Board Basics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, John H.; Turner, Robert M.

    1998-01-01

    This booklet for trustees of higher education institutions offers guidelines to help trustees understand the institution's financial statements. Individual sections describe the three major financial statements and cover topics such as: (1) standards of the Financial Accounting Standards Board; (2) the "statement of financial position,"…

  8. 16 CFR 455.4 - Contrary statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Contrary statements. 455.4 Section 455.4 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES USED MOTOR VEHICLE TRADE REGULATION RULE § 455.4 Contrary statements. You may not make any statements, oral or written, or take other actions...

  9. 16 CFR 455.4 - Contrary statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Contrary statements. 455.4 Section 455.4 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES USED MOTOR VEHICLE TRADE REGULATION RULE § 455.4 Contrary statements. You may not make any statements, oral or written, or take other actions...

  10. 16 CFR 455.4 - Contrary statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Contrary statements. 455.4 Section 455.4 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES USED MOTOR VEHICLE TRADE REGULATION RULE § 455.4 Contrary statements. You may not make any statements, oral or written, or take other actions...

  11. Biological Awareness: Statements for Self-Discovery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edington, D.W.; Cunningham, Lee

    This guide to biological awareness through guided self-discovery is based on 51 single focus statements concerning the human body. For each statement there are explanations of the underlying physiological principles and suggested activities and discussion ideas to encourage understanding of the statement in terms of the human body's functions,…

  12. 78 FR 31924 - Appraisal Subcommittee; Policy Statements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-28

    ... practice and reciprocity. Since 1997, the Policy Statements have remained largely unchanged with the... Statement 5: Reciprocity. The proposed Policy Statement addressed reciprocity policies consistent with Title XI. The Dodd-Frank act amended the Title XI provision on reciprocity to require that in order for...

  13. 42 CFR 460.208 - Financial statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Financial statements. 460.208 Section 460.208... ELDERLY (PACE) Data Collection, Record Maintenance, and Reporting § 460.208 Financial statements. (a... must submit a certified financial statement that includes appropriate footnotes. (2) The...

  14. 42 CFR 460.208 - Financial statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Financial statements. 460.208 Section 460.208... ELDERLY (PACE) Data Collection, Record Maintenance, and Reporting § 460.208 Financial statements. (a... must submit a certified financial statement that includes appropriate footnotes. (2) The...

  15. 7 CFR 3052.310 - Financial statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Financial statements. 3052.310 Section 3052.310 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF THE CHIEF FINANCIAL OFFICER....310 Financial statements. (a) Financial statements. The auditee shall prepare financial...

  16. 7 CFR 1212.51 - Financial statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Financial statements. 1212.51 Section 1212.51..., Promotion, Consumer Education, and Industry Information Order Expenses and Assessments § 1212.51 Financial statements. (a) The Board shall prepare and submit financial statements to the Department on a periodic...

  17. 7 CFR 1221.113 - Financial statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Financial statements. 1221.113 Section 1221.113... Information Board § 1221.113 Financial statements. (a) As requested by the Secretary, the Board shall prepare and submit financial statements to the Secretary on a monthly basis. Each such financial...

  18. 42 CFR 460.208 - Financial statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Financial statements. 460.208 Section 460.208... ELDERLY (PACE) Data Collection, Record Maintenance, and Reporting § 460.208 Financial statements. (a... must submit a certified financial statement that includes appropriate footnotes. (2) The...

  19. 7 CFR 1221.113 - Financial statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Financial statements. 1221.113 Section 1221.113... Information Board § 1221.113 Financial statements. (a) As requested by the Secretary, the Board shall prepare and submit financial statements to the Secretary on a monthly basis. Each such financial...

  20. 7 CFR 3052.310 - Financial statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Financial statements. 3052.310 Section 3052.310 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF THE CHIEF FINANCIAL OFFICER....310 Financial statements. (a) Financial statements. The auditee shall prepare financial...

  1. 42 CFR 460.208 - Financial statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Financial statements. 460.208 Section 460.208... ELDERLY (PACE) Data Collection, Record Maintenance, and Reporting § 460.208 Financial statements. (a... must submit a certified financial statement that includes appropriate footnotes. (2) The...

  2. 7 CFR 1221.113 - Financial statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Financial statements. 1221.113 Section 1221.113... Information Board § 1221.113 Financial statements. (a) As requested by the Secretary, the Board shall prepare and submit financial statements to the Secretary on a monthly basis. Each such financial...

  3. 7 CFR 1217.51 - Financial statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Financial statements. 1217.51 Section 1217.51... Education, and Industry Information Order Expenses and Assessments § 1217.51 Financial statements. (a) The Board shall prepare and submit financial statements to the Department on a quarterly basis, or at...

  4. 7 CFR 1212.51 - Financial statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Financial statements. 1212.51 Section 1212.51..., Promotion, Consumer Education, and Industry Information Order Expenses and Assessments § 1212.51 Financial statements. (a) The Board shall prepare and submit financial statements to the Department on a periodic...

  5. 7 CFR 4279.237 - Financial statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Financial statements. 4279.237 Section 4279.237... § 4279.237 Financial statements. The provisions of § 4279.137 do not apply to this subpart. Instead, the submittal of financial statements with the loan guarantee application must meet the requirements...

  6. 42 CFR 460.208 - Financial statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Financial statements. 460.208 Section 460.208... ELDERLY (PACE) Data Collection, Record Maintenance, and Reporting § 460.208 Financial statements. (a... must submit a certified financial statement that includes appropriate footnotes. (2) The...

  7. 16 CFR 500.24 - Supplemental statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Supplemental statements. 500.24 Section 500.24 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENT OF GENERAL POLICY OR... PACKAGING AND LABELING ACT § 500.24 Supplemental statements. Nothing contained in the regulations in...

  8. 49 CFR 1113.9 - Prepared statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... that the witness testify orally if, in the officer's opinion, the memory or demeanor of the witness may... statement does not include argument. Before any such statement is read or admitted in evidence, the witness... admissibility of the evidence contained in such statement will be subject to the same rules as if such testimony...

  9. 49 CFR 1113.9 - Prepared statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... that the witness testify orally if, in the officer's opinion, the memory or demeanor of the witness may... statement does not include argument. Before any such statement is read or admitted in evidence, the witness... admissibility of the evidence contained in such statement will be subject to the same rules as if such testimony...

  10. [Epidemiology and public policies].

    PubMed

    Barata, Rita Barradas

    2013-03-01

    The present essay deals with the relation between epidemiology and public policies, highlighting the epidemiology position in the public health field, analyzing the impact of public policies over epidemiological profile and contributions from epidemiology to the lay down, implementation and evaluation of public health policies. In the first title, the essay debates the links between the epidemiology and public health field, the social determinants and political action framework proposed by the WHO's Commission on Social Determinants of Health, and different approaches of health policies. In the second title the essay analyses the reduction of child stunting in Brazil as an example of public policies that impact epidemiological profile. The third title presents three strategic topics for the application of public health policies: reduction of social inequalities in health, health promotion and regulation of products and services that have impact over health. The fourth title discusses the possibilities and difficulties to combine the epidemiological knowledge in the lay down, implementation and evaluation of public policies and, finally, material examples of such relation between epidemiology and public policies are presented.

  11. The future of epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Ness, Roberta B; Andrews, Elizabeth B; Gaudino, James A; Newman, Anne B; Soskolne, Colin L; Stürmer, Til; Wartenberg, Daniel E; Weiss, Stanley H

    2009-11-01

    In this article, the authors discuss current challenges and opportunities in epidemiology that will affect the field's future. Epidemiology is commonly considered the methodologic backbone for the fields of public health and outcomes research because its practitioners describe patterns of disease occurrence, identify risk factors and etiologic determinants, and demonstrate the usefulness of interventions. Like most aspects of science, epidemiology is in rapid flux. Several factors that are influencing and will continue to influence epidemiology and the health of the public include factors fundamental to framing the discipline of epidemiology (i.e., its means of communication, its methodologies, its access to data, its values, its population perspective), factors relating to scientific advances (e.g., genomics, comparative effectiveness in therapeutics), and factors shaping human health (e.g., increasing globalism, the environment, disease and lifestyle, demographics, infectious disease).

  12. Vaccine epidemiology: A review

    PubMed Central

    Lahariya, Chandrakant

    2016-01-01

    This review article outlines the key concepts in vaccine epidemiology, such as basic reproductive numbers, force of infection, vaccine efficacy and effectiveness, vaccine failure, herd immunity, herd effect, epidemiological shift, disease modeling, and describes the application of this knowledge both at program levels and in the practice by family physicians, epidemiologists, and pediatricians. A case has been made for increased knowledge and understanding of vaccine epidemiology among key stakeholders including policy makers, immunization program managers, public health experts, pediatricians, family physicians, and other experts/individuals involved in immunization service delivery. It has been argued that knowledge of vaccine epidemiology which is likely to benefit the society through contributions to the informed decision-making and improving vaccination coverage in the low and middle income countries (LMICs). The article ends with suggestions for the provision of systematic training and learning platforms in vaccine epidemiology to save millions of preventable deaths and improve health outcomes through life-course. PMID:27453836

  13. [Epidemiology and heterogeny].

    PubMed

    Breilh, J; Granda, E

    1989-01-01

    The innovation of epidemiology plays a crucial role in the development of the health sciences. The authors emphasize the importance of epistemological analysis related to scientific and technical production. They focus on the theoretical and methodological contributions of the principal Latin American groups in the field of epidemiology, stating their main accomplishments, issues and potentials. When reviewing those conceptual and practical innovations, the authors analyse the effects of broader historical conditions on scientific work. To them, Latin American contemporary innovative epidemiological research and production have developed clearly differentiated principles, methods and technical projections which have led to a movement of critical or 'social' epidemiology. The functionalist approach of conventional epidemiology, characterized by an empiricist viewpoint, is being overcome by a more rigorous and analytical approach. This new epidemiological approach, in which the authors as members of CEAS (Health Research and Advisory Center) are working, has selectively incorporated some of the technical instruments of conventional epidemiology, subordinating them to a different theoretical and logical paradigm. The new framework of this group explains the need to consider the people's objective situation and necessities, when constructing scientific interpretations and planning technical action. In order to accomplish this goal, epidemiological reasoning has to reflect the unity of external epidemiological facts and associations, the so-called phenomenological aspect of health, with the underlying determinants and conditioning processes or internal relations, which are the essence of the health-disease production and distribution process. Epidemiological analysis is considered not only as a problem of empirical observation but as a process of theoretical construction, in which there is a dynamic fusion of deductive and inductive reasoning.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250

  14. 45 CFR 1636.3 - Access to written statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Access to written statements. 1636.3 Section 1636... CLIENT IDENTITY AND STATEMENT OF FACTS § 1636.3 Access to written statements. (a) Written statements of... written statement of facts, either in the lawsuit or through any other procedure. Access to the statement...

  15. 45 CFR 1636.3 - Access to written statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Access to written statements. 1636.3 Section 1636... CLIENT IDENTITY AND STATEMENT OF FACTS § 1636.3 Access to written statements. (a) Written statements of... written statement of facts, either in the lawsuit or through any other procedure. Access to the statement...

  16. 45 CFR 1636.3 - Access to written statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Access to written statements. 1636.3 Section 1636... CLIENT IDENTITY AND STATEMENT OF FACTS § 1636.3 Access to written statements. (a) Written statements of... written statement of facts, either in the lawsuit or through any other procedure. Access to the statement...

  17. 45 CFR 1636.3 - Access to written statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Access to written statements. 1636.3 Section 1636... CLIENT IDENTITY AND STATEMENT OF FACTS § 1636.3 Access to written statements. (a) Written statements of... written statement of facts, either in the lawsuit or through any other procedure. Access to the statement...

  18. Use of biologics for inflammatory bowel disease in Hong Kong: consensus statement.

    PubMed

    Leung, W K; Ng, Siew C; Chow, Dorothy K L; Lao, W C; Leung, Vincent K S; Li, Michael K K; Hui, Y T; Ng, Simon S M; Hui, Aric J; Lai, S T; Lam, Jodis T W; Poon, Jensen T C; Chan, Annie O O; Yuen, H; Wu, Justin C Y

    2013-02-01

    OBJECTIVE; With the increasing use of biologics in patients with inflammatory bowel disease, the Hong Kong IBD Society developed a set of consensus statements intended to serve as local recommendations for clinicians about the appropriate use of biologics for treating inflammatory bowel disease. The consensus meeting was held on 9 July 2011 in Hong Kong. Draft consensus statements were developed by core members of the Hong Kong IBD Society, including local gastroenterologists and colorectal surgeons experienced in managing patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Published literature and conference proceedings on the use of biologics in management of inflammatory bowel disease, and guidelines and consensus issued by different international and regional societies on recommendations for biologics in inflammatory bowel disease patients were reviewed. Four core members of the consensus group drafted 19 consensus statements through the modified Delphi process. The statements were first circulated among a clinical expert panel of 15 members for review and comments, and were finalised at the consensus meeting through a voting session. A consensus statement was accepted if at least 80% of the participants voted "accepted completely or "accepted with some reservation". Nineteen consensus statements about inflammatory bowel disease were generated by the clinical expert panel meeting. The statements were divided into four parts which covered: (1) epidemiology of the disease in Hong Kong; (2) treatment of the disease with biologics; (3) screening and contra-indications pertaining to biologics; and (4) patient monitoring after use of biologics. The current statements are the first to describe the appropriate use of biologics in the management of inflammatory bowel disease in Hong Kong, with an aim to provide guidance for local clinical practice.

  19. Uranium mining industry views on ICRP statement on radon.

    PubMed

    Takala, J

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, the International Commission on Radiological Protection issued a statement on radon which stated that the dose conversion factor for radon progeny would likely double, and the calculation of risk from radon should move to a dosimetric approach, rather than the longstanding epidemiological approach. Through the World Nuclear Association, whose members represent over 90% of the world's uranium production, industry has been examining this issue with a goal of offering expertise and knowledge to assist with the practical implementation of these evolutionary changes to evaluating the risk from radon progeny. Industry supports the continuing use of the most current epidemiological data as a basis for risk calculation, but believes that further examination of these results is needed to better understand the level of conservatism in the potential epidemiological-based risk models. With regard to adoption of the dosimetric approach, industry believes that further work is needed before this is a practical option. In particular, this work should include a clear demonstration of the validation of the dosimetric model which includes how smoking is handled, the establishment of a practical measurement protocol, and the collection of relevant data for modern workplaces. Industry is actively working to address the latter two items.

  20. Consolidated financial statements for fiscal year 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-02-01

    The following overview and accompanying audited financial statements have been prepared for Fiscal Year (FY) 1996 to report the financial position and the results of operations of the Department of Energy. These statements include the consolidated Statement of Financial Position and the consolidated Statement of Operations and Changes in Net Position. The statements have been prepared in accordance with the Office of Management and Budget Bulletin No. 94-01, Form and Content for Agency Financial Statements, and were developed in accordance with the hierarchy of accounting standards described therein. The overview provides a narrative on the Department of Energy`s mission, activities, and accomplishments. Utilizing performance measures as the primary vehicle for communicating Departmental accomplishments and results, this overview discusses the most significant measures while others are discussed in the supplemental information to the financial statements.

  1. Epidemiology: Then and Now.

    PubMed

    Kuller, Lewis H

    2016-03-01

    Twenty-five years ago, on the 75th anniversary of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, I noted that epidemiologic research was moving away from the traditional approaches used to investigate "epidemics" and their close relationship with preventive medicine. Twenty-five years later, the role of epidemiology as an important contribution to human population research, preventive medicine, and public health is under substantial pressure because of the emphasis on "big data," phenomenology, and personalized medical therapies. Epidemiology is the study of epidemics. The primary role of epidemiology is to identify the epidemics and parameters of interest of host, agent, and environment and to generate and test hypotheses in search of causal pathways. Almost all diseases have a specific distribution in relation to time, place, and person and specific "causes" with high effect sizes. Epidemiology then uses such information to develop interventions and test (through clinical trials and natural experiments) their efficacy and effectiveness. Epidemiology is dependent on new technologies to evaluate improved measurements of host (genomics), epigenetics, identification of agents (metabolomics, proteomics), new technology to evaluate both physical and social environment, and modern methods of data collection. Epidemiology does poorly in studying anything other than epidemics and collections of numerators and denominators without specific hypotheses even with improved statistical methodologies.

  2. The REporting of Studies Conducted Using Observational Routinely-Collected Health Data (RECORD) Statement: Methods for Arriving at Consensus and Developing Reporting Guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Nicholls, Stuart G.; Quach, Pauline; von Elm, Erik; Guttmann, Astrid; Moher, David; Petersen, Irene; Sørensen, Henrik T.; Smeeth, Liam

    2015-01-01

    Objective Routinely collected health data, collected for administrative and clinical purposes, without specific a priori research questions, are increasingly used for observational, comparative effectiveness, health services research, and clinical trials. The rapid evolution and availability of routinely collected data for research has brought to light specific issues not addressed by existing reporting guidelines. The aim of the present project was to determine the priorities of stakeholders in order to guide the development of the REporting of studies Conducted using Observational Routinely-collected health Data (RECORD) statement. Methods Two modified electronic Delphi surveys were sent to stakeholders. The first determined themes deemed important to include in the RECORD statement, and was analyzed using qualitative methods. The second determined quantitative prioritization of the themes based on categorization of manuscript headings. The surveys were followed by a meeting of RECORD working committee, and re-engagement with stakeholders via an online commentary period. Results The qualitative survey (76 responses of 123 surveys sent) generated 10 overarching themes and 13 themes derived from existing STROBE categories. Highest-rated overall items for inclusion were: Disease/exposure identification algorithms; Characteristics of the population included in databases; and Characteristics of the data. In the quantitative survey (71 responses of 135 sent), the importance assigned to each of the compiled themes varied depending on the manuscript section to which they were assigned. Following the working committee meeting, online ranking by stakeholders provided feedback and resulted in revision of the final checklist. Conclusions The RECORD statement incorporated the suggestions provided by a large, diverse group of stakeholders to create a reporting checklist specific to observational research using routinely collected health data. Our findings point to unique

  3. Expedition 40 Post Docking Statement

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-05-29

    Jean-Jacques Dordain, Director General of the European Space Agency, left, Oleg Ostapenko, General Director of the Russian Federal Space Agency, Roscosmos, center, and William Gerstenmaier, NASA Associate Administrator for Human Exploration and Operations, right, are seen during a joint statement after the docking of the Soyuz TMA-13M spacecraft with the International Space Station on Thursday, May 29, 2014 at the Baikonur Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. Photo Credit: (NASA/Joel Kowsky)

  4. Criticality in epidemiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stollenwerk, Nico; Jansen, Vincent A. A.

    For a long time criticality has been considered in epidemiological models. We review the body of theory developed over the last twenty five years for the simplest models. It is at first glance difficult to imagine that an epidemiological system operates at a very fine tuned critical state as opposed to any other parameter region. However, the advent of self-organized criticality has given hints in how to interpret large fluctuations observed in many natural systems including epidemiological systems. We show some scenarios where criticality has been observed (e.g., measles under vaccination) and where evolution towards a critical state can explain fluctuations (e.g., meningococcal disease.)

  5. Evolution and social epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Nishi, Akihiro

    2015-11-01

    Evolutionary biology, which aims to explain the dynamic process of shaping the diversity of life, has not yet significantly affected thinking in social epidemiology. Current challenges in social epidemiology include understanding how social exposures can affect our biology, explaining the dynamics of society and health, and designing better interventions that are mindful of the impact of exposures during critical periods. I review how evolutionary concepts and tools, such as fitness gradient in cultural evolution, evolutionary game theory, and contemporary evolution in cancer, can provide helpful insights regarding social epidemiology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Solar System Analog; WMO Statement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    Scientists searching for extra-solar planets have discovered the closest known analog to our own Solar System. A planet with a mass about twice that of Jupiter is in a near-circular orbit of the star HD70642, a team of astronomers from Australia, the United Kingdom, and the United States announced on 3 July at a conference in Paris on extra-solar planets.The planet measures about three-fifths the size of Jupiter, circles its star about every six years, and is in an orbit equivalent to being about halfway between Mars and Jupiter if it were located in our Solar System, according to the astronomers. The star is about 90 light years away from Earth in the constellation Puppis.Public concern about a spate of well-publicized, extreme weather events around the world this year has prompted the World Meteorological Organization to issue a statement that, as global temperatures continues to rise due to climate change, the number and intensity of extreme events might increase. The July 2 statement is based on scientific assessments by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and others, rather than on any new studies, according to Ken Davidson, director orf WMO's World Climate Program Department. The statement cites record high termperatures so far this summer in southern France and in Switzerland, an abnormally high number of tornadoes in the U.S. in May, and particularly heavy rains from tropical cyclones in Sri Lanka.

  7. Writing a PACS program statement.

    PubMed

    Rowe, W M; Moffitt, M E; Bunnell, W J

    1995-01-01

    Medical telecommunications is becoming a necessity for maintaining the quality of care and delivering services on a timely basis in the current environment of cutting services and specialists to reduce costs. (Vanden Brink 1994). Picture archiving and communications systems (PACS) and teleradiology are increasingly viable because there is easier connectivity among modalities and manufacturers. Agreement on the DICOM Standard is one step toward greater connectivity. Two-thirds of the 350 radiology administrators, radiologists, hospital administrators and MIS directors interviewed for the 1994 IMACS/PACS Tracking Study believe that the use of image telecommunication technology is growing. In 1993, Vanderbilt University Medical Center (VUMC) formed a committee to evaluate the need for PACS and to compile a program statement. The principal purpose of the program statement is to provide fundamental information that can be understood easily by individuals outside the radiology department. It outlines the benefits of PACS and includes a financial analysis of the purchase and installation of a system. Key elements of the program statement include a description and analysis of the existing film library system, advantages of PACS, implementation plan, financial proforma and integration with the hospital information system. These and other topics are covered in detail in the following article.

  8. Obesity Pathogenesis: An Endocrine Society Scientific Statement.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Michael W; Seeley, Randy J; Zeltser, Lori M; Drewnowski, Adam; Ravussin, Eric; Redman, Leanne M; Leibel, Rudolph L

    2017-08-01

    Obesity is among the most common and costly chronic disorders worldwide. Estimates suggest that in the United States obesity affects one-third of adults, accounts for up to one-third of total mortality, is concentrated among lower income groups, and increasingly affects children as well as adults. A lack of effective options for long-term weight reduction magnifies the enormity of this problem; individuals who successfully complete behavioral and dietary weight-loss programs eventually regain most of the lost weight. We included evidence from basic science, clinical, and epidemiological literature to assess current knowledge regarding mechanisms underlying excess body-fat accumulation, the biological defense of excess fat mass, and the tendency for lost weight to be regained. A major area of emphasis is the science of energy homeostasis, the biological process that maintains weight stability by actively matching energy intake to energy expenditure over time. Growing evidence suggests that obesity is a disorder of the energy homeostasis system, rather than simply arising from the passive accumulation of excess weight. We need to elucidate the mechanisms underlying this "upward setting" or "resetting" of the defended level of body-fat mass, whether inherited or acquired. The ongoing study of how genetic, developmental, and environmental forces affect the energy homeostasis system will help us better understand these mechanisms and are therefore a major focus of this statement. The scientific goal is to elucidate obesity pathogenesis so as to better inform treatment, public policy, advocacy, and awareness of obesity in ways that ultimately diminish its public health and economic consequences. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society.

  9. EPIDEMIOLOGY AND EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research collaborations between the National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory (NHEERL) and the National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) centered on the development and application of exposure analysis tools in environmental epidemiology include the El Paso...

  10. Epidemiology of allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Mims, James W

    2014-09-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) is the archetypal allergic disease otolaryngologists encounter. Epidemiologic studies inform providers of the association of rhinitis symptoms and allergy test results in the broader population. Understanding the epidemiological characteristics of AR is important for interpreting both rhinitis symptoms and allergy tests. Articles were selected based on literature review through PubMed and personal knowledge of the author. The largest and highest-quality studies were included. The search selection was not standardized. Epidemiological studies demonstrate marked variability globally in the prevalence of both rhinitis symptoms and allergy tests. Self-reported seasonal or perennial rhinitis symptoms significantly overestimate the prevalence of AR defined by a positive history and positive allergy tests. Positive allergy tests are also common in those without self-reported rhinitis symptoms. Interpreting rhinitis symptoms and allergy testing is enhanced by an understanding of the epidemiology of AR. © 2014 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  11. Epidemiology of Lice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juranek, Dennis D.

    1977-01-01

    Research into the epidemiology of lice indicates that infestation is uncommon in blacks, more common in females than males, significantly higher in low income groups, and transmission is by way of articles of clothing. (JD)

  12. Cancer Epidemiology Cohorts

    Cancer.gov

    Cohort studies are fundamental for epidemiological research by helping researchers better understand the etiology of cancer and provide insights into the key determinants of this disease and its outcomes.

  13. Epidemiology of Lice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juranek, Dennis D.

    1977-01-01

    Research into the epidemiology of lice indicates that infestation is uncommon in blacks, more common in females than males, significantly higher in low income groups, and transmission is by way of articles of clothing. (JD)

  14. Epidemiology & Genomics Research Program

    Cancer.gov

    The Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program, in the National Cancer Institute's Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences, funds research in human populations to understand the determinants of cancer occurrence and outcomes.

  15. Occupational cancer epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Boffetta, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    Occupational cancer epidemiology has led to the identification of more than 40 agents, groups of agents, and exposure circumstances which cause cancer in humans. This evidence has been followed by preventive and control measures. There are four areas where occupational cancer epidemiology may contribute important results in the future: surveillance of workers exposed to carcinogens, identification of new carcinogens and target organs, study of interactions, and research on special exposure circumstances.

  16. Cheerleading injuries: epidemiology and recommendations for prevention.

    PubMed

    LaBella, Cynthia R; Mjaanes, Jeffrey

    2012-11-01

    Over the last 30 years, cheerleading has increased dramatically in popularity and has evolved from leading the crowd in cheers at sporting events into a competitive, year-round sport involving complex acrobatic stunts and tumbling. Consequently, cheerleading injuries have steadily increased over the years in both number and severity. Sprains and strains to the lower extremities are the most common injuries. Although the overall injury rate remains relatively low, cheerleading has accounted for approximately 66% of all catastrophic injuries in high school girl athletes over the past 25 years. Risk factors for injuries in cheerleading include higher BMI, previous injury, cheering on harder surfaces, performing stunts, and supervision by a coach with low level of training and experience. This policy statement describes the epidemiology of cheerleading injuries and provides recommendations for injury prevention.

  17. Landscape Epidemiology of Tularemia Outbreaks in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Svensson, Kerstin; Bäck, Erik; Eliasson, Henrik; Berglund, Lennart; Granberg, Malin; Karlsson, Linda; Larsson, Pär; Forsman, Mats

    2009-01-01

    Summer outbreaks of tularemia that occurred from 1995 through 2005 in 2 locations in Sweden affected 441 persons. We performed an epidemiologic investigation of these outbreaks using a novel strategy, involving high-resolution genotyping of Francisella tularensis isolates obtained from 136 patients (using 18 genetic markers developed from 6 F. tularensis genome sequences) and interviews with the patients. Strong spatial associations were found between F. tularensis subpopulations and the places of disease transmission; infection by some subpopulations occurred within areas as small as 2 km2, indicating unidentified environmental point sources of tularemia. In both locations, disease clusters were associated with recreational areas beside water, and genetic subpopulations were present throughout the tularemia season and persisted over years. High-resolution genotyping in combination with patients’ statements about geographic places of disease transmission provided valuable indications of likely sources of infection and the causal genotypes during these tularemia outbreaks. PMID:19961673

  18. A Systematic Review on the Epidemiology of Pediatric Burn in Iran.

    PubMed

    Hashemi, Sayed Saeed; Sharhani, Asaad; Lotfi, Bahare; Ahmadi-Juibari, Toraj; Shaahmadi, Zahra; Aghaei, Abbas

    2017-03-15

    Burn is the most common pediatric injuries all over the world. The aim of this study was to study the epidemiology of burn in under 15-year-old Iranian children by applying a systematic review. The related articles published before 2016 have been gathered from international databases by using the keywords in term of pediatric burns such as ScienceDirect, PubMed, Iranmedex, Google Scholar, Embase, Magiran, and SID. The checklists of STROBE have been applied to evaluate the quality of the reviewed data. A total of 35 relevant studies were extracted and evaluated. In most studies, the incidence of pediatric burns in male patients was more than female patients by 9.5 to 50 cases in 100,000 per children. Mortality rate of pediatric burn was between 1.7 and 18.5%. The most common cause of pediatric burn was hot water or other hot liquids. Pediatric burn in urban areas was higher and the highest number of pediatric burns occurred at home. Burn is considered as one of the major incidents related to children's health that required planning to reduce its incidence, especially in the lower age groups as well as male patients who are more active and susceptible to burn.

  19. Executive Summary to EDC-2: The Endocrine Society's Second Scientific Statement on Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals

    PubMed Central

    Chappell, V. A.; Fenton, S. E.; Flaws, J. A.; Nadal, A.; Prins, G. S.; Toppari, J.; Zoeller, R. T.

    2015-01-01

    This Executive Summary to the Endocrine Society's second Scientific Statement on environmental endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) provides a synthesis of the key points of the complete statement. The full Scientific Statement represents a comprehensive review of the literature on seven topics for which there is strong mechanistic, experimental, animal, and epidemiological evidence for endocrine disruption, namely: obesity and diabetes, female reproduction, male reproduction, hormone-sensitive cancers in females, prostate cancer, thyroid, and neurodevelopment and neuroendocrine systems. EDCs such as bisphenol A, phthalates, pesticides, persistent organic pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls, polybrominated diethyl ethers, and dioxins were emphasized because these chemicals had the greatest depth and breadth of available information. The Statement also included thorough coverage of studies of developmental exposures to EDCs, especially in the fetus and infant, because these are critical life stages during which perturbations of hormones can increase the probability of a disease or dysfunction later in life. A conclusion of the Statement is that publications over the past 5 years have led to a much fuller understanding of the endocrine principles by which EDCs act, including nonmonotonic dose-responses, low-dose effects, and developmental vulnerability. These findings will prove useful to researchers, physicians, and other healthcare providers in translating the science of endocrine disruption to improved public health. PMID:26414233

  20. Executive Summary to EDC-2: The Endocrine Society's Second Scientific Statement on Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals.

    PubMed

    Gore, A C; Chappell, V A; Fenton, S E; Flaws, J A; Nadal, A; Prins, G S; Toppari, J; Zoeller, R T

    2015-12-01

    This Executive Summary to the Endocrine Society's second Scientific Statement on environmental endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) provides a synthesis of the key points of the complete statement. The full Scientific Statement represents a comprehensive review of the literature on seven topics for which there is strong mechanistic, experimental, animal, and epidemiological evidence for endocrine disruption, namely: obesity and diabetes, female reproduction, male reproduction, hormone-sensitive cancers in females, prostate cancer, thyroid, and neurodevelopment and neuroendocrine systems. EDCs such as bisphenol A, phthalates, pesticides, persistent organic pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls, polybrominated diethyl ethers, and dioxins were emphasized because these chemicals had the greatest depth and breadth of available information. The Statement also included thorough coverage of studies of developmental exposures to EDCs, especially in the fetus and infant, because these are critical life stages during which perturbations of hormones can increase the probability of a disease or dysfunction later in life. A conclusion of the Statement is that publications over the past 5 years have led to a much fuller understanding of the endocrine principles by which EDCs act, including nonmonotonic dose-responses, low-dose effects, and developmental vulnerability. These findings will prove useful to researchers, physicians, and other healthcare providers in translating the science of endocrine disruption to improved public health.

  1. Post-cardiac arrest syndrome: epidemiology, pathophysiology, treatment, and prognostication: a scientific statement from the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation; the American Heart Association Emergency Cardiovascular Care Committee; the Council on Cardiovascular Surgery and Anesthesia; the Council on Cardiopulmonary, Perioperative, and Critical Care; the Council on Clinical Cardiology; the Council on Stroke (Part II).

    PubMed

    Nolan, Jerry P; Neumar, Robert W; Adrie, Christophe; Aibiki, Mayuki; Berg, Robert A; Bbttiger, Bernd W; Callaway, Clifton; Clark, Robert S B; Geocadin, Romergryko G; Jauch, Edward C; Kern, Karl B; Laurent, Ivan; Longstreth, W T; Merchant, Raina M; Morley, Peter; Morrison, Laurie J; Nadkarni, Vinay; Peberdy, Mary Ann; Rivers, Emanuel P; Rodriguez-Nunez, Antonio; Sellke, Frank W; Spaulding, Christian; Sunde, Kjetil; Vanden Hoek, Terry

    2010-01-01

    To review the epidemiology, pathophysiology, treatment and prognostication in relation to the post-cardiac arrest syndrome. Relevant articles were identified using PubMed, EMBASE and an American Heart Association EndNote master resuscitation reference library, supplemented by hand searches of key papers. Writing groups comprising international experts were assigned to each section. Drafts of the document were circulated to all authors for comment and amendment. The 4 key components of post-cardiac arrest syndrome were identified as (1) post-cardiac arrest brain injury, (2) post-cardiac arrest myocardial dysfunction, (3) systemic ischaemia/reperfusion response, and (4) persistent precipitating pathology. A growing body of knowledge suggests that the individual components of the post-cardiac arrest syndrome are potentially treatable. Copyright (c) 2009. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Post-cardiac arrest syndrome: epidemiology, pathophysiology, treatment, and prognostication. A Scientific Statement from the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation; the American Heart Association Emergency Cardiovascular Care Committee; the Council on Cardiovascular Surgery and Anesthesia; the Council on Cardiopulmonary, Perioperative, and Critical Care; the Council on Clinical Cardiology; the Council on Stroke.

    PubMed

    Nolan, Jerry P; Neumar, Robert W; Adrie, Christophe; Aibiki, Mayuki; Berg, Robert A; Böttiger, Bernd W; Callaway, Clifton; Clark, Robert S B; Geocadin, Romergryko G; Jauch, Edward C; Kern, Karl B; Laurent, Ivan; Longstreth, W T; Merchant, Raina M; Morley, Peter; Morrison, Laurie J; Nadkarni, Vinay; Peberdy, Mary Ann; Rivers, Emanuel P; Rodriguez-Nunez, Antonio; Sellke, Frank W; Spaulding, Christian; Sunde, Kjetil; Hoek, Terry Vanden

    2008-12-01

    To review the epidemiology, pathophysiology, treatment and prognostication in relation to the post-cardiac arrest syndrome. Relevant articles were identified using PubMed, EMBASE and an American Heart Association EndNote master resuscitation reference library, supplemented by hand searches of key papers. Writing groups comprising international experts were assigned to each section. Drafts of the document were circulated to all authors for comment and amendment. The 4 key components of post-cardiac arrest syndrome were identified as (1) post-cardiac arrest brain injury, (2) post-cardiac arrest myocardial dysfunction, (3) systemic ischaemia/reperfusion response, and (4) persistent precipitating pathology. A growing body of knowledge suggests that the individual components of the post-cardiac arrest syndrome are potentially treatable.

  3. Post-cardiac arrest syndrome: Epidemiology, pathophysiology, treatment, and prognostication: A scientific statement from the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation; the American Heart Association Emergency Cardiovascular Care Committee; the Council on Cardiovascular Surgery and Anesthesia; the Council on Cardiopulmonary, Perioperative, and Critical Care; the Council on Clinical Cardiology; the Council on Stroke (Part 1).

    PubMed

    Nolan, Jerry P; Neumar, Robert W; Adrie, Christophe; Aibiki, Mayuki; Berg, Robert A; Bbttiger, Bernd W; Callaway, Clifton; Clark, Robert S B; Geocadin, Romergryko G; Jauch, Edward C; Kern, Karl B; Laurent, Ivan; Longstreth, W T; Merchant, Raina M; Morley, Peter; Morrison, Laurie J; Nadkarni, Vinay; Peberdy, Mary Ann; Rivers, Emanuel P; Rodriguez-Nunez, Antonio; Sellke, Frank W; Spaulding, Christian; Sunde, Kjetil; Hoek, Terry Vanden

    2009-10-01

    To review the epidemiology, pathophysiology, treatment and prognostication in relation to the post-cardiac arrest syndrome. Relevant articles were identified using PubMed, EMBASE and an American Heart Association EndNote master resuscitation reference library, supplemented by hand searches of key papers. Writing groups comprising international experts were assigned to each section. Drafts of the document were circulated to all authors for comment and amendment. The 4 key components of post-cardiac arrest syndrome were identified as (1) post-cardiac arrest brain injury, (2) post-cardiac arrest myocardial dysfunction, (3) systemic ischaemia/reperfusion response, and (4) persistent precipitating pathology. A growing body of knowledge suggests that the individual components of the postcardiac arrest syndrome are potentially treatable.

  4. NIH consensus development conference statement: Lactose intolerance and health.

    PubMed

    Suchy, Frederick J; Brannon, Patsy M; Carpenter, Thomas O; Fernandez, Jose R; Gilsanz, Vicente; Gould, Jeffrey B; Hall, Karen; Hui, Siu L; Lupton, Joanne; Mennella, Julie; Miller, Natalie J; Osganian, Stavroula Kalis; Sellmeyer, Deborah E; Wolf, Marshall A

    2010-02-24

    To provide health care providers, patients, and the general public with a responsible assessment of currently available data on lactose intolerance and health. A non-DHHS, nonadvocate 14-member panel representing the fields of internal medicine, pediatrics, pediatric and adult endocrinology, gastroenterology, hepatology, neonatology and perinatology, geriatrics, racial/ethnic disparities, radiology, maternal and fetal nutrition, vitamin and mineral metabolism, nutritional sciences, bone health, preventive medicine, biopsychology, biostatistics, statistical genetics, epidemiology, and a public representative. In addition, 22 experts from pertinent fields presented data to the panel and conference audience. Presentations by experts and a systematic review of the literature prepared by the University of Minnesota Evidence-based Practice Center, through the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Scientific evidence was given precedence over anecdotal experience. The panel drafted its statement based on scientific evidence presented in open forum and on published scientific literature. The draft statement was presented on the final day of the conference and circulated to the audience for comment. The panel released a revised statement later that day at http://consensus.nih.gov. This statement is an independent report of the panel and is not a policy statement of the NIH or the Federal Government. • Lactose intolerance is a real and important clinical syndrome, but its true prevalence is not known. • The majority of people with lactose malabsorption do not have clinical lactose intolerance. Many individuals who think they are lactose intolerant are not lactose malabsorbers. • Many individuals with real or perceived lactose intolerance avoid dairy and ingest inadequate amounts of calcium and vitamin D, which may predispose them to decreased bone accrual, osteoporosis, and other adverse health outcomes. In most cases, individuals do not need to eliminate dairy

  5. Population-based prevention of obesity: the need for comprehensive promotion of healthful eating, physical activity, and energy balance: a scientific statement from American Heart Association Council on Epidemiology and Prevention, Interdisciplinary Committee for Prevention (formerly the expert panel on population and prevention science).

    PubMed

    Kumanyika, Shiriki K; Obarzanek, Eva; Stettler, Nicolas; Bell, Ronny; Field, Alison E; Fortmann, Stephen P; Franklin, Barry A; Gillman, Matthew W; Lewis, Cora E; Poston, Walker Carlos; Stevens, June; Hong, Yuling

    2008-07-22

    Obesity is a major influence on the development and course of cardiovascular diseases and affects physical and social functioning and quality of life. The importance of effective interventions to reduce obesity and related health risks has increased in recent decades because the number of adults and children who are obese has reached epidemic proportions. To prevent the development of overweight and obesity throughout the life course, population-based strategies that improve social and physical environmental contexts for healthful eating and physical activity are essential. Population-based approaches to obesity prevention are complementary to clinical preventive strategies and also to treatment programs for those who are already obese. This American Heart Association scientific statement aims: 1) to raise awareness of the importance of undertaking population-based initiatives specifically geared to the prevention of excess weight gain in adults and children; 2) to describe considerations for undertaking obesity prevention overall and in key risk subgroups; 3) to differentiate environmental and policy approaches to obesity prevention from those used in clinical prevention and obesity treatment; 4) to identify potential targets of environmental and policy change using an ecological model that includes multiple layers of influences on eating and physical activity across multiple societal sectors; and 5) to highlight the spectrum of potentially relevant interventions and the nature of evidence needed to inform population-based approaches. The evidence-based experience for population-wide approaches to obesity prevention is highlighted.

  6. A consensus statement on the gender perspective in lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Isla, D; Majem, M; Viñolas, N; Artal, A; Blasco, A; Felip, E; Garrido, P; Remón, J; Baquedano, M; Borrás, J M; Die Trill, M; García-Campelo, R; Juan, O; León, C; Lianes, P; López-Ríos, F; Molins, L; Planchuelo, M Á; Cobo, M; Paz-Ares, L; Trigo, J M; de Castro, J

    2016-11-24

    Lung cancer is the most common cancer globally and has the highest mortality. Although this disease is not associated with a particular gender, its incidence is rising among women, who are diagnosed at an increasingly younger age compared with men. One of the main reasons for this rise is women taking up smoking. However, many non-smoking women also develop this disease. Other risk factors implicated in the differential development of lung cancer in women are genetic predisposition, tumour histology and molecular profile. Proportionally more women than men with lung cancer have a mutation in the EGFR gene. This consensus statement reviews the available evidence about the epidemiological, biological, diagnostic, therapeutic, social and psychological aspects of lung cancer in women.

  7. Position Statement On Climate Change.

    PubMed

    2016-05-01

    The North Carolina Environmental Justice Network (NCEJN), a coalition of grassroots organizations, developed a statement to explain our environmental justice perspective on climate change to predominantly white environmental groups that seek to partner with us. NCEJN opposes strategies that reduce greenhouse emissions while maintaining or magnifying existing social, economic, and environmental injustices. Wealthy communities that consume a disproportionate share of resources avoid the most severe consequences of their consumption by displacing pollution on communities of color and low income. Therefore, the success of climate change activism depends on building an inclusive movement based on principles of racial, social and economic justice, and self-determination for all people.

  8. Expedition 40 Post Docking Statement

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-05-29

    William Gerstenmaier, NASA Associate Administrator for Human Exploration and Operations, speaks during a joint statement with Jean-Jacques Dordain, Director General of the European Space Agency, and Oleg Ostapenko, General Director of the Russian Federal Space Agency, Roscosmos, following the docking of the Soyuz TMA-13M spacecraft with the International Space Station on Thursday, May 29, 2014 at the Baikonur Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. The three spoke on the importance of international cooperation in human spaceflight. Photo Credit: (NASA/Joel Kowsky)

  9. Expedition 40 Post Docking Statement

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-05-29

    Jean-Jacques Dordain, Director General of the European Space Agency, left, Oleg Ostapenko, General Director of the Russian Federal Space Agency, Roscosmos, center, and William Gerstenmaier, NASA Associate Administrator for Human Exploration and Operations, right, are seen during a joint statement after the docking of the Soyuz TMA-13M spacecraft with the International Space Station on Thursday, May 29, 2014 at the Baikonur Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. The three spoke on the importance of international cooperation in human spaceflight. Photo Credit: (NASA/Joel Kowsky)

  10. 48 CFR 35.005 - Work statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... and creativity. Work statements must be individually tailored by technical and contracting personnel to attain the desired degree of flexibility for contractor creativity and the objectives of the...

  11. 48 CFR 35.005 - Work statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... and creativity. Work statements must be individually tailored by technical and contracting personnel to attain the desired degree of flexibility for contractor creativity and the objectives of the...

  12. 48 CFR 35.005 - Work statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... and creativity. Work statements must be individually tailored by technical and contracting personnel to attain the desired degree of flexibility for contractor creativity and the objectives of the...

  13. 48 CFR 35.005 - Work statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... and creativity. Work statements must be individually tailored by technical and contracting personnel to attain the desired degree of flexibility for contractor creativity and the objectives of the...

  14. 48 CFR 35.005 - Work statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... and creativity. Work statements must be individually tailored by technical and contracting personnel to attain the desired degree of flexibility for contractor creativity and the objectives of the...

  15. 18 CFR 706.403 - Form of statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Form of statements. 706... RESPONSIBILITIES AND CONDUCT Statements of Employment and Financial Interests § 706.403 Form of statements. An employee required to submit a statement of employment and financial interests shall submit that statement...

  16. 18 CFR 706.403 - Form of statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Form of statements. 706... RESPONSIBILITIES AND CONDUCT Statements of Employment and Financial Interests § 706.403 Form of statements. An employee required to submit a statement of employment and financial interests shall submit that statement...

  17. 18 CFR 706.403 - Form of statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Form of statements. 706... RESPONSIBILITIES AND CONDUCT Statements of Employment and Financial Interests § 706.403 Form of statements. An employee required to submit a statement of employment and financial interests shall submit that statement...

  18. 18 CFR 706.403 - Form of statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Form of statements. 706... RESPONSIBILITIES AND CONDUCT Statements of Employment and Financial Interests § 706.403 Form of statements. An employee required to submit a statement of employment and financial interests shall submit that statement...

  19. 7 CFR 1980.445 - Periodic financial statements and audits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... periodic financial statements to the lender. Lenders must forward copies of the financial statements and the lender's analysis of the statements to the Agency. (a) Audited financial statements. Except as... section shall be considered an impediment to the lender requiring financial statements more......

  20. Objectives of Financial Statements. Report of the Study Group on the Objectives of Financial Statements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Inst. of Certified Public Accountants, New York, NY.

    This report discusses the objectives of financial statements. Emphasis is placed on the function of objectives; users, their goals, and their information needs; the primary enterprise goal and earning power; accountability and financial statements; financial statements--reporting on the goal attainment of business enterprises; financial…

  1. Against Popperized epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, M

    1976-03-01

    The recommendation of Popper's philosophy of science should be adopted by epidemiologists is disputed. Reference is made to other authors who have shown that the most constructive elements in Popper's ideas have been advocated by earlier philosophers and have been used in epidemiology without abandoning inductive reasoning. It is argued that Popper's denigration of inductive methods is particularly harmful to epidemiology. Inductive reasoning and statistical inference play a key role in the science; it is suggested that unfamiliarity with these ideas contributes to widespread misunderstanding of the function of epidemiology. Attention is drawn to a common fallacy involving correlations between three random variables. The prevalence of the fallacy may be related to confusion between deductive and inductive logic.

  2. Why ethics is indispensable for good-quality operational research.

    PubMed

    Edginton, M; Enarson, D; Zachariah, R; Reid, T; Satyanarayana, S; Bissell, K; Hinderaker, S G; Harries, T

    2012-03-21

    This article outlines challenges encountered when ethics is taught and promoted in the Operational Research courses of the International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, with a focus on ethical issues related to studies that involve health records reviews. Problems observed by the Ethics Advisory Group include engagement of all stakeholders, maintenance of confidentiality and authorship. The omission of ethics in the STROBE (Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology) statement and its explanatory commentary published in 2007 is highlighted and questioned.

  3. The epidemiology of male infertility.

    PubMed

    Winters, Brian R; Walsh, Thomas J

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this review is to integrate understanding of epidemiology and infertility. A primer on epidemiologic science and an example disease for which the design of epidemiologic investigations is readily apparent are provided. Key features of infertility that limit epidemiologic investigation are described and a survey of available data on the epidemiology of infertility provided. Finally, the work that must be completed to move this area of research forward is proposed, and, with this new perspective of "infertility as a disease," improvements envisioned in public health that may be gained through improved understanding of the epidemiology of male infertility.

  4. Epidemiological methods: about time.

    PubMed

    Kraemer, Helena Chmura

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiological studies often produce false positive results due to use of statistical approaches that either ignore or distort time. The three time-related issues of focus in this discussion are: (1) cross-sectional vs. cohort studies, (2) statistical significance vs. public health significance, and (3), how risk factors "work together" to impact public health significance. The issue of time should be central to all thinking in epidemiology research, affecting sampling, measurement, design, analysis and, perhaps most important, the interpretation of results that might influence clinical and public-health decision-making and subsequent clinical research.

  5. [Epidemiology of TBE].

    PubMed

    Süss, J; Klaus, C

    2006-06-01

    In the period between 1974 and 2003, the incidence of TBE increased appreciably in most European countries. Numerous factors, including climatic changes, biological (ecological) and non-biological factors, have an influence on the epidemiology of TBE. In addition, a greater awareness and better understanding (of the problem), improvements in diagnosis, an increase in travel, political and associated major social changes have had an impact on epidemiological data banks. We shall succeed in turning back the rising tide only by achieving further progress in the field of risk analysis, and redoubling our efforts in the area of active immunisation.

  6. Aviation Epidemiology Data Register

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-03-15

    21702-5012 DISTRIBDTION STATNIENT: Approved for public release; distribution unlimited The vimow, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are...STATEMENT 12b. DSTRIBUTION CODE Approved for public release; distribution unlimited 13. ABSTRACT (Maximum 200 words) The midterm report focuses only...analysis requests and publications . Data analysis requests are mostly generated by researchers and scientists within USAARL (U.S. Army Aeromedical Research

  7. Developing cancer warning statements for alcoholic beverages.

    PubMed

    Pettigrew, Simone; Jongenelis, Michelle; Chikritzhs, Tanya; Slevin, Terry; Pratt, Iain S; Glance, David; Liang, Wenbin

    2014-08-03

    There is growing evidence of the increased cancer risk associated with alcohol consumption, but this is not well understood by the general public. This study investigated the acceptability among drinkers of cancer warning statements for alcoholic beverages. Six focus groups were conducted with Australian drinkers to develop a series of cancer-related warning statements for alcohol products. Eleven cancer warning statements and one general health warning statement were subsequently tested on 2,168 drinkers via an online survey. The statements varied by message frame (positive vs negative), cancer reference (general vs specific), and the way causality was communicated ('increases risk of cancer' vs 'can cause cancer'). Overall, responses to the cancer statements were neutral to favorable, indicating that they are unlikely to encounter high levels of negative reaction from the community if introduced on alcoholic beverages. Females, younger respondents, and those with higher levels of education generally found the statements to be more believable, convincing, and personally relevant. Positively framed messages, those referring to specific forms of cancer, and those using 'increases risk of cancer' performed better than negatively framed messages, those referring to cancer in general, and those using the term 'can cause cancer'. Cancer warning statements on alcoholic beverages constitute a potential means of increasing awareness about the relationship between alcohol consumption and cancer risk.

  8. Position Statement on Active Outdoor Play

    PubMed Central

    Tremblay, Mark S.; Gray, Casey; Babcock, Shawna; Barnes, Joel; Costas Bradstreet, Christa; Carr, Dawn; Chabot, Guylaine; Choquette, Louise; Chorney, David; Collyer, Cam; Herrington, Susan; Janson, Katherine; Janssen, Ian; Larouche, Richard; Pickett, William; Power, Marlene; Sandseter, Ellen Beate Hansen; Simon, Brenda; Brussoni, Mariana

    2015-01-01

    A diverse, cross-sectorial group of partners, stakeholders and researchers, collaborated to develop an evidence-informed Position Statement on active outdoor play for children aged 3–12 years. The Position Statement was created in response to practitioner, academic, legal, insurance and public debate, dialogue and disagreement on the relative benefits and harms of active (including risky) outdoor play. The Position Statement development process was informed by two systematic reviews, a critical appraisal of the current literature and existing position statements, engagement of research experts (N = 9) and cross-sectorial individuals/organizations (N = 17), and an extensive stakeholder consultation process (N = 1908). More than 95% of the stakeholders consulted strongly agreed or somewhat agreed with the Position Statement; 14/17 participating individuals/organizations endorsed it; and over 1000 additional individuals and organizations requested their name be listed as a supporter. The final Position Statement on Active Outdoor Play states: “Access to active play in nature and outdoors—with its risks— is essential for healthy child development. We recommend increasing children’s opportunities for self-directed play outdoors in all settings—at home, at school, in child care, the community and nature.” The full Position Statement provides context for the statement, evidence supporting it, and a series of recommendations to increase active outdoor play opportunities to promote healthy child development. PMID:26062040

  9. 14 CFR 313.6 - Energy statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Energy statements. 313.6 Section 313.6... REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTATION OF THE ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT § 313.6 Energy statements. (a) Each major... action taken or to be taken upon energy efficiency and conservation. The administrative law judge or...

  10. 14 CFR 313.6 - Energy statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Energy statements. 313.6 Section 313.6... REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTATION OF THE ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT § 313.6 Energy statements. (a) Each major... action taken or to be taken upon energy efficiency and conservation. The administrative law judge or...

  11. 14 CFR 313.6 - Energy statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Energy statements. 313.6 Section 313.6... REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTATION OF THE ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT § 313.6 Energy statements. (a) Each major... action taken or to be taken upon energy efficiency and conservation. The administrative law judge or...

  12. 14 CFR 313.6 - Energy statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Energy statements. 313.6 Section 313.6... REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTATION OF THE ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT § 313.6 Energy statements. (a) Each major... action taken or to be taken upon energy efficiency and conservation. The administrative law judge or...

  13. 14 CFR 313.6 - Energy statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Energy statements. 313.6 Section 313.6... REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTATION OF THE ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT § 313.6 Energy statements. (a) Each major... action taken or to be taken upon energy efficiency and conservation. The administrative law judge or...

  14. 78 FR 48672 - Environmental Impacts Statements;

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal... Environmental Impact Statements Filed 07/29/2013 Through 08/02/2013 Pursuant to 40 CFR 1506.9. Notice Section...

  15. Position Statement on Active Outdoor Play.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Mark S; Gray, Casey; Babcock, Shawna; Barnes, Joel; Bradstreet, Christa Costas; Carr, Dawn; Chabot, Guylaine; Choquette, Louise; Chorney, David; Collyer, Cam; Herrington, Susan; Janson, Katherine; Janssen, Ian; Larouche, Richard; Pickett, William; Power, Marlene; Sandseter, Ellen Beate Hansen; Simon, Brenda; Brussoni, Mariana

    2015-06-08

    A diverse, cross-sectorial group of partners, stakeholders and researchers, collaborated to develop an evidence-informed Position Statement on active outdoor play for children aged 3-12 years. The Position Statement was created in response to practitioner, academic, legal, insurance and public debate, dialogue and disagreement on the relative benefits and harms of active (including risky) outdoor play. The Position Statement development process was informed by two systematic reviews, a critical appraisal of the current literature and existing position statements, engagement of research experts (N=9) and cross-sectorial individuals/organizations (N=17), and an extensive stakeholder consultation process (N=1908). More than 95% of the stakeholders consulted strongly agreed or somewhat agreed with the Position Statement; 14/17 participating individuals/organizations endorsed it; and over 1000 additional individuals and organizations requested their name be listed as a supporter. The final Position Statement on Active Outdoor Play states: "Access to active play in nature and outdoors--with its risks--is essential for healthy child development. We recommend increasing children's opportunities for self-directed play outdoors in all settings--at home, at school, in child care, the community and nature." The full Position Statement provides context for the statement, evidence supporting it, and a series of recommendations to increase active outdoor play opportunities to promote healthy child development.

  16. Applying Statement 34's Capital Asset Requirements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finden, Randal

    2001-01-01

    Discusses common issues and offers recommendations related to revisions in Governmental Accounting Standards Board Statement 34 wherein the financial reporting of the general fixed-assets account group is eliminated and instead a school district's general capital assets are reported and depreciated on the new statement of net assets and statement…

  17. 13 CFR 314.8 - Recorded statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Recorded statement. 314.8 Section 314.8 Business Credit and Assistance ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE PROPERTY Real Property § 314.8 Recorded statement. (a) For all Projects involving the...

  18. Exhibit 5: Policy Statements and Position Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Dental Education, 1989

    1989-01-01

    Policy statements and position papers adopted by the American Association of Dental Schools are presented. Policy statements cover education, research, delivery of care, and health concerns. Position papers concern peer review, freedoms and responsibilities of individuals and institutions, national health programs, interdisciplinary education,…

  19. 29 CFR 531.25 - Introductory statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Introductory statement. 531.25 Section 531.25 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS WAGE PAYMENTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT OF 1938 Interpretations § 531.25 Introductory statement. (a...

  20. Statement on the Disclosure of Test Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Presents the text of the American Psychological Association's Statement on the Disclosure of Test Data. Areas addressed by the statement include access to data; informing the test's taker of the purpose, use, and results; data dissemination; copyright interests; conforming to regulatory statutes and mandates; and the role of psychologists in…

  1. 18 CFR 706.405 - Supplementary statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... EMPLOYEE RESPONSIBILITIES AND CONDUCT Statements of Employment and Financial Interests § 706.405... employment and financial interests shall be reported in a supplementary statement, in the format prescribed... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Supplementary...

  2. 18 CFR 706.405 - Supplementary statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... EMPLOYEE RESPONSIBILITIES AND CONDUCT Statements of Employment and Financial Interests § 706.405... employment and financial interests shall be reported in a supplementary statement, in the format prescribed... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Supplementary...

  3. Framing a South Africa Policy Statement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Roger F.

    1978-01-01

    A model position statement for the college trustee is presented that deals with the management of and decision-making for corporate equity securities. Neither selling the stock nor leaving decisions on social issues, such as the apartheid one, to corporate management is seen as a satisfactory alternative. Adoption of a position statement can guide…

  4. An Analysis of Private School Mission Statements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boerema, Albert J.

    2006-01-01

    This article is a study of private school mission/vision statements using content analysis. Statements from private schools in British Columbia, Canada, that provided instruction to Grade 12 students were analyzed to explore the diversity that lies within the private school sector. The concepts that emerged from the analysis were grouped into five…

  5. Chasing Killer Statements From The Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Marianne

    1975-01-01

    This teacher discusses techniques she uses to rid the classroom of "killer statements", which are negative statements that express some kind of anger or distress and are unthinking outgrowths of the desire to get back at the world when feeling needy or deprived.

  6. 27 CFR 4.62 - Mandatory statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mandatory statements. 4.62 Section 4.62 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... statements. (a) Responsible advertiser. The advertisement shall state the name and address of the...

  7. 27 CFR 5.63 - Mandatory statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ....” (2) Optional statement. In addition, the advertisement may also state the alcohol content in degrees... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mandatory statements. 5.63 Section 5.63 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU,...

  8. 27 CFR 7.52 - Mandatory statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mandatory statements. 7.52 Section 7.52 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT....52 Mandatory statements. (a) Responsible advertiser. The advertisement shall state the name...

  9. 47 CFR 76.1801 - Registration statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Registration statement. 76.1801 Section 76.1801... CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Reports and Filings § 76.1801 Registration statement. (a) A system community... signals to be carried which previously have not been certified or registered; and (7) The FCC...

  10. 47 CFR 76.1801 - Registration statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Registration statement. 76.1801 Section 76.1801... CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Reports and Filings § 76.1801 Registration statement. (a) A system community... signals to be carried which previously have not been certified or registered; and (7) The FCC...

  11. 49 CFR 107.503 - Registration statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Registration statement. 107.503 Section 107.503... PROGRAM PROCEDURES Registration of Cargo Tank and Cargo Tank Motor Vehicle Manufacturers, Assemblers, Repairers, Inspectors, Testers, and Design Certifying Engineers § 107.503 Registration statement. (a)...

  12. 47 CFR 76.1801 - Registration statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Registration statement. 76.1801 Section 76.1801... CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Reports and Filings § 76.1801 Registration statement. (a) A system community... signals to be carried which previously have not been certified or registered; and (7) The FCC...

  13. 47 CFR 76.1801 - Registration statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Registration statement. 76.1801 Section 76.1801... CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Reports and Filings § 76.1801 Registration statement. (a) A system community... signals to be carried which previously have not been certified or registered; and (7) The FCC...

  14. Students' Interpretations of Mathematical Statements Involving Quantification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piatek-Jimenez, Katrina

    2010-01-01

    Mathematical statements involving both universal and existential quantifiers occur frequently in advanced mathematics. Despite their prevalence, mathematics students often have difficulties interpreting and proving quantified statements. Through task-based interviews, this study took a qualitative look at undergraduate mathematics students'…

  15. Alaskan Environmental Impact Statements--A Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewandowski, Joseph J., Comp.

    This bibliography is an attempt at compiling and organizing a comprehensive list of Alaska environmental impact statements. Arrangement is by the main issuing or responsible agency and is then divided into sub-agencies. Several publications which are not official environmental impact statements, but of a similar nature, are also included. The…

  16. 29 CFR 570.101 - Introductory statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS CHILD LABOR REGULATIONS, ORDERS AND STATEMENTS OF INTERPRETATION General Statements of Interpretation of the Child Labor...) This subpart discusses the meaning and scope of the child labor provisions contained in the Fair Labor...

  17. 29 CFR 570.101 - Introductory statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS CHILD LABOR REGULATIONS, ORDERS AND STATEMENTS OF INTERPRETATION General Statements of Interpretation of the Child Labor...) This subpart discusses the meaning and scope of the child labor provisions contained in the Fair...

  18. 29 CFR 570.101 - Introductory statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS CHILD LABOR REGULATIONS, ORDERS AND STATEMENTS OF INTERPRETATION General Statements of Interpretation of the Child Labor...) This subpart discusses the meaning and scope of the child labor provisions contained in the Fair...

  19. 29 CFR 570.101 - Introductory statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS CHILD LABOR REGULATIONS, ORDERS AND STATEMENTS OF INTERPRETATION General Statements of Interpretation of the Child Labor...) This subpart discusses the meaning and scope of the child labor provisions contained in the Fair...

  20. 29 CFR 570.101 - Introductory statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS CHILD LABOR REGULATIONS, ORDERS AND STATEMENTS OF INTERPRETATION General Statements of Interpretation of the Child Labor...) This subpart discusses the meaning and scope of the child labor provisions contained in the Fair...

  1. 7 CFR 1580.101 - General statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false General statement. 1580.101 Section 1580.101 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOREIGN AGRICULTURAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TRADE ADJUSTMENT ASSISTANCE FOR FARMERS § 1580.101 General statement. This...

  2. 49 CFR 1113.9 - Prepared statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... the officer, a witness may read into the record, as his testimony, statements of fact or expressions of opinion prepared by the witness, or written answers to interrogatories of counsel. A prepared..., a copy of such statement or of such interrogatories and the written answers thereto....

  3. 49 CFR 1113.9 - Prepared statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... the officer, a witness may read into the record, as his testimony, statements of fact or expressions of opinion prepared by the witness, or written answers to interrogatories of counsel. A prepared..., a copy of such statement or of such interrogatories and the written answers thereto....

  4. 49 CFR 1113.9 - Prepared statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... the officer, a witness may read into the record, as his testimony, statements of fact or expressions of opinion prepared by the witness, or written answers to interrogatories of counsel. A prepared..., a copy of such statement or of such interrogatories and the written answers thereto....

  5. 29 CFR 99.310 - Financial statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Financial statements. 99.310 Section 99.310 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor AUDITS OF STATES, LOCAL GOVERNMENTS, AND NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Auditees § 99... have separate audits in accordance with § 99.500(a) and prepare separate financial statements. (b...

  6. A Typology of Statements about Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pallotti, Gabriele

    2016-01-01

    The article presents a typology of statements that can be made about discourse data. The classification is based on two parameters: level of generality and level of interpretation. Each of these is operationalized into three discrete levels, to yield a nine-cell table containing types of statements going from the presentation of a single case to…

  7. 37 CFR 2.33 - Verified statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Verified statement. 2.33 Section 2.33 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES The Written Application § 2.33 Verified statement. (a) The...

  8. 7 CFR 371.1 - General statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false General statement. 371.1 Section 371.1 Agriculture..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION, FUNCTIONS, AND DELEGATIONS OF AUTHORITY § 371.1 General statement. (a... (AC) Deputy Administrator, International Services (IS) Director, Policy and Program Development (PPD...

  9. 7 CFR 371.1 - General statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false General statement. 371.1 Section 371.1 Agriculture..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION, FUNCTIONS, AND DELEGATIONS OF AUTHORITY § 371.1 General statement. (a... (AC) Deputy Administrator, International Services (IS) Director, Policy and Program Development (PPD...

  10. 7 CFR 371.1 - General statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false General statement. 371.1 Section 371.1 Agriculture..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION, FUNCTIONS, AND DELEGATIONS OF AUTHORITY § 371.1 General statement. (a... (AC) Deputy Administrator, International Services (IS) Director, Policy and Program Development (PPD...

  11. 7 CFR 371.1 - General statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General statement. 371.1 Section 371.1 Agriculture..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION, FUNCTIONS, AND DELEGATIONS OF AUTHORITY § 371.1 General statement. (a... (AC) Deputy Administrator, International Services (IS) Director, Policy and Program Development (PPD...

  12. A Typology of Statements about Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pallotti, Gabriele

    2016-01-01

    The article presents a typology of statements that can be made about discourse data. The classification is based on two parameters: level of generality and level of interpretation. Each of these is operationalized into three discrete levels, to yield a nine-cell table containing types of statements going from the presentation of a single case to…

  13. Exhibit 5: Policy Statements and Position Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Dental Education, 1989

    1989-01-01

    Policy statements and position papers adopted by the American Association of Dental Schools are presented. Policy statements cover education, research, delivery of care, and health concerns. Position papers concern peer review, freedoms and responsibilities of individuals and institutions, national health programs, interdisciplinary education,…

  14. 27 CFR 7.54 - Prohibited statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... consumption of alcohol, malt beverages, or any substance found within the malt beverage, and health benefits... health benefits or effects on health associated with the consumption of alcohol, malt beverages, or any... the malt beverage, as well as statements and claims of nutritional value (e.g., statements of...

  15. 27 CFR 7.54 - Prohibited statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... consumption of alcohol, malt beverages, or any substance found within the malt beverage, and health benefits... health benefits or effects on health associated with the consumption of alcohol, malt beverages, or any... the malt beverage, as well as statements and claims of nutritional value (e.g., statements of...

  16. 17 CFR 230.252 - Offering statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., language and pagination. The requirements for offering statements are the same as those specified in § 230... security holder shall sign the offering statement. If a signature is by a person on behalf of any other person, evidence of authority to sign shall be filed, except where an executive officer signs for...

  17. 17 CFR 230.252 - Offering statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., language and pagination. The requirements for offering statements are the same as those specified in § 230... security holder shall sign the offering statement. If a signature is by a person on behalf of any other person, evidence of authority to sign shall be filed, except where an executive officer signs for...

  18. 17 CFR 230.252 - Offering statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., language and pagination. The requirements for offering statements are the same as those specified in § 230... Officer, a majority of the members of its board of directors or other governing body, and each selling... that contains the following language: This offering statement shall become qualified on the 20th...

  19. 30 CFR 281.5 - False statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false False statements. 281.5 Section 281.5 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE LEASING OF MINERALS OTHER THAN OIL, GAS, AND SULPHUR IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF General § 281.5 False statements. Under...

  20. ICCE Publishes Statement on Software Copyright Violations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Electronic Learning, 1983

    1983-01-01

    The Policy Statement on Network and Multiple Machine Software of the International Council for Computers in Education (ICCE) calls for cooperation between educators, software developers, and vendors in preventing software piracy. This summary includes a suggested district policy statement on software copyright. (MBR)

  1. 7 CFR 4280.140 - Financial statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Financial statements. 4280.140 Section 4280.140... General Renewable Energy System and Energy Efficiency Improvement Guaranteed Loans § 4280.140 Financial statements. (a) The financial information required in § 4280.116(b)(3)(v) and (b)(4) is required for...

  2. 7 CFR 4280.140 - Financial statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Financial statements. 4280.140 Section 4280.140... Efficiency Improvements Program Section B. Guaranteed Loans § 4280.140 Financial statements. (a) The financial information required in § 4280.111(b)(3)(v) and (b)(4) is required for the guaranteed loan...

  3. Chasing Killer Statements From The Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Marianne

    1975-01-01

    This teacher discusses techniques she uses to rid the classroom of "killer statements", which are negative statements that express some kind of anger or distress and are unthinking outgrowths of the desire to get back at the world when feeling needy or deprived.

  4. 7 CFR 4280.140 - Financial statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Financial statements. 4280.140 Section 4280.140 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND... Efficiency Improvements Program Section B. Guaranteed Loans § 4280.140 Financial statements. (a)...

  5. Defending legitimate epidemiologic research: combating Lysenko pseudoscience

    PubMed Central

    Enstrom, James E

    2007-01-01

    This analysis presents a detailed defense of my epidemiologic research in the May 17, 2003 British Medical Journal that found no significant relationship between environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and tobacco-related mortality. In order to defend the honesty and scientific integrity of my research, I have identified and addressed in a detailed manner several unethical and erroneous attacks on this research. Specifically, I have demonstrated that this research is not "fatally flawed," that I have not made "inappropriate use" of the underlying database, and that my findings agree with other United States results on this relationship. My research suggests, contrary to popular claims, that there is not a causal relationship between ETS and mortality in the U.S. responsible for 50,000 excess annual deaths, but rather there is a weak and inconsistent relationship. The popular claims tend to damage the credibility of epidemiology. In addition, I address the omission of my research from the 2006 Surgeon General's Report on Involuntary Smoking and the inclusion of it in a massive U.S. Department of Justice racketeering lawsuit. I refute erroneous statements made by powerful U.S. epidemiologists and activists about me and my research and I defend the funding used to conduct this research. Finally, I compare many aspect of ETS epidemiology in the U.S. with pseudoscience in the Soviet Union during the period of Trofim Denisovich Lysenko. Overall, this paper is intended to defend legitimate research against illegitimate criticism by those who have attempted to suppress and discredit it because it does not support their ideological and political agendas. Hopefully, this defense will help other scientists defend their legitimate research and combat "Lysenko pseudoscience." PMID:17927827

  6. Defending legitimate epidemiologic research: combating Lysenko pseudoscience.

    PubMed

    Enstrom, James E

    2007-10-10

    This analysis presents a detailed defense of my epidemiologic research in the May 17, 2003 British Medical Journal that found no significant relationship between environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and tobacco-related mortality. In order to defend the honesty and scientific integrity of my research, I have identified and addressed in a detailed manner several unethical and erroneous attacks on this research. Specifically, I have demonstrated that this research is not "fatally flawed," that I have not made "inappropriate use" of the underlying database, and that my findings agree with other United States results on this relationship. My research suggests, contrary to popular claims, that there is not a causal relationship between ETS and mortality in the U.S. responsible for 50,000 excess annual deaths, but rather there is a weak and inconsistent relationship. The popular claims tend to damage the credibility of epidemiology. In addition, I address the omission of my research from the 2006 Surgeon General's Report on Involuntary Smoking and the inclusion of it in a massive U.S. Department of Justice racketeering lawsuit. I refute erroneous statements made by powerful U.S. epidemiologists and activists about me and my research and I defend the funding used to conduct this research. Finally, I compare many aspect of ETS epidemiology in the U.S. with pseudoscience in the Soviet Union during the period of Trofim Denisovich Lysenko. Overall, this paper is intended to defend legitimate research against illegitimate criticism by those who have attempted to suppress and discredit it because it does not support their ideological and political agendas. Hopefully, this defense will help other scientists defend their legitimate research and combat "Lysenko pseudoscience."

  7. Phylogenetically resolving epidemiologic linkage

    SciTech Connect

    Romero-Severson, Ethan O.; Bulla, Ingo; Leitner, Thomas

    2016-02-22

    The use of phylogenetic trees in epidemiological investigations has become commonplace, but their epidemiological interpretation has not been systematically evaluated. Here, we use an HIV-1 within-host coalescent model to probabilistically evaluate transmission histories of two epidemiologically linked hosts. Previous critique of phylogenetic reconstruction has claimed that direction of transmission is difficult to infer, and that the existence of unsampled intermediary links or common sources can never be excluded. The phylogenetic relationship between the HIV populations of epidemiologically linked hosts can be classified into six types of trees, based on cladistic relationships and whether the reconstruction is consistent with the true transmission history or not. We show that the direction of transmission and whether unsampled intermediary links or common sources existed make very different predictions about expected phylogenetic relationships: (i) Direction of transmission can often be established when paraphyly exists, (ii) intermediary links can be excluded when multiple lineages were transmitted, and (iii) when the sampled individuals’ HIV populations both are monophyletic a common source was likely the origin. Inconsistent results, suggesting the wrong transmission direction, were generally rare. In addition, the expected tree topology also depends on the number of transmitted lineages, the sample size, the time of the sample relative to transmission, and how fast the diversity increases after infection. Typically, 20 or more sequences per subject give robust results. Moreover, we confirm our theoretical evaluations with analyses of real transmission histories and discuss how our findings should aid in interpreting phylogenetic results.

  8. Phylogenetically resolving epidemiologic linkage

    DOE PAGES

    Romero-Severson, Ethan O.; Bulla, Ingo; Leitner, Thomas

    2016-02-22

    The use of phylogenetic trees in epidemiological investigations has become commonplace, but their epidemiological interpretation has not been systematically evaluated. Here, we use an HIV-1 within-host coalescent model to probabilistically evaluate transmission histories of two epidemiologically linked hosts. Previous critique of phylogenetic reconstruction has claimed that direction of transmission is difficult to infer, and that the existence of unsampled intermediary links or common sources can never be excluded. The phylogenetic relationship between the HIV populations of epidemiologically linked hosts can be classified into six types of trees, based on cladistic relationships and whether the reconstruction is consistent with the truemore » transmission history or not. We show that the direction of transmission and whether unsampled intermediary links or common sources existed make very different predictions about expected phylogenetic relationships: (i) Direction of transmission can often be established when paraphyly exists, (ii) intermediary links can be excluded when multiple lineages were transmitted, and (iii) when the sampled individuals’ HIV populations both are monophyletic a common source was likely the origin. Inconsistent results, suggesting the wrong transmission direction, were generally rare. In addition, the expected tree topology also depends on the number of transmitted lineages, the sample size, the time of the sample relative to transmission, and how fast the diversity increases after infection. Typically, 20 or more sequences per subject give robust results. Moreover, we confirm our theoretical evaluations with analyses of real transmission histories and discuss how our findings should aid in interpreting phylogenetic results.« less

  9. Epidemiology of Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Stephanie L.; Allen, Emily G.; Bean, Lora H.; Freeman, Sallie B.

    2007-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is the most commonly identified genetic form of mental retardation and the leading cause of specific birth defects and medical conditions. Traditional epidemiological studies to determine the prevalence, cause, and clinical significance of the syndrome have been conducted over the last 100 years. DS has been estimated to occur…

  10. Phylogenetically resolving epidemiologic linkage

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Severson, Ethan O.; Bulla, Ingo; Leitner, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Although the use of phylogenetic trees in epidemiological investigations has become commonplace, their epidemiological interpretation has not been systematically evaluated. Here, we use an HIV-1 within-host coalescent model to probabilistically evaluate transmission histories of two epidemiologically linked hosts. Previous critique of phylogenetic reconstruction has claimed that direction of transmission is difficult to infer, and that the existence of unsampled intermediary links or common sources can never be excluded. The phylogenetic relationship between the HIV populations of epidemiologically linked hosts can be classified into six types of trees, based on cladistic relationships and whether the reconstruction is consistent with the true transmission history or not. We show that the direction of transmission and whether unsampled intermediary links or common sources existed make very different predictions about expected phylogenetic relationships: (i) Direction of transmission can often be established when paraphyly exists, (ii) intermediary links can be excluded when multiple lineages were transmitted, and (iii) when the sampled individuals’ HIV populations both are monophyletic a common source was likely the origin. Inconsistent results, suggesting the wrong transmission direction, were generally rare. In addition, the expected tree topology also depends on the number of transmitted lineages, the sample size, the time of the sample relative to transmission, and how fast the diversity increases after infection. Typically, 20 or more sequences per subject give robust results. We confirm our theoretical evaluations with analyses of real transmission histories and discuss how our findings should aid in interpreting phylogenetic results. PMID:26903617

  11. Translational Epidemiology in Psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Weissman, Myrna M.; Brown, Alan S.; Talati, Ardesheer

    2012-01-01

    Translational research generally refers to the application of knowledge generated by advances in basic sciences research translated into new approaches for diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of disease. This direction is called bench-to-bedside. Psychiatry has similarly emphasized the basic sciences as the starting point of translational research. This article introduces the term translational epidemiology for psychiatry research as a bidirectional concept in which the knowledge generated from the bedside or the population can also be translated to the benches of laboratory science. Epidemiologic studies are primarily observational but can generate representative samples, novel designs, and hypotheses that can be translated into more tractable experimental approaches in the clinical and basic sciences. This bedside-to-bench concept has not been explicated in psychiatry, although there are an increasing number of examples in the research literature. This article describes selected epidemiologic designs, providing examples and opportunities for translational research from community surveys and prospective, birth cohort, and family-based designs. Rapid developments in informatics, emphases on large sample collection for genetic and biomarker studies, and interest in personalized medicine—which requires information on relative and absolute risk factors—make this topic timely. The approach described has implications for providing fresh metaphors to communicate complex issues in interdisciplinary collaborations and for training in epidemiology and other sciences in psychiatry. PMID:21646577

  12. Epidemiology of Cardiovascular Diseases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, C. David

    1988-01-01

    Reviews epidemiological studies of cardiovascular diseases especially coronary heart disease (CHD), to document their major public health importance, changes in mortality during this century, and international comparisons of trends. Finds major risk factors for CHD are determined in large part by psychosocial and behavioral mechanisms. Asserts…

  13. Phylogenetically resolving epidemiologic linkage.

    PubMed

    Romero-Severson, Ethan O; Bulla, Ingo; Leitner, Thomas

    2016-03-08

    Although the use of phylogenetic trees in epidemiological investigations has become commonplace, their epidemiological interpretation has not been systematically evaluated. Here, we use an HIV-1 within-host coalescent model to probabilistically evaluate transmission histories of two epidemiologically linked hosts. Previous critique of phylogenetic reconstruction has claimed that direction of transmission is difficult to infer, and that the existence of unsampled intermediary links or common sources can never be excluded. The phylogenetic relationship between the HIV populations of epidemiologically linked hosts can be classified into six types of trees, based on cladistic relationships and whether the reconstruction is consistent with the true transmission history or not. We show that the direction of transmission and whether unsampled intermediary links or common sources existed make very different predictions about expected phylogenetic relationships: (i) Direction of transmission can often be established when paraphyly exists, (ii) intermediary links can be excluded when multiple lineages were transmitted, and (iii) when the sampled individuals' HIV populations both are monophyletic a common source was likely the origin. Inconsistent results, suggesting the wrong transmission direction, were generally rare. In addition, the expected tree topology also depends on the number of transmitted lineages, the sample size, the time of the sample relative to transmission, and how fast the diversity increases after infection. Typically, 20 or more sequences per subject give robust results. We confirm our theoretical evaluations with analyses of real transmission histories and discuss how our findings should aid in interpreting phylogenetic results.

  14. Epidemiology of Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Stephanie L.; Allen, Emily G.; Bean, Lora H.; Freeman, Sallie B.

    2007-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is the most commonly identified genetic form of mental retardation and the leading cause of specific birth defects and medical conditions. Traditional epidemiological studies to determine the prevalence, cause, and clinical significance of the syndrome have been conducted over the last 100 years. DS has been estimated to occur…

  15. Triangulation in aetiological epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Lawlor, Debbie A; Tilling, Kate; Davey Smith, George

    2016-12-01

    Triangulation is the practice of obtaining more reliable answers to research questions through integrating results from several different approaches, where each approach has different key sources of potential bias that are unrelated to each other. With respect to causal questions in aetiological epidemiology, if the results of different approaches all point to the same conclusion, this strengthens confidence in the finding. This is particularly the case when the key sources of bias of some of the approaches would predict that findings would point in opposite directions if they were due to such biases. Where there are inconsistencies, understanding the key sources of bias of each approach can help to identify what further research is required to address the causal question. The aim of this paper is to illustrate how triangulation might be used to improve causal inference in aetiological epidemiology. We propose a minimum set of criteria for use in triangulation in aetiological epidemiology, summarize the key sources of bias of several approaches and describe how these might be integrated within a triangulation framework. We emphasize the importance of being explicit about the expected direction of bias within each approach, whenever this is possible, and seeking to identify approaches that would be expected to bias the true causal effect in different directions. We also note the importance, when comparing results, of taking account of differences in the duration and timing of exposures. We provide three examples to illustrate these points. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  16. 40 CFR 281.25 - Attorney General's statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... program. This statement must include citations to the specific statutes, administrative regulations, and... activities on Indian Lands, the statement must contain an appropriate analysis of the state's authority....

  17. The functional asymmetry of negative and positive self-statements.

    PubMed

    Safran, J D

    1982-09-01

    Subjects were divided into high and low negative self-statement and high and low positive-self-statement groups on the basis of the assertiveness self-statement test (Schwartz & Gottman, 1976). High negative self-statement subjects reported more anxiety during assertion role plays than did low negative self-statement subjects and were rated by judges as exhibiting more non-verbal anxiety and performing less assertively than low negative self-statement subjects. Judges rated high positive self-statement subjects as more irritable and brusque than low positive self-statement subjects. Theoretical implications are discussed.

  18. 5 CFR 3902.104 - Confidentiality of employees' statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE REQUIREMENTS FOR EMPLOYEES OF THE FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION § 3902.104 Confidentiality of employees' statements. Each supplemental statement of employment and financial interests...

  19. [Analytical epidemiology of urolithiasis].

    PubMed

    Kodama, H; Ohno, Y

    1989-06-01

    In this paper, urolithiasis is reviewed from the standpoint of analytical epidemiology, which examines a statistical association between a given disease and a hypothesized factor with an aim of inferring its causality. Factors incriminated epidemiologically for stone formation include age, sex, occupation, social class (level of affluence), season of the year and climate, dietary and fluid intake and genetic prodisposition. Since some of these factors are interlinked, they are broadly classified into five categories and epidemiologically looked over here. Genetic predisposition is essentially endorsed by the more frequent episodes of stone formation in the family members of stone formers, as compared to non-stone formers. Nevertheless, some environmental factors (likely to be dietary habits) shared by family members are believed to be relatively more important than genetic predisposition. A hot, sunny climate may influence stone formation through inducing dehydration with increased perspiration and increased solute concentration with decreased urine volume, coupled with inadequate liquid intake, and possibly through the greater exposure to ultraviolet radiation which eventually results in an increased vitamin D production, conceivably correlated with seasonal variation in calcium and oxalate excretion to the urine. Urinary tract infections are importantly involved in the formation of magnesium ammonium phosphate stones in particular. The association with regional water hardness is still in controversy. Excessive intake of coffee, tea and alcoholic beverages seemingly increase the risk of renal calculi, though not consistently confirmed. Many dietary elements have been suggested by numerous clinical and experimental investigations, but a few elements are substantiated by analytical epidemiological investigations. An increased ingestion of animal protein and sugar and a decreased ingestion of dietary fiber and green-yellow vegetables are linked with the higher

  20. Causation in epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Parascandola, M; Weed, D

    2001-01-01

    Causation is an essential concept in epidemiology, yet there is no single, clearly articulated definition for the discipline. From a systematic review of the literature, five categories can be delineated: production, necessary and sufficient, sufficient-component, counterfactual, and probabilistic. Strengths and weaknesses of these categories are examined in terms of proposed characteristics of a useful scientific definition of causation: it must be specific enough to distinguish causation from mere correlation, but not so narrow as to eliminate apparent causal phenomena from consideration. Two categories—production and counterfactual—are present in any definition of causation but are not themselves sufficient as definitions. The necessary and sufficient cause definition assumes that all causes are deterministic. The sufficient-component cause definition attempts to explain probabilistic phenomena via unknown component causes. Thus, on both of these views, heavy smoking can be cited as a cause of lung cancer only when the existence of unknown deterministic variables is assumed. The probabilistic definition, however, avoids these assumptions and appears to best fit the characteristics of a useful definition of causation. It is also concluded that the probabilistic definition is consistent with scientific and public health goals of epidemiology. In debates in the literature over these goals, proponents of epidemiology as pure science tend to favour a narrower deterministic notion of causation models while proponents of epidemiology as public health tend to favour a probabilistic view. The authors argue that a single definition of causation for the discipline should be and is consistent with both of these aims. It is concluded that a counterfactually-based probabilistic definition is more amenable to the quantitative tools of epidemiology, is consistent with both deterministic and probabilistic phenomena, and serves equally well for the acquisition and the

  1. Worldwide Report, Epidemiology, No. 332

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-09-14

    311084 JPRS 84324 14 September 1983 Distribution t^iinu«^ Worldwide Report EPIDEMIOLOGY No. 332 AAA 19980609 200 FBIS FOREIGN BROADCAST...Virginia 22201. JPRS 84324 14 September 1983 Worldwide Report EPIDEMIOLOGY No. 332 FBIS FOREIGN BROADCAST INFORMATION SERVICE JPRS 84324 14...September 1983 WORLDWIDE REPORT EPIDEMIOLOGY No. 332 CONTENTS HUMAN DISEASES ARGENTINA Briefs First AIDS Victims BOLIVIA Briefs Diphtheria in

  2. The Epidemiology and Clinicopathological Features of Basal Cell Carcinoma in Patients 80 Years and Older: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Lubeek, Satish F K; van Vugt, Lieke J; Aben, Katja K H; van de Kerkhof, Peter C M; Gerritsen, Marie-Jeanne P

    2017-01-01

    The number of very elderly (≥80 years) is rapidly growing worldwide. Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) are common in this age group and treatment is often challenging in this population. Obtaining an overview of the epidemiology and clinicopathological features of BCC in the very elderly to guide clinicians and policy makers. A systematic review of literature was performed using PubMed, Excerpta Medica Database (EMBASE), and the Cochrane Library. Study selection, quality assessment, and data extraction was performed by 2 independent reviewers. For quality assessment (including the risk of bias) the STrengthening the Reporting of OBservational studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) checklist was used, combined with the Quality Rating Scheme for Studies and Other Evidence. Data were described though a narrative synthesis and tabulation. Of 13 628 studies identified, 83 studies were included and quality assesment was performed for 76 studies; 27 studies (representing >350 000 patients) were found that included age-specific incidence rates of BCC in the very elderly. High and increasing incidence rates of BCC in the very elderly were found ranging from 13 to 12 112 per 100 000 person-years, strongly depending on factors like study population and clinical setting. Basal cell carcinoma in the very elderly were more common in men, mostly of the nodular subtype, and located in the head and neck region. Interpretation and generalization of the data was limited by the heterogeneity of study populations, methods, and outcomes. Data concerning impact on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and prognostication were scarce. The incidence of BCC among the very elderly is high and increasing. Epidemiologic and clinicopathological data from current literature provide only limited guidance in clinical decision making owing to heterogeneity and scarcity. Future research should focus more specifically on BCC in the very elderly, together with prognostication and their relation with

  3. The ORION statement: guidelines for transparent reporting of outbreak reports and intervention studies of nosocomial infection.

    PubMed

    Stone, Sheldon P; Cooper, Ben S; Kibbler, Chris C; Cookson, Barry D; Roberts, Jenny A; Medley, Graham F; Duckworth, Georgia; Lai, Rosalind; Ebrahim, Shah; Brown, Erwin M; Wiffen, Phil J; Davey, Peter G

    2007-04-01

    The quality of research in hospital epidemiology (infection control) must be improved to be robust enough to influence policy and practice. In order to raise the standards of research and publication, a CONSORT equivalent for these largely quasi-experimental studies has been prepared by the authors of two relevant systematic reviews, following consultation with learned societies, editors of journals, and researchers. The ORION (Outbreak Reports and Intervention Studies Of Nosocomial infection) statement consists of a 22 item checklist, and a summary table. The emphasis is on transparency to improve the quality of reporting and on the use of appropriate statistical techniques. The statement has been endorsed by a number of professional special interest groups and societies. Like CONSORT, ORION should be considered a "work in progress", which requires ongoing dialogue for successful promotion and dissemination. The statement is therefore offered for further public discussion. Journals and research councils are strongly recommended to incorporate it into their submission and reviewing processes. Feedback to the authors is encouraged and the statement will be revised in 2 years.

  4. Molecular Epidemiology of Foodborne Pathogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yi; Brown, Eric; Knabel, Stephen J.

    The purpose of this chapter is to describe the basic principles and advancements in the molecular epidemiology of foodborne pathogens. Epidemiology is the study of the distribution and determinants of infectious diseases and/or the dynamics of disease transmission. The goals of epidemiology include the identification of physical sources, routes of transmission of infectious agents, and distribution and relationships of different subgroups. Molecular epidemiology is the study of epidemiology at the molecular level. It has been defined as "a science that focuses on the contribution of potential genetic and environmental risk factors, identified at the molecular level, to the etiology, distribution and prevention of diseases within families and across populations".

  5. Ridiculous statements by mental health experts.

    PubMed

    Bernet, William

    2011-07-01

    When mental health experts express their opinions in testimony, reports, and articles in professional literature, it is expected that their statements will accurately reflect the current state of knowledge. Experts may disagree about the data that they collected. In some cases, however, disagreement occurs because an expert has employed a methodology that is far outside usual procedures or simply disregarded objective facts. When that occurs, the expert's opinions may be considered ridiculous. The author presents examples of ridiculous statements by mental health experts and provides suggestions for how a forensic practitioner might address ridiculous statements by mental health experts. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Low Quality Evidence of Epidemiological Observational Studies on Leishmaniasis in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Trentini, Bruno; Steindel, Mário; Marlow, Mariel A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Brazil has implemented systematic control methods for leishmaniasis for the past 30 years, despite an increase in cases and continued spread of the disease to new regions. A lack high quality evidence from epidemiological observational studies impedes the development of novel control methods to prevent disease transmission among the population. Here, we have evaluated the quality of observational studies on leishmaniasis conducted in Brazil to highlight this issue. Methods/Principal Findings For this systematic review, all publications on leishmaniasis conducted in Brazil from January 1st, 2002 to December 31st, 2012 were screened via Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) checklist to select observational studies involving human subjects. The 283 included studies, representing only 14.1% of articles screened, were then further evaluated for quality of epidemiological methods and study design based on the STROBE (Strengthening the Reporting of Observational studies in Epidemiology) checklists. Over half of these studies were descriptive or case reports (53.4%, 151), followed by cross-sectional (20.8%, n = 59), case-control (8.5%, n = 24), and cohort (6.0%, n = 17). Study design was not stated in 46.6% (n = 181) and incorrectly stated in 17.5% (n = 24). Comparison groups were utilized in just 39.6% (n = 112) of the publications, and only 13.4% (n = 38) employed healthy controls. Majority of studies were performed at the city-level (62.9%, n = 178), in contrast with two (0.7%) studies performed at the national-level. Coauthorship networks showed the number of author collaborations rapidly decreased after three collaborations, with 70.9% (n = 659/929) of coauthors publishing only one article during the study period. Conclusions/Significance A review of epidemiological research in Brazil revealed a major lack of quality and evidence. While certain indicators suggested research methods

  7. Asia-Pacific consensus statements on Crohn's disease. Part 2: Management.

    PubMed

    Ooi, Choon Jin; Makharia, Govind K; Hilmi, Ida; Gibson, Peter R; Fock, Kwong Ming; Ahuja, Vineet; Ling, Khoon Lin; Lim, Wee Chian; Thia, Kelvin T; Wei, Shu-chen; Leung, Wai Keung; Koh, Poh Koon; Gearry, Richard B; Goh, Khean Lee; Ouyang, Qin; Sollano, Jose; Manatsathit, Sathaporn; de Silva, H Janaka; Rerknimitr, Rungsun; Pisespongsa, Pises; Abu Hassan, Muhamad Radzi; Sung, Joseph; Hibi, Toshifumi; Boey, Christopher C M; Moran, Neil; Leong, Rupert W L

    2016-01-01

    The Asia Pacific Working Group on Inflammatory Bowel Disease was established in Cebu, Philippines, at the Asia Pacific Digestive Week conference in 2006 under the auspices of the Asian Pacific Association of Gastroenterology (APAGE) with the goal of developing best management practices, coordinating research and raising awareness of IBD in the region. The consensus group previously published recommendations for the diagnosis and management of ulcerative colitis (UC) with specific relevance to the Asia-Pacific region. The present consensus statements were developed following a similar process to address the epidemiology, diagnosis and management of Crohn's disease (CD). The goals of these statements are to pool the pertinent literature specifically highlighting relevant data and conditions in the Asia-Pacific region relating to the economy, health systems, background infectious diseases, differential diagnoses and treatment availability. It does not intend to be all-comprehensive and future revisions are likely to be required in this ever-changing field.

  8. Polish Society of Endocrinology Position statement on endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs).

    PubMed

    Rutkowska, Aleksandra; Rachoń, Dominik; Milewicz, Andrzej; Ruchała, Marek; Bolanowski, Marek; Jędrzejuk, Diana; Bednarczuk, Tomasz; Górska, Maria; Hubalewska-Dydejczyk, Alicja; Kos-Kudła, Beata; Lewiński, Andrzej; Zgliczyński, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    With the reference to the position statements of the Endocrine Society, the Paediatric Endocrine Society, and the European Society of Paediatric Endocrinology, the Polish Society of Endocrinology points out the adverse health effects caused by endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) commonly used in daily life as components of plastics, food containers, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. The statement is based on the alarming data about the increase of the prevalence of many endocrine disorders such as: cryptorchidism, precocious puberty in girls and boys, and hormone-dependent cancers (endometrium, breast, prostate). In our opinion, it is of human benefit to conduct epidemiological studies that will enable the estimation of the risk factors of exposure to EDCs and the probability of endocrine disorders. Increasing consumerism and the industrial boom has led to severe pollution of the environment with a corresponding negative impact on human health; thus, there is great necessity for the biomonitoring of EDCs in Poland.

  9. Ageing, longevity, exceptional longevity and related genetic and non genetics markers: panel statement.

    PubMed

    Avery, Peter; Barzilai, Nir; Benetos, Athanase; Bilianou, Helen; Capri, Miriam; Caruso, Calogero; Franceschi, Claudio; Katsiki, Niki; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P; Panotopoulos, George; Sikora, Ewa; Tzanetakou, Irene P; Kolovou, Genovefa

    2014-01-01

    In May 2012, a group of scientists and clinicians met in Athens (Greece) to consider the relevance of ageing, longevity, exceptional longevity and related genetic and non genetic markers. During this meeting, we firstly reviewed recent epidemiological and clinical studies on ageing, longevity and exceptional longevity, briefly analyzed the ageing theories and discussed successful and unsuccessful ageing also taking into account the evolutionary perspective. Secondly, we considered the three phenotypes based on the definition of ageing, longevity and exceptional longevity and the associated biomarkers. Third, we discussed proposed treatments suitable to counteract or slow down ageing. Finally, this panel produced a consensus statement to highlight the importance of ageing, longevity and exceptional longevity, since this is a rapidly increasing phenotype worldwide. We acknowledge that not all experts in this field may completely agree with this statement.

  10. Epidemiology of colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Marley, Andrew R; Nan, Hongmei

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is currently the third deadliest cancer in the United States and will claim an estimated 49,190 U.S. lives in 2016. The purpose of this review is to summarize our current understanding of this disease, based on nationally published statistics and information presented in peer-reviewed journal articles. Specifically, this review will cover the following topics: descriptive epidemiology (including time and disease trends both in the United States and abroad), risk factors (environmental, genetic, and gene-environment interactions), screening, prevention and control, and treatment. Landmark discoveries in colorectal cancer risk factor research will also be presented. Based on the information reviewed for this report, we suggest that future U.S. public health efforts aim to increase colorectal cancer screening among African American communities, and that future worldwide colorectal cancer epidemiology studies should focus on researching nutrient-gene interactions towards the goal of improving personalized treatment and prevention strategies. PMID:27766137

  11. Epidemiology and moral philosophy.

    PubMed Central

    Westrin, C G; Nilstun, T; Smedby, B; Haglund, B

    1992-01-01

    To an increasing extent ethical controversies affect and sometimes obstruct public health work and epidemiological research. In order to improve communication between the concerned parties a model for identification and analysis of ethical conflicts in individual-based research has been worked out in co-operation between epidemiologists and moral philosophers. The model has two dimensions. One dimension specifies relevant ethical principles (as beneficence, non-maleficence, autonomy and justice). The other dimension specifies the groups of persons involved in the conflict under consideration (for example: the study-population, individuals who may benefit from the results, the researchers and their personnel, the community at large). The model has been applied to the problem of legitimacy of case-register research and to problems in psychiatric health services research as well as epidemiological research. PMID:1460647

  12. Epidemiologic clues to bioterrorism.

    PubMed Central

    Treadwell, Tracee A.; Koo, Denise; Kuker, Kathleen; Khan, Ali S.

    2003-01-01

    Public health investigators have successfully carried out epidemiologic investigations of outbreaks of disease for many years. By far the majority of these outbreaks have occurred naturally. With the recent illnesses resulting from deliberate dissemination of B. anthracis on an unsuspecting population, public health investigation of diseases must now include consideration of bioterrorism as a potential cause of outbreaks of disease. The features of naturally occurring outbreaks have a certain amount of predictability in terms of consistency with previous occurrences, or at least biological plausibility. However, with a deliberately introduced outbreak or infection among a population, this predictability is minimized. In this paper, the authors propose some epidemiologic clues that highlight features of outbreaks that may be suggestive of bioterrorism. They also describe briefly the general process of involvement of agencies at various levels of government, public health and non-public health, depending on the extent of an outbreak or level of suspicion. PMID:12690063

  13. [Epidemiological situation of Chad].

    PubMed

    Korzeniewski, Krzysztof

    2008-10-01

    Chad, the land located in Central Africa nowadays is one of the poorest countries in the world, what is connected with catastrophic demographic indicators and numerous cases of infectious diseases among local population as well as external and internal refugees. Epidemiologic profile is dominated by vector-, water-, food-borne, respiratory, and sexually transmitted diseases. Environmental factors, such as an effect of high temperature, sand and dust storms also pose essential threat. This is related to location of majority of Chad territory in the area of Sahara and Sahel. The article presents information concerning current epidemiological hazards encountered by visitors in this country. This knowledge is essential for Polish health service and armed forces in the context of forming of EUFOR mission in Chad with participation of our soldiers.

  14. Epidemiology of Gout

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hyon

    2014-01-01

    Synopsis Gout is the most prevalent inflammatory arthritis in men. The findings of several epidemiological studies from a diverse range of countries suggest that the prevalence of gout has risen over the last few decades. Whilst incidence data are scarce, data from the US suggests that the incidence of gout is also rising. Evidence from prospective epidemiological studies has confirmed dietary factors (animal purines, alcohol and fructose), obesity, the metabolic syndrome, hypertension, diuretic use, and chronic kidney disease as clinically relevant risk factors for hyperuricemia and gout. Low-fat dairy products, coffee, and vitamin C appear to have a protective effect. Further prospective studies are required to examine other proposed risk factors for hyperuricaemia and gout such as the use of β-blockers and angiotension-II receptor antagonists (other than losartan), obstructive sleep apnoea, and osteoarthritis, and putative protective factors such as calcium-channel blockers and losartan. PMID:24703341

  15. Poststroke Depression: A Scientific Statement for Healthcare Professionals From the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association.

    PubMed

    Towfighi, Amytis; Ovbiagele, Bruce; El Husseini, Nada; Hackett, Maree L; Jorge, Ricardo E; Kissela, Brett M; Mitchell, Pamela H; Skolarus, Lesli E; Whooley, Mary A; Williams, Linda S

    2017-02-01

    Poststroke depression (PSD) is common, affecting approximately one third of stroke survivors at any one time after stroke. Individuals with PSD are at a higher risk for suboptimal recovery, recurrent vascular events, poor quality of life, and mortality. Although PSD is prevalent, uncertainty remains regarding predisposing risk factors and optimal strategies for prevention and treatment. This is the first scientific statement from the American Heart Association on the topic of PSD. Members of the writing group were appointed by the American Heart Association Stroke Council's Scientific Statements Oversight Committee and the American Heart Association's Manuscript Oversight Committee. Members were assigned topics relevant to their areas of expertise and reviewed appropriate literature, references to published clinical and epidemiology studies, clinical and public health guidelines, authoritative statements, and expert opinion. This multispecialty statement provides a comprehensive review of the current evidence and gaps in current knowledge of the epidemiology, pathophysiology, outcomes, management, and prevention of PSD, and provides implications for clinical practice. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  16. Epidemiology of venous thromboembolism.

    PubMed Central

    Coon, W W

    1977-01-01

    This review of the epidemiology of venous thromboembolism includes estimates of incidence and prevalence of venous thrombosis and its sequelae, a discussion geographical, annual and seasonal variations and data concerning possible risk factors. Selection of patients at increased risk for development of deep venous thrombosis or pulmonary embolism for specific diagnostic screening or for prophylactic therapy with low-dose heparin may be a more effective approach to lowering morbidity and mortality from this disease. PMID:329779

  17. The leukemias: Epidemiologic aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Linet, M.S.

    1984-01-01

    Particularly geared to physicians and cancer researchers, this study of the epidemiology and etiology of leukemia analyzes the four major leukemia subtypes in terms of genetic and familial determinant factors and examines the incidence, distribution and frequency of reported leukemia clusters. Linet discusses the connection between other types of malignancies, their treatments, and the subsequent development of leukemia and evaluates the impact on leukemia onset of such environmental factors as radiation therapy, drugs, and occupational hazards.

  18. [Schistosomiasis epidemiology (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Picq, J J; Roux, J

    1980-01-01

    Schistosomiasis are, with three hundred million of infested people, the second world endemy, after malaria. For each of the four species, the distribution areas, the life cycle and the main epidemiological features are recalled in the first chapter. In the five following chapters, the authors consider the human or animal reservoirs of virus, the importance of these diseases towards public health, the gasteropod molluscs acting as intermediate hosts, and the problems of immunity in man. The concepts of "schistosomian infection" and "schistosomian disease" are exposed as well as the differences affecting the various strains of schistosomes and snails intermediate hosts. The authors emphasize the value of quantitative parasitological techniques and sero-immunological methods for epidemiological surveys. They underline the difficulties met in the evaluation of the effect of these diseases upon public health. The main causes inducing the duration of the endemy and those responsible for its extension are studied. The value of mathematic patterns is briefly discussed. Quantitative data compiled through epidemiological surveys should improve the use of the various means presently available for controling schistosomiasis.

  19. Epidemiology of epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Abramovici, S; Bagić, A

    2016-01-01

    Modern epidemiology of epilepsy maximizes the benefits of advanced diagnostic methods and sophisticated techniques for case ascertainment in order to increase the diagnostic accuracy and representativeness of the cases and cohorts studied, resulting in better comparability of similarly performed studies. Overall, these advanced epidemiologic methods are expected to yield a better understanding of diverse risk factors, high-risk populations, seizure triggers, multiple and poorly understood causes of epilepsy, including the increasing and complex role of genetics, and establish the natural course of treated and untreated epilepsy and syndromes - all of which form the foundation of an attempt to prevent epileptogenesis as the primary prophylaxis of epilepsy. Although data collection continues to improve, epidemiologists still need to overcome definition and coding variability, insufficient documentation, as well as the interplay of socioeconomic factors and stigma. As most of the 65-70 million people with epilepsy live outside of resource-rich countries, extensive underdiagnosis, misdiagnosis, and undertreatment are likely. Epidemiology will continue to provide the necessary information to the medical community, public, and regulators as the foundation for improved health policies, targeted education, and advanced measures of prevention and prognostication of the most common severe brain disorder.

  20. Epidemiology of Eosinophilic Esophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Dellon, Evan S.

    2014-01-01

    Great strides have been made in understanding the epidemiology of EoE over the past two decades. Initial research focused on case description and characterization of the burden of disease. Research is now shifting to risk factor ascertainment, resulting in new and intriguing etiologic hypotheses. This paper will review the current knowledge related to the epidemiology of EoE. Demographic features and natural history will be described, data summarizing the prevalence and incidence of EoE throughout the world will be highlighted, and risk factors for EoE will be discussed. EoE can occur at any age, there is a male predominance, it is more common in Whites, and there is a strong association with atopic diseases. EoE is chronic, relapses are frequent, and persistent inflammation increases the risk of fibrostenotic complications. The prevalence is currently estimated at 0.5–1 in 1000, and EoE is now the most common cause of food impaction. EoE can be seen in 2–7% of patients undergoing endoscopy for any reason, and 12–23% undergoing endoscopy for dysphagia. The incidence of EoE is approximately 1/10,000 new cases per year, and the rise in incidence is outpacing increases in recognition and endoscopy volume. The reasons for this evolving epidemiology are not yet fully delineated, but possibilities include changes in food allergens, increasing aeroallergens and other environmental factors, the decrease of H. pyloriand early life exposures. PMID:24813510

  1. Determining Relevant Financial Statement Ratios in Department of Defense Service Component General Fund Financial Statements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    fraudulent business practices. The Sarbanes-Oxley Act (SOX) was implemented with the intent of restoring investor confidence as well as strengthening...Earnings (after Rendon, 2013) 5. Statement of Cash Flows The statement of cash flows provides details regarding the inflows and outflows of cash...financial statements is that they both provide stakeholders an opportunity to examine the inflows and outflows of an entity’s financial resources

  2. American Physiological Society Statements on Animal Usage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Physiologist, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Contains three policy statements involving the use of animals for proper teaching of students, research, and the utilization of pound animals. Discusses the benefits to society of using animals in the biomedical sciences. (CW)

  3. Appendix A: Policy Statements and Position Papers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Dental Education, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Policy statements and position papers adopted by the American Association of Dental Schools are presented. They cover peer review, freedoms and responsibilities of individuals and institutions, national health programs, interdisciplinary education, and use of ionizing radiation. (MLW)

  4. FASB Statement No. 132 simplifies benefits disclosures.

    PubMed

    Luecke, R W; Andrzejewski, C

    1999-06-01

    In February 1998, the FASB issued Statement of Financial Accounting Standards No. 132, Employers' Disclosures about Pensions and Other Postretirement Benefits. The new standard is designed to streamline pension and other postretirement benefits disclosures in public and nonpublic entities' financial statements. For nonpublic entities, the statement eliminates separate disclosures of the components of net periodic benefit cost, eliminates the disclosure of the components of benefit obligations and of alternative obligation measures, eliminates the disclosure of plan provisions, adds the disclosure of comprehensive income, eliminates the disclosure of sensitivity to changes in healthcare trend rates, and standardizes the disclosures for pension and other postretirement benefits. Financial managers and their organizations' actuaries and auditors should work together to determine which disclosures their organizations should make to be in compliance with FASB Statement No. 132.

  5. 46 CFR 502.95 - Prehearing statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... reasonable opportunity for discovery. To the extent possible, joint statements should be prepared. (b) A... shown, permit a party to introduce facts or argue points of law outside the scope of the facts and...

  6. 78 FR 23247 - Policy Statement Concerning Assistance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-18

    ... control system to monitor ongoing performance with measurable criteria. The plan must also include an... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FARM CREDIT SYSTEM INSURANCE CORPORATION Policy Statement Concerning Assistance AGENCY: Farm Credit System Insurance Corporation....

  7. 29 CFR 790.1 - Introductory statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... statements suggesting change of any interpretation contained in this part. 4 See Skidmore v. Swift & Co., 323... after consultation with the Solicitor of Labor. 6 Skidmore v. Swift & Co., 323 U.S. 134. See also...

  8. 29 CFR 790.1 - Introductory statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... statements suggesting change of any interpretation contained in this part. 4 See Skidmore v. Swift & Co., 323... after consultation with the Solicitor of Labor. 6 Skidmore v. Swift & Co., 323 U.S. 134. See also...

  9. Assessing Risk with GASB Statement No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Venita M.; Scott, Bob

    1987-01-01

    Discusses a Government Accounting Standards Board (GASB) publication designed to provide financial statement users with information to assess a government's actual and future deposit and investment market and credit risk. (MLF)

  10. Appendix A: Policy Statements and Position Papers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Dental Education, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Policy statements and position papers adopted by the American Association of Dental Schools are presented. They cover peer review, freedoms and responsibilities of individuals and institutions, national health programs, interdisciplinary education, and use of ionizing radiation. (MLW)

  11. 7 CFR 1499.1 - General statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS FOOD FOR PROGRESS PROGRAM § 1499.1 General statement. (a... Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC) to participants in the Food for Progress Program (FFPr). Under FFPr...' World Food Program) under FFPr. ...

  12. EPA USDA Agricultural Equipment Statement of Principles

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Agricultural Equipment Statement of Principles was developed jointly between EPA and USDA at the request of agriculture industry stakeholders seeking support for programs to assist farmers looking to invest in cleaner agricultural equipment

  13. Assessing Risk with GASB Statement No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Venita M.; Scott, Bob

    1987-01-01

    Discusses a Government Accounting Standards Board (GASB) publication designed to provide financial statement users with information to assess a government's actual and future deposit and investment market and credit risk. (MLF)

  14. 48 CFR 37.602 - Performance work statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Performance work statement... CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING SERVICE CONTRACTING Performance-Based Acquisition 37.602 Performance work statement. (a) A Performance work statement (PWS) may be prepared by the Government or result from a Statement...

  15. 48 CFR 37.602 - Performance work statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Performance work statement... CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING SERVICE CONTRACTING Performance-Based Acquisition 37.602 Performance work statement. (a) A Performance work statement (PWS) may be prepared by the Government or result from a Statement...

  16. 48 CFR 37.602 - Performance work statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Performance work statement... CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING SERVICE CONTRACTING Performance-Based Acquisition 37.602 Performance work statement. (a) A Performance work statement (PWS) may be prepared by the Government or result from a Statement...

  17. 7 CFR 1980.445 - Periodic financial statements and audits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the lender's analysis of the statements to the Agency. (a) Audited financial statements. Except as... 7 Agriculture 14 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Periodic financial statements and audits. 1980.445... Program § 1980.445 Periodic financial statements and audits. All borrowers will be required to...

  18. 7 CFR 1980.445 - Periodic financial statements and audits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the lender's analysis of the statements to the Agency. (a) Audited financial statements. Except as... 7 Agriculture 14 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Periodic financial statements and audits. 1980.445... Program § 1980.445 Periodic financial statements and audits. All borrowers will be required to...

  19. 7 CFR 1980.445 - Periodic financial statements and audits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the lender's analysis of the statements to the Agency. (a) Audited financial statements. Except as... 7 Agriculture 14 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Periodic financial statements and audits. 1980.445... Program § 1980.445 Periodic financial statements and audits. All borrowers will be required to...

  20. 32 CFR 651.23 - Environmental impact statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Environmental impact statement. 651.23 Section...) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Records and Documents § 651.23 Environmental impact statement. An Environmental Impact statement (EIS) is a detailed written statement required...

  1. 44 CFR 10.10 - Preparation of environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Procedures § 10.10 Preparation of environmental impact statements. (a) Scoping. After determination that an environmental impact statement will be prepared and publication of the notice of intent, the Regional... environmental impact statement. Detailed procedures for preparation of the environmental impact statement are...

  2. 20 CFR 404.632 - Statements filed with a hospital.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Statements filed with a hospital. 404.632... § 404.632 Statements filed with a hospital. A statement (generally a hospital admission form) filed with a hospital may serve as a written statement under § 404.630 if the requirements of this section are...

  3. 46 CFR 504.7 - Environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Environmental impact statements. 504.7 Section 504.7... POLICY ANALYSIS § 504.7 Environmental impact statements. (a) General. (1) An environmental impact... environmental impact statements. (1) A draft environmental impact statement (DEIS) will initially be prepared...

  4. 46 CFR 504.7 - Environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Environmental impact statements. 504.7 Section 504.7... POLICY ANALYSIS § 504.7 Environmental impact statements. (a) General. (1) An environmental impact... environmental impact statements. (1) A draft environmental impact statement (DEIS) will initially be prepared...

  5. 21 CFR 801.61 - Statement of identity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Statement of identity. 801.61 Section 801.61 Food... DEVICES LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Devices § 801.61 Statement of identity. (a... principal features a statement of the identity of the commodity. (b) Such statement of identity shall be...

  6. 21 CFR 201.61 - Statement of identity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Statement of identity. 201.61 Section 201.61 Food...: GENERAL LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.61 Statement of identity. (a) The... features a statement of the identity of the commodity. (b) Such statement of identity shall be in terms...

  7. 21 CFR 201.61 - Statement of identity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Statement of identity. 201.61 Section 201.61 Food...: GENERAL LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.61 Statement of identity. (a) The... features a statement of the identity of the commodity. (b) Such statement of identity shall be in terms...

  8. 21 CFR 201.61 - Statement of identity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Statement of identity. 201.61 Section 201.61 Food...: GENERAL LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.61 Statement of identity. (a) The... features a statement of the identity of the commodity. (b) Such statement of identity shall be in terms...

  9. 21 CFR 801.61 - Statement of identity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Statement of identity. 801.61 Section 801.61 Food... DEVICES LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Devices § 801.61 Statement of identity. (a... principal features a statement of the identity of the commodity. (b) Such statement of identity shall be...

  10. 21 CFR 801.61 - Statement of identity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Statement of identity. 801.61 Section 801.61 Food... DEVICES LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Devices § 801.61 Statement of identity. (a... principal features a statement of the identity of the commodity. (b) Such statement of identity shall be...

  11. 21 CFR 801.61 - Statement of identity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Statement of identity. 801.61 Section 801.61 Food... DEVICES LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Devices § 801.61 Statement of identity. (a... principal features a statement of the identity of the commodity. (b) Such statement of identity shall be...

  12. 21 CFR 801.61 - Statement of identity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Statement of identity. 801.61 Section 801.61 Food... DEVICES LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Devices § 801.61 Statement of identity. (a... principal features a statement of the identity of the commodity. (b) Such statement of identity shall be...

  13. 21 CFR 201.61 - Statement of identity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Statement of identity. 201.61 Section 201.61 Food...: GENERAL LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.61 Statement of identity. (a) The... features a statement of the identity of the commodity. (b) Such statement of identity shall be in terms...

  14. 21 CFR 201.61 - Statement of identity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Statement of identity. 201.61 Section 201.61 Food...: GENERAL LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.61 Statement of identity. (a) The... features a statement of the identity of the commodity. (b) Such statement of identity shall be in terms...

  15. 40 CFR 21.10 - Utilization of the statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Utilization of the statement. 21.10... prior to the approval by SBA of the financial assistance requested, the statement as issued shall be.... (e) No application for a statement or for financial assistance under this section or statement issued...

  16. 12 CFR 193.102 - Financial statement presentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Financial statement presentation. 193.102... REQUIREMENTS Financial Statement Presentation § 193.102 Financial statement presentation. Federal savings... appear on the face of the financial statements governed by this subpart C and additional disclosures that...

  17. 48 CFR 52.247-6 - Financial Statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Financial Statement. 52....247-6 Financial Statement. As prescribed in 47.207-1(e), insert the following provision in... furnish financial statements: Financial Statement (APR 1984) The offeror shall, upon request, promptly...

  18. 7 CFR 1775.21 - Audit or financial statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Audit or financial statements. 1775.21 Section 1775... Audit or financial statements. The grantee will provide an audit report or financial statements as... year. (b) Grantees expending less than $500,000 will provide annual financial statements covering the...

  19. 12 CFR 193.102 - Financial statement presentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Financial statement presentation. 193.102... REQUIREMENTS Financial Statement Presentation § 193.102 Financial statement presentation. Federal savings... appear on the face of the financial statements governed by this subpart C and additional disclosures that...

  20. 7 CFR 1775.21 - Audit or financial statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Audit or financial statements. 1775.21 Section 1775... Audit or financial statements. The grantee will provide an audit report or financial statements as... year. (b) Grantees expending less than $500,000 will provide annual financial statements covering the...

  1. 12 CFR 193.102 - Financial statement presentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Financial statement presentation. 193.102... REQUIREMENTS Financial Statement Presentation § 193.102 Financial statement presentation. Federal savings... appear on the face of the financial statements governed by this subpart C and additional disclosures that...

  2. 40 CFR 21.10 - Utilization of the statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Utilization of the statement. 21.10... prior to the approval by SBA of the financial assistance requested, the statement as issued shall be.... (e) No application for a statement or for financial assistance under this section or statement issued...

  3. 19 CFR 200.735-121 - Confidentiality of employees' statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Confidentiality of employees' statements. 200.735... RESPONSIBILITIES AND CONDUCT Provisions Governing Statements of Employment and Financial Interests § 200.735-121 Confidentiality of employees' statements. Each statement of employment and financial interests, and each...

  4. 40 CFR 82.108 - Placement of warning statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Placement of warning statement. 82.108....108 Placement of warning statement. The warning statement shall be placed so as to satisfy the requirement of the Act that the warning statement be “clearly legible and conspicuous.” The warning...

  5. 40 CFR 82.108 - Placement of warning statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Placement of warning statement. 82.108....108 Placement of warning statement. The warning statement shall be placed so as to satisfy the requirement of the Act that the warning statement be “clearly legible and conspicuous.” The warning...

  6. 40 CFR 82.108 - Placement of warning statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Placement of warning statement. 82.108....108 Placement of warning statement. The warning statement shall be placed so as to satisfy the requirement of the Act that the warning statement be “clearly legible and conspicuous.” The warning...

  7. 40 CFR 156.68 - First aid statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false First aid statement. 156.68 Section... aid statement. (a) Product as sold and distributed. Each product must bear a first aid statement if... with water prior to use, the label may also include a statement describing how the first aid...

  8. 40 CFR 156.68 - First aid statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false First aid statement. 156.68 Section... aid statement. (a) Product as sold and distributed. Each product must bear a first aid statement if... with water prior to use, the label may also include a statement describing how the first aid...

  9. 40 CFR 156.68 - First aid statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false First aid statement. 156.68 Section... aid statement. (a) Product as sold and distributed. Each product must bear a first aid statement if... with water prior to use, the label may also include a statement describing how the first aid...

  10. 40 CFR 156.68 - First aid statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false First aid statement. 156.68 Section... aid statement. (a) Product as sold and distributed. Each product must bear a first aid statement if... with water prior to use, the label may also include a statement describing how the first aid...

  11. 40 CFR 156.68 - First aid statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false First aid statement. 156.68 Section... aid statement. (a) Product as sold and distributed. Each product must bear a first aid statement if... with water prior to use, the label may also include a statement describing how the first aid...

  12. 46 CFR 504.7 - Environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Environmental impact statements. 504.7 Section 504.7... POLICY ANALYSIS § 504.7 Environmental impact statements. (a) General. (1) An environmental impact... environmental impact statements. (1) A draft environmental impact statement (DEIS) will initially be prepared...

  13. 28 CFR 10.2 - Language of registration statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Language of registration statement. 10.2... ON ACTIVITIES WITHIN THE UNITED STATES Registration Statement § 10.2 Language of registration statement. Registration statements must be in English if possible. If in a foreign language they must...

  14. 28 CFR 10.2 - Language of registration statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Language of registration statement. 10.2... ON ACTIVITIES WITHIN THE UNITED STATES Registration Statement § 10.2 Language of registration statement. Registration statements must be in English if possible. If in a foreign language they must...

  15. 28 CFR 10.2 - Language of registration statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Language of registration statement. 10.2... ON ACTIVITIES WITHIN THE UNITED STATES Registration Statement § 10.2 Language of registration statement. Registration statements must be in English if possible. If in a foreign language they must...

  16. 12 CFR 328.3 - Official advertising statement requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Official advertising statement requirements... OF GENERAL POLICY ADVERTISEMENT OF MEMBERSHIP § 328.3 Official advertising statement requirements. (a... advertising statement. The official advertising statement shall be in substance as follows: “Member of...

  17. 12 CFR 328.3 - Official advertising statement requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Official advertising statement requirements... OF GENERAL POLICY ADVERTISEMENT OF MEMBERSHIP § 328.3 Official advertising statement requirements. (a... advertising statement. The official advertising statement shall be in substance as follows: “Member of...

  18. 12 CFR 328.3 - Official advertising statement requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Official advertising statement requirements... OF GENERAL POLICY ADVERTISEMENT OF MEMBERSHIP § 328.3 Official advertising statement requirements. (a... advertising statement. The official advertising statement shall be in substance as follows: “Member of...

  19. 27 CFR 5.40 - Statements of age and percentage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Statements of age and... Distilled Spirits § 5.40 Statements of age and percentage. (a) Statements of age and percentage for whisky... more, statements of age and percentage are optional. As to all other whiskies there shall be stated...

  20. 20 CFR 404.632 - Statements filed with a hospital.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Statements filed with a hospital. 404.632... § 404.632 Statements filed with a hospital. A statement (generally a hospital admission form) filed with a hospital may serve as a written statement under § 404.630 if the requirements of this section are...

  1. 20 CFR 404.632 - Statements filed with a hospital.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Statements filed with a hospital. 404.632... § 404.632 Statements filed with a hospital. A statement (generally a hospital admission form) filed with a hospital may serve as a written statement under § 404.630 if the requirements of this section are...

  2. 20 CFR 404.632 - Statements filed with a hospital.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Statements filed with a hospital. 404.632... § 404.632 Statements filed with a hospital. A statement (generally a hospital admission form) filed with a hospital may serve as a written statement under § 404.630 if the requirements of this section are...

  3. 20 CFR 404.632 - Statements filed with a hospital.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Statements filed with a hospital. 404.632... § 404.632 Statements filed with a hospital. A statement (generally a hospital admission form) filed with a hospital may serve as a written statement under § 404.630 if the requirements of this section are...

  4. 44 CFR 10.10 - Preparation of environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Procedures § 10.10 Preparation of environmental impact statements. (a) Scoping. After determination that an environmental impact statement will be prepared and publication of the notice of intent, the Regional... environmental impact statement. Detailed procedures for preparation of the environmental impact statement are...

  5. 44 CFR 10.10 - Preparation of environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Procedures § 10.10 Preparation of environmental impact statements. (a) Scoping. After determination that an environmental impact statement will be prepared and publication of the notice of intent, the Regional... environmental impact statement. Detailed procedures for preparation of the environmental impact statement are...

  6. 22 CFR 216.7 - Environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Environmental impact statements. 216.7 Section... Environmental impact statements. (a) Applicability. An Environmental Impact Statement shall be prepared when... Environmental Impact Statement relating to paragraph (a)(2) of this section shall comply with the CEQ...

  7. 44 CFR 10.10 - Preparation of environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Procedures § 10.10 Preparation of environmental impact statements. (a) Scoping. After determination that an environmental impact statement will be prepared and publication of the notice of intent, the Regional... environmental impact statement. Detailed procedures for preparation of the environmental impact statement are...

  8. 22 CFR 216.7 - Environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Environmental impact statements. 216.7 Section... Environmental impact statements. (a) Applicability. An Environmental Impact Statement shall be prepared when... Environmental Impact Statement relating to paragraph (a)(2) of this section shall comply with the CEQ...

  9. 44 CFR 10.10 - Preparation of environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Procedures § 10.10 Preparation of environmental impact statements. (a) Scoping. After determination that an environmental impact statement will be prepared and publication of the notice of intent, the Regional... environmental impact statement. Detailed procedures for preparation of the environmental impact statement are...

  10. 22 CFR 216.7 - Environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Environmental impact statements. 216.7 Section... Environmental impact statements. (a) Applicability. An Environmental Impact Statement shall be prepared when... Environmental Impact Statement relating to paragraph (a)(2) of this section shall comply with the CEQ...

  11. 22 CFR 216.7 - Environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Environmental impact statements. 216.7 Section... Environmental impact statements. (a) Applicability. An Environmental Impact Statement shall be prepared when... Environmental Impact Statement relating to paragraph (a)(2) of this section shall comply with the CEQ...

  12. 77 FR 52721 - Appraisal Subcommittee; Proposed Policy Statements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-30

    ... Policy Statements governing temporary practice and reciprocity. Since 1997, the Policy Statements have..., 2012. 2. Bulletin No. 2011-01, issued March 18, 2011, addressed new requirements concerning reciprocity... applications. Policy Statement 5: Reciprocity Proposed Policy Statement 5 will replace current Policy...

  13. 48 CFR 52.247-6 - Financial Statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Financial Statement. 52....247-6 Financial Statement. As prescribed in 47.207-1(e), insert the following provision in... furnish financial statements: Financial Statement (APR 1984) The offeror shall, upon request,...

  14. 48 CFR 52.247-6 - Financial Statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Financial Statement. 52....247-6 Financial Statement. As prescribed in 47.207-1(e), insert the following provision in... furnish financial statements: Financial Statement (APR 1984) The offeror shall, upon request,...

  15. 48 CFR 52.247-6 - Financial Statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Financial Statement. 52....247-6 Financial Statement. As prescribed in 47.207-1(e), insert the following provision in... furnish financial statements: Financial Statement (APR 1984) The offeror shall, upon request,...

  16. 48 CFR 52.247-6 - Financial Statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Financial Statement. 52....247-6 Financial Statement. As prescribed in 47.207-1(e), insert the following provision in... furnish financial statements: Financial Statement (APR 1984) The offeror shall, upon request,...

  17. 28 CFR 10.2 - Language of registration statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Language of registration statement. 10.2... ON ACTIVITIES WITHIN THE UNITED STATES Registration Statement § 10.2 Language of registration statement. Registration statements must be in English if possible. If in a foreign language they must be...

  18. Back to Basics: Teaching the Statement of Cash Flows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cecil, H. Wayne; King, Teresa T.; Andrews, Christine P.

    2011-01-01

    A conceptual foundation for the Statement of Cash Flows based on the ten elements of financial statements provides students with a deep understanding of core accounting concepts. Traditional methods of teaching the statement of cash flows tend to focus on statement preparation rules, masking the effect of business events on the change in cash.…

  19. 18 CFR 706.410 - Confidentiality of statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... EMPLOYEE RESPONSIBILITIES AND CONDUCT Statements of Employment and Financial Interests § 706.410 Confidentiality of statements. Each statement of employment and financial interests, and each supplementary... decision of the Director for good cause shown: Provided, That information from a statement or...

  20. 12 CFR 350.5 - Alternative annual disclosure statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... audited financial statements, by copies of the audited financial statements and the certificate or report... bank subsidiary of a holding company which provides only the consolidated financial statements of the... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Alternative annual disclosure statements....

  1. Implementing nested conditional statements in SIMD machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Middleton, David

    1989-01-01

    Single instruction, multiple data (SIMD) computers consist of a very large number of processors executing a common sequence of instructions. Maintaining the full speedup potential of such machines is most sensitive to conditional execution in their programs, regions of code where some processing elements (PEs) perform no useful work. Techniques are presented for efficiently implementing nested conditional statements, specifically if and case statements, in SIMD machines, while adding minimal specialized hardware.

  2. The Quality of Reporting of Cohort, Case-Control Studies in the Korean Journal of Family Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mi Ra; Kim, Min Young; Hwang, In Hong; Yoon, Yeo Jung

    2012-01-01

    Background The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) statement was developed to improve the reporting of observational studies. We aimed to evaluate the quality of reporting in cohort studies and case-control studies among observational studies published in the Korean Journal of Family Medicine. Methods We searched for cohort studies and case-control studies published as original articles in the Journal of the Korean Academy of Family Medicine during the period January 1992 through December 2009. The main outcome measures were the number and proportion of cohort studies and case-control studies that reported each of 22 checklist items of STROBE. Results We identified a total of 84 articles, of which 46 articles were cohort studies and 38 were case-control studies. Concerning methods, study designs (10%), bias (13%), study size (0%), statistical methods (12-c and 12-e items, 0%; 12-d item, cohort study, 6%) have been poorly reported. Of results, participants (5-6%), descriptive data (14-b item, 5%), and funding (1%) among other information have been poorly reported. Conclusion The degree of adherence the STROBE recommendations was relatively low in cohort studies and case-control studies published in the Korean Journal of Family Medicine. An effort to improve the reporting of observational studies by application and recommendation of the STROBE statement is required. PMID:22745891

  3. The quality of reporting of cohort, case-control studies in the korean journal of family medicine.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi Ra; Kim, Min Young; Kim, Soo Young; Hwang, In Hong; Yoon, Yeo Jung

    2012-03-01

    The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) statement was developed to improve the reporting of observational studies. We aimed to evaluate the quality of reporting in cohort studies and case-control studies among observational studies published in the Korean Journal of Family Medicine. We searched for cohort studies and case-control studies published as original articles in the Journal of the Korean Academy of Family Medicine during the period January 1992 through December 2009. The main outcome measures were the number and proportion of cohort studies and case-control studies that reported each of 22 checklist items of STROBE. We identified a total of 84 articles, of which 46 articles were cohort studies and 38 were case-control studies. Concerning methods, study designs (10%), bias (13%), study size (0%), statistical methods (12-c and 12-e items, 0%; 12-d item, cohort study, 6%) have been poorly reported. Of results, participants (5-6%), descriptive data (14-b item, 5%), and funding (1%) among other information have been poorly reported. The degree of adherence the STROBE recommendations was relatively low in cohort studies and case-control studies published in the Korean Journal of Family Medicine. An effort to improve the reporting of observational studies by application and recommendation of the STROBE statement is required.

  4. BELTracker: evidence sentence retrieval for BEL statements

    PubMed Central

    Rastegar-Mojarad, Majid; Komandur Elayavilli, Ravikumar; Liu, Hongfang

    2016-01-01

    Biological expression language (BEL) is one of the main formal representation models of biological networks. The primary source of information for curating biological networks in BEL representation has been literature. It remains a challenge to identify relevant articles and the corresponding evidence statements for curating and validating BEL statements. In this paper, we describe BELTracker, a tool used to retrieve and rank evidence sentences from PubMed abstracts and full-text articles for a given BEL statement (per the 2015 task requirements of BioCreative V BEL Task). The system is comprised of three main components, (i) translation of a given BEL statement to an information retrieval (IR) query, (ii) retrieval of relevant PubMed citations and (iii) finding and ranking the evidence sentences in those citations. BELTracker uses a combination of multiple approaches based on traditional IR, machine learning, and heuristics to accomplish the task. The system identified and ranked at least one fully relevant evidence sentence in the top 10 retrieved sentences for 72 out of 97 BEL statements in the test set. BELTracker achieved a precision of 0.392, 0.532 and 0.615 when evaluated with three criteria, namely full, relaxed and context criteria, respectively, by the task organizers. Our team at Mayo Clinic was the only participant in this task. BELTracker is available as a RESTful API and is available for public use. Database URL: http://www.openbionlp.org:8080/BelTracker/finder/Given_BEL_Statement PMID:27173525

  5. BELTracker: evidence sentence retrieval for BEL statements.

    PubMed

    Rastegar-Mojarad, Majid; Komandur Elayavilli, Ravikumar; Liu, Hongfang

    2016-01-01

    Biological expression language (BEL) is one of the main formal representation models of biological networks. The primary source of information for curating biological networks in BEL representation has been literature. It remains a challenge to identify relevant articles and the corresponding evidence statements for curating and validating BEL statements. In this paper, we describe BELTracker, a tool used to retrieve and rank evidence sentences from PubMed abstracts and full-text articles for a given BEL statement (per the 2015 task requirements of BioCreative V BEL Task). The system is comprised of three main components, (i) translation of a given BEL statement to an information retrieval (IR) query, (ii) retrieval of relevant PubMed citations and (iii) finding and ranking the evidence sentences in those citations. BELTracker uses a combination of multiple approaches based on traditional IR, machine learning, and heuristics to accomplish the task. The system identified and ranked at least one fully relevant evidence sentence in the top 10 retrieved sentences for 72 out of 97 BEL statements in the test set. BELTracker achieved a precision of 0.392, 0.532 and 0.615 when evaluated with three criteria, namely full, relaxed and context criteria, respectively, by the task organizers. Our team at Mayo Clinic was the only participant in this task. BELTracker is available as a RESTful API and is available for public use.Database URL: http://www.openbionlp.org:8080/BelTracker/finder/Given_BEL_Statement.

  6. Cardiovascular risk reduction in high-risk pediatric patients: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association Expert Panel on Population and Prevention Science; the Councils on Cardiovascular Disease in the Young, Epidemiology and Prevention, Nutrition, Physical Activity and Metabolism, High Blood Pressure Research, Cardiovascular Nursing, and the Kidney in Heart Disease; and the Interdisciplinary Working Group on Quality of Care and Outcomes Research: endorsed by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

    PubMed

    Kavey, Rae-Ellen W; Allada, Vivek; Daniels, Stephen R; Hayman, Laura L; McCrindle, Brian W; Newburger, Jane W; Parekh, Rulan S; Steinberger, Julia

    2006-12-12

    Although for most children the process of atherosclerosis is subclinical, dramatically accelerated atherosclerosis occurs in some pediatric disease states, with clinical coronary events occurring in childhood and very early adult life. As with most scientific statements about children and the future risk for cardiovascular disease, there are no randomized trials documenting the effects of risk reduction on hard clinical outcomes. A growing body of literature, however, identifies the importance of premature cardiovascular disease in the course of certain pediatric diagnoses and addresses the response to risk factor reduction. For this scientific statement, a panel of experts reviewed what is known about very premature cardiovascular disease in 8 high-risk pediatric diagnoses and, from the science base, developed practical recommendations for management of cardiovascular risk.

  7. Multiple Introductions of Zika Virus into the United States Revealed Through Genomic Epidemiology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-02-02

    Multiple introductions of Zika virus into the United States revealed through genomic epidemiology Nathan D Grubaugh1*, Jason T Ladner2,*, Moritz UG...042 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. UNCLASSIFIED Zika virus (ZIKV) is currently causing an...Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID) Office of Human Use and Ethics and determined not to require IRB review. Florida Zika

  8. Multiple Introductions of Zika Virus into the United States Revealed through Genomic Epidemiology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-02-09

    Multiple introductions of Zika virus into the United States revealed through genomic epidemiology Nathan D Grubaugh1*, Jason T Ladner2,*, Moritz UG...047 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. UNCLASSIFIED Zika virus (ZIKV) is currently causing an...Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID) Office of Human Use and Ethics and determined not to require IRB review. Florida Zika

  9. An official american thoracic society statement: work-exacerbated asthma.

    PubMed

    Henneberger, Paul K; Redlich, Carrie A; Callahan, David B; Harber, Philip; Lemière, Catherine; Martin, James; Tarlo, Susan M; Vandenplas, Olivier; Torén, Kjell

    2011-08-01

    Occupational exposures can contribute to the exacerbation as well as the onset of asthma. However, work-exacerbated asthma (WEA) has received less attention than occupational asthma (OA) that is caused by work. The purpose of this Statement is to summarize current knowledge about the descriptive epidemiology, clinical characteristics, and management and treatment of WEA; propose a case definition for WEA; and discuss needs for prevention and research. Information about WEA was identified primarily by systematic searches of the medical literature. Statements about prevention and research needs were reached by consensus. WEA is defined as the worsening of asthma due to conditions at work. WEA is common, with a median prevalence of 21.5% among adults with asthma. Different types of agents or conditions at work may exacerbate asthma. WEA cases with persistent work-related symptoms can have clinical characteristics (level of severity, medication needs) and adverse socioeconomic outcomes (unemployment, reduction in income) similar to those of OA cases. Compared with adults with asthma unrelated to work, WEA cases report more days with symptoms, seek more medical care, and have a lower quality of life. WEA should be considered in any patient with asthma that is getting worse or who has work-related symptoms. Management of WEA should focus on reducing work exposures and optimizing standard medical management, with a change in jobs only if these measures are not successful. WEA is a common and underrecognized adverse outcome resulting from conditions at work. Additional research is needed to improve the understanding of the risk factors for, and mechanisms and outcomes of, WEA, and to inform and evaluate preventive interventions.

  10. Neurodevelopmental and neurobehavioural effects of polybrominated and perfluorinated chemicals: a systematic review of the epidemiological literature using a quality assessment scheme.

    PubMed

    Roth, N; Wilks, M F

    2014-10-15

    Concerns over effects of halogenated persistent environmental contaminants on the developing brain have been expressed for many years, and human biomonitoring has confirmed that low-level, prenatal and/or postnatal exposure of children to these chemicals is ubiquitous. Over the last decade there have been increasing reports in the epidemiological literature of the potential association of exposure to polybromo diphenylethers (PBDEs) and perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) with neurodevelopmental and/or neurobehavioural effects in infants and children, such as adverse birth outcomes, cognitive deficits, developmental delay and attention deficit hyperactivity disorders (ADHD). However, direct evidence from epidemiology studies has been limited and contradictory. Given the general lack of comparability across studies in terms of design, conduct, methodology and reporting, we developed a checklist-type quality assessment scheme based on the STROBE guidelines and the proposed HONEES criteria, and conducted a systematic review of the epidemiological peer-reviewed literature published since 2006 on neurodevelopmental and/or neurobehavioural effects following prenatal and postnatal exposure to PBDEs and PFCs. We rated 7 of the 18 studies that met our inclusion criteria as being of high quality, 7 of moderate quality and 4 of low quality. Frequently observed shortcomings were the lack of consideration of confounding factors; uncertainties regarding exposure characterization; inadequate sample size; the lack of a clear dose-response; and the representativeness/generalizability of the results. Collectively, the epidemiological evidence does currently not support a strong causal association between PBDEs and PFCs and adverse neurodevelopmental and neurobehavioural outcomes in infants and children. However, despite their limitations, the studies raise questions that require further investigation through hypothesis-driven studies using more harmonized study designs and methodologies

  11. Epidemiology of OA

    PubMed Central

    Neogi, Tuhina; Zhang, Yuqing

    2012-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common form of arthritis in the US, and a leading cause of disability. It is typically defined in epidemiologic studies on the basis of radiographic findings and consideration of symptoms. Its incidence and prevalence are rising, likely related to the aging of the population and increasing obesity. Risk factors for OA include a number of person-level factors, such as age, sex, obesity, and genetics, as well as joint-specific factors that are likely reflective of abnormal loading of the joints. A number of methodologic challenges exist in studying OA that can hamper our ability to identify pertinent relationships. PMID:23312408

  12. Epidemiology of tuberculosis immunology.

    PubMed

    Fox, G J; Menzies, D

    2013-01-01

    Immunological impairment plays a major role in the epidemiology of TB. Globally, the most common causes of immunological impairment are malnutrition, diabetes, HIV/AIDS, aging, and smoking. With the notable exception of HIV, each factor leads to relatively mild immunological impairment in individuals. However, as these conditions affect a significant proportion of the population, they contribute substantially to the incidence of TB at a global scale. Understanding immunological impairment is central to understanding the global TB pandemic, and vital to the development of effective disease control strategies.

  13. Epidemiologic research in Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    A study of epidemiology of respiratory viruses that was begun in the early 1960's is described. Locations selected for the study included a Wisconsin University housing village, a second grade school population, individual volunteers who associated socially, married couples, and the winter-over population at McMurdo Bay and at Scott Base in the Antarctic. It was concluded that most rhinovirus transmission is through aerosolized particles. Air filtration and careful nasal sanitation with virucidal tissues are determined to be effective in blocking rhinovirus transmission and should be useful in both isolated space colonies and in ordinary earth-bound populations.

  14. Epidemiology of iodine deficiency.

    PubMed

    Vanderpump, Mark P

    2017-04-01

    Iodine is an essential component of the thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) produced by the thyroid gland. Iodine deficiency impairs thyroid hormone production and has adverse effects throughout life, particularly early in life as it impairs cognition and growth. Iodine deficiency remains a significant problem despite major national and international efforts to increase iodine intake, primarily through the voluntary or mandatory iodization of salt. Recent epidemiological data suggest that iodine deficiency is an emerging issue in industrialized countries, previously thought of as iodine-sufficient. International efforts to control iodine deficiency are slowing, and reaching the third of the worldwide population that remains deficient poses major challenges.

  15. Worldwide epidemiology of fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Queiroz, Luiz Paulo

    2013-08-01

    Studying the epidemiology of fibromyalgia (FM) is very important to understand the impact of this disorder on persons, families and society. The recent modified 2010 classification criteria of the American College of Rheumatology (ACR), without the need of tender points palpation, allows that larger and nationwide surveys may be done, worldwide. This article reviews the prevalence and incidence studies done in the general population, in several countries/continents, the prevalence of FM in special groups/settings, the association of FM with some sociodemographic characteristics of the population, and the comorbidity of FM with others disorders, especially with headaches.

  16. Animal influenza epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Ducatez, M.F.; Webster, R.G.; Webby, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    Influenza A viruses exist within their natural host, aquatic birds, in a number of antigenic subtypes. Only a few of these subtypes have successfully crossed into other avian and mammalian hosts. This brief review will focus on just three examples of viruses that have successfully passed between species; avian H5N1 and H9N2 viruses and H3N2 viruses which have transmitted from aquatic birds to humans and then to swine. Although there are a number of other subtypes that have also transmitted successfully between species, these three selected examples have spread and evolved in different ways, exemplifying the complexity of influenza A virus epidemiology. PMID:19230163

  17. Epidemiology of Brain Tumors.

    PubMed

    McNeill, Katharine A

    2016-11-01

    Brain tumors are the commonest solid tumor in children, leading to significant cancer-related mortality. Several hereditary syndromes associated with brain tumors are nonfamilial. Ionizing radiation is a well-recognized risk factor for brain tumors. Several industrial exposures have been evaluated for a causal association with brain tumor formation but the results are inconclusive. A casual association between the common mutagens of tobacco, alcohol, or dietary factors has not yet been established. There is no clear evidence that the incidence of brain tumors has changed over time. This article presents the descriptive epidemiology of the commonest brain tumors of children and adults.

  18. The practice of hospital epidemiology.

    PubMed Central

    Hierholzer, W. J.

    1982-01-01

    The practice and methodology of hospital epidemiology in infection control have begun to mature. At the same time, there is need for an institutionally based clinical epidemiologist to assist in several other mandatory patient care-related programs in the hospital. Hospital epidemiology programs should recognize this need, the parallels in other programs, and the unique opportunity to bring to hospital in-service, teaching, and research, epidemiologic methodology as a natural extension of its present role. PMID:7180022

  19. 10 CFR 51.29 - Scoping-environmental impact statement and supplement to environmental impact statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scoping-environmental impact statement and supplement to environmental impact statement. 51.29 Section 51.29 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED... Environmental Policy Act-Regulations Implementing Section 102(2) Scoping § 51.29 Scoping-environmental impact...

  20. 78 FR 59659 - Correction to the Final Environmental Impact Statement/Overseas Environmental Impact Statement...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-27

    ... Statement for Hawaii-Southern California Training and Testing AGENCY: Department of the Navy, DoD. ACTION... Statement (EIS)/Overseas EIS (OEIS) for Hawaii- Southern California Training and Testing (HSTT), which was... Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. The corrected HSTT Final EIS/ OEIS includes an 11-page Section E.5...

  1. 10 CFR 51.29 - Scoping-environmental impact statement and supplement to environmental impact statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Scoping-environmental impact statement and supplement to environmental impact statement. 51.29 Section 51.29 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION REGULATIONS FOR DOMESTIC LICENSING AND RELATED REGULATORY FUNCTIONS...

  2. Global epidemiology of sporotrichosis.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarti, Arunaloke; Bonifaz, Alexandro; Gutierrez-Galhardo, Maria Clara; Mochizuki, Takashi; Li, Shanshan

    2015-01-01

    Sporotrichosis is an endemic mycosis caused by the dimorphic fungus Sporothrix schenckii sensu lato. It has gained importance in recent years due to its worldwide prevalence, recognition of multiple cryptic species within the originally described species, and its distinctive ecology, distribution, and epidemiology across the globe. In this review, we describe the current knowledge of the taxonomy, ecology, prevalence, molecular epidemiology, and outbreaks due to S. schenckii sensu lato. Despite its omnipresence in the environment, this fungus has remarkably diverse modes of infection and distribution patterns across the world. We have delved into the nuances of how sporotrichosis is intimately linked to different forms of human activities, habitats, lifestyles, and environmental and zoonotic interactions. The purpose of this review is to stimulate discussion about the peculiarities of this unique fungal pathogen and increase the awareness of clinicians and microbiologists, especially in regions of high endemicity, to its emergence and evolving presentations and to kindle further research into understanding the unorthodox mechanisms by which this fungus afflicts different human populations.

  3. The Epidemiology of Sarcopenia.

    PubMed

    Dodds, Richard Matthew; Roberts, Helen Clare; Cooper, Cyrus; Sayer, Avan Aihie

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this review is to describe the epidemiology of sarcopenia, specifically prevalence, health outcomes, and factors across the life course that have been linked to its development. Sarcopenia definitions involve a range of measures (muscle mass, strength, and physical performance), which tend to decline with age, and hence sarcopenia becomes increasingly prevalent with age. Less is known about prevalence in older people in hospital and care homes, although it is likely to be higher than in community settings. The range of measures used, and the cutpoints suggested for each, presents a challenge for comparing prevalence estimates between studies. The importance of sarcopenia is highlighted by the range of adverse health outcomes that strength and physical performance (and to a lesser extent, muscle mass) have been linked to. This is shown most strikingly by the finding of increased all-cause mortality rates among those with weaker grip strength and slower gait speed. A life course approach broadens the window for our understanding of the etiology of sarcopenia and hence the potential intervention. An example is physical activity, with increased levels across midadulthood appearing to increase muscle mass and strength in early old age. Epidemiologic studies will continue to make an important contribution to our understanding of sarcopenia and possible avenues for intervention and prevention.

  4. Molecular Epidemiology of Amebiasis

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Ibne Karim M.; Clark, C. Graham; Petri, William A.

    2008-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica, the causative agent of human amebiasis, remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries and is responsible for up to 100,000 deaths worldwide each year. Entamoeba dispar, morphologically indistinguishable from E. histolytica, is more common in humans in many parts of the world. Similarly Entamoeba moshkovskii, which was long considered to be a free-living ameba, is also morphologically identical to E. histolytica and E. dispar, and is highly prevalent in some E. histolytica endemic countries. However, the only species to cause disease in humans is E. histolytica. Most old epidemiological data on E. histolytica are unusable as the techniques employed do not differentiate between the above three Entamoeba species. Molecular tools are now available not only to diagnose these species accurately but also to study intra-species genetic diversity. Recent studies suggest that only a minority of all E. histolytica infections progress to development of clinical symptoms in the host and there exist population level differences between the E. histolytica strains isolated from the asymptomatic and symptomatic individuals. Nevertheless the underlying factors responsible for variable clinical outcome of infection by E. histolytica remain largely unknown. We anticipate that the recently completed E. histolytica genome sequence and new molecular techniques will rapidly advance our understanding of the epidemiology and pathogenicity of amebiasis. PMID:18571478

  5. Epidemiology of anaphylaxis.

    PubMed

    Tang, Mimi L K; Osborne, Nicholas; Allen, Katrina

    2009-08-01

    The prevalence of allergic disorders has more than doubled in the last two decades leading to increased community concern and anxiety, and unprecedented demand for allergy-specialist services. However, although allergic reactions are common, anaphylaxis is uncommon and fatal anaphylaxis is rare. This review examines recent developments in the epidemiology of anaphylaxis, focusing on new information that may assist in identifying those at increased risk of severe reactions and adverse outcomes. Recent studies suggest an increase in prevalence of anaphylaxis in industrialized countries. Examination of the demographic characteristics of anaphylaxis has revealed potential approaches to better recognize those at greatest risk. Novel laboratory approaches to identify patients at increased risk of severe reactions have been suggested. Increased knowledge of the epidemiology of anaphylaxis has provided insights into the characteristics of those patient groups most at risk of adverse outcomes. However, these characteristics have poor specificity and limited applicability for detection of at-risk individuals in the clinical setting. Further research is required to facilitate more accurate assessment of an individual's risk for anaphylaxis or fatal outcome. This would represent a major advance in clinical management and enable better allocation of existing healthcare resources.

  6. Ecogeographic Genetic Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Sloan, Chantel D.; Duell, Eric J.; Shi, Xun; Irwin, Rebecca; Andrew, Angeline S.; Williams, Scott M.; Moore, Jason H.

    2009-01-01

    Complex diseases such as cancer and heart disease result from interactions between an individual's genetics and environment, i.e. their human ecology. Rates of complex diseases have consistently demonstrated geographic patterns of incidence, or spatial “clusters” of increased incidence relative to the general population. Likewise, genetic subpopulations and environmental influences are not evenly distributed across space. Merging appropriate methods from genetic epidemiology, ecology and geography will provide a more complete understanding of the spatial interactions between genetics and environment that result in spatial patterning of disease rates. Geographic Information Systems (GIS), which are tools designed specifically for dealing with geographic data and performing spatial analyses to determine their relationship, are key to this kind of data integration. Here the authors introduce a new interdisciplinary paradigm, ecogeographic genetic epidemiology, which uses GIS and spatial statistical analyses to layer genetic subpopulation and environmental data with disease rates and thereby discern the complex gene-environment interactions which result in spatial patterns of incidence. PMID:19025788

  7. Epidemiology of scabies.

    PubMed

    Fuller, L Claire

    2013-04-01

    Scabies is a common skin infestation globally, particularly in the developing world. With the launch of the International Alliance for the Control of Scabies (IACS) in 2012, this review aims to present the recent evidence of the current epidemiological situation for scabies across the globe. Mindful of the fact that the downstream complications of scabies infestations, pyoderma, streptococcal glomerulonephritis and subsequent chronic renal impairment and rheumatic fever, have been recognized as being more significant to global health than previously acknowledged, the review focusses also on the epidemiological evidence from developing countries. Scabies occurrence rates vary in the recent literature from 2.71 per 1000 to 46%. Although it is responsible for larger disease burdens and complications such as pyoderma and renal and heart disease in the tropics, scabies outbreaks in the developed world amongst vulnerable communities and health institutions contribute a significant cost to the health services managing them. Scabies remains common across the world, but is such a health issue in the developing world that the suggestion that it be considered a neglected tropical disease is a pertinent one. Standardized diagnostic criteria and even a point-of-care diagnostic test would be a major contribution to the understanding of this epidemic.

  8. Epidemiology of ALS.

    PubMed

    Nelson, L M

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is an adult-onset neurodegenerative disorder of unknown etiology. ALS onset is rare before age 40 and increases with age thereafter. Men are at higher risk than women (ratio 1.3:1). Other than age and gender, the only indisputable risk factor for ALS is genetic susceptibility, with familial cases occurring in about 10% of most case series. Genetic linkage studies have provided evidence that a mutant form of the gene that codes for Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase, an endogenous free radical scavenger, is important in 15-20% of familial cases. Epidemiologic studies have identified associations of sporadic ALS with work in occupations that involve toxicant exposure. Environmental toxicants may act against a background of increased genetic susceptibility; however, genetically acquired biochemical defects have not been identified in sporadic ALS patients. Other epidemiologic theories of disease etiology have emphasized the potential role of physical trauma, electrical shock, and vigorous physical exertion, but evidence regarding these factors is inconsistent.

  9. Epidemiology Abuse: Epidemiological and Psychosocial Models of Drug Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Phillip E.

    1976-01-01

    In a paper presented at the National Drug Abuse Conference April 4-7, 1975, New Orleans, Louisiana, epidemiological and psychosocial approaches to drug abuse are discussed. An approach reflecting an appreciation of the psychological/social/political realities involved in addiction as well as a grounding in epidemiological principles and data is…

  10. India (country/area statements).

    PubMed

    1985-09-01

    According to this statement presented at the Committee on Population of the UN Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, India's population increased by 24.8% between the 1961 and 1971 censuses and by 25% between the 1971 and 1981 censuses. The population was 685.2 million in 1981 and is projected to increase to 996.0 million in 2001. The growth rate is expected to decline to 2% during 1981-91 and to 1.6% from 1991-2001. Life expectancy at birth in 1980 was estimated at 54.1 for males and 54.7 for females. The national health policy envisages health as a vital component of overall integrated socioeconomic development but emphasizes the need to ensure adequate nutrition, safe drinking water and improved sanitation. The family welfare program is voluntary and involves intensive efforts to create awareness of population through multimedia and interpersonal channels and to provide a wide choice of contraceptives for eligible couples. Emphasis has been placed on increasing female literacy and on population education for youth. The goal is a net reproduction rate of 1 by the year 2000. Currently 40 million of the 126 million reproductive aged couples use an effective method of birth control. Sterilization continues to be an important method, but emphasis on spacing methods began at the outset of the 6th 5-year plan in 1980 and will continue during the 7th 5-year plan. Adequate training will be provided for rural health workers as part of the strategy to lower birth rates. The urban family welfare infrastructure will be strengthened to cover low-income population groups, and the mass media infrastructure is being restructured and strengthened. Efforts are underway to encourage participation in family planning by voluntary organizations. The medical education curriculum is undergoing revision to introduce formal family planning training. It is expected that the combined impact of improvement in social and economic living conditions and the national program

  11. Nepal (country/area statements).

    PubMed

    1985-09-01

    According to this statement presented to the Committee on Population of the UN Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, combined effects of continuing high fertility and declining mortality account for Nepal's current growth rate of 2.7%, which will produce a population of 25.4 million in the year 2000, up from 9.4 million in 1961 and 15 million in 1981. Children under 15 comprise over 40% of the population. The rapid expansion of public health facilities and successful efforts to control cholera, smallpox, and other communicable diseases account for an increase in life expectancy to an estimated 46 for males and 44 for females. There has been no significant decline in fertility, and the total fertility rate is 6.3. The infant mortality rate of 152/1000 live births is still very high. Population pressure in the mountains and hills has reduced the average size of individual family land holdings to less than .4 hectare, and average productivity of the land has fallen due to cultivation of marginal lands, landslides, loss of ground water, erosion, and nutritional deficiency of the soil. Wasteful forest cutting and soil erosion have occurred as the terai or plains have become more densely settled following the eradication of malaria and internal migration. Nepal adopted its 1st official population-related program in 1965 when the 3rd plan called for family planning to reduce the birth rate and help achieve balance between population and natural resources. During the 5th 5 year plan a multisectorial population policy aimed at managing spatial and temporal population distribution was adopted. The demographic target of the 6th plan was to reduce the total fertility rate to 5.8 by 1985. The population strategy recently formulated by the reconstituted National Commission on Population calls for reducing the growth rate from 2.6% to 1.2% in 15 years, integrating population and development programs in all sectors, increasing female literacy and employment

  12. 17 CFR 210.3-12 - Age of financial statements at effective date of registration statement or at mailing date of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... effective date of registration statement or at mailing date of proxy statement. 210.3-12 Section 210.3-12... FOR FINANCIAL STATEMENTS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933, SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934, PUBLIC UTILITY... financial statements at effective date of registration statement or at mailing date of proxy statement. (a...

  13. Commission on Epidemiological Survey. Annual Report to the Armed Forces Epidemiological Board. Fiscal Year 1972.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    EPIDEMIOLOGY, REPORTS), (*INFECTIOUS DISEASES, EPIDEMIOLOGY), ARBOVIRUSES, VENEZUELAN EQUINE ENCEPHALOMYELITIS VIRUS , STAPHYLOCOCCUS, RICKETTSIA, BACTERIA , VIRUS DISEASES, METABOLISM, IMMUNOLOGY, BIOCHEMISTRY

  14. [Epidemiology of viral hepatitis].

    PubMed

    Kaić, Bernard; Vilibić-Cavlek, Tatjana; Filipović, Sanja Kurecić; Nemeth-Blazić, Tatjana; Pem-Novosel, Iva; Vucina, Vesna Visekruna; Simunović, Aleksandar; Zajec, Martina; Radić, Ivan; Pavlić, Jasmina; Glamocanin, Marica; Gjenero-Margan, Ira

    2013-10-01

    Understanding the country-specific epidemiology of disease, which may vary greatly among countries, is crucial for identifying the most appropriate preventive and control measures. An overview of the local epidemiology of viral hepatitis in Croatia is given in this paper. The overall prevalence of hepatitis B in Croatia is low (less than 2% HBsAg carriers in the general population). Hepatitis B incidence and prevalence began to decline significantly following the introduction of universal hepatitis B vaccination in 1999. Information on HBsAg seroprevalence is derived from routine testing of certain subpopulations (pregnant women, blood donors) and seroprevalence studies mostly targeted at high-risk populations. Universal childhood vaccination against hepatitis B remains the main preventive measure. We recommend testing for immunity one to two months after the third dose of hepatitis B vaccine for health-care workers. The incidence and prevalence of hepatitis C have also been declining in the general population. The main preventive measures are ensuring safety of blood products, prevention of drug abuse, and harm reduction programs for intravenous drug users. Hepatitis A incidence has declined dramatically since fifty years ago, when thousands of cases were reported annually. In the last five years, an average of twenty cases have been reported per year. The reduction of hepatitis A is a consequence of improved personal and community hygiene and sanitation. Hepatitis D has not been reported in Croatia. The risk of hepatitis D will get to be even smaller as the proportion of population vaccinated against hepatitis B builds up. Hepatitis E is reported only sporadically in Croatia, mostly in persons occupationally in contact with pigs and in travelers to endemic countries. In conclusion, Croatia is a low prevalence country for hepatitides A, B and C. Hepatitis D has not been reported to occur in Croatia and there are only sporadic cases of hepatitis E. Since hepatitis

  15. The Epidemiology of Sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Sarcomas account for over 20% of all pediatric solid malignant cancers and less than 1% of all adult solid malignant cancers. The vast majority of diagnosed sarcomas will be soft tissue sarcomas, while malignant bone tumors make up just over 10% of sarcomas. The risks for sarcoma are not well-understood. We evaluated the existing literature on the epidemiology and etiology of sarcoma. Risks for sarcoma development can be divided into environmental exposures, genetic susceptibility, and an interaction between the two. HIV-positive individuals are at an increased risk for Kaposi’s sarcoma, even though HHV8 is the causative virus. Radiation exposure from radiotherapy has been strongly associated with secondary sarcoma development in certain cancer patients. In fact, the risk of malignant bone tumors increases as the cumulative dose of radiation to the bone increases (p for trend <0.001). A recent meta-analysis reported that children with a history of hernias have a greater risk of developing Ewing’s sarcoma (adjusted OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.9, 5.7). Bone development during pubertal growth spurts has been associated with osteosarcoma development. Occupational factors such as job type, industry, and exposures to chemicals such as herbicides and chlorophenols have been suggested as risk factors for sarcomas. A case-control study found a significant increase in soft tissue sarcoma risk among gardeners (adjusted OR 4.1, 95% CI 1.00, 14.00), but not among those strictly involved in farming. A European-based study reported an increased risk in bone tumors among blacksmiths, toolmakers, or machine-tool operators (adjusted OR 2.14, 95% CI 1.08, 4.26). Maternal and paternal characteristics such as occupation, age, smoking status, and health conditions experienced during pregnancy also have been suggested as sarcoma risk factors and would be important to assess in future studies. The limited studies we identified demonstrate significant relationships with sarcoma risk, but many of

  16. CEDR: Comprehensive Epidemiologic Data Resource

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessor agencies have a long history of epidemiologic research programs. The main focus of these programs has been the Health and Mortality Study of the DOE work force. This epidemiologic study began in 1964 with a feasibility study of workers at the Hanford facility. Studies of other populations exposed to radiation have also been supported, including the classic epidemiologic study of radium dial painters and studies of atomic bomb survivors. From a scientific perspective, these epidemiologic research program have been productive, highly credible, and formed the bases for many radiological protection standards. Recently, there has been concern that, although research results were available, the data on which these results were based were not easily obtained by interested investigators outside DOE. Therefore, as part of an effort to integrate and broaden access to its epidemiologic information, the DOE has developed the Comprehensive Epidemiologic Data Resource (CEDR) Program. Included in this effort is the development of a computer information system for accessing the collection of CEDR data and its related descriptive information. The epidemiologic data currently available through the CEDAR Program consist of analytic data sets, working data sets, and their associated documentation files. In general, data sets are the result of epidemiologic studies that have been conducted on various groups of workers at different DOE facilities during the past 30 years.

  17. Cancer Epidemiology Data Repository (CEDR)

    Cancer.gov

    In an effort to broaden access and facilitate efficient data sharing, the Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program (EGRP) has created the Cancer Epidemiology Data Repository (CEDR), a centralized, controlled-access database, where Investigators can deposit individual-level de-identified observational cancer datasets.

  18. The future of genetic epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Morton, N E

    1992-12-01

    Starting from a broad definition of genetic epidemiology, current developments in association, segregation, and linkage analysis of complex inheritance are considered together with integration of genetic and physical maps and resolution of genetic heterogeneity. Mitochondrial inheritance, imprinting, uniparental disomy, pregressive amplification, and gonadal mosaicism are some of the novel mechanisms discussed, with speculation about the future of genetic epidemiology.

  19. Epidemiology of infections in women.

    PubMed

    Risser, Jan M H; Risser, William L; Risser, Amanda L

    2008-12-01

    This article describes the epidemiologic profiles of sexually transmitted infections seen in US women. We present a brief description of the infectious agent, describe the epidemiology of the infection among women in terms of race/ethnicity and age (if those data are available), and present what is known about the behavioral risk factors associated with acquisition.

  20. The new epidemiology of nephrolithiasis.

    PubMed

    Shoag, Jonathan; Tasian, Greg E; Goldfarb, David S; Eisner, Brian H

    2015-07-01

    Historically nephrolithiasis was considered a disease of dehydration and abnormal urine composition. However, over the past several decades, much has been learned about the epidemiology of this disease and its relation to patient demographic characteristics and common systemic diseases. Here we review the latest epidemiologic studies in the field.