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Sample records for epidermal growth inhibitor

  1. Astrocyte Mitogen Inhibitor Related to Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieto-Sampedro, Manuel

    1988-06-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is a well-characterized polypeptide hormone with diverse biological activities, including stimulation of astrocyte division. A soluble astrocyte mitogen inhibitor, immunologically related to the EGF receptor, is present in rat brain. Injury to the brain causes a time-dependent reduction in the levels of this inhibitor and the concomitant appearance of EGF receptor on the astrocyte surface. Intracerebral injection of antibody capable of binding the inhibitor caused the appearance of numerous reactive astrocytes. EGF receptor-related inhibitors may play a key role in the control of glial cell division in both normal and injured brain.

  2. Epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors as anticancer agents.

    PubMed

    Ciardiello, F

    2000-01-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-driven autocrine growth pathway has been implicated in the development and progression of the majority of the most common human epithelial cancers, making the blockade of this growth pathway a promising anticancer therapeutic strategy. Different approaches have been developed to block EGFR activation and/or function in cancer cells. In the past 15 years, various anti-EGFR blocking monoclonal antibodies (MAb), recombinant proteins containing transforming growth factor-alpha (TGFalpha) or EGF fused to toxins, and tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have been generated and their biological and potentially therapeutic properties characterised. One of these agents, MAb IMC-C225, a chimeric human-mouse IgG1 MAb, is the first anti-EGFR agent to enter phase II to III clinical trials in patients with cancer. Several small compounds that block the ligand-induced activation of the EGFR tyrosine kinase have been developed. Among these EGFR-TKIs, various quinazoline-derived agents have been synthesised and have shown promising activity as anticancer agents in preclinical models. ZD1839 ('Iressa'), an anilinoquinazoline, is an orally active, selective EGFR-TKI which is currently under clinical evaluation in phase II to III clinical trials in patients with cancer. Preclinical data for ZD1839 strongly support the possibility of potentiating the antitumour activity of conventional chemotherapy with agents that selectively block the EGFR.

  3. Development of the epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor OSI-774.

    PubMed

    Grünwald, Viktor; Hidalgo, Manuel

    2003-06-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a transmembrane receptor involved in the regulation of a complex array of essential biological processes such as cell proliferation and survival. Dysregulation of the EGFR signaling network has been frequently reported in multiple human cancers and has been associated with the processes of tumor development, growth, proliferation, metastasis, and angiogenesis. Inhibition of the EGFR was associated with antitumor effects in preclinical models. On the basis of these data, therapeutics targeting the EGFR were explored in clinical trials. OSI-774 is a small-molecule selective inhibitor of the EGFR tyrosine kinase. In preclinical studies, OSI-774 inhibited the phosphorylation of the EGFR in a dose-dependent and concentration-dependent manner resulting in cell cycle arrest and induction of apoptosis. In in vivo studies, this agent caused tumor growth inhibition and showed synergistic effects when combined with conventional chemotherapy. Subsequent single-agent phase I studies and phase I studies in combination with chemotherapy showed that the agent has a good safety profile and induced tumor growth inhibition in a substantial number of patients with a variety of different solid tumors. Preliminary reports from phase II studies confirmed the excellent tolerability of OSI-774 and showed encouraging preliminary activity. Phase III studies have either been completed or are ongoing in several tumor types such as lung cancer and pancreatic cancer. In summary, OSI-774 is a novel inhibitor of the EGFR tyrosine kinase that has shown promising activity in initial studies and is currently undergoing full development as an anticancer drug.

  4. How to train your inhibitor: Design strategies to overcome resistance to Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Milik, Sandra N; Lasheen, Deena S; Serya, Rabah A T; Abouzid, Khaled A M

    2017-07-18

    Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) stands out as a key player in the development of many cancers. Its dysregulation is associated with a vast number of tumors such as non-small-cell lung cancer, colon cancer, head-and-neck cancer, breast and ovarian cancer. Being implicated in the development of a number of the most lethal cancers worldwide, EGFR has long been considered as a focal target for cancer therapies, ever since the FDA approval of "Gefitinib" in 2003 and up to the last FDA approved small molecule EGFR kinase inhibitor "Osimertinib" in 2015. Studies are still going on to find more efficient EGFR inhibitors due to the continuous emergence of resistance to the current inhibitors. Cancerous cells resist EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) through various mechanisms, the most commonly reported ones are the T790M mutation and HER2 amplification. Therefore, tackling EGFR TKIs-resistant tumors through a multi-targeting approach comprising a dual EGFR/HER2 inhibitor that is also capable of inhibiting the mutant T790M EGFR is anticipated to overcome drug resistance. In this review, we will survey the structural aspects of EGFR family and the structure-activity relationship of representative dual EGFR/HER2 inhibitors. To follow, we will discuss the structural aspects of the mutation-driven resistance and various design strategies to overcome it. Finally, we will review the SAR of exemplary irreversible dual EGFR/HER2 inhibitors that can overcome the mutation-driven resistance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Dermatologic Reactions to Targeted Therapy: A Focus on Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Inhibitors and Nursing Care.

    PubMed

    Barton-Burke, Margaret; Ciccolini, Kathryn; Mekas, Maria; Burke, Sean

    2017-03-01

    Cancer treatments usually have side effects of bone marrow depression, mucositis, hair loss, and gastrointestinal issues. Rarely do we think of skin side effects until patients have been treated successfully with epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors (EGFRi). Those reactions include papulopustular rash, hair changes, radiation dermatitis enhancement, pruritus, mucositis, xerosis, fissures, and paronychia. This article discusses the common skin reactions seen when using EGFRi and presents an overview of skin as the largest and important organ of the body, including an overview of skin assessment, pathophysiology of the skin reactions, nursing care involved, and introduction to oncodermatology.

  6. Discovery of Novel Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor-2 Inhibitors by Structure-based Virtual Screening

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Zheng; Yu, Tian; Sun, Rong; Wang, Shan; Chen, Xiao-Qian; Cheng, Li-Jia; Liu, Rong

    2016-01-01

    Background: Human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2) is a trans-membrane receptor like protein, and aberrant signaling of HER2 is implicated in many human cancers, such as ovarian cancer, gastric cancer, and prostate cancer, most notably breast cancer. Moreover, it has been in the spotlight in the recent years as a promising new target for therapy of breast cancer. Objective: Since virtual screening has become an integral part of the drug discovery process, it is of great significant to identify novel HER2 inhibitors by structure-based virtual screening. Materials and Methods: In this study, we carried out a series of elegant bioinformatics approaches, such as virtual screening and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to identify HER2 inhibitors from Food and Drug Administration-approved small molecule drug as potential “new use” drugs. Results: Molecular docking identified top 10 potential drugs which showed spectrum affinity to HER2. Moreover, MD simulations suggested that ZINC08214629 (Nonoxynol-9) and ZINC03830276 (Benzonatate) might exert potential inhibitory effects against HER2-targeted anti-breast cancer therapeutics. Conclusion: Together, our findings may provide successful application of virtual screening studies in the lead discovery process, and suggest that our discovered small molecules could be effective HER2 inhibitor candidates for further study. SUMMARY A series of elegant bioinformatics approaches, including virtual screening and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were took advantage to identify human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2) inhibitors. Molecular docking recognized top 10 candidate compounds, which showed spectrum affinity to HER2. Further, MD simulations suggested that ZINC08214629 (Nonoxynol-9) and ZINC03830276 (Benzonatate) in candidate compounds were identified as potential “new use” drugs against HER2-targeted anti-breast cancer therapeutics. Abbreviations used: HER2: Human epidermal growth factor receptor-2

  7. Prophylaxis and treatment of dermatologic adverse events from epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Wu, Peggy A; Balagula, Yevgeniy; Lacouture, Mario E; Anadkat, Milan J

    2011-07-01

    As the number and uses for targeted therapies such as epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors (EGFRIs) increase, so does the need to recognize and treat the dermatologic side-effects of these agents. Although agents such as gefitinib, erlotinib, cetuximab, lapatinib, and panitumumab have less systemic side-effects than traditional cytotoxic chemotherapy, dermatologic adverse events from EGFRIs are significantly more common. These dermatologic toxicities have previously led to reduction or cessation of therapy and recently have been shown to decrease patients' quality of life. This review provides a symptom-based treatment approach to the common dermatologic adverse effects seen with the epidermal growth factor receptor antagonists: papulopustular rash, xerosis, pruritus as well as hair, nail, and mucosal changes. Each dermatologic toxicity is described; prophylaxis and treatment options, from topical to systemic, are presented based on a review of the current literature with emphasis on new clinical trials results. We also provide specific recommendations based on our practice in a specialty clinic. Although the field continues to evolve, this review presents the most up-to-date information on managing dermatologic adverse effects of EGFRIs. Practitioners should find this article to be a practical resource in approaching patients on EGFRIs with dermatologic toxicities. As we learn how to optimally manage the adverse effects of these agents, we practitioners have the opportunity to increase patients' quality of life and decrease reductions or cessations of life-prolonging therapy.

  8. QSAR and 3D QSAR of inhibitors of the epidermal growth factor receptor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto-Bazurco, Mariano; Tsakovska, Ivanka; Pajeva, Ilza

    This article reports quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR) and 3D QSAR models of 134 structurally diverse inhibitors of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase. Free-Wilson analysis was used to derive the QSAR model. It identified the substituents in aniline, the polycyclic system, and the substituents at the 6- and 7-positions of the polycyclic system as the most important structural features. Comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) and comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA) were used in the 3D QSAR modeling. The steric and electrostatic interactions proved the most important for the inhibitory effect. Both QSAR and 3D QSAR models led to consistent results. On the basis of the statistically significant models, new structures were proposed and their inhibitory activities were predicted.

  9. An alternative inhibitor overcomes resistance caused by a mutation of the epidermal growth factor receptor.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Susumu; Ji, Hongbin; Yuza, Yuki; Meyerson, Matthew; Wong, Kwok-Kin; Tenen, Daniel G; Halmos, Balázs

    2005-08-15

    Mutations of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene have been identified in non-small cell lung cancer specimens from patients responding to anilinoquinazoline EGFR inhibitors. However, clinical resistance to EGFR inhibitor therapy is commonly observed. Previously, we showed that such resistance can be caused by a second mutation of the EGFR gene, leading to a T790M amino acid change in the EGFR tyrosine kinase domain and also found that CL-387,785, a specific and irreversible anilinoquinazoline EGFR inhibitor, was able to overcome this resistance on the biochemical level. Here, we present the successful establishment of a stable Ba/F3 cell line model system for the study of oncogenic EGFR signaling and the functional consequences of the EGFR T790M resistance mutation. We show the ability of gefitinib to induce growth arrest and apoptosis in cells transfected with wild-type or L858R EGFR, whereas the T790M mutation leads to high-level functional resistance against gefitinib and erlotinib. In addition, CL-387,785 is able to overcome resistance caused by the T790M mutation on a functional level, correlating with effective inhibition of downstream signaling pathways. Similar data was also obtained with the use of the gefitinib-resistant H1975 lung cancer cell line. The systems established by us should prove useful for the large-scale screening of alternative EGFR inhibitor compounds against the T790M or other EGFR mutations. These data also support the notion that clinical investigations of compounds similar to CL-387,785 may be useful as a treatment strategy for patients with resistance to EGFR inhibitor therapy caused by the T790M mutation.

  10. KRAS Testing and Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Inhibitor Treatment for Colorectal Cancer in Community Settings

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Jennifer; Kauffman, Tia L.; Feigelson, Heather Spencer; Pawloski, Pamala A.; Onitilo, Adedayo A.; Potosky, Arnold L.; Cross, Deanna; Meier, Paul R.; Mirabedi, Anousheh S.; Delate, Thomas; Daida, Yihe; Williams, Andrew E.; Alexander, Gwen L.; McCarty, Catherine A.; Honda, Stacey; Kushi, Lawrence H.; Goddard, Katrina A.B.

    2013-01-01

    Background In metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC), mutations in the KRAS gene predict poor response to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors. Clinical treatment guidelines now recommend KRAS testing if EGFR inhibitors are considered. Our study investigates the clinical uptake and utilization of KRAS testing. Methods We included 1,188 patients with mCRC diagnosed from 2004 to 2009, from seven integrated health care delivery systems with a combined membership of 5.5 million. We used electronic medical records and targeted manual chart review to capture the complexity and breadth of real-world clinical oncology care. Results Overall, 428 patients (36%) received KRAS testing during their clinical care, and 266 (22%) were treated with EGFR inhibitors. Age at diagnosis (p=0.0034), comorbid conditions (p=0.0316), and survival time from diagnosis (p<0.0001) influence KRAS testing and EGFR inhibitor prescribing. The proportion who received KRAS testing increased from 7% to 97% for those treated in 2006 and 2010, respectively, and 83% of all treated patients had a KRAS wild type genotype. Most patients with a KRAS mutation (86%) were not treated with EGFR inhibitors. The interval between mCRC diagnosis and receipt of KRAS testing decreased from 26 months (2006) to 10 months (2009). Conclusions These findings demonstrate rapid uptake and incorporation of this predictive biomarker into clinical oncology care. Impact In this delivery setting, KRAS testing is widely used to guide treatment decisions with EGFR inhibitors in patients with mCRC. An important future research goal is to evaluate utilization of KRAS testing in other delivery settings in the US. PMID:23155138

  11. Epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors trigger a type I interferon response in human skin

    PubMed Central

    Pastore, Saveria

    2016-01-01

    The Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) is centrally involved in the regulation of key processes of the epithelia, including cell proliferation, survival, differentiation, and also tumorigenesis. Humanized antibodies and small-molecule inhibitors targeting EGFR were developed to disrupt these functions in cancer cells and are currently used in the treatment of diverse metastatic epithelial cancers. By contrast, these drugs possess significant skin-specific toxic effects, comprising the establishment of a persistent inflammatory milieu. So far, the molecular mechanisms underlying these epiphenomena have been investigated rather poorly. Here we showed that keratinocytes respond to anti-EGFR drugs with the development of a type I interferon molecular signature. Upregulation of the transcription factor IRF1 is early implicated in the enhanced expression of interferon-kappa, leading to persistent activation of STAT1 and further amplification of downstream interferon-induced genes, including anti-viral effectors and chemokines. When anti-EGFR drugs are associated to TNF-α, whose expression is enhanced by the drugs themselves, all these molecular events undergo a dramatic enhancement by synergy mechanisms. Finally, high levels of interferon-kappa can be observed in epidermal keratinocytes and also in leukocytes infiltrating the upper dermis of cetuximab-driven skin lesions. Our data suggest that dysregulated activation of type I interferon innate immunity is implicated in the molecular processes triggered by anti-EGFR drugs and leading to persistent skin inflammation. PMID:27322144

  12. Semiology of skin toxicity associated with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Peuvrel, L; Bachmeyer, C; Reguiai, Z; Bachet, J B; André, T; Bensadoun, R J; Bouché, O; Ychou, M; Dréno, B

    2012-05-01

    Advances in the understanding of the mechanisms involved in oncogenesis have led to the development of so-called targeted therapies such as epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors, which take on an increasingly important role in the management of cancer. These treatments have the advantage not to trigger the adverse effects traditionally encountered with chemotherapy, such as nausea, vomiting or haematological toxicity. However, they do cause new forms of toxicity: the most common one is skin toxicity. It is important to be aware of it because it can be debilitating, adversely impacting patients' quality of life and altering treatment compliance, although it appears to be correlated with treatment response in certain series. Non-specialists can have difficulty in recognising this unusual skin toxicity. The dermatologic side effects most frequently triggered by EGFR inhibitors are discussed in this article. They are divided into three categories depending on their target: inflammation of the pilo-sebaceous follicle, represented by EGFR inhibitor-associated folliculitis, which occurs at an early stage and is frequent; alteration in the skin barrier, primarily responsible for xerosis, fissures and pruritus, which are frequent and delayed; and lesions of the skin appendages (paronychia, pyogenic granuloma, hair changes), which are delayed and less frequent. It is essential for all practitioners concerned to know about these dermatologic side effects in order to ensure better global management of patients, particularly in terms of quality of life.

  13. Recent Development of the Second and Third Generation Irreversible Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Han, Weiwei; Du, Yongli

    2017-07-01

    Recent reports suggested that essential directions for new lung cancer, breast carcinoma therapies, as well as the roomier realm of targeted cancer therapies were provided through targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Patients who carrying non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) with activating mutations in EGFR initially respond well to the EGFR inhibitors erlotinib and gefitinib, which were located the active site of the EGFR kinase and designed to act as competitive inhibitors of combining with the ATP. However, patients who were treated with the erlotinib and gefitinib will relapse because of the emergence of drug-resistant mutations, with T790M mutations accounting for approximately 60% of all resistance. In order to overcome drug resistance, Pharmaceutical chemistry experts recently devoted great endeavors to the development of second-generation irreversible selective inhibitors which covalently modify Cys797 or Cys773 at the ATP binding cleft. Nevertheless, these inhibitors have not reached ideal effect of experts in patients with T790M positive mutation and apparently because of the dose-limiting toxicities associated with inhibition of wild type EGFR. A novel class of 'third generation' EGFR TKIs have been developed that is sensitising and T790M mutant-specific whilst sparing WT EGFR, representing a significant breakthrough in the treatment in NSCLC patients with acquired resistance harboring these genotypes. Herein, we provides an overview of the second and third generation inhibitors currently approved, in clinical trial and also encompasses novel structures of discovery. This review mainly focuses on drug resistance, their mechanisms of action, development of structure-activity relationships and binding modes. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  14. Management of dermatologic toxicities associated with monoclonal antibody epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors: A case review

    PubMed Central

    Leporini, Christian; Saullo, Francesca; Filippelli, Gianfranco; Sorrentino, Antonio; Lucia, Maria; Perri, Gino; Gattuta, Gaetana La; Infusino, Stefania; Toscano, Rosa; Dima, Gianluca; Olivito, Virginia; Paletta, Laura; Bottoni, Ugo; De Sarro, Giovambattista

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors (EGFRIs), cetuximab and panitumumab, represent an effective treatment option for patients affected by metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC); furthermore, they are relatively devoid of systemic toxicities, which are commonly observed with standard cytotoxic chemotherapy. However, the majority of patients treated with these monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), will experience dermatologic toxicities, most notably the papulopustular skin rash, which can impact quality-of-life and affect adherence to therapy. This paper reviews the most recent practices in the management of skin rash related to anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mAbs, cetuximab and panitumumab, in the treatment of mCRC. Materials and Methods: We reviewed relevant literature regarding dermatologic toxicities associated with anti-EGFR mAbs in order to give important indications about prevention and reactive treatment of skin rash. Results: Two case reports were presented to show how skin rash could hamper mAb EGFRIs use in clinical practice, underscoring the need of implementing a comprehensive management strategy of skin toxicity in order to promote patients’ compliance with anti-EGFR therapy and maintain quality-of-life. Based on randomized data, recent guidelines established by the Multinational Association for Supportive Care in Cancer Skin Toxicity Study Group suggest that prophylactic use of oral doxycycline or minocycline reduces the risk and severity of skin rash, improving clinical outcomes. Conclusions: At the start of treatment with cetuximab and panitumumab, the proper patient education about the skin rash associated with these mAbs and the implementation of a pre-emptive, comprehensive skin toxicity program significantly contribute to improve adherence to therapy, optimize anti-EGFR therapy and maintain quality-of-life. PMID:24347989

  15. Interactions of ABCG2 (BCRP) with epidermal growth factor receptor kinase inhibitors developed for molecular imaging.

    PubMed

    Qawasmi, Israa; Shmuel, Miriam; Eyal, Sara

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate in vitro the interactions between novel epidermal growth factor receptor kinase inhibitors (EGFRIs) developed for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging and the major efflux transporter breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2). Seven compounds were evaluated, using the ATPase activity assays and Madin-Darbey canine kidney (MDCK) cells overexpressing BCRP. Five of the tested compounds activated BCRP ATPase to various extent. Overexpression of BCRP conferred resistance to ML04, ML06, methoxy-Br-ML03, and PEG6-ML05 (IC50 values for inhibition of control cell proliferation 2.1 ± 0.6, 2.2 ± 0.7, 1.8 ± 1.2, and 2.8 ± 3.1 μM, respectively, compared to >50 μM in MDCK-BCRP cells). At submicromolar concentrations, none of the EGFRIs significantly inhibited BCRP. Immunoblotting studies indicated that BCRP expression is evident in cell lines utilized for in vivo tumor grafting in small animal PET imaging studies. Thus, the intensity of EGFRIs radioactivity signals previously observed in tumor xenografts reflects an interplay between transporter-mediated distribution of the probe into tumor cells and target binding. Concomitant use of efflux transporter inhibitors may help distinguish between the contribution of efflux transport and EGFR binding to the tissue signal.

  16. Interactions of ABCG2 (BCRP) with epidermal growth factor receptor kinase inhibitors developed for molecular imaging

    PubMed Central

    Qawasmi, Israa; Shmuel, Miriam; Eyal, Sara

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate in vitro the interactions between novel epidermal growth factor receptor kinase inhibitors (EGFRIs) developed for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging and the major efflux transporter breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2). Seven compounds were evaluated, using the ATPase activity assays and Madin-Darbey canine kidney (MDCK) cells overexpressing BCRP. Five of the tested compounds activated BCRP ATPase to various extent. Overexpression of BCRP conferred resistance to ML04, ML06, methoxy-Br-ML03, and PEG6-ML05 (IC50 values for inhibition of control cell proliferation 2.1 ± 0.6, 2.2 ± 0.7, 1.8 ± 1.2, and 2.8 ± 3.1 μM, respectively, compared to >50 μM in MDCK-BCRP cells). At submicromolar concentrations, none of the EGFRIs significantly inhibited BCRP. Immunoblotting studies indicated that BCRP expression is evident in cell lines utilized for in vivo tumor grafting in small animal PET imaging studies. Thus, the intensity of EGFRIs radioactivity signals previously observed in tumor xenografts reflects an interplay between transporter-mediated distribution of the probe into tumor cells and target binding. Concomitant use of efflux transporter inhibitors may help distinguish between the contribution of efflux transport and EGFR binding to the tissue signal. PMID:25484865

  17. KRAS mutational status as a predictor of epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor efficacy in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Baynes, Roy D; Gansert, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Inhibitors of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) have demonstrated promising potential in the treatment of advanced colorectal cancer. However, a proportion of patients do not respond to therapy with EGFR inhibitors, and therefore, there has been interest in identifying those patients most likely to benefit from therapy with these agents. KRAS, a member of the RAS family of signaling proteins, plays an important role in EGFR-mediated regulation of cellular proliferation and survival. Although there is still some debate regarding the prognostic importance of KRAS mutations in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer, several recent phase 2 and 3 studies have identified the presence of mutations at codons 12 and 13 of KRAS as predictors of poor response to the anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies panitumumab and cetuximab. Patients with wild-type KRAS were found to have significantly better progression-free survival, overall survival, and/or objective response rate compared with patients harboring KRAS mutations. As a result, there has been growing interest in the development of KRAS mutational status as a biomarker for predicting patient response to EGFR-targeted therapy. Screening colorectal tumors for the absence of KRAS mutations may help identify patients most likely to benefit from anti-EGFR therapies.

  18. Ethnic differences in response to epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Calvo, Emiliano; Baselga, José

    2006-05-10

    The identification of somatic mutations in the tyrosine kinase domain of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and their correlation with response to EGFR inhibitors has become an important event in the fields of cancer genetics and therapeutics. The initial observation of a higher response to gefitinib and erlotinib in patients of Asian origin was followed by the discovery that they harbor more frequent EGFR mutations in NSCLC; this raises the issue of ethnic diversity in the pathogenesis of given tumors. In a similar fashion, amplification of the closely related HER2 gene, which could also have implications for the treatment of NSCLC, is also more frequent in East Asian patients. On the other hand, EGFR gene amplification may be more prevalent in Western populations. The implication of these findings is that ethnicity may indicate different genetic backgrounds in common tumors that may influence clinical outcome and response to therapy. Therefore, in clinical trials with tyrosine kinase inhibitors and other molecular-targeted therapies, the inclusion of a global population appears to be required.

  19. Resistance to Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Hammerman, Peter S; Jänne, Pasi A; Johnson, Bruce E

    2009-12-15

    Gefitinib and erlotinib are ATP competitive inhibitors of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase and are approved around the world for the treatment of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Somatic mutations in the EGFR are found in 10 to 40% of patients with NSCLC. Patients with sensitizing somatic mutations of EGFR treated with gefitinib or erlotinib have an initial clinical response of 60 to 80%, approximately twice as high as the responses associated with the administration of conventional platinum-based chemotherapy. However, the efficacy of EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) is limited by either primary (de novo) or acquired resistance after therapy and investigations to define the mechanisms of resistance are active areas of ongoing preclinical and clinical studies. Primary resistance is typically caused by other somatic mutations in genes such as KRAS, which also have an impact on the EGFR signaling pathway or by mutations in the EGFR gene that are not associated with sensitivity to EGFR-TKIs. Two established mechanisms of acquired resistance are caused by additional mutations in the EGFR gene acquired during the course of treatment that change the protein-coding sequence or by amplification of another oncogene signaling pathway driven by the MET oncogene. This review focuses on characterized mechanisms of resistance to the EGFR TKIs and efforts to overcome the problem of resistance aimed at improving the therapy of patients with NSCLC. (Clin Cancer Res 2009;15(24):7502-9).

  20. Cutaneous toxicity from epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors: would a subcutaneous desensitization be helpful? Case report.

    PubMed

    D'Alessio, Andrea; Cecchini, Sara; Di Mauro, Daniela; Geroli, Luca; Villa, Simonetta; Quadri, Antonello; Resta, Davide; Fortugno, Carmelo

    2016-11-11

    Cetuximab and panitumumab are monoclonal antibody inhibitors that bind the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) currently used in the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer. The main adverse event related to EGFR inhibitors (EGFR-Is) is cutaneous toxicity, which can cause dosage reduction and interruption of treatment. State-of-the-art management of skin toxicity associated with EGFR-Is therapy involves the topical administration of corticosteroids and oral antibiotics, but is not completely effective in the management of toxicity. Subcutaneous desensitization with increasing concentrations of monoclonal antibodies can induce a tolerance to drug administration and reduce cutaneous adverse effects. To our knowledge, this is the first case in which a reduction or a disappearance of skin toxicity caused by EGFR-Is through subcutaneous desensitization has been achieved. We present cases of 2 Caucasian patients with adenocarcinoma of the colon treated with EGFR-Is who developed severe cutaneous toxicity. A 73-year-old man presented grade 4 skin toxicity of the face and grade 3 skin toxicity of the trunk during treatment with cetuximab. A 68-year-old woman developed G2 rash on the face after the first administration of cetuximab. These patients underwent subcutaneous desensitization with increasing concentrations of EGFR-Is. After this procedure, patients restarted therapy at the optimal dosage with reduction or disappearance of skin toxicity. These cases suggest that by giving rising doses of antibody it is possible to obtain desensitization able to prevent severe cutaneous adverse events in patients treated with EGFR-Is.

  1. Management of adverse events during treatment of gastrointestinal cancers with epidermal growth factor inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Hofheinz, Ralf-Dieter; Segaert, Siegfried; Safont, María José; Demonty, Gaston; Prenen, Hans

    2017-06-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is involved in development and progression of some gastrointestinal cancers, and is targeted by monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) used to treat these conditions. Targeted agents are generally better tolerated than conventional chemotherapy, but have characteristic toxicities that can affect adherence, dosing, and outcomes. Skin conditions are the most common toxicities associated with EGFR inhibitors, particularly papulopustular rash. Other common toxicities include mucosal toxicity, electrolyte imbalances (notably hypomagnesaemia), and diarrhoea, while the chimaeric mAb cetuximab is also associated with increased risk of infusion reactions. With appropriate prophylaxis, the incidence and severity of these events can be reduced, while management strategies tailored to the patient and the degree of toxicity can help to ensure continuation of anti-cancer therapy. Here, we review the main toxicities associated with EGFR-inhibiting mAbs and TKIs in patients with gastrointestinal cancers, and provide recommendations for prophylaxis and treatment. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Tannic acid, a potent inhibitor of epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase.

    PubMed

    Yang, Er Bin; Wei, Liu; Zhang, Kai; Chen, Yu Zong; Chen, Wei Ning

    2006-03-01

    Increasing evidence supports the hypothesis that tannic acid, a plant polyphenol, exerts anticarcinogenic activity in chemically induced cancers. In the present study, tannic acid was found to strongly inhibit tyrosine kinase activity of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFr) in vitro (IC50 = 323 nM). In contrast, the inhibition by tannic acid of p60(c-src) tyrosine kinase (IC50 = 14 microM) and insulin receptor tyrosine kinase (IC50 = 5 microM) was much weaker. The inhibition of EGFr tyrosine kinase by tannic acid was competitive with respect to ATP and non-competitive with respect to peptide substrate. In cultured cells, growth factor-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of growth factor receptors, including EGFr, platelet-derived growth factor receptor, and basic fibroblast growth factor receptor, was inhibited by tannic acid. No inhibition of insulin-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor and insulin-receptor substrate-1 was observed. EGF-stimulated growth of HepG2 cells was inhibited in the presence of tannic acid. The inhibition of serine/threonine-specific protein kinases, including cAMP-dependent protein kinase, protein kinase C and mitogen-activated protein kinase, by tannic acid was only detected at relatively high concentration, IC50 being 3, 325 and 142 microM respectively. The molecular modeling study suggested that tannic acid could be docked into the ATP binding pockets of either EGFr or insulin receptor. These results demonstrate that tannic acid is an in vitro potent inhibitor of EGFr tyrosine kinase.

  3. Epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor protects against abdominal aortic aneurysm in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Obama, Takashi; Tsuji, Toshiyuki; Kobayashi, Tomonori; Fukuda, Yamato; Takayanagi, Takehiko; Taro, Yoshinori; Kawai, Tatsuo; Forrester, Steven J; Elliott, Katherine J; Choi, Eric; Daugherty, Alan; Rizzo, Victor; Eguchi, Satoru

    2015-05-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) has been implicated in the development of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). In vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC), Ang II activates epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mediating growth promotion. We hypothesized that inhibition of EGFR prevents Ang II-dependent AAA. C57BL/6 mice were co-treated with Ang II and β-aminopropionitrile (BAPN) to induce AAA with or without treatment with EGFR inhibitor, erlotinib. Without erlotinib, 64.3% of mice were dead due to aortic rupture. All surviving mice had AAA associated with EGFR activation. Erlotinib-treated mice did not die and developed far fewer AAA. The maximum diameters of abdominal aortas were significantly shorter with erlotinib treatment. In contrast, both erlotinib-treated and non-treated mice developed hypertension. The erlotinib treatment of abdominal aorta was associated with lack of EGFR activation, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, oxidative stress, interleukin-6 induction and matrix deposition. EGFR activation in AAA was also observed in humans. In conclusion, EGFR inhibition appears to protect mice from AAA formation induced by Ang II plus BAPN. The mechanism seems to involve suppression of vascular EGFR and ER stress.

  4. Is there a role for epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors in epidermal growth factor receptor wild-type non-small cell lung cancer?

    PubMed Central

    Arriola, Edurne; Taus, Álvaro; Casadevall, David

    2015-01-01

    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common type of lung cancer with a world-wide annual incidence of around 1.3 million. The majority of patients are diagnosed with advanced disease and survival remains poor. However, relevant advances have occurred in recent years through the identification of biomarkers that predict for benefit of therapeutic agents. This is exemplified by the efficacy of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors for the treatment of EGFR mutant patients. These drugs have also shown efficacy in unselected populations but this point remains controversial. Here we have reviewed the clinical data that demonstrate a small but consistent subgroup of EGFR wild-type patients with NSCLC that obtain a clinical benefit from these drugs. Moreover, we review the biological rationale that may explain this benefit observed in the clinical setting. PMID:26266101

  5. Sensitivities to various epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors of uncommon epidermal growth factor receptor mutations L861Q and S768I: What is the optimal epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor?

    PubMed

    Banno, Eri; Togashi, Yosuke; Nakamura, Yu; Chiba, Masato; Kobayashi, Yoshihisa; Hayashi, Hidetoshi; Terashima, Masato; de Velasco, Marco A; Sakai, Kazuko; Fujita, Yoshihiko; Mitsudomi, Tetsuya; Nishio, Kazuto

    2016-08-01

    Most patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) harboring common epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations, such as deletions in exon 19 or the L858R mutation in exon 21, respond dramatically to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKI), and their sensitivities to various EGFR-TKI have been well characterized. Our previous article showed the in vitro sensitivities of EGFR exon 18 mutations to EGFR-TKI, but little information regarding the sensitivities of other uncommon EGFR mutations is available. First, stable transfectant Ba/F3 cell lines harboring EGFR L858R (Ba/F3-L858R), L861Q (Ba/F3-L861Q) or S768I (Ba/F3-S768I) mutations were created and their drug sensitivities to various EGFR-TKI were examined. Both the Ba/F3-L861Q and Ba/F3-S768I cell lines were less sensitive to erlotinib, compared with the Ba/F3-L858R cell line, but their sensitivities to afatinib were similar to that of the Ba/F3-L858R cell line. The Ba/F3-L861Q cell line was similarly sensitive and the Ba/F3-S768I cell line was less sensitive to osimertinib, compared with the Ba/F3-L858R cell line. The results of western blot analyses were consistent with these sensitivities. Next, similar experiments were also performed using the KYSE270 (L861Q) and KYSE 450 (S768I) cell lines, and their results were compatible with those of the transfectant Ba/F3 cell lines. Our findings suggest that NSCLC harboring the EGFR L861Q mutation might be sensitive to afatinib or osimertinib and that NSCLC harboring the EGFR S768I mutation might be sensitive to afatinib. Overall, afatinib might be the optimal EGFR-TKI against these uncommon EGFR mutations.

  6. Addressing epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor resistance in non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Noda, Shoko; Kanda, Shintaro

    2016-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) have significantly improved the survival of patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) harboring EGFR activating mutations. However, nearly all EGFR-mutant NSCLC tumors eventually acquire resistance to the currently used EGFR-TKIs and subsequently progress clinically. Acquired resistance to EGFR-TKIs is thus a huge issue in the treatment of EGFR-mutant NSCLC at present. On one hand, T790M second-site mutation has been recognized as a key mechanism of EGFR-TKI resistance, and third generation EGFR-TKIs such as osimertinib and rociletinib have been developed to overcome tumor cells harboring the T790M mutation. On the other hand, combination with cytotoxic chemotherapy is also expected as another strategy for preventing the acquired resistance to current EGFR-TKIs and prolonging the survival benefits by EGFR-TKIs. Here, we review updated strategies for preventing or overcoming acquired resistance to EGFR-TKIs.

  7. Third-generation epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors in advanced nonsmall cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Pirker, Robert

    2016-03-01

    Patients with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation-positive nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) develop resistance during therapy with EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). In about half of the patients, this resistance is because of the emergence of the T790M mutation. Third-generation TKIs are active against EGFR-activating mutations and the T790M resistance mutation and have only limited efficacy against wild-type EGFR. Here we review the current status of the clinical development of these novel TKIs. Third-generation TKIs in clinical development include osimertinib, rociletinib, and HM61713. Osimertinib and rociletinib have shown clinical efficacy in phase I/II trials in patients who had acquired resistance to first- or second-generation TKIs. Both TKIs are currently further evaluated in phase III trials as first-line or second-line therapy in patients with advanced EGFR mutation-positive NSCLC. HM61713 is in early clinical development. Third-generation EGFR TKIs have shown activity in patients with acquired resistance to first- and second-generation EGFR TKIs and may further improve clinical outcome in patients with advanced EGFR mutation-positive NSCLC.

  8. Regulation of epidermal growth factor receptor signalling by inducible feedback inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Segatto, Oreste; Anastasi, Sergio; Alemà, Stefano

    2011-06-01

    Signalling by the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) controls morphogenesis and/or homeostasis of several tissues from worms to mammals. The correct execution of these programmes requires the generation of EGFR signals of appropriate strength and duration. This is obtained through a complex circuitry of positive and negative feedback regulation. Feedback inhibitory mechanisms restrain EGFR activity in time and space, which is key to ensuring that receptor outputs are commensurate to the cell and tissue needs. Here, we focus on the emerging field of inducible negative feedback regulation of the EGFR in mammals. In mammalian cells, four EGFR inducible feedback inhibitors (IFIs), namely LRIG1, RALT (also known as MIG6 and ERRFI1), SOCS4 and SOCS5, have been discovered recently. EGFR IFIs are expressed de novo in the context of early or delayed transcriptional responses triggered by EGFR activation. They all bind to the EGFR and suppress receptor signalling through several mechanisms, including catalytic inhibition and receptor downregulation. Here, we review the mechanistic basis of IFI signalling and rationalise the function of IFIs in light of gene-knockout studies that assign LRIG1 and RALT an essential role in restricting cell proliferation. Finally, we discuss how IFIs might participate in system control of EGFR signalling and highlight the emerging roles for IFIs in the suppression of EGFR-driven tumorigenesis.

  9. Dermatologic infections in cancer patients treated with epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor therapy.

    PubMed

    Eilers, R E; Gandhi, M; Patel, J D; Mulcahy, M F; Agulnik, M; Hensing, T; Lacouture, Mario E

    2010-01-06

    Patients treated with epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors (EGFRIs) frequently experience dermatologic toxic effects. Whereas the impact of these effects on quality of life and EGFRI dosing has been described, their impact on physical health has not been ascertained. We examined the prevalence of infections that complicate dermatologic toxic effects of EGFRIs. We used retrospective chart review methods to analyze 221 patients who were treated in the Skin and Eye Reactions to Inhibitors of EGFR and Kinases clinic, a referral clinic for dermatologic toxic effects of cancer therapies. We reviewed results of bacterial cultures, histopathologic assessment of biopsy samples, and immunohistochemical staining of skin specimens for viral pathogens that were recorded in the patients' medical records. Associations between patient demographic and treatment characteristics and the development of infections were examined using the Fisher exact test. All statistical tests were two-sided. Eighty-four (38%) of the 221 patients showed evidence of infection at sites of dermatologic toxic effect. Fifty (22.6%) of the 221 patients had cultures positive for Staphylococcus aureus, and 12 (5.4%) of the 221 patients cultured positive for methicillin-resistant S aureus. Less frequent infections included herpes simplex (3.2%), herpes zoster (1.8%), and dermatophytes (10.4%). The seborrheic region was the most prevalent site of infection, and patients with leukopenia had higher risk for infection than patients who did not have leukopenia (P = .005). Demographic factors and associated treatments were not associated with the occurrence of a dermatologic infection (P > or = .05). Patients with dermatologic toxic effects following treatment with EGFRIs have a high prevalence of cutaneous infections. Most notably, bacterial infections developed at sites previously affected by dermatologic toxic effects, with leukopenic patients being at greater risk.

  10. Mechanisms of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Resistance and Strategies to Overcome Resistance in Lung Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Yoon Soo; Choi, Chang-Min

    2016-01-01

    Somatic mutations that lead to hyperactivation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling are detected in approximately 50% of lung adenocarcinoma in people from the Far East population and tyrosine kinase inhibitors are now the standard first line treatment for advanced disease. They have led to a doubling of progression-free survival and an increase in overall survival by more than 2 years. However, emergence of resistant clones has become the primary cause for treatment failure, and has created a new challenge in the daily management of patients with EGFR mutations. Identification of mechanisms leading to inhibitor resistance has led to new therapeutic modalities, some of which have now been adapted for patients with unsuccessful tyrosine kinase inhibitor treatment. In this review, we describe mechanisms of tyrosine kinase inhibitor resistance and the available strategies to overcoming resistance. PMID:27790276

  11. Amphiregulin triggered epidermal growth factor receptor activation confers in vivo crizotinib-resistance of EML4-ALK lung cancer and circumvention by epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Hirokazu; Takeuchi, Shinji; Fukuda, Koji; Nakagawa, Takayuki; Arai, Sachiko; Nanjo, Shigeki; Yamada, Tadaaki; Yamaguchi, Hiroyuki; Mukae, Hiroshi; Yano, Seiji

    2017-01-01

    Crizotinib, a first-generation anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) tyrosine-kinase inhibitor, is known to be effective against echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4 (EML4)-ALK-positive non-small cell lung cancers. Nonetheless, the tumors subsequently become resistant to crizotinib and recur in almost every case. The mechanism of the acquired resistance needs to be deciphered. In this study, we established crizotinib-resistant cells (A925LPE3-CR) via long-term administration of crizotinib to a mouse model of pleural carcinomatous effusions; this model involved implantation of the A925LPE3 cell line, which harbors the EML4-ALK gene rearrangement. The resistant cells did not have the secondary ALK mutations frequently occurring in crizotinib-resistant cells, and these cells were cross-resistant to alectinib and ceritinib as well. In cell clone #2, which is one of the clones of A925LPE3-CR, crizotinib sensitivity was restored via the inhibition of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) by means of an EGFR tyrosine-kinase inhibitor (erlotinib) or an anti-EGFR antibody (cetuximab) in vitro and in the murine xenograft model. Cell clone #2 did not have an EGFR mutation, but the expression of amphiregulin (AREG), one of EGFR ligands, was significantly increased. A knockdown of AREG with small interfering RNAs restored the sensitivity to crizotinib. These data suggest that overexpression of EGFR ligands such as AREG can cause resistance to crizotinib, and that inhibition of EGFR signaling may be a promising strategy to overcome crizotinib resistance in EML4-ALK lung cancer.

  12. Can we define the optimal sequence of epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors for the treatment of epidermal growth factor receptor-mutant nonsmall cell lung cancer?

    PubMed

    Sun, Jong-Mu; Park, Keunchil

    2017-03-01

    The most common mechanism of resistance to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) is acquisition of the T790M gatekeeper mutation. Third-generation EGFR TKIs irreversibly inhibit EGFR mutants (EGFRm), especially T790M, while sparing wild-type EGFR. There are several third-generation EGFR TKIs under development, including osimertinib, CO-1686 (rociletinib), HM61713 (olmutinib), ASP8273, and EGF816. These third-generation EGFR TKIs have shown promising efficacy with favorable toxicity profiles in the management of advanced nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with an acquired T790M mutation (EGFR). In the present review, we will discuss the evolving treatment landscape of EGFRm NSCLC. The LUX-Lung 7 study demonstrated superior progression-free survival, time-to-treatment failure, and objective response rate with afatinib versus gefitinib, but no significant overall survival improvement in TKI-naïve EGFRm NSCLC patients. In EGFRm NSCLC patients harboring T790M after treatment with first-generation or second-generation EGFR TKIs, third-generation EGFR TKIs showed robust efficacy with tolerable toxicity. The updated results of phase I studies have demonstrated encouraging activity of first-line osimertinib in patients with EGFRm NSCLC. Following progression with first-generation or second-generation EGFR TKIs, osimertinib was recently approved for the treatment of EGFR NSCLC. Encouraging early results with osimertinib have sparked interest in first-line treatment of EGFRm NSCLC, and head-to-head comparison studies of third-generation versus first-generation EGFR TKIs are being developed.

  13. SAR and QSAR study on the bioactivities of human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2) inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Qu, D; Yan, A; Zhang, J S

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, structure-activity relationship (SAR, classification) and quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models have been established to predict the bioactivity of human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2) inhibitors. For the SAR study, we established six SAR (or classification) models to distinguish highly and weakly active HER2 inhibitors. The dataset contained 868 HER2 inhibitors, which was split into a training set including 580 inhibitors and a test set including 288 inhibitors by a Kohonen's self-organizing map (SOM), or a random method. The SAR models were performed using support vector machine (SVM), random forest (RF) and multilayer perceptron (MLP) methods. Among the six models, SVM models obtained superior results compared with other models. The prediction accuracy of the best model (model 1A) was 90.27% and the Matthews correlation coefficient (MCC) was 0.80 on the test set. For the QSAR study, we chose 286 HER2 inhibitors to establish six quantitative prediction models using MLR, SVM and MLP methods. The correlation coefficient (r) of the best model (model 4B) was 0.92 on the test set. The descriptors analysis showed that HAccN, lone pair electronegativity and π electronegativity were closely related to the bioactivity of HER2 inhibitors.

  14. Prediction of Inhibitory Activity of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Inhibitors Using Grid Search-Projection Pursuit Regression Method

    PubMed Central

    Du, Hongying; Hu, Zhide; Bazzoli, Andrea; Zhang, Yang

    2011-01-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) is an important protein target for anti-tumor drug discovery. To identify potential EGFR inhibitors, we conducted a quantitative structure–activity relationship (QSAR) study on the inhibitory activity of a series of quinazoline derivatives against EGFR tyrosine kinase. Two 2D-QSAR models were developed based on the best multi-linear regression (BMLR) and grid-search assisted projection pursuit regression (GS-PPR) methods. The results demonstrate that the inhibitory activity of quinazoline derivatives is strongly correlated with their polarizability, activation energy, mass distribution, connectivity, and branching information. Although the present investigation focused on EGFR, the approach provides a general avenue in the structure-based drug development of different protein receptor inhibitors. PMID:21811593

  15. Tumor penetration of gefitinib (Iressa), an epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    McKillop, David; Partridge, Elizabeth A; Kemp, John V; Spence, Mike P; Kendrew, Jane; Barnett, Sharon; Wood, Phillippa G; Giles, Petrina B; Patterson, Andrew B; Bichat, Francis; Guilbaud, Nicolas; Stephens, Trevor C

    2005-04-01

    The relative distribution of gefitinib-related material in nude mice bearing s.c. human tumor xenografts and in an orthotopic rat lung tumor model was investigated following oral administration (50 mg/kg) of [14C]-gefitinib. Selected tissue samples were monitored for radioactivity by liquid scintillation counting, whereas plasma and tumor extracts were assayed for gefitinib and its major metabolites (M523595 and M537194) by high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometric detection. Tissue distribution was also determined by whole body autoradiography. Gefitinib was extensively distributed into the tissues of tumor-bearing mice and unchanged gefitinib was shown to account for most of the tumor radioactivity. Concentrations of gefitinib in mouse s.c. tumor xenografts were similar to skin concentrations and substantially greater (up to 12-fold based on area under the concentration-time curve) than plasma. Concentrations of gefitinib-related material in an orthotopic rat lung tumor were similar to those in healthy lung tissue and were much higher than corresponding blood levels. Following treatment of breast cancer patients with oral gefitinib (Iressa) 250 mg/d for > or = 14 days, gefitinib concentrations (mean, 7.5 microg/g, 16.7 micromol/L) in breast tumor tissue were 42 times higher than plasma, confirming the preferential distribution of gefitinib from blood into tumor tissue in the clinical situation. These gefitinib tumor concentrations are considerably higher than those reportedly required in vitro to achieve complete inhibition of epidermal growth factor receptor autophosphorylation in both epidermal growth factor receptor mutant (0.2 micromol/L) and wild-type cells (2 micromol/L).

  16. Dialkoxyquinazolines: Screening Epidermal Growth Factor ReceptorTyrosine Kinase Inhibitors for Potential Tumor Imaging Probes

    SciTech Connect

    VanBrocklin, Henry F.; Lim, John K.; Coffing, Stephanie L.; Hom,Darren L.; Negash, Kitaw; Ono, Michele Y.; Hanrahan, Stephen M.; Taylor,Scott E.; Vanderpoel, Jennifer L.; Slavik, Sarah M.; Morris, Andrew B.; Riese II, David J.

    2005-09-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), a long-standingdrug development target, is also a desirable target for imaging. Sixteendialkoxyquinazoline analogs, suitable for labeling with positron-emittingisotopes, have been synthesized and evaluated in a battery of in vitroassays to ascertain their chemical and biological properties. Thesecharacteristics provided the basis for the adoption of a selection schemato identify lead molecules for labeling and in vivo evaluation. A newEGFR tyrosine kinase radiometric binding assay revealed that all of thecompounds possessed suitable affinity (IC50 = 0.4 - 51 nM) for the EGFRtyrosine kinase. All of the analogs inhibited ligand-induced EGFRtyrosine phosphorylation (IC50 = 0.8 - 20 nM). The HPLC-estimatedoctanol/water partition coefficients ranged from 2.0-5.5. Four compounds,4-(2'-fluoroanilino)- and 4-(3'-fluoroanilino)-6,7-diethoxyquinazoline aswell as 4-(3'-chloroanilino)- and4-(3'-bromoanilino)-6,7-dimethoxyquinazoline, possess the bestcombination of characteristics that warrant radioisotope labeling andfurther evaluation in tumor-bearing mice.

  17. Third-Generation Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors Targeting Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Mutations in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Tristan A; O'Kane, Grainne M; Vincent, Mark David; Leighl, Natasha B

    2017-01-01

    Sensitizing mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) predict response to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) and both first- and second-generation TKIs are available as first-line treatment options in patients with advanced EGFR-mutant non-small cell lung cancer. Eventual resistance develops with multiple mechanisms identifiable both upon repeat biopsy and in plasma circulating tumor DNA. The T790M gatekeeper mutation is responsible for almost 60% of cases. A number of third-generation TKIs are in clinical development, and osimertinib has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of patients with EGFR T790M mutant lung cancer after failure of initial EGFR kinase therapy. Resistance mechanisms are being identified to these novel agents, and the treatment landscape of EGFR-mutant lung cancer continues to evolve. The sequence of EGFR TKIs may change in the future and combination therapies targeting resistance appear highly promising.

  18. Multidrug transporter ABCG2 prevents tumor cell death induced by the epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor Iressa (ZD1839, Gefitinib).

    PubMed

    Elkind, N Barry; Szentpétery, Zsófia; Apáti, Agota; Ozvegy-Laczka, Csilla; Várady, György; Ujhelly, Olga; Szabó, Katalin; Homolya, László; Váradi, András; Buday, László; Kéri, György; Német, Katalin; Sarkadi, Balázs

    2005-03-01

    Iressa (ZD1839, Gefitinib), used in clinics to treat non-small cell lung cancer patients, is a tyrosine kinase receptor inhibitor that leads to specific decoupling of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling. Recent data indicate that Iressa is especially effective in tumors with certain EGFR mutations; however, a subset of these tumors does not respond to Iressa. In addition, certain populations have an elevated risk of side effects during Iressa treatment. The human ABCG2 (BCRP/MXR/ABCP) transporter causes cancer drug resistance by actively extruding a variety of cytotoxic drugs, and it functions physiologically to protect our tissues from xenobiotics. Importantly, ABCG2 modifies absorption, distribution, and toxicity of several pharmacologic agents. Previously, we showed that ABCG2 displays a high-affinity interaction with several tyrosine kinase receptor inhibitors, including Iressa. Here, we show that the expression of ABCG2, but not its nonfunctional mutant, protects the EGFR signaling-dependent A431 tumor cells from death on exposure to Iressa. This protection is reversed by the ABCG2-specific inhibitor, Ko143. These data, reinforced with cell biology and biochemical experiments, strongly suggest that ABCG2 can actively pump Iressa. Therefore, variable expression and polymorphisms of ABCG2 may significantly modify the antitumor effect as well as the absorption and tissue distribution of Iressa.

  19. Immune-Modulation by Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Inhibitors: Implication on Anti-Tumor Immunity in Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Herrmann, Amanda C.; Bernatchez, Chantale; Haymaker, Cara; Molldrem, Jeffrey J.; Hong, Waun Ki; Perez-Soler, Roman

    2016-01-01

    Skin toxicity is the most common toxicity caused by Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) inhibitors, and has been associated with clinical efficacy. As EGFR inhibitors enhance the expression of antigen presenting molecules in affected skin keratinocytes, they may concurrently facilitate neo-antigen presentation in lung cancer tumor cells contributing to anti-tumor immunity. Here, we investigated the modulatory effect of the EGFR inhibitor, erlotinib on antigen presenting molecules and PD-L1, prominent immune checkpoint protein, of skin keratinocytes and lung cancer cell lines to delineate the link between EGFR signaling pathway inhibition and potential anti-tumor immunity. Erlotinib up-regulated MHC-I and MHC-II proteins on IFNγ treated keratinocytes but abrogated IFNγ-induced expression of PD-L1, suggesting the potential role of infiltrating autoreactive T cells in the damage of keratinocytes in affected skin. Interestingly, the surface expression of MHC-I, MHC-II, and PD-L1 was up-regulated in response to IFNγ more often in lung cancer cell lines sensitive to erlotinib, but only expression of PD-L1 was inhibited by erlotinib. Further, erlotinib significantly increased T cell mediated cytotoxicity on lung cancer cells. Lastly, the analysis of gene expression dataset of 186 lung cancer cell lines from Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia demonstrated that overexpression of PD-L1 was associated with sensitivity to erlotinib and higher expression of genes related to antigen presenting pathways and IFNγ signaling pathway. Our findings suggest that the EGFR inhibitors can facilitate anti-tumor adaptive immune responses by breaking tolerance especially in EGFR driven lung cancer that are associated with overexpression of PD-L1 and genes related to antigen presentation and inflammation. PMID:27467256

  20. Immune-Modulation by Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Inhibitors: Implication on Anti-Tumor Immunity in Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Im, Jin S; Herrmann, Amanda C; Bernatchez, Chantale; Haymaker, Cara; Molldrem, Jeffrey J; Hong, Waun Ki; Perez-Soler, Roman

    2016-01-01

    Skin toxicity is the most common toxicity caused by Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) inhibitors, and has been associated with clinical efficacy. As EGFR inhibitors enhance the expression of antigen presenting molecules in affected skin keratinocytes, they may concurrently facilitate neo-antigen presentation in lung cancer tumor cells contributing to anti-tumor immunity. Here, we investigated the modulatory effect of the EGFR inhibitor, erlotinib on antigen presenting molecules and PD-L1, prominent immune checkpoint protein, of skin keratinocytes and lung cancer cell lines to delineate the link between EGFR signaling pathway inhibition and potential anti-tumor immunity. Erlotinib up-regulated MHC-I and MHC-II proteins on IFNγ treated keratinocytes but abrogated IFNγ-induced expression of PD-L1, suggesting the potential role of infiltrating autoreactive T cells in the damage of keratinocytes in affected skin. Interestingly, the surface expression of MHC-I, MHC-II, and PD-L1 was up-regulated in response to IFNγ more often in lung cancer cell lines sensitive to erlotinib, but only expression of PD-L1 was inhibited by erlotinib. Further, erlotinib significantly increased T cell mediated cytotoxicity on lung cancer cells. Lastly, the analysis of gene expression dataset of 186 lung cancer cell lines from Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia demonstrated that overexpression of PD-L1 was associated with sensitivity to erlotinib and higher expression of genes related to antigen presenting pathways and IFNγ signaling pathway. Our findings suggest that the EGFR inhibitors can facilitate anti-tumor adaptive immune responses by breaking tolerance especially in EGFR driven lung cancer that are associated with overexpression of PD-L1 and genes related to antigen presentation and inflammation.

  1. Searching for a magic bullet in NSCLC: the role of epidermal growth factor receptor mutations and tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Wong, Kwok-Kin

    2008-06-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has been implicated in the pathophysiology of various cancers, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Inhibitors targeting the tyrosine kinase domain of this receptor have been seen to elicit favourable responses in a subset of NSCLC patients. Mutational analysis of the EGFR has revealed that the response to reversible tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) is a result of the presence of activating mutations present between exons 18 and 21, most frequently the exon 19 deletion and the L858R mutations. After a prolonged treatment with reversible TKIs, patients have been seen to develop resistance that results, in part, from the presence of the secondary T790M mutation in exon 20. Preclinical data suggest that second-generation TKIs may be able to overcome T790M resistance by virtue of their irreversible mode of binding. In addition to the predominant mutations in the EGFR gene, alternative genetic changes between exons 18 and 21 have been observed. Experimental models have demonstrated that TKIs exhibit differential efficacy depending on which mutations are present. Such information may result in the design of highly specific agents that target specific mutations, which could result in more efficacious treatments.

  2. JAK3 inhibitor VI is a mutant specific inhibitor for epidermal growth factor receptor with the gatekeeper mutation T790M

    PubMed Central

    Nishiya, Naoyuki; Sakamoto, Yasumitsu; Oku, Yusuke; Nonaka, Takamasa; Uehara, Yoshimasa

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To identify non-quinazoline kinase inhibitors effective against drug resistant mutants of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). METHODS: A kinase inhibitor library was subjected to screening for specific inhibition pertaining to the in vitro kinase activation of EGFR with the gatekeeper mutation T790M, which is resistant to small molecular weight tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) for EGFR in non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs). This inhibitory effect was confirmed by measuring autophosphorylation of EGFR T790M/L858R in NCI-H1975 cells, an NSCLC cell line harboring the gatekeeper mutation. The effects of a candidate compound, Janus kinase 3 (JAK3) inhibitor VI, on cell proliferation were evaluated using the MTT assay and were compared between T790M-positive and -negative lung cancer cell lines. JAK3 inhibitor VI was modeled into the ATP-binding pocket of EGFR T790M/L858R. Potential physical interactions between the compound and kinase domains of wild-type (WT) or mutant EGFRs or JAK3 were estimated by calculating binding energy. The gatekeeper residues of EGFRs and JAKs were aligned to discuss the similarities among EGFR T790M and JAKs. RESULTS: We found that JAK3 inhibitor VI, a known inhibitor for JAK3 tyrosine kinase, selectively inhibits EGFR T790M/L858R, but has weaker inhibitory effects on the WT EGFR in vitro. JAK3 inhibitor VI also specifically reduced autophosphorylation of EGFR T790M/L858R in NCI-H1975 cells upon EGF stimulation, but did not show the inhibitory effect on WT EGFR in A431 cells. Furthermore, JAK3 inhibitor VI suppressed the proliferation of NCI-H1975 cells, but showed limited inhibitory effects on the WT EGFR-expressing cell lines A431 and A549. A docking simulation between JAK3 inhibitor VI and the ATP-binding pocket of EGFR T790M/L858R predicted a potential binding status with hydrogen bonds. Estimated binding energy of JAK3 inhibitor VI to EGFR T790M/L858R was more stable than its binding energy to the WT EGFR. Amino acid

  3. JAK3 inhibitor VI is a mutant specific inhibitor for epidermal growth factor receptor with the gatekeeper mutation T790M.

    PubMed

    Nishiya, Naoyuki; Sakamoto, Yasumitsu; Oku, Yusuke; Nonaka, Takamasa; Uehara, Yoshimasa

    2015-11-26

    To identify non-quinazoline kinase inhibitors effective against drug resistant mutants of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). A kinase inhibitor library was subjected to screening for specific inhibition pertaining to the in vitro kinase activation of EGFR with the gatekeeper mutation T790M, which is resistant to small molecular weight tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) for EGFR in non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs). This inhibitory effect was confirmed by measuring autophosphorylation of EGFR T790M/L858R in NCI-H1975 cells, an NSCLC cell line harboring the gatekeeper mutation. The effects of a candidate compound, Janus kinase 3 (JAK3) inhibitor VI, on cell proliferation were evaluated using the MTT assay and were compared between T790M-positive and -negative lung cancer cell lines. JAK3 inhibitor VI was modeled into the ATP-binding pocket of EGFR T790M/L858R. Potential physical interactions between the compound and kinase domains of wild-type (WT) or mutant EGFRs or JAK3 were estimated by calculating binding energy. The gatekeeper residues of EGFRs and JAKs were aligned to discuss the similarities among EGFR T790M and JAKs. We found that JAK3 inhibitor VI, a known inhibitor for JAK3 tyrosine kinase, selectively inhibits EGFR T790M/L858R, but has weaker inhibitory effects on the WT EGFR in vitro. JAK3 inhibitor VI also specifically reduced autophosphorylation of EGFR T790M/L858R in NCI-H1975 cells upon EGF stimulation, but did not show the inhibitory effect on WT EGFR in A431 cells. Furthermore, JAK3 inhibitor VI suppressed the proliferation of NCI-H1975 cells, but showed limited inhibitory effects on the WT EGFR-expressing cell lines A431 and A549. A docking simulation between JAK3 inhibitor VI and the ATP-binding pocket of EGFR T790M/L858R predicted a potential binding status with hydrogen bonds. Estimated binding energy of JAK3 inhibitor VI to EGFR T790M/L858R was more stable than its binding energy to the WT EGFR. Amino acid sequence alignments revealed

  4. Overcoming resistance to first/second generation epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors and ALK inhibitors in oncogene-addicted advanced non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Romanidou, Ourania; Landi, Lorenza; Cappuzzo, Federico; Califano, Raffaele

    2016-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activating mutations and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene rearrangement in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) represent the two oncogenic events with an impact on current clinical practice. EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) and crizotinib are the standard of care for the treatment of EGFR mutant and ALK gene rearranged advanced NSCLC patients. Unfortunately, despite initial clinical benefit, acquired resistance to EGFR-TKIs or crizotinib usually develops after an average of 10–12 months of treatment. The aim of this review is to describe the mechanisms of resistance to first/second generation EGFR-TKIs and crizotinib. In particular, we focus on strategies to overcome resistance due to secondary EGFR T790M mutation and mutations of the ALK domain. PMID:27239236

  5. Ethacrynic acid improves the antitumor effects of irreversible epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hu, YunLong; Chen, TingTing; Peng, BoYa; Gao, NingNing; Jin, ZhenChao; Jia, TieLiu; Zhang, Na; Wang, ZhuLin; Jin, GuangYi

    2016-01-01

    Prolonged treatment of breast cancer with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) often results in acquired resistance and a narrow therapeutic index. One strategy to improve the therapeutic effects of EGFR TKIs is to combine them with drugs used for other clinical indications. Ethacrynic acid (EA) is an FDA approved drug that may have antitumor effects and may enhance the cytotoxicity of chemotherapeutic agents by binding to glutathione and inhibiting WNT signaling. While the α,β-unsaturated-keto structure of EA is similar to that of irreversible TKIs, the mechanism of action of EA when combined with irreversible EGFR TKIs in breast cancer remains unknown. We therefore investigated the combination of irreversible EGFR TKIs and EA. We found that irreversible EGFR TKIs and EA synergistically inhibit breast cancer both in vitro and in vivo. The combination of EGFR TKIs and EA induces necrosis and cell cycle arrest and represses WNT/β-catenin signaling as well as MAPK-ERK1/2 signaling. We conclude that EA synergistically enhances the antitumor effects of irreversible EGFR TKIs in breast cancer. PMID:27487128

  6. Ethacrynic acid improves the antitumor effects of irreversible epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bing; Huang, XinPing; Hu, YunLong; Chen, TingTing; Peng, BoYa; Gao, NingNing; Jin, ZhenChao; Jia, TieLiu; Zhang, Na; Wang, ZhuLin; Jin, GuangYi

    2016-09-06

    Prolonged treatment of breast cancer with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) often results in acquired resistance and a narrow therapeutic index. One strategy to improve the therapeutic effects of EGFR TKIs is to combine them with drugs used for other clinical indications. Ethacrynic acid (EA) is an FDA approved drug that may have antitumor effects and may enhance the cytotoxicity of chemotherapeutic agents by binding to glutathione and inhibiting WNT signaling. While the α,β-unsaturated-keto structure of EA is similar to that of irreversible TKIs, the mechanism of action of EA when combined with irreversible EGFR TKIs in breast cancer remains unknown. We therefore investigated the combination of irreversible EGFR TKIs and EA. We found that irreversible EGFR TKIs and EA synergistically inhibit breast cancer both in vitro and in vivo. The combination of EGFR TKIs and EA induces necrosis and cell cycle arrest and represses WNT/β-catenin signaling as well as MAPK-ERK1/2 signaling. We conclude that EA synergistically enhances the antitumor effects of irreversible EGFR TKIs in breast cancer.

  7. Three generations of epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors developed to revolutionize the therapy of lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Haijun

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer, ~80%–85% of which is non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Sensitizing mutations in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene (EGFRm+), such as exon 19 deletions and exon 21 L858R point mutations, are the most important drivers in NSCLC patients. In this respect, small-molecule EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have been designed and developed, which launched the era of targeted, personalized and precise medicine for lung cancer. Patients with EGFRm+ could achieve good responses to the treatment with the first-generation EGFR TKIs, such as erlotinib and gefitinib. However, most patients develop acquired drug resistance mostly driven by the T790M mutation occurring within exon 20. Although the second-generation EGFR TKIs, such as afatinib, dacomitinib and neratinib, demonstrated promising activity against T790M in preclinical models, they have failed to overcome resistance in patients due to dose-limiting toxicity. Recently, the third-generation EGFR TKIs have shown to be effective against cell lines and murine models harboring T790M mutations while sparing wild-type EGFR, which represents a promising breakthrough approach in overcoming T790M-mediated resistance in NSCLC patients. This article provides a comprehensive review of the therapy revolution for NSCLC with three generations of EGFR TKIs. PMID:27920501

  8. Second and third-generation epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors in advanced nonsmall cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Liao, Bin-Chi; Lin, Chia-Chi; Yang, James Chih-Hsin

    2015-03-01

    The first-generation epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs), gefitinib and erlotinib, are effective as first-line treatment of advanced nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) harboring activating EGFR mutations (deletions in exon 19 and exon 21 L858R mutation). EGFR T790 M resistance mutation (EGFR T790 M) ultimately emerged in most of these patients. The second and third-generation EGFR-TKIs were designed to have more potent inhibition of EGFR and to overcome EGFR T790 M. This review describes the recent developments of these novel EGFR-TKIs. The second-generation EGFR-TKIs, afatinib and dacomitinib, irreversibly bind to the tyrosine kinase of EGFR and other ErbB-family members. Afatinib has been approved as first-line treatment of advanced NSCLC harboring activating EGFR mutations. Dacomitinib is under development. Third-generation EGFR-TKIs, AZD9291, CO-1686, and HM61713, inhibit both EGFR activating and resistance mutations, while sparing wild-type EGFR. In early-phase studies, these drugs demonstrated promising response rates against tumors with acquired EGFR T790 M. Second-generation EGFR-TKI, afatinib, is available as first-line treatment of advanced NSCLC harboring activating EGFR mutations. Third-generation EGFR-TKIs are under development for tumors harboring acquired EGFR T790 M.

  9. Management of hyperglycemia from epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) targeting T790M-mediated resistance

    PubMed Central

    Ersek, Jennifer L.; Fong, Mei Ka; Sirianno, Lindsey; Story, Ellen S.

    2015-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients are associated with sensitivity to small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) such as erlotinib, gefitinib, and afatinib. Although studies show an increased progression free survival (PFS) with use of EGFR TKIs in the first-line setting, most patients will develop resistance to therapy after the first 8-16 months. T790M is an acquired resistance mutation reported in 60-70% of patients who initially responded to a prior EGFR TKI. Recently, EGFR TKIs targeting T790M have been developed to overcome resistance with positive results in PFS and objective response rate in patients who have had disease progression on at least one TKI. Two EGFR TKIs targeting T790M, AZD9291 and rociletinib, are new active treatment options for NSCLC but differ in adverse effect profiles. Dose-limiting hyperglycemia has been reported with rociletinib and has required dose reduction, an oral antihyperglycemic, or both, without discontinuation of therapy. This suggests that patients may be effectively treated chronically for hyperglycemia associated with EGFR TKIs targeting T790M, however, guidelines for treatment of hyperglycemia in this setting have not been published. We discuss mechanisms of hyperglycemia associated with TKIs and initial management of hyperglycemia, including benefits and limitations of oral antihyperglycemic options, adjustment of therapy based on grade of hyperglycemia, and recommendations for follow-up glucose monitoring. PMID:26629426

  10. Optimizing the use of epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors in advanced non-small-lung cancer (NSCLC)

    PubMed Central

    Shash, Emad; Peccatori, Fedro Alessandro; Azim, Hatem A

    2011-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death in US and Europe. Treatment with a platinum-based chemotherapy remains the standard of care, however with modest effect on quality of life and overall survival which seldom reaches 1 year. Recently, several classes of targeted agents have emerged showing promising results. In particular, agents targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) showed impressive clinical activity both in the first line and salvage settings. However, it is evident that these drugs are not effective in all patients. Putting into consideration the very high cost of these agents, there is an urgent need to provide reliable tools to identify those patients that would derive the maximum benefit from these drugs. Several predictive biomarkers were developed to identify those patients who would derive the maximal benefit of these drugs. In this review we will discuss the recent updates on the role of EGFR inhibitors in the treatment of advanced NSCLC and the role of predictive bio-markers in patient selection. PMID:22263061

  11. Effects of Colloidal Oatmeal Lotion on Symptoms of Dermatologic Toxicities Induced by Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Ke, Ya-Ting; Kuo, Chia-Chi

    2017-01-01

    The common adverse effects associated with targeted therapy for cancer, such as epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors (EGFRIs), are dermatologic toxicities that cause the patient physical discomfort and affect treatment. Colloidal oatmeal lotion (COL) has been proven to help prevent dermatitis and xerosis. Evidence of its effect on EGFRI-induced dermatologic toxicities, however, is limited. The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of COL on EGFRI-induced dermatologic toxicities. This study used a 1-group pretest-posttest design with a convenience sample of 30 patients with cancer who developed EGFRI-induced dermatologic toxicities from a medical center in southern Taiwan. All participants applied topical COL 3 to 5 times a day for 4 consecutive weeks and received a pretest and 4 posttests. A generalized estimating equation was used to assess the impact of demographics, disease characteristics, and weeks of COL use on dermatologic toxicity severity, body surface area affected, and level of pruritus. Significant differences were found between the pretest and all posttests after using COL with regard to the severity, body surface area affected, and level of pruritus in participants who developed EGFRI-induced dermatologic toxicities (P < .05). There were no significant differences in demographics or disease characteristics on EGFRI-induced dermatologic toxicities. Based on the study results, COL could improve the symptoms of dermatologic toxicities in those receiving EGFRIs with no adverse effects. Therefore, the authors suggest the use of COL in clinical settings.

  12. Novel irreversible epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors by chemical modulation of the cysteine-trap portion.

    PubMed

    Carmi, Caterina; Cavazzoni, Andrea; Vezzosi, Stefano; Bordi, Fabrizio; Vacondio, Federica; Silva, Claudia; Rivara, Silvia; Lodola, Alessio; Alfieri, Roberta R; La Monica, Silvia; Galetti, Maricla; Ardizzoni, Andrea; Petronini, Pier Giorgio; Mor, Marco

    2010-03-11

    Irreversible EGFR inhibitors can circumvent acquired resistance to first-generation reversible, ATP-competitive inhibitors in the treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer. They contain both a driver group, which assures target recognition, and a warhead, generally an acrylamide or propargylamide fragment that binds covalently to Cys797 within the kinase domain of EGFR. We performed a systematic exploration of the role for the warhead group, introducing different cysteine-trapping fragments at position 6 of a traditional 4-anilinoquinazoline scaffold. We found that different reactive groups, including epoxyamides (compounds 3-6) and phenoxyacetamides (compounds 7-9), were able to irreversibly inhibit EGFR. In particular, at significant lower concentrations than gefitinib (1), (2R,3R)-N-(4-(3-bromoanilino)quinazolin-6-yl)-3-(piperidin-1-ylmethyl)oxirane-2-carboxamide (6) inhibited EGFR autophosphorylation and downstream signaling pathways, suppressed proliferation, and induced apoptosis in gefitinib-resistant NSCLC H1975 cells, harboring the T790M mutation in EGFR.

  13. A-62176, a potent topoisomerase inhibitor, inhibits the expression of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye-Lin; Jeon, Kyung-Hwa; Jun, Kyu-Yeon; Choi, Yongmun; Kim, Dae-Kee; Na, Younghwa; Kwon, Youngjoo

    2012-12-01

    HER2 overexpression is observed in ∼6-35% of all gastric cancers, while co-amplification of topoisomerase IIα occurs in ∼32-90% of all cancers with HER2 amplification. The present study reports that HER2 expression is down-regulated by A-62176, a fluoroquinophenoxazine derivative that we previously demonstrated to inhibit topoisomerase I and IIα. The results suggest that A-62176 inhibits the interaction between the ESX, an ets transcription factor, and its co-activator Sur2, leading to the attenuation of HER2-mediated phosphorylation of MAPK/Akt. A-62176 arrests the cell cycle in the G1 phase via the down-regulation of cyclin D1 and the up-regulation of p27(Kip1) in NCI-N87 gastric cancer cells. The combination of A-62176 with doxorubicin provides a strong synergistic activity. We propose that A-62176 is a dual inhibitor that impairs the expression of HER2 and restrains the activity of topoisomerase IIα. Our results may lead to the rational design of anticancer molecules targeting a subgroup of gastric cancer cells overexpressing both HER2 and topoisomerase IIα.

  14. Evidence for epidermal growth factor receptor-enhanced chemosensitivity in combinations of cisplatin and the new irreversible tyrosine kinase inhibitor CI-1033.

    PubMed

    Gieseg, M A; de Bock, C; Ferguson, L R; Denny, W A

    2001-09-01

    Irreversible inhibitors of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) are showing promise in clinical trials. This report is the first to show that inhibition of the EGFR tyrosine kinase by an irreversible binder synergizes with cisplatin, at least in EGFR-overexpressing tissue culture cell lines in vitro. Unlike previous synergies demonstrated between ErbB2 blockade and DNA-damaging drugs, the synergy between the irreversible EGFR inhibitor and cisplatin does not appear to involve the repair of DNA-cisplatin adducts. Given the current clinical data, this combination may be of more than theoretical interest.

  15. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors for epidermal growth factor receptor gene mutation-positive non-small cell lung cancers: an update for recent advances in therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Chung, Clement

    2016-06-01

    The presence of activating gene mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor of non-small cell lung cancer patients is predictive (improved progression-free survival and improved response rate) when treated with small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors such as gefitinib, erlotinib and afatinib. The two most common mutations that account for greater than 85% of all EGFR gene mutations are in-frame deletions in exon 19 (LREA deletions) and substitution in exon 21 (L858R). Exon 18 mutations occur much less frequently at about 4% of all EGFR gene mutations. Together, exon 19 deletion and exon 21 L858R gene substitution are present in about 10% of Caucasian patients and 20-40% of Asian patients with non-small cell lung cancer. T790M gene mutation at exon 20 is associated with acquired resistance to epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Early studies showed that activating EGFR gene mutations are most common in patients with adenocarcinoma histology, women, never smokers and those of Asian ethnicity. A recent multi-center phase III trial suggested that frontline epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy with afatinib is associated with improved progression-free survival compared to chemotherapy regardless of race. Moreover, guidelines now suggest EGFR gene mutation testing should be conducted in all patients with lung adenocarcinoma or mixed lung cancers with an adenocarcinoma component, regardless of characteristics such as smoking status, gender or race. The success of targeted therapies in non-small cell lung cancer patients has changed the treatment paradigm in metastatic non-small cell lung cancer. However, despite a durable response of greater than a year, resistance to epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors inevitably occurs. This mini-review describes the clinically relevant EGFR gene mutations and the efficacy/toxicity of small molecule epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase

  16. Cutaneous side-effects in patients on long-term treatment with epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Osio, A; Mateus, C; Soria, J-C; Massard, C; Malka, D; Boige, V; Besse, B; Robert, C

    2009-09-01

    Acute and subacute cutaneous side-effects of epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors (EGFRIs) are very frequent and well known. Much less is known about the chronic cutaneous effects of these drugs and about their potential psychosocial impact on patients. We performed a retrospective study of patients treated with EGFRIs for more than 6 months. All patients had a detailed dermatological examination. The primary cancer, associated chemotherapies, skin treatment, evolution of skin symptoms and their impact on quality of life (QoL) as evaluated by the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) were noted. Seven men and nine women were identified. The mean length of EGFRI treatment was 10 months (range 6-27). At the time of examination, all patients (100%) had cutaneous side-effects. Grade I or II folliculitis was found in 37.5% of the patients. Additional skin manifestations were xerosis (100%), mucositis (69%), hair abnormalities (87.5%), eyelash trichomegaly (62.5%), facial hypertrichosis (56%), painful paronychia (56%) and onycholysis (44%). Dose reduction or EGFRI discontinuation for skin toxicity were needed in six patients (37.5%). DLQI evaluation showed a moderate to strong impact on QoL in four patients (25%). Cutaneous side-effects are found in 100% of patients treated with EGFRIs for more than 6 months and have a significant effect on patients' QoL. The clinical spectrum of skin manifestation varies over time. As the use of EGFRIs rapidly increases, it is critical for us to improve our knowledge in the understanding and managment of these skin manifestations.

  17. 18F-FDG PET/CT for Monitoring Treatment Responses to the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Inhibitor Erlotinib

    PubMed Central

    Walter, Franziska; Garon, Edward B.; Reckamp, Karen L.; Figlin, Robert; Phelps, Michael E.; Weber, Wolfgang A.; Czernin, Johannes; Allen-Auerbach, Martin S.

    2016-01-01

    Response rates of unselected non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients to the epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor erlotinib are low and range from 10% to 20%. Early response assessments are needed to avoid costs and side effects of inefficient treatments. Here we determined whether early changes in tumor uptake of 18F-FDG can predict progression-free and overall survival in NSCLC patients who are treated with erlotinib. Methods Twenty-two patients (6 men, 16 women; mean age ± SD, 64 ± 13 y) with stage III or stage IV NSCLC who received erlotinib treatment were enrolled prospectively. 18F-FDG PET/CT was performed before the initiation of treatment (n = 22), after 2 wk (n = 22), and after 78 ± 21 d (n = 11). Tumor maximum standardized uptake values were measured for a maximum of 5 lesions for each patient. Tumor responses were classified using modified PET Response Criteria in Solid Tumors (use of maximum standardized uptake values). Median overall survival by Kaplan–Meier analysis was compared between groups using a log-rank test. Results The overall median time to progression was 52 d (95% confidence interval, 47–57 d). The overall median survival time was 131 d (95% confidence interval, 0–351 d). Patients with progressive metabolic disease on early follow-up PET showed a significantly shorter time to progression (47 vs. 119 d; P < 0.001) and overall survival (87 vs. 828 d; P = 0.01) than patients classified as having stable metabolic disease or partial or complete metabolic response. Conclusion These data suggest that 18F-FDG PET/CT performed early after the start of erlotinib treatment can help to identify patients who benefit from this targeted therapy. PMID:22045706

  18. Clinical definition of acquired resistance to epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors in non-small-cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Jackman, David; Pao, William; Riely, Gregory J; Engelman, Jeffrey A; Kris, Mark G; Jänne, Pasi A; Lynch, Thomas; Johnson, Bruce E; Miller, Vincent A

    2010-01-10

    Ten percent of North American patients with non-small-cell lung cancer have tumors with somatic mutations in the gene for the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Approximately 70% of patients whose lung cancers harbor somatic mutations in exons encoding the tyrosine kinase domain of EGFR experience significant tumor regressions when treated with the EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) gefitinib or erlotinib. However, the overwhelming majority of these patients inevitably acquire resistance to either drug. Currently, the clinical definition of such secondary or acquired resistance is not clear. We propose the following criteria be used to define more precisely acquired resistance to EGFR TKIs. All patients should have the following criteria: previous treatment with a single-agent EGFR TKI (eg, gefitinib or erlotinib); either or both of the following: a tumor that harbors an EGFR mutation known to be associated with drug sensitivity or objective clinical benefit from treatment with an EGFR TKI; systemic progression of disease (Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors [RECIST] or WHO) while on continuous treatment with gefitinib or erlotinib within the last 30 days; and no intervening systemic therapy between cessation of gefitinib or erlotinib and initiation of new therapy. The relatively simple definition proposed here will lead to a more uniform approach to investigating the problem of acquired resistance to EGFR TKIs in this unique patient population. These guidelines should minimize reporting of false-positive and false-negative activity in these clinical trials and would facilitate the identification of agents that truly overcome acquired resistance to gefitinib and erlotinib.

  19. Synergistic and multidimensional regulation of plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 expression by transforming growth factor type β and epidermal growth factor

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Xiaoling; Thalacker, F.W.; Nilsen-Hamilton, Marit

    2012-04-06

    The major physiological inhibitor of plasminogen activator, type I plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1), controls blood clotting and tissue remodeling events that involve cell migration. Transforming growth factor type β (TGFβ) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) interact synergistically to increase PAI-1 mRNA and protein levels in human HepG2 and mink Mv1Lu cells. Other growth factors that activate tyrosine kinase receptors can substitute for EGF. EGF and TGFβ regulate PAI-1 by synergistically activating transcription, which is further amplified by a decrease in the rate of mRNA degradation, the latter being regulated only by EGF. The combined effect of transcriptional activation and mRNA stabilization results in a rapid 2-order of magnitude increase in the level of PAI-1. TGFβ also increases the sensitivity of the cells to EGF, thereby recruiting the cooperation of EGF at lower than normally effective concentrations. The contribution of EGF to the regulation of PAI-1 involves the MAPK pathway, and the synergistic interface with the TGFβ pathway is downstream of MEK1/2 and involves phosphorylation of neither ERK1/2 nor Smad2/3. Synergism requires the presence of both Smad and AP-1 recognition sites in the promoter. This work demonstrates the existence of a multidimensional cellular mechanism by which EGF and TGFβ are able to promote large and rapid changes in PAI-1 expression.

  20. Influence of macrocyclization on allosteric, juxtamembrane-derived, stapled peptide inhibitors of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR).

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Julie K-L; Schepartz, Alanna

    2014-09-19

    The hydrocarbon-stapled peptide E1(S) allosterically inhibits the kinase activity of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) by blocking a distant but essential protein-protein interaction: a coiled coil formed from the juxtamembrane segment (JM) of each member of the dimeric partnership.1 Macrocyclization is not required for activity: the analogous unstapled (but alkene-bearing) peptide is equipotent in cell viability, immunoblot, and bipartite display experiments to detect coiled coil formation on the cell surface.

  1. Prediction for response duration to epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors in EGFR mutated never smoker lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye Ryun; Cho, Byoung Chul; Shim, Hyo Sup; Lim, Sun Min; Kim, Se Kyu; Chang, Joon; Kim, Dae Joon; Kim, Joo Hang

    2014-03-01

    Among non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients harboring activating epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations, ∼ 20-30% exhibit de novo resistance to EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI). The aim of this study was to examine whether mutations in the EGFR-downstream genes may be associated with de novo resistance to EGFR-TKIs in EGFR mutation-positive patients. Sixty-eight never-smoker adenocarcinoma patients with an activating EGFR mutation were included in the mutational analysis and 55 patients treated with EGFR-TKIs were analyzed for the treatment outcomes to EGFR-TKIs. We concurrently analyzed mutations in PIK3CA, PTEN, AKT and STK11, which are all EGFR-downstream genes. Mutations in PIK3CA, PTEN, AKT, and STK11 were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction-based sequencing. PIK3CA mutations were detected in 4.4% (3/68) of patients, PTEN mutations in 16.1% (11/68), AKT mutations in 5.9% (4/68), and STK11 mutations in 13.2% (9/68). One patient with an activating exon 21 L858R mutation concomitantly had an exon 20 T790M mutation in EGFR. The proportion of patients who had mutations in EGFR-downstream genes was 32.4% (22/68). When we analyzed the treatment outcome of 55 patients treated with EGFR-TKI, the presence of mutations in EGFR-downstream genes correlated with a poor overall response rate to EGFR-TKIs (63.6 vs.14.5% in patients with mutation in EGFR-downstream gene, P<0.0001), shorter median progression-free survival (12.0 vs. 3.0 months, P=0.060), and shorter median overall survival (18.9 vs. 25.0 months, P=0.048). Mutations in the EGFR-downstream genes may confer resistance to EGFR-TKIs and result in poor treatment outcomes in never-smoker adenocarcinoma patients with activating EGFR mutations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Development of epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors against EGFR T790M. Mutation in non small-cell lung carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuli; Guo, Zhitao; Li, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Individualized therapies targeting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations show promises for the treatment of non small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). However, disease progression almost invariably occurs 1 year after tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) treatment. The most prominent mechanism of acquired resistance involves the secondary EGFR mutation, namely EGFR T790M, which accounts for 50%–60% of resistant tumors. A large amount of studies have focused on the development of effective strategies to treat TKI-resistant EGFR T790M mutation in lung tumors. Novel generations of EGFR inhibitors are producing encouraging results in patients with acquired resistance against EGFR T790M mutation. This review will summarize the novel inhibitors, which might overcome resistance against EGFR T790M mutation. PMID:28352770

  3. Cetuximab-associated elongation of the eyelashes: case report and review of eyelash trichomegaly secondary to epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Philip R; Escudier, Susan M; Kurzrock, Razelle

    2011-02-01

    Eyelash trichomegaly is an uncommon drug-associated sequelae experienced during treatment with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors. Elongation of the eyelashes induced by these agents has predominantly been observed in oncology patients with either colorectal or lung cancer. It is most frequently associated with cetuximab and erlotinib; however, it has also been described in individuals treated with gefitinib or panitumumab. We describe cetuximab-associated eyelash trichomegaly in a woman with metastatic rectal carcinoma. We review the clinical presentation, adverse effects, and management of EGFR inhibitor-related eyelash trichomegaly. The long eyelashes are not a drug-limiting adverse effect and some patients consider the change to be cosmetically enhancing. Trimming the lashes with scissors can usually ameliorate local symptoms. The eyelashes often return to their original length at variable time periods after EGFR inhibitor therapy is discontinued.

  4. Discovery of a potent, selective, and orally active human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 sheddase inhibitor for the treatment of cancer.

    PubMed

    Yao, Wenqing; Zhuo, Jincong; Burns, David M; Xu, Meizhong; Zhang, Colin; Li, Yun-Long; Qian, Ding-Quan; He, Chunhong; Weng, Lingkai; Shi, Eric; Lin, Qiyan; Agrios, Costas; Burn, Timothy C; Caulder, Eian; Covington, Maryanne B; Fridman, Jordan S; Friedman, Steven; Katiyar, Kamna; Hollis, Gregory; Li, Yanlong; Liu, Changnian; Liu, Xiangdong; Marando, Cindy A; Newton, Robert; Pan, Max; Scherle, Peggy; Taylor, Nancy; Vaddi, Kris; Wasserman, Zelda R; Wynn, Richard; Yeleswaram, Swamy; Jalluri, Ravi; Bower, Michael; Zhou, Bing-Bing; Metcalf, Brian

    2007-02-22

    The design, synthesis, evaluation, and identification of a novel class of (6S,7S)-N-hydroxy-6-carboxamide-5-azaspiro[2.5]octane-7-carboxamides as the first potent and selective inhibitors of human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER-2) sheddase is described. Several compounds were identified that possess excellent pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties and were shown to decrease tumor size, cleaved HER-2 extracellular domain plasma levels, and potentiate the effects of the humanized anti-HER-2 monoclonal antibody (trastuzumab) in vivo in a HER-2 overexpressing cancer murine xenograft model.

  5. Next-generation epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors in epidermal growth factor receptor -mutant non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Tan, Chee-Seng; Cho, Byoung-Chul; Soo, Ross A

    2016-03-01

    Since the discovery of sensitizing EGFR mutations as a predictive marker of sensitivity to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), the field of targeted therapy in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has been revolutionized. Patients harbouring these sensitizing mutations treated with EGFR TKI have derived significant clinical outcome when compared with standard platinum based chemotherapy doublets. However disease progression invariably occurs at a median of about 9-13 months from initiation treatment, if acquired resistance commonly due to the development of EGFR T790M mutation. A novel class of "third generation" EGFR TKIs have been developed that is sensitising and T790M mutant-specific whilst sparing WT EGFR, representing a significant breakthrough in the treatment in NSCLC patients with acquired resistance harboring these genotypes. Early phase clinical data suggest the third generation EGFR TKIs such as osimertinib, rociletinib, and HM61713 are highly efficacious and well tolerated. Another promising class of EGFR TKI such as AZD3759 has been designed to penetrate blood brain barrier to treat brain metastases and leptomeningeal disease and has showed promising responses in patients with brain metastases. Acquired resistance to third generation EGFR TKIs has been reported including EGFR C797S. Given its non-invasive nature, plasma ctDNA is being explored as a possible approach to detect T790M mutation and to also inform on novel molecular mechansims of tertiary resistance to third generation EGFR TKIs. An understanding of the mechanisms of acquired resistance to the third-generation EGFR TKIs will greatly aid in the development of the next generation of EGFR TKIs.

  6. The development of a Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy (FACT) questionnaire to assess dermatologic symptoms associated with epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors (FACT-EGFRI-18).

    PubMed

    Wagner, Lynne I; Berg, Sara R; Gandhi, Mona; Hlubocky, Fay J; Webster, Kimberly; Aneja, Monika; Cella, David; Lacouture, Mario E

    2013-04-01

    Dermatologic toxicities from epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors (EGFRIs) are common, disrupt health-related quality of life (HRQL), and lead to dose reduction or discontinuation of potentially life-saving cancer therapy. The Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy (FACT)-EGFRI was developed to measure HRQL among patients receiving EGFRIs. The FACT-EGFRI was developed through the triangulation approach using the established functional assessment of chronic illness therapy method of patient questionnaire construction. This included literature review, qualitative data collection and analysis, and quantitative survey data collection on candidate items to identify the most important items related to EGFRI-induced dermatologic toxicities according to patients receiving EGFRIs and expert clinicians. Twelve expert clinicians and 20 patients were interviewed for the initial questionnaire development. Dermatologic symptoms associated with epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors endorsed as high priority by both patients and oncologist experts were selected. The final version includes 18 items which assess the physical, emotional, social, and functional impact that skin, nail, and hair toxicities have on patients' HRQL. The FACT-EGFRI-18 measures the severity of patient-reported EGFRI-induced dermatologic toxicities and effects on HRQL and was developed using qualitative data from patients and expert clinicians. Further validation is underway. The FACT-EGFRI-18 may be useful for clinicians and researchers to quantify dermatologic toxicities from the patient perspective in standard clinical care, evaluate the effectiveness of interventions to prevent or reduce dermatologic toxicities, and to guide treatment decision making.

  7. 3D pharmacophore-based virtual screening, docking and density functional theory approach towards the discovery of novel human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2) inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Gogoi, Dhrubajyoti; Baruah, Vishwa Jyoti; Chaliha, Amrita Kashyap; Kakoti, Bibhuti Bhushan; Sarma, Diganta; Buragohain, Alak Kumar

    2016-12-21

    Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) is one of the four members of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family and is expressed to facilitate cellular proliferation across various tissue types. Therapies targeting HER2, which is a transmembrane glycoprotein with tyrosine kinase activity, offer promising prospects especially in breast and gastric/gastroesophageal cancer patients. Persistence of both primary and acquired resistance to various routine drugs/antibodies is a disappointing outcome in the treatment of many HER2 positive cancer patients and is a challenge that requires formulation of new and improved strategies to overcome the same. Identification of novel HER2 inhibitors with improved therapeutics index was performed with a highly correlating (r=0.975) ligand-based pharmacophore model (Hypo1) in this study. Hypo1 was generated from a training set of 22 compounds with HER2 inhibitory activity and this well-validated hypothesis was subsequently used as a 3D query to screen compounds in a total of four databases of which two were natural product databases. Further, these compounds were analyzed for compliance with Veber's drug-likeness rule and optimum ADMET parameters. The selected compounds were then subjected to molecular docking and Density Functional Theory (DFT) analysis to discern their molecular interactions at the active site of HER2. The findings thus presented would be an important starting point towards the development of novel HER2 inhibitors using well-validated computational techniques.

  8. Epidermal growth factor receptor double targeting by a tyrosine kinase inhibitor (Iressa) and a monoclonal antibody (Cetuximab). Impact on cell growth and molecular factors

    PubMed Central

    Fischel, J-L; Formento, P; Milano, G

    2005-01-01

    Among the recent advances in the molecular targeted therapy of cancer, the applications focused on epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) are currently the most promising and the most advanced at clinical level. In view of the different modes of action of monoclonal antibodies and tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI), it is tempting to examine the effect of a combination between these two EGFR targeting approaches. It was the purpose of the present study to test this combination at experimental level by using two epidermoid human cell lines CAL 33 and CAL 39. As C225 (Cetuximab®) and ZD1839 (Iressa®) are, respectively, the most clinically advanced drugs in the category of anti-EGFR drugs, the experiments were performed using these two representative compounds. The combination of C225 and ZD1839 was antagonistic whatever the cell line considered. These antagonistic effects were corroborated by molecular changes in apoptosis (PARP) and EGFR signalling (phospho-p42–44). Drugs alone led to a diminution in EGFR levels, while their combination increased the cellular expression in EGFR. These data suggest that new and tempting treatment strategies on the EGFR target consisting in a double hit with a monoclonal antibody and a TKI must be considered with caution. PMID:15756277

  9. Vandetanib (ZD6474), a dual inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinases: current status and future directions.

    PubMed

    Morabito, Alessandro; Piccirillo, Maria Carmela; Falasconi, Fabiano; De Feo, Gianfranco; Del Giudice, Antonia; Bryce, Jane; Di Maio, Massimo; De Maio, Ermelinda; Normanno, Nicola; Perrone, Francesco

    2009-04-01

    Vandetanib is a novel, orally available inhibitor of different intracellular signaling pathways involved in tumor growth, progression, and angiogenesis: vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2, epidermal growth factor receptor, and REarranged during Transfection tyrosine kinase activity. Phase I clinical trials have shown that vandetanib is well tolerated as a single agent at daily doses < or =300 mg. In the phase II setting, negative results were observed with vandetanib in small cell lung cancer, metastatic breast cancer, and multiple myeloma. In contrast, three randomized phase II studies showed that vandetanib prolonged the progression-free survival (PFS) time of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) as a single agent when compared with gefitinib or when added to chemotherapy. Rash, diarrhea, hypertension, fatigue, and asymptomatic QTc prolongation were the most common adverse events. Antitumor activity was also observed in medullary thyroid cancer. Four randomized phase III clinical trials in NSCLC are exploring the efficacy of vandetanib in combination with docetaxel, the Zactima in cOmbination with Docetaxel In non-small cell lung Cancer (ZODIAC) trial, or with pemetrexed, the Zactima Efficacy with Alimta in Lung cancer (ZEAL) trial, or as a single agent, the Zactima Efficacy when Studied versus Tarceva (ZEST) and the Zactima Efficacy trial for NSCLC Patients with History of EGFR-TKI chemo-Resistance (ZEPHYR) trials. Based on a press release by the sponsor of these trials, the PFS time was longer with vandetanib in the ZODIAC and ZEAL trials; the ZEST trial was negative for its primary superiority analysis, but was successful according to a preplanned noninferiority analysis of PFS. Ongoing phase II and III clinical trials will better define the appropriate schedule, the optimal setting of evaluation, and the safety of long-term use of vandetanib.

  10. Specific, irreversible inactivation of the epidermal growth factor receptor and erbB2, by a new class of tyrosine kinase inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Fry, David W.; Bridges, Alexander J.; Denny, William A.; Doherty, Annette; Greis, Kenneth D.; Hicks, James L.; Hook, Kenneth E.; Keller, Paul R.; Leopold, Wilbur R.; Loo, Joseph A.; McNamara, Dennis J.; Nelson, James M.; Sherwood, Veronika; Smaill, Jeff B.; Trumpp-Kallmeyer, Susanne; Dobrusin, Ellen M.

    1998-01-01

    A class of high-affinity inhibitors is disclosed that selectively target and irreversibly inactivate the epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase through specific, covalent modification of a cysteine residue present in the ATP binding pocket. A series of experiments employing MS, molecular modeling, site-directed mutagenesis, and 14C-labeling studies in viable cells unequivocally demonstrate that these compounds selectively bind to the catalytic domain of the epidermal growth factor receptor with a 1:1 stoichiometry and alkylate Cys-773. While the compounds are essentially nonreactive in solution, they are subject to rapid nucleophilic attack by this particular amino acid when bound in the ATP pocket. The molecular orientation and positioning of the acrylamide group in these inhibitors in relation to Cys-773 entirely support these results as determined from docking experiments in a homology-built molecular model of the ATP site. Evidence is also presented to indicate that the compounds interact in an analogous fashion with erbB2 but have no activity against the other receptor tyrosine kinases or intracellular tyrosine kinases that were tested in this study. Finally, a direct comparison between 6-acrylamido-4-anilinoquinazoline and an equally potent but reversible analog shows that the irreversible inhibitor has far superior in vivo antitumor activity in a human epidermoid carcinoma xenograft model with no overt toxicity at therapeutically active doses. The activity profile for this compound is prototypical of a generation of tyrosine kinase inhibitors with great promise for therapeutic significance in the treatment of proliferative disease. PMID:9751783

  11. Concurrent Autophagy Inhibition Overcomes the Resistance of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors in Human Bladder Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Minyong; Lee, Kyoung-Hwa; Lee, Hye Sun; Jeong, Chang Wook; Kwak, Cheol; Kim, Hyeon Hoe; Ku, Ja Hyeon

    2017-01-01

    Despite the potential therapeutic efficacy of epithelial growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors in the treatment of advanced stage bladder cancer, there currently is no clear evidence to support this hypothesis. In this study, we investigate whether the concurrent treatment of autophagy-blocking agents with EGFR inhibitors exerts synergistic anti-cancer effects in T24 and J82 human bladder cancer cells. Lapatinib and gefitinib were used as EGFR inhibitors, and bafilomycin A1 (BFA1), chloroquine (CQ) and 3-methyladenine (3-MA) were used as the pharmacologic inhibitors of autophagy activities. To assess the proliferative and self-renewal capabilities, the Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay and a clonogenic assay were performed, respectively. To examine apoptotic cell death, flow cytometry using annexin-V/propidium iodide (PI) was used. To measure the autophagy activities, the expression levels of LC3I and II was determined by Western blot analysis. To validate the synergistic effects of autophagy inhibition with EGFR inhibitors, we specifically blocked key autophagy regulatory gene ATG12 by transfection of small interference RNA and examined the phenotypic changes. Of note, lapatinib and gefitinib triggered autophagy activities in T24 and J82 human bladder cancer cells, as indicated by upregulation of LC3II. More importantly, inhibiting autophagy activities with pharmacologic inhibitors (BFA1, CQ or 3-MA) remarkably reduced the cell viabilities and clonal proliferation of T24 and J82 cells, compared to those treated with either of the agents alone. We also obtained similar results of the enhanced anti-cancer effects of EGFR inhibitors by suppressing the expression of ATG12. Notably, the apoptotic assay showed that synergistic anti-cancer effects were induced via the increase of apoptotic cell death. In summary, concomitant inhibition of autophagy activities potentiated the anti-cancer effects of EGFR inhibitors in human bladder cancer cells, indicating a novel

  12. The relationship between BIM deletion polymorphism and clinical significance of epidermal growth factor receptor-mutated non-small cell lung cancer patients with epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zou, Qian; Zhan, Ping; Lv, Tangfeng; Song, Yong

    2015-12-01

    BIM deletion polymorphism is a germline that might lead to little or no BH3 expression, which affects epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI) related apoptosis. Recent studies show that BIM deletion polymorphism might be a critical factor leading to the resistance of EGFR-TKIs in EGFR mutation-positive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Thus, a meta-analysis was conducted by combing seven original eligible studies including 778 NSCLC patients to investigate a steady and reliable conclusion. Our study indicated that BIM deletion polymorphism was significantly associated with the poor objective response rate (ORR) of EGFR-TKIs in EGFR-mutated NSCLC patients [odds ratios (OR) =0.55, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.33-0.92]. And disease control rate (DCR) in EGFR-mutate NSCLC patients treated with EGFR-TKIs was significantly decreased in patients with BIM deletion polymorphism (OR=0.55, 95% CI, 0.27-1.12). Moreover, the progression-free survival (PFS) of patients with BIM deletion polymorphism is shorter. These findings suggested that BIM deletion polymorphism might be a genetic cause of intrinsic resistance to TKI therapy and it could be emerged as an independent predictor to identify patients who would benefit from TKI targeted therapy in EGFR-mutated NSCLC.

  13. Discovery of Selective and Noncovalent Diaminopyrimidine-Based Inhibitors of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Containing the T790M Resistance Mutation

    SciTech Connect

    Hanan, Emily J.; Eigenbrot, Charles; Bryan, Marian C.; Burdick, Daniel J.; Chan, Bryan K.; Chen, Yuan; Dotson, Jennafer; Heald, Robert A.; Jackson, Philip S.; La, Hank; Lainchbury, Michael D.; Malek, Shiva; Purkey, Hans E.; Schaefer, Gabriele; Schmidt, Stephen; Seward, Eileen M.; Sideris, Steve; Tam, Christine; Wang, Shumei; Yeap, Siew Kuen; Yen, Ivana; Yin, Jianping; Yu, Christine; Zilberleyb, Inna; Heffron, Timothy P.

    2014-11-10

    Activating mutations within the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) kinase domain, commonly L858R or deletions within exon 19, increase EGFR-driven cell proliferation and survival and are correlated with impressive responses to the EGFR inhibitors erlotinib and gefitinib in nonsmall cell lung cancer patients. Approximately 60% of acquired resistance to these agents is driven by a single secondary mutation within the EGFR kinase domain, specifically substitution of the gatekeeper residue threonine-790 with methionine (T790M). Due to dose-limiting toxicities associated with inhibition of wild-type EGFR (wtEGFR), we sought inhibitors of T790M-containing EGFR mutants with selectivity over wtEGFR. Here in this paper, we describe the evolution of HTS hits derived from Jak2/Tyk2 inhibitors into selective EGFR inhibitors. X-ray crystal structures revealed two distinct binding modes and enabled the design of a selective series of novel diaminopyrimidine-based inhibitors with good potency against T790M-containing mutants of EGFR, high selectivity over wtEGFR, broad kinase selectivity, and desirable physicochemical properties.

  14. Discovery of Selective and Noncovalent Diaminopyrimidine-Based Inhibitors of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Containing the T790M Resistance Mutation

    DOE PAGES

    Hanan, Emily J.; Eigenbrot, Charles; Bryan, Marian C.; ...

    2014-11-10

    Activating mutations within the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) kinase domain, commonly L858R or deletions within exon 19, increase EGFR-driven cell proliferation and survival and are correlated with impressive responses to the EGFR inhibitors erlotinib and gefitinib in nonsmall cell lung cancer patients. Approximately 60% of acquired resistance to these agents is driven by a single secondary mutation within the EGFR kinase domain, specifically substitution of the gatekeeper residue threonine-790 with methionine (T790M). Due to dose-limiting toxicities associated with inhibition of wild-type EGFR (wtEGFR), we sought inhibitors of T790M-containing EGFR mutants with selectivity over wtEGFR. Here in this paper, wemore » describe the evolution of HTS hits derived from Jak2/Tyk2 inhibitors into selective EGFR inhibitors. X-ray crystal structures revealed two distinct binding modes and enabled the design of a selective series of novel diaminopyrimidine-based inhibitors with good potency against T790M-containing mutants of EGFR, high selectivity over wtEGFR, broad kinase selectivity, and desirable physicochemical properties.« less

  15. Novel toll-like receptor 9 agonist induces epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibition and synergistic antitumor activity with EGFR inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Damiano, Vincenzo; Caputo, Rosa; Bianco, Roberto; D'Armiento, Francesco P; Leonardi, Antonio; De Placido, Sabino; Bianco, A Raffaele; Agrawal, Sudhir; Ciardiello, Fortunato; Tortora, Giampaolo

    2006-01-15

    Immunostimulating Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) agonists cause antitumor activity interfering also with cancer proliferation and angiogenesis by mechanisms still incompletely understood. We hypothesized that modified TLR9 agonists could impair epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling and, by this means, greatly enhance EGFR inhibitors effect, acting on both the receptor targeting and the immunologic arm. We used a novel second-generation, modified, immunomodulatory TLR9 agonist (IMO), alone and in combination with the anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody cetuximab or tyrosine kinase inhibitor gefitinib, on the growth of GEO and cetuximab-resistant derivatives GEO-CR colon cancer xenografts. We have also evaluated the expression of several proteins critical for cell proliferation, apoptosis, and angiogenesis, including EGFR, mitogen-activated protein kinase, Akt, bcl-2, cyclooxygenase-2, vascular endothelial growth factor, and nuclear factor-kappaB. IMO inhibited GEO growth and signaling by EGFR and the other proteins critical for cell proliferation and angiogenesis. IMO plus the anti-EGFR antibody cetuximab synergistically inhibited tumor growth, signaling proteins, and microvessel formation. EGFR signaling inhibition by IMO is relevant because IMO cooperated also with EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor gefitinib in GEO tumors, while it was inactive against GEO-CR xenografts. On the other hand, IMO boosted the non-EGFR-dependent cetuximab activity, causing a cooperative antitumor effect in GEO-CR cells. Finally, combination of IMO, cetuximab and chemotherapeutic irinotecan eradicated the tumors in 90% of mice. IMO interferes with EGFR-related signaling and angiogenesis and has a synergistic antitumor effect with EGFR inhibitors, especially with cetuximab, boosting both the EGFR dependent and independent activity of this agent. Moreover, this therapeutic strategy could be translated in patients affected by colorectal cancer.

  16. Antitumor activity of a dual epidermal growth factor receptor and ErbB2 kinase inhibitor MP-412 (AV-412) in mouse xenograft models.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Tsuyoshi; Fujii, Akihiro; Ohya, Junichi; Nakamura, Hideo; Fujita, Fumiko; Koike, Masako; Fujita, Masahide

    2009-08-01

    Although epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) kinase inhibitors are effective for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), the emergence of mutations resistant to these inhibitors, such as T790M, has become a clinical problem. Recently, ErbB2 mutations have also been identified in a small number of NSCLC patients. Therefore, novel therapies to overcome these mutations are desirable. We describe the antitumor activity of MP-412 (AV-412), a dual EGFR/ErbB2 kinase inhibitor, against three lung cancer models with EGFR and ErbB2 mutations and also against various human xenografts with overexpression of these receptors. MP-412 inhibited phosphorylation of EGFR and its downstream signaling in NCI-H1650 and NCI-H1975 cell lines, which harbor the E746-A750 deletion and L858R + T790M point mutations, respectively, in EGFR. MP-412 inhibited the growth of these cell lines in vitro and in vivo, whereas the precedent kinase inhibitors lapatinib, erlotinib, and gefitinib were ineffective against NCI-H1975 cells in vivo. Furthermore, MP-412 inhibited ErbB2 signaling in the NCI-H1781 cell line, which harbors the G776V,C insertion in ErbB2, and correlated with its antiproliferation activity. When its antitumor spectrum was further explored in several cancer types overexpressing EGFR or ErbB2, MP-412 showed potent activity in KPL-4 and DU145 xenografts, in which lapatinib was ineffective. MP-412 also inhibited tumor models in which conventional chemotherapies were less effective. These results suggest that MP-412 is a potent dual inhibitor with the potential for treating solid cancers that overexpress EGFR or ErbB2, including NSCLC cells harboring mutations resistant to the first generation of kinase inhibitors.

  17. Optimization of 6,7-disubstituted-4-(arylamino)quinoline-3-carbonitriles as orally active, irreversible inhibitors of human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 kinase activity.

    PubMed

    Tsou, Hwei-Ru; Overbeek-Klumpers, Elsebe G; Hallett, William A; Reich, Marvin F; Floyd, M Brawner; Johnson, Bernard D; Michalak, Ronald S; Nilakantan, Ramaswamy; Discafani, Carolyn; Golas, Jonathan; Rabindran, Sridhar K; Shen, Ru; Shi, Xiaoqing; Wang, Yu-Fen; Upeslacis, Janis; Wissner, Allan

    2005-02-24

    A series of new 6,7-disubstituted-4-(arylamino)quinoline-3-carbonitrile derivatives that function as irreversible inhibitors of human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER-2) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) kinases have been prepared. These compounds demonstrated enhanced activities for inhibiting HER-2 kinase and the growth of HER-2 positive cells compared to our EGFR kinase inhibitor 86 (EKB-569). Three synthetic routes were used to prepare these compounds. They were prepared mostly by acylation of 6-amino-4-(arylamino)quinoline-3-carbonitriles with unsaturated acid chlorides or by amination of 4-chloro-6-(crotonamido)quinoline-3-carbonitriles with monocyclic or bicyclic anilines. The third route was developed to prepare a key intermediate, 6-acetamido-4-chloroquinoline-3-carbonitrile, that involved a safer cyclization step. We show that attaching a large lipophilic group at the para position of the 4-(arylamino) ring results in improved potency for inhibiting HER-2 kinase. We also show the importance of a basic dialkylamino group at the end of the Michael acceptor for activity, due to intramolecular catalysis of the Michael addition. This, along with improved water solubility, resulted in compounds with enhanced biological properties. We present molecular modeling results consistent with the proposed mechanism of inhibition. Binding studies of one compound, 25o (C-14 radiolabeled), showed that it binds irreversibly to HER-2 protein in BT474 cells. Furthermore, it demonstrated excellent oral activity, especially in HER-2 overexpressing xenografts. Compound 25o (HKI-272) was selected for further studies and is currently in phase I clinical trials for the treatment of cancer.

  18. Impact of clinical parameters and systemic inflammatory status on epidermal growth factor receptor-mutant non-small cell lung cancer patients readministration with epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Mu; Lai, Chien-Hao; Rau, Kun-Ming; Huang, Cheng-Hua; Chang, Huang-Chih; Chao, Tung-Ying; Tseng, Chia-Cheng; Fang, Wen-Feng; Chung, Yu-Hsiu; Wang, Yi-Hsi; Su, Mao-Chang; Huang, Kuo-Tung; Liu, Shih-Feng; Chen, Hung-Chen; Chang, Ya-Chun; Chang, Yu-Ping; Wang, Chin-Chou; Lin, Meng-Chih

    2016-11-08

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) readministration to lung cancer patients is common owing to the few options available. Impact of clinical factors on prognosis of EGFR-mutant non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients receiving EGFR-TKI readministration after first-line EGFR-TKI failure and a period of TKI holiday remains unclear. Through this retrospective study, we aimed to understand the impact of clinical factors in such patients. Of 1386 cases diagnosed between December 2010 and December 2013, 80 EGFR-mutant NSCLC patients who were readministered TKIs after failure of first-line TKIs and intercalated with at least one cycle of cytotoxic agent were included. We evaluated clinical factors that may influence prognosis of TKI readministration as well as systemic inflammatory status in terms of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR). Baseline NLR and LMR were estimated at the beginning of TKI readministration and trends of NLR and LMR were change amount from patients receiving first-Line TKIs to TKIs readministration. Median survival time since TKI readministration was 7.0 months. In the univariable analysis, progression free survival (PFS) of first-line TKIs, baseline NLR and LMR, and trend of LMR were prognostic factors in patients receiving TKIs readministration. In the multivariate analysis, only PFS of first-line TKIs (p < 0.001), baseline NLR (p = 0.037), and trend of LMR (p = 0.004) were prognostic factors. Longer PFS of first-line TKIs, low baseline NLR, and high trend of LMR were good prognostic factors in EGFR-mutant NSCLC patients receiving TKI readministration.

  19. Exploratory cohort study and meta-analysis of BIM deletion polymorphism in patients with epidermal growth factor receptor-mutant non-small-cell lung cancer treated with epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Sun, Si; Yu, Hui; Wang, Huijie; Zhao, Xinmin; Zhao, Xintai; Wu, Xianghua; Qiao, Jie; Chang, Jianhua; Wang, Jialei

    2017-01-01

    Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations might develop primary and secondary resistance to tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). The proapoptotic protein Bcl-2-like 11 (BIM) is a key modulator of apoptosis triggered by EGFR-TKIs. The recent studies have indicated that some patients with positive EGFR mutations were refractory to EGFR-TKIs if they harbored a BIM deletion polymorphism. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether BIM polymorphism predicts treatment efficacy of EGFR-TKIs in Chinese NSCLC patients. A cohort of advanced NSCLC patients with EGFR mutations and treated with EGFR-TKIs (gefitinib or erlotinib) were recruited. We drew peripheral blood to determinate BIM deletion status and then compared patients' clinical outcomes according to the BIM deletion status. Additionally, we electronically searched eligible cohort studies and conducted a meta-analysis to pool event risk. The exploratory cohort study included 140 patients. Patients with and without the BIM deletion polymorphism had similar objective response rates (ORRs, 48.5 vs 63.0%, P=0.16), disease control rate (DCR, 93.9 vs 97.0%, P=0.60) and adverse reactions. Similar progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were noted in overall population (P=0.27 for PFS and P=0.61 for OS) and prespecified patient subgroups. The meta-analysis included 10 eligible cohort studies involving 1,317 NSCLC patients. It showed the positive BIM deletion was associated with shorter PFS (hazard ratio =1.45; P=0.02). Nonsignificant differences existed for ORR, DCR and OS. The expanded meta-analysis results demonstrated the positive BIM deletion predicts shorter PFS in NSCLC patients after treatment with EGFR-TKIs while other clinical measures do not. A large multicenter well-designed cohort study involving other concurrent genetic alterations is warranted.

  20. Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of novel 4-anilinoquinazolines with C-6 urea-linked side chains as inhibitors of the epidermal growth factor receptor.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xu; Peng, Ting; Ji, Xun; Li, Jian; Tong, Linjiang; Li, Zeng; Yang, Wei; Xu, Yungen; Li, Mengyuan; Ding, Jian; Jiang, Hualiang; Xie, Hua; Liu, Hong

    2013-12-15

    A novel series of anilinoquinazoline compounds with C-6 urea-linked side chains was designed and synthesized as reversible inhibitors of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) based on the structure-activity relationships (SARs) of anilinoquinazoline inhibitors. All compounds demonstrated good inhibition of EGFR wild type (EGFR wt) (IC50=0.024-1.715 μM) and inhibited proliferation of A431cell line (IC50=0.116-22.008 μM). The binding mode of compounds 8a, 8d, 8k and 8o was consistent with the biological results. Moreover, compounds 8k and 8l almost completely blocked the phosphorylation of EGFR in A431 cell line at 0.01 μM. Interestingly, all of the compounds also demonstrated moderate inhibition of EGFR/T790M/L858R (IC50=0.049-5.578 μM). In addition, compounds 8f and 8h blocked the autophosphorylation of EGFR in NCI-H1975 cells at high concentration (10 μM), and compound 8f was confirmed to be an irreversible inhibitor through the dilution method. Importantly, the compounds with C-6 urea-linked side chains which did not contain Michael acceptors demonstrated moderate to strong irreversible EGFR inhibition.

  1. Cetuximab Inhibits T790M-Mediated Resistance to Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor in a Lung Adenocarcinoma Patient-Derived Xenograft Mouse Model.

    PubMed

    Martin, Petra; Stewart, Erin; Pham, Nhu-An; Mascaux, Celine; Panchal, Devang; Li, Ming; Kim, Lucia; Sakashita, Shingo; Wang, Dennis; Sykes, Jenna; Friess, Thomas; Shepherd, Frances A; Liu, Geoffrey; Tsao, Ming-Sound

    2016-09-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) kinase domain T790M (amino acid substitution at position 790 in EGFR from threonine [T] to methionine [M]) mutation in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) results in resistance to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). We used a patient-derived tumor xenograft (PDX) model containing an EGFR exon 19 deletion/T790M mutation to assess response to the EGFR-directed antibody cetuximab. Changes in the EGFR signaling pathway and ligand expression after treatment were investigated. PDX were randomized into control and treatment arms. Pharmacodynamic studies were performed at 2 and 24 hours and at 4 days after a single administration of cetuximab, erlotinib, or dacomitinib. Changes in the EGFR signaling pathway were assessed using Western blot analysis, and baseline mRNA expression of EGFR ligands using microarray analysis. Relative changes after treatment were assessed using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The xenograft showed a dramatic response to cetuximab. A complete reduction of total EGFR and phosphorylated EGFR occurred after cetuximab treatment. The PDX had increased baseline levels of heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF) compared with other PDX models with or without EGFR mutations. Amphiregulin was significantly reduced 2 hours after treatment with cetuximab. Compared with control mice, cetuximab- and EGFR-TKI-treated mice had significantly reduced HB-EGF gene expression at 2 hours, however, by day 4 the level of HB-EGF expression was higher. The effect of cetuximab compared with EGFR TKI on HB-EGF gene expression levels differed significantly at 2 and 24 hours but not at 4 days. We showed a dramatic tumor response with cetuximab in an exon 19 deletion/T790M EGFR mutant lung adenocarcinoma PDX model, which suggests a role for the autocrine feedback loop in the mutant EGFR signaling pathway. Further investigation using cetuximab in NSCLC with T790M mutation is warranted. Copyright

  2. Pharmacological characterization of MP-412 (AV-412), a dual epidermal growth factor receptor and ErbB2 tyrosine kinase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Tsuyoshi; Fujii, Akihiro; Ohya, Junichi; Amano, Yusaku; Kitano, Yasunori; Abe, Daisuke; Nakamura, Hideo

    2007-12-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and ErbB2 are currently recognized as validated target molecules in cancer treatment strategies. MP-412 (AV-412) is a potent dual inhibitor of EGFR and ErbB2 tyrosine kinases, including the mutant EGFR(L858R,T790M), which is clinically resistant to the EGFR-specific kinase inhibitors erlotinib and gefitinib. In an enzyme assay, MP-412 inhibited the EGFR variants and ErbB2 in the nanomolar range with over 100-fold selectivity compared with other kinases, apart from abl and flt-1, which were both moderately sensitive to the compound. In cells, MP-412 inhibited autophosphorylation of EGFR and ErbB2 with IC(50) of 43 and 282 nM, respectively. It also inhibited epidermal growth factor (EGF)-dependent cell proliferation with an IC(50) of 100 nM. Moreover, MP-412 abrogated EGFR signaling in the gefitinib-resistant H1975 cell line, which harbors a double mutation of L858R and T790M in EGFR. In animal studies using cancer xenograft models, MP-412 (30 mg/kg) demonstrated complete inhibition of tumor growth of the A431 and BT-474 cell lines, which overexpress EGFR and ErbB2, respectively. MP-412 suppressed autophosphorylation of EGFR and ErbB2 at the dose corresponding to its antitumor efficacy. When various dosing schedules were applied, MP-412 showed significant effects with daily and every-other-day schedules, but not with a once-weekly schedule, suggesting that frequent dosing is preferable for this compound. Furthermore, MP-412 showed a significant antitumor effect on the ErbB2-overexpressing breast cancer KPL-4 cell line, which is resistant to gefitinib. These studies indicate that MP-412 has potential as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of cancers expressing EGFR and ErbB2, especially those resistant to the first generation of small-molecule inhibitors.

  3. Biological characteristics and epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors efficacy of EGFR mutation and its subtypes in lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lu, Rong-Li; Hu, Cheng-Ping; Yang, Hua-Ping; Li, Yuan-Yuan; Gu, Qi-Hua; Wu, Lielin

    2014-04-01

    Mutation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene has been reported to be present in lung adenocarcinoma (LAC). In this study, we extensively investigated the impact of patients' biological characteristics on EGFR mutation and the impact of EGFR mutation subtypes on targeted therapy of advanced LAC. We examined EGFR exons18to21status in169 LAC patients by direct sequencing to study the impact of patients' biological characteristics on the EGFR mutational spectrum. And then, 59 patients with advanced LAC harboring EGFR exon 19 deletions(del 19) or exon 21 point mutation(L858R) mutations received first-line treatment of gefitinib or erlotinib, the efficacy of treatment, and the progression-free survival (PFS) of these patients were recorded. The frequency of the EGFR mutation and its subtypes and the variables associated with the EGFR mutation after removing the confound factors were investigated by the logistic analysis using all samples (n = 169). The EGFR mutation was significantly associated with well-differentiated tumor and excessive household cooking fumes(P < 0.05). The deletions in exon 19 were more frequently associated with well-differentiated tumor (P < 0.05). The overall frequency of the EGFR mutation was 49 %. Then the impact of EGFR mutation subtypes on targeted therapy were investigated by the retrospective analysis on 59 advanced LAC patients with del 19 or L858R mutations and treated first-line with erlotinib or gefitinib. The deletions in exon 19 got longer PFS (P < 0.05). But there were no differences in PFS between erlotinib therapy and gefitinib therapy. EGFR mutations were more frequently in high tumor differentiation and excessive household cooking fumes LAC. The del 19 mutation rate is relatively high with a high differentiation degree in advanced lung adenocarcinoma. The deletions in exon 19 may benefit more from first-line targeted therapy of advanced LAC compared with exon 21 point mutation L858R. There was no

  4. Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of novel 6-alkenylamides substituted of 4-anilinothieno[2,3-d]pyrimidines as irreversible epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Ji, Xun; Peng, Ting; Zhang, Xu; Li, Jian; Yang, Wei; Tong, Linjiang; Qu, Rong; Jiang, Hualiang; Ding, Jian; Xie, Hua; Liu, Hong

    2014-04-01

    A novel series of 6-alkenylamides of 4-anilinothieno[2,3-d]pyrimidine derivatives was designed, synthesized and evaluated as irreversible inhibitors of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Most of the compounds exhibited good potency against EGFR wild type (EGFR wt) and EGFR T790M/L858R. Among these, the half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of 17 compounds against EGFR wt were less than 0.020μM, and those of 12 compounds were less than 0.010μM. The IC50 values of 10 compounds against EGFR T790M/L858R were less than 0.005μM. Compounds 8l, 9n, 9o, 9q and 9v almost completely blocked the phosphorylation of EGFR in the A431 cell line at 1μM. Compounds 8l, 9n, 9o, 9q and 9v blocked the autophosphorylation of EGFR in NCI-H1975 cells at high concentration (1μM), and compound 8l was confirmed to be an irreversible inhibitor through the dilution method. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. [Reverse of the resistance to paclitaxel of the heparin binding-epidermal growth factor-like growth factor inhibitor in ovarian cancer].

    PubMed

    Tang, X H; Lu, M S; Deng, S; Li, M

    2017-02-25

    Objective: To investigate the effect and mechanism of CRM197, the heparin binding-epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF) inhibitor, on the reverse of the resistance of ovarian cancer to paclitaxel. Methods: (1)The effect of CRM197 on the 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC(50)) of human ovarian carcinoma cell line A2780 and paclitaxel-resistant ovarian carcinoma cell line A2780/Taxol was tested by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay. Western blot was used to detect the effect of CRM197 on the expression of HB-EGF, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and plasma membrane glycoprotein (P-gp) protein in A2780 and A2780/Taxol cells. Real-time PCR was used to examine the MDR1 mRNA expression in these cells. (2) A2780/Taxol cells were divided into 4 groups, including the cells transfected with empty vector and saline treatment (empty vector group), MDR1 small interference RNA (siRNA) vector and saline treatment (MDR1 siRNA group), empty vector and CRM197 treatment (empty vector+CRM197 group) and MDR1 siRNA vector and CRM197 treatment (MDR1 siRNA+CRM197 group), respectively. Flow cytometry was used to detecte the effect of intracellular rhodomine 123 (Rh123) accumulation, and caspase-3 activity assay was used to test the effect of apoptosis in four groups of A2780/Taxol cells. (3) In experiments in vivo, A2780/Taxol cells were inoculated to nude mouse subcutaneously to determine the EGFR and P-gp protein expression following CRM197 treatment by immunohistochemistry. Results: (1) In vitro, MTT examination showed that the IC(50) of A2780/Taxol cells to paclitaxel in A2780/Taxol+CRM197 group [(6.4±0.3) μmol/L] was significantly lower than the IC(50) in A2780/Taxol group [ (34.1±0.5) μmol/L, P<0.01], and the reveral fold of CRM197 was 5.3. The expression level of HB-EGF protein in A2780/Taxol+CRM197 group (1.44±0.29) was significantly lower than HB-EGF protein in A2780/Taxol group (2.72±0.32), respectively (P<0.05). The expression level of EGFR

  6. Development of Nano-Liposomal Formulations of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Inhibitors and their Pharmacological Interactions on Drug-Sensitive and Drug-Resistant Cancer Cell Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trummer, Brian J.

    A rapidly expanding understanding of molecular derangements in cancer cell function has led to the development of selective, targeted chemotherapeutic agents. Growth factor signal transduction networks are frequently activated in an aberrant fashion, particularly through the activity of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK). This has spurred an intensive effort to develop receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (RTKI) that are targeted to specific receptors, or receptor subfamilies. Chapter 1 reviews the pharmacology, preclinical, and clinical aspects of RTKIs that target the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). EGFR inhibitors demonstrate significant success at inhibiting phosphorylation-based signaling pathways that promote cancer cell proliferation. Additionally RTKIs have physicochemical and structural characteristics that enable them to function as inhibitors of multi-drug resistance transport proteins. Thus EGFR inhibitors and other RTKIs have both on-target and off-target activities that could be beneficial in cancer therapy. However, these agents exert a number of side effects, some of which arise from their hydrophobic nature and large in vivo volume of distribution. Side effects of the EGFR inhibitor gefitinib include skin rash, severe myelotoxicity when combined with certain chemotherapeutic agents, and impairment of the blood brain barrier to xenobiotics. Weighing the preclinical and clinical observations with the EGFR inhibitors, we developed the primary overall hypothesis of this research: that drug-carrier formulations of RTKIs such as the EGFR inhibitors could be developed based on nanoparticulate liposomal carriers. Theoretically, this carrier strategy would ameliorate toxicity and improve the biodistribution and tumor selectivity of these agents. We hypothesized specifically that liposomal formulations could shift the biodistribution of EGFR inhibitors such as gefitinib away from skin, bone marrow, and the blood brain barrier, and toward solid tumors

  7. Effects of the epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor OSI-774, Tarceva, on downstream signaling pathways and apoptosis in human pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ng, Sylvia S W; Tsao, Ming-Sound; Nicklee, Trudey; Hedley, David W

    2002-08-01

    Pancreatic cancer is the fifth leading cause of cancer death in North America. Gemcitabine improves the quality of life of patients but fails to significantly reduce mortality. Our laboratory has demonstrated previously that the phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase inhibitor wortmannin promotes gemcitabine antitumor activity (S. S. W. Ng et al., Clin. Cancer Res., 7: 3269-3275, 2001). The present study examined the effects of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor OSI-774 ("Tarceva") alone and in combination with wortmannin and/or gemcitabine on downstream signaling molecules, as well as apoptosis in primary pancreatic cancer xenografts implanted orthotopically in severely combined immunodeficient mice. Tumors established from two pancreatic cancer patients [Ontario Cancer Institute Pancreas number (OCIP#) 2 and OCIP#7] were treated with various combinations of the above three drugs and harvested for analyses of the following: the levels of phosphorylated and nonphosphorylated forms of EGFR, protein kinase B (PKB/Akt) and extracellular-regulated kinase (ERK1/2), and the extent of apoptosis using immunofluorescence image analysis and TUNEL assay, respectively. OSI-774 alone significantly inhibited phosphorylation of EGFR in both of the primary xenografts. Phosphorylation of pERK decreased in OCIP#2, but not in OCIP#7. No significant effects on pPKB because of OSI-774 were observed in either tumor type. The extent of apoptosis was significantly increased by 2-fold in OCIP#2 tumors treated with gemcitabine and wortmannin in combination; an additional 2-fold increase in apoptosis was evident in the presence of OSI-774. Although wortmannin failed to enhance gemcitabine-induced apoptosis in OCIP#7 tumors, the extent of apoptosis was significantly increased with the inclusion of OSI-774 in the combination. Taken together, these findings support the use of OSI-774 plus a phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase inhibitor in combination with gemcitabine in the treatment of

  8. Cutaneous lesions in the rat following administration of an irreversible inhibitor of erbB receptors, including the epidermal growth factor receptor.

    PubMed

    Brown, Alan P; Dunstan, Robert W; Courtney, Cynthia L; Criswell, Kay A; Graziano, Michael J

    2008-04-01

    CI-1033 (canertinib) is an irreversible inhibitor of the erbB family of transmembrane tyrosine kinase receptors, including the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor. Various inhibitors of the EGF receptor, including CI-1033, have resulted in cutaneous toxicity in humans as a common adverse event. In a chronic toxicity study in rats, CI-1033 produced cutaneous lesions with morphologic characteristics similar to that reported in man. Here the authors describe in detail the dermal changes observed, along with other noteworthy findings of that study. Male and female Wistar rats (15/sex/group) were administered CI-1033 for 27 weeks at 2.5, 5, or 10 mg/kg (15, 30, or 60 mg/m(2), respectively) by gavage. Control animals (15/sex) received vehicle alone (aqueous 0.5% methylcellulose) in a dose volume of 5 mL/kg. Six animals/sex/dose were included for toxicokinetic evaluations. Skin lesions were the primary drug-related toxicity and occurred at > or = 2.5 mg/kg in a dose-dependent fashion. The major gross lesions were papules that evolved into crusts and scales that were first observed in weeks 1 and 3, respectively. Alopecia developed in conjunction with the papular eruptions. Skin changes were most pronounced in females, possibly due to higher drug levels. In week 13, CI-1033 plasma AUC(0-24) values were 527 to 1980 ng.h/mL in males and 844 to 2920 ng x h/mL in females at 2.5 to 10 mg/kg. Microscopic changes could be described as 3 patterns that affected the tail and body (haired skin). Pattern 1 consisted of epidermal changes that started as a superficial, perivascular spongiotic dermatitis with evolving epidermal hyperplasia, scale-crusts, and areas of ulceration. Areas of hyperplasia on the tail were often associated with the development of new hair follicles. Pattern 2 was characterized by a suppurative to pyogranulomatous infundibular folliculitis. Pattern 3 consisted of abnormally oriented hair follicles with malformed hair shafts that were associated with a deeper

  9. Update on recent preclinical and clinical studies of T790M mutant-specific irreversible epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Liao, Bin-Chi; Lin, Chia-Chi; Lee, Jih-Hsiang; Yang, James Chih-Hsin

    2016-12-03

    The first- and second-generation epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (1/2G EGFR-TKIs) gefitinib, erlotinib, and afatinib have all been approved as standard first-line treatments for advanced EGFR mutation-positive non-small cell lung cancer. The third-generation (3G) EGFR-TKIs have been developed to overcome the EGFR T790M mutation, which is the most common mechanism of acquired resistance to 1/2G EGFR-TKI treatment. This resistance mutation develops in half of the patients who respond to 1/2G EGFR-TKI therapy. The structures of the novel 3G EGFR-TKIs are different from those of 1/2G EGFR-TKIs. Particularly, 3G EGFR-TKIs have lower affinity to wild-type EGFR, and are therefore associated with lower rates of skin and gastrointestinal toxicities. However, many of the adverse events (AEs) that are observed in patients receiving 3G EGFR-TKIs have not been observed in patients receiving 1/2G EGFR-TKIs. Although preclinical studies have revealed many possible mechanisms for these AEs, the causes of some AEs remain unknown. Many mechanisms of resistance to 3G EGFR-TKI therapy have also been reported. Here, we have reviewed the recent clinical and preclinical developments related to novel 3G EGFR-TKIs, including osimertinib, rociletinib, olmutinib, EGF816, and ASP8273.

  10. Commentary: Treatment Considerations for Patients With Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor-Mutated Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Brain Metastases in the Era of Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Vaca, Silvia Daniela; Connolly, Ian David; Ho, Clement; Neal, Joel; Hayden Gephart, Melanie

    2017-08-12

    Brain metastasis is a serious complication of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) affecting up to 40% of NSCLC patients. A subset of NSCLC tumors has mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene, and determination of tumor EGFR mutation status is essential in guiding treatment decisions, as it directly affects the treatment approach. Patients with EGFR-mutated NSCLC have a higher cumulative incidence of brain metastases, and are especially sensitive to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). Patients with newly diagnosed EGFR-mutated lung cancer presenting to a neurosurgeon with a new diagnosis of brain metastases now have a variety of treatment options available, including whole brain radiation therapy, stereotactic radiosurgery, surgical resection, chemotherapy, and targeted therapeutics such as the EGFR TKIs. In this review, we discuss the impact of EGFR mutation status on brain and leptomeningeal metastasis treatment considerations. Additionally, we present clinical cases of patients treated with EGFR TKIs alone and in combination with other therapies to highlight treatment alternatives. Copyright © 2017 by the Congress of Neurological Surgeons.

  11. Signaling pathways modulating dependence of lung cancer on mutant epidermal growth factor receptor and mechanisms of intrinsic and acquired resistance to tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Wannesson, Luciano; Viteri, Santiago; Costa, Carlota; Karachaliou, Niki; Molina-Vila, Miguel Angel; Rosell, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    A new era in lung cancer targeted therapy arrived with the discovery of a subset of lung adenocarcinomas harboring activating mutations of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), whose tyrosine kinase activity can be selectively blocked by small molecule pharmaceuticals referred as tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). This was the starting point for a less toxic and more effective treatment strategy for a disease that has historically presented as chemorefractory and highly lethal. In spite of this progress, only 80% of the patients treated with this class of compounds will obtain a clinical benefit, of variable magnitude and duration, with remaining patients being primarily refractory to the treatment. Moreover, responding tumors will eventually develop acquired resistance to TKIs and progress to more advanced stages. In this review we summarize the current knowledge with regard to the mechanisms leading to tumor regression and the modifiers of this primary response that determine significant variability in sensitivity of tumors harboring EGFR activating mutations, ranging from complete remission to primary refractoriness. We also analyze the mechanisms of secondary resistance and the strategies the scientific community is exploring in order to overcome these barriers.

  12. Epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors for the treatment of central nervous system metastases from non-small cell lung cancer: the present and the future.

    PubMed

    Proto, Claudia; Imbimbo, Martina; Gallucci, Rosaria; Brissa, Angela; Signorelli, Diego; Vitali, Milena; Macerelli, Marianna; Corrao, Giulia; Ganzinelli, Monica; Greco, Francesca Gabriella; Garassino, Marina Chiara; Lo Russo, Giuseppe

    2016-12-01

    Lung cancer is one of the major causes of cancer related mortality worldwide. Brain metastases (BM) complicate clinical evolution of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in approximately 25-40% of cases, adversely influencing quality of life (QoL) and overall survival (OS). Systemic therapy remains the standard strategy for metastatic disease. Nevertheless, the blood-brain barrier (BBB) makes central nervous system (CNS) a sanctuary site. To date, the combination of chemotherapy with whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT), surgery and/or stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) represents the most used treatment for patients (pts) with intracranial involvement. However, due to their clinical conditions, many pts are not able to undergo local treatments. Targeted therapies directed against epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), such as gefitinib, erlotinib and afatinib, achieved important improvements in EGFR mutated NSCLC with favorable toxicity profile. Although their role is not well defined, the reported objective response rate (ORR) and the good tolerance make EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) an interesting valid alternative for NSCLC pts with BM, especially for those harboring EGFR mutations. Furthermore, new-generation TKIs, such as osimertinib and rociletinib, have already shown important activity on intracranial disease and several trials are still ongoing to evaluate their efficacy. In this review we want to highlight literature data about the use and the effectiveness of EGFR-TKIs in pts with BM from NSCLC.

  13. [Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation status before and after acquired resistance to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors in patients with lung adenocarcinoma].

    PubMed

    Ye, S B; Li, R; Shi, S S

    2017-02-08

    Objective: To investigate epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation status in lung adenocarcinomas before and after acquiring resistance to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) using ARMS method followed by further verification using droplet digital PCR technique. Methods: Twenty qualified patients were included, among them 13 were male and 7 were female patients. Before EGFR-TKIs treatment, 5 patients were EGFR wild-type by ARMS, and the other 15 patients had L858R or 19-del point mutations. The time to progression varied from 4 to 18 months. Mutation of exons 18, 19, 20 and 21 were detected by ARMS, and were verified by droplet digital PCR system method. Results: EGFR wild-type status was unchanged before and after acquired resistance to EGFR-TKIs in 5 lung adenocarcinoma patients. Alteration of EGFR mutation status occurred in 10 of the 15 patients with pre-treatment L858R or 19-del mutations. Among them, T790M mutation was found in 8 patients, L858R became G719X plus S768I mutation in one patient, and 19-del converted into wild-type in one other patient. Conclusions: T790M mutation is the primary type of EGFR mutation in lung adenocarcinomas with acquired resistance to EGFR-TKIs therapy. Acquired resistance to EGFR-TKIs dose not lead to the alteration of EGFR status in pre-treatment EGFR wild-type patients, but can alter EGFR mutation status in pre-treatment EGFR mutant patients.

  14. An inhibitor of the epidermal growth factor receptor function does not affect the ability of human papillomavirus 11 to form warts in the xenografted immunodeficient mouse model.

    PubMed

    Parkinson, Tanya; Howett, Mary K; Welsh, Patricia A; Patrick, Susan D; Neely, Elizabeth B; Flanagan, Neil; Pollack, Vincent A; Pustilnik, Leslie R; Moyer, Jim; Perros, Manos

    2007-04-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFr) has been shown to be induced and activated in cells infected with HPV, suggesting that it may play a physiological role in viral replication or in the formation or maintenance of warts. To investigate this possibility, human foreskin tissue was infected with HPV11 and transplanted onto the renal capsule and the dermis of immunodeficient mice. The animals were treated orally or topically with the potent EGFr inhibitor CP-545130, with treatment starting either immediately following graft attachment, or following a 70 day period to allow development of warts. The rate of appearance of warts, wart size and number were monitored. In addition, we measured intra-lesional HPV replication levels and examined the morphology of the graft tissues. Analysis of the results showed no significant difference between placebo and compound-treated groups, despite high levels of compound present in the graft tissue. We conclude that EGFr kinase activity is not required for the development and maintenance of HPV-11-induced warts in this model.

  15. A Review of Regimens Combining Pemetrexed With an Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor in the Treatment of Advanced Nonsquamous Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Yang, James Chih-Hsin; Mok, Tony; Han, Baohui; Orlando, Mauro; Puri, Tarun; Park, Keunchil

    2017-07-06

    Pemetrexed is a standard first-line treatment for advanced nonsquamous non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are a standard first-line treatment for advanced nonsquamous NSCLC with activating EGFR mutations. Pemetrexed and EGFR TKIs have different mechanisms of action and minimally overlapping toxicity profiles; therefore, it is hypothesized that their combination might result in acceptable toxicity, provided that the synergistic antitumor activity observed in preclinical studies is achieved. This review summarizes clinical trials of pemetrexed in combination with an EGFR TKI for the treatment of advanced nonsquamous NSCLC in the first- and second-line settings, using intercalated, sequential, and concurrent treatment strategies. As would be expected, such strategies were most efficacious in patients with the activating EGFR mutations associated with response to an EGFR TKI. In the studies that compared a pemetrexed-EGFR TKI combination with pemetrexed alone or the EGFR TKI alone, the pemetrexed-EGFR TKI combination was more efficacious than the single-agent regimens. The pemetrexed-EGFR TKI combinations were generally associated with a higher incidence of grade 3/4 treatment-related adverse events than the single-agent regimens; however, such toxicities were clinically manageable. Future studies of pemetrexed-EGFR TKI combinations should focus on optimizing treatment strategies in patients with activating EGFR mutations. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) Inhibitor Gefitinib Reduces but Does Not Prevent Tumorigenesis in Chemical and Hormonal Induced Hepatocarcinogenesis Rat Models

    PubMed Central

    Ribback, Silvia; Sailer, Verena; Böhning, Enrico; Günther, Julia; Merz, Jaqueline; Steinmüller, Frauke; Utpatel, Kirsten; Cigliano, Antonio; Peters, Kristin; Pilo, Maria G.; Evert, Matthias; Calvisi, Diego F.; Dombrowski, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling pathway promotes the development of hepatocellular adenoma (HCA) and carcinoma (HCC). The selective EGFR inhibitor Gefitinib was found to prevent hepatocarcinogenesis in rat cirrhotic livers. Thus, Gefitinib might reduce progression of pre-neoplastic liver lesions to HCC. In short- and long-term experiments, administration of N-Nitrosomorpholine (NNM) or intrahepatic transplantation of pancreatic islets in diabetic (PTx), thyroid follicles in thyroidectomized (TTx) and ovarian fragments in ovariectomized (OTx) rats was conducted for the induction of foci of altered hepatocytes (FAH). Gefitinib was administered for two weeks (20 mg/kg) or three and nine months (10 mg/kg). In NNM-treated rats, Gefitinib administration decreased the amount of FAH when compared to controls. The amount of HCA and HCC was decreased, but development was not prevented. Upon all transplantation models, proliferative activity of FAH was lower after administration of Gefitinib in short-term experiments. Nevertheless, the burden of HCA and HCC was not changed in later stages. Thus, EGFR inhibition by Gefitinib diminishes chemical and hormonal also induced hepatocarcinogenesis in the initiation stage in the non-cirrhotic liver. However, progression to malignant hepatocellular tumors was not prevented, indicating only a limited relevance of the EGFR signaling cascade in later stages of hepatocarcinogenesis. PMID:27669229

  17. Biomarkers of response to epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors in Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Working Group: standardization for use in the clinical trial setting.

    PubMed

    Eberhard, David A; Giaccone, Giuseppe; Johnson, Bruce E

    2008-02-20

    The body of literature on the correlations between molecular assessments and patient outcomes after treatment with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors continues to grow. It will be important in the future to determine how to most effectively integrate molecular assays that assess the likelihood of therapeutic benefit into clinical practice. Although EGFR-targeted therapies such as erlotinib have been approved for use without molecular testing, immunohistochemistry, fluorescence in situ hybridization, and mutational analyses of the EGFR gene have all been proposed as candidates to help predict response or survival benefit from EGFR-targeted therapy in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Further prospective validation from ongoing randomized studies will be needed to fully determine which assays are best to help predict patient outcome. In addition, it will be critical for these assays to undergo standardization before widespread clinical use. The Molecular Assays in NSCLC Working Group, under the sponsorship of Genentech Inc, Roche Pharmaceuticals, and OSI Pharmaceuticals, Inc, was convened to evaluate the available molecular assays for use in the clinical trial setting and provide recommendations for application and interpretation of these tests for future clinical trials. Recommendations of the Molecular Assays in NSCLC Working Group for the use of EGFR molecular assays are presented and include guidelines for tissue storage, handling, and processing. Recommendations for the standardization of molecular assays are also discussed.

  18. Epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors for the treatment of central nervous system metastases from non-small cell lung cancer: the present and the future

    PubMed Central

    Proto, Claudia; Imbimbo, Martina; Gallucci, Rosaria; Brissa, Angela; Signorelli, Diego; Vitali, Milena; Macerelli, Marianna; Corrao, Giulia; Ganzinelli, Monica; Greco, Francesca Gabriella; Garassino, Marina Chiara

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is one of the major causes of cancer related mortality worldwide. Brain metastases (BM) complicate clinical evolution of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in approximately 25–40% of cases, adversely influencing quality of life (QoL) and overall survival (OS). Systemic therapy remains the standard strategy for metastatic disease. Nevertheless, the blood-brain barrier (BBB) makes central nervous system (CNS) a sanctuary site. To date, the combination of chemotherapy with whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT), surgery and/or stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) represents the most used treatment for patients (pts) with intracranial involvement. However, due to their clinical conditions, many pts are not able to undergo local treatments. Targeted therapies directed against epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), such as gefitinib, erlotinib and afatinib, achieved important improvements in EGFR mutated NSCLC with favorable toxicity profile. Although their role is not well defined, the reported objective response rate (ORR) and the good tolerance make EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) an interesting valid alternative for NSCLC pts with BM, especially for those harboring EGFR mutations. Furthermore, new-generation TKIs, such as osimertinib and rociletinib, have already shown important activity on intracranial disease and several trials are still ongoing to evaluate their efficacy. In this review we want to highlight literature data about the use and the effectiveness of EGFR-TKIs in pts with BM from NSCLC. PMID:28149752

  19. Blockade of Hedgehog Signaling Synergistically Increases Sensitivity to Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors in Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Xiao-Yan; Zhang, Xu-Chao; Yang, Su-Qing; An, She-Juan; Chen, Zhi-Hong; Su, Jian; Xie, Zhi; Gou, Lan-Ying; Wu, Yi-Long

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant activation of the hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway has been implicated in the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cancer stem-like cell (CSC) maintenance; both processes can result in tumor progression and treatment resistance in several types of human cancer. Hh cooperates with the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling pathway in embryogenesis. We found that the Hh signaling pathway was silenced in EGFR-TKI-sensitive non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells, while it was inappropriately activated in EGFR-TKI-resistant NSCLC cells, accompanied by EMT induction and ABCG2 overexpression. Upregulation of Hh signaling through extrinsic SHH exposure downregulated E-cadherin expression and elevated Snail and ABCG2 expression, resulting in gefitinib tolerance (P < 0.001) in EGFR-TKI-sensitive cells. Blockade of the Hh signaling pathway using the SMO antagonist SANT-1 restored E-cadherin expression and downregulate Snail and ABCG2 in EGFR-TKI-resistant cells. A combination of SANT-1 and gefitinib markedly inhibited tumorigenesis and proliferation in EGFR-TKI-resistant cells (P < 0.001). These findings indicate that hyperactivity of Hh signaling resulted in EGFR-TKI resistance, by EMT introduction and ABCG2 upregulation, and blockade of Hh signaling synergistically increased sensitivity to EGFR-TKIs in primary and secondary resistant NSCLC cells. E-cadherin expression may be a potential biomarker of the suitability of the combined application of an Hh inhibitor and EGFR-TKIs in EGFR-TKI-resistant NSCLCs. PMID:26943330

  20. HRAS Mutations and Resistance to the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Erlotinib in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hah, J. Hun; Zhao, Mei; Pickering, Curtis R.; Frederick, Mitchell J.; Andrews, Genevieve A.; Jasser, Samar A.; Fooshee, David R.; Milas, Zvonimir L.; Galer, Chad; Sano, Daisuke; William, William N.; Kim, Edward; Heymach, John; Byers, Lauren A.; Papadimitrakopoulou, Vali; Myers, Jeffrey N.

    2014-01-01

    Background This was to identify mechanisms of innate resistance to an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor, erlotinib, in a panel of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cell lines. Specifically, we analyzed the role of HRAS mutations in erlotinib resistance. Methods Erlotinib sensitivity was determined by MTT assays. Molecular signaling pathways and somatic mutations were examined. Changes in sensitivity after modulation of HRAS expression were evaluated. Results All seven cell lines were wild-type for EGFR and KRAS regardless of erlotinib sensitivity; however, one erlotinib-resistant cell line (HN31) harbored an HRAS G12D mutation. Down regulation of HRAS expression by siRNA or shRNA in HN31 led to increased erlotinib sensitivity in vitro and in vivo. Transfection of activating HRAS-mutant (G12D and G12V) constructs into erlotinib-sensitive cell lines made them more resistant to erlotinib. Conclusion Activating HRAS mutations can confer erlotinib resistance in an HRAS mutant HNSCC cell line. PMID:24123531

  1. Use of the epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors gefitinib, erlotinib, afatinib, dacomitinib, and icotinib in the treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, P.M.; Coakley, N.; Feld, R.; Kuruvilla, S.; Ung, Y.C.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction This systematic review addresses the use of epidermal growth factor receptor (egfr) inhibitors in three populations of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (nsclc) patients—unselected, selected, and molecularly selected—in three treatment settings: first line, second line, and maintenance. Methods Ninety-six randomized controlled trials found using the medline and embase databases form the basis of this review. Results In the first-line setting, data about the efficacy of egfr tyrosine kinase inhibitors (tkis) compared with platinum-based chemotherapy are inconsistent. Results from studies that selected patients based on clinical characteristics are also mixed. There is high-quality evidence that an egfr tki is preferred over a platinum doublet as initial therapy for patients with an activating mutation of the EGFR gene. The egfr tkis are associated with a higher likelihood of response, longer progression-free survival, and improved quality of life. Multiple trials of second-line therapy have compared an egfr tki with chemotherapy. Meta-analysis of those data demonstrates similar progression-free and overall survival. There is consequently no preferred sequence for second-line egfr tki or second-line chemotherapy. The egfr tkis have also been evaluated as switch-maintenance therapy. No molecular marker could identify patients in whom a survival benefit was not observed; however, the magnitude of the benefit was modest. Conclusions Determination of EGFR mutation status is essential to making appropriate treatment decisions in patients with nsclc. Patients who are EGFR mutation–positive should be treated with an egfr tki as first-line therapy. An egfr tki is still appropriate therapy in patients who are EGFR wild-type, but the selected agent should be administered as second- or third-line therapy. PMID:26089730

  2. Targeting Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor-Resistant Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer by Inducing Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Degradation via Methionine 790 Oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Elaine Lai-Han; Fan, Xing-Xing; Wong, Maria Pik; Jiang, Zhi-Hong; Liu, Zhong-Qiu; Yao, Xiao-Jun; Lu, Lin-Lin; Zhou, Yan-Ling; Yau, Li-Fong; Tin, Vicky Pui-Chi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have been developed to treat non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with EGFR mutation, but TKI resistance is common. Almost half of the acquired resistance patients are due to additional T790M mutation on EGFR (EGFRT790M), thus overcoming TKI resistance is important. In this study, we aim to investigate the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in TKI resistance as well as the molecular and biological effects of EGFRT790M after redox manipulation. Results: The basal ROS levels in EGFRT790M-containing TKI-resistant NSCLC cell lines were substantially high. Sixty-three human lung tumors showed higher NADPH oxidase isoform 2 (NOX2) expression than normal lung tissues, which may contribute to high basal ROS in cancer and poor survival. Interestingly, only NOX3 was upregulated by sanguinarine, a pharmacological agent to elevate ROS, and resulted in EGFR overoxidation, degradation, and apoptosis. By contrast, such responses were lacking in EGFRWT cells. Selective EGFRT790M degradation was manipulated by redox imbalance between NOX3 and methionine reductase A (MsrA). Furthermore, the in vivo tumor suppression effect of sanguinarine, NOX3 upregulation, and EGFR degradation were confirmed. Innovation: We have found a new treatment strategy to overcome TKI resistance by selectively inducing EGFRT790M degradation via specific stimulation of methionine 790 (M790) oxidation. It can be achieved via manipulating redox imbalance between NOX3 and MsrA. Conclusion: Targeting EGFR by elevating ROS and redox imbalance is a potential new strategy to develop a new EGFR inhibitor for TKI-resistant patients with a wide therapeutic window between EGFRT790M and EGFRWT. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 24, 263–279. PMID:26528827

  3. Effects of luteolin and quercetin, inhibitors of tyrosine kinase, on cell growth and metastasis-associated properties in A431 cells overexpressing epidermal growth factor receptor

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Y -T; Hwang, J -J; Lee, P -P; Ke, F -C; Huang, J -H; Huang, C -J; Kandaswami, C; Middleton, E; Lee, M -T

    1999-01-01

    Flavonoids display a wide range of pharmacological properties including anti-inflammatory. Anti-mutagenic, anti-carcinogenic and anti-cancer effects. Here, we evaluated the effects of eight flavonoids on the tumour cell proliferation, cellular protein phosphorylation, and matrix metalloproteinase (MMPs) secretion.Of the flavonoids examined, luteolin (Lu) and quercetin (Qu) were the two most potent agents, and significantly inhibited A431 cell proliferation with IC50 values of 19 and 21 μM, respectively.The epidermal growth factor (EGF) (10 nM) promoted growth of A431 cells (+25±4.6%) and mediated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase activity and autophosphorylation of EGFR were inhibited by Lu and Qu. At concentration of 20 μM, both Lu and Qu markedly decreased the levels of phosphorylation of A431 cellular proteins, including EGFR.A431 cells treated with Lu or Qu exhibited protuberant cytoplasmic blebs and progressive shrinkage morphology. Lu and Qu also time-dependently induced the appearance of a ladder pattern of DNA fragmentation, and this effect was abolished by EGF treatment.The addition of EGF only marginally diminished the inhibitory effect of luteolin and quercetin on the growth rate of A431 cells, treatment of cellular proteins with EGF and luteolin or quercetin greatly reduced protein phosphorylation, indicating Lu and Qu may act effectively to inhibit a wide range of protein kinases, including EGFR tyrosine kinase.EGF increased the levels of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), while Lu and Qu appeared to suppress the secretion of these two MMPs in A431 cells.Examination of the relationship between the chemical structure and inhibitory effects of eight flavonoids reveal that the double bond between C2 and C3 in ring C and the OH groups on C3′ and C4′ in ring B are critical for the biological activities.This study demonstrates that the inhibitory effects of Lu and Qu, and the

  4. A fibronectin scaffold approach to bispecific inhibitors of epidermal growth factor receptor and insulin-like growth factor-I receptor

    PubMed Central

    Emanuel, Stuart L; Engle, Linda J; Chao, Ginger; Zhu, Rong-Rong; Cao, Carolyn; Lin, Zheng; Yamniuk, Aaron; Hosbach, Jennifer; Brown, Jennifer; Fitzpatrick, Elizabeth; Gokemeijer, Jochem; Morin, Paul; Morse, Brent; Carvajal, Irvith M; Fabrizio, David; Wright, Martin C; Das Gupta, Ruchira; Gosselin, Michael; Cataldo, Daniel; Ryseck, Rolf P; Doyle, Michael L; Wong, Tai W; Camphausen, Raymond T; Cload, Sharon T; Marsh, H Nicholas; Gottardis, Marco M

    2011-01-01

    Engineered domains of human fibronectin (Adnectins™) were used to generate a bispecific Adnectin targeting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and insulin-like growth factor-I receptor (IGF-IR), two transmembrane receptors that mediate proliferative and survival cell signaling in cancer. Single-domain Adnectins that specifically bind EGFR or IGF-IR were generated using mRNA display with a library containing as many as 1013 Adnectin variants. mRNA display was also used to optimize lead Adnectin affinities, resulting in clones that inhibited EGFR phosphorylation at 7 to 38 nM compared to 2.6 µM for the parental clone. Individual optimized Adnectins specific for blocking either EGFR or IGF-IR signaling were engineered into a single protein (EI-Tandem Adnectin). The EI-Tandems inhibited phosphorylation of EGFR and IGF-IR, induced receptor degradation and inhibited down-stream cell signaling and proliferation of human cancer cell lines (A431, H292, BxPC3 and RH41) with IC50 values ranging from 0.1 to 113 nM. Although Adnectins bound to EGFR at a site distinct from those of anti-EGFR antibodies cetuximab, panitumumab and nimotuzumab, like the antibodies, the anti-EGFR Adnectins blocked the binding of EGF to EGFR. PEGylated EI-Tandem inhibited the growth of both EGFR and IGF-IR driven human tumor xenografts, induced degradation of EGFR and reduced EGFR phosphorylation in tumors. These results demonstrate efficient engineering of bispecific Adnectins with high potency and desired specificity. The bispecificity may improve biological activity compared to monospecific biologics as tumor growth is driven by multiple growth factors. Our results illustrate a technological advancement for constructing multi-specific biologics in cancer therapy. PMID:21099371

  5. Reduced annexin A6 expression promotes the degradation of activated epidermal growth factor receptor and sensitizes invasive breast cancer cells to EGFR-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The expression of annexin A6 (AnxA6) in AnxA6-deficient non-invasive tumor cells has been shown to terminate epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activation and downstream signaling. However, as a scaffolding protein, AnxA6 may stabilize activated cell-surface receptors to promote cellular processes such as tumor cell motility and invasiveness. In this study, we investigated the contribution of AnxA6 in the activity of EGFR in invasive breast cancer cells and examined whether the expression status of AnxA6 influences the response of these cells to EGFR-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) and/or patient survival. Results We demonstrate that in invasive BT-549 breast cancer cells AnxA6 expression is required for sustained membrane localization of activated (phosho-Y1068) EGFR and consequently, persistent activation of MAP kinase ERK1/2 and phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt pathways. Depletion of AnxA6 in these cells was accompanied by rapid degradation of activated EGFR, attenuated downstream signaling and as expected enhanced anchorage-independent growth. Besides inhibition of cell motility and invasiveness, AnxA6-depleted cells were also more sensitive to the EGFR-targeted TKIs lapatinib and PD153035. We also provide evidence suggesting that reduced AnxA6 expression is associated with a better relapse-free survival but poorer distant metastasis-free and overall survival of basal-like breast cancer patients. Conclusions Together this demonstrates that the rapid degradation of activated EGFR in AnxA6-depleted invasive tumor cells underlies their sensitivity to EGFR-targeted TKIs and reduced motility. These data also suggest that AnxA6 expression status may be useful for the prediction of the survival and likelihood of basal-like breast cancer patients to respond to EGFR-targeted therapies. PMID:24354805

  6. Elevated thymidine phosphorylase activity in psoriatic lesions accounts for the apparent presence of an epidermal growth inhibitor, but is not in itself growth inhibitory

    SciTech Connect

    Hammerberg, C.; Fisher, G.J.; Voorhees, J.J.; Cooper, K.D. )

    1991-08-01

    An apparent tissue-specific growth inhibitor, or chalone, obtained from psoriatic lesions was tentatively identified in the 100-kDa fraction based upon inhibition of DNA synthesis, as measured by (3H)-thymidine uptake by a squamous cell carcinoma cell line, SCC 38. This fraction, however, failed to inhibit SCC 38 cell growth when assessed directly in a neutral red uptake assay. Characterization of the inhibitor of (3H)-thymidine uptake revealed it to have biochemical properties identical to thymidine phosphorylase: (1) molecular weight close to 100 kDa, (2) isoelectric point of 4.2, and (3) thymidine phosphorylase enzyme activity. Thus, the authors conclude that its ability to inhibit (3H)-thymidine uptake was due to thymidine catabolism rather than inhibition of DNA synthesis or growth inhibition. Examination of thymidine phosphorylase activity in keratome biopsies from psoriatic and normal skin demonstrated a twentyfold increase in activity in psoriatic lesions relative to non-lesional or normal skin. This increase in metabolism of thymidine was due to thymidine phosphorylase rather than uridine phosphorylase activity. The correlation between increased thymidine phosphorylase activity and increased keratinocyte proliferation in vitro (cultured) and in vivo (psoriasis), suggests that this enzyme may play a critical role in providing the thymidine necessary for keratinocyte proliferation.

  7. Cytotoxic chemotherapy may overcome the development of acquired resistance to epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) therapy.

    PubMed

    Kanda, Shintaro; Horinouchi, Hidehito; Fujiwara, Yutaka; Nokihara, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Noboru; Sekine, Ikuo; Kunitoh, Hideo; Kubota, Kaoru; Tamura, Tomohide; Ohe, Yuichiro

    2015-09-01

    In the first-line treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) harboring EGFR mutations, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) has been shown to yield a longer progression-free survival (PFS) rate than platinum-doublet chemotherapy; however, after the initial response, most patients develop resistance to the EGFR-TKIs. We hypothesized that the insertion of platinum-doublet chemotherapy after the initial response to EGFR-TKIs might prevent the emergence of acquired resistance to EGFR-TKIs and prolong survival. We carried out a phase II study of the following first-line treatment for patients with advanced NSCLC harboring EGFR mutations. Gefitinib (250 mg) was administered on days 1-56. Then, after a two-week drug-free period, three cycles of cisplatin (80 mg/m2) and docetaxel (60 mg/m2) were administered on days 71, 92, and 113. Thereafter, gefitinib was re-started on day 134 and continued until disease progression. The primary endpoint was the two-year PFS rate. A total of 34 patients were enrolled. Of the 33 eligible patients and 12 achieved a two-year PFS. Thus, this therapeutic strategy met the criterion for usefulness. The 1-, 2-, 3-, and 5-year PFS rates were 67.0%, 40.2%, 36.9%, and 22.0%, respectively, and the median PFS was 19.5 months. The 1-, 2-, 3- and 5-year survival rates were 90.6%, 71.9%, 64.8%, and 36.5% respectively, and the median survival time was 48.0 months. These results indicate that the insertion of platinum-doublet chemotherapy might prevent the development of acquired resistance to EGFR-TKIs in patients with advanced NSCLC harboring EGFR mutations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Theoretical method for evaluation of therapeutic effects and adverse effects of epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors in clinical treatment.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Koji; Takayanagi, Risa; Fukushima, Tomoki; Yamada, Yasuhiko

    2017-09-08

    Epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) are used for non-small cell lung cancer patients with an EGFR gene mutation. However, skin disorders are known as adverse events. In the present study, we investigated whether EGFR-TK occupancy is useful as an index for assessing clinical efficacy and adverse events for the proper use and development of EGFR-TKIs. Average binding occupancies (Φ ss) of EGFR-TKIs, gefitinib and erlotinib, for the EGFR-TK of cancer or skin cells were calculated. The relationships of Φ ss with response rate (RR) or frequency of rash were analyzed using the ternary complex model. Then, the relationships between the dose of EGFR-TKIs and RR or frequency of rash were examined. Gefitinib showed a greater difference for Φ ss value for both wild-type and mutant EGFR as compared to erlotinib at usual dose. The RR increased in a nonlinear manner rapidly rising when Φ ss exceeded 95%. It was thought that a very high Φ ss value might be needed to obtain the therapeutic effect of EGFR-TKIs. Meanwhile, the frequency of rash increased in a linear manner along with elevation of Φ ss. It was shown that the K d ratio (K d for mutant/K d for wild type) was less than 0.001, when the high RR and low frequency of rash were obtained simultaneously. The results showed that the therapeutic effects and skin disorder can be assessed by using Φ ss. Furthermore, it is likely that a proper choice of drug and dose can be made by using Φ ss in EGFR-TKI therapy.

  9. Survival of patients with brain metastases from non-small cell lung cancer harboring EGFR mutations treated with epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Kashima, Jumpei; Okuma, Yusuke; Miwa, Maki; Hosomi, Yukio

    2016-11-01

    Brain metastases (BM) is one of the most crucial distant metastases in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) harboring epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations. There is no consensus about which EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) is most effective against BM in such patients. Here, we compared prognoses of patients with EGFR-TKI naïve EGFR-positive BM treated with erlotinib or gefitinib after BM diagnosis. Of 269 patients with NSCLC treated with EGFR-TKIs at a single institution, we reviewed medical records of 205 patients with documented EGFR mutations. Eleven patients were administered erlotinib, and 52 patients were administered gefitinib as the first-line EGFR-TKI treatment after diagnosis. We used propensity score matching to balance patient backgrounds between groups, and the log-rank test to compare survival curves. Patients with BM at the induction of chemotherapy had a poorer prognosis than those without BM [median overall survival (OS) 18.5 vs. 28.0 months]. Meanwhile, there was no significant difference in OS between those with or without BM at the initiation of EGFR-TKI treatment (20.3 vs. 23.8 months). Median OS of patients treated with erlotinib was not significantly longer than that of patients treated with gefitinib (25.0 vs. 18.1 months). The presence of BM at the initiation of EGFR-TKI treatment had no apparent effect on survival. Erlotinib was deemed more effective than gefitinib in preventing intracranial lesions and prolonging survival; however, prospective studies are needed to confirm these results.

  10. Molecular Mechanisms Underlying the Antitumor Activity of 3-Aminopropanamide Irreversible Inhibitors of the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer1 2

    PubMed Central

    Galvani, Elena; Giovannetti, Elisa; Saccani, Francesca; Cavazzoni, Andrea; Leon, Leticia G; Dekker, Henk; Alfieri, Roberta; Carmi, Caterina; Mor, Marco; Ardizzoni, Andrea; Petronini, Pier Giorgio; Peters, Godefridus J

    2013-01-01

    Overcoming the emergence of acquired resistance to clinically approved epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors is a major challenge in the treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a series of novel compounds affecting viability of NSCLC NCI-H1975 cells (carrying the EGFR T790M mutation). The inhibition of the autophosphorylation of EGFR occurred at nanomolar concentrations and both UPR1282 and UPR1268 caused a significant induction of apoptosis. Targeting of EGFR and downstream pathways was confirmed by a peptide substrate array, which highlighted the inhibition of other kinases involved in NSCLC cell aggressive behavior. Accordingly, the drugs inhibited migration (about 30% vs. control), which could be, in part, explained also by the increase of E-cadherin expression. Additionally, we observed a contraction of the volume of H1975 spheroids, associated with the reduction of the cancer stem-like cell hallmark CD133. The activity of UPR1282 was retained in H1975 xenograft models where it determined tumor shrinkage (P < .05) and resulted well tolerated compared to canertinib. Of note, the kinase activity profile of UPR1282 on xenograft tumor tissues showed overlapping results with respect to the activity in H1975 cells, unraveling the inhibition of kinases involved in pivotal proliferation and invasive signaling pathways. In conclusion, UPR1282 and UPR1268 are effective against various processes involved in malignancy transformation and progression and may be promising compounds for the future treatment of gefitinib-resistant NSCLCs. PMID:23359111

  11. Correlation between epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor efficacy and circulating tumor cell levels in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    He, Wenjie; Li, Wenhui; Jiang, Bo; Chang, Li; Jin, Congguo; Tu, Changlin; Li, Yunfen

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between the efficacy of epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI) and circulating tumor cell (CTC) levels in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The efficacy of EGFR-TKIs in reducing CTC counts in patients with advanced NSCLC was studied. Patients and methods A total of 66 patients with advanced NSCLC were enrolled and divided into two groups (those with high CTC counts and those with low CTC counts) based on the patients’ median CTC counts. All the patients were treated with an EGFR-TKI, and the treatment efficacy and prognoses were compared. Results The treatment efficacies were 53.3% (16/30) and 27.8% (10/36) for the low CTC group and high CTC group, respectively, and this difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). The median overall survival was 22.8 months (95% confidence interval [CI]: 18.9–26.8 months) for the low CTC group and 18.3 months (95% CI: 2.9–8.2 months) for the high CTC group. The median progression-free survival was 11.5 months (95% CI: 8.1–15 months) and 5.6 months (95% CI: 2.9–8.2 months) for the low and high CTC groups, respectively, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). Conclusion The CTC count can be used as an index for predicting the EGFR-TKI effect on patients with advanced NSCLC. Efficacy and prognosis of EGFR-TKI treatment and CTC count were considered important, and the CTC count could be used to predict the efficacy of EGFR-TKI treatment and prognosis of advanced NSCLC. The change in CTC expression levels can be used as an index for evaluating the prognosis of patients with advanced NSCLC. PMID:28003764

  12. The role of epithelial to mesenchymal transition in resistance to epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors in non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jakobsen, Kristine Raaby; Demuth, Christina; Sorensen, Boe Sandahl

    2016-01-01

    Inhibition of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is an important strategy when treating non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. However, intrinsic resistance or development of resistance during the course of treatment constitutes a major challenge. The knowledge on EGFR-directed tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) and their biological effect keeps increasing. Within the group of patients with EGFR mutations some benefit to a much higher degree than others, and for patients lacking EGFR mutations a subset experience an effect. Up to 70% of patients with EGFR mutations and 10–20% of patients without EGFR mutations initially respond to the EGFR-TKI erlotinib, but there is a severe absence of good prognostic markers. Despite initial effect, all patients acquire resistance to EGFR-TKIs. Multiple mechanisms have implications in resistance development, but much is still to be explored. Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a transcriptionally regulated phenotypic shift rendering cells more invasive and migratory. Within the EMT process lays a need for external or internal stimuli to give rise to changes in central signaling pathways. Expression of mesenchymal markers correlates to a bad prognosis and an inferior response to EGFR-TKIs in NSCLC due to the contribution to a resistant phenotype. A deeper understanding of the role of EMT in NSCLC and especially in EGFR-TKI resistance-development constitute one opportunity to improve the benefit of TKI treatment for the individual patient. Many scientific studies have linked the EMT process to EGFR-TKI resistance in NSCLC and our aim is to review the role of EMT in both intrinsic and acquired resistance to EGFR-TKIs. PMID:27186512

  13. 3D-QSAR and docking studies on 4-anilinoquinazoline and 4-anilinoquinoline epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assefa, Haregewein; Kamath, Shantaram; Buolamwini, John K.

    2003-08-01

    The overexpression and/or mutation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase has been observed in many human solid tumors, and is under intense investigation as a novel anticancer molecular target. Comparative 3D-QSAR analyses using different alignments were undertaken employing comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) and comparative molecular similarity analysis (CoMSIA) for 122 anilinoquinazoline and 50 anilinoquinoline inhibitors of EGFR kinase. The SYBYL multifit alignment rule was applied to three different conformational templates, two obtained from a MacroModel Monte Carlo conformational search, and one from the bound conformation of erlotinib in complex with EGFR in the X-ray crystal structure. In addition, a flexible ligand docking alignment obtained with the GOLD docking program, and a novel flexible receptor-guided consensus dynamics alignment obtained with the DISCOVER program in the INSIGHTII modeling package were also investigated. 3D-QSAR models with q2 values up to 0.70 and r2 values up to 0.97 were obtained. Among the 4-anilinoquinazoline set, the q2 values were similar, but the ability of the different conformational models to predict the activities of an external test set varied considerably. In this regard, the model derived using the X-ray crystallographically determined bioactive conformation of erlotinib afforded the best predictive model. Electrostatic, hydrophobic and H-bond donor descriptors contributed the most to the QSAR models of the 4-anilinoquinazolines, whereas electrostatic, hydrophobic and H-bond acceptor descriptors contributed the most to the 4-anilinoquinoline QSAR, particularly the H-bond acceptor descriptor. A novel receptor-guided consensus dynamics alignment has also been introduced for 3D-QSAR studies. This new alignment method may incorporate to some extent ligand-receptor induced fit effects into 3D-QSAR models.

  14. Molecular mechanisms underlying the antitumor activity of 3-aminopropanamide irreversible inhibitors of the epidermal growth factor receptor in non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Galvani, Elena; Giovannetti, Elisa; Saccani, Francesca; Cavazzoni, Andrea; Leon, Leticia G; Dekker, Henk; Alfieri, Roberta; Carmi, Caterina; Mor, Marco; Ardizzoni, Andrea; Petronini, Pier Giorgio; Peters, Godefridus J

    2013-01-01

    Overcoming the emergence of acquired resistance to clinically approved epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors is a major challenge in the treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a series of novel compounds affecting viability of NSCLC NCI-H1975 cells (carrying the EGFR T790M mutation). The inhibition of the autophosphorylation of EGFR occurred at nanomolar concentrations and both UPR1282 and UPR1268 caused a significant induction of apoptosis. Targeting of EGFR and downstream pathways was confirmed by a peptide substrate array, which highlighted the inhibition of other kinases involved in NSCLC cell aggressive behavior. Accordingly, the drugs inhibited migration (about 30% vs. control), which could be, in part, explained also by the increase of E-cadherin expression. Additionally, we observed a contraction of the volume of H1975 spheroids, associated with the reduction of the cancer stem-like cell hallmark CD133. The activity of UPR1282 was retained in H1975 xenograft models where it determined tumor shrinkage (P < .05) and resulted well tolerated compared to canertinib. Of note, the kinase activity profile of UPR1282 on xenograft tumor tissues showed overlapping results with respect to the activity in H1975 cells, unraveling the inhibition of kinases involved in pivotal proliferation and invasive signaling pathways. In conclusion, UPR1282 and UPR1268 are effective against various processes involved in malignancy transformation and progression and may be promising compounds for the future treatment of gefitinib-resistant NSCLCs.

  15. ZEB1 Mediates Acquired Resistance to the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor-Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Takeshi; Song, Lanxi; Bai, Yun; Kinose, Fumi; Li, Jiannong; Ohaegbulam, Kim C.; Muñoz-Antonia, Teresita; Qu, Xiaotao; Eschrich, Steven; Uramoto, Hidetaka; Tanaka, Fumihiro; Nasarre, Patrick; Gemmill, Robert M.; Roche, Joëlle; Drabkin, Harry A.; Haura, Eric B.

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is one mechanism of acquired resistance to inhibitors of the epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinases (EGFR-TKIs) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The precise mechanisms of EMT-related acquired resistance to EGFR-TKIs in NSCLC remain unclear. We generated erlotinib-resistant HCC4006 cells (HCC4006ER) by chronic exposure of EGFR-mutant HCC4006 cells to increasing concentrations of erlotinib. HCC4006ER cells acquired an EMT phenotype and activation of the TGF-β/SMAD pathway, while lacking both T790M secondary EGFR mutation and MET gene amplification. We employed gene expression microarrays in HCC4006 and HCC4006ER cells to better understand the mechanism of acquired EGFR-TKI resistance with EMT. At the mRNA level, ZEB1 (TCF8), a known regulator of EMT, was >20-fold higher in HCC4006ER cells than in HCC4006 cells, and increased ZEB1 protein level was also detected. Furthermore, numerous ZEB1 responsive genes, such as CDH1 (E-cadherin), ST14, and vimentin, were coordinately regulated along with increased ZEB1 in HCC4006ER cells. We also identified ZEB1 overexpression and an EMT phenotype in several NSCLC cells and human NSCLC samples with acquired EGFR-TKI resistance. Short-interfering RNA against ZEB1 reversed the EMT phenotype and, importantly, restored erlotinib sensitivity in HCC4006ER cells. The level of micro-RNA-200c, which can negatively regulate ZEB1, was significantly reduced in HCC4006ER cells. Our results suggest that increased ZEB1 can drive EMT-related acquired resistance to EGFR-TKIs in NSCLC. Attempts should be made to explore targeting ZEB1 to resensitize TKI-resistant tumors. PMID:26789630

  16. Intercalated Chemotherapy and Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Inhibitors for Patients With Advanced Non-Small-cell Lung Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    La Salvia, Anna; Rossi, Antonio; Galetta, Domenico; Gobbini, Elisa; De Luca, Emmanuele; Novello, Silvia; Di Maio, Massimo

    2017-01-01

    Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) of concurrent epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) plus chemotherapy for unselected patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) produced negative results. Intercalated administration could avoid the reduction of chemotherapy activity due to G1 cell-cycle arrest from EGFR-TKIs. A PubMed search was performed in December 2015 and updated in February 2016. The references from the selected studies were also checked to identify additional eligible trials. Furthermore, the proceedings of the main international meetings were searched from 2010 onward. We included RCTs comparing chemotherapy intercalated with an EGFR-TKI versus chemotherapy alone for patients with advanced NSCLC. Ten RCTs were eligible (6 with erlotinib, 4 with gefitinib): 39% of patients had a known EGFR mutational status, 43% of whom EGFR mutation positive. The intercalated combination was associated with a significant improvement in overall survival (OS; hazard ratio [HR], 0.82; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.71-0.95; P = .01), progression-free survival (PFS; HR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.53-0.68; P < .00001), and objective response rate (ORR; odds ratio [OR], 2.70; 95% CI, 2.08-3.49; P < .00001). Considering only first-line trials, similar differences were found in OS (HR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.72-1.00; P = .05), PFS (HR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.55-0.73; P < .00001), and ORR (OR, 2.21; 95% CI, 1.65-2.95; P < .00001). In EGFR mutation-positive patients, the addition of an intercalated EGFR-TKI produced a significant benefit in PFS (129 patients; HR, 0.24; 95% CI, 0.16-0.37; P < .00001) and ORR (168 patients; OR, 11.59; 95% CI, 5.54-24.25; P < .00001). In patients with advanced NSCLC, chemotherapy plus intercalated EGFR-TKIs was superior to chemotherapy alone, although a definitive interpretation was jeopardized by the variable proportion of patients with EGFR mutation-positive tumors included.

  17. Brain metastases in non-small cell lung cancer patients on epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors: symptom and economic burden.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Ancilla W; Wu, Bingcao; Turner, Ralph M

    2017-08-14

    This study describes the symptom and economic burden associated with brain metastases (BM) in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) receiving epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs). This retrospective study included adults with ≥2 medical claims, within 90 days, for lung cancer and ≥1 administration of EGFR-TKIs. Based on ICD-9 codes, patients were stratified into cohorts by type of metastases (BM, other metastases [OM], or no metastases [NM]), and by when the metastasis diagnosis occurred (synchronous or asynchronous). The population (synchronous BM [SBM] = 24, synchronous OM [SOM] = 23, asynchronous BM [ASBM] = 15, asynchronous OM [ASOM] = 49, NM = 85) was mostly female (57%), average age 69 years (SD = 11). SBM patients experienced more fatigue and nausea/vomiting compared with SOM and NM patients and more headaches and loss of appetite than NM patients. ASBM was associated with more fatigue, nausea/vomiting, headaches, pain/numbness, altered mental status, and seizures than NM, and more headaches and pain/numbness than ASOM. SBM patients experienced a greater increase in per-member-per-month all-cause total healthcare costs after diagnosis ($20,301) vs SOM ($9,131, p = .001) and NM ($2,493, p = .001). ASBM's cost increase between baseline and follow-up ($7,867) did not differ from ASOM's ($4,947, p = .195); both were larger than NM ($2,493, p = .001 and p = .009, respectively). EGFR mutation status was inferred based on EGFR-TKI treatment, not by molecular testing. Patients were from US commercial insurance plans; results may not be generalizable to other populations. Among patients with EGFR-TKI-treated NSCLC, patients with BM experienced more symptoms and, when diagnosed synchronously, had significant increases in total medical costs vs patients with OM and NM. Therapeutic options with central nervous system activity may offer advantages in symptomatology and

  18. Clinical characteristics and response to tyrosine kinase inhibitors of patients with non-small cell lung cancer harboring uncommon epidermal growth factor receptor mutations

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan; Wang, Zheng; Hao, Xuezhi; Hu, Xingsheng; Wang, Hongyu; Wang, Yan; Ying, Jianming

    2017-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical features of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) harboring uncommon epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations, and the treatment outcomes of EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in these patients. Methods We retrospectively analyzed the data of 128 NSCLC patients pathologically diagnosed with uncommon EGFR mutation in the Department of Pathology, National Cancer Center/Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College and Beijing Hospital from January 2010 to December 2015, including 40 advanced patients who received EGFR-TKI. Results Among the total 128 patients, 11 patients were non-adenocarcinoma, including squamous carcinoma (3.9%), adenosquamous carcinoma (2.3%), large cell carcinoma (0.8%), and composite neuroendocrine carcinoma (1.6%). Single mutations accounted for 75.0% (96/128), including G719X (29.7%), S768I (18.0%), 20 exon insertion (13.3%), L861Q (12.5%),De novo T790M (0.8%), and T725 (0.8%). Thirty-two patients harbored complex mutations. Forty advanced patients received EGFR-TKI, the objective response rate (ORR) was 20.0%, the disease control rate (DCR) was 85.0%, and the progression-free survival (PFS) was 6.4 [95% confidence interval (95% CI), 4.8–7.9] months. The exploratory analysis of tumor response and PFS in 33 patients with G719X/S768I/L861Q subtypes showed that ORR was 21.2% (7/33), the DCR was 93.9% (31/33), and PFS was 7.6 (95% CI, 5.8–9.4) months. Patients with exon 20 insertion mutation andDe novo T790M experienced rapid disease progression with PFS no more than 2.7 months. Conclusions Uncommon EGFR-mutant NSCLCs are heterogeneous, EGFR-TKIs can have different efficacy in this specific subtype, and thus further individual assessment is required for each case. PMID:28373750

  19. Prospective Study of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors Concurrent With Individualized Radiotherapy for Patients With Locally Advanced or Metastatic Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Jing; Xia Tingyi; Wang Yingjie; Li Hongqi; Li Ping; Wang Jidong; Chang Dongshu; Liu Liyyuan; Di Yupeng; Wang Xuan; Wu Weizhang

    2011-11-01

    Purpose: To establish the safety profile and efficacy of epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) concurrent with individualized radiotherapy (RT) in patients with locally advanced or metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Patients and Methods: Between June 2007 and January 2010, 26 patients with Stage III/IV NSCLC were enrolled in this prospective study. These patients were treated with EGFR-TKIs (gefitinib 250 mg or erlotinib 150 mg, oral daily) concurrent with individualized RT with curative intent. The thoracic RT plans were individually designed on the basis of tumor size and normal tissue volume constraints. All patients were assessed for toxicity, and 25 patients were available for efficacy. The primary endpoints were acute toxicity, overall survival, and median survival time. The secondary endpoints included local control rate, time to tumor progression, and progression-free survival (PFS). Results: Median gross tumor volume, mean lung dose, and lung V20 were 56 cm{sup 3}, 8.6 Gy, and 14%, respectively. Median thoracic radiation dose was 70 Gy at a margin of gross tumor volume (range, 42-82 Gy), and median biological equivalent dose was 105 Gy (range, 60-119 Gy). Acute skin, hematologic, esophageal, and pulmonary toxicities were acceptable and manageable. Severe adverse events included neutropenia (Grade 4, 4%) and thrombocytopenia (Grade 4, 8%), esophagitis (Grade 3, 4%), and pneumonitis (Grade 3, 4%). With a median follow-up of 10.2 months, a local control rate of 96% was achieved for thoracic tumor. Median time to progression, median PFS, and median survival time were 6.3, 10.2, and 21.8 months, respectively. The 1- and 2-year PFS rates were both 42%, and 1-, 2-, and 3-year overall survival rates were 57%, 45%, and 30%, respectively. Conclusion: Concurrent EGFR-TKIs with individualized RT shows a favorable safety profile and promising outcome, therefore serving as a therapeutic option for patients with locally

  20. Dasatinib, a multi-kinase inhibitor increased radiation sensitivity by interfering with nuclear localization of epidermal growth factor receptor and by blocking DNA repair pathways.

    PubMed

    Raju, Uma; Riesterer, Oliver; Wang, Zhi-Qiang; Molkentine, David P; Molkentine, Jessica M; Johnson, Faye M; Glisson, Bonnie; Milas, Luka; Ang, K Kian

    2012-11-01

    Although inhibition of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling during radiation led to improvement of tumor control and survival, novel strategies are needed to further improve the outcome of patients with locally advanced head and neck carcinoma. Because EGFR is known to interact with c-Src kinases, the present study investigated dasatinib (BMS-354825), an inhibitor of c-Src kinases, for its efficacy in enhancing radiosensitivity of human head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) in vitro and examined the underlying mechanisms for this effect. Six HNSCC lines were exposed to dasatinib, radiation, or both, and assessed for c-Src and EGFR expression, cell survival and colony forming ability. Among these cell lines, HN-5 and FaDu lines were analyzed for induction of apoptosis, cell cycle re-distribution and for nuclear localization of EGFR, γ-H2AX and 53BP1 proteins. Immuno-precipitation and Western blots were performed to analyze the levels and binding of proteins involved in cell survival, apoptosis and DNA repair pathways. Suppression of c-Src by siRNA and subsequent clonogenic assay was performed in HN-5 cells. All six HNSCC lines that were examined expressed high levels of c-Src. Two (HN-5 and MDA-183) expressed higher levels of EGFR than other lines. Dasatinib suppressed cell survival of all cell lines tested independent of c-Src or EGFR levels but enhanced the radiosensitivity of HN-5 and MDA-183. HN-5 and FaDu were analyzed further. Dasatinib suppressed phosphorylation of c-Src in both cell lines, but decreased repair of radiation-induced DNA damage in HN-5 cells only as evidenced by suppression of c-Abl and Nbs-1 activity, inhibition of the association between c-Src and EGFR or Her-2, prolongation of nuclear γ-H2AX and 53BP1 foci and inhibition of EGFR nuclear localization and its association with DNA-PKcs. Finally, partial suppression of c-Src resulted in a small increase in HN-5 cell radiosensitivity. Our data demonstrate that dasatinib

  1. Synergistic anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic activity of combined therapy with bortezomib, a proteasome inhibitor, with anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) drugs in human cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Cascone, Tina; Morelli, Maria Pia; Morgillo, Floriana; Kim, Woo-Young; Rodolico, Gabriella; Pepe, Stefano; Tortora, Giampaolo; Berrino, Liberato; Lee, Ho-Young; Heymach, John V; Ciardiello, Fortunato

    2008-09-01

    The proteasome plays a pivotal role in the turnover of regulatory transduction proteins induced by activated cell membrane growth factor receptors. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) pathway is crucial in the development and progression of human epithelial cancers. Proteasome inhibition may sensitize human cancer cell lines to EGFR inhibitors. We investigated the growth inhibitory and pro-apoptotic effects of the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib in combination with anti-EGFR drugs, such as gefitinib, vandetanib, and cetuximab in EGFR-expressing human cancer cell lines. Bortezomib determined dose-dependent growth inhibition in a nine cancer cell line panel (IC(50) values, range 6-42 nM). A significant synergistic growth inhibitory effect was observed with the combination of bortezomib and each EGFR inhibitor in all cell lines (combination index, CI, range 0.10-0.55), which was accompanied by a significant induction in apoptosis by the combined treatment with bortezomib, cetuximab and vandetanib. In HCT-116 colon cancer and A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells, bortezomib plus EGFR inhibitor treatment induced a more effective inhibition of EGFR-activated down-stream signals, including a marked suppression in activated, phosphorylated Akt (P-Akt). In contrast, overexpression of a constitutively active P-Akt protected A549 cells by cell growth inhibition and apoptosis following treatment with bortezomib and EGFR inhibitors. The combined treatment with bortezomib and EGFR inhibitors has a synergistic growth inhibitory and pro-apoptotic activity in different human cancer cells which possess a functional EGFR-dependent autocrine growth pathway through to a more efficient and sustained inhibition of Akt.

  2. Epidermal Growth Factor and Intestinal Barrier Function

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hu; Yang, Shufen; Li, Zuohua; Zhong, Jinfeng

    2016-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is a 53-amino acid peptide that plays an important role in regulating cell growth, survival, migration, apoptosis, proliferation, and differentiation. In addition, EGF has been established to be an effective intestinal regulator helping to protect intestinal barrier integrity, which was essential for the absorption of nutrients and health in humans and animals. Several researches have demonstrated that EGF via binding to the EGF receptor and subsequent activation of Ras/MAPK, PI3K/AKT, PLC-γ/PKC, and STATS signal pathways regulates intestinal barrier function. In this review, the relationship between epidermal growth factor and intestinal development and intestinal barrier is described, to provide a better understanding of the effects of EGF on intestine development and health. PMID:27524860

  3. Epidermal growth factor receptor-targeted therapy for pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Henry Q; Abbruzzese, James L

    2002-10-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) plays an important role in tumor development and maintenance. It is a cell surface molecule that mediates signal transduction from the cell surface to cytoplasm. Elevated expression of EGFR or its ligand correlates with worse prognosis in a variety of human cancers. Therefore, blockade of EGFR activity would provide a novel strategy for the treatment of cancer. Two classes of EGFR inhibitors, monoclonal antibodies and tyrosine kinase inhibitors, have been described. The preclinical activity of these EGFR inhibitors and phase I clinical data are summarized in this article. A phase II trial of the EGFR inhibitor IMC-C225 in combination with gemcitabine for patients with advanced pancreatic cancer is discussed. Copyright 2002, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

  4. The effects of the novel, reversible epidermal growth factor receptor/ErbB-2 tyrosine kinase inhibitor, GW2016, on the growth of human normal and tumor-derived cell lines in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Rusnak, D W; Lackey, K; Affleck, K; Wood, E R; Alligood, K J; Rhodes, N; Keith, B R; Murray, D M; Knight, W B; Mullin, R J; Gilmer, T M

    2001-12-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and ErbB-2 transmembrane tyrosine kinases are currently being targeted by various mechanisms in the treatment of cancer. GW2016 is a potent inhibitor of the ErbB-2 and EGFR tyrosine kinase domains with IC50 values against purified EGFR and ErbB-2 of 10.2 and 9.8 nM, respectively. This report describes the efficacy in cell growth assays of GW2016 on human tumor cell lines overexpressing either EGFR or ErbB-2: HN5 (head and neck), A-431 (vulva), BT474 (breast), CaLu-3 (lung), and N87 (gastric). Normal human foreskin fibroblasts, nontumorigenic epithelial cells (HB4a), and nonoverexpressing tumor cells (MCF-7 and T47D) were tested as negative controls. After 3 days of compound exposure, average IC50 values for growth inhibition in the EGFR- and ErbB-2-overexpressing tumor cell lines were < 0.16 microM. The average selectivity for the tumor cells versus the human foreskin fibroblast cell line was 100-fold. Inhibition of EGFR and ErbB-2 receptor autophosphorylation and phosphorylation of the downstream modulator, AKT, was verified by Western blot analysis in the BT474 and HN5 cell lines. As a measure of cytotoxicity versus growth arrest, the HN5 and BT474 cells were assessed in an outgrowth assay after a transient exposure to GW2016. The cells were treated for 3 days in five concentrations of GW2016, and cell growth was monitored for an additional 12 days after removal of the compound. In each of these tumor cell lines, concentrations of GW2016 were reached where outgrowth did not occur. Furthermore, growth arrest and cell death were observed in parallel experiments, as determined by bromodeoxyuridine incorporation and propidium iodide staining. GW2016 treatment inhibited tumor xenograft growth of the HN5 and BT474 cells in a dose-responsive manner at 30 and 100 mg/kg orally, twice daily, with complete inhibition of tumor growth at the higher dose. Together, these results indicate that GW2016 achieves excellent potency on

  5. First Bispecific Inhibitors of the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Kinase and the NF-κB Activity As Novel Anticancer Agents.

    PubMed

    Hamed, Mostafa M; Darwish, Sarah S; Herrmann, Jennifer; Abadi, Ashraf H; Engel, Matthias

    2017-04-13

    The activation of the NF-κB transcription factor is a major adaptive response induced upon treatment with EGFR kinase inhibitors, leading to the emergence of resistance in nonsmall cell lung cancer and other tumor types. To suppress this survival mechanism, we developed new thiourea quinazoline derivatives that are dual inhibitors of both EGFR kinase and the NF-κB activity. Optimization of the hit compound, identified in a NF-κB reporter gene assay, led to compound 9b, exhibiting a cellular IC50 for NF-κB inhibition of 0.3 μM while retaining a potent EGFR kinase inhibition (IC50 = 60 nM). The dual inhibitors showed a higher potency than gefitinib to inhibit cell growth of EGFR-overexpressing tumor cell lines in vitro and in a xenograft model in vivo, while no signs of toxicity were observed. An investigation of the molecular mechanism of NF-κB suppression revealed that the dual inhibitors depleted the transcriptional coactivator CREB-binding protein from the NF-κB complex in the nucleus.

  6. Dynamic tracing for epidermal growth factor receptor mutations in urinary circulating DNA in gastric cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiu-Qin; Xue, Wen-Hua; Zhao, Song-Feng; Zhang, Xiao-Jian; Sun, Wukong

    2017-02-01

    The mutations of epidermal growth factor receptor are detected in gastric cancer, indicating its suitability as a target for receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors, as well as a marker for clinical outcome of chemotherapeutic treatments. However, extraction of quality tumor tissue for molecular processes remains challenging. Here, we aimed to examine the clinical relevance of urinary cell-free DNA as an alternative tumor material source used specifically for monitoring epidermal growth factor receptor mutations. Therefore, 120 gastric cancer patients with epidermal growth factor receptor mutations and 100 healthy controls were recruited for the study. The gastric patients also received epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor treatment for a serial monitoring study. Paired primary tumor specimens were obtained with blood and urine samples, which were taken at a 1-month interval for a duration of 12 months. We found that urinary cell-free DNA yielded a close agreement of 92% on epidermal growth factor receptor mutation status when compared to primary tissue at baseline, and of 99% epidermal growth factor receptor mutation status when compared to plasma samples at different time points. Thus, our data suggest that urinary cell-free DNA may be a reliable source for screening and monitoring epidermal growth factor receptor mutations in the primary gastric cancer.

  7. Epidermal growth factor receptor signaling in tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Shvartsman, Stanislav; Wiley, H. S.; Lauffenburger, Douglas A.

    2004-08-01

    Abstract: A peptide purified from the salivary gland of a mouse was shown few years ago to accelerate incisor eruption and eyelid opening in newborn mice, and was named epidermal growth factor (EGF). The members of this family of peptide growth factors had been identified in numerous physiological and pathological contexts. EGF binds to a cell surface EGF receptor, which induces a biochemical modification (phosphorylation) of the receptor's cytoplasmic tail. There is a growing consensus in the research community that, in addition to cellular and molecular studies, the dynamics of the EGFR network and its operation must be examined in tissues. A key challenge is to integrate the existing molecular and cellular information into a system-level description of the EGFR network at the tissue and organism level. In this paper, the two examples of EGFR signaling in tissues are described, and the recent efforts to model EGFR autocrine loops, which is a predominant mode of EGFR activation in vivo, are summarized.

  8. Pan Canadian Rash Trial: A Randomized Phase III Trial Evaluating the Impact of a Prophylactic Skin Treatment Regimen on Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor-Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor-Induced Skin Toxicities in Patients With Metastatic Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Melosky, Barbara; Anderson, Helen; Burkes, Ronald L; Chu, Quincy; Hao, Desiree; Ho, Vincent; Ho, Cheryl; Lam, Wendy; Lee, Christopher W; Leighl, Natasha B; Murray, Nevin; Sun, Sophie; Winston, Robert; Laskin, Janessa J

    2016-03-10

    Erlotinib is an epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor approved for patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) whose epidermal growth factor receptor expression status is positive or unknown. Although it is efficacious, erlotinib can cause skin toxicity. This prospective, randomized phase III trial examined the effect of prophylactic treatment of erlotinib-induced skin rash. Patients receiving erlotinib in the second- or third-line setting for advanced NSCLC were randomly assigned to prophylactic minocycline (100 mg twice per day for 4 weeks), reactive treatment (after rash developed, per grade of rash), or no treatment unless severe (grade 3). Rash incidence and severity, time to maximal rash, time to resolution, and overall survival (OS) were compared among treatment groups. In all, 150 patients were randomly assigned, 50 to each of three treatment arms. The incidence of skin toxicity was 84% regardless of treatment arm. Prophylactic treatment with minocycline significantly lengthened the time to the most severe grade of rash. Grade 3 rash was significantly higher in the no-treatment arm. OS was not significantly different among treatment arms, but patients receiving prophylactic or reactive treatments had a longer OS (7.6 and 8 months, respectively) than those who received no rash treatment (6 months). Rash was not self-limiting. The incidence of all grades of rash did not differ statistically among the three arms, so the trial was negative. The incidence of grade 3 skin toxicities was reduced in patients who were treated with prophylactic minocycline or reactive treatment. Efficacy was not compromised. Prophylactic minocycline and reactive treatment are both acceptable options for the necessary treatment of erlotinib-induced rash in the second- or third-line setting of metastatic NSCLC. © 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  9. The P21-activated kinase expression pattern is different in non-small cell lung cancer and affects lung cancer cell sensitivity to epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Wang, Si; Dong, Qian-Ze; Jiang, Gui-Yang; Han, Yong; Wang, Liang; Wang, En-Hua

    2016-03-01

    Exploring methods for increasing epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI) sensitivity has become a major focus in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Major downstream effectors of the Rho family small guanosine triphosphatases, P21-activated kinases (PAKs) activate the main signaling pathways downstream of EGFR and thus promote tumor cell proliferation. In this study, we explored the expression pattern of phosphorylated PAKs in NSCLC and their potential value as drug targets for treating cancer. The expression and prognostic significance of phosphorylated group I and II PAKs were evaluated in 182 patients with NSCLC. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed low group I PAK expression in normal lung tissues and increased expressed in the cytoplasm, particularly in lung squamous cell carcinoma. Abnormal group I PAK expression was associated with lymph node metastases and high tumor-node-metastases (TNM) stage in NSCLC patients and correlated with poor prognosis. We used group I PAK inhibitor (IPA3) to specifically decrease group I PAK activity in human lung cancer cell lines. Decreased group I PAK activity inhibited cell proliferation and combined IPA3 and EGFR-TKI (gefitinib) treatment inhibited cell proliferation in an obvious manner. Together, our results revealed the PAK expression pattern in NSCLC, and a role for group I PAK in cell proliferation, which provides evidence that decreased PAK activity may have a potential application as a molecular targeted therapy in advanced NSCLC.

  10. Combination treatment of glioblastoma multiforme cell lines with the anti-malarial artesunate and the epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor OSI-774.

    PubMed

    Efferth, Thomas; Ramirez, Tzutzuy; Gebhart, Erich; Halatsch, Marc-Eric

    2004-05-01

    New drugs and combination modalities for otherwise non-responsive brain tumors are urgently required. The anti-malarial artesunate (ART) and the EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor OSI-774 reveal profound cytotoxic activity. The effectiveness of a combination treatment and the underlying molecular determinants of cellular response are unknown. In the present investigation, we studied ART and OSI-774 in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cell lines. Supra-additive inhibition of cell growth was observed in U-87MG.DeltaEGFR cells transduced with a deletion-mutant constitutively active EGFR gene, while additive effects were present in cells transduced with wild-type EGFR (U-87MG.WT-2N), kinase-deficient EGFR (U-87MG.DK-2N), mock vector controls (U-87MG.LUX), or non-transduced parental U-87MG cells. Among nine other non-transduced GBM cell lines, supra-additive effects were found in two cell lines (G-210GM, G-599GM), while ART and OSI-774 acted in an additive manner in the other seven cell lines (G-211GM, G-750GM, G-1163GM, G-1187GM, G-1265GM, G-1301GM, and G-1408GM). Sub-additive or antagonistic effects were not observed. Genomic gains and losses of genetic material in the non-transduced cell lines as assessed by comparative genomic hybridization were correlated with the IC(50) values for ART and OSI-774 and subsequently subjected to hierarchical cluster analysis and cluster image mapping. A genomic profile of imbalances was detected that predicted cellular response to ART and OSI-774. The genes located at the genomic imbalances of interest may serve as candidate resistance genes of GBM cells towards ART and OSI-774. In conclusion, the combination treatment of ART and OSI-774 resulted in an increased growth inhibition of GBM cell lines as compared to each drug alone.

  11. Purification of kidney epithelial cell growth inhibitors.

    PubMed Central

    Holley, R W; Böhlen, P; Fava, R; Baldwin, J H; Kleeman, G; Armour, R

    1980-01-01

    Two high molecular weight growth inhibitors have been isolated from the culture medium of BSC-1 cells, epithelial cells of African green monkey kidney. The purified kidney epithelial cell growth inhibitors, at ng/ml concentrations, reversibly arrest the growth of BSC-1 cells in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. Their action is selective; they are most active on BSC-1 cells, are less active as inhibitors of the growth of rat lung and human breast epithelial cells, and do not inhibit the growth of 3T3 mouse embryo fibroblasts ad human skin fibroblasts in culture. Their growth inhibitory action on BSC-1 cell cultures is counteracted by epidermal growth factor or calf serum. PMID:6969400

  12. A study-level meta-analysis of efficacy data from head-to-head first-line trials of epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors versus bevacizumab in patients with RAS wild-type metastatic colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Heinemann, Volker; Rivera, Fernando; O'Neil, Bert H; Stintzing, Sebastian; Koukakis, Reija; Terwey, Jan-Henrik; Douillard, Jean-Yves

    2016-11-01

    Head-to-head trials comparing first-line epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor (EGFRI) versus vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitor (bevacizumab) therapy yielded differing results, and debate remains over optimal first-line therapy for patients with RAS wild-type (WT) metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). A PubMed search identified first-line mCRC trials comparing EGFRI plus chemotherapy versus bevacizumab plus chemotherapy; data were subsequently updated using recent congress presentations. This study-level meta-analysis estimated the overall survival (OS) treatment effect of first-line chemotherapy plus EGFRIs or bevacizumab in patients with RAS WT mCRC. Secondary end-points were progression-free survival (PFS), objective response rate (ORR), resection rate and safety. Early tumour shrinkage (ETS) of ≥20% at week 8 was an exploratory end-point. Three trials comprising data from 1096 patients with RAS WT mCRC were included. OS (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.80 [95% confidence interval: 0.68-0.93]), ORR (odds ratio [OR]: 0.57) and ETS (OR: 0.48) favoured EGFRIs plus chemotherapy versus bevacizumab plus chemotherapy. PFS (HR: 0.98) and resections (OR: 0.93) were similar between treatments. For patients with KRAS exon 2 WT/'other' RAS mutant mCRC the OS HR was 0.70. A safety meta-analysis was not possible due to a lack of data; in the individual studies, skin toxicities and hypomagnesaemia were more common with EGFRIs, nausea and hypertension were more common with bevacizumab. This meta-analysis supports a potential benefit for first-line EGFRI plus chemotherapy versus bevacizumab plus chemotherapy with respect to OS, ORR and ETS in patients with RAS WT mCRC. A patient-level meta-analysis is awaited. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. The role of repair protein Rad51 in synergistic cytotoxicity and mutagenicity induced by epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor (Gefitinib, Iressa{sup R}) and benzo[a]pyrene in human lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Ko, J.-C.; Hong, J.-H.; Wang, L.-H.; Lin, Y.-W.

    2008-05-01

    Rad51 protein is essential for homologous recombination repair of DNA damage, and is over-expressed in chemo- or radioresistant carcinomas. The polycyclic hydrocarbon carcinogen benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) affects MAPKs transduction pathways. Gefitinib (Iressa{sup R}, ZD1839) is a selective epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor that blocks growth factor-mediated cell proliferation and ERK1/2 activation. We hypothesized that gefitinib enhances B[a]P-mediated cytotoxicity by decreasing ERK1/2 activation. Exposure of human lung cancer cells to gefitinib decreased B[a]P-elicited ERK1/2 activation and induced Rad51 protein expression. Gefitinib and B[a]P co-treatment decreased Rad51 protein stability by triggering degradation via a 26S proteasome-dependent pathway. Expression of constitutive active MKK1/2 vectors (MKK1/2-CA) rescues the decreased ERK1/2 activity, and restores Rad51 protein level and stability under gefitinib and B[a]P co-treatment. Gefitinib enhances B[a]P-induced growth inhibition, cytotoxicity and mutagenicity. Co-treatment with gefitinib and B[a]P can further inhibit cell growth significantly after depletion of endogenous Rad51 by siRad51 RNA transfection. Enhancement of ERK1/2 activation by MKK1-CA expression decrease B[a]P- and gefitinib-induced cytotoxicity, and B[a]P-induced mutagenicity. Rad51 protein protects lung cancer cells from synergistic cytotoxic and mutagenic effects induced by gefitinib and B[a]P. Suppression of Rad51 protein expression may be a novel lung cancer therapeutic modality to overcome drug resistance to gefitinib.

  14. Heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor promotes neuroblastoma differentiation.

    PubMed

    Gaviglio, Angela L; Knelson, Erik H; Blobe, Gerard C

    2017-02-07

    High-risk neuroblastoma is characterized by undifferentiated neuroblasts and low Schwannian stroma content. The tumor stroma contributes to the suppression of tumor growth by releasing soluble factors that promote neuroblast differentiation. Here we identify heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HBEGF) as a potent prodifferentiating factor in neuroblastoma. HBEGF mRNA expression is decreased in human neuroblastoma tumors compared with benign tumors, with loss correlating with decreased survival. HBEGF protein is expressed only in stromal compartments of human neuroblastoma specimens, with tissue from high-stage disease containing very little stroma or HBEGF expression. In 3 human neuroblastoma cell lines (SK-N-AS, SK-N-BE2, and SH-SY5Y), soluble HBEGF is sufficient to promote neuroblast differentiation and decrease proliferation. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans and heparin derivatives further enhance HBEGF-induced differentiation by forming a complex with the epidermal growth factor receptor, leading to activation of the ERK1/2 and STAT3 pathways and up-regulation of the inhibitor of DNA binding transcription factor. These data support a role for loss of HBEGF in the neuroblastoma tumor microenvironment in neuroblastoma pathogenesis.-Gaviglio, A. L., Knelson, E. H., Blobe, G. C. Heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor promotes neuroblastoma differentiation.

  15. Synthesis and biological evaluation of azole-diphenylpyrimidine derivatives (AzDPPYs) as potent T790M mutant form of epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Song, Zhendong; Jin, Yue; Ge, Yang; Wang, Changyuan; Zhang, Jianbin; Tang, Zeyao; Peng, Jinyong; Liu, Kexin; Li, Yanxia; Ma, Xiaodong

    2016-11-01

    A series of novel azole-diphenylpyrimidine derivatives (AzDPPYs) were synthesized and biologically evaluated as potent EGFR(T790M) inhibitors. Among these analogues, the most active inhibitor 6e not only displayed high activity against EGFR(T790M/L858R) kinase (IC50=3.3nM), but also was able to repress the replication of H1975 cells harboring EGFR(T790M) mutation at a concentration of 0.118μmol/L. In contrast to the lead compound rociletinib, 6e slightly reduces the key EGFRT790M-minduced drug resistance. Significantly, inhibitor 6e demonstrates high selectivity (SI=299.3) for T790M-containing EGFR mutants over wild type EGFR, hinting that it will cause less side effects.

  16. Third-generation epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors in T790M-positive non-small cell lung cancer: review on emerged mechanisms of resistance.

    PubMed

    Minari, Roberta; Bordi, Paola; Tiseo, Marcello

    2016-12-01

    Osimertinib, third-generation epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI), has been approved in the US and EU for the treatment of EGFR mutant T790M-positive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients resistant to first- or second-generation EGFR-TKIs, such as gefitinib, erlotinib and afatinib. Although exciting survival data and response rates have been registered in patients treated with this and other third-generation EGFR-TKIs, unfortunately acquired resistance still occurs after approximately 10 months. Mechanisms determining progression of disease are heterogeneous and not fully understood. EGFR-dependent resistance mechanisms (such as new EGFR mutations), bypass pathway activation [as erb-b2 receptor tyrosine kinase 2 (HER2) or MET amplification] and histological transformation [in small cell lung cancer (SCLC)] have been reported, similarly to previous generation TKIs. Here, we review principle mechanisms of innate and acquired resistance described in literature both in clinical and preclinical settings during NSCLC treatment with third-generation EGFR-TKIs.

  17. The impact of smoking status on radiologic tumor progression patterns and response to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-tyrosine kinase inhibitors in lung adenocarcinoma with activating EGFR mutations

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Yoon Ki; Ahn, Myung-Ju; Park, Keunchil; Ahn, Jin Seok; Sun, Jong-Mu; Choi, Yoon-La; Lee, Kyung Soo

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of smoking on the treatment outcome of epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) in patients with EGFR-mutant lung adenocarcinoma, with consideration of other factors including radiologic tumor progression pattern according to patient smoking status. Methods A total of 224 patients with EGFR mutant lung adenocarcinomas that were treated with EGFR-TKIs were retrospectively reviewed. Radiologic tumor progression pattern and treatment outcomes were evaluated according to smoking history. Results There were no significant differences in radiologic tumor progression pattern based on smoking status. There were no significant differences in survival between never-smokers and smokers or among never-, former-, and current-smokers, but there was a trend of shorter progression free survival (PFS) and poorer overall survival (OS) in smokers compared with never-smokers. In multivariate analysis, long-term smokers had shorter PFS and poorer OS than those who had never smoked. Conclusions A history of smoking had no significant effect on radiologic tumor progression pattern; however, smoking history is a negative predictive factor of survival in patients with EGFR-mutant lung adenocarcinoma undergoing EGFR-TKI therapy. PMID:28066597

  18. Combination of ruthenium(II)-arene complex [Ru(η6-p-cymene)Cl2(pta)] (RAPTA-C) and the epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor erlotinib results in efficient angiostatic and antitumor activity

    PubMed Central

    Berndsen, Robert H.; Weiss, Andrea; Abdul, U. Kulsoom; Wong, Tse J.; Meraldi, Patrick; Griffioen, Arjan W.; Dyson, Paul J.; Nowak-Sliwinska, Patrycja

    2017-01-01

    Ruthenium-based compounds show strong potential as anti-cancer drugs and are being investigated as alternatives to other well-established metal-based chemotherapeutics. The organometallic compound [Ru(η6-p-cymene)Cl2(pta)], where pta = 1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphaadamantane (RAPTA-C) exhibits broad acting anti-tumor efficacy with intrinsic angiostatic activity. In the search for an optimal anti-angiogenesis drug combination, we identified synergistic potential between RAPTA-C and the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor, erlotinib. This drug combination results in strong synergistic inhibition of cell viability in human endothelial (ECRF24 and HUVEC) and human ovarian carcinoma (A2780 and A2780cisR) cells. Additionally, erlotinib significantly enhances the cellular uptake of RAPTA-C relative to treatment with RAPTA-C alone in human ovarian carcinoma cells, but not endothelial cells. Drug combinations induce the formation of chromosome bridges that persist after mitotic exit and delay abscission in A2780 and A2780cisR, therefore suggesting initiation of cellular senescence. The therapeutic potential of these compounds and their combination is further validated in vivo on A2780 tumors grown on the chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model, and in a preclinical model in nude mice. Immunohistochemical analysis confirms effective anti-angiogenic and anti-proliferative activity in vivo, based on a significant reduction of microvascular density and a decrease in proliferating cells. PMID:28223694

  19. Third-generation epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors in T790M-positive non-small cell lung cancer: review on emerged mechanisms of resistance

    PubMed Central

    Minari, Roberta; Bordi, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Osimertinib, third-generation epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI), has been approved in the US and EU for the treatment of EGFR mutant T790M-positive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients resistant to first- or second-generation EGFR-TKIs, such as gefitinib, erlotinib and afatinib. Although exciting survival data and response rates have been registered in patients treated with this and other third-generation EGFR-TKIs, unfortunately acquired resistance still occurs after approximately 10 months. Mechanisms determining progression of disease are heterogeneous and not fully understood. EGFR-dependent resistance mechanisms (such as new EGFR mutations), bypass pathway activation [as erb-b2 receptor tyrosine kinase 2 (HER2) or MET amplification] and histological transformation [in small cell lung cancer (SCLC)] have been reported, similarly to previous generation TKIs. Here, we review principle mechanisms of innate and acquired resistance described in literature both in clinical and preclinical settings during NSCLC treatment with third-generation EGFR-TKIs. PMID:28149764

  20. Accelerated degradation of 160 kDa epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor precursor by the tyrosine kinase inhibitor herbimycin A in the endoplasmic reticulum of A431 human epidermoid carcinoma cells.

    PubMed Central

    Murakami, Y; Mizuno, S; Uehara, Y

    1994-01-01

    The effect of herbimycin A on the biosynthesis of epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor was examined in human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells. Cells were pulse-labelled with [35S]methionine, and EGF receptor biosynthesis was quantified by immunoprecipitation using a monoclonal anti-(EGF receptor) antibody. In the presence of herbimycin A, an immature 160 kDa EGF receptor precursor accumulated in 1 h and disappeared completely in 4 h. Pulse-labelled 160 kDa receptor precursor in the absence of herbimycin A, however, was converted normally into a 170 kDa one by chase with herbimycin A. Herbimycin A affected neither the synthesis of the secreted form of EGF receptor devoid of cytoplasmic domain, nor that of the transferrin receptor in A431 cells. The herbimycin A-induced degradation of 160 kDa EGF receptor precursor was not inhibited by an inhibitor of lysosomal enzymes, NH4Cl. Endoglycosidase H digestion of the 160 kDa precursor converted it into the deglycosylated 130 kDa precursor peptide. These results suggested that herbimycin A selectively acted on the EGF receptor precursor during the synthesis of the 160 kDa form, probably on the cytoplasmic domain, to form an aberrant molecule which was subjected to rapid degradation in the endoplasmic reticulum. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:8037692

  1. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor–Resistant Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ohashi, Kadoaki; Maruvka, Yosef E.; Michor, Franziska; Pao, William

    2013-01-01

    Purpose EGFR-mutant lung cancer was first described as a new clinical entity in 2004. Here, we present an update on new controversies and conclusions regarding the disease. Methods This article reviews the clinical implications of EGFR mutations in lung cancer with a focus on epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor resistance. Results The discovery of EGFR mutations has altered the ways in which we consider and treat non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Patients whose metastatic tumors harbor EGFR mutations are expected to live longer than 2 years, more than double the previous survival rates for lung cancer. Conclusion The information presented in this review can guide practitioners and help them inform their patients about EGFR mutations and their impact on the treatment of NSCLC. Efforts should now concentrate on making EGFR-mutant lung cancer a chronic rather than fatal disease. PMID:23401451

  2. Inhibiting the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    The Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) is a widely distributed cell surface receptor that responds to several extracellular signaling molecules through an intracellular tyrosine kinase, which phosphorylates target enzymes to trigger a downstream molecular cascade. Since the discovery that EGFR mutations and amplifications are critical in a number of cancers, efforts have been under way to develop and use targeted EGFR inhibitors. These efforts have met with some spectacular successes, but many patients have not responded as expected, have subsequently developed drug-resistant tumors, or have suffered serious side effects from the therapies to date. CCR Investigators are studying EGFR from multiple vantage points with the goal of developing even better strategies to defeat EGFR-related cancers.

  3. Lapatinib and trastuzumab in combination with an aromatase inhibitor for the first-line treatment of metastatic hormone receptor-positive breast cancer which over-expresses human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2): a systematic review and economic analysis.

    PubMed

    Fleeman, N; Bagust, A; Boland, A; Dickson, R; Dundar, Y; Moonan, M; Oyee, J; Blundell, M; Davis, H; Armstrong, A; Thorp, N

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer is the uncontrolled, abnormal growth of malignant breast tissue affecting predominantly women. Metastatic breast cancer (mBC) is an advanced stage of the disease when the disease has spread beyond the original organ. Hormone receptor status and human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2) status are two predictive factors that are taken into consideration when estimating the prognosis of patients with breast cancer. To review the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness evidence base for lapatinib (LAP) in combination with an aromatase inhibitor (AI) and trastuzumab (TRA) in combination with an AI for the first-line treatment of patients who have hormone receptor-positive (HR+)/human epidermal growth factor 2-positive (HER2+) mBC. Relevant electronic databases and websites, including MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library, were searched until May 2010. Further data were derived from the manufacturers' submissions for LAP + AI and TRA + AI. A systematic review of the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of LAP + AI and TRA + AI was undertaken. As it was deemed inappropriate to compare LAP + AI with TRA + AI, two separate assessments of cost-effectiveness versus AIs alone were undertaken. Three trials were included in the systematic review [the patient populations of the efficacy and safety of lapatinib combined with letrozole (EGF30008) trial, the efficacy and safety of trastuzumab combined with anastrozole (TAnDEM) trial and the efficacy and safety of letrozole combined with trastuzumab (eLEcTRA) trial]. As a result of differences in the exclusion criteria and because one trial was halted prematurely, comparisons across trials were believed to be inappropriate and meta-analysis was not possible. Individually, however, the findings from the trials all suggest that LAP + AI or TRA + AI results in improved progression-free survival and/or time to progression when compared with AIs alone. The trials do not show a statistically significant

  4. Combined epidermal growth factor receptor targeting with the tyrosine kinase inhibitor gefitinib (ZD1839) and the monoclonal antibody cetuximab (IMC-C225): superiority over single-agent receptor targeting.

    PubMed

    Matar, Pablo; Rojo, Federico; Cassia, Raúl; Moreno-Bueno, Gema; Di Cosimo, Serena; Tabernero, José; Guzmán, Marta; Rodriguez, Sonia; Arribas, Joaquín; Palacios, José; Baselga, José

    2004-10-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is abnormally activated in cancer and two classes of anti-EGFR agents, monoclonal antibodies and low-molecular-weight tyrosine kinase inhibitors, have shown antitumor activity in patients. Because these two classes of antireceptor agents target the EGFR at different sites, we decided to explore whether the combined administration of gefitinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, and cetuximab, a monoclonal antibody, had superior antitumor activity than either agent given alone. We studied the effects of the combination of gefitinib and cetuximab in a panel of human cancer cell lines and in an EGFR-dependent human tumor xenograft model (A431). The effects of these two agents on EGFR signaling, proliferation, apoptosis, and vascularization were evaluated. In addition, we analyzed, with cDNA arrays, changes in gene expression profiles induced by both agents. The combined treatment with gefitinib and cetuximab resulted in a synergistic effect on cell proliferation and in superior inhibition of EGFR-dependent signaling and induction of apoptosis. In a series of in vivo experiments, single-agent gefitinib or cetuximab resulted in transient complete tumor remission only at the highest doses. In contrast, suboptimal doses of gefitinib and cetuximab given together resulted in a complete and permanent regression of large tumors. In the combination-treated tumors, there was a superior inhibition of EGFR, mitogen-activated protein kinase, and Akt phosphorylation, as well as greater inhibition of cell proliferation and vascularization and enhanced apoptosis. Using cDNA arrays, we found 59 genes that were coregulated and 45 genes differentially regulated, including genes related to cell proliferation and differentiation, transcription, DNA synthesis and repair, angiogenesis, signaling molecules, cytoskeleton organization, and tumor invasion and metastasis. Our findings suggest both shared and complementary mechanisms of action with gefitinib

  5. [Epidermal growth factor, innovation and safety].

    PubMed

    Esquirol Caussa, Jordi; Herrero Vila, Elisabeth

    2015-10-05

    Bioidentical recombinant human epidermal growth factor (rhEGF) is available in concentrations and purity suitable for therapeutic use in long time stable formulations. Beneficial effects in several skin pathologies and lesions have been reported (traumatic and surgical wound healing, laser induced wounds, abnormal scars, keloids, radiation or chemotherapy induced dermatitis, post inflammatory hyperpigmentation or for skin aging damage repairing) and also may be considered for the treatment of several oropharingeal and high gastroesophageal tract mucosa diseases (mouth sores, pharyngeal fistulas, ulcers), and several corneal or conjunctive mucosa lesions. rhEGF has not shown any important side or collateral effects in humans or in laboratory experimentation animals, showing optimal tolerability and safety with continuous use for months. Compounding gives advantages of versatility, individualization, personalization, molecular stability, safety and effectiveness in ideal conditions, showing good tissue penetration, both on intact skin and skin lesions that expose the lower planes to the surface. rhEGF compounds can be considered for prevention or as a treatment of diverse skin and mucosa diseases and conditions through compounding preparations.

  6. Argos inhibits epidermal growth factor receptor signalling by ligand sequestration.

    PubMed

    Klein, Daryl E; Nappi, Valerie M; Reeves, Gregory T; Shvartsman, Stanislav Y; Lemmon, Mark A

    2004-08-26

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has critical functions in development and in many human cancers. During development, the spatial extent of EGFR signalling is regulated by feedback loops comprising both well-understood activators and less well-characterized inhibitors. In Drosophila melanogaster the secreted protein Argos functions as the only known extracellular inhibitor of EGFR, with clearly identified roles in multiple stages of development. Argos is only expressed when the Drosophila EGFR (DER) is activated at high levels, and downregulates further DER signalling. Although there is ample genetic evidence that Argos inhibits DER activation, the biochemical mechanism has not been established. Here we show that Argos inhibits DER signalling without interacting directly with the receptor, but instead by sequestering the DER-activating ligand Spitz. Argos binds tightly to the EGF motif of Spitz and forms a 1:1 (Spitz:Argos) complex that does not bind DER in vitro or at the cell surface. Our results provide an insight into the mechanism of Argos function, and suggest new strategies for EGFR inhibitor design.

  7. Kinetics of epidermal growth factor in saliva.

    PubMed

    Ino, M; Ushiro, K; Ino, C; Yamashita, T; Kumazawa, T

    1993-01-01

    Human epidermal growth factor (hEGF) stimulates the growth and differentiation of various tissues. We measured EGF levels in saliva (n = 128), urine (n = 94), and serum (n = 99) with radioimmunoassay in order to study the kinetics of hEGF in saliva of normal subjects and patients with oral disease. Salivary EGF levels showed an apparent diurnal rhythm related to the taking of meals. Urinary and serum EGF levels showed no obvious diurnal rhythm. There was no significant correlation between salivary and urinary EGF levels, nor between salivary and serum EGF levels. Salivary EGF levels were significantly lower in the younger group (0-9 years old, 3.06 +/- 0.32 ng/ml, p < 0.05) than in the elder group (10-79 years old, 4.78 +/- 3.5 ng/ml), but did not correlate with age in the elder group. There was no significant difference between males and females between EGF levels in saliva, urine or serum. The relative proportion of EGF levels in submandibular gland saliva, parotid saliva, and whole saliva was 1:6:4. The positive rate of immunohistochemical EGF showed no significant differences between submandibular gland, parotid gland, sublingual gland or minor salivary gland. Salivary EGF levels were markedly low in patients with oral inflammations (stomatitis aphthosa, or peritonsillar abscess) or head and neck tumors (squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue, oral cavity, hypopharynx or larynx). These findings may be significant pathophysiologically. Low salivary EGF levels may reduce the capacity of oral mucosal defense mechanisms to fight against injury by physiochemical agents.

  8. Differential sensitivities of trastuzumab (Herceptin)-resistant human breast cancer cells to phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI-3K) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Chan, Carmel T; Metz, Marianne Z; Kane, Susan E

    2005-05-01

    Her2 (erbB2/neu) is overexpressed in 25-30% of human breast cancers. Herceptin is a recombinant humanized Her2 antibody used to treat breast cancer patients with Her2 overexpression. Over a 5-month selection process, we isolated clones of BT474 (BT) human breast carcinoma cells (BT/Her(R)) that were resistant to Herceptin in vitro. In BT/Her(R) subclones, cell-surface, phosphorylated and total cellular Her2 protein remained high in the continuous presence of Herceptin. Likewise, the levels of cell-surface, phosphorylated, and total cellular Her3 and EGFR were either unchanged or only slightly elevated in BT/Her(R) subclones relative to BT cells. One BT/Her(R) subclone had substantially upregulated cell-surface EGFR, but this did not correlate with a higher relative resistance to Herceptin. In looking at the downstream PI-3K/Akt signaling pathway, phosphorylated and total Akt levels and Akt kinase activities were all sustained in BT/Her(R) subclones in the presence of Herceptin, but significantly downregulated in BT cells exposed to Herceptin. Whereas BT cells lost sensitivity to the PI-3K inhibitor LY294002 in the presence of Herceptin, BT/Her(R) subclones were equally sensitive to this agent in the presence and absence of Herceptin. This suggests that BT/Her(R) subclones acquired a Herceptin-resistant mechanism of PI-3K signaling. BT/Her(R) subclones were also sensitive to the EGFR kinase inhibitor AG1478 in the presence of Herceptin, to the same extent as BT cells. The BT/Her(R) subclones provide new insights into mechanisms of Herceptin resistance and suggest new treatment strategies in combination with other inhibitors targeted to signal transduction pathways.

  9. Design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of novel conformationally constrained inhibitors targeting epidermal growth factor receptor threonine⁷⁹⁰ → methionine⁷⁹⁰ mutant.

    PubMed

    Chang, Shaohua; Zhang, Lianwen; Xu, Shilin; Luo, Jinfeng; Lu, Xiaoyun; Zhang, Zhang; Xu, Tianfeng; Liu, Yingxue; Tu, Zhengchao; Xu, Yong; Ren, Xiaomei; Geng, Meiyu; Ding, Jian; Pei, Duanqing; Ding, Ke

    2012-03-22

    The EGFR(T790M) mutant contributes approximately 50% to clinically acquired resistance against gefitinib or erlotinib. However, almost all the single agent clinical trials of the second generation irreversible EGFR inhibitors appear inadequate to overcome the EGFR(T790M)-related resistance. We have designed and synthesized a series of 2-oxo-3,4-dihydropyrimido[4,5-d]pyrimidinyl derivatives as novel EGFR inhibitors. The most potent compounds, 2q and 2s, inhibited the enzymatic activities of wild-type and mutated EGFRs, with IC(50) values in subnanomolar ranges, including the T790M mutants. The kinase inhibitory efficiencies of the compounds were further validated by Western blot analysis of the activation of EGFR and downstream signaling in cancer cells harboring different mutants of EGFR. The compounds also strongly inhibited the proliferation of H1975 non small cell lung cancer cells bearing EGFR(L858R/T790M), while being significantly less toxic to normal cells. Moreover, 2s displayed promising anticancer efficacy in a human NSCLC (H1975) xenograft nude mouse model.

  10. Melatonin sensitizes H1975 non-small-cell lung cancer cells harboring a T790M-targeted epidermal growth factor receptor mutation to the tyrosine kinase inhibitor gefitinib.

    PubMed

    Yun, Miyong; Kim, Eun-Ok; Lee, Duckgue; Kim, Ji-Hyun; Kim, Jaekwang; Lee, Hyemin; Lee, Jihyun; Kim, Sung-Hoon

    2014-01-01

    The use of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) to target active epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-harbouring mutations has been effective in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the use of TKIs in NSCLS patients with somatic EGFR mutations, particularly T790M, causes drug resistance. Thus, in the present study, we investigated overcoming resistance against the TKI gefitinib by combination treatment with melatonin in H1975 NSCLC cells harbouring the T790M somatic mutation. H1975 and HCC827 cells were treated with melatonin in combination with gefitinib, and cell viability, cell cycle progression, apoptosis, and EGFR, AKT, p38, Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, caspase 3 and Bad protein levels were examined. Treatment with melatonin dose-dependently decreased the viability of H1975 cells harbouring the T790M somatic mutation compared to HCC827 cells with an EGFR active mutation. Melatonin-mediated cell death resulted in decreased phosphorylation of EGFR and Akt, leading to attenuated expression of survival proteins, such as Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and survivin, and activated caspase 3 in H1975 cells, but not in HCC827 cells. However, we did not observe a significant change in expression of cell cycle proteins, such as cyclin D, cyclin A, p21 and CDK4 in H1975 cells. Surprisingly, co-treatment of gefitinib with melatonin effectively decreased the viability of H1975 cells, but not HCC827 cells. Moreover, co-treatment of H1975 cells caused consistent down-regulation of EGFR phosphorylation and induced apoptosis compared to treatment with gefitinib or melatonin alone. Our findings demonstrate that melatonin acts as a potent chemotherapeutic agent by sensitising to gefitinib TKI-resistant H1975 cells that harbour a EGFR T790M mutation. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Efficacy of the Irreversible ErbB Family Blocker Afatinib in Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor (TKI)–Pretreated Non–Small-Cell Lung Cancer Patients with Brain Metastases or Leptomeningeal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Tufman, Amanda; Wehler, Thomas; Pelzer, Theo; Wiewrodt, Rainer; Schütz, Martin; Serke, Monika; Stöhlmacher-Williams, Jan; Märten, Angela; Maria Huber, Rudolf; Dickgreber, Nicolas J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Afatinib is an effective first-line treatment in patients with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mutated non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and has shown activity in patients progressing on EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). First-line afatinib is also effective in patients with central nervous system (CNS) metastasis. Here we report on outcomes of pretreated NSCLC patients with CNS metastasis who received afatinib within a compassionate use program. Methods: Patients with NSCLC progressing after at least one line of chemotherapy and one line of EGFR-TKI treatment received afatinib. Medical history, patient demographics, EGFR mutational status, and adverse events including tumor progression were documented. Results: From 2010 to 2013, 573 patients were enrolled and 541 treated with afatinib. One hundred patients (66% female; median age, 60 years) had brain metastases and/or leptomeningeal disease with 74% having documented EGFR mutation. Median time to treatment failure for patients with CNS metastasis was 3.6 months, and did not differ from a matched group of 100 patients without CNS metastasis. Thirty-five percent (11 of 31) of evaluable patients had a cerebral response, five (16%) responded exclusively in brain. Response duration (range) was 120 (21–395) days. Sixty-six percent (21 of 32) of patients had cerebral disease control on afatinib. Data from one patient with an impressive response showed an afatinib concentration in the cerebrospinal fluid of nearly 1 nMol. Conclusion: Afatinib appears to penetrate into the CNS with concentrations high enough to have clinical effect on CNS metastases. Afatinib may therefore be an effective treatment for heavily pretreated patients with EGFR-mutated or EGFR–TKI-sensitive NSCLC and CNS metastasis. PMID:25247337

  12. Osimertinib: A third-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitor for treatment of epidermal growth factor receptor-mutated non-small cell lung cancer with the acquired Thr790Met mutation.

    PubMed

    Bollinger, Meredith K; Agnew, Amanda S; Mascara, Gerard P

    2017-01-01

    Osimertinib is a third-generation epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) approved for the treatment of metastatic EGFR T790M mutation-positive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in patients failing previous TKI therapy. The T790M mutation is an acquired resistance mechanism found in over half of patients with NSCLC progressing on first-generation TKIs. First- and second-generation TKIs do not inhibit the T790M mutation at clinically relevant concentrations. Osimertinib is selective for mutated forms of EGFR, including the TKI-sensitizing mutations L858R and exon 19 deletions, as well as the acquired T790M resistance mutation. In a trial comparing osimertinib to platinum doublet therapy among patients with the T790M mutation progressing on first-line TKI therapy, median progression-free survival was significantly longer in patients receiving osimertinib. Osimertinib has a favorable safety profile compared to platinum-doublet chemotherapy. Common adverse events include diarrhea, skin rash, dry skin, and paronychia; however, because it spares wild-type EGFR, these toxicities appear to occur with less frequency and severity compared to other TKIs. Serious, but rare, adverse events include pneumonitis, interstitial lung disease-like events, QT interval prolongation, and reduced ejection fraction. Osimertinib has the unique ability to distribute readily into brain tissue compared with other TKIs, giving it a potential role in the treatment and/or prevention of CNS metastases; future studies are warranted in this area. An ongoing study evaluating osimertinib versus first-generation TKIs as first-line treatment for patients with EGFR mutation-positive NSCLC may help to define the role of osimertinib as front-line therapy.

  13. The role of the epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors as therapy for advanced, metastatic, and recurrent non-small-cell lung cancer: a Canadian national consensus statement

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, P.M.; Morzycki, W.; Melosky, B.; Butts, C.; Hirsh, V.; Krasnoshtein, F.; Murray, N.; Shepherd, F.A.; Soulieres, D.; Tsao, M.S.; Goss, G.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To provide consensus recommendations on the use of epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (egfr-tkis) in patients with advanced or meta-static non-small-cell lung cancer (nsclc). Methods Using a systematic literature search, phase ii trials, randomized phase iii trials, and meta-analyses were identified for inclusion. Results A total of forty-six trials were included. Clear evidence is available that egfr-tkis should not be administered concurrently with platinum-based chemotherapy as first-line therapy in advanced or metastatic nsclc. Evidence is currently insufficient to recommend single-agent egfr-tkis as first-line therapy either in unselected populations or in populations selected on the basis of molecular or clinical characteristics. Following failure of platinum-based chemotherapy, the evidence suggests that second-line egfr-tkis or second-line chemotherapy result in similar survival. Quality of life and symptom improvement for patients treated with an egfr-tki appear better than they do for patients treated with second-line docetaxel. Sequence of therapy may not appear to be important, but if survival is the outcome of interest, the goal should be to optimize the number of patients receiving three lines of therapy. Based on available data, molecular markers and clinical characteristics do not appear to be predictive of a differential survival benefit from an egfr-tki and therefore those factors should not be used to select patients for egfr-tki therapy. Conclusions The egfr-tkis represent an additional therapy in the treatment of advanced or metastatic nsclc. The results of ongoing clinical trials may define the optimal role for these agents and the effectiveness of combinations of these agents with other targeted agents. PMID:19229369

  14. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Cell Proliferation Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Wee, Ping; Wang, Zhixiang

    2017-01-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a receptor tyrosine kinase that is commonly upregulated in cancers such as in non-small-cell lung cancer, metastatic colorectal cancer, glioblastoma, head and neck cancer, pancreatic cancer, and breast cancer. Various mechanisms mediate the upregulation of EGFR activity, including common mutations and truncations to its extracellular domain, such as in the EGFRvIII truncations, as well as to its kinase domain, such as the L858R and T790M mutations, or the exon 19 truncation. These EGFR aberrations over-activate downstream pro-oncogenic signaling pathways, including the RAS-RAF-MEK-ERK MAPK and AKT-PI3K-mTOR pathways. These pathways then activate many biological outputs that are beneficial to cancer cell proliferation, including their chronic initiation and progression through the cell cycle. Here, we review the molecular mechanisms that regulate EGFR signal transduction, including the EGFR structure and its mutations, ligand binding and EGFR dimerization, as well as the signaling pathways that lead to G1 cell cycle progression. We focus on the induction of CYCLIN D expression, CDK4/6 activation, and the repression of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor proteins (CDKi) by EGFR signaling pathways. We also discuss the successes and challenges of EGFR-targeted therapies, and the potential for their use in combination with CDK4/6 inhibitors. PMID:28513565

  15. Structure-Activity Relationship of Indole-Tethered Pyrimidine Derivatives that Concurrently Inhibit Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor and Other Angiokinases.

    PubMed

    Song, Jiho; Yoo, Jakyung; Kwon, Ara; Kim, Doran; Nguyen, Hong Khanh; Lee, Bong-Yong; Suh, Wonhee; Min, Kyung Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Antiangiogenic agents have been widely investigated in combination with standard chemotherapy or targeted cancer agents for better management of advanced cancers. Therapeutic agents that concurrently inhibit epidermal growth factor receptor and other angiokinases could be useful alternatives to combination therapies for epidermal growth factor receptor-dependent cancers. Here, we report the synthesis of an indole derivative of pazopanib using a bioisosteric replacement strategy, which was designated MKP101. MKP101 inhibited not only the epidermal growth factor receptor with an IC50 value of 43 nM but also inhibited angiokinases as potently as pazopanib. In addition, MKP101 effectively inhibited vascular endothelial growth factor-induced endothelial proliferation, tube formation, migration of human umbilical vein endothelial cells and proliferation of HCC827, an epidermal growth factor receptor-addicted cancer cell line. A docking model of MKP101 and the kinase domain of the epidermal growth factor receptor was generated to predict its binding mode, and validated by synthesizing and evaluating MKP101 derivatives. Additionally, a study of structure-activity relationships of indolylamino or indolyloxy pyrimidine analogues derived from MKP101 demonstrated that selectivity for epidermal growth factor receptor and other angiokinases, especially vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 depends on the position of substituents on pyrimidine and the type of link between pyrimidine and the indole moiety. We believe that this study could provide a basis for developing angiokinase inhibitors having high affinity for the epidermal growth factor receptor, from the pyrimidine scaffold.

  16. Structure-Activity Relationship of Indole-Tethered Pyrimidine Derivatives that Concurrently Inhibit Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor and Other Angiokinases

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jiho; Yoo, Jakyung; Kwon, Ara; Kim, Doran; Nguyen, Hong Khanh; Lee, Bong-Yong; Suh, Wonhee; Min, Kyung Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Antiangiogenic agents have been widely investigated in combination with standard chemotherapy or targeted cancer agents for better management of advanced cancers. Therapeutic agents that concurrently inhibit epidermal growth factor receptor and other angiokinases could be useful alternatives to combination therapies for epidermal growth factor receptor-dependent cancers. Here, we report the synthesis of an indole derivative of pazopanib using a bioisosteric replacement strategy, which was designated MKP101. MKP101 inhibited not only the epidermal growth factor receptor with an IC50 value of 43 nM but also inhibited angiokinases as potently as pazopanib. In addition, MKP101 effectively inhibited vascular endothelial growth factor-induced endothelial proliferation, tube formation, migration of human umbilical vein endothelial cells and proliferation of HCC827, an epidermal growth factor receptor-addicted cancer cell line. A docking model of MKP101 and the kinase domain of the epidermal growth factor receptor was generated to predict its binding mode, and validated by synthesizing and evaluating MKP101 derivatives. Additionally, a study of structure-activity relationships of indolylamino or indolyloxy pyrimidine analogues derived from MKP101 demonstrated that selectivity for epidermal growth factor receptor and other angiokinases, especially vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 depends on the position of substituents on pyrimidine and the type of link between pyrimidine and the indole moiety. We believe that this study could provide a basis for developing angiokinase inhibitors having high affinity for the epidermal growth factor receptor, from the pyrimidine scaffold. PMID:26401847

  17. Epidermal Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Production Is Required for Permeability Barrier Homeostasis, Dermal Angiogenesis, and the Development of Epidermal Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Elias, Peter M.; Arbiser, Jack; Brown, Barbara E.; Rossiter, Heidemarie; Man, Mao-Qiang; Cerimele, Francesca; Crumrine, Debra; Gunathilake, Roshan; Choi, Eung Ho; Uchida, Yoshikazu; Tschachler, Erwin; Feingold, Kenneth R.

    2008-01-01

    Primary abnormalities in permeability barrier function appear to underlie atopic dermatitis and epidermal trauma; a concomitant barrier dysfunction could also drive other inflammatory dermatoses, including psoriasis. Central to this outside-inside view of disease pathogenesis is the epidermal generation of cytokines/growth factors, which in turn signal downstream epidermal repair mechanisms. Yet, this cascade, if sustained, signals downstream epidermal hyperplasia and inflammation. We found here that acute barrier disruption rapidly stimulates mRNA and protein expression of epidermal vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) in normal hairless mice, a specific response to permeability barrier requirements because up-regulation is blocked by application of a vapor-impermeable membrane. Moreover, epidermal vegf−/− mice display abnormal permeability barrier homeostasis, attributable to decreased VEGF signaling of epidermal lamellar body production; a paucity of dermal capillaries with reduced vascular permeability; and neither angiogenesis nor epidermal hyperplasia in response to repeated tape stripping (a model of psoriasiform hyperplasia). These results support a central role for epidermal VEGF in the maintenance of epidermal permeability barrier homeostasis and a link between epidermal VEGF production and both dermal angiogenesis and the development of epidermal hyperplasia. Because psoriasis is commonly induced by external trauma [isomorphic (Koebner) phenomenon] and is associated with a prominent permeability barrier abnormality, excess VEGF production, prominent angiogenesis, and epidermal hyperplasia, these results could provide a potential outside-inside mechanistic basis for the development of psoriasis. PMID:18688025

  18. Randomized Phase II Study of Dacomitinib (PF-00299804), an Irreversible Pan–Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Inhibitor, Versus Erlotinib in Patients With Advanced Non–Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ramalingam, Suresh S.; Blackhall, Fiona; Krzakowski, Maciej; Barrios, Carlos H.; Park, Keunchil; Bover, Isabel; Seog Heo, Dae; Rosell, Rafael; Talbot, Denis C.; Frank, Richard; Letrent, Stephen P.; Ruiz-Garcia, Ana; Taylor, Ian; Liang, Jane Q.; Campbell, Alicyn K.; O'Connell, Joseph; Boyer, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Purpose This randomized, open-label trial compared dacomitinib (PF-00299804), an irreversible inhibitor of human epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFR)/HER1, HER2, and HER4, with erlotinib, a reversible EGFR inhibitor, in patients with advanced non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Patients and Methods Patients with NSCLC, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 0 to 2, no prior HER-directed therapy, and one/two prior chemotherapy regimens received dacomitinib 45 mg or erlotinib 150 mg once daily. Results One hundred eighty-eight patients were randomly assigned. Treatment arms were balanced for most clinical and molecular characteristics. Median progression-free survival (PFS; primary end point) was 2.86 months for patients treated with dacomitinib and 1.91 months for patients treated with erlotinib (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.66; 95% CI, 0.47 to 0.91; two-sided P = .012); in patients with KRAS wild-type tumors, median PFS was 3.71 months for patients treated with dacomitinib and 1.91 months for patients treated with erlotinib (HR = 0.55; 95% CI, 0.35 to 0.85; two-sided P = .006); and in patients with KRAS wild-type/EGFR wild-type tumors, median PFS was 2.21 months for patients treated with dacomitinib and 1.84 months for patients treated with erlotinib (HR = 0.61; 95% CI, 0.37 to 0.99; two-sided P = .043). Median overall survival was 9.53 months for patients treated with dacomitinib and 7.44 months for patients treated with erlotinib (HR = 0.80; 95% CI, 0.56 to 1.13; two-sided P = .205). Adverse event-related discontinuations were uncommon in both arms. Common treatment-related adverse events were dermatologic and gastrointestinal, predominantly grade 1 to 2, and more frequent with dacomitinib. Conclusion Dacomitinib demonstrated significantly improved PFS versus erlotinib, with acceptable toxicity. PFS benefit was observed in most clinical and molecular subsets, notably KRAS wild-type/EGFR any status, KRAS wild-type/EGFR wild-type, and EGFR mutants

  19. Heparin-binding epidermal growth factor and Src family kinases in proliferation of renal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Shougang; Kinsey, Gilbert R; Rasbach, Kyle; Schnellmann, Rick G

    2008-03-01

    Our recent studies have shown that proliferation of renal proximal tubular cells (RPTC) in the absence of growth factors requires activation of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor. We sought to identify the endogenous EGF receptor ligand and investigate the mechanism(s) by which RPTC proliferate in different models. RPTC expressed both pro- and cleaved forms of heparin-binding epidermal growth factor (HB-EGF) and several metalloproteinases (MMP-2, -3, -9, and ADAM10, ADAM17) that have been reported to cleave HB-EGF. Treatment of RPTC with CRM 197, an inhibitor of HB-EGF binding to the EGF receptor, or downregulation of HB-EGF with small interfering RNA inhibited RPTC proliferation following plating. Furthermore, GM6001 (pan-MMP inhibitor), tumor-necrosis factor protease inhibitor-1 (TAPI-1; MMP and ADAM17 inhibitor), and GW280264X (ADAM10 and -17 inhibitor), but not GI254023X (ADAM10 inhibitor), attenuated the proliferation after plating. Although EGF receptor activation is required for RPTC proliferation after oxidant injury, CRM197, GM6001, and TAPI-1 did not block this response. In contrast, inhibition of Src with PP1 blocked EGF receptor activation and RPTC proliferation after oxidant injury. In addition, PP1 treatment attenuated HB-EGF-enhanced RPTC proliferation. We suggest that RPTC proliferation after plating is mediated by HB-EGF produced through an autocrine/paracrine mechanism and RPTC proliferation following oxidant injury is mediated by Src without involvement of HB-EGF.

  20. The Efficacy of Single-Agent Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Therapy in Biologically Selected Patients with Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: A Meta-Analysis of 19 Randomized Controlled Trials.

    PubMed

    Li, Guifang; Gao, Shunji; Sheng, Zhixin; Li, Bin

    2016-01-01

    To determine the efficacy of first-generation single-agent epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer patients with known EGFR mutation status, we undertook this pooled analysis. We searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in Medline, Embase, the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, the Science Citation Index, and the American Society of Clinical Oncology annual meetings. Out of 2,129 retrieved articles, 19 RCTs enrolling 2,016 patients with wild-type EGFR tumors and 1,034 patients with mutant EGFR tumors were identified. For these EGFR mutant patients, single-agent EGFR-TKI therapy improved progression-free survival (PFS) over chemotherapy: the summary hazard ratios (HRs) were 0.41 (p < 0.001) for the first-line setting and 0.46 (p = 0.02) for the second-/third-line setting. For those EGFR wild-type patients, single-agent EGFR-TKI therapy did not do as well as chemotherapy in the first-line setting (HR = 1.65, p = 0.03) and in the second-/third-line setting (HR = 1.27, p = 0.006). No statistically significant difference was observed in terms of overall survival (OS). Using platinum-based doublet chemotherapy as a common comparator, indirect comparison showed the superior efficacy of single-agent EGFR-TKI therapy over EGFR-TKIs added to chemotherapy in PFS [HR = 1.35 (1.03, 1.77), p = 0.03]. Additionally, a marginal trend towards the same direction was found in the OS analysis [HR = 1.16 (0.99, 1.35), p = 0.06]. Interestingly, for those EGFR wild-type tumors, single-agent EGFR-TKI therapy was inferior to EGFR-TKIs added to chemotherapy in PFS [HR = 0.38 (0.33, 0.44), p < 0.001] and OS [HR = 0.83 (0.71, 0.97), p = 0.02]. For these EGFR mutant patients, single-agent EGFR-TKI therapy prolonged PFS over chemotherapy. However, single-agent EGFR-TKI therapy was inferior to chemotherapy in PFS for those EGFR wild-type patients. Single-agent EGFR-TKI therapy could improve PFS over the

  1. Epidermal Growth Factor-induced Vacuolar (H+)-ATPase Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yanqing; Parmar, Amanda; Roux, Emmanuelle; Balbis, Alejandro; Dumas, Victor; Chevalier, Stephanie; Posner, Barry I.

    2012-01-01

    Using proteomics and immunofluorescence, we demonstrated epidermal growth factor (EGF) induced recruitment of extrinsic V1 subunits of the vacuolar (H+)-ATPase (V-ATPase) to rat liver endosomes. This was accompanied by reduced vacuolar pH. Bafilomycin, an inhibitor of V-ATPase, inhibited EGF-stimulated DNA synthesis and mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) activation as indicated by a decrease in eukaryotic initiation factor 4E-binding 1 (4E-BP1) phosphorylation and p70 ribosomal S6 protein kinase (p70S6K) phosphorylation and kinase activity. There was no corresponding inhibition of EGF-induced Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk) activation. Chloroquine, a neutralizer of vacuolar pH, mimicked bafilomycin effects. Bafilomycin did not inhibit the association of mTORC1 with Raptor nor did it affect AMP-activated protein kinase activity. Rather, the intracellular concentrations of essential but not non-essential amino acids were decreased by bafilomycin in EGF-treated primary rat hepatocytes. Cycloheximide, a translation elongation inhibitor known to augment intracellular amino acid levels, prevented the effect of bafilomycin on amino acids levels and completely reversed its inhibition of EGF-induced mTORC1 activation. In vivo administration of EGF stimulated the recruitment of Ras homologue enriched in brain (Rheb) but not mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) to endosomes and lysosomes. This was inhibited by chloroquine treatment. Our results suggest a role for vacuolar acidification in EGF signaling to mTORC1. PMID:22689575

  2. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Mutated Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: A Changing Treatment Paradigm.

    PubMed

    Pakkala, Suchita; Ramalingam, Suresh S

    2017-02-01

    Activating mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) are present in approximately 15% of US patients with lung adenocarcinoma. EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors are associated with high response rate and progression-free survival for patients with non-small cell lung cancer with this genotype. Gefitinib, erlotinib, and afatinib are the EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors that are presently in clinical use. Understanding resistance mechanisms has led to the identification of a secondary mutational target, T790M, in more than half of patients, for which osimertinib has been approved. This article reviews the current treatments, resistance mechanisms, and strategies to overcome resistance.

  3. Stepwise Progress in Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor/Radiation Studies for Head and Neck Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Harari, Paul M.

    2007-10-01

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval of four new epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors for cancer therapy (cetuximab, panitumumab, gefitinib, and erlotinib) over the last 3 years is a remarkable milestone in oncology. Indeed, molecular inhibition of EGFR signaling represents one of the most promising current arenas for the development of molecular-targeted cancer therapies. Epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors from both the monoclonal antibody and tyrosine kinase inhibitor class have demonstrated clinical activity in the treatment of a broad spectrum of common human malignancies. For the discipline of radiation oncology, the 2006 report of a phase III trial demonstrating a survival advantage for advanced head and neck cancer patients with the addition of weekly cetuximab during a 7-week course of radiation is particularly gratifying. Indeed, this is the first phase III trial to confirm a survival advantage with the addition of a molecular-targeted agent to radiation. Furthermore, this result seems to have been achieved with only a modest increment in overall treatment toxicity and with very high compliance to the prescribed treatment regimen. Nevertheless, much remains to be learned regarding the rational integration of EGFR inhibitors into cancer treatment regimens, as well as methods to optimize the selection of patients most likely to benefit from EGFR inhibitor strategies.

  4. Human epidermal growth factor receptor 3 in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Rysman, Bénédicte; Mouawad, François; Gros, Abigaëlle; Lansiaux, Amélie; Chevalier, Dominique; Meignan, Samuel

    2016-04-01

    Human epidermal growth factor receptor 3 (HER3) is a member of the human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER) family. The main characteristic of HER3 is that it does not possess tyrosine kinase activity, unlike other HERs. The role of HER3 in tumorigenesis has now been recognized, particularly in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs). Despite conflicting studies, HER3 was found to be overexpressed in HNSCC samples, and correlates with disease progression and poor survival, especially when it is coexpressed with other HERs. HER3 is a significant factor in HNSCC treatment resistance. Indeed, HER3 is a major mechanism described for cetuximab resistance because of modification of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) internalization and by phosphotidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT signaling pathway activation. HER3 also affects resistance to tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) and thereby promotes treatment escape and radiotherapy resistance by activation of the survival signaling pathway. To counteract this, pharmacologic inhibitors of HER3 are currently in development and could significantly improve HNSCC treatment. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 38: E2412-E2418, 2016.

  5. American Society of Clinical Oncology provisional clinical opinion: epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) Mutation testing for patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer considering first-line EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy.

    PubMed

    Keedy, Vicki Leigh; Temin, Sarah; Somerfield, Mark R; Beasley, Mary Beth; Johnson, David H; McShane, Lisa M; Milton, Daniel T; Strawn, John R; Wakelee, Heather A; Giaccone, Giuseppe

    2011-05-20

    An American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) provisional clinical opinion (PCO) offers timely clinical direction to ASCO's membership following publication or presentation of potentially practice-changing data from major studies. This PCO addresses the clinical utility of using epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation testing for patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) to predict the benefit of taking a first-line EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI). Patients with EGFR-mutated NSCLC have a significantly higher rate of partial responses to the EGFR TKIs gefitinib and erlotinib. In the United States, approximately 15% of patients with adenocarcinoma of the lung harbor activating EGFR mutations. EGFR mutation testing is widespread at academic medical centers and in some locales in community practice. As of yet, there is no evidence of an overall survival (OS) benefit from selecting treatment based on performing this testing. One large phase III trial (the Iressa Pan-Asia Study [IPASS] trial), three smaller phase III randomized controlled trials using progression-free survival as the primary end point, and one small phase III trial with OS as the primary end point, all involving first-line EGFR TKIs and chemotherapy doublets, form the basis of this PCO. On the basis of the results of five phase III randomized controlled trials, patients with NSCLC who are being considered for first-line therapy with an EGFR TKI (patients who have not previously received chemotherapy or an EGFR TKI) should have their tumor tested for EGFR mutations to determine whether an EGFR TKI or chemotherapy is the appropriate first-line therapy. NOTE. ASCO's provisional clinical opinions (PCOs) reflect expert consensus based on clinical evidence and literature available at the time they are written and are intended to assist physicians in clinical decision making and identify questions and settings for further research. Because of the rapid flow of scientific

  6. Topography of human placental receptors for epidermal growth factor.

    PubMed

    Rao, C V; Ramani, N; Chegini, N; Stadig, B K; Carman, F R; Woost, P G; Schultz, G S; Cook, C L

    1985-02-10

    These studies were undertaken to determine whether term human placental microvillus plasma membranes, which are exposed to maternal blood, and basolateral plasma membranes, which are in close proximity to fetal blood capillaries, contain receptors for epidermal growth factor (EGF). These two highly purified membranes bound 125I-EGF with similar affinity (apparent dissociation constants, 0.07-0.12 nM, but the total number of available receptors was greater in microvillus (8.2 pmol/mg protein) compared to basolateral (4.9 pmol/mg protein) plasma membranes. Detailed characterization of 125I-EGF binding to these membranes revealed numerous similarities as well as differences. The two membranes contained two major (155 and 140 kDa) and at least three minor (115, 175, and 210 kDa) specific 125I-EGF binding proteins. The 115-kDa protein was only found in basolateral plasma membranes. The 155-kDa protein was predominantly labeled in microvillus, whereas the 140-kDa protein was labeled predominantly in basolateral plasma membranes. The addition of protease inhibitors did not alter the multiple 125I-EGF binding proteins pattern found in these membranes. EGF stimulated phosphorylation of 140- and 155-kDa proteins in both microvillus and basolateral plasma membranes. However, the 155-kDa protein was phosphorylated to a greater extent in microvillus, whereas both 140- and 155-kDa proteins were phosphorylated equally in basolateral plasma membranes. Light and electron microscope autoradiographic studies revealed that 125I-EGF preferentially associated with microvillus plasma membranes. The data demonstrates the presence of EGF receptors in outer cell membranes of syncytiotrophoblasts and suggests that maternal EGF may influence syncytiotrophoblast function by binding to receptors in microvillus plasma membranes, while fetal EGF may also influence syncytiotrophoblast function but via receptors in basolateral plasma membranes.

  7. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Mutation (EGFR) Testing for Prediction of Response to EGFR-Targeting Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor (TKI) Drugs in Patients with Advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: An Evidence-Based Analysis.

    PubMed

    2010-01-01

    In February 2010, the Medical Advisory Secretariat (MAS) began work on evidence-based reviews of the literature surrounding three pharmacogenomic tests. This project came about when Cancer Care Ontario (CCO) asked MAS to provide evidence-based analyses on the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of three oncology pharmacogenomic tests currently in use in Ontario.Evidence-based analyses have been prepared for each of these technologies. These have been completed in conjunction with internal and external stakeholders, including a Provincial Expert Panel on Pharmacogenetics (PEPP). Within the PEPP, subgroup committees were developed for each disease area. For each technology, an economic analysis was also completed by the Toronto Health Economics and Technology Assessment Collaborative (THETA) and is summarized within the reports.THE FOLLOWING REPORTS CAN BE PUBLICLY ACCESSED AT THE MAS WEBSITE AT: http://www.health.gov.on.ca/mas or at www.health.gov.on.ca/english/providers/program/mas/mas_about.htmlGENE EXPRESSION PROFILING FOR GUIDING ADJUVANT CHEMOTHERAPY DECISIONS IN WOMEN WITH EARLY BREAST CANCER: An Evidence-Based AnalysisEpidermal Growth Factor Receptor Mutation (EGFR) Testing for Prediction of Response to EGFR-Targeting Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor (TKI) Drugs in Patients with Advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: an Evidence-Based AnalysisK-RAS testing in Treatment Decisions for Advanced Colorectal Cancer: an Evidence-Based Analysis The Medical Advisory Secretariat undertook a systematic review of the evidence on the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation testing compared with no EGFR mutation testing to predict response to tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), gefitinib (Iressa(®)) or erlotinib (Tarceva(®)) in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). TARGET POPULATION AND CONDITION With an estimated 7,800 new cases and 7,000 deaths last year, lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer

  8. Transforming growth factor alpha and epidermal growth factor levels in bladder cancer and their relationship to epidermal growth factor receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Mellon, J. K.; Cook, S.; Chambers, P.; Neal, D. E.

    1996-01-01

    We have examined levels of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-alpha) in neoplastic and non-neoplastic bladder tissue using a standard radioimmunoassay technique. Tumour samples had much higher TGF-alpha levels compared with EGF and TGF-alpha levels in malignant tissue were significantly higher than in benign bladder samples. There was, in addition, a difference in mean EGF levels from 'normal' bladder samples from non-tumour bearing areas of bladder in patients with bladder cancer compared with 'normal' bladder tissue obtained at the time of organ retrieval surgery. Levels of EGF and TGF-alpha did not correlate with levels of EGF receptor (EGFR) as determined by a radioligand binding method but levels of TGF-alpha > 10 ng gm-1 of tumour tissue did correlate with EGFR positivity defined using immunohistochemistry. These data suggest that TGF-alpha is the likely ligand for EGFR in bladder tumours. PMID:8605103

  9. Coregulation of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor/Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 (HER2) Levels and Locations: Quantitative Analysis of HER2 Overexpression Effects

    SciTech Connect

    Hendriks, Bart S.; Opresko, Lee; Wiley, H. S.; Lauffenburger, Douglas A.

    2003-03-01

    Elevated expression of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) is know to alter cell signalilng and behavioral responses implicated in tumor progression. However, multiple diverse mechanisms may be involved in these overall effects, including signaling by HER2 itself, modulation of signalilng by epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and modification of trafficking dynamics for both EGFR and HER2. Continued....

  10. Mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor gene are linked to smoking-independent, lung adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Sonobe, M; Manabe, T; Wada, H; Tanaka, F

    2005-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations are a potential predictor of the effectiveness of EGFR inhibitors for the treatment of lung cancer. Although EGFR mutations were reported to occur with high frequency in nonsmoking Japanese adenocarcinoma patients, the exact nature has not been fully elucidated. We examined EGFR gene mutations within exons 18–21 and their correlations to clinico-pathological factors and other genetic alterations in tumour specimens from 154 patients who underwent resection for lung cancer at Kyoto University Hospital. Epidermal growth factor receptor mutations were observed in 60 tumours (39.0%), all of which were adenocarcinoma. Among the patients with adenocarcinoma (n=108), EGFR mutations were more frequently observed in nonsmokers than former smokers or current smokers (83.0, 50.0, 15.2%, respectively), in women than men (76.3 vs 34.0%), in tumours with bronchio-alveolar component than those without bronchio-alveolar component (78.9 vs 42.9%), and in well or moderately differentiated tumours than poorly differentiated tumours (72.0, 64.4, 34.2%). No tumours with EGFR mutations had any K-ras codon 12 mutations, which were well-known smoking-related gene mutations. In conclusion, adenocarcinomas with EGFR mutation had a distinctive clinico-pathological feature unrelated to smoking. Epidermal growth factor receptor mutations may play a key role in the development of smoking-independent adenocarcinoma. PMID:16052218

  11. Epidermal growth in the bottlenose dolphin, Tursiops truncatus

    SciTech Connect

    Hicks, B.D.; St. Aubin, D.J.; Geraci, J.R.; Brown, W.R.

    1985-07-01

    Epidermal growth in two mature female bottlenose dolphins, Tursiops truncatus, was investigated by following the movement of a cohort of tritiated thymidine-labeled epidermal cells for 59 days. The majority of the cells migrated in a cluster which was estimated to reach the skin surface in 73 days. The authors calculate that the outermost cell layer is sloughed 12 times per day. Turnover time and sloughing rate are estimated to be 1.7 times longer and 8.5 times faster than the respective values for epidermal cell kinetics in humans. This apparent inconsistency of slow transit time and rapid sloughing rate is reconciled by the convoluted structure of the stratum germinativum in the dolphin which results in a ratio of germinatival to superficial cells of 876:1. The stratum germinativum of dolphin epidermis appears to lack morphologically distinct, spatially segregated subpopulations of anchoring and stem cells. Dolphin epidermis has a large capacity for cell population, relatively long turnover time, and rapid sloughing rate. The adaptive advantages of these characteristics are discussed.

  12. Expression of transforming growth factor alpha, epidermal growth factor receptor and epidermal growth factor in precursor lesions to gastric carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Filipe, M. I.; Osborn, M.; Linehan, J.; Sanidas, E.; Brito, M. J.; Jankowski, J.

    1995-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF), its related peptide transforming growth factor (TGF-alpha) and their common receptor (EGFR) have been implicated in the control of cell proliferation and differentiation in the gastrointestinal epithelium and may play an important role in gastric carcinogenesis. We compared the immunohistochemical expression and topographic distribution of these peptides using Western blot analysis in gastric carcinoma precursor lesions and in non-cancer tissue. We observed: (i) increased and extended expression of TGF-alpha in normal mucosa and hyperplasia in carcinoma fields compared with non-cancer controls; (ii) increased expression of EGFR in intestinal metaplasia (IM) from carcinoma fields compared with controls; (iii) EGF expression was not detected in normal mucosa and only weakly in IM; (iv) coexpression of TGF-alpha/EGFR and EGF/EGFR was higher in intestinal metaplasia in carcinoma fields than in non-cancer controls. We conclude that altered expression of TGF-alpha/EGFR is associated with morphological changes during gastric carcinogenesis. In this regard increased expression of TGF-alpha is a very early event which is subsequently followed by up-regulation of EGFR and this has important biological and clinical implications. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:7819044

  13. Target Modulation by a Kinase Inhibitor Engineered to Induce a Tandem Blockade of the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) and c-Src: The Concept of Type III Combi-Targeting

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Suman; Larroque-Lombard, Anne-Laure; Peyrard, Lisa; Thauvin, Cédric; Rachid, Zakaria; Williams, Christopher; Jean-Claude, Bertrand J.

    2015-01-01

    Cancer cells are characterized by a complex network of interrelated and compensatory signaling driven by multiple kinases that reduce their sensitivity to targeted therapy. Therefore, strategies directed at inhibiting two or more kinases are required to robustly block the growth of refractory tumour cells. Here we report on a novel strategy to promote sustained inhibition of two oncogenic kinases (Kin-1 and Kin-2) by designing a molecule K1-K2, termed “combi-molecule”, to induce a tandem blockade of Kin-1 and Kin-2, as an intact structure and to be further hydrolyzed to two inhibitors K1 and K2 directed at Kin-1 and Kin-2, respectively. We chose to target EGFR (Kin-1) and c-Src (Kin-2), two tyrosine kinases known to synergize to promote tumour growth and progression. Variation of K1-K2 linkers led to AL776, our first optimized EGFR-c-Src targeting prototype. Here we showed that: (a) AL776 blocked EGFR and c-Src as an intact structure using an in vitro kinase assay (IC50 EGFR = 0.12 μM and IC50 c-Src = 3 nM), (b) it could release K1 (AL621, a nanomolar EGFR inhibitor) and K2 (dasatinib, a clinically approved Abl/c-Src inhibitor) by hydrolytic cleavage both in vitro and in vivo, (c) it could robustly inhibit phosphorylation of EGFR and c-Src (0.25–1 μM) in cells, (d) it induced 2–4 fold stronger growth inhibition than gefitinib or dasatinib and apoptosis at concentrations as low as 1 μM, and, (e) blocked motility and invasion at sub-micromolar doses in the highly invasive 4T1 and MDA-MB-231 cells. Despite its size (MW = 1032), AL776 blocked phosphorylation of EGFR and c-Src in 4T1 tumours in vivo. We now term this new targeting model consisting of designing a kinase inhibitor K1-K2 to target Kin-1 and Kin-2, and to further release two inhibitors K1 and K2 of the latter kinases, “type III combi-targeting”. PMID:25658745

  14. Epidermal growth factor receptors in the canine antrum

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, R.P.; Gates, T.S.; Boehmer, C.G.; Mantyh, P.W.

    1988-11-01

    In this study we localized receptor binding sites for /sup 125/I-human epidermal growth factor (hEGF) in the antrum of the adult canine stomach. High levels of specific /sup 125/I-hEGF binding sites were observed over the mucosa and muscularis mucosa, whereas specific binding sites were not detectable over the submucosa, external circular and longitudinal muscle or myenteric neurons. These results are in agreement with previous studies which indicated that EGF stimulates the proliferation of cultured epithelial cells and inhibits gastric acid secretion. This suggests that EGF may be a useful therapeutic agent in the healing of gastric ulcers.

  15. Production of human epidermal growth factor using adenoviral based system

    PubMed Central

    Negahdari, Babak; Shahosseini, Zahra; Baniasadi, Vahid

    2016-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF), a growth factor involved in cell growth and differentiation, is a small polypeptide with molecular weight of approximately 6 kDa known to be present in a number of different mammalian species. Experimental studies in animals and humans have demonstrated that the topical application of EGF accelerates the rate of epidermal regeneration of partial-thickness wounds and second-degree burns. Due to its commercial applications, Human EGF (hEGF) has been cloned in several forms. In the present study, adenoviral based expression system was used to produce biologically active recombinant hEGF. The presence of secreted recombinant hEGF was confirmed by a dot blot and its expression level was determined by enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay. Moreover, biological activity of secreted hEGF was evaluated by a proliferation assay performed on A549 cells. For production of hEGF in a secretory form, a chimeric gene coding for the hEGF fused to the signal peptide was expressed using adenoviral based method. This method enables the production of hEGF at the site of interest and moreover it could be used for cell proliferation and differentiation assays in tissue engineering research experiments instead of using commercially available EGF. PMID:27051431

  16. Human corpus luteum: presence of epidermal growth factor receptors and binding characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Ayyagari, R.R.; Khan-Dawood, F.S.

    1987-04-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptors are present in many reproductive tissues but have not been demonstrated in the human corpus luteum. To determine the presence of epidermal growth factor receptors and its binding characteristics, we carried out studies on the plasma cell membrane fraction of seven human corpora lutea (days 16 to 25) of the menstrual cycle. Specific epidermal growth factor receptors were present in human corpus luteum. Insulin, nerve growth factor, and human chorionic gonadotropin did not competitively displace epidermal growth factor binding. The optimal conditions for corpus luteum-epidermal growth factor receptor binding were found to be incubation for 2 hours at 4 degrees C with 500 micrograms plasma membrane protein and 140 femtomol /sup 125/I-epidermal growth factor per incubate. The number (mean +/- SEM) of epidermal growth factor binding sites was 12.34 +/- 2.99 X 10(-19) mol/micrograms protein; the dissociation constant was 2.26 +/- 0.56 X 10(-9) mol/L; the association constant was 0.59 +/- 0.12 X 10(9) L/mol. In two regressing corpora lutea obtained on days 2 and 3 of the menstrual cycle, there was no detectable specific epidermal growth factor receptor binding activity. Similarly no epidermal growth factor receptor binding activity could be detected in ovarian stromal tissue. Our findings demonstrate that specific receptors for epidermal growth factor are present in the human corpus luteum. The physiologic significance of epidermal growth factor receptors in human corpus luteum is unknown, but epidermal growth factor may be involved in intragonadal regulation of luteal function.

  17. The European Society for Medical Oncology Magnitude of Clinical Benefit Scale (ESMO-MCBS) applied to pivotal phase III randomized-controlled trials of tyrosine kinase inhibitors in first-line for advanced non-small cell lung cancer with activating epidermal growth factor receptor mutations.

    PubMed

    Giuliani, Jacopo; Remo, Andrea; Bonetti, Andrea

    2017-02-01

    To examine the magnitude of the clinical benefit from first-line tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with activating epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mutations. Areas covered: The present evaluation was restricted to pivotal phase III RCTs in first-line for advanced NSCLC with activating EGFR-mutations. We have subsequently applied the European Society for Medical Oncology-Magnitude of Clinical Benefit Scale (ESMO-MCBS) to the above pivotal phase III RCTs, to derive a relative ranking of the magnitude of clinically meaningful benefit. Our study evaluated 8 phase III RCTs (including 1710 patients). The ESMO-MCBS reached high grade (grade 4) for all TKIs treatments with at least one phase III RCT for each TKI. Expert commentary: Combining pharmacological costs of drugs with the measure of efficacy, afatinib has the lowest difference in costs per month-PFS gained and a comparable high grade of magnitude of clinical benefit.

  18. Arctigenin induced gallbladder cancer senescence through modulating epidermal growth factor receptor pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mingdi; Cai, Shizhong; Zuo, Bin; Gong, Wei; Tang, Zhaohui; Zhou, Di; Weng, Mingzhe; Qin, Yiyu; Wang, Shouhua; Liu, Jun; Ma, Fei; Quan, Zhiwei

    2017-05-01

    Gallbladder cancer has poor prognosis and limited therapeutic options. Arctigenin, a representative dibenzylbutyrolactone lignan, occurs in a variety of plants. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in the antitumor effect of arctigenin on gallbladder cancer have not been fully elucidated. The expression levels of epidermal growth factor receptor were examined in 100 matched pairs of gallbladder cancer tissues. A positive correlation between high epidermal growth factor receptor expression levels and poor prognosis was observed in gallbladder cancer tissues. Pharmacological inhibition or inhibition via RNA interference of epidermal growth factor receptor induced cellular senescence in gallbladder cancer cells. The antitumor effect of arctigenin on gallbladder cancer cells was primarily achieved by inducing cellular senescence. In gallbladder cancer cells treated with arctigenin, the expression level of epidermal growth factor receptor significantly decreased. The analysis of the activity of the kinases downstream of epidermal growth factor receptor revealed that the RAF-MEK-ERK signaling pathway was significantly inhibited. Furthermore, the cellular senescence induced by arctigenin could be reverted by pcDNA-epidermal growth factor receptor. Arctigenin also potently inhibited the growth of tumor xenografts, which was accompanied by the downregulation of epidermal growth factor receptor and induction of senescence. This study demonstrates arctigenin could induce cellular senescence in gallbladder cancer through the modulation of epidermal growth factor receptor pathway. These data identify epidermal growth factor receptor as a key regulator in arctigenin-induced gallbladder cancer senescence.

  19. Rat Prolactinoma cell growth regulation by Epidermal Growth Factor receptor ligands

    PubMed Central

    Vlotides, George; Siegel, Emily; Donangelo, Ines; Gutman, Shiri; Ren, Song-Guang; Melmed, Shlomo

    2008-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) regulates pituitary development, hormone synthesis and cell proliferation. Although ErbB receptor family members are expressed in pituitary tumors, effects of EGF signaling on pituitary tumors are not known. Immunoprecipitation and Western blot confirmed EGFR and p185c-neu protein expression in GH3 lacto-somatotroph but not in ACTH-secreting AtT20 pituitary tumor cells. EGF (5 nM) selectively enhanced baseline (~ 4-fold) and serum-induced (> 6-fold) PRL mRNA levels, while gefitinib, an EGFR antagonist, suppressed serum-induced cell proliferation and Pttg1 expression, blocked PRL gene expression, and reversed EGF-mediated somatotroph-lactotroph phenotype switching. Downstream EGFR signaling by ERK, but not PI3K or PKC, mediated the gefitinib-response. Tumors in athymic mice implanted sc with GH3 cells resulted in weight gain accompanied by increased serum PRL, GH and IGF-I levels. Gefitinib decreased tumor volumes and peripheral hormone levels by ~ 30% and restored normal mouse body weight patterns. Mice treated with gefitinib exhibited decreased tumor tissue ERK1/2 phosphorylation and downregulated tumor PRL and Pttg1 mRNA abundance. These results show that EGFR inhibition controls tumor growth and PRL secretion in experimental lacto-somatotroph tumors. EGFR inhibitors could therefore be useful for control of PRL secretion and tumor load in prolactinomas resistant to dopaminergic treatment, or for those prolactinomas undergoing rare malignant transformation. PMID:18676863

  20. Upregulation of epidermal growth factor receptor 4 in oral leukoplakia

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Kumagai, Kenichi; Gotoh, Akito; Eguchi, Takanori; Yamada, Hiroyuki; Hamada, Yoshiki; Suzuki, Satsuki; Suzuki, Ryuji

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, we investigate the expression profile of the epidermal growth factor receptor family, which comprises EGFR/ErbB1, HER2/ErbB2, HER3/ErbB3 and HER4/ErbB4 in oral leukoplakia (LP). The expression of four epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family genes and their ligands were measured in LP tissues from 14 patients and compared with levels in 10 patients with oral lichen planus (OLP) and normal oral mucosa (NOM) from 14 healthy donors by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunohistochemistry. Synchronous mRNA coexpression of ErbB1, ErbB2, ErbB3 and ErbB4 was detected in LP lesions. Out of the receptors, only ErbB4 mRNA and protein was more highly expressed in LP compared with NOM tissues. These were strongly expressed by epithelial keratinocytes in LP lesions, as shown by immunohistochemistry. Regarding the ligands, the mRNA of Neuregulin2 and 4 were more highly expressed in OLP compared with NOM tissues. Therefore, enhanced ErbB4 on the keratinocytes and synchronous modulation of EGFR family genes may contribute to the pathogenesis and carcinogenesis of LP. PMID:23492901

  1. A comprehensive pathway map of epidermal growth factor receptor signaling

    PubMed Central

    Oda, Kanae; Matsuoka, Yukiko; Funahashi, Akira; Kitano, Hiroaki

    2005-01-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling pathway is one of the most important pathways that regulate growth, survival, proliferation, and differentiation in mammalian cells. Reflecting this importance, it is one of the best-investigated signaling systems, both experimentally and computationally, and several computational models have been developed for dynamic analysis. A map of molecular interactions of the EGFR signaling system is a valuable resource for research in this area. In this paper, we present a comprehensive pathway map of EGFR signaling and other related pathways. The map reveals that the overall architecture of the pathway is a bow-tie (or hourglass) structure with several feedback loops. The map is created using CellDesigner software that enables us to graphically represent interactions using a well-defined and consistent graphical notation, and to store it in Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML). PMID:16729045

  2. Growth of melanocytes in human epidermal cell cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Staiano-Coico, L.; Hefton, J.M.; Amadeo, C.; Pagan-Charry, I.; Madden, M.R.; Cardon-Cardo, C. )

    1990-08-01

    Epidermal cell cultures were grown in keratinocyte-conditioned medium for use as burn wound grafts; the melanocyte composition of the grafts was studied under a variety of conditions. Melanocytes were identified by immunohistochemistry based on a monoclonal antibody (MEL-5) that has previously been shown to react specifically with melanocytes. During the first 7 days of growth in primary culture, the total number of melanocytes in the epidermal cultures decreased to 10% of the number present in normal skin. Beginning on day 2 of culture, bipolar melanocytes were present at a mean cell density of 116 +/- 2/mm2; the keratinocyte to melanocyte ratio was preserved during further primary culture and through three subpassages. Moreover, exposure of cultures to mild UVB irradiation stimulated the melanocytes to proliferate, suggesting that the melanocytes growing in culture maintained their responsiveness to external stimuli. When the sheets of cultured cells were enzymatically detached from the plastic culture flasks before grafting, melanocytes remained in the basal layer of cells as part of the graft applied to the patient.

  3. Epidermal vascular endothelial growth factor production is required for permeability barrier homeostasis, dermal angiogenesis, and the development of epidermal hyperplasia: implications for the pathogenesis of psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Elias, Peter M; Arbiser, Jack; Brown, Barbara E; Rossiter, Heidemarie; Man, Mao-Qiang; Cerimele, Francesca; Crumrine, Debra; Gunathilake, Roshan; Choi, Eung Ho; Uchida, Yoshikazu; Tschachler, Erwin; Feingold, Kenneth R

    2008-09-01

    Primary abnormalities in permeability barrier function appear to underlie atopic dermatitis and epidermal trauma; a concomitant barrier dysfunction could also drive other inflammatory dermatoses, including psoriasis. Central to this outside-inside view of disease pathogenesis is the epidermal generation of cytokines/growth factors, which in turn signal downstream epidermal repair mechanisms. Yet, this cascade, if sustained, signals downstream epidermal hyperplasia and inflammation. We found here that acute barrier disruption rapidly stimulates mRNA and protein expression of epidermal vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) in normal hairless mice, a specific response to permeability barrier requirements because up-regulation is blocked by application of a vapor-impermeable membrane. Moreover, epidermal vegf(-/-) mice display abnormal permeability barrier homeostasis, attributable to decreased VEGF signaling of epidermal lamellar body production; a paucity of dermal capillaries with reduced vascular permeability; and neither angiogenesis nor epidermal hyperplasia in response to repeated tape stripping (a model of psoriasiform hyperplasia). These results support a central role for epidermal VEGF in the maintenance of epidermal permeability barrier homeostasis and a link between epidermal VEGF production and both dermal angiogenesis and the development of epidermal hyperplasia. Because psoriasis is commonly induced by external trauma [isomorphic (Koebner) phenomenon] and is associated with a prominent permeability barrier abnormality, excess VEGF production, prominent angiogenesis, and epidermal hyperplasia, these results could provide a potential outside-inside mechanistic basis for the development of psoriasis.

  4. Cell and molecular biology of epidermal growth factor receptor.

    PubMed

    Ceresa, Brian P; Peterson, Joanne L

    2014-01-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has been one of the most intensely studied cell surface receptors due to its well-established roles in developmental biology, tissue homeostasis, and cancer biology. The EGFR has been critical for creating paradigms for numerous aspects of cell biology, such as ligand binding, signal transduction, and membrane trafficking. Despite this history of discovery, there is a continual stream of evidence that only the surface has been scratched. New ways of receptor regulation continue to be identified, each of which is a potential molecular target for manipulating EGFR signaling and the resultant changes in cell and tissue biology. This chapter is an update on EGFR-mediated signaling, and describes some recent developments in the regulation of receptor biology.

  5. The epidermal growth factor receptor family: Biology driving targeted therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Wieduwilt, M. J.; Moasser, M. M.

    2011-01-01

    The epidermal growth factor family of receptor tyrosine kinases (ErbBs) plays essential roles in regulating cell proliferation, survival, differentiation and migration. The ErbB receptors carry out both redundant and restricted functions in mammalian development and in the maintenance of tissues in the adult mammal. Loss of regulation of the ErbB receptors underlies many human diseases, most notably cancer. Our understanding of the function and complex regulation of these receptors has fueled the development of targeted therapeutic agents for human malignancies in the last 15 years. Here we review the biology of ErbB receptors, including their structure, signaling, regulation, and roles in development and disease, then briefly touch on their increasing roles as targets for cancer therapy. PMID:18259690

  6. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in head and neck cancer: its role and treatment implications

    PubMed Central

    Zimmermann, Michel; Zouhair, Abderrahim; Azria, David; Ozsahin, Mahmut

    2006-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a member of the ErbB family of receptors. Its stimulation by endogenous ligands, EGF or transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-α) results in activation of intracellular tyrosine kinase, therefore, cell cycle progression. High levels of EGFR expression are correlated with poor prognosis and resistance to radiation therapy in a variety of cancers, mostly in squamous-cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN). Blocking the EGFR by a monoclonal antibody results in inhibition of the stimulation of the receptor, therefore, in inhibition of cell proliferation, enhanced apoptosis, and reduced angiogenesis, invasiveness and metastases. The EGFR is a prime target for new anticancer therapy in SCCHN, and other agents in development include small molecular tyrosine kinase inhibitors and antisense therapies. PMID:16722544

  7. Psoralens potentiate ultraviolet light-induced inhibition of epidermal growth factor binding.

    PubMed Central

    Laskin, J D; Lee, E; Laskin, D L; Gallo, M A

    1986-01-01

    The psoralens, when activated by ultraviolet light of 320-400 nm (UVA light), are potent modulators of epidermal cell growth and differentiation. Previously, we reported that, in mammalian cells, these compounds bind to specific saturable high-affinity cellular receptor sites. In the present studies, we demonstrate that binding of psoralens to their receptors followed by UVA light activation is associated with inhibition of epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor binding. Inhibition of EGF binding, which required UVA light, was rapid and dependent on the dose of UVA light (0.5-2.0 J/cm2), as well as the concentration of psoralens (10 nM to 1 microM). Higher doses of UVA light (2.0-6.0 J/cm2) by themselves were also inhibitory, indicating that psoralens potentiate the UVA-induced inhibition of EGF binding. A number of biologically active analogs of psoralen, including 8-methoxypsoralen, 5-methoxypsoralen, and 4,5',8-trimethylpsoralen, when activated by UVA light, were found to be inhibitors of binding. Inhibition of EGF binding by psoralens was observed in a variety of human and mouse cell culture lines known to possess psoralen receptors. In the epidermal-derived line PAM 212, at least two populations of receptors with different affinities for EGF were found. Psoralens and UVA light selectively inhibited binding to the higher-affinity EGF receptors, an effect analogous to that of the phorbol ester tumor promoters. As observed with phorbol esters, photoactivated psoralens appeared to inhibit EGF binding by an indirect mechanism. These data demonstrate that the psoralens and UVA light have direct biological effects on cell-surface membranes. Since EGF is a growth-regulatory peptide, the ability of psoralens and UVA light to inhibit EGF binding may underlie the biologic effects of these agents in the skin. PMID:3490664

  8. Psoralens potentiate ultraviolet light-induced inhibition of epidermal growth factor binding

    SciTech Connect

    Laskin, J.D.; Lee, E.; Laskin, D.L.; Gallo, M.A.

    1986-11-01

    The psoralens, when activated by ultraviolet light of 320-400 nm (UVA light), are potent modulators of epidermal cell growth and differentiation. Previously, we reported that, in mammalian cells, these compounds bind to specific saturable high-affinity cellular receptor sites. In the present studies, we demonstrate that binding of psoralens to their receptors followed by UVA light activation is associated with inhibition of epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor binding. Inhibition of EGF binding, which required UVA light, was rapid and dependent on the dose of UVA light (0.5-2.0 J/cm2), as well as the concentration of psoralens (10 nM to 1 microM). Higher doses of UVA light (2.0-6.0 J/cm2) by themselves were also inhibitory, indicating that psoralens potentiate the UVA-induced inhibition of EGF binding. A number of biologically active analogs of psoralen, including 8-methoxypsoralen, 5-methoxypsoralen, and 4,5',8-trimethylpsoralen, when activated by UVA light, were found to be inhibitors of binding. Inhibition of EGF binding by psoralens was observed in a variety of human and mouse cell culture lines known to possess psoralen receptors. In the epidermal-derived line PAM 212, at least two populations of receptors with different affinities for EGF were found. Psoralens and UVA light selectively inhibited binding to the higher-affinity EGF receptors, an effect analogous to that of the phorbol ester tumor promoters. As observed with phorbol esters, photoactivated psoralens appeared to inhibit EGF binding by an indirect mechanism. These data demonstrate that the psoralens and UVA light have direct biological effects on cell-surface membranes. Since EGF is a growth-regulatory peptide, the ability of psoralens and UVA light to inhibit EGF binding may underlie the biologic effects of these agents in the skin.

  9. [Epidermal growth factor receptor expression and epidermal growth factor blood plasma content in simple and complex endometrial hyperplasia].

    PubMed

    Dznelashvili, N; Kasradze, D; Tavartkiladze, A; Mariamidze, A

    2014-01-01

    The goal of our study was to concurrently determine the prognostic significance of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) expression in endometrium and Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) blood content in simple and complex hyperplasia. In order to detect EGFR expression, immunohistochemical examination of endometrial scarp from 35 patients was done along with HPLC (High performance liquid chromatography) method, for measuring EGF blood plasma content. The numerical data obtained were processed statistically using computer program SPSS-12. According to the results: 1. A significant/marked increase in EGF blood plasma level together with pronounced EGFR expression in simple endometrial hyperplasia (without atypia) suggests that simple hyperplasia is likely to transform into complex form, while unchanged level of EGF against the background of mild EGFR expression is probably indicative of not very bad prognosis. 2. Normal indices of EGF blood plasma level in simple endometrial hyperplasia (without atypia), accompanied by mild EGFR expression is suggestive of good prognosis. 3. A sharp or extremely sharp increase in EGF blood plasma level with pronounced EGFR expression in complex endometrial hyperplasia (without atypia) is likely to indicate poor prognosis that may lead to the transformation into atypical form. However, unchanged EGF blood plasma level against the background of mild EGFR expression in complex endometrial hyperplasia (without atypia) is likely to point to not very bad prognosis. 4. A marked increase in EGF blood plasma level with a pronounced EGFR expression in complex endometrial hyperplasia (without atypia) is likely to indicate poor prognosis that may lead to the transformation into atypical form. Because it is evident that drastic increase in EGF blood plasma level is not necessary, other factor should be suspected to play the major role, i.e the substance that will (or will not) withstand neoplasia.

  10. Growth activity of epidermal cells from different parts of human body.

    PubMed

    Chai, Jia-ke; Sheng, Zhi-yong; Ma, Zhong-feng; Yang, Hong-ming; Liu, Qiang; Liang, Li-ming

    2007-08-20

    Most epidermal cells used in skin tissue engineering are obtained from the skins of fetuses or prepuces, which can not be widely used in culturing and transplanting autologous epidermis for patients with extensive burn wounds. To solve the problem, in this study, we cultured epidermal cells from different parts of human body in vitro, and detected their growth activity. Normal epidermal cells obtained from the prepuce, scalp, and axilla of male patients, were cultured and passaged. Their growth characteristics including adherent rate and growth activity were compared. Data were analyzed by homogeneity test of variance. In primary culture, the growth of epidermal cells from the prepuce was significantly faster than that of the epidermal cells from the scalp and axilla. In the cells obtained from the prepuce, 80% confluence was achieved on day 12, while on day 16 and day 20 in the cells from the scalp and axilla, respectively. However, no significant difference was detected in their growth and proliferation in the second passage. Although the growth of epidermal cells obtained from the scalp and axilla is slower than that from the prepuce in primary culture, stable cell line can be established and used in preparation of auto-epidermal grafts for patients with extensive burn wounds. Therefore, the scalp and axillary skin should be considered as important sources of epidermal cells other than the prepuce.

  11. Combining chemotherapy with epidermal growth factor receptor inhibition in advanced non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Linda; Loong, Herbert

    2012-01-01

    Treatment of advanced stage lung cancer is changing rapidly. With the new found knowledge on molecular targets such as the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), effective therapy is now available in a selected population with the target mutation. Single-agent epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI) is a standard first-line therapy for patients with activating-EGFR mutation such as base-pair deletion in exon 19 or point mutation at exon 21. At the same time, this class of drugs may be combined with chemotherapy. Studies on the concurrent combination of chemotherapy and EGFR-TKI confirmed a lack of efficacy. A phase II study on sequential intercalated combination has demonstrated an improvement in progression-free survival (PFS), but this needs to be validated by the ongoing phase III study. The third approach is to combine EGFR-TKI as maintenance therapy after tumour response or stable disease to cytotoxic chemotherapy. Two phase III studies have shown improvement in PFS, but the use of biomarkers for the selection of maintenance therapy remains debatable. Cetuximab is a monoclonal antibody against EGFR and its combination with chemotherapy was shown to improve overall survival in an unselected population. A new biomarker using the H-score will help to select patients for this combination. PMID:22754591

  12. Epidermal homeostasis: the role of the growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor systems.

    PubMed

    Edmondson, Stephanie R; Thumiger, Susan P; Werther, George A; Wraight, Christopher J

    2003-12-01

    GH and IGF-I and -II were first identified by their endocrine activity. Specifically, IGF-I was found to mediate the linear growth-promoting actions of GH. It is now evident that these two growth factor systems also exert widespread activity throughout the body and that their actions are not always interconnected. The literature highlights the importance of the GH and IGF systems in normal skin homeostasis, including dermal/epidermal cross-talk. GH activity, sometimes mediated via IGF-I, is primarily evident in the dermis, particularly affecting collagen synthesis. In contrast, IGF action is an important feature of the dermal and epidermal compartments, predominantly enhancing cell proliferation, survival, and migration. The locally expressed IGF binding proteins play significant and complex roles, primarily via modulation of IGF actions. Disturbances in GH and IGF signaling pathways are implicated in the pathophysiology of several skin perturbations, particularly those exhibiting epidermal hyperplasia (e.g., psoriasis, carcinomas). Additionally, many studies emphasize the potential use of both growth factors in the treatment of skin wounds; for example, burn patients. This overview concerns the role and mechanisms of action of the GH and IGF systems in skin and maintenance of epidermal integrity in both health and disease.

  13. Transgenic Soybean Production of Bioactive Human Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF)

    PubMed Central

    He, Yonghua; Schmidt, Monica A.; Erwin, Christopher; Guo, Jun; Sun, Raphael; Pendarvis, Ken; Warner, Brad W.; Herman, Eliot M.

    2016-01-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a devastating condition of premature infants that results from the gut microbiome invading immature intestinal tissues. This results in a life-threatening disease that is frequently treated with the surgical removal of diseased and dead tissues. Epidermal growth factor (EGF), typically found in bodily fluids, such as amniotic fluid, salvia and mother’s breast milk, is an intestinotrophic growth factor and may reduce the onset of NEC in premature infants. We have produced human EGF in soybean seeds to levels biologically relevant and demonstrated its comparable activity to commercially available EGF. Transgenic soybean seeds expressing a seed-specific codon optimized gene encoding of the human EGF protein with an added ER signal tag at the N’ terminal were produced. Seven independent lines were grown to homozygous and found to accumulate a range of 6.7 +/- 3.1 to 129.0 +/- 36.7 μg EGF/g of dry soybean seed. Proteomic and immunoblot analysis indicates that the inserted EGF is the same as the human EGF protein. Phosphorylation and immunohistochemical assays on the EGF receptor in HeLa cells indicate the EGF protein produced in soybean seed is bioactive and comparable to commercially available human EGF. This work demonstrates the feasibility of using soybean seeds as a biofactory to produce therapeutic agents in a soymilk delivery platform. PMID:27314851

  14. Aqueous stability of human epidermal growth factor 1-48.

    PubMed

    Senderoff, R I; Wootton, S C; Boctor, A M; Chen, T M; Giordani, A B; Julian, T N; Radebaugh, G W

    1994-12-01

    Human epidermal growth factor 1-48 (hEGF 1-48, Des(49-53)hEGF) is a single chain polypeptide (48 amino acids; 3 disulfide bonds; 5445 Da) possessing a broad spectrum of biologic activity including the stimulation of cell proliferation and tissue growth. In this study, three primary aqueous degradation products of hEGF 1-48 were isolated using isocratic, reverse phase/ion-pair HPLC. The degradation products were characterized using amino acid sequencing, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, isoelectric focusing, and degradation kinetics. Results indicate that hEGF 1-48 degrades via oxidation (Met21), deamidation (Asn1), and succinimide formation (Asp11). The relative contribution of each degradation pathway to the overall stability of hEGF 1-48 changes as a function of solution pH and storage condition. Succinimide formation at Asp11 is favored at pH < 6 in which aspartic acid is present mostly in its protonated form. Deamidation of Asn1 is favored at pH > 6. The relative contribution of Met21 oxidation is increased with decreasing temperature, storage as a frozen solution (-20 degrees C), and exposure to fluorescent light.

  15. Polychlorinated Biphenyls Disrupt Hepatic Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Signaling.

    PubMed

    Hardesty, Josiah E; Wahlang, Banrida; Falkner, K Cameron; Clair, Heather B; Clark, Barbara J; Ceresa, Brian P; Prough, Russell A; Cave, Matthew C

    2016-07-26

    1. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent environmental pollutants that disrupt hepatic xenobiotic and intermediary metabolism, leading to metabolic syndrome and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). 2. Since phenobarbital indirectly activates Constitutive Androstane Receptor (CAR) by antagonizing growth factor binding to the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), we hypothesised that PCBs may also diminish EGFR signaling. 3. The effects of the PCB mixture Aroclor 1260 on the protein phosphorylation cascade triggered by EGFR activation were determined in murine (in vitro and in vivo) and human models (in vitro). EGFR tyrosine residue phosphorylation was decreased by PCBs in all models tested. 4. The IC50 values for Aroclor 1260 concentrations that decreased Y1173 phosphorylation of EGFR were similar in murine AML-12 and human HepG2 cells (∼2-4 μg/mL). Both dioxin and non-dioxin-like PCB congeners decreased EGFR phosphorylation in cell culture. 5. PCB treatment reduced phosphorylation of downstream EGFR effectors including Akt and mTOR, as well as other phosphoprotein targets including STAT3 and c-RAF in vivo. 6. PCBs diminish EGFR signaling in human and murine hepatocyte models and may dysregulate critical phosphoprotein regulators of energy metabolism and nutrition, providing a new mechanism of action in environmental diseases.

  16. Epidermal growth factor and its receptors in human pancreatic carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Y.F.; Pan, G.Z.; Hou, X.; Liu, T.H.; Chen, J.; Yanaihara, C.; Yanaihara, N. )

    1990-05-01

    The role of epidermal growth factor (EGF) in oncogenesis and progression of malignant tumors is a subject of vast interest. In this study, radioimmunoassay and radioreceptor assay of EGF were established. EGF contents in malignant and benign pancreatic tumors, in normal pancreas tissue, and in culture media of a human pancreatic carcinoma cell line were determined. EGF receptor binding studies were performed. It was shown that EGF contents in pancreatic carcinomas were significantly higher than those in normal pancreas or benign pancreatic tumors. EGF was also detected in the culture medium of a pancreatic carcinoma cell line. The binding of 125I-EGF to the pancreatic carcinoma cells was time and temperature dependent, reversible, competitive, and specific. Scatchard analysis showed that the dissociation constant of EGF receptor was 2.1 X 10(-9) M, number of binding sites was 1.3 X 10(5) cell. These results indicate that there is an over-expression of EGF/EGF receptors in pancreatic carcinomas, and that an autocrine regulatory mechanism may exist in the growth-promoting effect of EGF on tumor cells.

  17. Epidermal growth factor receptor activation in developing rat kidney.

    PubMed

    Cybulsky, A V; Goodyer, P R; McTavish, A J

    1994-09-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) binding increases in late-gestational rat kidney and then falls toward basal adult levels postnatally during the 1st wk. We report that the increase in EGF binding is accompanied by an increase in EGF receptor (EGFR) protein and activation of EGFR tyrosine kinase. Multiple proteins were endogenously tyrosine phosphorylated in kidney membranes from fetal rats, and the phosphorylation pattern was similar in rats ranging from 16 to 21 days of gestation. Tyrosine phosphorylation was, however, almost undetectable in 12-wk adult rat kidneys (controls). Among the phosphoproteins in fetal kidney, a prominent 170-kDa protein was identified as EGFR. Endogenous tyrosine phosphorylation of EGFR (reflecting receptor activation) was 30-fold higher in fetal kidney membranes than in adult (3- to 7-fold higher when adjusted for differences in EGF binding or EGFR protein content). The EGFR substrate, phospholipase C-gamma 1, was tyrosine phosphorylated in fetal kidneys but not adult, and a greater proportion was membrane-associated in fetal kidneys, consistent with activation of phospholipase C-gamma 1. Thus EGFR tyrosine kinase activity is increased in late-gestational rat kidney. Induction and activation of EGFR may mediate perinatal renal cell growth and development.

  18. Anti-Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Gene Therapy for Glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Hicks, Martin J.; Chiuchiolo, Maria J.; Ballon, Douglas; Dyke, Jonathan P.; Aronowitz, Eric; Funato, Kosuke; Tabar, Viviane; Havlicek, David; Fan, Fan; Sondhi, Dolan; Kaminsky, Stephen M.; Crystal, Ronald G.

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and aggressive primary intracranial brain tumor in adults with a mean survival of 14 to 15 months. Aberrant activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) plays a significant role in GBM progression, with amplification or overexpression of EGFR in 60% of GBM tumors. To target EGFR expressed by GBM, we have developed a strategy to deliver the coding sequence for cetuximab, an anti-EGFR antibody, directly to the CNS using an adeno-associated virus serotype rh.10 gene transfer vector. The data demonstrates that single, local delivery of an anti-EGFR antibody by an AAVrh.10 vector coding for cetuximab (AAVrh.10Cetmab) reduces GBM tumor growth and increases survival in xenograft mouse models of a human GBM EGFR-expressing cell line and patient-derived GBM. AAVrh10.CetMab-treated mice displayed a reduction in cachexia, a significant decrease in tumor volume and a prolonged survival following therapy. Adeno-associated-directed delivery of a gene encoding a therapeutic anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody may be an effective strategy to treat GBM. PMID:27711187

  19. Trophic action of epidermal growth factor on the pancreas and gastroduodenal mucosa in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Dembiński, A; Gregory, H; Konturek, S J; Polański, M

    1982-01-01

    1. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) infused subcutaneously in a dose of 10 micrograms/kg . h but not 1 microgram/kg . h inhibited spontaneous gastric acid and pepsin secretion, whereas when given intragastrically in a dose of 10 micrograms/kg . h it failed to affect this secretion. 2. EGF injected intraperitoneally at 8 h intervals for 24 h significantly stimulated DNA synthesis in the gastroduodenal mucosa and the pancreas, whereas when administered intragastrically it stimulated DNA synthesis only in the gastroduodenal mucosa but not in the pancreas. 3. Chronic parenteral administration of EGF significantly increased the DNA and RNA contents of the gastroduodenal mucosa and the pancreas. 4. This study demonstrates that parenteral EGF is a potent inhibitor of gastric secretion and trophic agent for the gastroduodenal mucosa and pancreas, and that the gastric inhibitory and trophic effects of EGF are the results of two separate mechanisms. PMID:6180163

  20. Epidermal growth factor receptor endocytic traffic perturbation by phosphatidate phosphohydrolase inhibition: new strategy against cancer.

    PubMed

    Shaughnessy, Ronan; Retamal, Claudio; Oyanadel, Claudia; Norambuena, Andrés; López, Alejandro; Bravo-Zehnder, Marcela; Montecino, Fabian J; Metz, Claudia; Soza, Andrea; González, Alfonso

    2014-05-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) exaggerated (oncogenic) function is currently targeted in cancer treatment with drugs that block receptor ligand binding or tyrosine kinase activity. Because endocytic trafficking is a crucial regulator of EGFR function, its pharmacological perturbation might provide a new anti-tumoral strategy. Inhibition of phosphatidic acid (PA) phosphohydrolase (PAP) activity has been shown to trigger PA signaling towards type 4 phosphodiesterase (PDE4) activation and protein kinase A inhibition, leading to internalization of empty/inactive EGFR. Here, we used propranolol, its l- and d- isomers and desipramine as PAP inhibitors to further explore the effects of PAP inhibition on EGFR endocytic trafficking and its consequences on EGFR-dependent cancer cell line models. PAP inhibition not only made EGFR inaccessible to stimuli but also prolonged the signaling lifetime of ligand-activated EGFR in recycling endosomes. Strikingly, such endocytic perturbations applied in acute/intermittent PAP inhibitor treatments selectively impaired cell proliferation/viability sustained by an exaggerated EGFR function. Phospholipase D inhibition with FIPI (5-fluoro-2-indolyl des-chlorohalopemide) and PDE4 inhibition with rolipram abrogated both the anti-tumoral and endocytic effects of PAP inhibition. Prolonged treatments with a low concentration of PAP inhibitors, although without detectable endocytic effects, still counteracted cell proliferation, induced apoptosis and decreased anchorage-independent growth of cells bearing EGFR oncogenic influences. Overall, our results show that PAP inhibitors can counteract EGFR oncogenic traits, including receptor overexpression or activating mutations resistant to current tyrosine kinase inhibitors, perturbing EGFR endocytic trafficking and perhaps other as yet unknown processes, depending on treatment conditions. This puts PAP activity forward as a new suitable target against EGFR-driven malignancy.

  1. Epidermal growth factor receptor and KRAS mutations in Brazilian lung cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Bacchi, Carlos E.; Ciol, Heloísa; Queiroga, Eduardo M.; Benine, Lucimara C.; Silva, Luciana H.; Ojopi, Elida B.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Epidermal growth factor receptor is involved in the pathogenesis of non-small cell lung cancer and has recently emerged as an important target for molecular therapeutics. The KRAS oncogene also plays an important role in the development of lung cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of epidermal growth factor receptor and KRAS mutations in a population of Brazilian patients with non-small cell lung cancer. METHODS: A total of 207 specimens from Brazilian patients with non-small cell lung cancer were analyzed for activating epidermal growth factor receptor and KRAS somatic mutations, and their associations with clinicopathological characteristics (including age, gender, ethnicity, smoking habits, and histological subtype) were examined. RESULTS: We identified 63 cases (30.4%) with epidermal growth factor receptor mutations and 30 cases (14.6%) with KRAS mutations. The most frequent epidermal growth factor receptor mutation we detected was a deletion in exon 19 (60.3%, 38 patients), followed by an L858R amino acid substitution in exon 21 (27%, 17 patients). The most common types of KRAS mutations were found in codon 12. There were no significant differences in epidermal growth factor receptor or KRAS mutations by gender or primary versus metastatic lung cancer. There was a higher prevalence of KRAS mutations in the non-Asian patients. Epidermal growth factor receptor mutations were more prevalent in adenocarcinomas than in non-adenocarcinoma histological types. Being a non-smoker was significantly associated with the prevalence of epidermal growth factor receptor mutations, but the prevalence of KRAS mutations was significantly associated with smoking. CONCLUSIONS: This study is the first to examine the prevalence of epidermal growth factor receptor and KRAS mutations in a Brazilian population sample with non-small cell lung cancer. PMID:22666783

  2. Development of an Epidermal Growth Factor Derivative with EGFR Blocking Activity

    PubMed Central

    Panosa, Clara; Tebar, Francesc; Ferrer-Batallé, Montserrat; Fonge, Humphrey; Seno, Masaharu; Reilly, Raymond M.; Massaguer, Anna; De Llorens, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    The members of the epidermal growth factor (EGF)/ErbB family are prime targets for cancer therapy. However, the therapeutic efficiency of the existing anti-ErbB agents is limited. Thus, identifying new molecules that inactivate the ErbB receptors through novel strategies is an important goal on cancer research. In this study we have developed a shorter form of human EGF (EGFt) with a truncated C-terminal as a novel EGFR inhibitor. EGFt was designed based on the superimposition of the three-dimensional structures of EGF and the Potato Carboxypeptidase Inhibitor (PCI), an EGFR blocker previously described by our group. The peptide was produced in E. coli with a high yield of the correctly folded peptide. EGFt showed specificity and high affinity for EGFR but induced poor EGFR homodimerization and phosphorylation. Interestingly, EGFt promoted EGFR internalization and translocation to the cell nucleus although it did not stimulate the cell growth. In addition, EGFt competed with EGFR native ligands, inhibiting the proliferation of cancer cells. These data indicate that EGFt may be a potential EGFR blocker for cancer therapy. In addition, the lack of EGFR-mediated growth-stimulatory activity makes EGFt an excellent delivery agent to target toxins to tumours over-expressing EGFR. PMID:23935985

  3. Bovine milk inhibits proteolytic degradation of epidermal growth factor in human gastric and duodenal lumen.

    PubMed

    Rao, R K; Baker, R D; Baker, S S

    1998-01-01

    Degradation of epidermal growth factor (EGF) in human gastric and duodenal lumen was analyzed by incubating 125I-labeled or unlabeled human recombinant EGF with human gastric or duodenal luminal fluids in vitro. Degradation of EGF was assessed by measuring the generation of acid soluble radioactivity or by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Incubation with gastric luminal fluids resulted in a time- and dose-dependent degradation of labeled and unlabeled EGF at pH 2.5 but not at pH 7.5. Duodenal luminal fluids, on the other hand, degraded EGF at pH 7.5 but not at pH 2.5. The rate of degradation of unlabeled EGF in gastric luminal fluids was nearly 12-fold higher than the rate of degradation of labeled EGF, whereas only a slight difference in rates of degradation of labeled and unlabeled EGF was observed in duodenal luminal fluids. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis detected three major degradation products that eluted with retention time of 17.5 min, 20.0 min, and 22.5 min that was associated with a reduction of intact EGF (retention time 23.5 min). Defatted and decaseinated supernatant of bovine milk effectively inhibited the degradation of EGF in both gastric and duodenal luminal fluids. Dietary derived protease inhibitors, such as soya bean trypsin inhibitor, lima bean trypsin inhibitor, egg white protease inhibitor, and Bowman-Birk protease inhibitor prevented EGF degradation in duodenal luminal fluids but failed to inhibit EGF degradation in gastric luminal fluids. These results suggest that bovine milk may contain specific inhibitors that protect EGF from proteolytic degradation in human gastric lumen.

  4. Protein Expression Signatures for Inhibition of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor-mediated Signaling*

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Matthew V.; Manning, H. Charles; Coffey, Robert J.; Liebler, Daniel C.

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of cellular signaling networks typically involves targeted measurements of phosphorylated protein intermediates. However, phosphoproteomic analyses usually require affinity enrichment of phosphopeptides and can be complicated by artifactual changes in phosphorylation caused by uncontrolled preanalytical variables, particularly in the analysis of tissue specimens. We asked whether changes in protein expression, which are more stable and easily analyzed, could reflect network stimulation and inhibition. We employed this approach to analyze stimulation and inhibition of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) by EGF and selective EGFR inhibitors. Shotgun analysis of proteomes from proliferating A431 cells, EGF-stimulated cells, and cells co-treated with the EGFR inhibitors cetuximab or gefitinib identified groups of differentially expressed proteins. Comparisons of these protein groups identified 13 proteins whose EGF-induced expression changes were reversed by both EGFR inhibitors. Targeted multiple reaction monitoring analysis verified differential expression of 12 of these proteins, which comprise a candidate EGFR inhibition signature. We then tested these 12 proteins by multiple reaction monitoring analysis in three other models: 1) a comparison of DiFi (EGFR inhibitor-sensitive) and HCT116 (EGFR-insensitive) cell lines, 2) in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded mouse xenograft DiFi and HCT116 tumors, and 3) in tissue biopsies from a patient with the gastric hyperproliferative disorder Ménétrier's disease who was treated with cetuximab. Of the proteins in the candidate signature, a core group, including c-Jun, Jagged-1, and Claudin 4, were decreased by EGFR inhibitors in all three models. Although the goal of these studies was not to validate a clinically useful EGFR inhibition signature, the results confirm the hypothesis that clinically used EGFR inhibitors generate characteristic protein expression changes. This work further outlines a prototypical

  5. Modeling the epidermal growth factor -- epidermal growth factor receptor l2 domain interaction: implications for the ligand binding process.

    PubMed

    Jorissen, Robert N; Treutlein, Herbert R; Epa, V Chandana; Burgess, Antony W

    2002-06-01

    Signaling from the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor is triggered by the binding of ligands such as EGF or transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-alpha) and subsequent receptor dimerization. An understanding of these processes has been hindered by the lack of structural information about the ligand-bound, dimerized EGF receptor. Using an NMR-derived structure of EGF and a homology model of the major ligand binding domain of the EGF receptor and experimental data, we modeled the binding of EGF to this EGF receptor fragment. In this low resolution model of the complex, EGF sits across the second face of the EGF receptor L2 domain and EGF residues 10-16, 36-37, 40-47 bind to this face. The structural model is largely consistent with previously published NMR data describing the residues of TGF-alpha which interact strongly with the EGF receptor. Other EGF residues implicated in receptor binding are accounted by our proposal that the ligand binding is a two-step process with the EGF binding to at least one other site of the receptor. This three-dimensional model is expected to be useful in the design of ligand-based antagonists of the receptor.

  6. Saccharin and cyclamate inhibit binding of epidermal growth factor.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, L S

    1981-01-01

    The binding of 125I-labeled mouse epidermal growth factor (EGF) to 18 cell lines, including HeLa (human carcinoma), MDCK (dog kidney cells), HTC (rat hepatoma), K22 (rat liver), HF (human foreskin), GM17 (human skin fibroblasts), XP (human xeroderma pigmentosum fibroblasts), and 3T3-L1 (mouse fibroblasts), was inhibited by saccharin and cyclamate. The human cells were more sensitive to inhibition by these sweeteners than mouse or rat cells. EGF at doses far above the physiological levels reversed the inhibition in rodent cells but not in HeLa cells. In HeLa cells, the doses of saccharin and cyclamate needed for 50% inhibition were 3.5 and 9.3 mg/ml, respectively. Glucose, 2-deoxyglucose, sucrose, and xylitol did not inhibit EGF binding. Previous studies have shown that phorbol esters, strongly potent tumor promoters, also inhibit EGF binding to tissue culture cells. To explain the EGF binding inhibition by such greatly dissimilar molecules as phorbol esters, saccharin, and cyclamate, it is suggested that they operate through the activation of a hormone response control unit. PMID:6262753

  7. Epidermal growth factor deficiency associated with diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed Central

    Kasayama, S; Ohba, Y; Oka, T

    1989-01-01

    The production of epidermal growth factor (EGF) in the submandibular gland and its circulating level were studied in diabetic mice. In genetically diabetic (C57BL/KsJ db/db) mice, EGF concentrations in the submandibular gland and plasma were reduced to 13% and 30% of the control levels, respectively. In streptozotocin-treated diabetic mice, they were reduced to 18% and 20% of controls, respectively, 5 weeks after the drug injection. Furthermore, levels of submandibular prepro-EGF mRNA in these diabetic mice were decreased almost in parallel with the glandular EGF concentrations, while there was no change in the levels of submandibular beta-actin mRNA and kidney prepro-EGF mRNA. In addition, histological examination of the submandibular glands indicated that the size of the granular convoluted tubules, which produce EGF, was substantially reduced in the diabetic mice. Insulin administration to streptozotocin-treated mice almost completely reversed the decrease in EGF content in the submandibular gland, substantially elevated the level of the glandular prepro-EGF mRNA and plasma EGF concentration, and increased the size of the granular convoluted tubules in the gland. These results indicate that EGF deficiency occurs in diabetes mellitus and that insulin may be important in maintaining the normal level of EGF in the submandibular gland and plasma. Images PMID:2477846

  8. Intranasal epidermal growth factor treatment rescues neonatal brain injury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scafidi, Joseph; Hammond, Timothy R.; Scafidi, Susanna; Ritter, Jonathan; Jablonska, Beata; Roncal, Maria; Szigeti-Buck, Klara; Coman, Daniel; Huang, Yuegao; McCarter, Robert J.; Hyder, Fahmeed; Horvath, Tamas L.; Gallo, Vittorio

    2014-02-01

    There are no clinically relevant treatments available that improve function in the growing population of very preterm infants (less than 32 weeks' gestation) with neonatal brain injury. Diffuse white matter injury (DWMI) is a common finding in these children and results in chronic neurodevelopmental impairments. As shown recently, failure in oligodendrocyte progenitor cell maturation contributes to DWMI. We demonstrated previously that the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has an important role in oligodendrocyte development. Here we examine whether enhanced EGFR signalling stimulates the endogenous response of EGFR-expressing progenitor cells during a critical period after brain injury, and promotes cellular and behavioural recovery in the developing brain. Using an established mouse model of very preterm brain injury, we demonstrate that selective overexpression of human EGFR in oligodendrocyte lineage cells or the administration of intranasal heparin-binding EGF immediately after injury decreases oligodendroglia death, enhances generation of new oligodendrocytes from progenitor cells and promotes functional recovery. Furthermore, these interventions diminish ultrastructural abnormalities and alleviate behavioural deficits on white-matter-specific paradigms. Inhibition of EGFR signalling with a molecularly targeted agent used for cancer therapy demonstrates that EGFR activation is an important contributor to oligodendrocyte regeneration and functional recovery after DWMI. Thus, our study provides direct evidence that targeting EGFR in oligodendrocyte progenitor cells at a specific time after injury is clinically feasible and potentially applicable to the treatment of premature children with white matter injury.

  9. The ontogeny of epidermal growth factor receptors during mouse development

    SciTech Connect

    Adamson, E.D.; Meek, J.

    1984-05-01

    In an attempt to understand the role(s) of epidermal growth factor (EGF) in vivo during murine development, we have examined the /sup 125/I-EGF binding characteristics of EGF-receptors in membrane preparations of tissues from the 12th day of gestation to parturition. Using autoradiography, the earliest time that we could detect EGF-receptors was on trophoblast cells cultured for 3 days as blastocyst outgrowths. Trophoblast eventually forms a large portion of the placenta, where EGF-receptors have long been recognized. We measured the number and affinity of EGF-receptors on tissues dissected from conceptuses from the 12th day of gestation in order to identify a stage when tissues may be most sensitive to EGF. Whereas the number of EGF receptors increases during gestation for all tissues examined, the affinity of the receptors declines for carcass and placenta and remains relatively unchanged for brain and liver. This suggests that EGF may function differently throughout development. Our hypothesis is that EGF (or its embryonic equivalent) initially stimulates proliferation in embryonic cells and then stimulates differentiation as the tissues mature. In the adult, its main role could be to stimulate tissue repair after damage.

  10. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Cell Survival Signaling Requires Phosphatidylcholine Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Crook, Matt; Upadhyay, Awani; Ido, Liyana J.; Hanna-Rose, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    Identification of pro-cell survival signaling pathways has implications for cancer, cardiovascular, and neurodegenerative disease. We show that the Caenorhabditis elegans epidermal growth factor receptor LET-23 (LET-23 EGFR) has a prosurvival function in counteracting excitotoxicity, and we identify novel molecular players required for this prosurvival signaling. uv1 sensory cells in the C. elegans uterus undergo excitotoxic death in response to activation of the OSM-9/OCR-4 TRPV channel by the endogenous agonist nicotinamide. Activation of LET-23 EGFR can effectively prevent this excitotoxic death. We investigate the roles of signaling pathways known to act downstream of LET-23 EGFR in C. elegans and find that the LET-60 Ras/MAPK pathway, but not the IP3 receptor pathway, is required for efficient LET-23 EGFR activity in its prosurvival function. However, activation of LET-60 Ras/MAPK pathway does not appear to be sufficient to fully mimic LET-23 EGFR activity. We screen for genes that are required for EGFR prosurvival function and uncover a role for phosphatidylcholine biosynthetic enzymes in EGFR prosurvival function. Finally, we show that exogenous application of phosphatidylcholine is sufficient to prevent some deaths in this excitotoxicity model. Our work implicates regulation of lipid synthesis downstream of EGFR in cell survival and death decisions. PMID:27605519

  11. Saccharin and Cyclamate Inhibit Binding of Epidermal Growth Factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, L. S.

    1981-02-01

    The binding of 125I-labeled mouse epidermal growth factor (EGF) to 18 cell lines, including HeLa (human carcinoma), MDCK (dog kidney cells), HTC (rat hepatoma), K22 (rat liver), HF (human foreskin), GM17 (human skin fibroblasts), XP (human xeroderma pigmentosum fibroblasts), and 3T3-L1 (mouse fibroblasts), was inhibited by saccharin and cyclamate. The human cells were more sensitive to inhibition by these sweeteners than mouse or rat cells. EGF at doses far above the physiological levels reversed the inhibition in rodent cells but not in HeLa cells. In HeLa cells, the doses of saccharin and cyclamate needed for 50% inhibition were 3.5 and 9.3 mg/ml, respectively. Glucose, 2-deoxyglucose, sucrose, and xylitol did not inhibit EGF binding. Previous studies have shown that phorbol esters, strongly potent tumor promoters, also inhibit EGF binding to tissue culture cells. To explain the EGF binding inhibition by such greatly dissimilar molecules as phorbol esters, saccharin, and cyclamate, it is suggested that they operate through the activation of a hormone response control unit.

  12. Epidermal Growth Factor Regulates Hematopoietic Regeneration Following Radiation Injury

    PubMed Central

    Doan, Phuong L.; Himburg, Heather A.; Helms, Katherine; Russell, J. Lauren; Fixsen, Emma; Quarmyne, Mamle; Harris, Jeffrey R.; Deoliviera, Divino; Sullivan, Julie M.; Chao, Nelson J.; Kirsch, David G.; Chute, John P.

    2013-01-01

    The mechanisms which regulate HSC regeneration following myelosuppressive injury are not well understood. We identified epidermal growth factor (EGF) to be highly enriched in the bone marrow (BM) serum of mice bearing deletion of Bak and Bax in Tie2+ cells (Tie2Cre;Bak1−/−;Baxfl/− mice), which displayed radioprotection of the HSC pool and 100% survival following lethal dose total body irradiation (TBI). BM HSCs from wild type mice expressed functional EGFR and systemic administration of EGF promoted the recovery of the HSC pool in vivo and the improved survival of mice following TBI. Conversely, administration of erlotinib, an EGFR antagonist, significantly decreased both HSC regeneration and mice survival following TBI. VavCre;EGFRfl/+ mice also demonstrated delayed recovery of BM stem/progenitor cells following TBI compared to VavCre;EGFR+/+ mice. Mechanistically, EGF reduced radiation-induced apoptosis of HSCs and mediated this effect via repression of the proapoptotic protein, PUMA. EGFR signaling regulates HSC regeneration following myelosuppressive injury. PMID:23377280

  13. Epidermal growth factor prevents prepartum luteolysis in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, M. L.; Aisemberg, J.; Billi, S.; Farina, M. G.; Meiss, R.; McCann, S.; Rettori, V.; Villalón, M.; Franchi, A. M.

    2005-01-01

    We have previously reported that intrauterine (i/u) administration of epidermal growth factor (EGF 500 ng) on day (d) 21 of pregnancy delayed 19.0 ± 0.6 h the onset of labor. Progesterone (P) is secreted by ovarian corpora lutea (CL) throughout gestation in the rat. Prepartum CL regression due to increased uterine cyclooxygenase I and prostaglandin F2α results in P withdrawal followed by labor. The aims of the present work were (i) to study whether EGF delayed-onset of labor was mediated by a mechanism that prevented CL regression; (ii) to determine amniotic fluid (AF) EGF in pregnant rats. Rats on d21 of pregnancy received i/u EGF (500 ng) and were killed 0, 4, 8, 12, 24, and 48 h later. Control AF from rats on d13 and 18–22 of pregnancy was obtained. EGF decreased uterine prostaglandin F2α synthesis 8 h after treatment. Twelve hours after EGF injection, P reached its highest serum level and uterine cyclooxygenase I expression was undetectable. CL from rats killed 8 and 12 h after EGF were similar to those from rats on d13 of pregnancy, when serum P is maximum. EGF in AF increased throughout gestation, reached a maximum on d21, and decreased before the onset of labor. We suggest that the effect of EGF on the onset of labor was mediated by an early effect on the uterus that prevented prepartum CL regression. PMID:15911754

  14. Computational modeling reveals molecular details of epidermal growth factor binding

    PubMed Central

    Mayawala, Kapil; Vlachos, Dionisios G; Edwards, Jeremy S

    2005-01-01

    Background The ErbB family of receptors are dysregulated in a number of cancers, and the signaling pathway of this receptor family is a critical target for several anti-cancer drugs. Therefore a detailed understanding of the mechanisms of receptor activation is critical. However, despite a plethora of biochemical studies and recent single particle tracking experiments, the early molecular mechanisms involving epidermal growth factor (EGF) binding and EGF receptor (EGFR) dimerization are not as well understood. Herein, we describe a spatially distributed Monte Carlo based simulation framework to enable the simulation of in vivo receptor diffusion and dimerization. Results Our simulation results are in agreement with the data from single particle tracking and biochemical experiments on EGFR. Furthermore, the simulations reveal that the sequence of receptor-receptor and ligand-receptor reaction events depends on the ligand concentration, receptor density and receptor mobility. Conclusion Our computer simulations reveal the mechanism of EGF binding on EGFR. Overall, we show that spatial simulation of receptor dynamics can be used to gain a mechanistic understanding of receptor activation which may in turn enable improved cancer treatments in the future. PMID:16318625

  15. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor in Prostate Cancer Derived Exosomes

    PubMed Central

    Kharmate, Geetanjali; Hosseini-Beheshti, Elham; Caradec, Josselin; Chin, Mei Yieng; Tomlinson Guns, Emma S.

    2016-01-01

    Exosomes proteins and microRNAs have gained much attention as diagnostic tools and biomarker potential in various malignancies including prostate cancer (PCa). However, the role of exosomes and membrane-associated receptors, particularly epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) as mediators of cell proliferation and invasion in PCa progression remains unexplored. EGFR is frequently overexpressed and has been associated with aggressive forms of PCa. While PCa cells and tissues express EGFR, it is unknown whether exosomes derived from PCa cells or PCa patient serum contains EGFR. The aim of this study was to detect and characterize EGFR in exosomes derived from PCa cells, LNCaP xenograft and PCa patient serum. Exosomes were isolated from conditioned media of different PCa cell lines; LNCaP xenograft serum as well as patient plasma/serum by differential centrifugation and ultracentrifugation on a sucrose density gradient. Exosomes were confirmed by electron microscopy, expression of exosomal markers and NanoSight™ analysis. EGFR expression was determined by western blot analysis and ELISA. This study demonstrates that exosomes may easily be derived from PCa cell lines, serum obtained from PCa xenograft bearing mice and clinical samples derived from PCa patients. Presence of exosomal EGFR in PCa patient exosomes may present a novel approach for measuring of the disease state. Our work will allow to build on this finding for future understanding of PCa exosomes and their potential role in PCa progression and as minimal invasive biomarkers for PCa. PMID:27152724

  16. Distribution and release of epidermal growth factor in man.

    PubMed Central

    Konturek, J W; Bielanski, W; Konturek, S J; Bogdal, J; Oleksy, J

    1989-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is localised in man to salivary and Brunner's glands. It is present in large concentrations in saliva and duodenal contents but the mechanisms of its release have been little studied. This study carried out on four groups of healthy subjects was designed to determine the distribution and the release of immunoreactive EGF (IR-EGF) in salivary, gastric, duodenal, and pancreatic secretions. Under basal conditions, the concentrations of IR-EGF in salivary, gastric, duodenal and pancreatic secretions were; 2.7 (0.4), 0.42 (0.12), 21 (5) and 8.5 (1.2) ng/ml, respectively. Chewing of Parafilm* significantly increased salivary but not gastric or duodenal EGF output while atropinisation led to the reduction in basal salivary and duodenal EGF output without affecting the increment in EGF release induced by chewing. Cigarette smoking caused a marked reduction in basal salivary and duodenal EGF output. Infusion of pentagastrin increased salivary and duodenal EGF output and this was blocked by the addition of somatostatin. Injection of secretin lead to an increase in pancreatic output of EGF. We conclude that in man the major sources of EGF are salivary glands, duodenum, and pancreas and that the release of EGF remains under neurohormonal control. PMID:2806986

  17. Acquired subglottic stenosis caused by methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus that produce epidermal cell differentiation inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Y; Sugai, M; Woo, M; Nishida, N; Sugimoto, T

    2001-01-01

    Local infection of the trachea in intubated neonates is one of the main risk factors for development of acquired subglottic stenosis, although its role in the pathogenesis is unclear. Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is often the cause of critical illness in neonatal patients. Two cases are reported of acquired subglottic stenosis following bacterial infection of the trachea, suggesting an association with the staphylococcal exotoxin, epidermal cell differentiation inhibitor (EDIN). EDIN-producing MRSA were isolated from purulent tracheal secretions from both infants. Acquired subglottic stenosis in both cases was probably caused by delayed wound healing as the result of EDIN inhibition of epithelial cell migration.

 PMID:11124922

  18. Oak ellagitannins suppress the phosphorylation of the epidermal growth factor receptor in human colon carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Fridrich, Diana; Glabasnia, Arne; Fritz, Jessica; Esselen, Melanie; Pahlke, Gudrun; Hofmann, Thomas; Marko, Doris

    2008-05-14

    The ellagitannins castalagin and vescalagin, and the C-glycosides grandinin and roburin E as well as ellagic acid were found to potently inhibit the growth of human colon carcinoma cells (HT29) in vitro. In a cell-free system these compounds were identified as potent inhibitors of the protein tyrosine kinase activity of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) with IC 50 values in the low nanomolar range. To address the question of whether the interference with the activity of the isolated EGFR also plays a role within intact cells, effects on the phosphorylation status of the EGFR, as a measure for its activity, were determined in HT29 cells. As exemplified for castalagin and grandinin, both the nonglycosylated and the glycosylated ellagitannins effectively suppressed EGFR phosphorylation, but only at concentrations > or =10 microM, thus, in a concentration range where growth inhibition was observed. These results indicate that the suppression of EGFR-mediated signaling might contribute to the growth inhibitory effects of these compounds present in oak-matured wines and spirits such as whiskey. In contrast, despite substantial growth inhibitory properties, ellagic acid did not significantly affect EGFR phosphorylation in HT29 cells up to 100 microM.

  19. Epidermal growth factor-stimulated protein phosphorylation in rat hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Connelly, P.A.; Sisk, R.B.; Johnson, R.M.; Garrison, J.C.

    1987-05-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) causes a 6-fold increase in the phosphorylation state of a cytosolic protein (pp36, M/sub r/ = 36,000, pI = 5.5) in hepatocytes isolated from fasted, male, Wistar rats. Stimulation of /sup 32/P incorporation is observed as early as 1 min following treatment of hepatocytes with EGF and is still present at 30 min after exposure to the growth factor. The phosphate incorporated into pp36 in response to EGF is located predominantly in serine but not tyrosine residues. Phosphorylation of pp36 does not occur in response to insulin or to agents which specifically activate the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (S/sub p/ -cAMPS), protein kinase C (PMA) or Ca/sup 2 +//calmodulin-dependent protein kinases (A23187) in these cells. Prior treatment of hepatocytes with the cAMP analog, S/sub p/-cAMPS, or ADP-ribosylation of N/sub i/, the inhibitory GTP-binding protein of the adenylate cyclase complex, does not prevent EGF-stimulated phosphorylation of pp36. However, as seen in other cell types, pretreatment of hepatocytes with PMA abolishes all EGF-mediated responses including phosphorylation of pp36. These results suggest that EGP specifically activates an uncharacterized, serine protein kinase in hepatocytes that is distal to the intrinsic EGF receptor tyrosine protein kinase. The rapid activation of this kinase suggests that it may play an important role in the early response of the cell to EGF.

  20. Epidermal growth factor receptor degradation: an alternative view of oncogenic pathways.

    PubMed

    Kirisits, Andreas; Pils, Dietmar; Krainer, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Positive regulation of epidermal growth factor receptor signalling is related to many human malignancies. Besides overexpression and gain of function mutations, the escape from negative regulation through an increase in epidermal growth factor receptor stability has evolved as yet another key factor contributing to enhanced receptor activity. Intensive research over the past years has provided considerable evidence concerning the molecular mechanisms which provide epidermal growth factor receptor degradation. c-Cbl mediated ubiquitination, endocytosis via clathrin-coated pits, endosomal sorting and lysosomal degradation have become well-investigated cornerstones. Recent findings on the interdependency of the endosomal sorting complexes required for transport in multivesicular body sorting, stress the topicality of receptor tyrosine kinase downregulation. Here, we review the degradation pathway of the epidermal growth factor receptor, following the receptor from ligand binding to the lysosome and illustrating different modes of oncogenic deregulation.

  1. Oncogenic fingerprint of epidermal growth factor receptor pathway and emerging epidermal growth factor receptor blockade resistance in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sobani, Zain A; Sawant, Ashwin; Jafri, Mikram; Correa, Amit Keith; Sahin, Ibrahim Halil

    2016-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has been an attractive target for treatment of epithelial cancers, including colorectal cancer (CRC). Evidence from clinical trials indicates that cetuximab and panitumumab (anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies) have clinical activity in patients with metastatic CRC. The discovery of intrinsic EGFR blockade resistance in Kirsten RAS (KRAS)-mutant patients led to the restriction of anti-EGFR antibodies to KRAS wild-type patients by Food and Drug Administration and European Medicine Agency. Studies have since focused on the evaluation of biomarkers to identify appropriate patient populations that may benefit from EGFR blockade. Accumulating evidence suggests that patients with mutations in EGFR downstream signaling pathways including KRAS, BRAF, PIK3CA and PTEN could be intrinsically resistant to EGFR blockade. Recent whole genome studies also suggest that dynamic alterations in signaling pathways downstream of EGFR leads to distinct oncogenic signatures and subclones which might have some impact on emerging resistance in KRAS wild-type patients. While anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies have a clear potential in the management of a subset of patients with metastatic CRC, further studies are warranted to uncover exact mechanisms related to acquired resistance to EGFR blockade. PMID:27777877

  2. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Overexpression as a Target for Auger Electron Radiotherapy of Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-08-01

    proportion of estrogen receptor-negative and hormone-resistant breast cancers. Our objective is to construct a human epidermal growth factor (hEGF...61 5 INTRODUCTION Overexpression of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) occurs in a high proportion of estrogen receptor-negative and...Lac Iq promotor induced by isopropyl-b- D -thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG). The DNA sequence of the final hEGF-CH1 construct was confirmed (FUi. 2). BamHJ

  3. Activation of the epidermal growth factor signalling pathway by tissue plasminogen activator in pancreas cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Hurtado, Mariano; Lozano, Juan José; Castellanos, Elisabeth; López‐Fernández, Luis A; Harshman, Keith; Martínez‐A, Carlos; Ortiz, Angel R; Thomson, Timothy M; Paciucci, Rosanna

    2007-01-01

    Background Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is the major activator of plasminogen in plasma. This serine protease is overexpressed by exocrine pancreas tumour cells, where it promotes tumour cell proliferation, growth, and invasion. Here we have explored the signalling pathways used by tPA to activate the proliferation of pancreatic cancer cells. Methods Transcriptional profiling on cDNA micro arrays was used to analyse the pattern of gene expression in response to tPA compared to the response to epidermal growth factor (EGF) and platelet derived growth factor (PDGF). Results were confirmed using different biochemical assays in which specific kinase inhibitors or RNA interference were used. Results Transcriptional profiling showed that tPA modulates the expression of a set of genes commonly regulated by EGF, but distinct from the major set of genes modulated by PDGF. This suggested that tPA and EGF share common signalling pathways, a conclusion supported by further experimental evidence. Firstly, we found that tPA induced a rapid and transient phosphorylation of the EGFR. Secondly, specific EGFR kinase inhibitors, but not PDGFR kinase inhibitors, abolished the tPA induced phosphorylation of the ERK1/2 kinases and cell proliferation. The mitogenic activity of tPA was also inhibited by siRNA depletion of EGFR, thus confirming the involvement of this receptor in tPA triggered signalling. Thirdly, we show that the signalling and mitogenic effects of tPA require its proteolytic activity, the activity of the metalloprotease‐9 and active hb‐EGF. Conclusion Our results suggest that tPA induces proliferation by triggering a proteolytic cascade that sequentially activates plasmin, metalloprotease‐9 (MMP‐9) and hb‐EGF. These events are required to activate the EGFR signalling pathway and cell proliferation. PMID:17452424

  4. Arginine vasopressin stimulates mesangial cell proliferation by activating the epidermal growth factor receptor.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, P M; Mikhailova, M; Bedolla, R; Kreisberg, J I

    2001-06-01

    The potent vasoconstrictor arginine vasopressin (AVP) is also a mitogen for mesangial cells. Treatment with AVP decreased transit time through the cell cycle. AVP-stimulated mesangial cell growth by activating both the Ras mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) cell signaling pathways. Both the selective PI3K inhibitor LY-294002 and the MAPK kinase (MEK) inhibitor PD-98059 inhibited AVP-stimulated mesangial cell proliferation. However, LY-294002 was more potent, indicating an important role for PI3K activation in AVP-stimulated mesangial cell proliferation. AVP appeared to exert its effect on MAPK and PI3K activation, as well as on cell proliferation, by activating the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF-R). Pretreatment with the tyrphostin-derived EGF-R antagonist AG-1478 inhibited mesangial cell proliferation as well as the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2 or p42/p44(MAPK)), and p70S6 kinase, a downstream effector of PI3K, providing evidence that MAPK and PI3K activation, respectively, occurred downstream of EGF-R activation. Treatment with rapamycin, an inhibitor of the p70S6 kinase activator mTOR, also resulted in growth inhibition, further suggesting the importance of the PI3K signaling pathway in AVP-induced proliferation. AVP treatment appeared to transactivate EGF-R by inducing tyrosine phosphorylation of the Ca(2+)/protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent nonreceptor tyrosine kinase, Pyk2, leading to Pyk2/c-Src association and c-Src activation. This was followed by association of c-Src with EGF-R and EGF-R activation. These data suggested that AVP-stimulated Pyk2 tyrosine phosphorylation to activate c-Src, thereby leading to EGF-R transactivation.

  5. MICAL-like1 mediates epidermal growth factor receptor endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Abou-Zeid, Nancy; Pandjaitan, Rudy; Sengmanivong, Lucie; David, Violaine; Le Pavec, Gwenaelle; Salamero, Jean; Zahraoui, Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    Small GTPase Rabs are required for membrane protein sorting/delivery to precise membrane domains. Rab13 regulates epithelial tight junction assembly and polarized membrane transport. Here we report that Molecule Interacting with CasL (MICAL)-like1 (MICAL-L1) interacts with GTP-Rab13 and shares a similar domain organization with MICAL. MICAL-L1 has a calponin homology (CH), LIM, proline rich and coiled-coil domains. It is associated with late endosomes. Time-lapse video microscopy shows that green fluorescent protein–Rab7 and mcherry-MICAL-L1 are present within vesicles that move rapidly in the cytoplasm. Depletion of MICAL-L1 by short hairpin RNA does not alter the distribution of a late endosome/lysosome-associated protein but affects the trafficking of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Overexpression of MICAL-L1 leads to the accumulation of EGFR in the late endosomal compartment. In contrast, knocking down MICAL-L1 results in the distribution of internalized EGFR in vesicles spread throughout the cytoplasm and promotes its degradation. Our data suggest that the N-terminal CH domain associates with the C-terminal Rab13 binding domain (RBD) of MICAL-L1. The binding of Rab13 to RBD disrupts the CH/RBD interaction, and may induce a conformational change in MICAL-L1, promoting its activation. Our results provide novel insights into the MICAL-L1/Rab protein complex that can regulate EGFR trafficking at late endocytic pathways. PMID:21795389

  6. [Epidermal growth factor during pregnancy- a predictor of fetal growth retardation?].

    PubMed

    Huter, O; Kölle, D; Brezinka, C; Artner-Dworzak, E

    1998-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) in urine was measured at 4-week intervals in 83 women referred for suspected intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR); 138 women with normal singleton pregnancies and newborns of normal weight served as controls. Of the 83 women, 30 delivered babies with weight below the 10th percentile after week 37. During pregnancy these women had shown significantly lower EGF levels than women who delivered normal-weight babies. However, due to the wide distribution of individual EGF data, no clear clinical cut-off point between normal and IUGR values could be established.

  7. Heparin-Binding Epidermal Growth Factor-Like Growth Factor Enhances Aquaporin 3 Expression and Function During Mouse Embryo Implantation.

    PubMed

    Fang, Chuan-Xiang; Nong, Ying-Qi; Liu, Feng-Hua; Fan, Lin; Chen, Ye

    2017-03-01

    Aquaporin 3 (AQP3) is highly expressed in peri-implantation blastocyst trophoblastic cells, indicating its role in cytotrophoblast invasion during embryo implantation. However, the mechanism underlying the regulation of AQP3 expression during embryo implantation remains unclear. In this study, an in vitro co-culture system of blastocysts on a monolayer of uterine endometrial cells was used to mimic in vivo process of embryo attachment and invasion to uterine endometrium and treated with different concentrations of heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF). The results showed that HB-EGF enhanced AQP3 expression in blastocysts in a dose-dependent manner and promoted the attachment and outgrowth of blastocysts on the monolayer of uterine endometrial cells. When the AQP3 activity was inhibited by copper sulfate, both the attachment and outgrowth of blastocysts were inhibited. Furthermore, HB-EGF induced the phosphorylation of EGF receptor (EGFR) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). PD153035 (EGFR inhibitor) and U0126 (ERK inhibitor) inhibited AQP3 expression and also the attachment and outgrowth of blastocysts. Collectively, our findings provide the first evidence that HB-EGF stimulates EGFR/ERK signaling to promote AQP3 expression in trophoblastic cells, and AQP3 plays a vital role in HB-EGF-induced embryo implantation.

  8. Nitric oxide reversibly inhibits the epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase.

    PubMed Central

    Estrada, C; Gómez, C; Martín-Nieto, J; De Frutos, T; Jiménez, A; Villalobo, A

    1997-01-01

    Although it has been demonstrated that NO inhibits the proliferation of different cell types, the mechanisms of its anti-mitotic action are not well understood. In this work we have studied the possible interaction of NO with the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), using transfected fibroblasts which overexpress the human EGFR. The NO donors S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP), 1,1-diethyl-2-hydroxy-2-nitrosohydrazine (DEA-NO) and N-¿4-[1-(3-aminopropyl)-2-hydroxy-2-nitrosohydrazino]butyl¿propane -1, 3-diamine (DETA-NO) inhibited DNA synthesis of fibroblasts growing in the presence of fetal calf serum, epidermal growth factor (EGF) or EGF plus insulin, as assessed by [methyl-3H]thymidine incorporation. Neither 8-bromo-cGMP nor the cGMP-phosphodiesterase inhibitor zaprinast mimicked this effect, suggesting that NO is unlikely to inhibit cell proliferation via a cGMP-dependent pathway. SNAP, DEA-NO and DETA-NO also inhibited the transphosphorylation of the EGFR and its tyrosine kinase activity toward the exogenous substrate poly-l-(Glu-Tyr), as measured in permeabilized cells using [gamma-32P]ATP as phosphate donor. In contrast, 3-[morpholinosydnonimine hydrochloride] (SIN-1), a peroxynitrite-forming compound, did not significantly inhibit either DNA synthesis or the EGFR tyrosine kinase activity. The inhibitory action of DEA-NO on the EGFR tyrosine kinase was prevented by haemoglobin, an NO scavenger, but not by superoxide dismutase, and was reversed by dithiothreitol. The binding of EGF to its receptor was unaffected by DEA-NO. The inhibitory action of DEA-NO on the EGF-dependent transphosphorylation of the receptor was also demonstrated in intact cells by immunoblot analysis using an anti-phosphotyrosine antibody. Taken together, these results suggest that NO, but not peroxynitrite, inhibits in a reversible manner the EGFR tyrosine kinase activity by S-nitrosylation of the receptor. PMID:9291107

  9. Phase II trial of epidermal growth factor ointment for patients with Erlotinib-related skin effects.

    PubMed

    Hwang, In Gyu; Kang, Jung Hun; Oh, Sung Yong; Lee, Suee; Kim, Sung-Hyun; Song, Ki-Hoon; Son, Choonhee; Park, Min Jae; Kang, Myung Hee; Kim, Hoon Gu; Lee, Jeeyun; Park, Young Suk; Sun, Jong Mu; Kim, Hyun Jung; Kim, Chan Kyu; Yi, Seong Yoon; Jang, Joung-Soon; Park, Keunchil; Kim, Hyo-Jin

    2016-01-01

    The efficacy of erlotinib, the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor, has been demonstrated in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and pancreatic cancer (PC). In the present study, we evaluated the effect of epidermal growth factor (EGF) ointment on erlotinib-related skin effects (ERSEs). This was an open-label, non-comparative, multicenter, phase II trial. The patients included those diagnosed with NSCLC or PC who were treated with erlotinib. The effectiveness of the ointment was defined as follows: (1) grade 2, 3, or 4 ERSEs downgraded to ≤ grade 1 or (2) grade 3 or 4 ERSEs downgraded to grade 2 and persisted for at least 2 weeks. Fifty-two patients from seven institutes in Korea were enrolled with informed consent. The final assessment included 46 patients (30 males, 16 females). According to the definition of effectiveness, the EGF ointment was effective in 36 (69.2%) intention to treat patients. There were no statistically significant differences in the effectiveness of the EGF ointment by gender (p = 0.465), age (p = 0.547), tumor type (p = 0.085), erlotinib dosage (p = 0.117), and number of prior chemotherapy sessions (p = 0.547). The grading for the average National Cancer Institute's Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (NCI-CTCAE) rating of rash/acne and itching improved from 2.02 ± 0.83 to 1.13 ± 0.89 and 1.52 ± 0.84 to 0.67 ± 0.90, respectively (p < 0.001). The most common reason for discontinuing the study was progression of cancer (37%). Based on the results, the EGF ointment is effective for ERSEs, regardless of gender, age, type of tumor, and dosage of erlotinib. The EGF ointment evenly improved all kinds of symptoms of ERSEs. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01593995.

  10. Role of epidermal growth factor receptor in lung cancer and targeted therapies

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tie-Cheng; Jin, Xin; Wang, Yan; Wang, Ke

    2017-01-01

    Lung cancer is the foremost cause of cancer-related deaths world-wide. Both, the major forms of lung cancer, Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and Small cell lung cancers (SCLC), have responded effectively to chemo-, radiation and adjuvant-therapies. Tumor removal through surgery also appeared as a good therapeutic strategy. However, these therapies demonstrated unfavourable side-effects, and hence novel drugs targeting lung cancer emerged essential. Activation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-tyrosine kinases is a key reason for lung cancer progression. Two important strategies that have attenuated lung cancers were through treatments with EGFR-tyrosine kinase-inhibitors, erlotinib and gefitinib, or EGFR-neutralizing antibodies, cetuximab and bevacizumab. A major advantage with erlotinib and gefitinib was their role in second and third-line treatments following chemotherapies. Phase II/III clinical trials showed that combinatorial treatment of tyrosine kinase (TK)-inhibitors with chemotherapeutics, such as docetaxel and pemetrexed, caused significant improvements in progression-free survival and overall survival.Phase I and II clinical studies also revealed that combination of tyrosine kinase-inhibitors with the EGFR-targeted antibodies was an effective approach for treating lung cancer. However, patients having T790M-mutations within EGFR gene were resistant to erlotinib and gefitinib. Alternatively, another second-generation EGFR-tyrosine kinase-inhibitor, afatinib, that could circumvent the problem of drug resistance has been developed as lung cancer therapy. The current review focuses on the role of EGFR in lung cancer progression and apprises about the EGFR-targeted therapies. The review also informs on the adverse side-effects of these therapies and enlightens the need for safer therapeutic regimens to eradicate this dreaded disease. PMID:28337370

  11. Targeting Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor in triple negative breast cancer: New discoveries and practical insights for drug development.

    PubMed

    Costa, Ricardo; Shah, Ami N; Santa-Maria, Cesar A; Cruz, Marcelo R; Mahalingam, Devalingam; Carneiro, Benedito A; Chae, Young Kwang; Cristofanilli, Massimo; Gradishar, William J; Giles, Francis J

    2017-02-01

    Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) accounts for 10-20% of cases in breast cancer. Despite recent advances in the treatment of hormonal receptor+ and HER2+ breast cancers, there are no targeted therapies available for TNBC. Evidence supports that most patients with TNBC express the transmembrane Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR). However, early phase clinical trials failed to demonstrate significant activity of EGFR-targeted monoclonal antibodies and/or tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Here, we review the recent discoveries related to the underlying biology of the EGFR pathway in TNBC, clinical progress to date and suggest rational future approaches for investigational therapies in TNBC.

  12. The Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Increases Cytokine Production and Cutaneous Inflammation in Response to Ultraviolet Irradiation

    PubMed Central

    El-Abaseri, Taghrid Bahig; Repertinger, Susan K.; Hansen, Laura A.

    2013-01-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is activated in cutaneous keratinocytes upon ultraviolet (UV) exposure and has been implicated in ultraviolet-(UV-)induced inflammation and skin tumorigenesis. Egfr mutant mice and EGFR inhibitors were used to investigate the hypothesis that EGFR activation augments inflammation following UV irradiation. Topical treatment of mouse skin with the EGFR inhibitor AG1478 before UV exposure suppressed UV-induced erythema, edema, mast cell infiltration, and neutrophil infiltration. Genetic ablation of Egfr and EGFR inhibition by AG1478 also suppressed the increase in the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin-1α, KC (murine IL-8), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) after UV exposure of cultured keratinocytes. Finally, genetic ablation of inhibition of EGFR in cultured keratinocytes decreased p38 activation after UV, while inhibition of p38 kinase reduced COX-2 expression after UV. These data demonstrate that EGFR regulates multiple aspects of UV-induced inflammation and suggest activation of p38 kinase leading to increased COX-2 and cytokine expression as one mechanism through which it acts. PMID:23878744

  13. Combination epidermal growth factor receptor inhibition and radical radiotherapy for NSCLC.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Susanne J; Harrington, Kevin J; Eccles, Suzanne A; Nutting, Christopher M

    2004-08-01

    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains the most common cause of cancer-related death in the developed world. Despite advances in therapy with conventional modalities, over 85% of patients will die from their disease within 5 years of diagnosis. For patients with inoperable lung cancer, the addition of chemotherapy to radical radiotherapy yields a small but significant 10% survival benefit at 3 years. However, the systemic toxicity of chemotherapy is common and may be severe. Over the past 20 years, dramatic improvements in our understanding of the molecular etiology of cancer have enabled the development of novel targeted therapies. Overexpression of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in lung cancer correlates with an aggressive disease course and poor tumor response to radiotherapy. Strategies to inhibit this molecular switch have become a focus for drug development. Preclinical efficacy has been repeatedly demonstrated with anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies and small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors, and responses have been documented in the clinic with acceptable toxicity. Phase III trials combining EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors with radical chemoradiation are recruiting at present. This review addresses the current challenges of discovering how best to use these new anticancer therapies, with particular emphasis on the enhancement of existing therapeutic strategies such as radical radiotherapy, factors relating to patient selection and prediction of clinical response.

  14. Irreversible inhibition of epidermal growth factor receptor activity by 3-aminopropanamides.

    PubMed

    Carmi, Caterina; Galvani, Elena; Vacondio, Federica; Rivara, Silvia; Lodola, Alessio; Russo, Simonetta; Aiello, Stefania; Bordi, Fabrizio; Costantino, Gabriele; Cavazzoni, Andrea; Alfieri, Roberta R; Ardizzoni, Andrea; Petronini, Pier Giorgio; Mor, Marco

    2012-03-08

    Irreversible epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors contain a reactive warhead which covalently interacts with a conserved cysteine residue in the kinase domain. The acrylamide fragment, a commonly employed warhead, effectively alkylates Cys797 of EGFR, but its reactivity can cause rapid metabolic deactivation or nonspecific reactions with off-targets. We describe here a new series of irreversible inhibitors containing a 3-aminopropanamide linked in position 6 to 4-anilinoquinazoline or 4-anilinoquinoline-3-carbonitrile driving portions. Some of these compounds proved to be as efficient as their acrylamide analogues in inhibiting EGFR-TK (TK = tyrosine kinase) autophosphorylation in A549 lung cancer cells. Moreover, several 3-aminopropanamides suppressed proliferation of gefitinib-resistant H1975 cells, harboring the T790M mutation in EGFR, at significantly lower concentrations than did gefitinib. A prototypical compound, N-(4-(3-bromoanilino)quinazolin-6-yl)-3-(dimethylamino)propanamide (5), did not show covalent binding to cell-free EGFR-TK in a fluorescence assay, while it underwent selective activation in the intracellular environment, releasing an acrylamide derivative which can react with thiol groups.

  15. Epidermal growth factor receptor and DNA double strand break repair: the cell's self-defence.

    PubMed

    Szumiel, Irena

    2006-10-01

    The purpose of this review is to discuss the relation between the repair of DNA double strand breaks (DSB)--the main lethal lesion inflicted by ionising radiation-and the function of receptors of epidermal growth factor (EGFR) and similar ligands (other members of the ERBB family). The reviewed experimental data support the assumption that in mammalian cells, one consequence of EGFR/ERBB activation by X-rays is its internalisation and nuclear translocation together with DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) subunits present in lipid rafts or cytoplasm. The effect of EGFR/ERBB stimulation on DSB rejoining would be due to an increase in the nuclear content of DNA-PK subunits and hence, in activity increase of the DNA-PK dependent non-homologous end-joining (D-NHEJ) system. Such mechanism explains the radiosensitising action of "membrane-active drugs", hypertonic media, and other agents that affect nuclear translocation of proteins. Also, one radiosensitising effect of the recently introduced into clinical practice EGFR/ERBB inhibitors would consist on counteracting the nuclear translocation of DNA-PK subunits. In result, D-NHEJ may be less active in inhibitor-treated cells and this will contribute to an enhanced lethal effect of irradiation. The reviewed observations point to a heretofore not understood mechanism of the cell's self-defence against X-rays which can be exploited in combined radio- and chemotherapy.

  16. [Targeting of epidermal growth factor receptor and applications in ORL cancer].

    PubMed

    Tortochaux, Jacques; Aunoble, Bénédicte; Rolhion, Christine; Bourhis, Jean

    2003-11-01

    EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor) is a transmembrane glycoprotein highly expressed in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Once triggered by ligands, tyrosine kinase located at their inner part is phosphorylated, initiating signal transduction pathways towards the nucleus. Two categories of EGFR inhibitors are affordable: the former group includes monoclonal antibodies whereas the latter regards tyrosine kinase inhibitors (ITK). Acting more as cytostatic than cytotoxic agents, they may potentiate both chemotherapy (CT) and radiation therapy (RT). Characterized by a spectrum of toxicity that does not overlap that of CT or RT, they may be associated with these treatments. First clinical trials have demonstrated the feasibility of their administration. Side-effects merely consist of skin reactions and digestive symptoms; their intensity is generally mild and they resolve at the completion of treatment. As of yet, response rates are sometimes astounding but are still disparate. Randomized studies are ongoing. A better definition of EGFR status is warranted. Other data regarding interactions between her-family members, ligands parameters and the cascade regulation of signal transduction would certainly enable to better define the clinical applications of this new therapeutical approach.

  17. Good clinical response to gefitinib in a non-small cell lung cancer patient harboring a rare somatic epidermal growth factor gene point mutation; codon 768 AGC > ATC in exon 20 (S768I).

    PubMed

    Masago, Katsuhiro; Fujita, Shiro; Irisa, Kaoru; Kim, Yung Hak; Ichikawa, Masataka; Mio, Tadashi; Mishima, Michiaki

    2010-11-01

    Recently, two small-molecule kinase inhibitors targeting epidermal growth factor receptor have proven effective in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer. There are specific activating mutations within the tyrosine kinase domain of epidermal growth factor receptor related to the sensitivity of tyrosine kinase inhibitors. However, it is unknown whether rare mutations in the N-lobe (exons 18-20) and the C-lobe (exon 21) of the epidermal growth factor receptor kinase domain other than L858R in exon 21 and the in-frame deletion in exon 19 may predict the effectiveness of epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors. We reported a case of non-small cell lung cancer harboring a rare epidermal growth factor somatic mutation, codon 768 AGC > ATC in exon 20 (S768I), who showed a good clinical response to gefitinib. Therefore, we may suggest that this rare mutation (S768I in exon 20) may not be an insensitive epidermal growth factor receptor somatic mutation in vivo.

  18. Rapid and delayed effects of epidermal growth factor on gluconeogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Soler, C; Soley, M

    1993-01-01

    Most reports on the effects of epidermal growth factor (EGF) on gluconeogenesis have indicated that such effects depend on the substrate used and are only observable after a lag time of 30-40 min. Recently, an immediate and transient effect of EGF on glucose synthesis was described in a perfused liver system. Here we extend the study of the effect of EGF on gluconeogenesis to isolated hepatocytes from fasted rats. The delayed effect of EGF on gluconeogenesis was studied by adding the substrate 40 min after the peptide. Under these conditions EGF increased glucose synthesis from pyruvate, decreased it when the substrate was lactate or glycerol and did not modify gluconeogensis from fructose or dihydroxyacetone. EGF did not affect the metabolic flux through glycolysis, determined as the production of lactate+pyruvate from 30 mM glucose. Furthermore, EGF did not modify the metabolic flux through pyruvate kinase, determined as the production of lactate+pyruvate from 1 mM dihydroxyacetone. The differing effects of EGF on gluconeogenesis depending on the substrate used can be explained by the effects of EGF on the cytosolic redox state (measured as the lactate/pyruvate ratio). About 20 min after the addition of EGF, the mitochondrial redox state (measured as the 3-hydroxybutyrate/acetoacetate ratio) decreased. This effect of EGF was blocked by ammonium, which also abolished the effect of the peptide on gluconeogenesis. Thus the effect of EGF at the mitochondrial level appears to be necessary for its effects on gluconeogenesis. Taken together, our results indicate that the delayed effects of EGF on gluconeogenesis are secondary to the effects of the peptide at both the mitochondrial and cytosolic levels. In addition to these delayed effects, we observed that EGF rapidly and transiently stimulated glucose synthesis from lactate, decreased the cytosolic redox state and increased oxygen consumption. All of these rapid effects required the presence of extracellular calcium

  19. In vivo analysis of Argos structure-function. Sequence requirements for inhibition of the Drosophila epidermal growth factor receptor.

    PubMed

    Howes, R; Wasserman, J D; Freeman, M

    1998-02-13

    The Drosophila Argos protein is the only known extracellular inhibitor of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). It is structurally related to the activating ligands, in that it is a secreted protein with a single epidermal growth factor (EGF) domain. To understand the mechanism of Argos inhibition, we have investigated which regions of the protein are essential. A series of deletions were made and tested in vivo; furthermore, by analyzing chimeric proteins between Argos and the activating ligand, Spitz (a transforming growth factor-alpha-like factor), we have examined what makes one inhibitory and the other activating. Our results reveal that Argos has structural requirements that differ from all known EGFR activating ligands; domains flanking the EGF domain are essential for its function. We have also defined the important regions of the atypical Argos EGF domain. The extended B-loop is necessary, whereas the C-loop can be replaced with the equivalent Spitz region without substantially affecting Argos function. Comparison of the argos genes from Drosophila melanogaster and the housefly, Musca domestica, supports our structure-function analysis. These studies are a prerequisite for understanding how Argos inhibits the Drosophila EGFR and provide a basis for designing mammalian EGFR inhibitors.

  20. Stand Up to Cancer Phase Ib Study of Pan-Phosphoinositide-3-Kinase Inhibitor Buparlisib With Letrozole in Estrogen Receptor-Positive/Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2-Negative Metastatic Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, Ingrid A.; Abramson, Vandana G.; Isakoff, Steven J.; Forero, Andres; Balko, Justin M.; Kuba, María Gabriela; Sanders, Melinda E.; Yap, Jeffrey T.; Van den Abbeele, Annick D.; Li, Yisheng; Cantley, Lewis C.; Winer, Eric; Arteaga, Carlos L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Buparlisib, an oral reversible inhibitor of all class I phosphoinositide-3-kinases, has shown antitumoral activity against estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer cell lines and xenografts, alone and with endocrine therapy. This phase Ib study evaluated buparlisib plus letrozole's safety, tolerability, and preliminary activity in patients with metastatic ER-positive breast cancer refractory to endocrine therapy. Patients and Methods Patients received letrozole and buparlisib in two different administration schedules. Outcomes were assessed by standard solid-tumor phase I methods. [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose–positron emission tomography/computed tomography ([18F]FDG-PET/CT) scans were done at baseline and 2 weeks after treatment initiation. Tumor blocks were collected for phosphoinositide-3-kinase pathway mutation analysis. Results Fifty-one patients were allocated sequentially to continuous or intermittent (five on/two off days) buparlisib administration on an every-4-week schedule. Buparlisib's maximum-tolerated dose (MTD) was 100 mg/d. Common drug-related adverse events included ≤ grade 2 hyperglycemia, nausea, fatigue, transaminitis, and mood disorders. The clinical benefit rate (lack of progression ≥ 6 months) among all patients treated at the MTD was 31%, including two objective responses in the continuous dose arm. Of seven patients remaining on treatment ≥ 12 months, three had tumors with PIK3CA hot-spot mutation. Patients exhibiting metabolic disease progression by [18F]FDG-PET/CT scan at 2 weeks progressed rapidly on therapy. Conclusion The letrozole and buparlisib combination was safe, with reversible toxicities regardless of schedule administration. Clinical activity was observed independent of PIK3CA mutation status. No metabolic response by [18F]FDG-PET/CT scan at 2 weeks was associated with rapid disease progression. Phase III trials of buparlisib and endocrine therapy in patients with ER-positive breast cancer are ongoing. PMID

  1. Stand up to cancer phase Ib study of pan-phosphoinositide-3-kinase inhibitor buparlisib with letrozole in estrogen receptor-positive/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative metastatic breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Ingrid A; Abramson, Vandana G; Isakoff, Steven J; Forero, Andres; Balko, Justin M; Kuba, María Gabriela; Sanders, Melinda E; Yap, Jeffrey T; Van den Abbeele, Annick D; Li, Yisheng; Cantley, Lewis C; Winer, Eric; Arteaga, Carlos L

    2014-04-20

    Buparlisib, an oral reversible inhibitor of all class I phosphoinositide-3-kinases, has shown antitumoral activity against estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer cell lines and xenografts, alone and with endocrine therapy. This phase Ib study evaluated buparlisib plus letrozole's safety, tolerability, and preliminary activity in patients with metastatic ER-positive breast cancer refractory to endocrine therapy. Patients received letrozole and buparlisib in two different administration schedules. Outcomes were assessed by standard solid-tumor phase I methods. [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography ([(18)F]FDG-PET/CT) scans were done at baseline and 2 weeks after treatment initiation. Tumor blocks were collected for phosphoinositide-3-kinase pathway mutation analysis. Fifty-one patients were allocated sequentially to continuous or intermittent (five on/two off days) buparlisib administration on an every-4-week schedule. Buparlisib's maximum-tolerated dose (MTD) was 100 mg/d. Common drug-related adverse events included ≤ grade 2 hyperglycemia, nausea, fatigue, transaminitis, and mood disorders. The clinical benefit rate (lack of progression ≥ 6 months) among all patients treated at the MTD was 31%, including two objective responses in the continuous dose arm. Of seven patients remaining on treatment ≥ 12 months, three had tumors with PIK3CA hot-spot mutation. Patients exhibiting metabolic disease progression by [(18)F]FDG-PET/CT scan at 2 weeks progressed rapidly on therapy. The letrozole and buparlisib combination was safe, with reversible toxicities regardless of schedule administration. Clinical activity was observed independent of PIK3CA mutation status. No metabolic response by [(18)F]FDG-PET/CT scan at 2 weeks was associated with rapid disease progression. Phase III trials of buparlisib and endocrine therapy in patients with ER-positive breast cancer are ongoing.

  2. Molecular Testing for Selection of Patients With Lung Cancer for Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor and Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors: American Society of Clinical Oncology Endorsement of the College of American Pathologists/International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer/Association for Molecular Pathology Guideline

    PubMed Central

    Leighl, Natasha B.; Rekhtman, Natasha; Biermann, William A.; Huang, James; Mino-Kenudson, Mari; Ramalingam, Suresh S.; West, Howard; Whitlock, Sara; Somerfield, Mark R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The College of American Pathologists (CAP), the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC), and the Association for Molecular Pathology (AMP) guideline on molecular testing for the selection of patients with lung cancer for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) tyrosine kinase inhibitors was considered for endorsement. Methods American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) staff reviewed the CAP/IASLC/AMP guideline for developmental rigor; an ASCO ad hoc review panel of experts reviewed the guideline content. Results The ASCO panel concurred that the recommendations are clear, thorough, and based on the most relevant scientific evidence in this content area and present options that will be acceptable to patients. The CAP/IASLC/AMP guideline comprises 37 recommendations (evidence grade A or B), expert consensus opinions, or suggestions that address the following five principal questions: (1) When should molecular testing be performed? (2) How should EGFR testing be performed? (3) How should ALK testing be performed? (4) Should other genes be routinely tested in lung adenocarcinoma? (5) How should molecular testing be implemented and operationalized? Conclusion The ASCO review panel endorses the CAP/IASLC/AMP guideline. This guideline represents an important advance toward standardization of EGFR and ALK testing practices and is of major clinical relevance in advancing the care of patients with lung cancer. In the Discussion section, the ASCO review panel highlights three evolving areas: advances in ALK testing methodology, considerations for selecting appropriate populations for molecular testing, and emergence of other targetable molecular alterations. PMID:25311215

  3. Epidermal growth factor increases coactivation of the androgen receptor in recurrent prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Christopher W; Fei, Xiaoyin; Ponguta, Liliana A; He, Bin; Bill, Heather M; French, Frank S; Wilson, Elizabeth M

    2004-02-20

    Growth of normal and neoplastic prostate is mediated by the androgen receptor (AR), a ligand-dependent transcription factor activated by high affinity androgen binding. The AR is highly expressed in recurrent prostate cancer cells that proliferate despite reduced circulating androgen. In this report, we show that epidermal growth factor (EGF) increases androgen-dependent AR transactivation in the recurrent prostate cancer cell line CWR-R1 through a mechanism that involves a post-transcriptional increase in the p160 coactivator transcriptional intermediary factor 2/glucocorticoid receptor interacting protein 1 (TIF2/GRIP1). Site-specific mutagenesis and selective MAPK inhibitors linked the EGF-induced increase in AR transactivation to phosphorylation of TIF2/GRIP1. EGF signaling increased the coimmunoprecipitation of TIF2 and AR. AR transactivation and its stimulation by EGF were reduced by small interfering RNA inhibition of TIF2/GRIP1 expression. The data indicate that EGF signaling through MAPK increases TIF2/GRIP1 coactivation of AR transactivation in recurrent prostate cancer.

  4. Radiosensitisation of U87MG brain tumours by anti-epidermal growth factor receptor monoclonal antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Diaz Miqueli, A; Rolff, J; Lemm, M; Fichtner, I; Perez, R; Montero, E

    2009-01-01

    As epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has been reported to be a radiation response modulator, HER inhibitors are regarded to act as potential radiosensitisers. Our study examined the role of nimotuzumab and cetuximab both, the two monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to EGFR, as radiosensitisers in a murine glioma model in vivo. Co-administration of both the antibodies with radiation increased the radiosensitivity of U87MG, resulting in a significant delay of subcutaneous (s.c.) tumour growth. Furthermore, the addition of antibodies to the radiation decreased brain tumour sizes and is inhibited by 40–80% the increased tumour cell invasion provoked by radiotherapy, although promoted tumour cell apoptosis. Whereas nimotuzumab led to a reduction in the size of tumour blood vessels and proliferating cells in s.c. tumours, cetuximab had no significant antiangiogenic nor antiproliferative activity. In contrast, cetuximab induced a more marked inhibition of EGFR downstream signalling compared with nimotuzumab. Moreover, both antibodies reduced the total number of radioresistant CD133+ cancer stem cells (CSCs). These results were encouraging, and showed the superiority of combined treatment of mAbs to EGFR and radiation over each single therapy against glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), confirming the role of these drugs as radiosensitisers in human GBM. In addition, we first showed the ability of mAb specifics against EGFR to target radioresistant glioma CSC, supporting the potential use in patients. PMID:19293809

  5. Cutaneous reactions to anticancer agents targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor: a dermatology-oncology perspective.

    PubMed

    Lacouture, M E; Melosky, B L

    2007-01-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is often overexpressed or dysregulated in solid tumors. Targeting the EGFR-mediated signaling pathway has become routine practice in the treatment of lung, pancreatic, head and neck, and colon carcinomas. Available agents with selected activity towards the EGFR include low molecular weight tyrosine kinase inhibitors, e.g., erlotinib (Tarceva, Genentech BioOncology/ OSI Pharmaceuticals/ F. Hoffmann-La Roche) and monoclonal antibodies, such as cetuximab (Erbitux, Bristol-Myers Squibb/ ImClone Systems/ Merck) and panitumumab (Vectibix, Amgen). Their use is anticipated to increase for treating other solid tumors that are dependent on this pathway for growth and proliferation. Health Canada and the US FDA have approved erlotinib for the treatment of advanced non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). It has also been approved in the US for use against pancreatic cancer in combination with gemcitabine (Gemzar, Eli Lilly). Cetuximab and most recently panitumumab (Vectibix, Amgen/ Abgenix) were approved by the US FDA for metastatic colorectal carcinoma. Cetuximab is also approved in the US for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. The safety profile for this class of drugs is unique, with virtually no hematological toxicity, but frequent cutaneous and gastrointestinal side-effects. Although there is a dearth of randomized trials addressing treatment of the dermatological side-effects, some basic principles of management have been agreed upon and can likely improve patient compliance and decrease inappropriate dose reduction, which may negatively influence the antitumor effect.

  6. Cell growth and differentiation in Arabidopsis epidermal cells.

    PubMed

    Guimil, Sonia; Dunand, Christophe

    2007-01-01

    Plant epidermal cells are morphologically diverse, differing in size, shape, and function. Their unique morphologies reflect the integral function each cell performs in the organ to which it belongs. Cell morphogenesis involves multiple cellular processes acting in concert to create specialized shapes. The Arabidopsis epidermis contains numerous cell types greatly differing in shape, size, and function. Work on three types of epidermal cells, namely trichomes, root hairs, and pavement cells, has made significant progress towards understanding how plant cells reach their final morphology. These three cell types have highly distinct morphologies and each has become a model cell for the study of morphological processes. A growing body of knowledge is creating a picture of how endoreduplication, cytoskeletal dynamics, vesicle transport, and small GTPase signalling, work in concert to create specialized shapes. Similar mechanisms that determine cell shape and polarity are shared between these cell types, while certain mechanisms remain specific to each.

  7. Problem-Solving Test: The Role of Ubiquitination in Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Trafficking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szeberenyi, Jozsef

    2012-01-01

    Terms to be familiar with before you start to solve the test: growth factor signaling, epidermal growth factor, tyrosine protein kinase, tyrosine phosphorylation, ubiquitin, monoubiquitination, polyubiquitination, site-directed mutagenesis, transfection, expression vector, cDNA, immunoprecipitation, SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, Western…

  8. Problem-Solving Test: The Role of Ubiquitination in Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Trafficking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szeberenyi, Jozsef

    2012-01-01

    Terms to be familiar with before you start to solve the test: growth factor signaling, epidermal growth factor, tyrosine protein kinase, tyrosine phosphorylation, ubiquitin, monoubiquitination, polyubiquitination, site-directed mutagenesis, transfection, expression vector, cDNA, immunoprecipitation, SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, Western…

  9. Increased Serum Levels of Epidermal Growth Factor in Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iseri, Elvan; Guney, Esra; Ceylan, Mehmet F.; Yucel, Aysegul; Aral, Arzu; Bodur, Sahin; Sener, Sahnur

    2011-01-01

    The etiology of autism is unclear, however autism is considered as a multifactorial disorder that is influenced by neurological, environmental, immunological and genetic factors. Growth factors, including epidermal growth factor (EGF), play an important role in the celluler proliferation and the differentiation of the central and peripheral…

  10. Increased Serum Levels of Epidermal Growth Factor in Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iseri, Elvan; Guney, Esra; Ceylan, Mehmet F.; Yucel, Aysegul; Aral, Arzu; Bodur, Sahin; Sener, Sahnur

    2011-01-01

    The etiology of autism is unclear, however autism is considered as a multifactorial disorder that is influenced by neurological, environmental, immunological and genetic factors. Growth factors, including epidermal growth factor (EGF), play an important role in the celluler proliferation and the differentiation of the central and peripheral…

  11. Effects of epidermal growth factor receptor kinase inhibition on radiation response in canine osteosarcoma cells.

    PubMed

    Mantovani, Fernanda B; Morrison, Jodi A; Mutsaers, Anthony J

    2016-05-31

    Radiation therapy is a palliative treatment modality for canine osteosarcoma, with transient improvement in analgesia observed in many cases. However there is room for improvement in outcome for these patients. It is possible that the addition of sensitizing agents may increase tumor response to radiation therapy and prolong quality of life. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression has been documented in canine osteosarcoma and higher EGFR levels have been correlated to a worse prognosis. However, effects of EGFR inhibition on radiation responsiveness in canine osteosarcoma have not been previously characterized. This study examined the effects of the small molecule EGFR inhibitor erlotinib on canine osteosarcoma radiation responses, target and downstream protein expression in vitro. Additionally, to assess the potential impact of treatment on tumor angiogenesis, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels in conditioned media were measured. Erlotinib as a single agent reduced clonogenic survival in two canine osteosarcoma cell lines and enhanced the impact of radiation in one out of three cell lines investigated. In cell viability assays, erlotinib enhanced radiation effects and demonstrated single agent effects. Erlotinib did not alter total levels of EGFR, nor inhibit downstream protein kinase B (PKB/Akt) activation. On the contrary, erlotinib treatment increased phosphorylated Akt in these osteosarcoma cell lines. VEGF levels in conditioned media increased after erlotinib treatment as a single agent and in combination with radiation in two out of three cell lines investigated. However, VEGF levels decreased with erlotinib treatment in the third cell line. Erlotinib treatment promoted modest enhancement of radiation effects in canine osteosarcoma cells, and possessed activity as a single agent in some cell lines, indicating a potential role for EGFR inhibition in the treatment of a subset of osteosarcoma patients. The relative radioresistance of

  12. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase III trial of erlotinib with or without a c-Met inhibitor tivantinib (ARQ 197) in Asian patients with previously treated stage IIIB/IV nonsquamous nonsmall-cell lung cancer harboring wild-type epidermal growth factor receptor (ATTENTION study).

    PubMed

    Yoshioka, H; Azuma, K; Yamamoto, N; Takahashi, T; Nishio, M; Katakami, N; Ahn, M J; Hirashima, T; Maemondo, M; Kim, S W; Kurosaki, M; Akinaga, S; Park, K; Tsai, C M; Tamura, T; Mitsudomi, T; Nakagawa, K

    2015-10-01

    A previous randomized phase II study demonstrated that the addition of a c-Met inhibitor tivantinib to an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor erlotinib might prolong progression-free survival (PFS) in patients with previously treated, nonsquamous nonsmall-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). On a subset analysis, the survival benefit was greater in patients with wild-type EGFR (WT-EGFR) than in those with activating EGFR mutations. Herein, this phase III study compared overall survival (OS) between Asian nonsquamous NSCLC patients with WT-EGFR who received erlotinib plus tivantinib (tivantinib group) or erlotinib plus placebo (placebo group). A total of 460 NSCLC patients were planned to be randomized to the tivantinib or placebo group. Primary end point was OS. Secondary end points were PFS, tumor response, and safety. Tissue was collected for biomarker analysis, including c-Met and HGF expression. Enrollment was stopped when 307 patients were randomized, following the Safety Review Committee's recommendation based on an imbalance in the interstitial lung disease (ILD) incidence between the groups. ILD developed in 14 patients (3 deaths) and 6 patients (0 deaths) in the tivantinib and the placebo groups, respectively. In the enrolled patients, median OS was 12.7 and 11.1 months in the tivantinib and the placebo groups, respectively [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.891, P = 0.427]. Median PFS was 2.9 and 2.0 months in the tivantinib and the placebo groups, respectively (HR = 0.719, P = 0.019). The commonly observed grade ≥ 3 adverse events in the tivantinib group were neutropenia (24.3%), leukopenia (18.4%), febrile neutropenia (13.8%), and anemia (13.2%). This study was prematurely terminated due to the increased ILD incidence in the tivantinib group. Although this study lacked statistical power because of the premature termination and did not demonstrate an improvement in OS, our results suggest that tivantinib plus erlotinib might improve PFS than

  13. USP17 is required for clathrin mediated endocytosis of epidermal growth factor receptor

    PubMed Central

    Jaworski, Jakub; de la Vega, Michelle; Fletcher, Sarah J.; McFarlane, Cheryl; Greene, Michelle K.; Smyth, Andrew W.; Van Schaeybroeck, Sandra; Johnston, James A.; Scott, Christopher J.; Rappoport, Joshua Z.; Burrows, James F.

    2014-01-01

    Previously we have shown that expression of the deubiquitinating enzyme USP17 is required for cell proliferation and motility. More recently we reported that USP17 deubiquitinates RCE1 isoform 2 and thus regulates the processing of ‘CaaX’ motif proteins. Here we now show that USP17 expression is induced by epidermal growth factor and that USP17 expression is required for clathrin mediated endocytosis of epidermal growth factor receptor. In addition, we show that USP17 is required for the endocytosis of transferrin, an archetypal substrate for clathrin mediated endocytosis, and that USP17 depletion impedes plasma membrane recruitment of the machinery required for clathrin mediated endocytosis. Thus, our data reveal that USP17 is necessary for epidermal growth factor receptor and transferrin endocytosis via clathrin coated pits, indicate this is mediated via the regulation of the recruitment of the components of the endocytosis machinery and suggest USP17 may play a general role in receptor endocytosis. PMID:25026282

  14. Role of mucosal prostaglandins and DNA synthesis in gastric cytoprotection by luminal epidermal growth factor.

    PubMed Central

    Konturek, S J; Brzozowski, T; Piastucki, I; Dembinski, A; Radecki, T; Dembinska-Kiec, A; Zmuda, A; Gregory, H

    1981-01-01

    This study compares the effect of epidermal growth factor and prostaglandins (PGE2 or PGI2), applied topically to gastric mucosa, on gastric secretion and formation of ASA-induced gastric ulcerations in rats. Epidermal growth factor given topically in non-antisecretory doses prevented dose-dependently the formation of ASA-induced ulcers without affecting prostaglandin generation but with a significant rise in DNA synthesis in the oxyntic mucosa. The anti-ulcer effect of topical prostaglandins was also accompanied by an increase in DNA synthesis. This study indicates that topical epidermal growth factor, like PGE2 or PGI2, is cytoprotective and that this cytoprotection is not mediated by the inhibition of gastric secretion or prostaglandin formation but related to the increase in DNA synthesis in oxyntic mucosa. PMID:7030877

  15. Epidermal growth factor elevates intracellular pH in chicken granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Li, M; Morley, P; Asem, E K; Tsang, B K

    1991-08-01

    Many bioregulators, such as epidermal growth factor (EGF), induce intracellular alkalinization by activating a membrane bound Na+/H+ antiporter. The present studies were designed to examine the influence of EGF on intracellular pH (pHi) in chicken granulosa cells. pHi in granulosa cells from the two largest preovulatory follicles of hens was determined spectrofluorometrically using the dye 2',7'-bis(carboxyethyl-5(6)-carboxyfluorescein. The resting pHi was 6.81 +/- 0.006 (n = 30) when the extracellular pH and sodium concentration (Na+o) were 7.3 and 144 mM, respectively. EGF (5-100 ng/ml) induced a concentration-dependent increase in pHi, which reached a maximum of 0.217 +/- 0.009 pH units at a concentration of 100 ng/ml EGF. Cytosolic alkalinization was observed within 10 min of the addition of EGF and lasted over the 60 min observation period. The increase in pHi was dependent upon the presence of Na+o, since the EGF effect was attenuated when Na+o was substituted with equimolar concentrations of nonpermeant choline chloride. The EGF-induced pHi change was also inhibited by amiloride, dimethyl amiloride, and ethylisopropyl amiloride, inhibitors of the Na+/H+ antiporter. The alkalinization effect of EGF was mimicked by transforming growth factor-alpha but not by insulin, insulin-like growth factor-I, or transforming growth factor-beta. These studies suggest for the first time that intracellular alkalinization resulting from activation of the Na+/H+ antiporter may be a part of the transmembrane signaling pathway in the action of EGF on chicken granulosa cells.

  16. Transforming growth factor alpha and epidermal growth factor levels in normal human gastrointestinal mucosa.

    PubMed Central

    Cartlidge, S. A.; Elder, J. B.

    1989-01-01

    Acid soluble proteins from 23 samples of normal human gastrointestinal mucosa derived from four normal adult organ donors were extracted and subjected to specific radiommunoassays for transforming growth factor alpha (TGF alpha) and urogastrone epidermal growth factor (URO-EGF). All tissues were found to contain immunoreactive TGF alpha and levels ranged from 57 to 4,776 pg-1 wet weight of tissue. Although levels varied between tissue donors, the distribution of TGF alpha throughout the gastrointestinal tract appeared similar in all cases. URO-EGF levels were much lower (0-216 pg g-1 wet weight). TGF alpha levels in extracts of gastrointestinal mucosa from a 7-year-old female donor were higher and the observed distribution was markedly different from adult levels. URO-EGF was not detected in mucosal or submucosal tissue extracts from this patient. Further studies in juveniles are indicated. PMID:2803941

  17. Proliferation of human neuroblastomas mediated by the epidermal growth factor receptor.

    PubMed

    Ho, Ruth; Minturn, Jane E; Hishiki, Tomoro; Zhao, Huaqing; Wang, Qun; Cnaan, Avital; Maris, John; Evans, Audrey E; Brodeur, Garrett M

    2005-11-01

    Neuroblastoma is a common solid tumor of childhood that is derived from the neural crest. Expression of epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptors (EGFRs) has been associated with enhanced cell growth and aggressive behavior in other tumors. Here, we examined the expression profile of EGFRs in neuroblastoma cell lines and primary tumors. We found that all 13 neuroblastoma cell lines examined expressed EGFR1 (HER1), most at readily detectable levels. Low levels of other human EGFR family receptors were also detected in almost all cell lines. All primary tumors examined expressed readily detectable levels of HER1 and HER3 and lower levels of HER2 and HER4. EGF had a significant effect on the proliferation of neuroblastoma cell lines in vitro. EGF treatment (100 ng/mL) of the cell lines SY5Y and NLF significantly increased cell number (P < 0.01). EGF stimulated more cells to enter S and G2-M phase, as suggested by flow cytometry, indicating that EGF increases cell number by increasing proliferation, with no appreciable change in apoptosis. EGF exposure resulted in receptor autophosphorylation and activation of both the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT pathways. Exposure to 0.5 micromol/L ZD1839, a HER1-specific inhibitor, caused a 40% to 50% reduction in the number of SY5Y and NLF cells grown in medium containing 10% fetal bovine serum (P < 0.01). Even at 0.01 micromol/L, ZD1839 inhibited autophosphorylation of HER1 by EGF. At 0.1 micromol/L, it also blocked phosphorylation of AKT, but not MAPK, in NLF cells. Additional studies showed that the PI3K/AKT-specific inhibitor LY294002 had a more profound effect than the MAPK-specific inhibitor U0126 in blocking EGF-induced cell proliferation. This suggests that the PI3K/AKT pathway is the main signaling pathway responsible for the proliferation effects of EGF in neuroblastomas. Our results also indicate that ZD1839 is a potent inhibitor of neuroblastoma cell proliferation

  18. Honokiol inhibits the growth of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma by targeting epidermal growth factor receptor.

    PubMed

    Singh, Tripti; Gupta, Nirzari A; Xu, Su; Prasad, Ram; Velu, Sadanandan E; Katiyar, Santosh K

    2015-08-28

    Here, we report the chemotherapeutic effect of honokiol, a phytochemical from Magnolia plant, on human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Treatment of HNSCC cell lines from different sub-sites, SCC-1 (oral cavity), SCC-5 (larynx), OSC-19 (tongue) and FaDu (pharynx) with honokiol inhibited their cell viability, which was associated with the: (i) induction of apoptosis, (ii) correction of dysregulatory cell cycle proteins of G0/G1 phase. Honokiol decreased the expression levels of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), mTOR and their downstream signaling molecules. Treatment of FaDu and SCC-1 cell lines with rapamycin, an inhibitor of mTOR pathway, also reduced cell viability of HNSCC cells. Administration of honokiol by oral gavage (100 mg/kg body weight) significantly (P < 0.01-0.001) inhibited the growth of SCC-1 and FaDu xenografts in athymic nude mice, which was associated with: (i) inhibition of tumor cell proliferation, (ii) induction of apoptosis, (iii) reduced expressions of cyclins and Cdks, and (iv) inhibition of EGFR signaling pathway. Molecular docking analysis of honokiol in EGFR binding site indicated that the chemotherapeutic effect of honokiol against HNSCC is mediated through its firm binding with EGFR, which is better than that of gefitinib, a commonly used drug for HNSCC treatment.

  19. Honokiol inhibits the growth of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma by targeting epidermal growth factor receptor

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Tripti; Gupta, Nirzari A.; Xu, Su; Prasad, Ram; Velu, Sadanandan E.; Katiyar, Santosh K.

    2015-01-01

    Here, we report the chemotherapeutic effect of honokiol, a phytochemical from Magnolia plant, on human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Treatment of HNSCC cell lines from different sub-sites, SCC-1 (oral cavity), SCC-5 (larynx), OSC-19 (tongue) and FaDu (pharynx) with honokiol inhibited their cell viability, which was associated with the: (i) induction of apoptosis, (ii) correction of dysregulatory cell cycle proteins of G0/G1 phase. Honokiol decreased the expression levels of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), mTOR and their downstream signaling molecules. Treatment of FaDu and SCC-1 cell lines with rapamycin, an inhibitor of mTOR pathway, also reduced cell viability of HNSCC cells. Administration of honokiol by oral gavage (100 mg/kg body weight) significantly (P < 0.01-0.001) inhibited the growth of SCC-1 and FaDu xenografts in athymic nude mice, which was associated with: (i) inhibition of tumor cell proliferation, (ii) induction of apoptosis, (iii) reduced expressions of cyclins and Cdks, and (iv) inhibition of EGFR signaling pathway. Molecular docking analysis of honokiol in EGFR binding site indicated that the chemotherapeutic effect of honokiol against HNSCC is mediated through its firm binding with EGFR, which is better than that of gefitinib, a commonly used drug for HNSCC treatment. PMID:26020804

  20. Mammary tumorigenesis induced by fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 requires activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor.

    PubMed

    Bade, Lindsey K; Goldberg, Jodi E; Dehut, Hazel A; Hall, Majken K; Schwertfeger, Kathryn L

    2011-09-15

    Fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) is an oncoprotein with known involvement in mammary tumorigenesis. To understand how FGFR1 signaling promotes mammary tumorigenesis, an inducible FGFR1 (iFGFR1) system was created previously. Previous studies have demonstrated that upon iFGFR1 activation in vivo, the epidermal growth factor (EGF) ligands amphiregulin (AREG) and epiregulin (EREG) are upregulated. Both AREG and EREG interact with the EGF receptor (EGFR). Here, we investigated whether the FGFR1-induced increase in AREG and EREG expression might coordinately increase EGFR signaling to promote mammary tumorigenesis. Treatment of mouse mammary epithelial cells with either AREG or EREG conferred a greater migratory potential, increased cellular proliferation and increased extracellular regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) activation. These effects could be blocked with the EGFR-specific inhibitor erlotinib, suggesting that they are EGFR-dependent. In transgenic mice with iFGFR1 under the control of the mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) promoter, iFGFR1 activation also led to increased mammary epithelial cell proliferation that was inhibited with erlotinib. Taken together, these data suggest that AREG and EREG mediate tumorigenic phenotypes by activating EGFR signaling, and that the oncogenic potential of FGFR1 requires EGFR activation to promote mammary tumorigenesis.

  1. Epidermal Barriers

    PubMed Central

    Natsuga, Ken

    2014-01-01

    The epidermis functions as a physical barrier to the external environment and works to prevent loss of water from the skin. Numerous factors have been implicated in the formation of epidermal barriers, such as cornified envelopes, corneocytes, lipids, junctional proteins, proteases, protease inhibitors, antimicrobial peptides, and transcription factors. This review illustrates human diseases (ichthyoses) and animal models in which the epidermal barrier is disrupted or dysfunctional at steady state owing to ablation of one or more of the above factors. These diseases and animal models help us to understand the complicated mechanisms of epidermal barrier formation and give further insights on epidermal development. PMID:24692192

  2. Nanoconjugation prolongs endosomal signaling of the epidermal growth factor receptor and enhances apoptosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, L.; Xu, F.; Reinhard, B. M.

    2016-07-01

    It is becoming increasingly clear that intracellular signaling can be subject to strict spatial control. As the covalent attachment of a signaling ligand to a nanoparticle (NP) impacts ligand-receptor binding, uptake, and trafficking, nanoconjugation provides new opportunities for manipulating intracellular signaling in a controlled fashion. To establish the effect of nanoconjugation on epidermal growth factor (EGF) mediated signaling, we investigate here the intracellular fate of nanoconjugated EGF (NP-EGF) and its bound receptor (EGFR) by quantitative correlated darkfield/fluorescence microscopy and density-based endosomal fractionation. We demonstrate that nanoconjugation prolongs the dwell time of phosphorylated receptors in the early endosomes and that the retention of activated EGFR in the early endosomes is accompanied by an EGF mediated apoptosis at effective concentrations that do not induce apoptosis in the case of free EGF. Overall, these findings indicate nanoconjugation as a rational strategy for modifying signaling that acts by modulating the temporo-spatial distribution of the activated EGF-EGFR ligand-receptor complex.It is becoming increasingly clear that intracellular signaling can be subject to strict spatial control. As the covalent attachment of a signaling ligand to a nanoparticle (NP) impacts ligand-receptor binding, uptake, and trafficking, nanoconjugation provides new opportunities for manipulating intracellular signaling in a controlled fashion. To establish the effect of nanoconjugation on epidermal growth factor (EGF) mediated signaling, we investigate here the intracellular fate of nanoconjugated EGF (NP-EGF) and its bound receptor (EGFR) by quantitative correlated darkfield/fluorescence microscopy and density-based endosomal fractionation. We demonstrate that nanoconjugation prolongs the dwell time of phosphorylated receptors in the early endosomes and that the retention of activated EGFR in the early endosomes is accompanied by an EGF

  3. Dermatologic Toxicities in Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor and Multikinase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Eaby-Sandy, Beth; Grande, Carolyn; Viale, Pamela Hallquist

    2012-01-01

    Targeted therapies have produced significant treatment advances for patients diagnosed with a variety of tumor types. These therapies are associated with unique dermatologic toxicities that may hamper treatment efforts and cause significant discomfort for patients. Prevention and management of these toxicities can allow patients to remain on therapy and hence receive maximum clinical benefit from the drug. PMID:25031940

  4. Inhibition of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Improves Myelination and Attenuates Tissue Damage of Spinal Cord Injury.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Si; Ju, Peijun; Tjandra, Editha; Yeap, Yeeshan; Owlanj, Hamed; Feng, Zhiwei

    2016-10-01

    Preventing demyelination and promoting remyelination of denuded axons are promising therapeutic strategies for spinal cord injury (SCI). Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibition was reported to benefit the neural functional recovery and the axon regeneration after SCI. However, its role in de- and remyelination of axons in injured spinal cord is unclear. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of EGFR inhibitor, PD168393 (PD), on the myelination in mouse contusive SCI model. We found that expression of myelin basic protein (MBP) in the injured spinal cords of PD treated mice was remarkably elevated. The density of glial precursor cells and oligodendrocytes (OLs) was increased and the cell apoptosis in lesions was attenuated after PD168393 treatment. Moreover, PD168393 treatment reduced both the numbers of OX42 + microglial cells and glial fibrillary acidic protein + astrocytes in damaged area of spinal cords. We thus conclude that the therapeutic effects of EGFR inhibition after SCI involves facilitating remyelination of the injured spinal cord, increasing of oligodendrocyte precursor cells and OLs, as well as suppressing the activation of astrocytes and microglia/macrophages.

  5. Immune Responses to Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) and Their Application for Cancer Treatment.

    PubMed

    Sasada, Tetsuro; Azuma, Koichi; Ohtake, Junya; Fujimoto, Yuki

    2016-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a prototypic cell-surface receptor belonging to the ErbB/HER onocogene family. Overexpression or somatic mutations of EGFR have been reported to play an important role in tumorigenesis in various types of epithelial cancers. Therefore, targeting of EGFR with specific blocking antibodies or inhibitors have been developing for treatment for EGFR-associated tumors. Immune responses to HER2, another molecule of the ErbB/HER onocogene family, have been well studied, but only limited information on the immune responses to EGFR in cancer has been currently available. In this review, we have summarized the available data and discussed potential clinical importance of the anti-EGFR immune responses and EGFR-mediated immune regulation in cancer. Several lines of evidence suggest that cellular and humoral immune responses to EGFR might be useful as a marker and/or target for cancer therapy against EGFR-associated tumors. In addition, recent studies suggest the critical roles of EGFR-mediated signaling in regulation of expression of an immune checkpoint molecule, programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) in tumor cells. Further studies are warranted to clarify the impact of the anti-EGFR immune responses and EGFR-mediated immunomodulation for clinical application for cancer treatment.

  6. Effective targeting of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) for treating oral cancer: a promising approach.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Flávia Andressa Pidone; Noguti, Juliana; Oshima, Celina Tizuko Fujiyama; Ribeiro, Daniel Araki

    2014-04-01

    Oral cancer is a serious problem growing in incidence in many parts of the world; it is considered the sixth most common cancer and despite sophisticated surgical and radiotherapeutic modalities, oral squamous cell carcinoma, which represents 90% of oral cancers, is characterized by poor prognosis and a low survival rate. The Epidermal growth factor receptor family of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK) comprises of four distinct receptors: the EGFR (also known as ErbB-1/HER1), ErbB-2 (neu, HER2), ErbB-3 (HER3) and ErbB-4 (HER4). Several studies have been published on the role of EGFR in the pathogenesis of oral carcinoma. The aim of the present review is to describe the role of EGFR pathway in oral cancer with special focus on its role during the carcinogenesis process as a result of therapeutic approaches of EGFR in oral cancer. The EGFR is a 170-kDa cell-surface protein involved in many biological processes, such as proliferation, migration, DNA synthesis and adhesion. Overexpression of EGFR results in a poor prognosis in oral cancer and its activation is associated with the malignant phenotype, inhibition of apoptosis and increased metastatic potential. EGFR variations and mutations have been correlated with tumor formation, and possibly alter the therapeutic efficacy of EGFR inhibitors.

  7. The Influence of Adnectin Binding on the Extracellular Domain of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iacob, Roxana E.; Chen, Guodong; Ahn, Joomi; Houel, Stephane; Wei, Hui; Mo, Jingjie; Tao, Li; Cohen, Daniel; Xie, Dianlin; Lin, Zheng; Morin, Paul E.; Doyle, Michael L.; Tymiak, Adrienne A.; Engen, John R.

    2014-12-01

    The precise and unambiguous elucidation and characterization of interactions between a high affinity recognition entity and its cognate protein provides important insights for the design and development of drugs with optimized properties and efficacy. In oncology, one important target protein has been shown to be the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) through the development of therapeutic anticancer antibodies that are selective inhibitors of EGFR activity. More recently, smaller protein derived from the 10th type III domain of human fibronectin termed an adnectin has also been shown to inhibit EGFR in clinical studies. The mechanism of EGFR inhibition by either an adnectin or an antibody results from specific binding of the high affinity protein to the extracellular portion of EGFR (exEGFR) in a manner that prevents phosphorylation of the intracellular kinase domain of the receptor and thereby blocks intracellular signaling. Here, the structural changes induced upon binding were studied by probing the solution conformations of full length exEGFR alone and bound to a cognate adnectin through hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX MS). The effects of binding in solution were identified and compared with the structure of a bound complex determined by X-ray crystallography.

  8. Recurrent exposure to nicotine differentiates human bronchial epithelial cells via epidermal growth factor receptor activation

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez-Garcia, Eva; Irigoyen, Marta; Anso, Elena; Martinez-Irujo, Juan Jose; Rouzaut, Ana

    2008-05-01

    Cigarette smoking is the major preventable cause of lung cancer in developed countries. Nicotine (3-(1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)-pyridine) is one of the major alkaloids present in tobacco. Besides its addictive properties, its effects have been described in panoply of cell types. In fact, recent studies have shown that nicotine behaves as a tumor promoter in transformed epithelial cells. This research focuses on the effects of acute repetitive nicotine exposure on normal human bronchial epithelial cells (NHBE cells). Here we show that treatment of NHBE cells with recurrent doses of nicotine up to 500 {mu}M triggered cell differentiation towards a neuronal-like phenotype: cells emitted filopodia and expressed neuronal markers such as neuronal cell adhesion molecule, neurofilament-M and the transcription factors neuronal N and Pax-3. We also demonstrate that nicotine treatment induced NF-kB translocation to the nucleus, phosphorylation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and accumulation of heparin binding-EGF in the extracellular medium. Moreover, addition of AG1478, an inhibitor of EGFR tyrosine phosphorylation, or cetuximab, a monoclonal antibody that precludes ligand binding to the same receptor, prevented cell differentiation by nicotine. Lastly, we show that differentiated cells increased their adhesion to the extracellular matrix and their protease activity. Given that several lung pathologies are strongly related to tobacco consumption, these results may help to better understand the damaging consequences of nicotine exposure.

  9. Recurrent exposure to nicotine differentiates human bronchial epithelial cells via epidermal growth factor receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Martínez-García, Eva; Irigoyen, Marta; Ansó, Elena; Martínez-Irujo, Juan José; Rouzaut, Ana

    2008-05-01

    Cigarette smoking is the major preventable cause of lung cancer in developed countries. Nicotine (3-(1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)-pyridine) is one of the major alkaloids present in tobacco. Besides its addictive properties, its effects have been described in panoply of cell types. In fact, recent studies have shown that nicotine behaves as a tumor promoter in transformed epithelial cells. This research focuses on the effects of acute repetitive nicotine exposure on normal human bronchial epithelial cells (NHBE cells). Here we show that treatment of NHBE cells with recurrent doses of nicotine up to 500 muM triggered cell differentiation towards a neuronal-like phenotype: cells emitted filopodia and expressed neuronal markers such as neuronal cell adhesion molecule, neurofilament-M and the transcription factors neuronal N and Pax-3. We also demonstrate that nicotine treatment induced NF-kB translocation to the nucleus, phosphorylation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and accumulation of heparin binding-EGF in the extracellular medium. Moreover, addition of AG1478, an inhibitor of EGFR tyrosine phosphorylation, or cetuximab, a monoclonal antibody that precludes ligand binding to the same receptor, prevented cell differentiation by nicotine. Lastly, we show that differentiated cells increased their adhesion to the extracellular matrix and their protease activity. Given that several lung pathologies are strongly related to tobacco consumption, these results may help to better understand the damaging consequences of nicotine exposure.

  10. A novel insertion mutation on exon 20 of epidermal growth factor receptor, conferring resistance to erlotinib.

    PubMed

    Khan, Nawazish A; Mirshahidi, Saied; Mirshahidi, Hamid R

    2014-05-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a transmembrane glycoprotein tyrosine kinase receptor. The small-molecule tyrosine kinase receptor inhibitors (TKIs) are in clinical use to treat non-small cell lung cancer with EGFR mutations. Variable tumor responses to erlotinib and gefitinib have been observed. The response to these TKIs varies by the type of EGFR mutations found in the tumor. The deletion on exon 19 and the L858R substitution on exon 21 constitute the most frequent mutations and are known to show good response to TKIs. However, mutations on exon 20 are less common and seem to respond poorly to TKIs. In clinical settings, the reported response of exon 20 mutations to reversible TKIs (both gefitinib and erlotinib) remains inconstant. The type of coexisting mutation seems to affect the response of these insertions to TKIs. We herein present a case of disease progression despite the use of erlotinib in a female patient who had a novel insertion mutation on exon 20. Our patient was a never-smoker and was identified to have a Pro772_His773insGlnCysPro mutation on exon 20. She had previously been treated with cisplatin and gemcitabine and then with carboplatin and pemetrexed. She was treated with erlotinib upon intolerance to second-line chemotherapy and did not respond. Our patient had a novel insertion mutation on exon 20, which was found to be resistant to erlotinib.

  11. Role for the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor in Chemotherapy-Induced Alopecia

    PubMed Central

    Bichsel, Kyle J.; Gogia, Navdeep; Malouff, Timothy; Pena, Zachary; Forney, Eric; Hammiller, Brianna; Watson, Patrice; Hansen, Laura A.

    2013-01-01

    Treatment of cancer patients with chemotherapeutics like cyclophosphamide often causes alopecia as a result of premature and aberrant catagen. Because the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signals anagen hair follicles to enter catagen, we hypothesized that EGFR signaling may be involved in cyclophosphamide-induced alopecia. To test this hypothesis, skin-targeted Egfr mutant mice were generated by crossing floxed Egfr and Keratin 14 promoter-driven Cre recombinase mice. Cyclophosphamide treatment of control mice resulted in alopecia while Egfr mutant skin was resistant to cyclophosphamide-induced alopecia. Egfr mutant skin entered catagen normally, as indicated by dermal papilla condensation and decreased follicular proliferation, but did not progress to telogen as did Egfr wild type follicles. Egfr mutant follicles responded with less proliferation, apoptosis, and fewer p53-positive cells after cyclophosphamide. Treatment of control mice with the EGFR inhibitors erlotinib or gefitinib similarly suppressed alopecia and catagen progression by cyclophosphamide. Secondary analysis of clinical trials utilizing EGFR-targeted therapies and alopecia-inducing chemotherapy also revealed evidence for involvement of EGFR in chemotherapy-induced alopecia. Taken together, our results demonstrated the involvement of EGFR signaling in chemotherapy-induced alopecia, which will help in the design of novel therapeutic regimens to minimize chemotherapy-induced alopecia. PMID:23894460

  12. Strategies to overcome resistance to epidermal growth factor receptor monoclonal antibody therapy in metastatic colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Woo-Jeong; Cha, Pu-Hyeon; Choi, Kang-Yell

    2014-08-07

    Administration of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) such as cetuximab and panitumumab in combination with conventional chemotherapy substantially prolongs survival of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). However, the efficacy of these mAbs is limited due to genetic variation among patients, in particular K-ras mutations. The discovery of K-ras mutation as a predictor of non-responsiveness to EGFR mAb therapy has caused a major change in the treatment of mCRC. Drugs that inhibit transformation caused by oncogenic alterations of Ras and its downstream components such as BRAF, MEK and AKT seem to be promising cancer therapeutics as single agents or when given with EGFR inhibitors. Although multiple therapeutic strategies to overcome EGFR mAb-resistance are under investigation, our understanding of their mode of action is limited. Rational drug development based on stringent preclinical data, biomarker validation, and proper selection of patients is of paramount importance in the treatment of mCRC. In this review, we will discuss diverse approaches to overcome the problem of resistance to existing anti-EGFR therapies and potential future directions for cancer therapies related to the mutational status of genes associated with EGFR-Ras-ERK and PI3K signalings.

  13. Enterococcus faecalis Enhances Cell Proliferation through Hydrogen Peroxide-Mediated Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Activation

    PubMed Central

    Boonanantanasarn, Kanitsak; Gill, Ann Lindley; Yap, YoonSing; Jayaprakash, Vijayvel; Sullivan, Maureen A.

    2012-01-01

    Enterococcus faecalis is a member of the intestinal and oral microbiota that may affect the etiology of colorectal and oral cancers. The mechanisms by which E. faecalis may contribute to the initiation and progression of these cancers remain uncertain. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling is postulated to play a crucial role in oral carcinogenesis. A link between E. faecalis and EGFR signaling in oral cancer has not been elucidated. The present study aimed to evaluate the association between E. faecalis and oral cancer and to determine the underlying mechanisms that link E. faecalis to EGFR signaling. We report the high frequency of E. faecalis infection in oral tumors and the clinical association with EGFR activation. Using human oral cancer cells, we support the clinical findings and demonstrate that E. faecalis can induce EGFR activation and cell proliferation. E. faecalis activates EGFR through production of H2O2, a signaling molecule that activates several signaling pathways. Inhibitors of H2O2 (catalase) and EGFR (gefitinib) significantly blocked E. faecalis-induced EGFR activation and cell proliferation. Therefore, E. faecalis infection of oral tumor tissues suggests a possible association between E. faecalis infection and oral carcinogenesis. Interaction of E. faecalis with host cells and production of H2O2 increase EGFR activation, thereby contributing to cell proliferation. PMID:22851748

  14. Brain metastasis in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive breast cancer: from biology to treatment

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Taeryool

    2016-01-01

    Overexpression of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) is found in about 20% of breast cancer patients. With treatment using trastuzumab, an anti-HER2 monoclonal antibody, systemic control is improved. Nonetheless, the incidence of brain metastasis does not be improved, rather seems to be increased in HER2-positive breast cancer. The mainstay treatment for brain metastases is radiotherapy. According to the number of metastatic lesions and performance status of patients, radiosurgery or whole brain radiotherapy can be performed. The concurrent use of a radiosensitizer further improves intracranial control. Due to its large molecular weight, trastuzumab has a limited ability to cross the blood-brain barrier. However, small tyrosine kinase inhibitors such as lapatinib, has been noted to be a promising agent that can be used as a radiosensitizer to affect HER2-positive breast cancer. This review will outline general management of brain metastases and will focus on preclinical findings regarding the radiosensitizing effect of small molecule HER2 targeting agents. PMID:27104161

  15. Endosomal Signaling of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Stimulates Signal Transduction Pathways Leading to Cell Survival

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yi; Pennock, Steven; Chen, Xinmei; Wang, Zhixiang

    2002-01-01

    In spite of intensified efforts to understand cell signaling from endosomes, there is no direct evidence demonstrating that endosomal signaling is sufficient to activate signal transduction pathways and no evidence to demonstrate that endosomal signaling is able to produce a biological outcome. The lack of breakthrough is due in part to the lack of means to generate endosomal signals without plasma membrane signaling. In this paper, we report the establishment of a system to specifically activate epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR) when it endocytoses into endosomes. We treated cells with EGF in the presence of AG-1478, a specific EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor, and monensin, which blocks the recycling of EGFR. This treatment led to the internalization of nonactivated EGF-EGFR complexes into endosomes. The endosome-associated EGFR was then activated by removing AG-1478 and monensin. During this procedure we did not observe any surface EGFR phosphorylation. We also achieved specific activation of endosome-associated EGFR without using monensin. By using this system, we provided original evidence demonstrating that (i) the endosome can serve as a nucleation site for the formation of signaling complexes, (ii) endosomal EGFR signaling is sufficient to activate the major signaling pathways leading to cell proliferation and survival, and (iii) endosomal EGFR signaling is sufficient to suppress apoptosis induced by serum withdrawal. PMID:12242303

  16. TERATOGENIC RESPONSES ARE MODULATED IN MICE LACKING EXPRESSION OF EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR (EGF) AND TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR-ALPHA (TGF)

    EPA Science Inventory

    TITLE:
    TERATOGENIC RESPONSES ARE MODULATED IN MICE LACKING EXPRESSION OF EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR (EGF) AND TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR-ALPHA (TGF). AUTHORS (ALL): Abbott, Barbara D.1; Best, Deborah S.1; Narotsky, Michael G.1. SPONSOR NAME: None INSTITUTIONS (ALL): 1. Repro Tox ...

  17. TERATOGENIC RESPONSES ARE MODULATED IN MICE LACKING EXPRESSION OF EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR (EGF) AND TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR-ALPHA (TGF)

    EPA Science Inventory

    TITLE:
    TERATOGENIC RESPONSES ARE MODULATED IN MICE LACKING EXPRESSION OF EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR (EGF) AND TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR-ALPHA (TGF). AUTHORS (ALL): Abbott, Barbara D.1; Best, Deborah S.1; Narotsky, Michael G.1. SPONSOR NAME: None INSTITUTIONS (ALL): 1. Repro Tox ...

  18. Phospholipase C-epsilon augments epidermal growth factor-dependent cell growth by inhibiting epidermal growth factor receptor down-regulation.

    PubMed

    Yun, Sanguk; Hong, Won-Pyo; Choi, Jang Hyun; Yi, Kye Sook; Chae, Suhn-Kee; Ryu, Sung Ho; Suh, Pann-Ghill

    2008-01-04

    The down-regulation of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor is critical for the termination of EGF-dependent signaling, and the dysregulation of this process can lead to oncogenesis. In the present study, we suggest a novel mechanism for the regulation of EGF receptor down-regulation by phospholipase C-epsilon. The overexpression of PLC-epsilon led to an increase in receptor recycling and decreased the down-regulation of the EGF receptor in COS-7 cells. Adaptor protein complex 2 (AP2) was identified as a novel binding protein that associates with the PLC-epsilon RA2 domain independently of Ras. The interaction of PLC-epsilon with AP2 was responsible for the suppression of EGF receptor down-regulation, since a perturbation in this interaction abolished this effect. Enhanced EGF receptor stability by PLC-epsilon led to the potentiation of EGF-dependent growth in COS-7 cells. Finally, the knockdown of PLC-epsilon in mouse embryo fibroblast cells elicited a severe defect in EGF-dependent growth. Our results indicated that PLC-epsilon could promote EGF-dependent cell growth by suppressing receptor down-regulation.

  19. Detection of Tumor Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Pathway Dependence by Serum Mass Spectrometry in Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Christine H.; Seeley, Erin H.; Roder, Heinrich; Grigorieva, Julia; Tsypin, Maxim; Roder, Joanna; Burtness, Barbara A.; Argiris, Athanassios; Forastiere, Arlene A.; Gilbert, Jill; Murphy, Barbara; Caprioli, Richard M.; Carbone, David P.; Cohen, Ezra E.W.

    2010-01-01

    Background: We hypothesized that a serum proteomic profile predictive of survival benefit in non–small cell lung cancer patients treated with epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKI) reflects tumor EGFR dependency regardless of site of origin or class of therapeutic agent. Methods: Pretreatment serum or plasma from 230 patients treated with cetuximab, EGFR-TKIs, or chemotherapy for recurrent/metastatic head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) or colorectal cancer (CRC) were analyzed by mass spectrometry. Each sample was classified into “good” or “poor” groups using VeriStrat, and survival analyses of each cohort were done based on this classification. For the CRC cohort, this classification was correlated with the tumor EGFR ligand levels and KRAS mutation status. Results: In the EGFR inhibitor–treated cohorts, the classification predicted survival (HNSCC: gefitinib, P = 0.007 and erlotinib/bevacizumab, P = 0.02; CRC: cetuximab, P = 0.0065) whereas the chemotherapy cohort showed no survival difference. For CRC patients, tumor EGFR ligand RNA levels were significantly associated with the proteomic classification, and combined KRAS and proteomic classification provided improved survival classification. Conclusions: Serum proteomic profiling can detect clinically significant tumor dependence on the EGFR pathway in non–small cell lung cancer, HNSCC, and CRC patients treated with either EGFR-TKIs or cetuximab. This classification is correlated with tumor EGFR ligand levels and provides a clinically practical way to identify patients with diverse cancer types most likely to benefit from EGFR inhibitors. Prospective studies are necessary to confirm these findings. PMID:20086114

  20. Extracellular oxidation by taurine chloramine activates ERK via the epidermal growth factor receptor.

    PubMed

    Midwinter, Robyn G; Peskin, Alexander V; Vissers, Margret C M; Winterbourn, Christine C

    2004-07-30

    Taurine is present in high concentrations in neutrophils, and when the cells are stimulated taurine can react with hypochlorous acid (HOCl) to form taurine-chloramine (Tau-Cl). This compound retains oxidant activity and can affect the neutrophil itself or surrounding tissue cells. We have investigated the effects of Tau-Cl on MAPK signaling in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). Tau-Cl caused no loss in intracellular glutathione or inactivation of the thiol-sensitive enzyme glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, indicating that it had not entered the cells. However, stimulation of HUVEC with Tau-Cl (20-100 microM) induced the rapid activation of ERK within 10 min. This activation was abolished by inhibition of MEK by U0126, indicating that it was not because of direct oxidation of ERK. No activation of p38 was detected. These results suggest that Tau-Cl reacts with a cell membrane target that results in intracellular ERK activation. Tau-Cl over the same concentration range and time scale stimulated epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor tyrosine phosphorylation in A431 cells and HUVEC. The EGF receptor inhibitor PD158780 significantly attenuated Tau-Cl-induced phosphorylation of both the EGF receptor and ERK. This implicates the EGF receptor in the upstream activation of ERK. The Src tyrosine kinase inhibitor 4-amino-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-7-(t-butyl)pyrazolol[3,4-d]pyrimidine had no effect on Tau-Cl-induced EGF receptor or ERK activation. We propose that Tau-Cl acts on an oxidant-sensitive target on the cell surface, this being either the EGF receptor itself or another target that can interact with the EGF receptor, with consequential activation of ERK.

  1. Epidermal growth factor receptor activity is necessary for mouse basal cell proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Brechbuhl, Heather M.; Li, Bilan; Smith, Russell W.

    2014-01-01

    ERB family receptors (EGFR, ERB-B2, ERB-B3, and ERB-B4) regulate epithelial cell function in many tissue types. In the human airway epithelium, changes in ERB receptor expression are associated with epithelial repair defects. However, the specific role(s) played by ERB receptors in repair have not been determined. We aimed to determine whether ERB receptors regulate proliferation of the tracheobronchial progenitor, the basal cell. Receptor tyrosine kinase arrays were used to evaluate ERB activity in normal and naphthalene (NA)-injured mouse trachea and in air-liquid interface cultures. Roles for epidermal growth factor (EGF), EGFR, and ERB-B2 in basal cell proliferation were evaluated in vitro. NA injury and transgenic expression of an EGFR-dominant negative (DN) receptor were used to evaluate roles for EGFR signaling in vivo. EGFR and ERB-B2 were active in normal and NA-injured trachea and were the only active ERB receptors detected in proliferating basal cells in vitro. EGF was necessary for basal cell proliferation in vitro. The EGFR inhibitor, AG1478, decreased proliferation by 99, and the Erb-B2 inhibitor, AG825, decreased proliferation by ∼66%. In vivo, EGFR-DN expression in basal cells significantly decreased basal cell proliferation after NA injury. EGF and EGFR are necessary for basal cell proliferation. The EGFR/EGFR homo- and the EGFR/ERB-B2 heterodimer account for ∼34 and 66%, respectively, of basal cell proliferation in vitro. Active EGFR is necessary for basal cell proliferation after NA injury. We conclude that EGFR activation is necessary for mouse basal cell proliferation and normal epithelial repair. PMID:25217659

  2. Specific epidermal growth factor receptor autophosphorylation sites promote mouse colon epithelial cell chemotaxis and restitution.

    PubMed

    Yamaoka, Toshimitsu; Frey, Mark R; Dise, Rebecca S; Bernard, Jessica K; Polk, D Brent

    2011-08-01

    Upon ligand binding, epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (R) autophosphorylates on COOH-terminal tyrosines, generating docking sites for signaling partners that stimulate proliferation, restitution, and chemotaxis. Specificity for individual EGFR tyrosines in cellular responses has been hypothesized but not well documented. Here we tested the requirement for particular tyrosines, and associated downstream pathways, in mouse colon epithelial cell chemotactic migration. We compared these requirements to those for the phenotypically distinct restitution (wound healing) migration. Wild-type, Y992/1173F, Y1045F, Y1068F, and Y1086F EGFR constructs were expressed in EGFR(-/-) cells; EGF-induced chemotaxis or restitution were determined by Boyden chamber or modified scratch wound assay, respectively. Pharmacological inhibitors of p38, phospholipase C (PLC), Src, MEK, JNK/SAPK, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase), and protein kinase C (PKC) were used to block EGF-stimulated signaling. Pathway activation was determined by immunoblot analysis. Unlike wild-type EGFR, Y992/1173F and Y1086F EGFR did not stimulate colon epithelial cell chemotaxis toward EGF; Y1045F and Y1068F EGFR partially stimulated chemotaxis. Only wild-type EGFR promoted colonocyte restitution. Inhibition of p38, PLC, and Src, or Grb2 knockdown, blocked chemotaxis; JNK, PI 3-kinase, and PKC inhibitors or c-Cbl knockdown blocked restitution but not chemotaxis. All four EGFR mutants stimulated downstream signaling in response to EGF, but Y992/1173F EGFR was partially defective in PLCγ activation whereas both Y1068F and Y1086F EGFR failed to activate Src. We conclude that specific EGFR tyrosines play key roles in determining cellular responses to ligand. Chemotaxis and restitution, which have different migration phenotypes and physiological consequences, have overlapping but not identical EGFR signaling requirements.

  3. Sulindac metabolites induce proteosomal and lysosomal degradation of the epidermal growth factor receptor.

    PubMed

    Pangburn, Heather A; Ahnen, Dennis J; Rice, Pamela L

    2010-04-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a member of the ErbB family of receptor tyrosine kinases. In response to ligand, EGFR is internalized and degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome/lysosome pathway. We previously reported that metabolites of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug sulindac downregulate the expression of EGFR and inhibit basal and EGF-induced EGFR signaling through extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2. We now have evaluated the mechanisms of sulindac metabolite-induced downregulation of EGFR. EGF-induced downregulation of EGFR occurs within 10 minutes and lasts for 24 hours. By contrast, downregulation of EGFR by sulindac sulfide and sulindac sulfone was first evident at 4 and 24 hours, respectively, with maximal downregulation at 72 hours. Pretreatment with either the lysosomal inhibitor chloroquine or the proteosomal inhibitor MG132 blocked sulindac metabolite-induced downregulation of EGFR. Sulindac metabolites also increased the ubiquitination of EGFR. Whereas sulindac metabolites inhibited phosphorylation of EGFR pY1068, they increased phosphorylation of EGFR pY1045, the docking site where c-Cbl binds, thereby enabling receptor ubiquitination and degradation. Immunofluorescence analysis of EGF and EGFR distribution confirmed the biochemical observations that sulindac metabolites alter EGFR localization and EGFR internalization in a manner similar to that seen with EGF treatment. Expression of ErbB family members HER2 and HER3 was also downregulated by sulindac metabolites. We conclude that downregulation of EGFR expression by sulindac metabolites is mediated via lysosomal and proteosomal degradation that may be due to drug-induced phosphorylation at pY1045 with resultant ubiquitination of EGFR. Thus, sulindac metabolite-induced downregulation of EGFR seems to be mediated through mechanism(s) similar, at least in part, to those involved in EGF-induced downregulation of EGFR. (c) 2010 AACR.

  4. Inhibitors in LPE growth of garnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Roode, W. H.; Robertson, J. M.

    1983-09-01

    The growth rate of LPE growth garnets can be reduced considerably by the addition of small amounts of group II oxides. This effect can be helpful for the controlled growth of very thin garnet films for sub-micron bubbles and optical devices. The largest effect was found with the addition of Mg 2+ and Ca 2+, resulting in a maximum decrease of the growth rate of approximately 70%. A semi-empirical formula was used to describe the growth rate as a function of the dipping temperature. The change in the growth rate on the addition of the inhibitor ion at constant temperature was found to be proportional to ( aMO)/( aMO+2 Ln 2O 3), where M is a group II element, Ln 2O 2 is the sum of the yttrium and RE oxides in the melt, and a is the inhibitor factor. The value of the inhibitor factor depends on both the inhibitor ion as well as the composition of the garnet. The lowering of the growth rate on the addition of an inhibitor ion is explained by the introduction of an extra growth resistance due to the charge compensation mechanism of the divalent ions. The influence of the different charge compensation possibilities in the garnet system is examined and the relative importance of these possibilities for charge compensation is discussed.

  5. Growth factor control of epidermal growth factor receptor kinase activity via an intramolecular mechanism.

    PubMed

    Koland, J G; Cerione, R A

    1988-02-15

    The mechanism by which the protein kinase activity of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor is activated by binding of growth factor was investigated. Detergent-solubilized receptor in monomeric form was isolated by sucrose density gradient centrifugation and both its kinase and autophosphorylation activities monitored. In a low ionic strength medium and with MnCl2 as an activator, the activity of the monomeric receptor was EGF-independent. However, with 0.25 M ammonium sulfate present, the MnCl2-stimulated kinase activity was strikingly EGF-dependent. In contrast, the kinase activity expressed in the presence of MgCl2 showed growth factor control in the absence of added salt. Under the conditions of these experiments there was apparently little tendency for growth factor to induce aggregation of the receptor, indicating that the allosteric activation of the receptor kinase by EGF occurred via an intramolecular mechanism. Whereas detergent-solubilized receptor was the subject of these studies, the kinase activity of cell surface receptors might also be controlled by an intramolecular mechanism. These results indicate that an individual receptor molecule has the potential to function as a transmembrane signal transducer.

  6. PECTIN METHYLESTERASE INHIBITOR6 promotes Arabidopsis mucilage release by limiting methylesterification of homogalacturonan in seed coat epidermal cells.

    PubMed

    Saez-Aguayo, Susana; Ralet, Marie-Christine; Berger, Adeline; Botran, Lucy; Ropartz, David; Marion-Poll, Annie; North, Helen M

    2013-01-01

    Imbibed seeds of the Arabidopsis thaliana accession Djarly are affected in mucilage release from seed coat epidermal cells. The impaired locus was identified as a pectin methylesterase inhibitor gene, PECTIN METHYLESTERASE INHIBITOR6 (PMEI6), specifically expressed in seed coat epidermal cells at the time when mucilage polysaccharides are accumulated. This spatio-temporal regulation appears to be modulated by GLABRA2 and LEUNIG HOMOLOG/MUCILAGE MODIFIED1, as expression of PMEI6 is reduced in mutants of these transcription regulators. In pmei6, mucilage release was delayed and outer cell walls of epidermal cells did not fragment. Pectin methylesterases (PMEs) demethylate homogalacturonan (HG), and the majority of HG found in wild-type mucilage was in fact derived from outer cell wall fragments. This correlated with the absence of methylesterified HG labeling in pmei6, whereas transgenic plants expressing the PMEI6 coding sequence under the control of the 35S promoter had increased labeling of cell wall fragments. Activity tests on seeds from pmei6 and 35S:PMEI6 transgenic plants showed that PMEI6 inhibits endogenous PME activities, in agreement with reduced overall methylesterification of mucilage fractions and demucilaged seeds. Another regulator of PME activity in seed coat epidermal cells, the subtilisin-like Ser protease SBT1.7, acts on different PMEs, as a pmei6 sbt1.7 mutant showed an additive phenotype.

  7. Skin problems and EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Kozuki, Toshiyuki

    2016-04-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor inhibition is a good target for the treatment of lung, colon, pancreatic and head and neck cancers. Epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor was first approved for the treatment of advanced lung cancer in 2002. Epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor plays an essential role in the treatment of cancer, especially for patients harbouring epidermal growth factor receptor activating mutation. Hence, skin toxicity is the most concerning issue for the epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor treatment. Skin toxicity is bothersome and sometimes affects the quality of life and treatment compliance. Thus, it is important for physicians to understand the background and how to manage epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor-associated skin toxicity. Here, the author reviewed the mechanism and upfront preventive and reactive treatments for epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor-associated skin toxicities.

  8. Skin problems and EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Kozuki, Toshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor inhibition is a good target for the treatment of lung, colon, pancreatic and head and neck cancers. Epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor was first approved for the treatment of advanced lung cancer in 2002. Epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor plays an essential role in the treatment of cancer, especially for patients harbouring epidermal growth factor receptor activating mutation. Hence, skin toxicity is the most concerning issue for the epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor treatment. Skin toxicity is bothersome and sometimes affects the quality of life and treatment compliance. Thus, it is important for physicians to understand the background and how to manage epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor-associated skin toxicity. Here, the author reviewed the mechanism and upfront preventive and reactive treatments for epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor-associated skin toxicities. PMID:26826719

  9. MECHANISMS OF ZN-INDUCED SIGNAL INITIATION THROUGH THE EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR (EGFR)

    EPA Science Inventory

    MECHANISMS OF Zn-INDUCED SIGNAL INITIATION THROUGH THE EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR (EGFR)
    James M. Samet*, Lee M. Graves? and Weidong Wu?. *Human Studies Division, NHEERL, ORD, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711, and ?Center for Environmental Medicine, University of North C...

  10. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Overexpression as a Target for Auger Electron Radiotherapy of Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-08-01

    perfused rat liver: ligand and receptor dynamics. J . Cell Biol. 1984; 98: 2148-2159. 5. Fisher DA, Salido EC, Barajas L. Epidermal growth factor and the...Appendices .................................... .................................------------------------------------------------------ 21 Preprint 1. Wang J ...tumor uptake. Cancer Biother. and Radiopharm. (in press) 2002. Reprint 2. Wang J , Chen P, Su Z-F et al. Amplified delivery of indium- 111 to EGFR

  11. MECHANISMS OF ZN-INDUCED SIGNAL INITIATION THROUGH THE EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR (EGFR)

    EPA Science Inventory

    MECHANISMS OF Zn-INDUCED SIGNAL INITIATION THROUGH THE EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR (EGFR)
    James M. Samet*, Lee M. Graves? and Weidong Wu?. *Human Studies Division, NHEERL, ORD, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711, and ?Center for Environmental Medicine, University of North C...

  12. Sphingosine-1-phosphate mediates epidermal growth factor-induced muscle satellite cell activation.

    PubMed

    Nagata, Yosuke; Ohashi, Kazuya; Wada, Eiji; Yuasa, Yuki; Shiozuka, Masataka; Nonomura, Yoshiaki; Matsuda, Ryoichi

    2014-08-01

    Skeletal muscle can regenerate repeatedly due to the presence of resident stem cells, called satellite cells. Because satellite cells are usually quiescent, they must be activated before participating in muscle regeneration in response to stimuli such as injury, overloading, and stretch. Although satellite cell activation is a crucial step in muscle regeneration, little is known of the molecular mechanisms controlling this process. Recent work showed that the bioactive lipid sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) plays crucial roles in the activation, proliferation, and differentiation of muscle satellite cells. We investigated the role of growth factors in S1P-mediated satellite cell activation. We found that epidermal growth factor (EGF) in combination with insulin induced proliferation of quiescent undifferentiated mouse myoblast C2C12 cells, which are also known as reserve cells, in serum-free conditions. Sphingosine kinase activity increased when reserve cells were stimulated with EGF. Treatment of reserve cells with the D-erythro-N,N-dimethylsphingosine, Sphingosine Kinase Inhibitor, or siRNA duplexes specific for sphingosine kinase 1, suppressed EGF-induced C2C12 activation. We also present the evidence showing the S1P receptor S1P2 is involved in EGF-induced reserve cell activation. Moreover, we demonstrated a combination of insulin and EGF promoted activation of satellite cells on single myofibers in a manner dependent on SPHK and S1P2. Taken together, our observations show that EGF-induced satellite cell activation is mediated by S1P and its receptor.

  13. Kinetics of growth and differentiation of cultured human epidermal keratinocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Albers, K.M.

    1985-01-01

    A study was made of the interrelationship between replication and differentiation in cultures of human epidermal keratinocytes. Measures of both parameters were made using newly developed methods to quantify the rate at which keratinocytes replicate and the rate at which they withdraw from the cell cycle. Keratinocyte replication was measured by determining the cell doubling time, labeling index, and cell cycle duration. Cell cycle length was measured using a double label assay that determines the length of time between two successive phases of DNA synthesis. The first DNA synthesis phase was marked by labeling keratinocytes with /sup 14/C-thymidine. At the next round of DNA synthesis, cells were labeled with bromodeoxyuridine, a heavy analog of thymidine. The cell cycle length is given by the time required for the /sup 14/C-labeled DNA to become double labeled. To measure keratinocyte differentiation, the rate at which cells withdraw from the cell cycle was determined. To measure withdrawal, the percentage of cells labeled by a pulse of /sup 14/C-thymidine that failed to undergo a second cycle of DNA synthesis, as measured by bromodeoxyuridine incorporation, was determined. Cells which failed to undergo a second cycle of synthesis were considered to have differentiated and withdrawn from the cell cycle.

  14. Induction of PD-L1 expression by epidermal growth factor receptor–mediated signaling in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wencheng; Pang, Qingsong; Yan, Cihui; Wang, Qifeng; Yang, Jingsong; Yu, Shufei; Liu, Xiao; Yuan, Zhiyong; Wang, Ping; Xiao, Zefen

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential effect of activation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling pathway on the expression of programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) cells with EGFR overexpression. Methods Flow cytometry and Western blot methods were used to assess PD-L1 expression on ESCC cells when EGFR signaling pathway was activated by epidermal growth factor (EGF) with or without EGFR-specific inhibitor AG-1478, and then EGFR signaling array was applied to analyze the potential signaling pathways involved. Results This study found that PD-L1 expression increased significantly in an EGFR-dependent manner by the activation of EGFR signaling and decreased sharply when EGFR signaling was blocked. The upregulated expression of PD-L1 was not associated with EGFR-STAT3 signaling pathway, but may be affected by EGFR–PI3K–AKT, EGFR–Ras–Raf–Erk, and EGR–PLC-γ signaling pathways. Conclusion The expression of PD-L1 can be regulated by EGFR signaling activation in ESCC, which indicates an important role for EGFR-mediated immune escape and potential molecular pathways for EGFR-targeted therapy and immunotherapy. PMID:28243112

  15. Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 positive (HER2+) metastatic breast cancer: how the latest results are improving therapeutic options.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hanfang; Rugo, Hope S

    2015-11-01

    Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 positive (HER2+) metastatic breast cancer (MBC) remains an incurable disease, and approximately 25% of patients with HER2+ early breast cancer still relapse after adjuvant trastuzumab-based treatment. HER2 is a validated therapeutic target that remains relevant throughout the disease process. Recently, a number of novel HER2 targeted agents have become available, including lapatinib (a small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor of both HER2 and the epidermal growth factor receptor), pertuzumab (a new anti-HER2 monoclonal antibody) and ado-trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1, a novel antibody-drug conjugate), which provide additional treatment options for patients with HER2+ MBC. The latest clinical trials have demonstrated improved outcome with treatment including pertuzumab or T-DM1 compared with standard HER2 targeted therapy. Here we review the clinical development of approved and investigational targeted agents for the treatment of HER2+ MBC, summarize the latest results of important clinical trials supporting use of these agents in the treatment of HER2+ MBC, and discuss how these results impact therapeutic options in clinical practice.

  16. Sensitivity of epidermal growth factor receptor and ErbB2 exon 20 insertion mutants to Hsp90 inhibition.

    PubMed

    Xu, W; Soga, S; Beebe, K; Lee, M-J; Kim, Y S; Trepel, J; Neckers, L

    2007-09-17

    The mature epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) neither associates with nor requires the molecular chaperone heat-shock protein 90 (Hsp90). Mutations in EGFR exons 18, 19, and 21 confer Hsp90 chaperone dependence. In non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), these mutations are associated with enhanced sensitivity to EGFR inhibitors in vitro and with clinical response in vivo. Although less prevalent, insertions in EGFR exon 20 have also been described in NSCLC. These mutations, however, confer resistance to EGFR inhibitors. In NSCLC, exon 20 insertions have also been identified in the EGFR family member ErbB2. Here, we examined the sensitivity of exon 20 insertion mutants to an Hsp90 inhibitor currently in the clinic. Our data demonstrate that both EGFR and ErbB2 exon 20 insertion mutants retain dependence on Hsp90 for stability and downstream-signalling capability, and remain highly sensitive to Hsp90 inhibition. Use of Hsp90 inhibitors should be considered in NSCLC harbouring exon 20 insertions in either EGFR or ErbB2.

  17. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) involvement in successful growth hormone (GH) signaling in GH transduction defect.

    PubMed

    Kostopoulou, Eirini; Rojas-Gil, Andrea Paola; Karvela, Alexia; Spiliotis, Bessie E

    2017-02-01

    Growth hormone (GH) transduction defect (GHTD) is a growth disorder with impaired signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) phosphorylation mediated by overexpression of cytokine-inducible SH2-containing protein (CIS), which causes increased growth hormone receptor (GHR) degradation. This study investigated the role of epidermal growth factor (EGF) in the restoration of normal GH signaling in GHTD. Protein expression, cellular localization and physical contact of proteins of the GH and EGF signaling pathways were studied by Western immunoblotting, immunofluorescence and co-immunoprecipitation, respectively. These were performed in fibroblasts of one GHTD patient (P) and one control child (C) at the basal state and after induction with human GH (hGH) 200 μg/L (GH200), either with or without silencing of CIS mRNA, and after induction with hGH 1000 μg/L (GH1000) or 50 ng/mL EGF. The membrane availability of the EGF receptor (EGFR) and the activated EGFR (pEGFR) was increased in P only after simultaneous GH200 and silencing of CIS mRNA or with GH1000, whereas this occurred in C after GH200 alone. After EGF induction, the membrane localization of GHR, STAT3 and that of EGFR were increased in P more than in C. In conclusion, in GHTD, the EGFR seems to participate in successful GH signaling, but induction of GHTD fibroblasts with a higher dose of hGH is needed. The EGF/EGFR pathway, in contrast to the GH/GHR pathway, seems to function normally in P and is more primed compared to C. The involvement of the EGFR in successful GH signaling may explain the catch-up growth seen in the Ps when exogenous hGH is administered.

  18. P2X7R suppression promotes glioma growth through epidermal growth factor receptor signal pathway.

    PubMed

    Fang, Jingqin; Chen, Xiao; Zhang, Letian; Chen, Jinhua; Liang, Yi; Li, Xue; Xiang, Jianbo; Wang, Lili; Guo, Guangkuo; Zhang, Bo; Zhang, Weiguo

    2013-06-01

    P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) has been shown to mediate an anticancer effect via apoptosis in different types of cancer. However, whether P2X7R exerts a promoting or suppressive effect on brain glioma is still a controversial issue and its underlying mechanism remains unknown. We showed here that P2X7R suppression exerted a pro-growth effect on glioma through directly promoting cells proliferation and pro-angiogenesis, which was associated with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling. The P2X7R was markedly downregulated by cells exposure to the P2X7R antagonist, brilliant blue G (BBG), moreover, the cells proliferation was enhanced in a dose-dependent manner and the expression of EGFR or p-EGFR protein was significantly upregulated. By constructing C6 cells with reduced expression of P2X7R using shRNA, we also demonstrated strong upregulation in cells proliferation and EGFR/p-EGFR expression. However, this effect of BBG was reversed in the presence of gefitinib or suramin. Magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography perfusion showed that the BBG or P2X7R shRNA promoted the tumor growth by about 40% and 50%, respectively, and significantly increased angiogenesis. Nissl and Ki-67 staining also confirmed that BBG or P2X7R shRNA notably increased the tumor growth. More importantly, either BBG or P2X7R shRNA could markedly upregulated the expression of EGFR, p-EGFR, HIF-1α and VEGF in glioma cells. In conclusion, P2X7R suppression exerts a promoting effect on glioma growth, which is likely to be related to upregulated EGFR, HIF-1α and VEGF expression. These findings provide important clues to the molecular basis of anticancer effect of targeting purinergic receptors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Epidermal growth factor receptor mutation enhances expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Hung, Ming-Szu; Chen, I-Chuan; Lin, Paul-Yann; Lung, Jr-Hau; Li, Ya-Chin; Lin, Yu-Ching; Yang, Cheng-Ta; Tsai, Ying-Huang

    2016-12-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activation has been demonstrated to have a critical role in tumor angiogenesis. In the present study, the correlation between EGFR mutations and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was investigated in lung cancer cell lines and non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tumor tissues. VEGF levels were significantly increased in culture medium of lung cancer cells and NSCLC tissues with EGFR mutations (H1650 vs. A549, P=0.0399; H1975 vs. A549, P<0.0001). Stable lung cancer cell lines expressing mutant (exon 19 deletion, E746-A750; exon 21 missense mutation, L858R) and wild-type EGFR genes were established. Significantly increased expression of VEGF and stronger inhibitory effects of gefitinib to VEGF expression were observed in exon 19 deletion stable lung cancer cells (exon 19 deletion vs. wild-type EGFR, P=0.0005). The results of the present study may provide an insight into the association of mutant EGFR and VEGF expression in lung cancer, and may assist with further development of targeted therapy for NSCLC in the future.

  20. Epidermal growth factor and growth hormone-releasing peptide-6: combined therapeutic approach in experimental stroke.

    PubMed

    García Del Barco-Herrera, Diana; Martínez, Nelvys Subirós; Coro-Antich, Rosa María; Machado, Jorge Martín; Alba, José Suárez; Salgueiro, Sandra Rodríguez; Acosta, Jorge Berlanga

    2013-01-01

    Stroke is the second cause of mortality worldwide, with a high incidence of disability in survivors. Promising candidate drugs have failed in stroke trials. Combined therapies are attractive strategies that simultaneously target different points of stroke pathophysiology. The aim of this work is to determine whether the combined effects of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and growth hormone-releasing peptide-6 (GHRP6) can attenuate clinical signs and pathology in an experimental stroke model. Brain global ischemia was generated in Mongolian gerbils by 15 minutes of carotid occlusion. After reperfusion, EGF, GHRP6 or EGF+GHRP6 were intraperitoneally administered. Clinical manifestations were monitored daily. Three days after reperfusion, animals were anesthetized and perfused with an ink solution. The anatomy of the Circle of Willis was characterized. Infarct volume and neuronal density were analyzed. EGF+GHRP6 co-administration reduced clinical manifestations and infarct volume and preserved neuronal density. No correlation was observed between the grade of anastomosis of the Circle of Willis and clinical manifestations in the animals receiving EGF+GHRP6, as opposed to the vehicle-treated gerbils. Co-treatment with EGF and GHRP6 affects both the clinical and pathological outcomes in a global brain ischemia model, suggesting a suitable therapeutic approach for the acute management of stroke.

  1. CrkII signals from epidermal growth factor receptor to Ras.

    PubMed Central

    Kizaka-Kondoh, S; Matsuda, M; Okayama, H

    1996-01-01

    A rat fibroblast mutant defective in oncogenic transformation and signaling from epidermal growth factor receptor to Ras has been isolated. The mutant contains dominant negative-type point mutations in the C-terminal SH3 domain of one crkII gene. Among the adapters tested, the mutant is complemented only by crkII cDNA. Expression of the mutated crkII in parent cells generates the phenotype indistinguishable from the mutant cell. Yet overexpression or reduced expression of Grb2 in the mutant before and after complementation with crkII have little effect on its phenotype. We conclude that adapter molecules are highly specific and that the oncogenic growth signal from epidermal growth factor receptor to Ras is predominantly mediated by CrkII in rat fibroblast. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:8901553

  2. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Inhibition in the Management of Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lung

    PubMed Central

    Spaans, Johanna N.

    2016-01-01

    Molecular therapies targeting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) have had a profound impact on the management of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). EGFR inhibition with EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) and anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) in squamous NSCLC (sqNSCLC) remains controversial in patients whose tumors are not known to harbor EGFR mutations. Recent meta-analyses of EGFR-inhibition randomized trials that are adequately powered for histological subgroup analysis and anti-EGFR trials limited to patients with squamous histology afford the opportunity to revisit EGFR treatment in sqNSCLC. In unselected patients with sqNSCLC who are not eligible for chemotherapy, EGFR-TKI therapy is a valid treatment option over placebo or best supportive care, with improved progression-free survival noted in randomized controlled trials in both the first- and second-line setting and improved overall survival (OS) in the second-line setting. In patients eligible for chemotherapy, first-line combination regimens with anti-EGFR mAbs have been shown to improve OS over chemotherapy alone in patients with squamous histology in meta-analysis and more recently in the SQUIRE sqNSCLC trial (chemotherapy with and without necitumumab). In sqNSCLC patients who respond to induction chemotherapy, maintenance therapy with erlotinib delays disease progression and may improve the survival of patients with stable disease. In the second-line setting, survival outcomes are comparable between chemotherapy and EGFR-TKIs in meta-analysis, with the latter being more tolerable as a second-line therapy. Newer-generation EGFR-TKI therapies may further benefit patients with sqNSCLC who have failed first-line chemotherapy, given the positive trial results from LUX-Lung 8 (afatinib vs. erlotinib). EGFR is a valid therapeutic target in unselected/EGFR wild-type patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the lung. With the recent approval of immune checkpoint inhibitors in the

  3. Epidermal growth factor inhibits transforming growth factor-β-induced fibrogenic differentiation marker expression through ERK activation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoying; Hubchak, Susan C; Browne, James A; Schnaper, H William

    2014-10-01

    Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling plays an important and complex role in renal fibrogenesis. The seemingly simple TGF-β/Smad cascade is intensively regulated at several levels, including crosstalk with other signaling pathways. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is a potent mitogen for epithelial cells and is elevated in diseased kidneys. In this study, we examined its effect on TGF-β-induced fibrotic changes in human proximal tubular epithelial cells. Simultaneous treatment with EGF specifically inhibited basal and TGF-β-induced type-I collagen and α-smooth muscle actin (αSMA) expression at both mRNA and protein levels. These effects were prevented by inhibition of either the EGF receptor kinase or its downstream MEK kinase but not by blockade of either the JNK or PI3K pathway. Overexpression of a constitutively active MEK1 construct mimicked the inhibitory effect of EGF. Further, EGF suppressed Smad transcriptional activities, as shown by reduced activation of ARE-luc and SBE-luc. Both reductions were prevented by MEK inhibition. However, EGF did not block Smad2 or Smad3 phosphorylation by TGF-β, or Smad2/3 nuclear import. Finally EGF induced the phosphorylation and expression of TGIF, a known TGF-β/Smad repressor. Both the phosphorylation and the induction were blocked by a MEK inhibitor. Overexpression of TGIF abolished TGF-β-induced αSMA promoter activity. Together these results suggest that EGF inhibits two TGF-β-stimulated markers of EMT through EGF receptor tyrosine kinase and downstream ERK activation, but not through PI3K or JNK. The inhibition results from effector mechanisms downstream of Smads, and most likely involves the transcriptional repressor, TGIF. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. H-Ras Mediates the Inhibitory Effect of Epidermal Growth Factor on the Epithelial Na+ Channel

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Il-Ha; Song, Sung-Hee; Cook, David I.; Dinudom, Anuwat

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigates the role of small G-proteins of the Ras family in the epidermal growth factor (EGF)-activated cellular signalling pathway that downregulates activity of the epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC). We found that H-Ras is a key component of this EGF-activated cellular signalling mechanism in M1 mouse collecting duct cells. Expression of a constitutively active H-Ras mutant inhibited the amiloride-sensitive current. The H-Ras-mediated signalling pathway that inhibits activity of ENaC involves c-Raf, and that the inhibitory effect of H-Ras on ENaC is abolished by the MEK1/2 inhibitor, PD98059. The inhibitory effect of H-Ras is not mediated by Nedd4-2, a ubiquitin protein ligase that regulates the abundance of ENaC at the cell surface membrane, or by a negative effect of H-Ras on proteolytic activation of the channel. The inhibitory effects of EGF and H-Ras on ENaC, however, were not observed in cells in which expression of caveolin-1 (Cav-1) had been knocked down by siRNA. These findings suggest that the inhibitory effect of EGF on ENaC-dependent Na+ absorption is mediated via the H-Ras/c-Raf, MEK/ERK signalling pathway, and that Cav-1 is an essential component of this EGF-activated signalling mechanism. Taken together with reports that mice expressing a constitutive mutant of H-Ras develop renal cysts, our findings suggest that H-Ras may play a key role in the regulation of renal ion transport and renal development. PMID:25774517

  5. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Kinase Domain Mutations in Esophageal and Pancreatic Adenocarcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, Eunice L.; Jankowski, Janusz; Thayer, Sarah P.; Lauwers, Gregory Y.; Brannigan, Brian W.; Harris, Patricia L.; Okimoto, Ross A.; Haserlat, Sara M.; Dris coll, David R.; Ferry, David; Muir, Beth; Settleman, Jeff; Fuchs, Charles S.; Kulke, Matthew H.; Ryan, David P.; Clark, Jeff W.; Sgroi, Dennis C.; Haber, Daniel A.; Bell, Daphne W.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Specific activating mutations within the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) identify a subset of non – small cell lung cancers with dramatic sensitivity to the specific tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI), gefitinib and erlotinib. Despite the abundant expression of EGFR protein in a broad range of epithelial cancers, EGFR mutations have not been reported in a substantial fraction of other cancers. Given recent reports of TKI-responsive cases of esophageal and pancreatic cancer, this study was designed to determine the prevalence of EGFR mutations in these gastrointestinal cancers. Experimental Design We sequenced exons 18 to 21 of EGFR from 21cases of Barrett's esophagus, 5 cases of high-grade esophageal dysplasia, 17 cases of esophageal adenocarcinoma, and 55 cases of pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Subsets of esophageal (n = 7) and pancreatic cancer cases (n = 5) were obtained from patients who were subsequently treated with gefitinib or erlotinib-capecitabine, respectively. Results Mutations of EGFR were identified in two esophageal cancers (11.7%), three cases of Barrett's esophagus (14.2%), and two pancreatic cancers (3.6%). The mutations consisted of the recurrent missense L858R and in-frame deletion delE746-A750, previously characterized as activating EGFR mutations in non – small cell lung cancer. We also identified the TKI drug resistance – associated EGFR T790M mutation in an untreated case of Barrett's esophagus and the corresponding adenocarcinoma. Conclusion The presence of activating mutations within EGFR in both esophageal and pancreatic adenocarcinomas defines a previously unrecognized subset of gastrointestinal tumors in which EGFR signaling may play an important biological role. EGFR mutations in premalignant lesions of Barrett's esophagus also point to these as an early event in transformation of the esophageal epithelium. The role of genotype-directed TKI therapy should be tested in prospective clinical trials. PMID:16857803

  6. Regulation of the Ligand-dependent Activation of the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor by Calmodulin*

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hongbing; Panina, Svetlana; Kaur, Amandeep; Ruano, María J.; Sánchez-González, Pablo; la Cour, Jonas M.; Stephan, Alexander; Olesen, Uffe H.; Berchtold, Martin W.; Villalobo, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Calmodulin (CaM) is the major component of calcium signaling pathways mediating the action of various effectors. Transient increases in the intracellular calcium level triggered by a variety of stimuli lead to the formation of Ca2+/CaM complexes, which interact with and activate target proteins. In the present study the role of Ca2+/CaM in the regulation of the ligand-dependent activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has been examined in living cells. We show that addition of different cell permeable CaM antagonists to cultured cells or loading cells with a Ca2+ chelator inhibited ligand-dependent EGFR auto(trans)phosphorylation. This occurred also in the presence of inhibitors of protein kinase C, CaM-dependent protein kinase II and calcineurin, which are known Ca2+- and/or Ca2+/CaM-dependent EGFR regulators, pointing to a direct effect of Ca2+/CaM on the receptor. Furthermore, we demonstrate that down-regulation of CaM in conditional CaM knock out cells stably transfected with the human EGFR decreased its ligand-dependent phosphorylation. Substitution of six basic amino acid residues within the CaM-binding domain (CaM-BD) of the EGFR by alanine resulted in a decreased phosphorylation of the receptor and of its downstream substrate phospholipase Cγ1. These results support the hypothesis that Ca2+/CaM regulates the EGFR activity by directly interacting with the CaM-BD of the receptor located at its cytosolic juxtamembrane region. PMID:22157759

  7. Apelin-induced cardioprotection against ischaemia/reperfusion injury: roles of epidermal growth factor and Src.

    PubMed

    Folino, A; Accomasso, L; Giachino, C; Montarolo, P G; Losano, G; Pagliaro, P; Rastaldo, R

    2017-07-27

    Apelin, the ligand of the G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) APJ, exerts a post-conditioning-like protection against ischaemia/reperfusion injury through activation of PI3K-Akt-NO signalling. The pathway connecting APJ to PI3K is still unknown. As other GPCR ligands act through transactivation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) via a matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) or Src kinase, we investigated whether EGFR transactivation is involved in the following three features of apelin-induced cardioprotection: limitation of infarct size, suppression of contracture and improvement of post-ischaemic contractile recovery. Isolated rat hearts underwent 30 min of global ischaemia and 2 h of reperfusion. Apelin (0.5 μm) was infused during the first 20 min of reperfusion. EGFR, MMP or Src was inhibited to study the pathway connecting APJ to PI3K. Key components of RISK pathway, namely PI3K, guanylyl cyclase or mitochondrial K(+) -ATP channels, were also inhibited. Apelin-induced EGFR and phosphatase and tensing homolog (PTEN) phosphorylation were assessed. Left ventricular pressure and infarct size were measured. Apelin-induced reductions in infarct size and myocardial contracture were prevented by the inhibition of EGFR, Src, MMP or RISK pathway. The involvement of EGFR was confirmed by its phosphorylation. However, neither direct EGFR nor MMP inhibition affected apelin-induced improvement of early post-ischaemic contractile recovery, which was suppressed by Src and RISK inhibitors only. Apelin also increased PTEN phosphorylation, which was removed by Src inhibition. While EGFR and MMP limit infarct size and contracture, Src or RISK pathway inhibition suppresses the three features of cardioprotection. Src does not only transactivate EGFR, but also inhibits PTEN by phosphorylation thus playing a crucial role in apelin-induced cardioprotection. © 2017 Scandinavian Physiological Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Epidermal growth factor receptor plays an anabolic role in bone metabolism in vivo.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xianrong; Tamasi, Joseph; Lu, Xin; Zhu, Ji; Chen, Haiyan; Tian, Xiaoyan; Lee, Tang-Cheng; Threadgill, David W; Kream, Barbara E; Kang, Yibin; Partridge, Nicola C; Qin, Ling

    2011-05-01

    While the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mediated signaling pathway has been shown to have vital roles in many developmental and pathologic processes, its functions in the development and homeostasis of the skeletal system has been poorly defined. To address its in vivo role, we constructed transgenic and pharmacologic mouse models and used peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT), micro-computed tomography (µCT) and histomorphometry to analyze their trabecular and cortical bone phenotypes. We initially deleted the EGFR in preosteoblasts/osteoblasts using a Cre/loxP system (Col-Cre Egfr(f/f)), but no bone phenotype was observed because of incomplete deletion of the Egfr genomic locus. To further reduce the remaining osteoblastic EGFR activity, we introduced an EGFR dominant-negative allele, Wa5, and generated Col-Cre Egfr(Wa5/f) mice. At 3 and 7 months of age, both male and female mice exhibited a remarkable decrease in tibial trabecular bone mass with abnormalities in trabecular number and thickness. Histologic analyses revealed decreases in osteoblast number and mineralization activity and an increase in osteoclast number. Significant increases in trabecular pattern factor and structural model index indicate that trabecular microarchitecture was altered. The femurs of these mice were shorter and smaller with reduced cortical area and periosteal perimeter. Moreover, colony-forming unit-fibroblast (CFU-F) assay indicates that these mice had fewer bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and committed progenitors. Similarly, administration of an EGFR inhibitor into wild-type mice caused a significant reduction in trabecular bone volume. In contrast, Egfr(Dsk5/+) mice with a constitutively active EGFR allele displayed increases in trabecular and cortical bone content. Taken together, these data demonstrate that the EGFR signaling pathway is an important bone regulator and that it primarily plays an anabolic role in bone metabolism. Copyright © 2011

  9. [Epidermic growth factor receptor (EGFR) in glioblastomas: the mechanism of tumorigenesis and its role as a therapeutic target].

    PubMed

    Zahonero, Cristina; Sepúlveda, Juan M; Sánchez-Gómez, Pilar

    2015-07-16

    A glioblastoma is a primary brain tumour that is very aggressive and resistant to conventional treatment with chemo- or radiotherapy. Given that epidermic growth factor receptor (EGFR) is altered in 50% of glioblastomas, it is currently one of the most promising therapeutic targets in this kind of tumour. Yet, inhibitors of the kinase activity of EGFR have yielded poor results in clinical trials with patients with glioblastomas. In this review we analyse the function of EGFR in glioblastomas and outline the therapeutic approaches aimed against this receptor in this kind of tumour. This sort of analysis could be a starting point for improving the design of future therapies for glioblastomas, based on inhibiting the EGFR function.

  10. [Enhancement of epidermal regeneration by recombinant vaccinia virus growth factor].

    PubMed

    Petrov, V S; Cheshenko, I O; Omigov, V V; Azaev, M Sh; Krendel'shchikov, A V; Ovechkina, L G; Cheshenko, N V; Malygin, E G

    1998-01-01

    Examining the specific activity has showed that recombinant vaccinia virus growth factor binds to appropriate receptors on the A-431 cell surface and prompts the healing acceleration of degree III burns in rats. This recombinant factor did not demonstrate pyrogenicity or toxicogenicity in tests on rabbits, guinea-pits, noninbred albino mice.

  11. Induction of membrane-type-1 matrix metalloproteinase by epidermal growth factor-mediated signaling in gliomas1

    PubMed Central

    Van Meter, Timothy E.; Broaddus, William C.; Rooprai, Harcharan K.; Pilkington, Geoffrey J.; Fillmore, Helen L.

    2004-01-01

    Increased expression of membrane-type matrix metalloproteinases (MT-MMPs) has previously been reported to correlate with increasing grade of malignancy in gliomas, a relationship shared with alterations in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling. To investigate the possibility of a causative role for EGFR signaling in increasing MT-MMP expression and subsequent peritumoral proteolysis, we characterized glioma cell lines for expression of MT1-MMP, MT2-MMP, MT3-MMP, and MT5-MMP by Western blotting and by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis, and for MMP-2 activity following epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulation. EGF stimulation of glioma cell lines resulted in a 2- to 4-fold increase in MT1-MMP mRNA levels. Although there were slight differences in MT2-, MT3-, and MT5-MMP mRNA expression following EGF stimulation, none of these demonstrated an increase similar to that of MT1-MMP expression. Treatment of high-grade glioma cell lines U251MG and IPSB-18 with EGF for 24 h resulted in a several-fold increase in MT1-MMP protein (2.5- and 5.1-fold, respectively) and in cyclin D1 (2.9-fold), as compared to untreated controls. No significant increase was detected in other MT-MMPs at the protein level. Although there was no detectable increase in proMMP-2 protein, there was an increase in MMP-2 activity. Furthermore, the MT1-MMP induction by EGF was prevented by pretreatment with the EGFR-specific tyrphostin inhibitor AG1478. Similarly, treatment with the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor LY294002 prevented the induction of MT1-MMP protein by EGF stimulation. These compounds additionally inhibited EGF-stimulated invasion in Matrigel Transwell assays. Our results indicate that one mechanism of EGFR-mediated invasiveness in gliomas may involve the induction of MT1-MMP. PMID:15279711

  12. HB-EGF release mediates glucose-induced activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor in mesangial cells.

    PubMed

    Uttarwar, L; Peng, F; Wu, D; Kumar, S; Gao, B; Ingram, A J; Krepinsky, J C

    2011-04-01

    Glomerular matrix accumulation is a hallmark of diabetic nephropathy. We showed that transactivation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is an important mediator of matrix upregulation in mesangial cells (MC) in response to high glucose (HG). Here, we study the mechanism of EGFR transactivation. In primary MC, EGFR transactivation by 1 h of HG (30 mM) was unaffected by inhibitors of protein kinase C, reactive oxygen species, or the angiotensin II AT1 receptor. However, general metalloprotease inhibition, as well as specific inhibitors of heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF), prevented both EGFR and downstream Akt activation. HB-EGF was released into the medium by 30 min of HG, and this depended on metalloprotease activity. One of the metalloproteases shown to cleave proHB-EGF is ADAM17 (TACE). HG, but not an osmotic control, activated ADAM17, and its inhibition prevented EGFR and Akt activation and HB-EGF release into the medium. siRNA to either ADAM17 or HB-EGF prevented HG-induced EGFR transactivation. We previously showed that EGFR/Akt signaling increases transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 transcription through the transcription factor activator protein (AP)-1. HG-induced AP-1 activation, as assessed by EMSA, was abrogated by inhibitors of metalloproteases, HB-EGF and ADAM17. HB-EGF and ADAM17 siRNA also prevented AP-1 activation. Finally, these inhibitors and siRNA prevented TGF-β1 upregulation by HG. Thus, HG-induced EGFR transactivation in MC is mediated by the release of HB-EGF, which requires activity of the metalloprotease ADAM17. The mechanism of ADAM17 activation awaits identification. Targeting upstream mediators of EGFR transactivation including HB-EGF or ADAM17 provides novel therapeutic targets for the treatment of diabetic nephropathy.

  13. Association Study of Polymorphisms of Epidermal Growth Factor and Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor With Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia in a Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Recent studies have suggested that specific single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) contribute to the clinical features of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). In this study, we investigated the relationships of genetic polymorphisms of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) gene and the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene with BPH. Methods A total of 218 patients with BPH were enrolled in this study. We evaluated the relationship between eight SNPs in the EGF and EGFR genes and prostate volume, prostate-specific antigen (PSA), and International Prostate Symptom Score of BPH patients. Each SNP was genotyped by direct sequencing. Statistical analysis applying codominant, dominant, recessive, and log-additive models was performed via logistic regression. Results The rs11568943 and rs11569017 SNPs in the EGF gene showed significant associations with prostate volume (rs11568943: P=0.038 in the log-additive model, P=0.024 in the allele distribution; rs11569017, P=0.031 in the dominant model, P=0.028 in the log-additive model, P=0.020 in the allele distribution). Additionally, the rs3756261, rs11568943, and rs11569017 SNPs of the EGF gene and the rs2293347 SNP of the EGFR gene were associated with PSA levels (P<0.05 in each model, respectively). Conclusions These results suggest that the EGF gene may affect prostate volume. In addition, the EGF and EGFR genes may be associated with PSA levels in patients with BPH. PMID:28043105

  14. Recent advances in the epidermal growth factor receptor/ligand system biology on skin homeostasis and keratinocyte stem cell regulation.

    PubMed

    Nanba, Daisuke; Toki, Fujio; Barrandon, Yann; Higashiyama, Shigeki

    2013-11-01

    The epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor/ligand system stimulates multiple pathways of signal transduction, and is activated by various extracellular stimuli and inter-receptor crosstalk signaling. Aberrant activation of EGF receptor (EGFR) signaling is found in many tumor cells, and humanized neutralizing antibodies and synthetic small compounds against EGFR are in clinical use today. However, these drugs are known to cause a variety of skin toxicities such as inflammatory rash, skin dryness, and hair abnormalities. These side effects demonstrate the multiple EGFR-dependent homeostatic functions in human skin. The epidermis and hair follicles are self-renewing tissues, and keratinocyte stem cells are crucial for maintaining these homeostasis. A variety of molecules associated with the EGF receptor/ligand system are involved in epidermal homeostasis and hair follicle development, and the modulation of EGFR signaling impacts the behavior of keratinocyte stem cells. Understanding the roles of the EGF receptor/ligand system in skin homeostasis is an emerging issue in dermatology to improve the current therapy for skin disorders, and the EGFR inhibitor-associated skin toxicities. Besides, controlling of keratinocyte stem cells by modulating the EGF receptor/ligand system assures advances in regenerative medicine of the skin. We present an overview of the recent progress in the field of the EGF receptor/ligand system on skin homeostasis and regulation of keratinocyte stem cells. Copyright © 2013 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Transient anabolic effects accompany epidermal growth factor receptor signal activation in articular cartilage in vivo

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Signals from the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) have typically been considered to provide catabolic activities in articular cartilage, and accordingly have been suggested to have a causal role in osteoarthritis progression. The aim of this study was to determine in vivo roles for endogenous EGFR signal activation in articular cartilage. Methods Transgenic mice with conditional, limb-targeted deletion of the endogenous intracellular EGFR inhibitor Mig-6 were generated using CreLoxP (Mig-6-flox; Prx1Cre) recombination. Histology, histochemical staining and immunohistochemistry were used to confirm activation of EGFR signaling in the articular cartilage and joints, and to analyze phenotypic consequences of Mig-6 loss on articular cartilage morphology, proliferation, expression of progenitor cell markers, presence of chondrocyte hypertrophy and degradation of articular cartilage matrix. Results The articular cartilage of Mig-6-conditional knockout (Mig-6-cko) mice was dramatically and significantly thicker than normal articular cartilage at 6 and 12 weeks of age. Mig-6-cko articular cartilage contained a population of chondrocytes in which EGFR signaling was activated, and which were three to four times more proliferative than normal Mig-6-flox articular chondrocytes. These cells expressed high levels of the master chondrogenic regulatory factor Sox9, as well as high levels of putative progenitor cell markers including superficial zone protein (SZP), growth and differentiation factor-5 (GDF-5) and Notch1. Expression levels were also high for activated β-catenin and the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) mediators phospho-Smad2/3 (pSmad2/3). Anabolic effects of EGFR activation in articular cartilage were followed by catabolic events, including matrix degradation, as determined by accumulation of aggrecan cleavage fragments, and onset of hypertrophy as determined by type × collagen expression. By 16 weeks of age, the articular cartilage of

  16. Immunohistochemical demonstration of epidermal growth factor in human gastric cancer xenografts of nude mice.

    PubMed

    Yoshiyuki, T; Shimizu, Y; Onda, M; Tokunaga, A; Kiyama, T; Nishi, K; Mizutani, T; Matsukura, N; Tanaka, N; Akimoto, M

    1990-02-15

    Thirty-two surgical specimens and three cell lines of human gastric cancers were used for subcutaneous transplantation into nude mice, resulting in the establishment of eight (25%) xenografts from the surgical specimens and two (67%) from the cell lines. The localization of epidermal growth factor (EGF) in the surgical specimens and cell lines of the gastric cancers and their xenografts in nude mice was then investigated immunohistochemically. Epidermal growth factor was stained in the cytoplasm of the cancer cells, being detected in 16 (50%) of the 32 surgical specimens and in all of the cell lines. Seven (44%) of the sixteen EGF-positive surgical specimens and one (6%) of the 16 EGF-negative ones were tumorigenic in nude mice. All of the xenografts in nude mice were positive for EGF. The tumorigenicity of human gastric cancer xenografts in nude mice may, therefore, be correlated with the presence of EGF in cancer cells.

  17. Predicting response to epidermal growth factor receptor-targeted therapy in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Adams, Richard; Maughan, Tim

    2007-04-01

    The discovery over 20 years ago by the Nobel Laureate Stanley Cohen of epidermal growth factor and its receptor, followed by the recognition that this receptor is overexpressed in multiple cancer types, has been of phenomenal significance. From these events the 'Holy Grail' of targeted therapy has looked increasingly realistic. Over the last 5 years this work has come of age with the licensing of multiple agents targeting this important mitogenic pathway in multiple tumor types. However, these agents and the technology behind them, while impressive, have resulted in lower clinical response rates than anticipated. In this review we will focus on the epidermal growth factor receptor-targeted therapies in colorectal cancer, why our expectations from these therapies have not yet been fulfilled and how we may predict those cancers that are likely to respond or be resistant to these therapies through a greater appreciation of the intricacy, diversity and dynamism of cellular signaling mechanisms.

  18. Anti-epidermal growth factor receptor skin toxicity: a matter of topical hydration.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Daris; Codecà, Carla; Bocci, Barbara; Crepaldi, Francesca; Violati, Martina; Viale, Giulia; Careri, Carmela; Caldiera, Sarah; Bordin, Veronica; Luciani, Andrea; Zonato, Sabrina; Cassinelli, Gabriela; Foa, Paolo

    2016-02-01

    Skin toxicity is a frequent complication of anti-epidermal growth factor receptor therapy, which can be an obstacle in maintaining the dose intensity and may negatively impact on the clinical outcome of cancer patients. Skin lesions depend on the disruption of the keratinocyte development pathways and no treatment is clearly effective in resolving the cutaneous alterations frequently found during anti-epidermal growth factor receptor therapy. Among systemic treatments, oral tetracycline proved to be useful in preventing skin manifestations. We describe the case of a patient affected by metastatic colorectal cancer, for whom a combination of chemotherapy and cetuximab was used as second-line treatment. The patient developed a symptomatic papulopustular skin rash that disappeared completely after a twice-daily application of a hydrating and moisturizing cream, mainly consisting of a mixture of paraffin, silicone compounds, and macrogol. The marked cutaneous amelioration allowed the patient to continue cetuximab without any further symptoms and was associated with a partial radiological response.

  19. Epidermal growth factor upregulates serotonin transporter and its association with visceral hypersensitivity in irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cui, Xiu-Fang; Zhou, Wei-Mei; Yang, Yan; Zhou, Jun; Li, Xue-Liang; Lin, Lin; Zhang, Hong-Jie

    2014-10-07

    To investigate the role of epidermal growth factor (EGF) in visceral hypersensitivity and its effect on the serotonin transporter (SERT). A rat model for visceral hypersensitivity was established by intra-colonic infusion of 0.5% acetic acid in 10-d-old Sprague-Dawley rats. The visceral sensitivity was assessed by observing the abdominal withdrawal reflex and recording electromyographic activity of the external oblique muscle in response to colorectal distension. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to measure the EGF levels in plasma and colonic tissues. SERT mRNA expression was detected by real-time PCR while protein level was determined by Western blot. The correlation between EGF and SERT levels in colon tissues was analyzed by Pearson's correlation analysis. SERT function was examined by tritiated serotonin (5-HT) uptake experiments. Rat intestinal epithelial cells (IEC-6) were used to examine the EGF regulatory effect on SERT expression and function via the EGF receptor (EGFR). EGF levels were significantly lower in the rats with visceral hypersensitivity as measured in plasma (2.639 ± 0.107 ng/mL vs 4.066 ± 0.573 ng/mL, P < 0.01) and in colonic tissue (3.244 ± 0.135 ng/100 mg vs 3.582 ± 0.197 ng/100 mg colon tissue, P < 0.01) compared with controls. Moreover, the EGF levels were positively correlated with SERT levels (r = 0.820, P < 0.01). EGF displayed dose- and time-dependent increased SERT gene expressions in IEC-6 cells. An EGFR kinase inhibitor inhibited the effect of EGF on SERT gene upregulation. SERT activity was enhanced following treatment with EGF (592.908 ± 31.515 fmol/min per milligram vs 316.789 ± 85.652 fmol/min per milligram protein, P < 0.05) and blocked by the EGFR kinase inhibitor in IEC-6 cells (590.274 ± 25.954 fmol/min per milligram vs 367.834 ± 120.307 fmol/min per milligram protein, P < 0.05). A decrease in EGF levels may contribute to the formation of visceral hypersensitivity through downregulation of SERT

  20. The Anrep effect requires transactivation of the epidermal growth factor receptor.

    PubMed

    Villa-Abrille, María C; Caldiz, Claudia I; Ennis, Irene L; Nolly, Mariela B; Casarini, María J; Chiappe de Cingolani, Gladys E; Cingolani, Horacio E; Pérez, Néstor G

    2010-05-01

    Myocardial stretch elicits a biphasic contractile response: the Frank-Starling mechanism followed by the slow force response (SFR) or Anrep effect. In this study we hypothesized that the SFR depends on epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) transactivation after the myocardial stretch-induced angiotensin II (Ang II)/endothelin (ET) release. Experiments were performed in isolated cat papillary muscles stretched from 92 to 98% of the length at which maximal twitch force was developed (L(max)). The SFR was 123 +/- 1% of the immediate rapid phase (n = 6, P < 0.05) and was blunted by preventing EGFR transactivation with the Src-kinase inhibitor PP1 (99 +/- 2%, n = 4), matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor MMPI (108 +/- 4%, n = 11), the EGFR blocker AG1478 (98 +/- 2%, n = 6) or the mitochondrial transition pore blocker clyclosporine (99 +/- 3%, n = 6). Stretch increased ERK1/2 phosphorylation by 196 +/- 17% of control (n = 7, P < 0.05), an effect that was prevented by PP1 (124 +/- 22%, n = 7) and AG1478 (131 +/- 17%, n = 4). In myocardial slices, Ang II (which enhances ET mRNA) or endothelin-1 (ET-1)-induced increase in O(2)() production (146 +/- 14%, n = 9, and 191 +/- 17%, n = 13, of control, respectively, P < 0.05) was cancelled by AG1478 (94 +/- 5%, n = 12, and 98 +/- 15%, n = 8, respectively) or PP1 (100 +/- 4%, n = 6, and 99 +/- 8%, n = 3, respectively). EGF increased O(2)() production by 149 +/- 4% of control (n = 9, P < 0.05), an effect cancelled by inhibiting NADPH oxidase with apocynin (110 +/- 6% n = 7), mKATP channels with 5-hydroxydecanoic acid (5-HD; 105 +/- 5%, n = 8), the respiratory chain with rotenone (110 +/- 7%, n = 7) or the mitochondrial permeability transition pore with cyclosporine (111 +/- 10%, n = 6). EGF increased ERK1/2 phosphorylation (136 +/- 8% of control, n = 9, P < 0.05), which was blunted by 5-HD (97 +/- 5%, n = 4), suggesting that ERK1/2 activation is downstream of mitochondrial oxidative stress. Finally, stretch increased Ser703 Na

  1. Role of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR), matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 (MMP2 and MMP9), heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (hbEGF), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), erbB2, and insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) in trenbolone acetate-stimulated bovine satellite cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Thornton, K J; Kamange-Sollo, E; White, M E; Dayton, W R

    2015-09-01

    Implanting cattle with steroids significantly enhances feed efficiency, rate of gain, and muscle growth. However, the mechanisms responsible for these improvements in muscle growth have not been fully elucidated. Trenbolone acetate (TBA), a testosterone analog, has been shown to increase proliferation rate in bovine satellite cell (BSC) cultures. The classical genomic actions of testosterone have been well characterized; however, our results indicate that TBA may also initiate a quicker, nongenomic response that involves activation of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) resulting in activation of matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 (MMP2 and MMP9) that release membrane-bound heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (hbEGF), which then binds to and activates the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and/or erbB2. Furthermore, the EGFR has been shown to regulate expression of the IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R), which is well known for its role in modulating muscle growth. To determine whether this nongenomic pathway is potentially involved in TBA-stimulated BSC proliferation, we analyzed the effects of treating BSC with guanosine 5'-O-2-thiodiphosphate (GDPβS), an inhibitor of all GPCR; a MMP2 and MMP9 inhibitor (MMPI); CRM19, a specific inhibitor of hbEGF; AG1478, a specific EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor; AG879, a specific erbB2 kinase inhibitor; and AG1024, an IGF-1R tyrosine kinase inhibitor on TBA-stimulated proliferation rate (H-thymidine incorporation). Assays were replicated at least 9 times for each inhibitor experiment using BSC cultures obtained from at least 3 different animals. Bovine satellite cell cultures were obtained from yearling steers that had no previous exposure to androgenic or estrogenic compounds. As expected, BSC cultures treated with 10 n TBA showed ( < 0.05) increased proliferation rate when compared with control cultures. Additionally, treatment with 5 ng hbEGF/mL stimulated proliferation in BSC cultures ( < 0.05). Treatment

  2. Expression of an Exogenous Growth Hormone Gene by Transplantable Human Epidermal Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, Jeffrey R.; Barrandon, Yann; Green, Howard; Mulligan, Richard C.

    1987-09-01

    Retrovirus-mediated gene transfer was used to introduce a recombinant human growth hormone gene into cultured human keratinocytes. The transduced keratinocytes secreted biologically active growth hormone into the culture medium. When grafted as an epithelial sheet onto athymic mice, these cultured keratinocytes reconstituted an epidermis that was similar in appearance to that resulting from normal cells, but from which human growth hormone could be extracted. Transduced epidermal cells may prove to be a general vehicle for the delivery of gene products by means of grafting.

  3. Curbing indoor mold growth with mold inhibitors

    Treesearch

    Carol A. Clausen; Vina W. Yang

    2004-01-01

    Environmentally acceptable mold inhibitors are needed to curb the growth of mold fungi in woodframe housing when moisture management measures fail. Excess indoor moisture can lead to rapid mold establishment which, in turn, can have deleterious affects on indoor air quality. Compounds with known mold inhibitory properties and low mammalian toxicity, such as food...

  4. Cross-talk between the calcium-sensing receptor and the epidermal growth factor receptor in Rat-1 fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Tomlins, Scott A.; Bollinger, Nikki; Creim, Jeffrey A.; Rodland, Karin D.

    2005-08-15

    The calcium-sensing receptor (CaR) is a G-protein coupled receptor that is activated by extracellular calcium (Ca2+o). Rat-1 fibroblasts have been shown to proliferate and increase ERK activity in response to elevation of [Ca2+]o, and these responses are dependent on functional CaR expression. In this report, we examined the role of cross-talk between the CaR and the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in mediating these responses in Rat-1 cells. This report shows that AG1478, a specific inhibitor of the EGFR kinase, significantly inhibits the increase in proliferation induced by elevated Ca2+o. Further, we show that AG1478 acts downstream or separately from G-protein subunit activation of phospholipase C. AG1478 significantly inhibits Ca2+o-stimulated ERK phosphorylation and in vitro kinase activity. A similar inhibition of ERK phosphorylation was observed in response to the inhibitor AG494. In addition, treatment with inhibitors of metalloproteases involved in shedding of membrane anchored EGF family ligands substantially inhibited the increase in ERK activation in response to elevated Ca2+o. This is consistent with the known expression of TGFa by Rat-1 cells. These results indicate that EGFR transactivation is an important component of the CaR mediated response to increased Ca2+o in Rat-1 fibroblasts, and most likely involves CaR-mediated induction of regulated proteolysis and ligand shedding.

  5. Critical role of aquaporin-3 in epidermal growth factor-induced migration of colorectal carcinoma cells and its clinical significance.

    PubMed

    Li, Ang; Lu, Dehong; Zhang, Yupeng; Li, Jia; Fang, Yu; Li, Fei; Sun, Jiabang

    2013-02-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) are a family of small, integral membrane proteins that have been shown to play an important role in tumor development and metastasis. Several studies have demonstrated that expression of AQP3 contributes to the enhanced migration of epithelial cells and is related to differentiation, metastasis and vascular invasion in lung and gastric cancer. Therefore, we investigated whether AQP3 could enhance human colorectal carcinoma cell migration and we examined the role of AQP3 in the prognosis of colorectal carcinoma. Our results showed that human epidermal growth factor (hEGF) increased the expression of AQP3 and, subsequently, the migration ability of human colorectal carcinoma cells HCT116 in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The enhanced migration ability of HCT116 cells was blocked by the AQP3 inhibitor, CuSO(4). Overexpression of AQP3 induced by hEGF was inhibited by a PI3K/AKT inhibitor, LY294002, but the ERK inhibitor U0126 had a minor effect on the hEGF-induced AQP3 upregulation. Immunohistochemical staining of the cancer tissues and corresponding normal tissues showed that AQP3 expression in cancer tissue was higher compared to that in normal tissue. The expression intensity of AQP3 was associated with the differentiation, lymph node and distant metastasis of colorectal carcinoma patients. Our results suggest that AQP3 overexpression could facilitate colorectal carcinoma cell migration and AQP3 may be considered a potential indicator and therapeutic target for colon tumor metastasis and prognosis.

  6. Epidermal growth factor receptor relocalization and kinase activity are necessary for directional migration of keratinocytes in DC electric fields.

    PubMed

    Fang, K S; Ionides, E; Oster, G; Nuccitelli, R; Isseroff, R R

    1999-06-01

    Human keratinocytes migrate towards the negative pole in DC electric fields of physiological strength. This directional migration is promoted by epidermal growth factor (EGF). To investigate how EGF and its receptor (EGFR) regulate this directionality, we first examined the effect of protein tyrosine kinase inhibitors, including PD158780, a specific inhibitor for EGFR, on this response. At low concentrations, PD158780 inhibited keratinocyte migration directionality, but not the rate of migration; at higher concentrations, it reduced the migration rate as well. The less specific inhibitors, genistein, lavendustin A and tyrphostin B46, reduced the migration rate, but did not affect migration directionality. These data suggest that inhibition of EGFR kinase activity alone reduces directed motility, and inhibition of multiple tyrosine kinases, including EGFR, reduces the cell migration rate. EGFR redistribution also correlates with directional migration. EGFR concentrated on the cathodal face of the cell as early as 5 minutes after exposure to electric fields. PD158780 abolished EGFR localization to the cathodal face. These data suggest that EGFR kinase activity and redistribution in the plasma membrane are required for the directional migration of keratinocytes in DC electric fields. This study provides the first insights into the mechanisms of directed cell migration in electric fields.

  7. A case of colorectal cancer with double-activating epidermal growth factor receptor mutations.

    PubMed

    Rai, Kammei; Fujiwara, Keiichi; Tsushima, Mizuho; Kudo, Kenichiro; Mizuta, Makoto; Matsuo, Kiyoshi; Yonei, Toshiro; Yamadori, Ichiro; Kiura, Katsuyuki; Sato, Toshio

    2011-09-01

    We describe the case of a 72-year-old woman with locally advanced lung tumor mimicking primary lung cancer. She was diagnosed with rectal cancer at the age of 65 years and was initially treated with platinum-based chemotherapy and thoracic irradiation as a treatment for primary lung cancer. One year later, a thyroid tumor was detected in her right thyroid lobe and was confirmed to have metastasized from rectal cancer based on pathological findings. Therefore, we suspected that she had metachronous double cancers and treated her with conventional chemotherapy for colorectal cancer. However, new life-threatening multiple lung metastases appeared. We treated her with the drug erlotinib because additional genetic analysis against primary lung tumor revealed typical double-activating epidermal growth factor receptor mutations. Histological review by immunostaining concluded that the primary lung tumor was composed of metastatic tumors from rectal cancer. In addition, genetic analysis revealed that the primary rectal cancer contained nearly the same types of double-activating epidermal growth factor receptor mutations as were present in the lung tumor. This is the first report of a case of rectal adenocarcinoma with double-activating epidermal growth factor receptor mutations.

  8. Attenuation of epidermal growth factor (EGF) signaling by growth hormone (GH).

    PubMed

    González, Lorena; Miquet, Johanna G; Irene, Pablo E; Díaz, M Eugenia; Rossi, Soledad P; Sotelo, Ana I; Frungieri, Mónica B; Hill, Cristal M; Bartke, Andrzej; Turyn, Daniel

    2017-05-01

    Transgenic mice overexpressing growth hormone (GH) show increased hepatic protein content of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), which is broadly associated with cell proliferation and oncogenesis. However, chronically elevated levels of GH result in desensitization of STAT-mediated EGF signal and similar response of ERK1/2 and AKT signaling to EGF compared to normal mice. To ascertain the mechanisms involved in GH attenuation of EGF signaling and the consequences on cell cycle promotion, phosphorylation of signaling mediators was studied at different time points after EGF stimulation, and induction of proteins involved in cell cycle progression was assessed in normal and GH-overexpressing transgenic mice. Results from kinetic studies confirmed the absence of STAT3 and 5 activation and comparable levels of ERK1/2 phosphorylation upon EGF stimulation, which was associated with diminished or similar induction of c-MYC, c-FOS, c-JUN, CYCLIN D1 and CYCLIN E in transgenic compared to normal mice. Accordingly, kinetics of EGF-induced c-SRC and EGFR phosphorylation at activating residues demonstrated that activation of these proteins was lower in the transgenic mice with respect to normal animals. In turn, EGFR phosphorylation at serine 1046/1047, which is implicated in the negative regulation of the receptor, was increased in the liver of GH-overexpressing transgenic mice both in basal conditions and upon EGF stimulus. Increased basal phosphorylation and activation of the p38-mitogen-activated protein kinase might account for increased Ser 1046/1047 EGFR. Hyperphosphorylation of EGFR at serine residues would represent a compensatory mechanism triggered by chronically elevated levels of GH to mitigate the proliferative response induced by EGF.

  9. Nerve growth factor and epidermal growth factor stimulate clusterin gene expression in PC12 cells.

    PubMed Central

    Gutacker, C; Klock, G; Diel, P; Koch-Brandt, C

    1999-01-01

    Clusterin (apolipoprotein J) is an extracellular glycoprotein that might exert functions in development, cell death and lipid transport. Clusterin gene expression is elevated at sites of tissue remodelling, such as differentiation and apoptosis; however, the signals responsible for this regulation have not been identified. We use here the clusterin gene as a model system to examine expression in PC12 cells under the control of differentiation and proliferation signals produced by nerve growth factor (NGF) and by epidermal growth factor (EGF) respectively. NGF induced clusterin mRNA, which preceded neurite outgrowth typical of neuronal differentiation. EGF also activated the clusterin mRNA, demonstrating that both proliferation and differentiation signals regulate the gene. To localize NGF- and EGF-responsive elements we isolated the clusterin promoter and tested it in PC12 cell transfections. A 2.5 kb promoter fragment and two 1.5 and 0.3 kb deletion mutants were inducible by NGF and EGF. The contribution to this response of a conserved activator protein 1 (AP-1) motif located in the 0.3 kb fragment was analysed by mutagenesis. The mutant promoter was not inducible by NGF or EGF, which identifies the AP-1 motif as an element responding to both factors. Binding studies with PC12 nuclear extracts showed that AP-1 binds to this sequence in the clusterin promoter. These findings suggest that NGF and EGF, which give differential gene regulation in PC12 cells, resulting in neuronal differentiation and proliferation respectively, use the common Ras/extracellular signal-regulated kinase/AP-1 signalling pathway to activate clusterin expression. PMID:10215617

  10. Molecular phenotype predicts sensitivity of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck to epidermal growth factor receptor inhibition.

    PubMed

    Young, Natalie R; Liu, Jing; Pierce, Carolyn; Wei, Tai-Fen; Grushko, Tatyana; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I; Liu, Wanqing; Shen, Christine; Seiwert, Tanguy Y; Cohen, Ezra E W

    2013-06-01

    Despite nearly universal expression of the wild-type epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and reproducible activity of EGFR inhibitors in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN), the majority of patients will not have objective responses. The mechanisms of this intrinsic resistance are not well established. We hypothesized that sensitivity to EGFR inhibitors can be predicted based on the inhibitors' effects on downstream signaling. Cell viability assays were used to assess sensitivity to the EGFR inhibitor gefitinib (ZD1839) in 8 SCCHN cell lines. Fluorescence in-situ hybridization showed the two most sensitive lines to be highly gene-amplified for EGFR. Western blotting confirmed that phosphoEGFR was inhibited at low concentrations of gefitinib in all lines tested. Phosphorylation of downstream signaling protein AKT was inhibited in sensitive lines while inhibition of phosphoERK displayed no relationship to gefitinib efficacy. Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) expression was evident in all cell lines. Activating PIK3CA mutations were found in two resistant cell lines where pAKT was not inhibited by gefitinib. In resistant cell lines harboring PIK3CA mutations, a PI3K inhibitor, LY294002, or AKT siRNA reduced cell viability with an additive effect demonstrated in combination with gefitinib. Additionally, LY294002 alone and in combination with gefitinib, was effective at treating PIK3CA mutated tumors xenografted into nude mice. Taken together this suggests that constitutively active AKT is a mechanism of intrinsic gefitinib resistance in SCCHN. This resistance can be overcome through targeting of the PI3K/AKT pathway in combination with EGFR inhibition.

  11. Insulin-like growth factor and epidermal growth factor signaling in breast cancer cell growth: focus on endocrine resistant disease.

    PubMed

    Voudouri, Kallirroi; Berdiaki, Aikaterini; Tzardi, Maria; Tzanakakis, George N; Nikitovic, Dragana

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer for women worldwide with a lifetime risk amounting to a staggering total of 10%. It is well established that the endogenous synthesis of insulin-like growth factor (IGF) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) polypeptide growth factors are closely correlated to malignant transformation and all the steps of the breast cancer metastatic cascade. Numerous studies have demonstrated that both estrogens and growth factors stimulate the proliferation of steroid-dependent tumor cells, and that the interaction between these signaling pathways occurs at several levels. Importantly, the majority of breast cancer cases are estrogen receptor- (ER-) positive which have a more favorable prognosis and pattern of recurrence with endocrine therapy being the backbone of treatment. Unfortunately, the majority of patients progress to endocrine therapy resistant disease (acquired resistance) whereas a proportion of patients may fail to respond to initial therapy (de novo resistance). The IGF-I and EGF downstream signaling pathways are closely involved in the process of progression to therapy resistant disease. Modifications in the bioavailability of these growth factors contribute critically to disease progression. In the present review therefore, we will discuss in depth how IGF and EGF signaling participate in breast cancer pathogenesis and progression to endocrine resistant disease.

  12. Epidermal growth factor receptor inhibition modulates the nuclear localization and cytotoxicity of the Auger electron emitting radiopharmaceutical 111In-DTPA human epidermal growth factor.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Kristy E; Costantini, Danny L; Cai, Zhongli; Scollard, Deborah A; Chen, Zhuo; Reilly, Raymond M; Vallis, Katherine A

    2007-09-01

    (111)In-DTPA-human epidermal growth factor ((111)In-DTPA-hEGF [DTPA is diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid]) is an Auger electron-emitting radiopharmaceutical that targets EGF receptor (EGFR)-positive cancer. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of EGFR inhibition by gefitinib on the internalization, nuclear translocation, and cytotoxicity of (111)In-DTPA-hEGF in EGFR-overexpressing MDA-MB-468 human breast cancer cells. Western blot analysis was used to determine the optimum concentration of gefitinib to abolish EGFR activation. Internalization and nuclear translocation of fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled hEGF were evaluated by confocal microscopy in MDA-MB-468 cells (1.3 x 10(6) EGFRs/cell) in the presence or absence of 1 microM gefitinib. The proportion of radioactivity partitioning into the cytoplasm and nucleus of MDA-MB-468 cells after incubation with (111)In-DTPA-hEGF for 24 h at 37 degrees C in the presence or absence of 1 microM gefitinib was measured by cell fractionation. DNA double-strand breaks caused by (111)In were quantified using the gamma-H2AX assay, and radiation-absorbed doses were estimated. Clonogenic survival assays were used to measure the cytotoxicity of (111)In-DTPA-hEGF alone or in combination with gefitinib. Gefitinib (1 microM) completely abolished EGFR phosphorylation in MDA-MB-468 cells. Internalization and nuclear translocation of fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled EGF were not diminished in gefitinib-treated cells compared with controls. The proportion of internalized (111)In that localized in the nucleus was statistically significantly greater when (111)In-DTPA-hEGF was combined with gefitinib compared with (111)In-DTPA-hEGF alone (mean +/- SD: 26.0% +/- 5.5% vs. 14.6% +/- 4.0%, respectively; P < 0.05). Induction of gamma-H2AX foci was greater in MDA-MB-468 cells that were treated with (111)In-DTPA-hEGF (250 ng/mL, 1.5 MBq/mL) plus gefitinib (1 microM ) compared with those treated with (111)In-DTPA-hEGF alone (mean

  13. Sphingosine-1-phosphate mediates epidermal growth factor-induced muscle satellite cell activation

    SciTech Connect

    Nagata, Yosuke Ohashi, Kazuya; Wada, Eiji; Yuasa, Yuki; Shiozuka, Masataka; Nonomura, Yoshiaki; Matsuda, Ryoichi

    2014-08-01

    Skeletal muscle can regenerate repeatedly due to the presence of resident stem cells, called satellite cells. Because satellite cells are usually quiescent, they must be activated before participating in muscle regeneration in response to stimuli such as injury, overloading, and stretch. Although satellite cell activation is a crucial step in muscle regeneration, little is known of the molecular mechanisms controlling this process. Recent work showed that the bioactive lipid sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) plays crucial roles in the activation, proliferation, and differentiation of muscle satellite cells. We investigated the role of growth factors in S1P-mediated satellite cell activation. We found that epidermal growth factor (EGF) in combination with insulin induced proliferation of quiescent undifferentiated mouse myoblast C2C12 cells, which are also known as reserve cells, in serum-free conditions. Sphingosine kinase activity increased when reserve cells were stimulated with EGF. Treatment of reserve cells with the D-erythro-N,N-dimethylsphingosine, Sphingosine Kinase Inhibitor, or siRNA duplexes specific for sphingosine kinase 1, suppressed EGF-induced C2C12 activation. We also present the evidence showing the S1P receptor S1P2 is involved in EGF-induced reserve cell activation. Moreover, we demonstrated a combination of insulin and EGF promoted activation of satellite cells on single myofibers in a manner dependent on SPHK and S1P2. Taken together, our observations show that EGF-induced satellite cell activation is mediated by S1P and its receptor. - Highlights: • EGF in combination with insulin induces proliferation of quiescent C2C12 cells. • Sphingosine kinase activity increases when reserve cells are stimulated with EGF. • EGF-induced activation of reserve cells is dependent on sphingosine kinase and ERK. • The S1P receptor S1P2 is involved in EGF-induced reserve cell activation. • EGF-induced reserve cell activation is mediated by S1P and its

  14. Effects of epidermal growth factor on neural crest cells in tissue culture

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, C.A.; Turley, E.A.

    1987-04-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulates the release of hyaluronic acid (HA) and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG) from quail trunk neural crest cultures in a dose-dependent fashion. It also promotes the expression of cell-associated heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG) as detected by immunofluorescence and immunoprecipitation of the /sup 3/H-labeled proteoglycan. Furthermore, EGF stimulates (/sup 3/H)thymidine incorporation into total cell DNA. These results raise the possibility that EGF or an analogous growth factor is involved in regulation of neural crest cell morphogenesis.

  15. Epidermal Growth Factor Induces Proliferation of Hair Follicle-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Through Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor-Mediated Activation of ERK and AKT Signaling Pathways Associated with Upregulation of Cyclin D1 and Downregulation of p16.

    PubMed

    Bai, Tingting; Liu, Feilin; Zou, Fei; Zhao, Guifang; Jiang, Yixu; Liu, Li; Shi, Jiahong; Hao, Deshun; Zhang, Qi; Zheng, Tong; Zhang, Yingyao; Liu, Mingsheng; Li, Shilun; Qi, Liangchen; Liu, Jin Yu

    2017-01-15

    The maintenance of highly proliferative capacity and full differentiation potential is a necessary step in the initiation of stem cell-based regenerative medicine. Our recent study showed that epidermal growth factor (EGF) significantly enhanced hair follicle-derived mesenchymal stem cell (HF-MSC) proliferation while maintaining the multilineage differentiation potentials. However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Herein, we investigated the role of EGF in HF-MSC proliferation. HF-MSCs were isolated and cultured with or without EGF. Immunofluorescence staining, flow cytometry, cytochemistry, and western blotting were used to assess proliferation, cell signaling pathways related to the EGF receptor (EGFR), and cell cycle progression. HF-MSCs exhibited surface markers of mesenchymal stem cells and displayed trilineage differentiation potentials toward adipocytes, chondrocytes, and osteoblasts. EGF significantly increased HF-MSC proliferation as well as EGFR, ERK1/2, and AKT phosphorylation (p-EGFR, p-ERK1/2, and p-AKT) in a time- and dose-dependent manner, but not STAT3 phosphorylation. EGFR inhibitor (AG1478), PI3K-AKT inhibitor (LY294002), ERK inhibitor (U0126), and STAT3 inhibitor (STA-21) significantly blocked EGF-induced HF-MSC proliferation. Moreover, AG1478, LY294002, and U0126 significantly decreased p-EGFR, p-AKT, and p-ERK1/2 expression. EGF shifted HF-MSCs at the G1 phase to the S and G2 phase. Concomitantly, cyclinD1, phosphorylated Rb, and E2F1expression increased, while that of p16 decreased. In conclusion, EGF induces HF-MSC proliferation through the EGFR/ERK and AKT pathways, but not through STAT-3. The G1/S transition was stimulated by upregulation of cyclinD1 and inhibition of p16 expression.

  16. Effects of cerulein and epidermal growth factor on pancreatic growth in the reserpinized rat model.

    PubMed

    Bérubé, F L; Benrezzak, O; Vanier, M; Morisset, J

    1993-07-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the effect of reserpine on rat pancreatic growth, to evaluate if reserpine-caused alterations can be prevented by epidermal growth factor (EGF) and/or cerulein treatment, to evaluate the time course of rat pancreas recovery after reserpine, and to determine if EGF and/or cerulein treatment can accelerate such a recovery. In the first experiment, three groups of male Sprague-Dawley rats (250-265 g) were used. Ad libitum-fed control animals received the reserpine vehicle, and one experimental group received reserpine (1 mg kg-1 day-1 for 7 days) while the other, pair-fed group received the reserpine vehicle with a reduced amount of food to result in malnourishment. Rats from each of these three groups were also assigned to one of four treatments consisting of saline, EGF (10 micrograms kg-1), cerulein (1 microgram kg-1), or a combination (same doses) twice a day for 7 days. In the morning of the 8th day, after an overnight fat, rats were killed. In the second experiment, rats were selected and treated with reserpine or the vehicle as described in experiment 1; after the 7-day treatment, a first cohort of animals was allowed a 30-day recovery period. Three other groups (an ad libitum-fed control, a pair-fed, and a reserpine group) were allowed a 6-day recovery period during which they were treated subcutaneously, twice a day, with either saline, EGF (10 micrograms kg-1), cerulein (1 microgram kg-1), or a combination (same doses). On the morning of the 31st or 7th day, after an overnight fat, rats were killed. After death, all pancreata were examined for weight and protein, amylase, chymotrypsinogen, RNA, and DNA content. In the ad libitum-fed control group, EGF caused pancreatic hypertrophy, whereas cerulein was associated with hypertrophy and hyperplasia. In the pair-fed malnourished group, the EGF effect was limited to slight increases in pancreatic weight and cell mass whereas cerulein caused hypertrophy; EGF plus cerulein

  17. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs attenuate proliferation of colonic carcinoma cells by blocking epidermal growth factor-induced Ca++ mobilization.

    PubMed

    Kokoska, E R; Smith, G S; Miller, T A

    2000-01-01

    Numerous studies suggest that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) inhibit colorectal carcinogenesis. We have previously reported that NSAIDs, in human colonic carcinoma cells (Caco-2), attenuate epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced cellular proliferation through a process independent of their inhibitory effects on prostaglandin synthesis. Furthermore, separate studies have also suggested that NSAIDs inhibit EGF-induced store-operated Ca++ influx. Thus we developed the hypothesis that NSAIDs may limit the activity of EGF by altering intracellular Ca++ ([Ca++]i) mobilization. Serum-deprived Caco-2 cells were employed for all experimentation. [Ca++]i was measured with Fluo-3 and extracellular Ca++ influx was monitored by quenching Fluo-3 fluorescence with Mn++. Proliferation was quantitated with two assays: cellular nucleic acid and total protein content. Caco-2 cells exposed to EGF demonstrated an initial increase in [Ca++]i which was blocked by neomycin, an inhibitor of IPsubscript 3 generation, and the phospholipase C inhibitor U73122 but not U73343 (inactive control). This was followed by sustained extracellular Ca++ influx, which was attenuated with calcium-free buffer (-Ca++), the store- operated Ca++ channel blocker lanthanum, indomethacin, ibuprofen, and aspirin. In subsequent studies, cells were treated with either serum-free media or EGF +/- the aforementioned inhibitors, and again serum starved. Cells exposed to EGF +/- the inactive phospholipase C inhibitor U73343 demonstrated a significant increase in nucleic acid and protein. However, proliferation induced by EGF was not observed when [Ca++]i elevation was prevented by blocking either internal Ca++ store release via phospholipase C/IPsubscript 3 or sustained Ca++ influx through store-operated Ca++ channels. Sustained [Ca++]i elevation, as induced by EGF, appears to be required for mitogenesis. These data support our premise that one mechanism whereby NSAIDs may attenuate colonic neoplasia is

  18. Epidermal growth factor receptor-related protein inhibits cell growth and induces apoptosis of BxPC3 pancreatic cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuxiang; Banerjee, Sanjeev; Wang, Zhi-wei; Marciniak, Dorota J; Majumdar, Adhip P N; Sarkar, Fazlul H

    2005-05-01

    Dysregulation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling network has been frequently reported in pancreatic cancer. Inhibition of EGFR was associated with antitumor effects in both in vitro and in vivo studies of pancreatic cancer. We have previously reported the isolation and characterization of an EGFR-related protein (ERRP), which seems to be a negative regulator of EGFR. In the present investigation, we tested our hypothesis whether recombinant ERRP could be an effective inhibitor of growth of BxPC3 pancreatic cancer cells. Cell growth and apoptosis were measured using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and apoptosis ELISA assay, respectively, in the presence and absence of recombinant ERRP in BxPC3 cells. To evaluate activation of EGFR and its downstream signaling events, levels of phospho-EGFR, phospho-AKT, and phospho-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (phospho-ERK) were determined by Western blot analysis. NF-kappaB activity was measured by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Our data show, for the first time, that ERRP inhibits the growth of BxPC3 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The EGF or transforming growth factor (TGF)-alpha-induced stimulation of cell growth and activation of EGFR was also inhibited by ERRP. These changes were accompanied by a concomitant attenuation of activation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases, AKT, and NF-kappaB. ERRP also induced apoptosis as evidenced by increased poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage and reduction in procaspase3. From these results, we conclude that ERRP is a potent inhibitor of growth of BxPC-3 pancreatic cancer cells, which could be due to attenuation of EGFR cellular signaling processes. We also suggest that ERRP could be a potential therapeutic agent for pancreatic cancer.

  19. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Silencing Blunts the Slow Force Response to Myocardial Stretch.

    PubMed

    Brea, María S; Díaz, Romina G; Escudero, Daiana S; Caldiz, Claudia I; Portiansky, Enrique L; Morgan, Patricio E; Pérez, Néstor G

    2016-10-15

    Myocardial stretch increases force biphasically: the Frank-Starling mechanism followed by the slow force response (SFR). Based on pharmacological strategies, we proposed that epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR or ErbB1) activation is crucial for SFR development. Pharmacological inhibitors could block ErbB4, a member of the ErbB family present in the adult heart. We aimed to specifically test the role of EGFR activation after stretch, with an interference RNA incorporated into a lentiviral vector (small hairpin RNA [shRNA]-EGFR). Silencing capability of p-shEGFR was assessed in EGFR-GFP transiently transfected HEK293T cells. Four weeks after lentivirus injection into the left ventricular wall of Wistar rats, shRNA-EGFR-injected hearts showed ≈60% reduction of EGFR protein expression compared with shRNA-SCR-injected hearts. ErbB2 and ErbB4 expression did not change. The SFR to stretch evaluated in isolated papillary muscles was ≈130% of initial rapid phase in the shRNA-SCR group, while it was blunted in shRNA-EGFR-expressing muscles. Angiotensin II (Ang II)-dependent Na+/H+ exchanger 1 activation was indirectly evaluated by intracellular pH measurements in bicarbonate-free medium, demonstrating an increase in shRNA-SCR-injected myocardium, an effect not observed in the silenced group. Ang II- or EGF-triggered reactive oxygen species production was significantly reduced in shRNA-EGFR-injected hearts compared with that in the shRNA-SCR group. Chronic lentivirus treatment affected neither the myocardial basal redox state (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) nor NADPH oxidase activity or expression. Finally, Ang II or EGF triggered a redox-sensitive pathway, leading to p90RSK activation in shRNA-SCR-injected myocardium, an effect that was absent in the shRNA-EGFR group. Our results provide evidence that specific EGFR activation after myocardial stretch is a key factor in promoting the redox-sensitive kinase activation pathway, leading to SFR

  20. An Immunohistochemical Study of Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase and Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Mutation in Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Verma, Sonal; Kumar, Madhu; Kumari, Malti; Mehrotra, Raj; Kushwaha, R A S; Goel, Madhumati; Kumar, Ashutosh; Kant, Surya

    2017-07-01

    Lung cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer related death. Targeted treatment for specific markers may help in reducing the cancer related morbidity and mortality. To study expression of Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase (ALK)and Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) mutations in patients of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer NSCLC, that are the targets for specific ALK inhibitors and EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Total 69 cases of histologically diagnosed NSCLC were examined retrospectively for immunohistochemical expression of EGFR and ALK, along with positive control of normal placental tissue and anaplastic large cell lymphoma respectively. Of the NSCLC, Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC) accounted for 71.0% and adenocarcinoma was 26.1%. ALK expression was seen in single case of 60-year-old female, non-smoker with adenocarcinoma histology. EGFR expression was seen in both SCC (59.18%) and adenocarcinoma in (77.78%) accounting for 63.77% of all cases. Both ALK and EGFR mutation were mutually exclusive. EGFR expression was seen in 63.77% of cases, highlighting the importance of its use in routine analysis, for targeted therapy and better treatment results. Although, ALK expression was seen in 1.45% of all cases, it is an important biomarker in targeted cancer therapy. Also, the mutually exclusive expression of these two markers need further studies to develop a diagnostic algorithm for NSCLC patients.

  1. Pro-MMP-9 upregulation in HT1080 cells expressing CD9 is regulated by epidermal growth factor receptor.

    PubMed

    Herr, Michael J; Mabry, Scott E; Jameson, Jessica F; Jennings, Lisa K

    2013-12-06

    Degradation of the surrounding extracellular matrix (ECM) by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) drives invasion and metastasis of cancer cells. We previously demonstrated that tetraspanin CD9 expression upregulates pro-MMP-9 expression and release and promotes cellular invasion in a human fibrosarcoma cell line (HT1080). These events were dependent upon the highly functional second extracellular loop of CD9. We report here that the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase expression and activity are involved in the CD9-mediated increase in pro-MMP-9 release and cellular invasion. Pro-MMP-9 expression was significantly decreased in a dose-dependent manner using first a broad spectrum receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor and multiple specific EGFR inhibitors in CD9-HT1080 cells. Furthermore, gefitinib treatment of CD9-HT1080 cells reduced invasion through matrigel. EGFR knockdown using short interfering RNA resulted in decreased pro-MMP-9 expression and release into the media and subsequent cellular invasion without affecting CD9 expression or localization. Conclusively, this study points to EGFR as a key mediator between CD9-mediated pro-MMP-9 release and cellular invasion of HT1080 cells. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Epidermal growth factor stimulates Rac activation through Src and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase to promote colonic epithelial cell migration.

    PubMed

    Dise, Rebecca S; Frey, Mark R; Whitehead, Robert H; Polk, D Brent

    2008-01-01

    Regulated intestinal epithelial cell migration plays a key role in wound healing and maintenance of a healthy gastrointestinal tract. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulates cell migration and wound closure in intestinal epithelial cells through incompletely understood mechanisms. In this study we investigated the role of the small GTPase Rac in EGF-induced cell migration using an in vitro wound-healing assay. In mouse colonic epithelial (MCE) cell lines, EGF-stimulated wound closure was accompanied by a doubling of the number of cells containing lamellipodial extensions at the wound margin, increased Rac membrane translocation in cells at the wound margin, and rapid Rac activation. Either Rac1 small interfering (si)RNA or a Rac1 inhibitor completely blocked EGF-stimulated wound closure. Whereas EGF failed to activate Rac in colon cells from EGF receptor (EGFR) knockout mice, stable expression of wild-type EGFR restored EGF-stimulated Rac activation and migration. Pharmacological inhibition of either phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) or Src family kinases reduced EGF-stimulated Rac activation. Cotreatment of cells with both inhibitors completely blocked EGF-stimulated Rac activation and localization to the leading edge of cells and lamellipodial extension. Our results present a novel mechanism by which the PI3K and Src signaling cascades cooperate to activate Rac and promote intestinal epithelial cell migration downstream of EGFR.

  3. Apical Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Signaling: Regulation of Stretch-dependent Exocytosis in Bladder Umbrella Cells

    PubMed Central

    Balestreire, Elena M.

    2007-01-01

    The apical surface of polarized epithelial cells receives input from mediators, growth factors, and mechanical stimuli. How these stimuli are coordinated to regulate complex cellular functions such as polarized membrane traffic is not understood. We analyzed the requirement for growth factor signaling and mechanical stimuli in umbrella cells, which line the mucosal surface of the bladder and dynamically insert and remove apical membrane in response to stretch. We observed that stretch-stimulated exocytosis required apical epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor activation and that activation occurred in an autocrine manner downstream of heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor precursor cleavage. Long-term changes in apical exocytosis depended on protein synthesis, which occurred upon EGF receptor-dependent activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling. Our results indicate a novel physiological role for the EGF receptor that couples upstream mechanical stimuli to downstream apical EGF receptor activation that may regulate apical surface area changes during bladder filling. PMID:17287395

  4. Structure-Guided Development of Covalent and Mutant-Selective Pyrazolopyrimidines to Target T790M Drug Resistance in Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor.

    PubMed

    Engel, Julian; Smith, Steven; Lategahn, Jonas; Tumbrink, Hannah L; Goebel, Lisa; Becker, Christian; Hennes, Elisabeth; Keul, Marina; Unger, Anke; Müller, Heiko; Baumann, Matthias; Schultz-Fademrecht, Carsten; Günther, Georgia; Hengstler, Jan G; Rauh, Daniel

    2017-09-28

    Reversible epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors prompt a beneficial clinical response in non-small cell lung cancer patients who harbor activating mutations in EGFR. However, resistance mutations, particularly the gatekeeper mutation T790M, limit this efficacy. Here, we describe a structure-guided development of a series of covalent and mutant-selective EGFR inhibitors that effectively target the T790M mutant. The pyrazolopyrimidine-based core differs structurally from that of aminopyrimidine-based third-generation EGFR inhibitors and therefore constitutes a new set of inhibitors that target this mechanism of drug resistance. These inhibitors exhibited strong inhibitory effects toward EGFR kinase activity and excellent inhibition of cell growth in the drug-resistant cell line H1975, without significantly affecting EGFR wild-type cell lines. Additionally, we present the in vitro ADME/DMPK parameters for a subset of the inhibitors as well as in vivo pharmacokinetics in mice for a candidate with promising activity profile.

  5. Designed ankyrin repeat proteins: a novel tool for testing epidermal growth factor receptor 2 expression in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Theurillat, Jean-Philippe; Dreier, Birgit; Nagy-Davidescu, Gabriela; Seifert, Burkhardt; Behnke, Silvia; Zürrer-Härdi, Ursina; Ingold, Fabienne; Plückthun, Andreas; Moch, Holger

    2010-09-01

    Designed ankyrin repeat proteins are a novel class of specific binding molecules, which display increased thermodynamic stability, smaller size and at least equal target affinity compared to immunoglobulins, making them potentially powerful tools in diagnostic pathology and therapeutic oncology. Here, we investigated whether designed ankyrin repeat proteins can reliably identify the amplification status of the epidermal growth factor receptor 2 in breast cancer. Designed ankyrin repeat proteins specific for epidermal growth factor receptor 2 were tested in paraffin-embedded tissue sections. Detection using enzymatic biotinylation proved to be most specific and sensitive. The affinity of the designed ankyrin repeat proteins was found crucial, but for a picomolar binder no further gain was found by making it multivalent. The best designed ankyrin repeat protein, G3 (K(D) 90 pM) was compared on breast cancer tissue microarrays (n=792) to an FDA-approved rabbit monoclonal antibody against epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (clone 4B5; Ventana Medical Systems) and correlated with corresponding epidermal growth factor receptor 2 amplification status measured by fluorescent in situ hybridization. Amplification status and epidermal growth factor receptor 2 expression measured by designed ankyrin repeat protein and antibody correlated strongly with each other (P<0.0001 each), the correlation between designed ankyrin repeat protein and amplification status being the strongest (0.87 compared to 0.77 for the antibody, Kendall's tau-beta). Using a modified scoring system for the designed ankyrin repeat protein, we show that the designed ankyrin repeat protein detects a positive epidermal growth factor receptor 2 amplification status with similar sensitivity and significantly higher specificity than the antibody (P=0.0005). This study suggests that designed ankyrin repeat proteins provide a valuable alternative to antibodies for the detection of epidermal growth factor receptor

  6. Combined Blockade of Src Kinase and Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor with Gemcitabine Overcomes STAT3-Mediated Resistance of Inhibition of Pancreatic Tumor Growth

    PubMed Central

    Nagaraj, Nagathihalli S.; Washington, M. Kay; Merchant, Nipun B.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose We previously established a mechanistic rationale for Src inhibition as a novel therapeutic target in pancreatic cancer and have shown that activated STAT3 is a biomarker of resistance to Src inhibition. The purpose of this study was to translate the current understanding of complementary activated tyrosine kinase signaling pathways by targeting Src kinase and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Experimental Design IC50 values for dasatinib, a Src kinase inhibitor, erlotinib, an EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor and gemcitabine were determined and sensitive and resistant pancreatic cancer cell lines were identified. The in vitro and in vivo effects of these agents on multiple signaling pathways and tumorigenicity in pancreatic cancer were investigated. Results The combination of dasatinib, erlotinib and gemcitabine resulted in cooperative inhibition of cell migration and invasion of both sensitive and resistant pancreatic cancer cells as well as cooperative inhibition of multiple signaling pathways including FAK, AKT, ERK, JNK, MAPK and STAT3 at concentrations that were ineffective as individual agents or as double combinations of agents. The triple combination of agents was also most effective at inhibiting the growth of xenografts of both sensitive and resistant pancreatic cancer cells in vivo without increasing toxicity. Furthermore, combined inhibition of Src and EGFR with gemcitabine inhibited constitutively activated STAT3 in vitro and in vivo. Conclusions These results provide evidence that combined targeted biological therapy in addition to cytotoxic chemotherapy can overcome treatment resistance. Such treatment strategies may be used to tailor therapy based on identified biomarkers of resistance to targeted monotherapy. PMID:21266529

  7. Nanostructured materials detect epidermal growth factor receptor, neuron specific enolase and carcinoembryonic antigen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefan-van Staden, Raluca-Ioana; Comnea-Stancu, Ionela Raluca; Surdu-Bob, Carmen Cristina; Badulescu, Marius

    2015-09-01

    New nanostructured materials based on thin films of Cu and Ni deposited on textile material (veil), as well as gold nanostructured microspheres were used for the design of new stochastic sensors. The stochastic sensors were able to detect simultaneously a panel of biomarkers comprising epidermal growth factor receptor, neuron specific enolase, and carcinoembryonic antigen from whole blood samples with high reliabilities - recovery tests higher than 97.00%, with a RSD (%) lower than 0.1%. The stochastic sensors had shown high sensitivities and low determination levels for the detection of the proposed panel of biomarkers making early detection of lung cancer possible by fast screening of whole blood.

  8. Altered (/sup 125/I)epidermal growth factor binding and receptor distribution in psoriasis

    SciTech Connect

    Nanney, L.B.; Stoscheck, C.M.; Magid, M.; King, L.E. Jr.

    1986-03-01

    Stimulation of growth and differentiation of human epidermis by epidermal growth factor (EGF) is mediated by its binding to specific receptors. Whether EGF receptors primarily mediate cell division or differentiation in hyperproliferative disease such as psoriasis vulgaris is unclear. To study the pathogenesis of psoriasis, 4-mm2 punch biopsy specimens of normal, uninvolved, and involved psoriatic skin were assayed for EGF receptors by autoradiographic, immunohistochemical, and biochemical methods. Using autoradiographic and immunohistochemical methods, basal keratinocytes were found to contain the greatest number of EGF binding sites and immunoreactive receptors as compared to the upper layers of the epidermis in both normal epidermis and psoriatic skin. No EGF receptor differences between normal and psoriatic epidermis were observed in this layer. In the upper layers of the epidermis, a 2-fold increase in EGF binding capacity was observed in psoriatic skin as compared with normal thin or thick skin. Biochemical methods indicated that (/sup 125/I)EGF binding was increased in psoriatic epidermis as compared with similar thickness normal epidermis when measured on a protein basis. Epidermal growth factor was shown to increase phosphorylation of the EGF receptor in skin. EGF receptors retained in the nonmitotic stratum spinosum and parakeratotic stratum corneum may reflect the incomplete, abnormal differentiation that occurs in active psoriatic lesions. Alternatively, retained EGF receptors may play a direct role in inhibiting cellular differentiation in the suprabasal layers.

  9. EGFR inhibitors erlotinib and lapatinib ameliorate epidermal blistering in pemphigus vulgaris in a non-linear, V-shaped relationship.

    PubMed

    Sayar, Beyza S; Rüegg, Simon; Schmidt, Enno; Sibilia, Maria; Siffert, Myriam; Suter, Maja M; Galichet, Arnaud; Müller, Eliane J

    2014-01-01

    Novel insights into intra-cellular signalling involved in pemphigus vulgaris (PV), an autoimmune blistering disease of skin and mucous membranes, are now revealing new therapeutic approaches such as the chemical inhibition of PV-associated signals in conjunction with standard immunosuppressive therapy. However, extensive inhibition of signalling molecules that are required for normal tissue function and integrity may hamper this approach. Using a neonatal PV mouse model, we demonstrate that epidermal blistering can be prevented in a dose-dependent manner by clinically approved EGFR inhibitors erlotinib and lapatinib, but only up to approximately 50% of normal EGFR activity. At lower EGFR activity, blisters again aggravated and were highly exacerbated in mice with a conditional deletion of EGFR. Statistical analysis of the relation between EGFR activity and the extent of skin blistering revealed the best fit with a non-linear, V-shaped curve with a median break point at 52% EGFR activity (P = 0.0005). Moreover, lapatinib (a dual EGFR/ErbB2 inhibitor) but not erlotinib significantly reduced blistering in the oral cavity, suggesting that signalling mechanisms differ between PV predilection sites. Our results demonstrate that future clinical trials evaluating EGFR/ErbB2 inhibitors in PV patients must select treatment doses that retain a specific level of signal molecule activity. These findings may also be of relevance for cancer patients treated with EGFR inhibitors, for whom skin lesions due to extensive EGFR inhibition represent a major threat.

  10. [Effects of transfection of human epidermal growth factor gene with adenovirus vector on biological characteristics of human epidermal cells].

    PubMed

    Yin, Kai; Ma, Li; Shen, Chuan'an; Shang, Yuru; Li, Dawei; Li, Longzhu; Zhao, Dongxu; Cheng, Wenfeng

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the suitable transfection condition of human epidermal cells (hECs) with human epidermal growth factor (EGF) gene by adenovirus vector (Ad-hEGF) and its effects on the biological characteristics of hECs. hECs were isolated from deprecated human fresh prepuce tissue of circumcision by enzyme digestion method and then sub-cultured. hECs of the third passage were used in the following experiments. (1) Cells were divided into non-transfection group and 5, 20, 50, 100, 150, and 200 fold transfection groups according to the random number table (the same grouping method below), with 3 wells in each group. Cells in non-transfection group were not transfected with Ad-hEGF gene, while cells in the latter six groups were transfected with Ad-hEGF gene in multiplicities of infection (MOI) of 5, 20, 50, 100, 150, and 200 respectively. The morphology of the cells was observed with inverted phase contrast microscope, and expression of green fluorescent protein of the cells was observed with inverted fluorescence microscope at transfection hour (TH) 24, 48, and 72. (2) Another three batches of cells were collected, grouped, and treated as above, respectively. Then the transfection rate of Ad-hEGF gene was detected by flow cytometer (n=3), the mass concentration of EGF in culture supernatant of cells was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (n=6), and the proliferation activity of cells was detected by cell counting kit 8 (CCK8) and microplate reader (n=6) at TH 24, 48, and 72, respectively. (3) Cells were collected and divided into non-transfection group and transfection group, with 6 wells in each group. Cells in non-transfection group were cultured with culture supernatant of cells without transfection, while cells in transfection group were cultured with culture supernatant of cells which were transfected with Ad-hEGF gene in the optimum MOI (50). CCK8 and microplate reader were used to measure the biological activity of EGF secreted by cells on culture

  11. Epidermal Growth Factor-Dependent Transformation by a Human EGF Receptor Proto-Oncogene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velu, Thierry J.; Beguinot, Laura; Vass, William C.; Willingham, Mark C.; Merlino, Glenn T.; Pastan, Ira; Lowy, Douglas R.

    1987-12-01

    The epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor gene EGFR has been placed in a retrovirus vector to examine the growth properties of cells that experimentally overproduce a full-length EGF receptor. NIH 3T3 cells transfected with the viral DNA or infected with the corresponding rescued retrovirus developed a fully transformed phenotype in vitro that required both functional EGFR expression and the presence of EGF in the growth medium. Cells expressing 4 × 105 EGF receptors formed tumors in nude mice, while control cells did not. Therefore, the EGFR retrovirus, which had a titer on NIH 3T3 cells that was greater than 107 focus-forming units per milliliter, can efficiently transfer and express this gene, and increased numbers of EGF receptors can contribute to the transformed phenotype.

  12. CD95 death receptor and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in liver cell apoptosis and regeneration.

    PubMed

    Reinehr, Roland; Häussinger, Dieter

    2012-02-01

    Recent evidence suggests that signaling pathways towards cell proliferation and cell death are much more interconnected than previously thought. Whereas not only death receptors such as CD95 (Fas, APO-1) can couple to both, cell death and proliferation, also growth factor receptors such as the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) are involved in these opposing kinds of cell fate. EGFR is briefly discussed as a growth factor receptor involved in liver cell proliferation during liver regeneration. Then the role of EGFR in activating CD95 death receptor in liver parenchymal cells (PC) and hepatic stellate cells (HSC), which represent a liver stem/progenitor cell compartment, is described summarizing different ways of CD95- and EGFR-dependent signaling in the liver. Here, depending on the hepatic cell type (PC vs. HSC) and the respective signaling context (sustained vs. transient JNK activation) CD95-/EGFR-mediated signaling ends up in either liver cell apoptosis or cell proliferation.

  13. Efficient synthesis of chloro-derivatives of sialosyllactosylceramide, and their enhanced inhibitory effect on epidermal growth factor receptor activation

    PubMed Central

    KAWASHIMA, NAGAKO; QU, HUANHUAN; LOBATON, MARLIN; ZHU, ZHENYUAN; SOLLOGOUB, MATTHIEU; CAVENEE, WEBSTER K.; HANDA, KAZUKO; HAKOMORI, SEN-ITIROH; ZHANG, YONGMIN

    2014-01-01

    Glycosphingolipids are components of essentially all mammalian cell membranes and are involved in a variety of significant cellular functions, including proliferation, adhesion, motility and differentiation. Sialosyllactosylceramide (GM3) is known to inhibit the activation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). In the present study, an efficient method for the total chemical synthesis of monochloro- and dichloro-derivatives of the sialosyl residue of GM3 was developed. The structures of the synthesized compounds were fully characterized by high-resolution mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance. In analyses of EGFR autophosphorylation and cell proliferation ([3H]-thymidine incorporation) in human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells, two chloro-derivatives exhibited stronger inhibitory effects than GM3 on EGFR activity. Monochloro-GM3, but not GM3 or dichloro-GM3, showed a significant inhibitory effect on ΔEGFR, a splicing variant of EGFR that lacks exons 2–7 and is often found in human glioblastomas. The chemical synthesis of other GM3 derivatives using approaches similar to those described in the present study, has the potential to create more potent EGFR inhibitors to block cell growth or motility of a variety of types of cancer that express either wild-type EGFR or ΔEGFR. PMID:24944646

  14. Efficient synthesis of chloro-derivatives of sialosyllactosylceramide, and their enhanced inhibitory effect on epidermal growth factor receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Kawashima, Nagako; Qu, Huanhuan; Lobaton, Marlin; Zhu, Zhenyuan; Sollogoub, Matthieu; Cavenee, Webster K; Handa, Kazuko; Hakomori, Sen-Itiroh; Zhang, Yongmin

    2014-04-01

    Glycosphingolipids are components of essentially all mammalian cell membranes and are involved in a variety of significant cellular functions, including proliferation, adhesion, motility and differentiation. Sialosyllactosylceramide (GM3) is known to inhibit the activation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). In the present study, an efficient method for the total chemical synthesis of monochloro- and dichloro-derivatives of the sialosyl residue of GM3 was developed. The structures of the synthesized compounds were fully characterized by high-resolution mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance. In analyses of EGFR autophosphorylation and cell proliferation ([(3)H]-thymidine incorporation) in human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells, two chloro-derivatives exhibited stronger inhibitory effects than GM3 on EGFR activity. Monochloro-GM3, but not GM3 or dichloro-GM3, showed a significant inhibitory effect on ΔEGFR, a splicing variant of EGFR that lacks exons 2-7 and is often found in human glioblastomas. The chemical synthesis of other GM3 derivatives using approaches similar to those described in the present study, has the potential to create more potent EGFR inhibitors to block cell growth or motility of a variety of types of cancer that express either wild-type EGFR or ΔEGFR.

  15. Oncogenic Activity of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Kinase Mutant Alleles Is Enhanced by the T790M Drug Resistance Mutation

    PubMed Central

    Godin-Heymann, Nadia; Bryant, Ianthe; Rivera, Miguel N.; Ulkus, Lindsey; Bell, Daphne W.; Riese, David J.; Settleman, Jeffrey; Haber, Daniel A.

    2010-01-01

    Activating mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) characterize a subset of non–small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) with extraordinary sensitivity to targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI). A single secondary EGFR mutation, T790M, arising in cis with the primary activating mutation, confers acquired resistance to these drugs. However, the T790M mutation is also detected in the absence of drug selection, suggesting that it may provide a growth advantage. We show here that although T790M alone has only a modest effect on EGFR function, when combined with the characteristic activating mutations L858R or del746–750, it results in a dramatic enhancement of EGFR activity. The double mutants show potent ligand-independent receptor autophosphorylation associated with altered cellular phenotypes, soft agar colony formation, and tumorigenesis in nude mice. The significant gain-of-function properties of these double mutants may explain their initial presence before drug selection and their rapid selection as the single drug resistance mutation during therapy with gefitinib/erlotinib, and suggests that they may contribute to the adverse clinical course of TKI-resistant NSCLC. PMID:17671201

  16. Expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 by trophectoderm cells in response to hypoxia and epidermal growth factor

    SciTech Connect

    Jeong, Wooyoung; Bazer, Fuller W.; Song, Gwonhwa; Kim, Jinyoung

    2016-01-08

    The low oxygen environment in the uterine environment requires pre-implantation embryos to adapt to oxygen deficiency. Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1 is a master regulator whereby cells adapt to changes in oxygen concentrations. In addition to hypoxic conditions, non-hypoxic stimuli such as growth factors also activate expression of HIF-1. In this study, the mechanisms underlying low oxygen-dependent and epidermal growth factor (EGF)-dependent expression of HIF-1α were explored using porcine trophectoderm (pTr) cells. The results indicated that expression of HIF-1α and HIF-1β mRNAs was not affected by low concentrations of oxygen; however, hypoxic conditions markedly increased the abundance of HIF-1α protein, especially in nuclei of pTr cells. Even under normoxic conditions, the abundance of HIF-1α protein increased in response to EGF. This EGF-mediated increase in HIF-1α protein was blocked through inhibition of translation by cycloheximide. The inhibitors LY294002 (PI3K-AKT inhibitor), U0126 (inhibitor of ERK1/2) and rapamycin (mTOR inhibitor) also blocked the ability of EGF to increase HIF-1α protein and to phosphorylate AKT, ERK1/2 and mTOR proteins. Both hypoxia and EGF induced proliferation of pTr cells. This ability of EGF to stimulate proliferation of pTr cells was suppressed by EGFR siRNA, but not HIF-1α siRNA, but a significant decrease in EGF-induced HIF-1α protein occurred when pTr cells were transfected with HIF-1α siRNA. The results of the present study suggest that pTr cells adapt to oxygen deficiency and proliferate in response to an oxygen-dependent HIF-1 system, and that EGF at maternal–conceptus interface can increase the abundance of HIF-1α protein via translational regulation through AKT, ERK1/2 and mTOR signaling cascades. - Highlights: • HIF-1α expression is up-regulated in pTr cells under low oxygen concentrations. • EGF induces HIF-1α accumulation in pTr cells. • EGF-induced HIF-1α accumulation is blocked by de

  17. LOT1 is a growth suppressor gene down-regulated by the epidermal growth factor receptor ligands and encodes a nuclear zinc-finger protein.

    PubMed

    Abdollahi, A; Bao, R; Hamilton, T C

    1999-11-11

    We previously reported cloning the rLot1 gene, and its human homolog (hLOT1), through analysis of differential gene expression in normal and malignant rat ovarian surface epithelial cells. Both human and rat ovarian carcinoma cell lines exhibited lost or decreased expression of this gene. Interestingly, the LOT1 gene localized at band q25 of human chromosome 6 which is a frequent site for LOH in many solid tumors including ovarian cancer. In this report we have further characterized the potential role of LOT1 in malignant transformation and developed evidence that the gene is a novel target of growth factor signaling pathway. Assays using transient transfections showed that LOT1 is a nuclear protein and may act as a transcription factor. In vitro and in vivo studies involving ovarian cancer cell lines revealed that expression of LOT1 is directly associated with inhibition of cellular proliferation and induction of morphological transformations. Additionally, we show that in normal rat ovarian surface epithelial cells Lot1 gene expression is responsive to growth factor stimulation. Its mRNA is strongly down-regulated by epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) ligands, namely EGF and TGF-alpha. Blocking the ligand-activated EGFR signal transduction pathway by the specific EGF receptor inhibitor, tyrphostin AG1478, and the MEK inhibitor, PD098059, restores the normal level of Lot1 gene expression. It appears that the regulation of Lot1 gene is unique to these ligands, as well as the growth promoting agent TPA, since other factors either did not affect Lot1 expression, or the effect was modest and transient. Altogether, the results suggest that Lot1 expression is primarily mediated via EGF receptor or a related pathway and it may regulate the growth promoting signals as a zinc-finger motif containing nuclear transcription factor.

  18. Human keratinocyte growth factor effects in a porcine model of epidermal wound healing

    PubMed Central

    Staiano-Coico, L.; Krueger, J. G.; Rubin, J. S.; D'limi, S.; Vallat, V. P.; Valentino, L.; Fahey, T.; Hawes, A.; Kingston, G.; Madden, M. R.; Mathwich, M.; Gottlieb, A.; Aaronson, S. A.

    1993-01-01

    Keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) is a member of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family (hence the alternative designation FGF-7). It is produced by stromal cells, but acts as a mitogen for epithelial cells. We examined the effects of topically applied KGF on healing of wounds in a porcine model. In partial-thickness wounds, KGF stimulated the rate of reepithelialization (p < 0.0002), associated with a thickening of the epidermis (p < 0.0001). Epidermis from KGF-treated full-thickness wound sites was significantly thicker (0.31 +/- 0.22 mm) compared with mirror image control sites (0.18 +/- 0.12 mm) (p < 0.0001). Moreover, the majority (77%) of KGF-treated wounds exhibited epidermis with a deep rete ridge pattern as compared with control sites. These effects were observed as early as 14 d and persisted for at least 4 wk. KGF treatment also increased the number of serrated basal cells associated with increased deposition of collagen fibers in the superficial dermis adjacent to the acanthotic epidermis. Electron microscopy revealed better developed hemidesmosomes associated with thicker bundles of tonofilaments in the serrated cells. The pattern of epidermal thickening observed in KGF-treated wounds resembled psoriasis. Psoriasis is a disease associated with epidermal thickening, parakeratosis as well as hyperproliferation that extends beyond the basal layer. In striking contrast to psoriasis, KGF-treated wounds exhibited normal orthokeratotic maturation, and proliferation was localized to the basal cells. Our present findings have significant implications concerning the role of KGF as a paracrine modulator of epidermal proliferation and differentiation. PMID:8350059

  19. Healing enhancement of diabetic wounds by locally infiltrated epidermal growth factor is associated with systemic oxidative stress reduction.

    PubMed

    Ojalvo, Ariana García; Acosta, Jorge Berlanga; Marí, Yssel Mendoza; Mayola, Maday Fernández; Pérez, Calixto Valdés; Gutiérrez, William Savigne; Marichal, Ileydis Iglesias; Seijas, Eduardo Álvarez; Kautzman, Alicia Molina; Pacheco, Angélica Estrada; Armstrong, David G

    2017-02-01

    The diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) is the leading cause of lower extremity amputation worldwide and is directly associated with comorbidity, disability and mortality. Oxidative stress mechanisms have been implicated in the pathogenesis of these wounds. Intra-lesional infiltration of epidermal growth factor has emerged as a potential therapeutic alternative to allow for physiological benefit while avoiding the proteolytic environment at the centre of the wound. The aim of this study was to characterise the response of patients with DFUs to epidermal growth factor treatment in terms of redox status markers. Experimental groups included patients with DFUs before and 3-4 weeks after starting treatment with epidermal growth factor; compensated and non-compensated diabetic patients without ulcers; and age-matched non-diabetic subjects. Evaluations comprised serum levels of oxidative stress and antioxidant reserve markers. Patients with DFUs exhibited the most disheveled biochemical profile, with elevated oxidative stress and low antioxidant reserves, with respect to non-ulcerated diabetic patients and to non-diabetic subjects. Epidermal growth factor intra-lesional administration was associated with a significant recovery of oxidative stress and antioxidant reserve markers. Altogether, our results indicate that epidermal growth factor intra-ulcer therapy contributes to restore systemic redox balance in patients with DFUs. © 2016 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Impact of epidermal growth factor receptor and transforming growth factor-α on hepatitis C virus-induced hepatocarcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Badawy, Afkar Abdel-Ghany; El-Hindawi, Ali; Hammam, Olfat; Moussa, Mona; Gabal, Samia; Said, Noha

    2015-10-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor system plays a central hepato-protective and pro-regenerative role in liver. Transforming growth factor-α (TGF-α) is an important autocrine growth regulator of hepatocytes that plays a role in development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) among patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC). This study was done on 40 core liver biopsies from patients with CHC, 20 liver specimens from HCC cases on top of CHC as well as five normal controls. All were immunohistochemically stained with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and TGF-α antibodies. Some selected HCC cases were submitted for FISH technique to detect EGFR gene alteration. By immunohistochemistry EGFR and TGF-α were overexpressed in HCC and cirrhotic cases compared to CHC cases without cirrhosis. Also, their expression was stronger in CHC cases with higher grades of activity and stages of fibrosis compared to lower ones. FISH positive results for EGFR were detected in 33.3% of the examined HCC cases. EGFR and TGF-α can be used as predictive markers for activity, fibrosis, and carcinogenesis in CHC patients. Overexpression of EGFR in HCC patients can be promising in selecting those who can get benefit from anti-EGFR target therapy.

  1. NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE INHIBITOR L-NAMEAFFECTS ARABIDOPSIS ROOT GROWTH, MORPHOLOGY AND MICROTUBULE ORGANIZATION.

    PubMed

    Yu A, Krasylenko; A I, Yemets; Ya B, Blume

    2017-10-05

    The presence of evolutionarily conserved NOS or NOS-like enzymes in land plants different than those in animals is still unclear, despite their activity has been revealed in cytosol and some organelles. At the same time, the emerging evidence for the importance of L-arginine-dependent pathways of NO synthesis in plant cells is still accumulating. The aim of our study was to reveal physiological effects on growth and differentiation processes and microtubular cytoskeleton organization of the competitive mammalian NO synthase inhibitor L-NAME. Thus, the treatment of Arabidopsis with L-NAME (50 μM-1 mM) caused dose- and time-dependent inhibition of primary roots growth. Moreover, the morphology of primary roots under the influence of L-NAME also underwent changes. L-NAME (>100 μM) induced the formation of novel over-elongated root hairs in shortened elongation zone, while in higher concentrations (500 μM) it caused a slight swelling of epidermal cells in differentiation zone. L-NAME also provoked microtubule reorganization in epidermal cells of different root growth zones. Thus, L-NAME at concentrations of 50 μM-1 mM induces cortical microtubules randomization and/or depolymerization in epidermal cells of the root apex, meristem, transition, elongation and differentiation zones after 2 h of treatment. Disordered microtubules in trichoblasts could initiate the formation of actively elongating root hairs that reveals longitudinal microtubules ensuring their active growth at 24 h of treatment. Therefore, L-NAME inhibits primary root growth, induces the differentiation processes in roots and reorganizes cortical microtubules in epidermal root cells suggesting the importance of L-arginine-dependent pathways of NO synthesis in plants. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  2. Cross-talk between the calcium-sensing receptor and the epidermal growth factor receptor in Rat-1 fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Tomlins, Scott A.; Bolllinger, Nikki; Creim, Jeffrey; Rodland, Karin D. . E-mail: Karin.rodland@pnl.gov

    2005-08-15

    The calcium-sensing receptor (CaR) is a G-protein-coupled receptor that is activated by extracellular calcium (Ca {sub o} {sup 2+}). Rat-1 fibroblasts have been shown to proliferate and increase ERK activity in response to elevation of [Ca{sup 2+}] {sub o}, and these responses are dependent on functional CaR expression. In this report, we examined the role of cross-talk between the CaR and the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in mediating these responses in Rat-1 cells. This report shows that AG1478, a specific inhibitor of the EGFR kinase, significantly inhibits the increase in proliferation induced by elevated Ca {sub o} {sup 2+}. Furthermore, we show that AG1478 acts downstream or separately from G protein subunit activation of phospholipase C. AG1478 significantly inhibits Ca {sub o} {sup 2+}-stimulated ERK phosphorylation and in vitro kinase activity. A similar inhibition of ERK phosphorylation was observed in response to the inhibitor AG494. In addition, treatment with inhibitors of metalloproteases involved in shedding of membrane anchored EGF family ligands substantially inhibited the increase in ERK activation in response to elevated Ca {sub o} {sup 2+}. This is consistent with the known expression of TGF{alpha} by Rat-1 cells. These results indicate that EGFR transactivation is an important component of the CaR-mediated response to increased Ca {sub o} {sup 2+} in Rat-1 fibroblasts and most likely involves CaR-mediated induction of regulated proteolysis and ligand shedding.

  3. Effects of epidermal growth factor receptor blockade on ependymoma stem cells in vitro and in orthotopic mouse models.

    PubMed

    Servidei, Tiziana; Meco, Daniela; Trivieri, Nadia; Patriarca, Valentina; Vellone, Valerio Gaetano; Zannoni, Gian Franco; Lamorte, Giuseppe; Pallini, Roberto; Riccardi, Riccardo

    2012-09-01

    Some lines of evidence suggest that tumors, including ependymoma, might arise from a subpopulation of cells, termed cancer stem cells (CSCs), with self-renewal and tumor-initiation properties. Given the strict dependence of CSCs on epidermal growth factor (EGF) through EGF receptor (EGFR), we investigated the effects of EGFR inhibitors in ependymoma-stem cells (SCs) in vitro and in orthotopic mouse models. We established two ependymoma-SC lines from two recurrent pediatric ependymoma. Both lines expressed markers of radial glia--the candidate SCs of ependymoma--and showed renewal ability, multipotency, and tumorigenicity after orthotopic implantation, despite markedly different expression of CD133 (94 vs. 6%). High phosphorylated-EGFR/EGFR ratio was detected, which decreased after differentiation. EGFR inhibitors (gefitinib and AEE788) reduced clonogenicity, proliferation and survival of ependymoma-SC lines dose-dependently, and blocked EGF-induced activation of EGFR, Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2. Overall, AEE788 was more effective than gefitinib. EGFR blockade as well as differentiation strongly reduced CD133 expression. However, ex vivo treatment with AEE788 did not impair orthotopic tumor engraftment, whereas ex vivo differentiation did, suggesting that CD133 does not absolutely segregate for tumorigenicity in ependymoma-SCs. Orally administered AEE788 prolonged survival of mice bearing ependymoma-SC-driven orthotopic xenografts from 56 to 63 days, close to statistical significance (log-rank p=0.06). Our study describes for the first time EGFR signaling in ependymoma-SCs and the effects of EGFR blockade in complementary in vitro and in vivo systems. The experimental models we developed can be used to further investigate the activity of EGFR inhibitors or other antineoplastic agents in this tumor.

  4. Synthetic Lethality Screen Identifies RPS6KA2 as Modifier of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Activity in Pancreatic Cancer12

    PubMed Central

    Milosevic, Nada; Kühnemuth, Benjamin; Mühlberg, Leonie; Ripka, Stefanie; Griesmann, Heidi; Lölkes, Carolin; Buchholz, Malte; Aust, Daniela; Pilarsky, Christian; Krug, Sebastian; Gress, Thomas; Michl, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is characterized by a high degree of resistance to chemotherapy. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibition using the small-molecule inhibitor erlotinib was shown to provide a small survival benefit in a subgroup of patients. To identify kinases whose inhibition acts synergistically with erlotinib, we employed a kinome-wide small-interfering RNA (siRNA)-based loss-of-function screen in the presence of erlotinib. Of 779 tested kinases, we identified several targets whose inhibition acted synergistically lethal with EGFR inhibition by erlotinib, among them the S6 kinase ribosomal protein S6 kinase 2 (RPS6KA2)/ribosomal S6 kinase 3. Activated RPS6KA2 was expressed in approximately 40% of 123 human pancreatic cancer tissues. RPS6KA2 was shown to act downstream of EGFR/RAS/mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK)/extracellular-signal regulated kinase (ERK) signaling and was activated by EGF independently of the presence of KRAS mutations. Knockdown of RPS6KA2 by siRNA led to increased apoptosis only in the presence of erlotinib, whereas RPS6KA2 activation or overexpression rescued from erlotinib- and gemcitabine-induced apoptosis. This effect was at least in part mediated by downstream activation of ribosomal protein S6. Genetic as well as pharmacological inhibition of RPS6KA2 by the inhibitor BI-D1870 acted synergistically with erlotinib. By applying this synergistic lethality screen using a kinome-wide RNA interference-library approach, we identified RPS6KA2 as potential drug target whose inhibition synergistically enhanced the effect of erlotinib on tumor cell survival. This kinase therefore represents a promising drug candidate suitable for the development of novel inhibitors for pancreatic cancer therapy. PMID:24403857

  5. Requirement of Stat3 but not Stat1 activation for epidermal growth factor receptor- mediated cell growth In vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Grandis, J R; Drenning, S D; Chakraborty, A; Zhou, M Y; Zeng, Q; Pitt, A S; Tweardy, D J

    1998-01-01

    Stimulation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) by ligand(s) leads to activation of signaling molecules including Stat1 and Stat3, two members of the signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) protein family. Activation of Stat1 and Stat3 was constitutive in transformed squamous epithelial cells, which produce elevated levels of TGF-alpha, and was enhanced by the addition of exogenous TGF-alpha. Targeting of Stat3 using antisense oligonucleotides directed against the translation initiation site, resulted in significant growth inhibition. In addition, cells stably transfected with dominant negative mutant Stat3 constructs failed to proliferate in vitro. In contrast, targeting of Stat1 using either antisense or dominant-negative strategies had no effect on cell growth. Thus, TGF-alpha/EGFR-mediated autocrine growth of transformed epithelial cells is dependent on activation of Stat3 but not Stat1. PMID:9769331

  6. Effect of recombinant human epidermal growth factor on cutaneous scar quality in thyroidectomy patients.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jung U; Kang, Sang-Wook; Jeong, Jong Ju; Nam, Kee-Hyun; Chung, Woong Youn; Lee, Ju Hee

    2015-04-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) decreases inflammatory cell infiltration and TGF-β expression during wound healing. Several clinical studies show that recovery of various ulcer wounds, such as diabetic and radiation ulcer, is promoted by EGF. To evaluate effects of recombinant human epidermal growth factor (rhEGF) on cutaneous scar quality after thyroidectomy. Scar quality was evaluated by Vancouver scar scale (VSS) in two groups of female thyroidectomy patients (control, n = 11; rhEGF-treated, n = 10). Scar erythema, pigmentation, elasticity and hydration were measured by mexameter, cutometer and corneometer. Scar pliability (at 4 weeks) and thickness (2 weeks) after surgery were significantly lower in the rhEGF group than control. Total VSS score was significantly lower in the rhEGF group after 4 weeks. However, erythema, pigmentation, elasticity and hydration of the scar were not significantly different between groups. The early use of rhEGF in surgical wound healing may improve cutaneous scar quality.

  7. Immunohistochemical localization of epidermal growth factor and its receptor during odontogenesis in the rat.

    PubMed

    Cobo, J; Hernández, L C; del Valle, M E; Vijande, M; Vega, J A

    1992-10-01

    The expression of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFr) in developing teeth has been immunohistochemically studied in rat embryos (E-16 to E-21). Both EGF and EGFr showed a similar pattern of distribution. A very weak immunostaining was observed in the dental germ cells during the bud, cap, and bell teeth stages, as well as in few ectomesenchymal cells. In developed, but not erupted teeth, a moderate immunoreactivity for EGF and EGFr was present in the odontoblasts, in the ameloblasts and in the internal epithelial cells, but it was stronger in the dentine. In addition, the presence of EGF/EGFr was also observed in the intercalated ducts of salivary glands, primarily the submaxillary gland, in the maxillary bone cells, and in the cells of the peripheral and central nervous system. These results suggest that EGF has little or no effect during the early periods of tooth differentiation, whereas it is probably involved in the production of dentine. Moreover, EGF/EGFr seem to participate in the maturation and differentiation of other embryonic tissues such as tissues of the nervous system and bone.

  8. Identification of the epidermal growth factor receptor as the receptor for Salmonella Rck-dependent invasion.

    PubMed

    Wiedemann, Agnès; Mijouin, Lily; Ayoub, Mohammed Akli; Barilleau, Emilie; Canepa, Sylvie; Teixeira-Gomes, Ana Paula; Le Vern, Yves; Rosselin, Manon; Reiter, Eric; Velge, Philippe

    2016-12-01

    The Salmonella Rck outer membrane protein binds to the cell surface, which leads to bacterial internalization via a Zipper mechanism. This invasion process requires induction of cellular signals, including phosphorylation of tyrosine proteins, and activation of c-Src and PI3K, which arises as a result of an interaction with a host cell surface receptor. In this study, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) was identified as the cell signaling receptor required for Rck-mediated adhesion and internalization. First, Rck-mediated adhesion and internalization were shown to be altered when EGFR expression and activity were modulated. Then, immunoprecipitations were performed to demonstrate the Rck-EGFR interaction. Furthermore, surface plasmon resonance biosensor and homogeneous time-resolved fluorescence technologies were used to demonstrate the direct interaction of Rck with the extracellular domain of human EGFR. Finally, our study strongly suggests a noncompetitive binding of Rck and EGF to EGFR. Overall, these results demonstrate that Rck is able to bind to EGFR and thereby establish a tight adherence to provide a signaling cascade, which leads to internalization of Rck-expressing bacteria.-Wiedemann, A., Mijouin, L., Ayoub, M. A., Barilleau, E., Canepa, S., Teixeira-Gomes, A. P., Le Vern, Y., Rosselin, M., Reiter, E., Velge, P. Identification of the epidermal growth factor receptor as the receptor for Salmonella Rck-dependent invasion.

  9. Heparin Binding Epidermal Growth Factor-Like Growth Factor Heals Chronic Tympanic Membrane Perforations With Advantage Over Fibroblast Growth Factor 2 and Epidermal Growth Factor in an Animal Model.

    PubMed

    Santa Maria, Peter Luke; Weierich, Kendall; Kim, Sungwoo; Yang, Yunzhi Peter

    2015-08-01

    That heparin binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF) heals chronic tympanic membrane (TM) perforations at higher rates than fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) in an animal model. A nonsurgical treatment for chronic TM perforation would benefit those unable to access surgery or those unable to have surgery, as well as reducing the cost of tympanoplasty. Growth factor (GF) treatments have been reported in the literature with variable success with the lack of a suitable animal providing a major obstacle. The GFs were tested in a validated mouse model of chronic TM perforation. A bioabsorbable hydrogel polymer was used to deliver the GF at a steady concentration as it dissolved over 4 weeks. A control (polymer only, n = 18) was compared to polymer loaded with HB-EGF (5 μg/ml, n = 18), FGF2 (100 μg/ml, n = 19), and EGF (250 μg/ml, n = 19). Perforations were inspected at 4 weeks. The healing rates, as defined as 100% perforation closure, were control (5/18, 27.8%), HB-EGF (15/18, 83.3%), FGF2 (6/19, 31.6%), and EGF (3/19, 15.8%). There were no differences between FGF2 (p = 0.80) and EGF (p = 0.31) with control healing rates. HB-EGF (p = 0.000001) showed a significant difference for healing. The HB-EGF healed TMs showed layers similar to a normal TM, whereas the other groups showed a lack of epithelial migration. This study confirms the advantage of HB-EGF over two other commonly used growth factors and is a promising nonsurgical treatment of chronic TM perforations.

  10. Loss of BRCA1 leads to an increase in epidermal growth factor receptor expression in mammary epithelial cells, and epidermal growth factor receptor inhibition prevents estrogen receptor-negative cancers in BRCA1-mutant mice

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Women who carry a BRCA1 mutation typically develop "triple-negative" breast cancers (TNBC), defined by the absence of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor and Her2/neu. In contrast to ER-positive tumors, TNBCs frequently express high levels of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Previously, we found a disproportionate fraction of progenitor cells in BRCA1 mutation carriers with EGFR overexpression. Here we examine the role of EGFR in mammary epithelial cells (MECs) in the emergence of BRCA1-related tumors and as a potential target for the prevention of TNBC. Methods Cultures of MECs were used to examine EGFR protein levels and promoter activity in response to BRCA1 suppression with inhibitory RNA. EGFR was assessed by immunoblot and immunofluorescence analysis, real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assay (RT-PCR) and flow cytometry. Binding of epidermal growth factor (EGF) to subpopulations of MECs was examined by Scatchard analysis. The responsiveness of MECs to the EGFR inhibitor erlotinib was assessed in vitro in three-dimensional cultures and in vivo. Mouse mammary tumor virus-Cre recombinase (MMTV-Cre) BRCA1flox/flox p53+/- mice were treated daily with erlotinib or vehicle control, and breast cancer-free survival was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results Inhibition of BRCA1 in MECs led to upregulation of EGFR with an inverse correlation of BRCA1 with cellular EGFR protein levels (r2 = 0.87) and to an increase in cell surface-expressed EGFR. EGFR upregulation in response to BRCA1 suppression was mediated by transcriptional and posttranslational mechanisms. Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1)-positive MECs expressed higher levels of EGFR than ALDH1-negative MECs and were expanded two- to threefold in the BRCA1-inhibited MEC population. All MECs were exquisitely sensitive to EGFR inhibition with erlotinib in vitro. EGFR inhibition in MMTV-Cre BRCA1flox/flox p53+/- female mice starting at age 3 months increased

  11. Gefitinib and Erlotinib Lead to Phosphorylation of Eukaryotic Initiation Factor 2 Alpha Independent of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor in A549 Cells.

    PubMed

    Koyama, Satoshi; Omura, Tomohiro; Yonezawa, Atsushi; Imai, Satoshi; Nakagawa, Shunsaku; Nakagawa, Takayuki; Yano, Ikuko; Matsubara, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Gefitinib and erlotinib are anticancer agents, which inhibit epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase. Interstitial lung disease (ILD) occurs in patients with non-small cell lung cancer receiving EGFR inhibitors. In the present study, we examined whether gefitinib- and erlotinib-induced lung injury related to ILD through endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, which is a causative intracellular mechanism in cytotoxicity caused by various chemicals in adenocarcinomic human alveolar basal epithelial cells. These two EGFR inhibitors increased Parkinson juvenile disease protein 2 and C/EBP homologous protein mRNA expressions, and activated the eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 2α/activating transcription factor 4 pathway without protein kinase R-like ER kinase activation in A549 cells. Gefitinib and erlotinib caused neither ER stress nor cell death; however, these agents inhibited cell growth via the reduction of cyclin-D1 expression. Tauroursodeoxycholic acid, which is known to suppress eIF2α phosphorylation, cancelled the effects of EGFR inhibitors on cyclin-D1 expression and cell proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner. The results of an EGFR-silencing study using siRNA showed that gefitinib and erlotinib affected eIF2α phosphorylation and cyclin-D1 expression independent of EGFR inhibition. Therefore, the inhibition of cell growth by these EGFR inhibitors might equate to impairment of the alveolar epithelial cell repair system via eIF2α phosphorylation and reduced cyclin-D1 expression.

  12. Direct identification of residues of the epidermal growth factor receptor in close proximity to the amino terminus of bound epidermal growth factor.

    PubMed Central

    Woltjer, R L; Lukas, T J; Staros, J V

    1992-01-01

    We have recently developed a kinetically controlled, step-wise affinity cross-linking technique for specific, high-yield, covalent linkage of murine epidermal growth factor (mEGF) via its N terminus to the EGF receptor. EGF receptor from A431 cells was cross-linked to radiolabeled mEGF (125I-mEGF) by this technique and the 125I-mEGF-receptor complex was purified and denatured. Tryptic digestion of this preparation gave rise to a unique radiolabeled peptide that did not comigrate with trypsin-treated 125I-mEGF in SDS/Tricine gels but that could be immunoprecipitated with antibodies to mEGF. The immunoprecipitated peptide was isolated by electrophoresis in SDS/Tricine gels, eluted, and sequenced. The sequence was found to correspond to that of a tryptic peptide of the EGF receptor beginning with Gly-85, which is in domain I, a region N terminal to the first cysteine-rich region of the receptor. Selective loss of signal in the 17th sequencing cycle suggests that the point of attachment of N-terminally modified 125I-mEGF to the receptor is Tyr-101. The data presented here provide identification by direct protein microsequencing of a site of interaction of EGF and the EGF receptor. Images PMID:1380167

  13. Emodin Suppresses Maintenance of Stemness by Augmenting Proteosomal Degradation of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor/Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Variant III in Glioma Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeongyub; Lee, Jong-Seon; Jung, Jieun; Lim, Inhye; Lee, Ji-Yun

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing body of evidence that small subpopulations of cells with stem cell-like characteristics within most solid tumors are responsible for the malignancy of aggressive cancer cells and that targeting these cells might be a good therapeutic strategy to reduce the risk of tumor relapse after therapy. Here, we examined the effects of emodin (1,3,8-trihydroxy-6-methylanthraquinone), an active component of the root and rhizome of Rheum palmatum that has several biological activities, including antitumor effects, on primary cultured glioma stem cells (GSCs). Emodin inhibited the self-renewal activity of GSCs in vitro as evidenced by neurosphere formation, limiting dilution, and soft agar clonogenic assays. Emodin inhibited the maintenance of stemness by suppressing the expression of Notch intracellular domain, nonphosphorylated β-catenin, and phosphorylated STAT3 proteins. In addition, treatment with emodin partially induced apoptosis, reduced cell invasiveness, and sensitized GSCs to ionizing radiation. Intriguingly, emodin induced proteosomal degradation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)/EGFR variant III (EGFRvIII) by interfering with the association of EGFR/EGFRvIII with heat shock protein 90, resulting in the suppression of stemness pathways. Based on these data, we propose that emodin could be considered as a potent therapeutic adjuvant that targets GSCs. PMID:25229646

  14. Epidermal growth factor-nonresponsive 3T3 variants do not contain epidermal growth factor receptor-related antigens or mRNA

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, C.A.; Lim, R.W.; Terwilliger, E.; Herschman, H.R.

    1986-01-01

    The authors have previously isolated three independent variants of Swiss 3T3 cells that are unable to generate a mitogenic response to epidermal growth factor (EGF). Each of the variants is unable to bind /sup 125/I-labeled EGF; each lacks a functional EGF receptor. They used an antiserum to murine EGF receptor to look for an EGF-receptor gene product in wild-type 3T3 cells and in the three EGF-nonresponsive variants. No cross-reactive material could be detected in any of the three variants, either in /sup 125/I-labeled cell extracts or in (/sup 35/S)methionine metabolically labeled cells. 3T3 cells contained mRNA molecules homologous to a cDNA probe for the human EGF-receptor coding region. In contrast, no homologous RNA could be detected in any of the three variants. Analysis of genomic Southern blots of the DNA from 3T3 cells and the three EGF-nonresponsive variants indicated sequences from the EGF-receptor gene are present in the DNA of all four cell lines. These EGF-nonresponsive lines, which demonstrate proliferative responses to a variety of mitogens, will be ideal recipients for structure-function studies of the EGF receptor by transfection of the cloned gene.

  15. The relationship between the L1 and L2 domains of the insulin and epidermal growth factor receptors and leucine-rich repeat modules

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Colin W; Garrett, Thomas PJ

    2001-01-01

    Background Leucine-rich repeats are one of the more common modules found in proteins. The leucine-rich repeat consensus motif is LxxLxLxxNxLxxLxxLxxLxx- where the first 11–12 residues are highly conserved and the remainder of the repeat can vary in size Leucine-rich repeat proteins have been subdivided into seven subfamilies, none of which include members of the epidermal growth factor receptor or insulin receptor families despite the similarity between the 3D structure of the L domains of the type I insulin-like growth factor receptor and some leucine-rich repeat proteins. Results Here we have used profile searches and multiple sequence alignments to identify the repeat motif Ixx-LxIxx-Nx-Lxx-Lxx-Lxx-Lxx- in the L1 and L2 domains of the insulin receptor and epidermal growth factor receptors. These analyses were aided by reference to the known three dimensional structures of the insulin-like growth factor type I receptor L domains and two members of the leucine rich repeat family, porcine ribonuclease inhibitor and internalin 1B. Pectate lyase, another beta helix protein, can also be seen to contain the sequence motif and much of the structural features characteristic of leucine-rich repeat proteins, despite the existence of major insertions in some of its repeats. Conclusion Multiple sequence alignments and comparisons of the 3D structures has shown that right-handed beta helix proteins such as pectate lyase and the L domains of members of the insulin receptor and epidermal growth factor receptor families, are members of the leucine-rich repeat superfamily. PMID:11504559

  16. Epidermal growth factor-like proteins in breast fluid and human milk.

    PubMed

    Connolly, J M; Rose, D P

    1988-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF), and the transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-alpha) family of proteins, which also bind to the EGF receptor, have been associated with human breast cancer. The total EGF-like proteins were determined by a radioreceptor assay, and TGF-alpha by radioimmunoassay, in human milk and breast fluid samples. The breast fluids were collected by nipple aspiration from healthy premenopausal women. Both the 24 milks and 18 breast fluids assayed contained EGF-like proteins, at concentrations ranging from 32-600 ng/ml (median, 140 ng/ml), and 62-654 ng/ml (median, 205 ng/ml) respectively. Immunoreactive TGF-alpha proteins were detected at higher levels in 21 breast fluids (range, 0-50.0; median 5.1 ng/ml) than in 24 milk samples (range, 0-8.4; median, 0.8 ng/ml).

  17. Cloning of human epidermal growth factor as a bacterial secretory protein, its properties and mutagenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Engler, D.A.; Matsunami, R.K.; Campion, S.R.; Foote, R.S.; Mural, R.J.; Larimer, F.W.; Stevens, A.; Niyogi, S.K.

    1987-05-01

    A chimeric gene, containing the DNA coding for the human epidermal growth factor (EGF) and that for the signal peptide of E. coli alkaline phosphatase, was constructed by the annealing and subsequent ligation of appropriate DNA oligonucleotides synthesized in an automated DNA synthesizer. The gene was then cloned into a bacterial plasmid under the transcriptional control of the E. coli trp-lac (tac) promoter, and then transformed into E. coli. Following induction with isopropylthiogalactoside, the secretion of EGF into the E. coli periplasmic space and some into the growth medium was confirmed by its specific binding to the EGF receptor and stimulation of the EGF receptor tyrosine kinase activity. The size and physicochemical properties of the purified protein mimicked those of authentic human EGF. Studies of structure/function relationships by specific alterations of targeted amino acid residues in the EGF molecule have been initiated by utilizing site-directed mutagenesis.

  18. Novel monoclonal antibodies recognizing the active conformation of epidermal growth factor receptor.

    PubMed

    Ise, Nobuyuki; Omi, Kazuya; Miwa, Kyoko; Honda, Hideo; Higashiyama, Shigeki; Goishi, Katsutoshi

    2010-04-09

    The precise regulation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is crucial for its function in cellular growth control. Although many antibodies against EGFR have been developed and used to analyze its regulation and function, it is not yet easy to analyze activated EGFR specifically. Activated EGFR has been mainly detected by its phosphorylation state using anti-phospho-EGFR and anti-phosphotyrosine antibodies. In the present study, we have established novel monoclonal antibodies which recognize the activated EGFR independently of its phosphorylation. Our antibodies detected active state of EGFR in immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence, by recognizing the epitopes which are exposed through the conformational change induced by ligand-binding. Furthermore, we found that our antibodies preferentially detected the conformation of constitutively active EGFR mutants found in lung cancer cell lines. These results indicate that our antibodies may become novel research and diagnostic tools for detecting and analyzing the conformation of active EGFR in various cells and tissues.

  19. Linking γ-aminobutyric acid A receptor to epidermal growth factor receptor pathways activation in human prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Wu, Weijuan; Yang, Qing; Fung, Kar-Ming; Humphreys, Mitchell R; Brame, Lacy S; Cao, Amy; Fang, Yu-Ting; Shih, Pin-Tsen; Kropp, Bradley P; Lin, Hsueh-Kung

    2014-03-05

    Neuroendocrine (NE) differentiation has been attributed to the progression of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Growth factor pathways including the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling have been implicated in the development of NE features and progression to a castration-resistant phenotype. However, upstream molecules that regulate the growth factor pathway remain largely unknown. Using androgen-insensitive bone metastasis PC-3 cells and androgen-sensitive lymph node metastasis LNCaP cells derived from human prostate cancer (PCa) patients, we demonstrated that γ-aminobutyric acid A receptor (GABA(A)R) ligand (GABA) and agonist (isoguvacine) stimulate cell proliferation, enhance EGF family members expression, and activate EGFR and a downstream signaling molecule, Src, in both PC-3 and LNCaP cells. Inclusion of a GABA(A)R antagonist, picrotoxin, or an EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor, Gefitinib (ZD1839 or Iressa), blocked isoguvacine and GABA-stimulated cell growth, trans-phospohorylation of EGFR, and tyrosyl phosphorylation of Src in both PCa cell lines. Spatial distributions of GABAAR α₁ and phosphorylated Src (Tyr416) were studied in human prostate tissues by immunohistochemistry. In contrast to extremely low or absence of GABA(A)R α₁-positive immunoreactivity in normal prostate epithelium, elevated GABA(A)R α₁ immunoreactivity was detected in prostate carcinomatous glands. Similarly, immunoreactivity of phospho-Src (Tyr416) was specifically localized and limited to the nucleoli of all invasive prostate carcinoma cells, but negative in normal tissues. Strong GABAAR α₁ immunoreactivity was spatially adjacent to the neoplastic glands where strong phospho-Src (Tyr416)-positive immunoreactivity was demonstrated, but not in adjacent to normal glands. These results suggest that the GABA signaling is linked to the EGFR pathway and may work through autocrine or paracine mechanism to promote CRPC progression. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier

  20. Transactivation of epidermal growth factor receptor in vascular and renal systems in rats with experimental hyperleptinemia: role in leptin-induced hypertension.

    PubMed

    Jamroz-Wiśniewska, Anna; Wójcicka, Grazyna; Łowicka, Ewelina; Ksiazek, Marta; Bełtowski, Jerzy

    2008-04-15

    We examined the role of epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor in the pathogenesis of leptin-induced hypertension in the rat. Leptin, administered in increasing doses (0.1-0.5 mg/kg/day) for 10 days, increased phosphorylation levels of non-receptor tyrosine kinase, c-Src, EGF receptor and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) in aorta and kidney, which was accompanied by the increase in plasma concentration and urinary excretion of isoprostanes and H2O2. Blood pressure and renal Na+,K+-ATPase activity were higher, whereas urinary sodium excretion was lower in animals receiving leptin. The effects of leptin on renal Na+,K+-ATPase, natriuresis and blood pressure were abolished by NADPH oxidase inhibitor, apocynin, Src kinase inhibitor, PP2, EGF receptor inhibitor, AG1478, protein farnesyltransferase inhibitor, manumycin A, and ERK inhibitor, PD98059. In contrast, inhibitors of insulin-like growth factor-1 and platelet-derived growth factor receptors, AG1024 and AG1295, respectively, only slightly reduced ERK phosphorylation and had no effect on blood pressure in rats receiving leptin. These data indicate that: (1) experimental hyperleptinemia is associated with oxidative stress and c-Src-dependent transactivation of the EGF receptor, which stimulates ERK in vascular wall and the kidney, (2) overactivity of EGF receptor-ERK pathway contributes to leptin-induced hypertension by stimulating renal Na+,K+-ATPase and reducing sodium excretion, (3) inhibitors of c-Src, EGF receptor and ERK may be considered as a novel therapy for hypertension associated with hyperleptinemia, e.g. in patients with obesity and metabolic syndrome.

  1. Proliferative response and oncogene expression induced by epidermal growth factor in EL2 rat fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Liboi, E; Pelosi, E; Testa, U; Peschle, C; Rossi, G B

    1986-06-01

    Extensive evidence supports a two-step model for the control of fibroblast growth, which includes first the action of a competence factor (e.g., platelet-derived growth factor) followed by the stimulus of a progression factor (e.g., epidermal growth factor [EGF]). We investigated whether this model may be applied to the euploid EL2 fibroblast line recently isolated from rat embryos (E. Liboi, M. Caruso, and C. Basilico, Mol. Cell. Biol. 4:2925-2928, 1984). Our results clearly show that EGF alone leads EL2 cells to proliferate in serum-free conditions at a rate corresponding to 50 to 60% of that observed in the presence of 10% calf serum. It is of interest that, when resting EL2 cells were exposed to EGF, transcription of both c-myc and c-fos was markedly induced. Altogether, these observations suggest that, in contrast with the model of fibroblast growth mentioned above, EL2 cells require the presence of a single growth factor (EGF) for induction of DNA synthesis, and the expression of myc and fos proto-oncogenes may represent an obligatory step in the pathway of commitment of EL2 cells to proliferation. In addition, we showed that EGF may induce EL2 cells to acquire some properties of transformed cells, such as growth in agar and loss of contact inhibition. This suggests that the particular response to EGF of the EL2 line may be strictly connected with the expression of a transformed phenotype.

  2. The kinetics of the hydrogen/deuterium exchange of epidermal growth factor receptor ligands.

    PubMed

    Iloro, Ibon; Narváez, Daniel; Guillén, Nancy; Camacho, Carlos M; Guillén, Lalisse; Cora, Elsa; Pastrana-Ríos, Belinda

    2008-05-15

    Five highly homologous epidermal growth factor receptor ligands were studied by mass spectral analysis, hydrogen/deuterium (H/D) exchange via attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy, and two-dimensional correlation analysis. These studies were performed to determine the order of events during the exchange process, the extent of H/D exchange, and associated kinetics of exchange for a comparative analysis of these ligands. Furthermore, the secondary structure composition of amphiregulin (AR) and heparin-binding-epidermal growth factor (HB-EGF) was determined. All ligands were found to have similar contributions of 3(10)-helix and random coil with varying contributions of beta-sheets and beta-turns. The extent of exchange was 40%, 65%, 55%, 65%, and 98% for EGF, transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-alpha), AR, HB-EGF, and epiregulin (ER), respectively. The rate constants were determined and classified as fast, intermediate, and slow: for EGF the 0.20 min(-1) (Tyr), 0.09 min(-1) (Arg, beta-turns), and 1.88 x 10(-3) min(-1) (beta-sheets and 3(10)-helix); and for TGF-alpha 0.91 min(-1) (Tyr), 0.27 min(-1) (Arg, beta-turns), and 1.41 x 10(-4) min(-1) (beta-sheets). The time constants for AR 0.47 min(-1) (Tyr), 0.04 min(-1) (Arg), and 1.00 x 10(-4) min(-1) (buried 3(10)-helix, beta-turns, and beta-sheets); for HB-EGF 0.89 min(-1) (Tyr), 0.14 min(-1) (Arg and 3(10)-helix), and 1.00 x 10(-3) min(-1) (buried 3(10)-helix, beta-sheets, and beta-turns); and for epiregulin 0.16 min(-1) (Tyr), 0.03 min(-1) (Arg), and 1.00 x 10(-4) min(-1) (3(10)-helix and beta-sheets). These results provide essential information toward understanding secondary structure, H/D exchange kinetics, and solvation of these epidermal growth factor receptor ligands in their unbound state.

  3. Purification and some characteristics of the human epidermal SH-protease inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Järvinen, M

    1978-08-01

    An inhibitor of papain and other SH-proteases was purified 520-fold from human epidermis extracts by acetone fractionation, heat treatment, papain-Sepharose affinity chromatography, and Sephadex G-50 chromatography. The purified inhibitor had a molecular weight of 12,600 and contained no hexose, as tested by the anthrone reaction. The inhibitor survived in a boiling water bath, in 5% trichloroacetic acid, 20 mM Na3PO4 (pH 12.1) and 4 M NH4OH (pH 11.9). By isoelectric focusing 2 major activity peaks with pI's of 4.6 and 4.8, and a minor peak with a pI of 4.9 was fractioned, and 3 corresponding protein bands were seen after analytical isoelectric focusing. Immunization of rabbits with the purified inhibitor yielded a highly specific anti-inhibitor serum. The purified inhibitor inhibited papain, ficin, human cathepsins B and C, and slightly inhibited bromelain. No inhibition of serine proteases (bovine trypsin and chymotrypsin A, porcine elastase) or an acid protease (human cathepsin D) was observed. Evidence was obtained that the inhibitor formed a complex with both dithiothreitol-activated papain and enzymatically inactive mercuripapain.

  4. The expression of epidermal growth factor receptors and their ligands (epidermal growth factor, neuregulin, amphiregulin) in the bitch uterus during the estrus cycle.

    PubMed

    Sağsöz, Hakan; Liman, Narin; Saruhan, Berna Güney; Küçükaslan, İbrahim

    2014-06-30

    In order to study the possible role of EGFR receptors in the bitch reproductive process, we have analyzed the expression pattern and localization of EGFR receptors and some of their ligands epidermal growth factor (EGF), neuregulin (NRG), amphiregulin (AREG), in the uterus during the estrus cycle using immunohistochemistry. The immunostaining for receptors and ligands of EGFR/ligand system was confined to membrane and cytoplasm of the target cells. Variations were observed, not only at the different stages of the estrous cycle, but also in the different tissue compartments of the uterus. However, it was detected that the immunostainings for NRG and AREG in the different cells do not show important differences at stages of the estrus cycle. In the luminal epithelium, strong immunostaining for ErbB1/HER1, ErbB2/HER2, ErbB4/HER4 and EGF was found at estrus. In the glandular epithelium, strong immunostaining for ErbB4/HER4 was observed at diestrus, while strong immunostaining for EGF was detected in both of estrus and diestrus. ErbB3/HER3 immunoreactivity in the stromal cells was higher at diestrus and anestrus, while ErbB4/HER4 immunoreactivity was lower at anestrus. In the myometrium, the highest levels of immunoreactivity of ErbB2/HER2 were found at estrus, while ErbB3/HER3 immunoreactivity was higher at anestrus. EGF immunoreactivity was lower at anestrus compared to other stage of cycle. Altered EGFR/ligand system expression during the estrus cycle suggests this growth factor system is a potent regulator of proliferation and differentiation events during preparation for implantation of bitch uterus.

  5. Ricinus communis-based biopolymer and epidermal growth factor regulations on bone defect repair: A rat tibia model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza-Barrera, C.; Meléndez-Lira, M.; Altuzar, V.; Tomás, S. A.

    2003-01-01

    We report the effect of the addition of an epidermal growth factor to a Ricinus communis-based biopolymer in the healing of a rat tibia model. Bone repair and osteointegration after a period of three weeks were evaluated employing photoacoustic spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction. A parallel study was performed at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 weeks with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. We conclude that the use of an epidermal growth factor (group EGF) in vivo accelerates the process of bony repair in comparison with other groups, and that the employment of the Ricinus communis-based biopolymer as a bone substitute decreases bone production.

  6. Role of DNA endoreduplication, lipotubuloids, and gibberellic acid in epidermal cell growth during fruit development of Ornithogalum umbellatum.

    PubMed

    Kwiatkowska, Maria; Poplonska, Katarzyna; Kazmierczak, Andrzej; Stepinski, Dariusz; Rogala, Katarzyna; Polewczyk, Katarzyna

    2007-01-01

    Cytophotometry of individual nuclei was used to examine the level of endoreduplication in epidermal cells from the upper and lower parts of the ovary during Ornithogalum umbellatum flower and fruit development. An increase in DNA content from 2-4C to 2-8C in both parts of the ovary was observed, while the epidermal cell surface area grew about 6-fold and 15-fold in the lower and upper parts of the ovary, respectively. However, the correlation between mean epidermal cell size and ploidy was distinct during epidermis growth. Lipotubuloids became bigger in the upper than in the lower part during ovary and fruit development. In addition, more dynamic growth of the epidermal cells of the upper than of the lower part of the ovary was connected to the higher content of gibberellic acid. A hypothesis has been put forward that the role of DNA endoreduplication in epidermal cell growth was modulated by the function of lipotubuloids and the gradient of gibberellin.

  7. Selected Reaction Monitoring (SRM) Analysis of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) in Formalin Fixed Tumor Tissue

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Analysis of key therapeutic targets such as epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in clinical tissue samples is typically done by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and is only subjectively quantitative through a narrow dynamic range. The development of a standardized, highly-sensitive, linear, and quantitative assay for EGFR for use in patient tumor tissue carries high potential for identifying those patients most likely to benefit from EGFR-targeted therapies. Methods A mass spectrometry-based Selected Reaction Monitoring (SRM) assay for the EGFR protein (EGFR-SRM) was developed utilizing the Liquid Tissue®-SRM technology platform. Tissue culture cells (n = 4) were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to establish quantitative EGFR levels. Matching formalin fixed cultures were analyzed by the EGFR-SRM assay and benchmarked against immunoassay of the non-fixed cultured cells. Xenograft human tumor tissue (n = 10) of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) origin and NSCLC patient tumor tissue samples (n = 23) were microdissected and the EGFR-SRM assay performed on Liquid Tissue lysates prepared from microdissected tissue. Quantitative curves and linear regression curves for correlation between immunoassay and SRM methodology were developed in Excel. Results The assay was developed for quantitation of a single EGFR tryptic peptide for use in FFPE patient tissue with absolute specificity to uniquely distinguish EGFR from all other proteins including the receptor tyrosine kinases, IGF-1R, cMet, Her2, Her3, and Her4. The assay was analytically validated against a collection of tissue culture cell lines where SRM analysis of the formalin fixed cells accurately reflects EGFR protein levels in matching non-formalin fixed cultures as established by ELISA sandwich immunoassay (R2 = 0.9991). The SRM assay was applied to a collection of FFPE NSCLC xenograft tumors where SRM data range from 305amol/μg to 12,860amol/μg and are consistent

  8. Selected Reaction Monitoring (SRM) Analysis of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) in Formalin Fixed Tumor Tissue.

    PubMed

    Hembrough, Todd; Thyparambil, Sheeno; Liao, Wei-Li; Darfler, Marlene M; Abdo, Joseph; Bengali, Kathleen M; Taylor, Paul; Tong, Jiefei; Lara-Guerra, Humberto; Waddell, Thomas K; Moran, Michael F; Tsao, Ming-Sound; Krizman, David B; Burrows, Jon

    2012-05-03

    Analysis of key therapeutic targets such as epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in clinical tissue samples is typically done by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and is only subjectively quantitative through a narrow dynamic range. The development of a standardized, highly-sensitive, linear, and quantitative assay for EGFR for use in patient tumor tissue carries high potential for identifying those patients most likely to benefit from EGFR-targeted therapies. A mass spectrometry-based Selected Reaction Monitoring (SRM) assay for the EGFR protein (EGFR-SRM) was developed utilizing the Liquid Tissue®-SRM technology platform. Tissue culture cells (n = 4) were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to establish quantitative EGFR levels. Matching formalin fixed cultures were analyzed by the EGFR-SRM assay and benchmarked against immunoassay of the non-fixed cultured cells. Xenograft human tumor tissue (n = 10) of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) origin and NSCLC patient tumor tissue samples (n = 23) were microdissected and the EGFR-SRM assay performed on Liquid Tissue lysates prepared from microdissected tissue. Quantitative curves and linear regression curves for correlation between immunoassay and SRM methodology were developed in Excel. The assay was developed for quantitation of a single EGFR tryptic peptide for use in FFPE patient tissue with absolute specificity to uniquely distinguish EGFR from all other proteins including the receptor tyrosine kinases, IGF-1R, cMet, Her2, Her3, and Her4. The assay was analytically validated against a collection of tissue culture cell lines where SRM analysis of the formalin fixed cells accurately reflects EGFR protein levels in matching non-formalin fixed cultures as established by ELISA sandwich immunoassay (R2 = 0.9991). The SRM assay was applied to a collection of FFPE NSCLC xenograft tumors where SRM data range from 305amol/μg to 12,860amol/μg and are consistent with EGFR protein levels in

  9. Sperm Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) Mediates α7 Acetylcholine Receptor (AChR) Activation to Promote Fertilization

    PubMed Central

    Jaldety, Yael; Glick, Yair; Orr-Urtreger, Avi; Ickowicz, Debby; Gerber, Doron; Breitbart, Haim

    2012-01-01

    To attain fertilization the spermatozoon binds to the egg zona pellucida (ZP) via sperm receptor(s) and undergoes an acrosome reaction (AR). Several sperm receptors have been described in the literature; however, the identity of this receptor is not yet certain. In this study, we suggest that the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) might be a sperm receptor activated by ZP to induce epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mediated AR. We found that isolated ZP or α7 agonists induced the AR in sperm from WT but not α7-null spermatozoa, and the induced AR was inhibited by α7 or EGFR antagonists. Moreover, α7-null sperm showed very little binding to the egg, and microfluidic affinity in vitro assay clearly showed that α7nAChR, as well as EGFR, interacted with ZP3. Induction of EGFR activation and the AR by an α7 agonist was inhibited by a Src family kinase (SFK) inhibitor. In conclusion we suggest that activation of α7 by ZP leads to SFK-dependent EGFR activation, Ca2+ influx, and the acrosome reaction. PMID:22577141

  10. Local Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Signaling Mediates the Systemic Pathogenic Effects of Staphylococcus aureus Toxic Shock Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Gillman, Aaron N.; Stach, Christopher S.; Schlievert, Patrick M.; Peterson, Marnie L.

    2016-01-01

    Secreted factors of Staphylococcus aureus can activate host signaling from the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). The superantigen toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1) contributes to mucosal cytokine production through a disintegrin and metalloproteinase (ADAM)-mediated shedding of EGFR ligands and subsequent EGFR activation. The secreted hemolysin, α-toxin, can also induce EGFR signaling and directly interacts with ADAM10, a sheddase of EGFR ligands. The current work explores the role of EGFR signaling in menstrual toxic shock syndrome (mTSS), a disease mediated by TSST-1. The data presented show that TSST-1 and α-toxin induce ADAM- and EGFR-dependent cytokine production from human vaginal epithelial cells. TSST-1 and α-toxin also induce cytokine production from an ex vivo porcine vaginal mucosa (PVM) model. EGFR signaling is responsible for the majority of IL-8 production from PVM in response to secreted toxins and live S. aureus. Finally, data are presented demonstrating that inhibition of EGFR signaling with the EGFR-specific tyrosine kinase inhibitor AG1478 significantly increases survival in a rabbit model of mTSS. These data indicate that EGFR signaling is critical for progression of an S. aureus exotoxin-mediated disease and may represent an attractive host target for therapeutics. PMID:27414801

  11. Osimertinib for the Treatment of Metastatic Epidermal Growth Factor T970M Positive Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Khozin, Sean; Weinstock, Chana; Blumenthal, Gideon M; Cheng, Joyce; He, Kun; Zhuang, Luning; Zhao, Hong; Orbach, Rosane Charlab; Fan, Ingrid; Keegan, Patricia; Pazdur, Richard

    2016-12-06

    On November 13, 2015, FDA granted accelerated approval to osimertinib (TAGRISSO™; AstraZeneca), a breakthrough therapy-designated drug for the treatment of patients with metastatic epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) T790M-positive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), as detected by an FDA-approved test, with progression on or after EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy. Approval was based on durable tumor response rates in two single-arm, multicenter trials: the dose extension cohort of a first-in-human trial (AURA extension; n=201) and a fixed-dose, activity-estimating trial (AURA2; n=210). Osimertinib was administered at 80 mg orally once daily. The objective response rates (ORR) per blinded independent committee review were 57% (95% CI: 50%, 64%) in AURA extension and 61% (95% CI: 54%, 68%) in AURA2. Median duration of response (DOR) could not be estimated. Supportive efficacy data from 63 patients in the dose-finding part of the FIH trial demonstrated ORR of 51% (95% CI: 38%, 64%) with median DOR of 12.4 months. Common adverse events (AEs) evaluated in 411 patients included diarrhea (42%), rash (41%), dry skin (31%), and nail toxicity (25%). Grade 3-4 AEs occurred in 28% of patients and 6% discontinued treatment due to AEs.

  12. In Vivo Evidence for Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR)-mediated Release of Prolactin from the Pituitary Gland

    PubMed Central

    Dahlhoff, Maik; Blutke, Andreas; Wanke, Rüdiger; Wolf, Eckhard; Schneider, Marlon R.

    2011-01-01

    Members of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR/ERBB) system are essential local regulators of mammary gland development and function. Emerging evidence suggests that EGFR signaling may also influence mammary gland activity indirectly by promoting the release of prolactin from the pituitary gland in a MAPK and estrogen receptor-α (ERα)-dependent manner. Here, we report that overexpression of the EGFR ligand betacellulin (BTC) causes a lactating-like phenotype in the mammary gland of virgin female mice including the major hallmarks of lactogenesis. BTC transgenic (BTC-tg) females showed reduced levels of prolactin in the pituitary gland and increased levels of the hormone in the circulation. Furthermore, treatment of BTC-tg females with bromocriptine, an inhibitor of prolactin secretion, blocked the development of the lactation-like phenotype, suggesting that it is caused by central release of prolactin rather than by local actions of BTC in the mammary gland. Introduction of the antimorphic Egfr allele Wa5 also blocked the appearance of the mammary gland alterations, revealing that the phenotype is EGFR-dependent. We detected an increase in MAPK activity, but unchanged phosphorylation of ERα in the pituitary gland of BTC-tg females as compared with control mice. These results provide the first functional evidence in vivo for a role of the EGFR system in regulating mammary gland activity by modulating prolactin release from the pituitary gland. PMID:21914800

  13. Dichloroacetate potentiates tamoxifen-induced cell death in breast cancer cells via downregulation of the epidermal growth factor receptor

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yoonhwa; Kim, Eun-Kyu; Seong, Min-Ki; Kim, Hyun-Ah; Song, Jie-Young; Hwang, Sang-Gu; Lee, Jin Kyung; Noh, Woo Chul; Park, In-Chul

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic reprogramming in cancer cells has recently been recognized as an essential hallmark of neoplasia. In this context, metabolic alterations represent an attractive therapeutic target, and encouraging results with drugs targeting various metabolic processes have been obtained in preclinical studies. Recently, several studies have suggested that dichloroacetate (DCA), a specific pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase inhibitor, may be a potential anticancer drug in a large number of diverse tumors. However, the precise mechanism is not fully understood, which is important for the use of DCA in cancer treatment. In the present study, we found that DCA sensitized MCF7 breast cancer cells to tamoxifen-induced cell death by decreasing epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression. The downregulation of EGFR was caused by degradation of the protein. Furthermore, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase played an important role in DCA/tamoxifen-induced EGFR degradation. Finally, DCA also promoted comparable tamoxifen-induced cell death in tamoxifen-resistant MCF7 cells, which were established by long-term treatment with tamoxifen. In summary, our results suggest that DCA is an attractive potential drug that sensitizes cells to tamoxifen-induced cell death and overcome tamoxifen resistance via downregulation of EGFR expression in breast cancer cells. PMID:27494858

  14. Epidermal growth factor receptor polymorphisms and clinical outcomes in non-small-cell lung cancer patients treated with gefitinib.

    PubMed

    Liu, G; Gurubhagavatula, S; Zhou, W; Wang, Z; Yeap, B Y; Asomaning, K; Su, L; Heist, R; Lynch, T J; Christiani, D C

    2008-04-01

    The-216G/T, -191C/A, intron 1 and Arg497Lys epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) polymorphisms were evaluated in 92 advanced non-small-cell lung cancer patients treated with gefitinib, an EGFR tyrosine-kinase inhibitor. Improved progression free survival (PFS) was found in patients homozygous for the shorter lengths of intron 1 polymorphism (S/S; S=16 or fewer CA repeats; log-rank test (LRT) P=0.03) and for patients carrying any T allele of the -216G/T polymorphism (LRT, P=0.005). When considered together, patients with intron 1 S/S genotype and at least one T allele of -216G/T had improved PFS (LRT P=0.0006; adjusted hazard ratio (AHR), 0.60 (95% confidence interval, 0.36-0.98)) and overall survival (LRT P=0.02; AHR, 0.60 (0.36-1.00)) when compared with all others. The T allele of -216G/T was also associated with significantly higher rates of stable disease/partial response (P=0.01) and a significantly higher risk of treatment-related rash/diarrhea (P=0.004, multivariate model). EGFR intron 1 and -216G/T polymorphisms influence clinical outcomes in gefitinib-treated non-small-cell lung cancer patients.

  15. The role of epidermal growth factor receptor in photodynamic therapy: a review of the literature and proposal for future investigation.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Carpio, Pedro A; Trelles, Mario A

    2010-11-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) pathway seems to be an important contributor to the antiproliferative response to photodynamic therapy (PDT), in terms of cell death, apoptosis and tumour destruction. We reviewed all preclinical investigations in the scientific literature on the role of the EGFR pathway in PDT. A systematic search of Medline-indexed references up to March 2010 using the recommended strategies for Medline information retrieval and identifying relevant studies from systematic reviews, revealed 16 full articles that were exhaustively analysed. EGFR inhibition/degradation appeared to be a major effect of PDT in all investigations. PDT was found to result in a time-dependent reduction of EGFR expression, inhibition of tyrosine phosphorylation and induction of apoptosis during the regression of tumours. Within the time period of the PDT reaction, normal and malignant cells lose their responsiveness to EGF. The ERK1/2 and EGFR-PI3K-Akt pathways seem to be involved in cellular survival after PDT. Pharmacotherapy and immunotherapy to block EGFR activity combined with PDT seem to be very effective in reducing malignant tumours in vivo. The effect of PDT is associated with inactivation of the EGFR pathway, but biochemical and cellular phenomena are important and scarcely investigated. EGFR inhibitors and PDT act synergistically, and this is highly relevant for clinical use.

  16. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor targeting in non-small cell lung cancer: revisiting different strategies against the same target.

    PubMed

    Castañón, Eduardo; Martín, Patricia; Rolfo, Christian; Fusco, Juan P; Ceniceros, Lucía; Legaspi, Jairo; Santisteban, Marta; Gil-Bazo, Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have changed the paradigm of treatment in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The molecular biology study of EGFR has led to clinical trials that select patients more accurately, regarding the presence of EGFR activating mutations. Nonetheless, a lack of response or a temporary condition of the response has been detected in patients on EGFR TKIs. This has urged to study potential resistance mechanisms underneath. The most important ones are the presence of secondary mutations in EGFR, such as T790M, or the overexpression of mesenchymal-epithelial transition factor (MET) that may explain why patients who initially respond to EGFR TKIs, may ultimately become refractory. Several approaches have been taken and new drugs both targeting EGFR resistance-mutation or MET are currently being developed. Here we review and update the EGFR biological pathway as well as the clinical data leading to approval of the EGFR TKIs currently in the market. New compounds under investigation targeting resistance mutations or dually targeting EGFR and other relevant receptors are also reviewed and discussed.

  17. Heterogeneity of epidermal growth factor receptor mutations in lung adenocarcinoma harboring anaplastic lymphoma kinase rearrangements: A case report.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qiong; Wu, Jian-Yu; Jiao, Shun-Chang

    2014-11-01

    Lung cancer is a heterogeneous and complex disease that remains the leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. The identification of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) rearrangements has changed the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer, creating a personalized treatment era that is based on the appropriate molecular selection of patients. In spite of the efficacy of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), acquired resistance remains inevitable due to various mechanisms. The present study reports the case of a 30-year-old patient with stage IV lung adenocarcinoma initially harboring an EGFR mutation. However, following disease progression and a series of treatments, the wild-type EGFR gene was observed and the ALK rearrangements were revealed. Erlotinib administration resulted in a good response in the patient initially, but crizotinib did not. This indicated an association between the secondary mutations in kinases and the drug resistance to TKIs. This case should also highlight the clinical significance of repeat biopsies for the subsequent therapeutic choices at the onset of clinical progression.

  18. Nucleotide binding by the epidermal growth factor receptor protein-tyrosine kinase. Trinitrophenyl-ATP as a spectroscopic probe.

    PubMed

    Cheng, K; Koland, J G

    1996-01-05

    The nucleotide binding properties of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor protein-tyrosine kinase were investigated with the fluorescent nucleotide analog 2'(3')-O-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)adenosine 5'-triphosphate (TNP-ATP). TNP-ATP was found to be an active substrate for the autophosphorylation reaction of the recombinant EGF receptor protein-tyrosine kinase domain (TKD). Whereas the Vmax for the TNP-ATP-dependent autophosphorylation reaction was approximately 200-fold lower than that of ATP, the Km for this reaction was similar to that observed with ATP. The nucleotide analog was also shown to be an inhibitor of the ATP-dependent autophosphorylation and substrate phosphorylation reactions of the TKD. Spectroscopic studies demonstrated both a high affinity binding of TNP-ATP to the recombinant TKD and a markedly enhanced fluorescence of the bound nucleotide analog. The fluorescence of enzyme-bound TNP-ATP was attenuated in the presence of ATP, which enabled determination of the dissociation constants for both ATP and the Mn2+ complex of ATP. A truncated form of the EGF receptor TKD lacking the C-terminal autophosphorylation domain exhibited an enhanced affinity for TNP-ATP, which indicated that the autophosphorylation domain occupied the peptide substrate binding site of the TKD and modulated the binding of the nucleotide substrates.

  19. Effects of inorganic iodide, epidermal growth factor and phorbol ester on hormone synthesis by porcine thyroid follicles cultured in suspension

    SciTech Connect

    Kasai, Kikuo; Ichimura, Kenichi; Banba, Nobuyuki; Emoto, Tatsushi; Hiraiwa, Masaki; Hishinuma, Akira; Hattori, Yoshiyuki; Shimoda, Shinichi ); Yamaguchi, Fumihiko; Hosoya, Toichiro )

    1992-01-01

    Porcine thyroid follicles cultured in suspension for 96 h synthesized and secreted thyroid hormones in the presence of thyrotropin (TSH). The secretion of newly synthesized hormones was assessed by determining in the contents of thyroxine (T{sub 4}) and triiodothyronine (T{sub 3}) in the media and by paperchromatographic analysis of {sup 125}I-labeled hormones in the media where the follicles were cultured in the presence and absence of inhibitors of hormone synthesis. The hormone synthesis and secretion was modified by exogenously added NaI. The maximal response was obtained at 1 {mu}M. Thyroid peroxidase (TPO) activity in the cultured follicles with TSH for 96 h was dose-dependently inhibited by NaI. One hundred {mu}M and NaI completely inhibited TSH-induced TPO activity. Moreover, both epidermal growth factor and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate inhibited de novo hormone synthesis. An induction of TPO activity by TSH was also inhibited by either agent. These data provide direct evidences that thyroid hormone synthesis is regulated by NaI as well as TSH at least in part via regulation of TPO activity and also that both EGF and PMA are inhibitory on thyroid hormone formation.

  20. In vivo evidence for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mediated release of prolactin from the pituitary gland.

    PubMed

    Dahlhoff, Maik; Blutke, Andreas; Wanke, Rüdiger; Wolf, Eckhard; Schneider, Marlon R

    2011-11-11

    Members of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR/ERBB) system are essential local regulators of mammary gland development and function. Emerging evidence suggests that EGFR signaling may also influence mammary gland activity indirectly by promoting the release of prolactin from the pituitary gland in a MAPK and estrogen receptor-α (ERα)-dependent manner. Here, we report that overexpression of the EGFR ligand betacellulin (BTC) causes a lactating-like phenotype in the mammary gland of virgin female mice including the major hallmarks of lactogenesis. BTC transgenic (BTC-tg) females showed reduced levels of prolactin in the pituitary gland and increased levels of the hormone in the circulation. Furthermore, treatment of BTC-tg females with bromocriptine, an inhibitor of prolactin secretion, blocked the development of the lactation-like phenotype, suggesting that it is caused by central release of prolactin rather than by local actions of BTC in the mammary gland. Introduction of the antimorphic Egfr allele Wa5 also blocked the appearance of the mammary gland alterations, revealing that the phenotype is EGFR-dependent. We detected an increase in MAPK activity, but unchanged phosphorylation of ERα in the pituitary gland of BTC-tg females as compared with control mice. These results provide the first functional evidence in vivo for a role of the EGFR system in regulating mammary gland activity by modulating prolactin release from the pituitary gland.

  1. Loss of Mig6 accelerates initiation and progression of mutant epidermal growth factor receptor-driven lung adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Maity, Tapan K.; Venugopalan, Abhilash; Linnoila, Ilona; Cultraro, Constance M.; Giannakou, Andreas; Nemati, Roxanne; Zhang, Xu; Webster, Joshua D.; Ritt, Daniel; Ghosal, Sarani; Hoschuetzky, Heinz; Simpson, R. Mark; Biswas, Romi; Politi, Katerina; Morrison, Deborah K.; Varmus, Harold E.; Guha, Udayan

    2015-01-01

    Somatic mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) kinase domain drive lung adenocarcinoma. We have previously identified MIG6, an inhibitor of ERBB signaling and a potential tumor suppressor, as a target for phosphorylation by mutant EGFRs. Here we demonstrate that Mig6 is a tumor suppressor for the initiation and progression of mutant EGFR-driven lung adenocarcinoma in mouse models. Mutant EGFR-induced lung tumor formation was accelerated in Mig6-deficient mice, even with Mig6 haploinsufficiency. We demonstrate that constitutive phosphorylation of MIG6 at Y394/395 in EGFR-mutant human lung adenocarcinoma cell lines is associated with an increased interaction of MIG6 with mutant EGFR, which may stabilize EGFR protein. MIG6 also fails to promote mutant EGFR degradation. We propose a model whereby increased tyrosine phosphorylation of MIG6 decreases its capacity to inhibit mutant EGFR. Nonetheless, the residual inhibition is sufficient for Mig6 to delay mutant EGFR-driven tumor initiation and progression in mouse models. PMID:25735773

  2. Structural model for the interaction of a designed Ankyrin Repeat Protein with the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2.

    PubMed

    Epa, V Chandana; Dolezal, Olan; Doughty, Larissa; Xiao, Xiaowen; Jost, Christian; Plückthun, Andreas; Adams, Timothy E

    2013-01-01

    Designed Ankyrin Repeat Proteins are a class of novel binding proteins that can be selected and evolved to bind to targets with high affinity and specificity. We are interested in the DARPin H10-2-G3, which has been evolved to bind with very high affinity to the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). HER2 is found to be over-expressed in 30% of breast cancers, and is the target for the FDA-approved therapeutic monoclonal antibodies trastuzumab and pertuzumab and small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Here, we use computational macromolecular docking, coupled with several interface metrics such as shape complementarity, interaction energy, and electrostatic complementarity, to model the structure of the complex between the DARPin H10-2-G3 and HER2. We analyzed the interface between the two proteins and then validated the structural model by showing that selected HER2 point mutations at the putative interface with H10-2-G3 reduce the affinity of binding up to 100-fold without affecting the binding of trastuzumab. Comparisons made with a subsequently solved X-ray crystal structure of the complex yielded a backbone atom root mean square deviation of 0.84-1.14 Ångstroms. The study presented here demonstrates the capability of the computational techniques of structural bioinformatics in generating useful structural models of protein-protein interactions.

  3. Structural Model for the Interaction of a Designed Ankyrin Repeat Protein with the Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2

    PubMed Central

    Epa, V. Chandana; Dolezal, Olan; Doughty, Larissa; Xiao, Xiaowen; Jost, Christian; Plückthun, Andreas; Adams, Timothy E.

    2013-01-01

    Designed Ankyrin Repeat Proteins are a class of novel binding proteins that can be selected and evolved to bind to targets with high affinity and specificity. We are interested in the DARPin H10-2-G3, which has been evolved to bind with very high affinity to the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). HER2 is found to be over-expressed in 30% of breast cancers, and is the target for the FDA-approved therapeutic monoclonal antibodies trastuzumab and pertuzumab and small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Here, we use computational macromolecular docking, coupled with several interface metrics such as shape complementarity, interaction energy, and electrostatic complementarity, to model the structure of the complex between the DARPin H10-2-G3 and HER2. We analyzed the interface between the two proteins and then validated the structural model by showing that selected HER2 point mutations at the putative interface with H10-2-G3 reduce the affinity of binding up to 100-fold without affecting the binding of trastuzumab. Comparisons made with a subsequently solved X-ray crystal structure of the complex yielded a backbone atom root mean square deviation of 0.84–1.14 Ångstroms. The study presented here demonstrates the capability of the computational techniques of structural bioinformatics in generating useful structural models of protein-protein interactions. PMID:23527120

  4. Detection of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Mutations in Lung Adenocarcinoma: Comparing Cobas 4800 EGFR Assay With Sanger Bidirectional Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Ardakani, Nima Mesbah; Giardina, Tindaro; Grieu-Iacopetta, Fabienne; Tesfai, Yordanos; Carrello, Amerigo; Taylor, Jeremy; Robinson, Cleo; Spagnolo, Dominic; Amanuel, Benhur

    2016-09-01

    Accurate detection of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations has a crucial role in the current treatment of patients with lung adenocarcinoma, and identification of clinically relevant mutations would qualify patients for treatment with tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Historically, Sanger sequencing has been used as the reference standard assay for EGFR mutational analysis; however, Cobas 4800 is a relatively new method. In the present study, we compared the performance of the Cobas assay against that of Sanger sequencing. A total of 493 consecutive formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples of lung adenocarcinoma were simultaneously tested for EGFR mutations using both methods. After exclusion of the invalid results (n = 19), 474 samples from 455 patients were analyzed. The Cobas assay showed a mutation detection rate comparable to that of Sanger sequencing (18.1% vs. 17.9%, respectively; P < .05). Excellent agreement of 98.9% (κ, 0.964) was observed between the 2 methods. The Cobas assay is a fast and diagnostically robust platform with high analytical sensitivity; however, it is limited by its detection range and low tolerance to low DNA quality. Sanger sequencing is mostly affected by its lower analytic sensitivity. Ultimately, a dual testing strategy will be justified to increase the detection of novel mutations and reduce the false-negative results within an acceptable turnaround time. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Targeted therapy in non-small cell lung cancer: a focus on epidermal growth factor receptor mutations.

    PubMed

    Milano, Gérard A

    2015-12-01

    The main molecular targeting of lung cancer [non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)] concerns mutations of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). The awaited responsiveness of tumors carrying these mutations is high with for instance 60% to 80% with tyrosine kinase inhibitors hitting EGFR mutations. The EGFR T790M as a secondary mutation is responsible for the occurrence of a resistance phenomenon. A multitude of drugs have been produced and tested with the property of a specific binding at the EGFR T790M site. There is currently an evolution oriented to a robust genotyping methods allowing the identification of given molecular anomalies (pyrosequencing for instance) towards the consideration of a much larger set of molecular anomalies under the form of a global genotyping realized with the use of next-generation sequencing (NGS). This phase of whole genome analysis necessitates the introduction of a specialized staff for data treatment. A possible substitution plasma/tumor for the mutation analyses is perceptible in lung cancer, a preference being however given to the intratumoral direct investigation when this is feasible. EGFR mutations as targetable anomalies are illustrative examples, that the management of NSCLC is currently drawing a significant benefit from personalized therapy.

  6. Epidermal growth factor-induced hydrogen peroxide production is mediated by dual oxidase 1.

    PubMed

    Sirokmány, Gábor; Pató, Anna; Zana, Melinda; Donkó, Ágnes; Bíró, Adrienn; Nagy, Péter; Geiszt, Miklós

    2016-08-01

    Stimulation of mammalian cells by epidermal growth factor (EGF) elicits complex signaling events, including an increase in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production. Understanding the significance of this response is limited by the fact that the source of EGF-induced H2O2 production is unknown. Here we show that EGF-induced H2O2 production in epidermal cell lines is dependent on the agonist-induced calcium signal. We analyzed the expression of NADPH oxidase isoforms and found both A431 and HaCaT cells to express the calcium-sensitive NADPH oxidase, Dual oxidase 1 (Duox1) and its protein partner Duox activator 1 (DuoxA1). Inhibition of Duox1 expression by small interfering RNAs eliminated EGF-induced H2O2 production in both cell lines. We also demonstrate that H2O2 production by Duox1 leads to the oxidation of thioredoxin-1 and the cytosolic peroxiredoxins. Our observations provide evidence for a new signaling paradigm in which changes of intracellular calcium concentration are transformed into redox signals through the calcium-dependent activation of Duox1. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Arsenite and insulin exhibit opposing effects on epidermal growth factor receptor and keratinocyte proliferative potential

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, Timothy J.; Rice, Robert H. . E-mail: rhrice@ucdavis.edu

    2007-05-15

    Previous work has suggested that arsenic exposure contributes to skin carcinogenesis by preserving the proliferative potential of human epidermal keratinocytes, thereby slowing the exit of putative target stem cells into the differentiation pathway. To find a molecular basis for this action, present work has explored the influence of arsenite on keratinocyte responses to epidermal growth factor (EGF). The ability of cultured keratinocytes to found colonies upon passaging several days after confluence was preserved by arsenite and EGF in an additive fashion, but neither was effective when the receptor tyrosine kinase activity was inhibited. Arsenite prevented the loss of EGF receptor protein and phosphorylation of tyrosine 1173, preserving its capability to signal. The level of nuclear {beta}-catenin was higher in cells treated with arsenite and EGF in parallel to elevated colony forming ability, and expression of a dominant negative {beta}-catenin suppressed the increase in both colony forming ability and yield of putative stem cells induced by arsenite and EGF. As judged by expression of three genes regulated by {beta}-catenin, this transcription factor had substantially higher activity in the arsenite/EGF-treated cells. Trivalent antimony exhibited the same effects as arsenite. A novel finding is that insulin in the medium induced the loss of EGF receptor protein, which was largely prevented by arsenite exposure.

  8. An Integrated Model of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Trafficking and Signal Transduction

    PubMed Central

    Resat, Haluk; Ewald, Jonathan A.; Dixon, David A.; Wiley, H. Steven

    2003-01-01

    Endocytic trafficking of many types of receptors can have profound effects on subsequent signaling events. Quantitative models of these processes, however, have usually considered trafficking and signaling independently. Here, we present an integrated model of both the trafficking and signaling pathway of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) using a probability weighted-dynamic Monte Carlo simulation. Our model consists of hundreds of distinct endocytic compartments and ∼13,000 reactions/events that occur over a broad spatio-temporal range. By using a realistic multicompartment model, we can investigate the distribution of the receptors among cellular compartments as well as their potential signal transduction characteristics. Our new model also allows the incorporation of physiochemical aspects of ligand-receptor interactions, such as pH-dependent binding in different endosomal compartments. To determine the utility of this approach, we simulated the differential activation of the EGFR by two of its ligands, epidermal growth factor (EGF) and transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-α). Our simulations predict that when EGFR is activated with TGF-α, receptor activation is biased toward the cell surface whereas EGF produces a signaling bias toward the endosomal compartment. Experiments confirm these predictions from our model and simulations. Our model accurately predicts the kinetics and extent of receptor downregulation induced by either EGF or TGF-α. Our results suggest that receptor trafficking controls the compartmental bias of signal transduction, rather than simply modulating signal magnitude. Our model provides a new approach to evaluating the complex effect of receptor trafficking on signal transduction. Importantly, the stochastic and compartmental nature of the simulation allows these models to be directly tested by high-throughput approaches, such as quantitative image analysis. PMID:12885624

  9. Rotational diffusion of receptors for epidermal growth factor measured by time-resolved phosphorescence depolarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zidovetzki, Raphael; Johnson, David A.; Arndt-Jovin, Donna J.; Jovin, Thomas M.

    1991-06-01

    The cell surface receptor for epidermal growth factor (EGFR) is one of the most studied integral membrane proteins. The receptor is widely distributed in cells and tissues of mammalian and avian tissues and plays an important role in growth control. Binding of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) to EGFR initiates a complex biological response, which includes self-phosphorylation of the receptor due to an intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity, phosphorylation of other membrane proteins, increased intake of metabolites, and increased proliferation. Complete amino acid sequence of EGFR revealed a high degree of homology with viral oncogenes and allowed tentative identification of an external hormone binding domain, a transmembrane domain, and a cytoplasmic domain that includes tyrosine kinase activity. EGF binding induces rapid aggregation of EGFR, a process which was also observed on other receptor systems. These and other observations led to a hypothesis that microaggregation of EGFR is a necessary prerequisite for the biological response of EGF. A direct approach to study the processes of oligomerization of cell membrane proteins is to measure their mobility under various conditions. The lateral mobility of the EGFR was studied on mouse 3T3 fibroblasts and on A431 cells. However, an examination of the equations for the lateral and rotational diffusion in membranes shows that only rotational diffusion is strongly dependent on the size of the diffusing entity. A method of measuring protein rotational diffusion by time-resolved phosphorescence has proved to be very useful in the analysis of both in vivo and in vitro systems. The authors apply this method to study the mobility of EGFR on living A431 cells and membrane preparations.

  10. Epidermal growth factor released in human dental pulp following orthodontic force.

    PubMed

    Derringer, Kathryn; Linden, Roger

    2007-02-01

    This study investigated the role of human epidermal growth factor (EGF) in the angiogenic response of the dental pulp to orthodontic force. The release of angiogenic growth factor EGF in human dental pulp following orthodontic force application was examined using neutralizing antibody anti-human (anti-h) EGF to block its effects. The dental pulps from 10 premolar teeth from 10 patients (equal numbers of males and females aged 11-14 years), treated with a straightwire fixed appliance for 2 weeks and extracted for orthodontic reasons, were divided vertically, and sections from each half-pulp were individually co-cultured with a section of rat aorta in collagen surrounded by growth media. Anti-h EGF was added to the media of the co-cultures from one-half of each pulp from each tooth from each patient; the remaining co-cultures from the other half of each pulp without anti-h EGF were used as the controls. Cultures were examined daily by light microscopy for angiogenic growth and number of microvessels. The addition of anti-h EGF to the growth media in the co-cultures resulted in a significant reduction (P < 0.05, Wilcoxon signed rank test) in pulpal and rat aorta microvessel numbers, compared with the control co-cultures. The results indicate that EGF released following orthodontic force application plays a part in the angiogenic response of the pulp.

  11. Cbl competitively inhibits epidermal growth factor-induced activation of phospholipase C-gamma1.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jang Hyun; Bae, Sun Sik; Park, Jong Bae; Ha, Sang Hoon; Song, Hebok; Kim, Jae-Ho; Cocco, Lucio; Ryu, Sung Ho; Suh, Pann-Ghill

    2003-04-30

    Phospholipase C-gamma1 (PLC-gamma1) plays pivotal roles in cellular growth and proliferation through its two Src homology (SH) 2 domains and its single SH3 domain, which interact with signaling molecules in response to various growth factors and hormones. However, the role of the SH domains in the growth factor-induced regulation of PLC-gamma1 is unclear. By peptide-mass fingerprinting analysis we have identified Cbl as a binding protein for the SH3 domain of PLC-gamma1 from rat pheochromatocyte PC12 cells. Association of Cbl with PLC-gamma1 was induced by epidermal growth factor (EGF) but not by nerve growth factor (NGF). Upon EGF stimulation, both Cbl and PLC-gamma1 were recruited to the activated EGF receptor through their SH2 domains. Mutation of the SH2 domains of either Cbl or PLC-gamma1 abrogated the EGF-induced interaction of PLC-gamma1 with Cbl, indicating that SH2-mediated translocation is essential for the association of PLC-gamma1 and Cbl. Overexpression of Cbl attenuated EGF-induced tyrosine phosphorylation and the subsequent activation of PLC-gamma1 by interfering competitively with the interaction between PLC-gamma1 and EGFR. Taken together, these results provide the first indications that Cbl may be a negative regulator of intracellular signaling following EGF-induced PLC-gamma1 activation.

  12. The F-BAR Protein PACSIN2 Regulates Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Internalization

    PubMed Central

    de Kreuk, Bart-Jan; Anthony, Eloise C.; Geerts, Dirk; Hordijk, Peter L.

    2012-01-01

    Signaling via growth factor receptors, including the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor, is key to various cellular processes, such as proliferation, cell survival, and cell migration. In a variety of human diseases such as cancer, aberrant expression and activation of growth factor receptors can lead to disturbed signaling. Intracellular trafficking is crucial for proper signaling of growth factor receptors. As a result, the level of cell surface expression of growth factor receptors is an important determinant for the outcome of downstream signaling. BAR domain-containing proteins represent an important family of proteins that regulate membrane dynamics. In this study, we identify a novel role for the F-BAR protein PACSIN2 in the regulation of EGF receptor signaling. We show that internalized EGF as well as the (activated) EGF receptor translocated to PACSIN2-positive endosomes. Furthermore, loss of PACSIN2 increased plasma membrane expression of the EGF receptor in resting cells and increased EGF-induced phosphorylation of the EGF receptor. As a consequence, EGF-induced activation of Erk and Akt as well as cell proliferation were enhanced in PACSIN2-depleted cells. In conclusion, this study identifies a novel role for the F-BAR-domain protein PACSIN2 in regulating EGF receptor surface levels and EGF-induced downstream signaling. PMID:23129763

  13. Rational identification of an optimal antibody mixture for targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor

    PubMed Central

    Koefoed, Klaus; Steinaa, Lucilla; Søderberg, Josefine Nielsen; Kjær, Ida; Jacobsen, Helle Jane; Meijer, Per-Johan; Haurum, John Sørensen; Jensen, Allan; Kragh, Michael; Andersen, Peter Sejer

    2011-01-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is frequently dysregulated in human malignancies and a validated target for cancer therapy. Two monoclonal anti-EGFR antibodies (cetuximab and panitumumab) are approved for clinical use. However, the percentage of patients responding to treatment is low and many patients experiencing an initial response eventually relapse. Thus, the need for more efficacious treatments remains. Previous studies have reported that mixtures of antibodies targeting multiple distinct epitopes are more effective than single mAbs at inhibiting growth of human cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. The current work describes the rational approach that led to discovery and selection of a novel anti-EGFR antibody mixture Sym004, which is currently in Phase 2 clinical testing. Twenty-four selected anti-EGFR antibodies were systematically tested in dual and triple mixtures for their ability to inhibit cancer cells in vitro and tumor growth in vivo. The results show that targeting EGFR dependent cancer cells with mixtures of antibodies is superior at inhibiting their growth both in vitro and in vivo. In particular, antibody mixtures targeting non-overlapping epitopes on domain III are efficient and indeed Sym004 is composed of two monoclonal antibodies targeting this domain. The superior growth inhibitory activity of mixtures correlated with their ability to induce efficient EGFR degradation. PMID:22123060

  14. Epidermal growth factor and hepatocyte growth factor receptors collaborate to induce multiple biological responses in bovine mammary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Accornero, P; Martignani, E; Miretti, S; Starvaggi Cucuzza, L; Baratta, M

    2009-08-01

    The aim of this work was to explore whether epidermal growth factor (EGF) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) could increase the biological responses of a mammary epithelial cell line of bovine origin when added simultaneously. We also investigated a possible molecular mechanism underlying this cooperation. The development of mammary gland requires several circulating and locally produced hormones. Hepatocyte growth factor and its tyrosine kinase receptor, mesenchymal-epithelial transition factor (MET), are expressed and temporally regulated during mammary development and differentiation. Epidermal growth factor receptor and its ligands have also been implicated in the growth and morphogenesis of the mammary epithelium. Both EGF and HGF seem to exert a morphogenic program in this tissue; therefore, we hypothesized that these cytokines could act cooperatively in bovine mammary epithelial cells. We have already shown that the bovine BME-UV cell line, a nontumorigenic mammary epithelial line, expresses both MET and EGF receptor. Simultaneous treatment with HGF and EGF elicited an increase in proliferation, dispersion, degradation of extracellular matrix, and motility. Following EGF treatment, BME-UV mammary cells exhibited an increase in MET expression at both the mRNA and protein levels. Long-term treatment of BME-UV cells with HGF and EGF together increased the level of activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and protein kinase B signaling pathways when compared with HGF or EGF alone. These data outline a possible cooperative role of the EGF and HGF pathways and indicate that cross-talk between their respective receptors may modulate mammary gland development in the cow.

  15. mPGES-1 in prostate cancer controls stemness and amplifies epidermal growth factor receptor-driven oncogenicity.

    PubMed

    Finetti, Federica; Terzuoli, Erika; Giachetti, Antonio; Santi, Raffaella; Villari, Donata; Hanaka, Hiromi; Radmark, Olof; Ziche, Marina; Donnini, Sandra

    2015-08-01

    There is evidence that an inflammatory microenvironment is associated with the development and progression of prostate cancer (PCa), although the determinants of intrinsic inflammation in PCa cells are not completely understood. Here we investigated whether expression of intrinsic microsomal PGE synthase-1 (mPGES-1) enhanced aggressiveness of PCa cells and might be critical for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mediated tumour progression. In PCa, overexpression of EGFR promotes metastatic invasion and correlates with a high Gleason score, while prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) has been reported to modulate oncogenic EGFR-driven oncogenicity. Immunohistochemical studies revealed that mPGES-1 in human prostate tissues is correlated with EGFR expression in advanced tumours. In DU145 and PC-3 cell lines expressing mPGES-1 (mPGES-1(SC) cells), we demonstrate that silencing or 'knock down' of mPGES-1 (mPGES-1(KD)) or pharmacological inhibition by MF63 strongly attenuates overall oncogenic drive. Indeed, mPGES-1(SC) cells express stem-cell-like features (high CD44, β1-integrin, Nanog and Oct4 and low CD24 and α6-integrin) as well as mesenchymal transition markers (high vimentin, high fibronectin, low E-cadherin). They also show increased capacity to survive irrespective of anchorage condition, and overexpress EGFR compared to mPGES-1(KD) cells. mPGES-1 expression correlates with increased in vivo tumour growth and metastasis. Although EGFR inhibition reduces mPGES-1(SC) and mPGES-1(KD) cell xenograft tumour growth, we show that mPGES-1/PGE2 signalling sensitizes tumour cells to EGFR inhibitors. We propose mPGES-1 as a possible new marker of tumour aggressiveness in PCa.

  16. mPGES-1 in prostate cancer controls stemness and amplifies epidermal growth factor receptor-driven oncogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Finetti, Federica; Terzuoli, Erika; Giachetti, Antonio; Santi, Raffaella; Villari, Donata; Hanaka, Hiromi; Radmark, Olof; Ziche, Marina; Donnini, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    There is evidence that an inflammatory microenvironment is associated with the development and progression of prostate cancer (PCa), although the determinants of intrinsic inflammation in PCa cells are not completely understood. Here we investigated whether expression of intrinsic microsomal PGE synthase-1 (mPGES-1) enhanced aggressiveness of PCa cells and might be critical for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mediated tumour progression. In PCa, overexpression of EGFR promotes metastatic invasion and correlates with a high Gleason score, while prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) has been reported to modulate oncogenic EGFR-driven oncogenicity. Immunohistochemical studies revealed that mPGES-1 in human prostate tissues is correlated with EGFR expression in advanced tumours. In DU145 and PC-3 cell lines expressing mPGES-1 (mPGES-1SC cells), we demonstrate that silencing or ‘knock down’ of mPGES-1 (mPGES-1KD) or pharmacological inhibition by MF63 strongly attenuates overall oncogenic drive. Indeed, mPGES-1SC cells express stem-cell-like features (high CD44, β1-integrin, Nanog and Oct4 and low CD24 and α6-integrin) as well as mesenchymal transition markers (high vimentin, high fibronectin, low E-cadherin). They also show increased capacity to survive irrespective of anchorage condition, and overexpress EGFR compared to mPGES-1KD cells. mPGES-1 expression correlates with increased in vivo tumour growth and metastasis. Although EGFR inhibition reduces mPGES-1SC and mPGES-1KD cell xenograft tumour growth, we show that mPGES-1/PGE2 signalling sensitizes tumour cells to EGFR inhibitors. We propose mPGES-1 as a possible new marker of tumour aggressiveness in PCa. PMID:26113609

  17. Impact of palbociclib combinations on treatment of advanced estrogen receptor-positive/human epidermal growth factor 2-negative breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Boér, Katalin

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease with multiple subgroups based on clinical and molecular characteristics. For the largest subgroup of breast cancers, hormone receptor-positive/human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2)-negative tumors, hormone treatment is the mainstay of therapy and is likely to result in significant improvement in disease outcomes. However, some of these cancers demonstrate de novo or acquired resistance to endocrine therapy. Despite intensive research to develop new strategies to enhance the efficacy of currently available treatment options for hormone receptor-positive breast cancer, progress has been slow, and there were few advances for a period of 10 years. In 2012, a new molecularly targeted therapeutic strategy, inhibition of mammalian target of rapamycin with everolimus, was introduced into clinical practice. Everolimus, in combination with a steroidal aromatase inhibitor, exemestane, resulted in an increase in progression-free survival, but not overall survival in patients with estrogen receptor (ER)+ve advanced disease who had progressed on hormone therapy. In 2015, the first cyclin-dependent kinases 4/6 (CDK4/6) inhibitor, palbociclib, received accelerated US Food and Drug Administration approval for use in combination with letrozole for the treatment of postmenopausal ER+ve/HER2−ve advanced breast cancer as initial, endocrine-based therapy. The addition of palbociclib to endocrine therapy resulted in longer progression-free survival than letrozole alone. One year later, palbociclib received a new indication, use in combination with fulvestrant, in both premenopausal and postmenopausal females with advanced breast cancer of the same subtype with disease progression following endocrine therapy. Adding palbociclib to fulvestrant resulted in a significantly increased median progression-free survival compared to fulvestrant monotherapy. These new combination regimens of palbociclib with endocrine agents represent an important

  18. Blockade of Ets-1 attenuates epidermal growth factor-dependent collagen loss in human carotid plaque smooth muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Velidi H.; Rai, Vikrant; Stoupa, Samantha

    2015-01-01

    Although degradation of extracellular matrix by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) is thought to be involved in symptomatic (S) carotid plaques in atherosclerosis, the mechanisms of MMP expression are poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that collagen loss in vascular smooth vessel cells (VSMCs) isolated from S plaques was induced by epidermal growth factor (EGF) through the activation of p38-MAPK and JNK-MAPK pathways. Inhibitors of p38-MAPK and JNK-MAPK signaling pathways downregulated the expression of MMP-1 and MMP-9. In addition, we examined whether v-ets erythroblastosis virus E26 oncogene homologue 1 (Ets-1), an important regulator of different genes, is involved in destabilizing S plaques in patients with carotid stenosis. We demonstrate that EGF induces Ets-1 expression and decreases interstitial and basement membrane collagen in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) from patients with carotid stenosis. Increased expression of MMP-1 and -9 and decreased collagen mRNA transcripts were also found in Ets-1-overexpressed VSMCs. Transfection with both dominant-negative form of Ets-1 and small interfering RNA blocked EGF-induced MMP-1 and -9 expressions and increased the mRNA transcripts for collagen I (α1) and collagen III (α1) in S compared with asymptomatic (AS) carotid plaques. Inhibitors of p38-MAPK (SB202190) and JNK-MAPK (SP600125) signaling pathways decreased the expression of Ets-1, MMP-1, and MMP-9 and increased collagen type I and III expression in EGF-treated VSMCs. This study provides a mechanistic insight into the role of Ets-1 in the plaque destabilization in patients with carotid stenosis involving p38-MAPK and JNK signaling pathways. PMID:26254334

  19. Blockade of Ets-1 attenuates epidermal growth factor-dependent collagen loss in human carotid plaque smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Rao, Velidi H; Rai, Vikrant; Stoupa, Samantha; Agrawal, Devendra K

    2015-09-15

    Although degradation of extracellular matrix by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) is thought to be involved in symptomatic (S) carotid plaques in atherosclerosis, the mechanisms of MMP expression are poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that collagen loss in vascular smooth vessel cells (VSMCs) isolated from S plaques was induced by epidermal growth factor (EGF) through the activation of p38-MAPK and JNK-MAPK pathways. Inhibitors of p38-MAPK and JNK-MAPK signaling pathways downregulated the expression of MMP-1 and MMP-9. In addition, we examined whether v-ets erythroblastosis virus E26 oncogene homologue 1 (Ets-1), an important regulator of different genes, is involved in destabilizing S plaques in patients with carotid stenosis. We demonstrate that EGF induces Ets-1 expression and decreases interstitial and basement membrane collagen in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) from patients with carotid stenosis. Increased expression of MMP-1 and -9 and decreased collagen mRNA transcripts were also found in Ets-1-overexpressed VSMCs. Transfection with both dominant-negative form of Ets-1 and small interfering RNA blocked EGF-induced MMP-1 and -9 expressions and increased the mRNA transcripts for collagen I (α1) and collagen III (α1) in S compared with asymptomatic (AS) carotid plaques. Inhibitors of p38-MAPK (SB202190) and JNK-MAPK (SP600125) signaling pathways decreased the expression of Ets-1, MMP-1, and MMP-9 and increased collagen type I and III expression in EGF-treated VSMCs. This study provides a mechanistic insight into the role of Ets-1 in the plaque destabilization in patients with carotid stenosis involving p38-MAPK and JNK signaling pathways. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  20. Phytanic acid activates NADPH oxidase through transactivation of epidermal growth factor receptor in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Dhaunsi, Gursev S; Alsaeid, Mayra; Akhtar, Saghir

    2016-06-10

    Phytanic acid (PA) has been implicated in development of cancer and its defective metabolism is known to cause life-threatening conditions, such as Refsum disease, in children. To explore molecular mechanisms of phytanic acid-induced cellular pathology, we investigated its effect on NADPH oxidase (NOX) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in rat aortic smooth muscle cells (RASMC). Smooth muscle cells were isolated from rat aortae using enzymic digestion with collagenase and elastase. Cultured RASMC were treated with varying concentrations (0.5-10 μg/ml) of phytanic acid in the presence/absence of fetal bovine serum (FBS) and/or EGFR inhibitor, AG1478. Following treatment with experimental agents, NOX activity was assayed in RASMC cultures by luminescence method. Gene expression of NOX-1 and p47phox was assessed using RT-PCR. NOX-1, p47phox and, total EGFR protein and its phosphorylated form were measured by Western blotting. Treatment of RASMC with supraphysiological concentrations (>2.5 μg/ml) of PA significantly (p < 0.01) increased the NOX activity. PA also significantly increased gene/protein expression of NOX-1 and p47phox whereas p22phox and p67phox remained unaffected. Interestingly, PA (2.5-10 μg/ml) markedly (2-3 folds) increased the total and phosphorylated EGFR. Treatment of cells with EGFR inhibitor, AG1478, significantly blocked the PA-induced enhancement of NOX activity. Our findings that PA transactivates EGFR and induces NOX activity in vascular smooth muscle cells provide new insights into molecular mechanisms of PA's role in cancer and Refsum disease.

  1. Clinical significance of BIM deletion polymorphism in non-small-cell lung cancer with epidermal growth factor receptor mutation.

    PubMed

    Isobe, Kazutoshi; Hata, Yoshinobu; Tochigi, Naobumi; Kaburaki, Kyohei; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Makino, Takashi; Otsuka, Hajime; Sato, Fumitomo; Ishida, Fumiaki; Kikuchi, Naoshi; Hirota, Nao; Sato, Keita; Sano, Go; Sugino, Keishi; Sakamoto, Susumu; Takai, Yujiro; Shibuya, Kazutoshi; Iyoda, Akira; Homma, Sakae

    2014-04-01

    Germline alterations in the proapoptotic protein Bcl-2-like 11 (BIM) can have a crucial role in tumor response to treatment. To determine the clinical utility of detecting BIM deletion polymorphism in non-small-cell lung cancer positive for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation, we examined outcomes of patients with and without BIM alterations. We studied 70 patients with EGFR mutation-positive non-small-cell lung cancer who were treated with an EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor between January 2008 and January 2013. BIM deletion was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction in 58 samples of peripheral blood and 24 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded slides of surgical specimens (20 of lung tissue and four of brain tissue); both blood and tissue specimens were available for 12 patients. We retrospectively analyzed clinical characteristics, response rate, toxicity, and outcomes among patients with and without BIM deletion. BIM deletion was present in 13 of 70 patients (18.6%). There were no significant differences between patients with and without BIM deletion in clinical characteristics, rate of response to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor, or incidence of adverse events. Patients with BIM deletion had significantly shorter progression-free survival (PFS) than those without BIM deletion (median, 227 versus 533 days; p < 0.001). Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that BIM deletion was an independent indicator of shorter PFS (hazard ratio, 3.99; 95% confidence interval, 1.864-8.547; p < 0.001). Polymerase chain reaction successfully detected BIM deletion in samples of peripheral blood and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded slides of surgical specimens. BIM deletion was the most important independent prognostic factor in shorter PFS.

  2. Impact of palbociclib combinations on treatment of advanced estrogen receptor-positive/human epidermal growth factor 2-negative breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Boér, Katalin

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease with multiple subgroups based on clinical and molecular characteristics. For the largest subgroup of breast cancers, hormone receptor-positive/human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2)-negative tumors, hormone treatment is the mainstay of therapy and is likely to result in significant improvement in disease outcomes. However, some of these cancers demonstrate de novo or acquired resistance to endocrine therapy. Despite intensive research to develop new strategies to enhance the efficacy of currently available treatment options for hormone receptor-positive breast cancer, progress has been slow, and there were few advances for a period of 10 years. In 2012, a new molecularly targeted therapeutic strategy, inhibition of mammalian target of rapamycin with everolimus, was introduced into clinical practice. Everolimus, in combination with a steroidal aromatase inhibitor, exemestane, resulted in an increase in progression-free survival, but not overall survival in patients with estrogen receptor (ER)+ve advanced disease who had progressed on hormone therapy. In 2015, the first cyclin-dependent kinases 4/6 (CDK4/6) inhibitor, palbociclib, received accelerated US Food and Drug Administration approval for use in combination with letrozole for the treatment of postmenopausal ER+ve/HER2-ve advanced breast cancer as initial, endocrine-based therapy. The addition of palbociclib to endocrine therapy resulted in longer progression-free survival than letrozole alone. One year later, palbociclib received a new indication, use in combination with fulvestrant, in both premenopausal and postmenopausal females with advanced breast cancer of the same subtype with disease progression following endocrine therapy. Adding palbociclib to fulvestrant resulted in a significantly increased median progression-free survival compared to fulvestrant monotherapy. These new combination regimens of palbociclib with endocrine agents represent an important addition

  3. Increased expression of epidermal growth factor receptor induces sequestration of extracellular signal-related kinases and selective attenuation of specific epidermal growth factor-mediated signal transduction pathways.

    PubMed

    Habib, Amyn A; Chun, Soo Jin; Neel, Benjamin G; Vartanian, Timothy

    2003-01-01

    Increased expression of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is common in cancer and correlates with neoplastic progression. Although the biology of this receptor has been the subject of intense investigation, surprisingly little is known about how increased expression of the wild-type EGFR affects downstream signal transduction in cells. We show that increasing the expression of the receptor results in dramatic shifts in signaling with attenuation of EGF-induced Ras, extracellular signal-related kinases (ERKs), and Akt activation, as well as amplification of STAT1 and STAT3 signaling. In this study, we focus on the mechanism of attenuated ERK signaling and present evidence suggesting that the mechanism of attenuated ERK signaling in EGFR-overexpressing cells is a sequestration of ERKs at the cell membrane in EGFR-containing complexes. Increased expression of the EGFR results in an aberrant localization of ERKs to the cell membrane. Furthermore, ERKs become associated with the EGFR in a physical complex in EGFR-overexpressing cells but not in control cells. The EGFR-ERK association is detected in unstimulated cells or on exposure to a low concentration of EGF; under these conditions, ERK activation is minimal. Exposure of these cells to saturating concentrations of EGF results in a decreased membrane localization of ERKs, a concomitant dissociation of ERKs from the EGFR, and restores ERK activation. A similar association can be detected between the EGFR and MEK1 in receptor-overexpressing cells, suggesting that multiple components of the ERK signaling pathway may become trapped in complexes with the EGFR. These findings can be demonstrated in cells transfected to express high levels of the EGFR as well as in cancer cells which naturally overexpress the EGFR and, thus, may be representative of altered EGFR signaling in human cancer.

  4. Salinity stiffens the epidermal cell walls of salt-stressed maize leaves: is the epidermis growth-restricting?

    PubMed

    Zörb, Christian; Mühling, Karl H; Kutschera, Ulrich; Geilfus, Christoph-Martin

    2015-01-01

    As a result of salt (NaCl)-stress, sensitive varieties of maize (Zea mays L.) respond with a strong inhibition of organ growth. The reduction of leaf elongation investigated here has several causes, including a modification of the mechanical properties of the cell wall. Among the various tissues that form the leaf, the epidermis plays a special role in controlling organ growth, because it is thought to form a rigid outer leaf coat that can restrict elongation by interacting with the inner cell layers. This study was designed to determine whether growth-related changes in the leaf epidermis and its cell wall correspond to the overall reduction in cell expansion of maize leaves during an osmotic stress-phase induced by salt treatment. Two different maize varieties contrasting in their degree of salt resistance (i.e., the hybrids Lector vs. SR03) were compared in order to identify physiological features contributing to resistance towards salinity. Wall loosening-related parameters, such as the capacity of the epidermal cell wall to expand, β-expansin abundance and apoplastic pH values, were analysed. Our data demonstrate that, in the salt-tolerant maize hybrid which maintained leaf growth under salinity, the epidermal cell wall was more extensible under salt stress. This was associated with a shift of the epidermal apoplastic pH into a range more favourable for acid growth. The more sensitive hybrid that displayed a pronounced leaf growth-reduction was shown to have stiffer epidermal cell walls under stress. This may be attributable to the reduced abundance of cell wall-loosening β-expansin proteins following a high salinity-treatment in the nutrient solution (100 mM NaCl, 8 days). This study clearly documents that salt stress impairs epidermal wall-loosening in growth-reduced maize leaves.

  5. Salinity Stiffens the Epidermal Cell Walls of Salt-Stressed Maize Leaves: Is the Epidermis Growth-Restricting?

    PubMe