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Sample records for epidermal langerhans cell

  1. Integrity of the permeability barrier regulates epidermal Langerhans cell density.

    PubMed

    Proksch, E; Brasch, J; Sterry, W

    1996-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that barrier requirements regulate epidermal liquid and DNA synthesis. In the present study, we examined the possibility that the integrity of the permeability barrier influences epidermal Langerhans cells involved with the immune response. Barrier disruption was achieved by treatment of human skin with acetone, sodium dodecylsulphate (SDS), or tape stripping, until a 10-20-fold increase in transepidermal water loss was achieved. Serial biopsies were performed 6-168 h after treatment, and Langerhans cells were complexed with anti-CD1a (Leu6) or S-100 antibodies, and visualized with an immunoperoxidase technique. Acetone treatment resulted in an increase in epidermal Langerhans cell density, reaching a maximum of 94% over control (P < 0.01) by 24 and 48 h post-treatment. Following SDS treatment or tape stripping, epidermal Langerhans cell density was increased by 100 and 175% (P < 0.01), respectively. There was a linear correlation between the degree of barrier disruption and the increase in epidermal Langerhans cell density. Studies with the Ki-S3 proliferation-associated nuclear antigen revealed a two- to threefold increase in epidermal proliferation after barrier disruption. The time curves of the increase in Langerhans cell density and the increase in epidermal proliferation were similar, suggesting that there was a coordinate regulation. In contrast with our previous studies employing patch test reactions to allergens or irritants, disruption of barrier function neither resulted in an increased dermal Langerhans cell density, nor influenced T lymphocytes (CD3+, Leu4+), macrophages (KiM8+), ICAM-1 or ELAM-1 expression in the skin. In addition, barrier disruption did not result in either dermal inflammation or epidermal spongiosis. In summary, these findings support our hypothesis that the permeability barrier influences epidermal Langerhans cell density, which is involved in maintaining an immunological barrier.

  2. Epidermal Viral Immunity Induced by CD8α+ Dendritic Cells But Not by Langerhans Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allan, Rhys S.; Smith, Chris M.; Belz, Gabrielle T.; van Lint, Allison L.; Wakim, Linda M.; Heath, William R.; Carbone, Francis R.

    2003-09-01

    The classical paradigm for dendritic cell function derives from the study of Langerhans cells, which predominate within skin epidermis. After an encounter with foreign agents, Langerhans cells are thought to migrate to draining lymph nodes, where they initiate T cell priming. Contrary to this, we show here that infection of murine epidermis by herpes simplex virus did not result in the priming of virus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes by Langerhans cells. Rather, the priming response required a distinct CD8α+ dendritic cell subset. Thus, the traditional view of Langerhans cells in epidermal immunity needs to be revisited to accommodate a requirement for other dendritic cells in this response.

  3. In vitro suppression of the epidermal Langerhans' cells in necro split skin.

    PubMed

    Alsbjörn, B F; Nielsen, S L; Jensen, M G

    1987-01-01

    The effect of ultraviolet light B irradiation and glucocorticosteroid incubation on the epidermal Langerhans' cell density and tissue viability was investigated, in vitro, on human thin necro split skin.

  4. Langerhans Cells Facilitate UVB-induced Epidermal Carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Julia M.; Bürgler, Christina D.; Freudzon, Marianna; Golubets, Kseniya; Gibson, Juliet F.; Filler, Renata B.; Girardi, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Ultraviolet B (UVB) light is considered the major environmental inducer of human keratinocyte DNA mutations, including within the tumor-suppressor gene p53, and chronic exposure is associated with cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) formation. Langerhans cells (LC) comprise a dendritic network within the suprabasilar epidermis, yet the role of LC in UVB-induced carcinogenesis is largely unknown. Herein, we show that LC-intact epidermis develops UVB-induced tumors more readily than LC-deficient epidermis. While levels of epidermal cyclopyrimidine dimers (CPD) following acute UVB exposure are equivalent in the presence or absence of LC, chronic UVB-induced p53 mutant clonal islands expand more readily in association with LC which remain largely intact and are preferentially found in proximity to the expanding mutant keratinocyte populations. The observed LC facilitation of mutant p53 clonal expansion is completely αβ and γδ T-cell independent, and is associated with increased intraepidermal expression of interleukin (IL)-22 and the presence of group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3). These data demonstrate that LC play a key role in UVB-induced cutaneous carcinogenesis, and suggest that LC locally stimulate keratinocyte proliferation and innate immune cells that provoke tumor outgrowth. PMID:26053049

  5. Effects of epidermal Langerhans cell's conditioned medium on keratinocytes: a role of Langerhans cells in cholesteatoma.

    PubMed

    Kamide, Y; Sasaki, H; Abramson, M; Huang, C C

    1991-01-01

    Langerhans cells (LCs) are known to play an important role in the immunosurveillance system. In this study, as in others, numerous LCs were detected in the epithelial layer of acquired cholesteatoma by immunohistochemical staining. This finding suggests that cell-mediated immune responses are initiated by LCs in cholesteatoma; however, documentation concerning the microenvironment of LCs-keratinocytes in cholesteatoma is limited. Therefore, we investigated the effects of LCs on keratinocytes in vitro. To study these effects it was necessary to isolate and purify LCs. Our present study revealed that good enrichment and a high degree of purity (95%) of LCs could be obtained from neonatal rat skin using the immunomagnetic beads (Dynabeads M-450) sorting technique. These isolated LCs have the biologic activity of LCs, and Langerhans cells' conditioned medium (LCCM) stimulates DNA synthesis in thymocytes. The effect of LCCM on keratinocytes was then studied. We found that (1) LCCM stimulated DNA synthesis in keratinocytes was then studied. We found that (1) LCCM stimulated DNA synthesis in keratinocytes, but not protein synthesis, and (2) LCCM stimulated the incorporation of 3H-putrescine into keratinocytes by the activation of transglutaminase. Transglutaminase is a known marker of terminal differentiation in keratinocytes. By Western blot analysis, we identified a 17-kd immunoreactive mouse interleukin-1 alpha in LCCM. Our results imply that LCs found in cholesteatoma tissue may play an important role in stimulating both hyper-proliferation and cornification of keratinocytes; two characteristic features of cholesteatoma formation. These stimulatory effects may be due to the release of interleukin-1 or other factors by LCs.

  6. Proteins deposited in the dermis are rapidly captured and presented by epidermal Langerhans cells

    PubMed Central

    Flacher, Vincent; Tripp, Christoph H.; Stoitzner, Patrizia; Haid, Bernhard; Ebner, Susanne; Koch, Franz; Park, Chae Gyu; Steinman, Ralph M.; Idoyaga, Juliana; Romani, Nikolaus

    2010-01-01

    Antigen-presenting cells can capture antigens that are deposited in the skin, including vaccines given subcutaneously. These include different dendritic cells (DC) such as epidermal Langerhans cells (LC), dermal DC and dermal langerin+ DC. To evaluate access of dermal antigens to skin DC, we used mAb to two C-type lectin endocytic receptors, DEC-205/CD205 and langerin/CD207. When applied to murine and human skin explant cultures, these mAb were efficiently taken up by epidermal LC. Additionally, anti-DEC-205 targeted langerin+ CD103+ and langerin− CD103− mouse dermal DC. Unexpectedly, intradermal injection of either mAb, but not isotype control, resulted in strong and rapid labelling of LC in situ, implying that large molecules can diffuse through the basement membrane into the epidermis. Epidermal LC targeted in vivo by ovalbumin-coupled anti-DEC-205 potently presented antigen to CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Thus, epidermal LC play a major role in uptake of lectin-binding ligands under standard vaccination conditions. PMID:19890348

  7. Effects of immunomodulatory drugs on TNF-α and IL-12 production by purified epidermal langerhans cells and peritoneal macrophages

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Langerhans cells constitute a special subset of immature dendritic cells localized in the epidermis that play a key role in the skin's immune response. The production of cytokines is a key event in both the initiation and the regulation of immune responses, and different drugs can be used to remove or modify their production by DC and, therefore, alter immune responses in a broad spectrum of diseases, mainly in human inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. In the present study, we examined the effects of prednisone, thalidomide, cyclosporine A, and amitriptyline, drugs used in a variety of clinical conditions, on the production of TNF-α, IL-10, and IL-12 by purified epidermal Langerhans cells and peritoneal macrophages in BALB/c mice. Findings All drugs inhibited TNF-α production by Langerhans cells after 36 hours of treatment at two different concentrations, while prednisone and thalidomide decreased IL-12 secretion significantly, amitriptyline caused a less pronounced reduction and cyclosporine A had no effect. Additionally, TNF-α and IL-12 production by macrophages decreased, but IL-10 levels were unchanged after all treatments. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that these drugs modulate the immune response by regulating pro-inflammatory cytokine production by purified epidermal Langerhans cells and peritoneal macrophages, indicating that these cells are important targets for immunosuppression in various clinical settings. PMID:21276247

  8. The Langerhans cell

    SciTech Connect

    Wolff, K.; Stingl, G.

    1983-06-01

    Langerhans cells are the bone-marrow-derived immune cells of the epidermis; they express Ia antigens and receptors for the Fc portion of IgG and complement components and are required for epidermal-cell-induced antigen-specific, syngeneic and allogeneic T-cell activitation and the generation of epidermal-cell-induced cytotoxic T cells. Their presence within the epidermis and functional integrity determine whether topical application of haptens leads to specific sensitization or unresponsiveness, and in skin grafts of only I region disparate donors, they represent the cells responsible for the critical allosensitizing signal. UV radiation abrogates most of Langerhans cell functions in vitro; under certain conditions in vivo, it prevents contact sensitization favoring the development of specific unresponsiveness. UV radiation abrogates antigen-presenting capacities of epidermal cells by interfering both with the processing of antigen by Langerhans cells and the production of the epidermal-cell-derived thymocyte activating factor required for optimal T-cell responses.

  9. Effect of ultraviolet B radiation on S-100 protein antigen in epidermal Langerhans cells

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, S.A.; Fukuyama, K.; Maceira, J.; Epstein, W.L.

    1985-02-01

    Ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation has been shown to induce significant alterations in both function and surface antigen expression of epidermal Langerhans cells (ELC). In this study the effect of UVB radiation on ELC marker S-100 protein antigen (S-100 Ag) which is present in the nucleus and cytoplasm of human ELC was investigated. A total of 34 sites on 31 volunteers were exposed to 3 MED (minimal erythema dose) of UVB and biopsied at various times up to 7 days after irradiation. Skin from 9 noninjured and 7 slice-wounded subjects served as controls. The avidin-biotin-peroxidase staining technique was used to identify S-100 Ag in sections of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue, and the numbers of stained suprabasal dendritic cells were then counted over a 200 basal cell length of interfollicular epidermis. Noninjured skin had 3.56 +/- 3.01 cells, whereas slice-wounded skin had elevated numbers (greater than 10.0 cells) at 1, 24, and 48 h after injury. Following UVB irradiation, a significant (p less than 0.001) increase in antigen-positive cells (14 +/- 3.46) was found at 1 h; this number declined to just below normal at 12 h, but by 48 h returned to and remained at preinjury levels. In contrast to previous observations of the depletion of ELC surface markers by UVB radiation, the authors demonstrate here that the numbers of S-100 Ag-positive ELC actually increase following comparable doses of radiation. Since this increase occurs so rapidly following both UVB irradiation and slice injury, S-100 Ag may be synthesized or unmasked within the ELC as a response to wounding of the epidermis.

  10. Birbeck Granules Are Subdomains of Endosomal Recycling Compartment in Human Epidermal Langerhans Cells, Which Form Where Langerin Accumulates

    PubMed Central

    Mc Dermott, Ray; Ziylan, Umit; Spehner, Danièle; Bausinger, Huguette; Lipsker, Dan; Mommaas, Mieke; Cazenave, Jean-Pierre; Raposo, Graça; Goud, Bruno; de la Salle, Henri; Salamero, Jean; Hanau, Daniel

    2002-01-01

    Birbeck granules are unusual rod-shaped structures specific to epidermal Langerhans cells, whose origin and function remain undetermined. We investigated the intracellular location and fate of Langerin, a protein implicated in Birbeck granule biogenesis, in human epidermal Langerhans cells. In the steady state, Langerin is predominantly found in the endosomal recycling compartment and in Birbeck granules. Langerin internalizes by classical receptor-mediated endocytosis and the first Birbeck granules accessible to endocytosed Langerin are those connected to recycling endosomes in the pericentriolar area, where Langerin accumulates. Drug-induced inhibition of endocytosis results in the appearance of abundant open-ended Birbeck granule-like structures appended to the plasma membrane, whereas inhibition of recycling induces Birbeck granules to merge with a tubular endosomal network. In mature Langerhans cells, Langerin traffic is abolished and the loss of internal Langerin is associated with a concomitant depletion of Birbeck granules. Our results demonstrate an exchange of Langerin between early endosomal compartments and the plasma membrane, with dynamic retention in the endosomal recycling compartment. They show that Birbeck granules are not endocytotic structures, rather they are subdomains of the endosomal recycling compartment that form where Langerin accumulates. Finally, our results implicate ADP-ribosylation factor proteins in Langerin trafficking and the exchange between Birbeck granules and other endosomal membranes. PMID:11809842

  11. An Essential Role for CD44 Variant Isoforms in Epidermal Langerhans Cell and Blood Dendritic Cell Function

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Johannes M.; Sleeman, Jonathan; Renkl, Andreas C.; Dittmar, Henning; Termeer, Christian C.; Taxis, Sabine; Howells, Norma; Hofmann, Martin; Köhler, Gabriele; Schöpf, Erwin; Ponta, Helmut; Herrlich, Peter; Simon, Jan C.

    1997-01-01

    Upon antigen contact, epidermal Langerhans cells (LC) and dendritic cells (DC) leave peripheral organs and home to lymph nodes via the afferent lymphatic vessels and then assemble in the paracortical T cell zone and present antigen to T lymphocytes. Since splice variants of CD44 promote metastasis of certain tumors to lymph nodes, we explored the expression of CD44 proteins on migrating LC and DC. We show that upon antigen contact, LC and DC upregulate pan CD44 epitopes and epitopes encoded by variant exons v4, v5, v6, and v9. Antibodies against CD44 epitopes inhibit the emigration of LC from the epidermis, prevent binding of activated LC and DC to the T cell zones of lymph nodes, and severely inhibit their capacity to induce a delayed type hypersensitivity reaction to a skin hapten in vivo. Our results demonstrate that CD44 splice variant expression is obligatory for the migration and function of LC and DC. PMID:9166413

  12. Mediated exodus of L-dopa from human epidermal Langerhans cells.

    PubMed

    Falck, B; Bendsoe, N; Ronquist, G

    2004-03-01

    L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-dopa) is not metabolized within human epidermal Langerhans cells (LC); yet they can take up substantial amounts of this amino acid which subsequently can be released into the extracellular space. We recently reported that human epidermal energy metabolism is predominantly anaerobic and that the influx mechanism is a unidirectional L-dopa/proton counter-transport system and now we describe conditions for the mediated transport of L-dopa out of the LC. It is demonstrated that certain amino acids and one dipeptide can effectively trigger the efflux of L-dopa taken up by the LC.Thus, alpha-methyl-dopa (alpha-m-dopa), D-dopa and the dipeptide, met-ala at the outside of the plasma membrane stimulated the efflux of L-dopa from L-dopa loaded LC. Similar effects were achieved by a variety of other amino acids in the extracellular fluid while some other amino acids were inactive. The time required for 50% D-methionine-induced exodus of L-dopa from L-dopa loaded LC was in the range of 5-7 min and a complete exodus of L-dopa was attained at about 20 min of incubation. This dislocation of L-dopa to the extracellular fluid is interpreted as an expression of trans-stimulation. In the case of alpha-m-dopa, D-dopa and met-ala, which admittedly were not able to penetrate the plasma membrane of LC, the concept of trans-stimulation was given a new purport, since none of them were able to participate in an exchange reaction. Finally, it could be concluded that L-dopa escaped by a route different from the one responsible for L-dopa uptake in LC.Thus, while the influx of L-dopa supports extrusion of protons deriving from anaerobic glycolysis in the LC, L-dopa efflux can provide the cells with useful amino acids in an energy-saving way, altogether a remarkable biological process. From this follows that L-dopa has a biological function of its own, besides being a precursor in the catecholamine and pigment syntheses.

  13. UV Radiation Induces the Epidermal Recruitment of Dendritic Cells that Compensate for the Depletion of Langerhans Cells in Human Skin.

    PubMed

    Achachi, Amine; Vocanson, Marc; Bastien, Philippe; Péguet-Navarro, Josette; Grande, Sophie; Goujon, Catherine; Breton, Lionel; Castiel-Higounenc, Isabelle; Nicolas, Jean-François; Gueniche, Audrey

    2015-08-01

    UVR causes skin injury and inflammation, resulting in impaired immune function and increased skin cancer risk. Langerhans cells (LCs), the immune sentinels of the epidermis, are depleted for several days following a single UVR exposure and can be reconstituted from circulating monocytes. However, the differentiation pathways leading to the recovery of a normal pool of LCs is still unclear. To study the dynamic changes in human skin with UV injury, we exposed a cohort of 29 healthy human volunteers to a clinically relevant dose of UVR and analyzed sequential epidermal biopsies for changes in leukocyte and dendritic cell (DC) subsets. UV-induced depletion of CD1a(high) LC was compensated by sequential appearance of various epidermal leukocytes. CD14(+) monocytes were recruited as early as D1 post exposure, followed by recruitment of two inflammatory DC subsets that may represent precursors of LCs. These CD1a(low) CD207(-) and the heretofore unknown CD1a(low) CD207(+) DCs appeared at day 1 and day 4 post UVR, respectively, and were endowed with T-cell-activating properties similar to those of LCs. We conclude that recruitment of monocytes and inflammatory DCs appear as a physiological response of the epidermis in order to repair UVR-induced LC depletion associated with immune suppression. PMID:25806853

  14. Aging affects epidermal Langerhans cell development and function and alters their miRNA gene expression profile.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ying-Ping; Qi, Rui-Qun; Chen, Wenbin; Shi, Yuling; Cui, Zhi-Zhong; Gao, Xing-Hua; Chen, Hong-Duo; Zhou, Li; Mi, Qing-Sheng

    2012-11-01

    Immunosenescence is a result of progressive decline in immune system function with advancing age. Epidermal Langerhans cells (LCs), belonging to the dendritic cell (DC) family, act as sentinels to play key roles in the skin immune responses. However, it has not been fully elucidated how aging affects development and function of LCs. Here, we systemically analyzed LC development and function during the aging process in C57BL/6J mice, and performed global microRNA (miRNA) gene expression profiles in aged and young LCs. We found that the frequency and maturation of epidermal LCs were significantly reduced in aged mice starting at 12 months of age, while the Langerin expression and ability to phagocytose Dextran in aged LCs were increased compared to LCs from < 6 month old mice. The migration of LCs to draining lymph nodes was comparable between aged and young mice. Functionally, aged LCs were impaired in their capacity to induce OVA-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell proliferation. Furthermore, the expression of miRNAs in aged epidermal LCs showed a distinct profile compared to young LCs. Most interestingly, aging-regulated miRNAs potentially target TGF-β-dependent and non- TGF-β-dependent signal pathways related to LCs. Overall, our data suggests that aging affects LCs development and function, and that age-regulated miRNAs may contribute to the LC developmental and functional changes in aging.

  15. In vitro primary sensitization and restimulation of hapten-specific T cells by fresh and cultured human epidermal Langerhans' cells.

    PubMed Central

    Moulon, C; Péguet-Navarro, J; Courtellemont, P; Redziniak, G; Schmitt, D

    1993-01-01

    We examined the capacity of human Langerhans's cells (LC) to sensitize autologous T cells to the trinitrophenyl hapten (TNP) in vitro. Two-day cultured Langerhans' cells, but not freshly prepared Langerhans' cells, can induce in vitro primary proliferative reactions to the TNP hapten. Using a CD45RA+ naive T-cell subset, similar results were found, therefore making the possibility of a previous in vivo T-cell contact with the hapten unlikely. The primary in vitro response was strongly inhibited by monoclonal antibodies to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and II, CD4 antigens and ICAM-1 and LFA-3 adhesion molecules. Furthermore, we found that fresh LC can prime T cells to TNP, as revealed by a significant secondary T-cell proliferation after restimulation of the recovered T lymphocytes by fresh hapten-modified autologous LC. Nevertheless, the ability of these fresh LC to stimulate in vitro secondary hapten-specific T-cell proliferation was very limited in comparison with that of 2-day incubated Langerhans' cells. After secondary stimulation with TNP-cultured LC, sensitized T cells could be non-specifically expanded without losing hapten specificity. The TNP-specific T-cell lines were mostly of the CD4+ phenotype. The present findings extend previous studies in the mouse, showing that culture LC are potent antigen-presenting cells (APC) in primary hapten-dependent proliferation assays. Furthermore, this in vitro priming assay, using cultured human Langerhans' cells as APC, might be useful to analyse the early steps of T-cell sensitization and subsequently to develop in vitro predictive tests allowing detection of sensitizing compounds. PMID:7507088

  16. Identification of bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP7) as an instructive factor for human epidermal Langerhans cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Yasmin, Nighat; Bauer, Thomas; Modak, Madhura; Wagner, Karin; Schuster, Christopher; Köffel, Rene; Seyerl, Maria; Stöckl, Johannes; Elbe-Bürger, Adelheid; Graf, Daniel; Strobl, Herbert

    2013-11-18

    Human Langerhans cell (LC) precursors populate the epidermis early during prenatal development and thereafter undergo massive proliferation. The prototypic antiproliferative cytokine TGF-β1 is required for LC differentiation from human CD34(+) hematopoietic progenitor cells and blood monocytes in vitro. Similarly, TGF-β1 deficiency results in LC loss in vivo. However, immunohistology studies revealed that human LC niches in early prenatal epidermis and adult basal (germinal) keratinocyte layers lack detectable TGF-β1. Here we demonstrated that these LC niches express high levels of bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP7) and that Bmp7-deficient mice exhibit substantially diminished LC numbers, with the remaining cells appearing less dendritic. BMP7 induces LC differentiation and proliferation by activating the BMP type-I receptor ALK3 in the absence of canonical TGF-β1-ALK5 signaling. Conversely, TGF-β1-induced in vitro LC differentiation is mediated via ALK3; however, co-induction of ALK5 diminished TGF-β1-driven LC generation. Therefore, selective ALK3 signaling by BMP7 promotes high LC yields. Within epidermis, BMP7 shows an inverse expression pattern relative to TGF-β1, the latter induced in suprabasal layers and up-regulated in outer layers. We observed that TGF-β1 inhibits microbial activation of BMP7-generated LCs. Therefore, TGF-β1 in suprabasal/outer epidermal layers might inhibit LC activation, resulting in LC network maintenance.

  17. In situ expression of the costimulatory molecules CD80 and CD86 on langerhans cells and inflammatory dendritic epidermal cells (IDEC) in atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Schuller, E; Teichmann, B; Haberstok, J; Moderer, M; Bieber, T; Wollenberg, A

    2001-09-01

    The functional expression of costimulatory molecules on antigen-presenting cells may be a key event in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis (AD). Recently, the expression of CD86 (B7-2/B70) has been demonstrated on CD1a+ epidermal dendritic cells (DC) in AD lesions by immunohistological and functional analysis. Therefore, we sought to further characterize the in situ expression of costimulatory molecules on these cells, considering the two subpopulations of (1) CD1a+++/CD11b- Langerhans cells (LC) containing Birbeck granules and (2) CD1a+/CD11b+++ inflammatory dendritic epidermal cells (IDEC), devoid of Birbeck granules, from AD and other inflammatory skin diseases. Flow cytometry, skin mixed lymphocyte reactions (SMLR) and immunohistological analysis were performed, and showed that IDEC and not LC are the relevant cells expressing the costimulatory molecules CD80 and CD86 in situ. This expression varied with the underlying diagnosis, with AD showing the highest expression of both CD80 and CD86 in situ. Furthermore, the expression of CD80, CD86 and CD36 were significantly correlated. With short-term culture, both CD80 and CD86 were further upregulated on LC and IDEC. Finally, anti-CD86 antibody reduced the stimulatory activity of epidermal DC. These results indicate that costimulatory molecules on LC and IDEC might play a role in the pathogenesis of AD.

  18. Relationship between the ability of sunscreens containing 2-ethylhexyl-4'-methoxycinnamate to protect against UVR-induced inflammation, depletion of epidermal Langerhans (Ia+) cells and suppression of alloactivating capacity of murine skin in vivo.

    PubMed

    Walker, S L; Morris, J; Chu, A C; Young, A R

    1994-01-01

    The UVB sunscreen 2-ethylhexyl-4'-methoxycinnamate was evaluated in hairless albino mouse skin for its ability to inhibit UVR-induced (i) oedema, (ii) epidermal Langerhans cell (Ia+) depletion and (iii) suppression of the alloactivating capacity of epidermal cells (mixed epidermal cell-lymphocyte reaction, MECLR). The sunscreen, prepared at 9% in ethanol or a cosmetic lotion, was applied prior to UVB/UVA irradiation. In some experiments there was a second application halfway through the irradiation. Single applications in both vehicles gave varying degrees of protection from oedema and Langerhans cell depletion but afforded no protection from suppression of MECLR. When the sunscreens were applied twice there was improved protection from oedema and Langerhans cell depletion and complete protection was afforded from suppression of MECLR. There was a clear linear relationship between Langerhans cell numbers and oedema with and without sunscreen application. The relationship between Langerhans cell numbers and MECLR was more complex. These data confirm published discrepancies between protection from oedema (a model for human erythema) and endpoints with immunological significance, but show that 2-ethylhexyl-4'-methoxycinnamate can afford complete immunoprotection, although protection is dependent on the application rate and vehicle.

  19. [Pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis].

    PubMed

    Popper, H H

    2015-09-01

    Pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis is regarded as a reactive proliferation of the dendritic Langerhans cell population stimulated by chronic tobacco-derived plant proteins due to incomplete combustion but can also occur in childhood as a tumor-like systemic disease. Currently, both these forms cannot be morphologically distinguished. In the lungs a nodular proliferation of Langerhans cells occurs in the bronchial mucosa and also peripherally in the alveolar septa with an accompanying infiltration by eosinophilic granulocytes and destruction of the bronchial wall. Langerhans cells can be selectively detected with antibodies against CD1a and langerin. In the reactive isolated pulmonary form, abstinence from tobacco smoking in most patients leads to regression of infiltration and improvement of symptoms. In high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) the small star-like scars can still be detected even after complete cessation of tobacco smoking.

  20. Langerhans cell histiocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Aruna, D. R.; Pushpalatha, G.; Galgali, Sushma; Prashanthy

    2011-01-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a group of rare disorders histologically characterized by the proliferation of Langerhans cells. Multiple organs and systems may be involved by the disease. Typically, there is bone involvement and, less frequently, lesions may be found in the lungs, liver, lymph nodes, skin, and mucosa. Oral soft tissue lesions without bone involvement are rare. We present a case of oral lesions associated with LCH in a young woman. PMID:22028518

  1. Intradermal injection of an anti-Langerin-HIVGag fusion vaccine targets epidermal Langerhans cells in nonhuman primates and can be tracked in vivo.

    PubMed

    Salabert, Nina; Todorova, Biliana; Martinon, Frédéric; Boisgard, Raphaël; Zurawski, Gerard; Zurawski, Sandra; Dereuddre-Bosquet, Nathalie; Cosma, Antonio; Kortulewski, Thierry; Banchereau, Jacques; Levy, Yves; Le Grand, Roger; Chapon, Catherine

    2016-03-01

    The development of new immunization strategies requires a better understanding of early molecular and cellular events occurring at the site of injection. The skin is particularly rich in immune cells and represents an attractive site for vaccine administration. Here, we specifically targeted vaccine antigens to epidermal Langerhans cells (LCs) using a fusion protein composed of HIV antigens and a monoclonal antibody targeting Langerin. We developed a fluorescence imaging approach to visualize, in vivo, the vaccine-targeted cells. Studies were performed in nonhuman primates (NHPs) because of their relevance as a model to assess human vaccines. We directly demonstrated that in NHPs, intradermally injected anti-Langerin-HIVGag specifically targets epidermal LCs and induces rapid changes in the LC network, including LC activation and migration out of the epidermis. Vaccine targeting of LCs significantly improved anti-HIV immune response without requirement of an adjuvant. Although the co-injection of the TLR-7/8 synthetic ligand, R-848 (resiquimod), with the vaccine, did not enhance significantly the antibody response, it stimulated recruitment of HLA-DR+ inflammatory cells to the site of immunization. This study allowed us to characterize the dynamics of early local events following the injection of a vaccine-targeted epidermal LCs and R-848. PMID:26678013

  2. The normal Langerhans cell and the LCH cell.

    PubMed

    Chu, T; Jaffe, R

    1994-09-01

    The epidermal Langerhans cell is the bone marrow-derived dendritic, antigen-presenting cell of the skin. It is characterised by a unique intracytoplasmic organelle--the Birbeck granule--and constitutively expresses class II MHC molecules and the CD1a glycoprotein. The Langerhans cell represents one of the most potent antigen-presenting cells of the body, and fulfils an important role in detecting foreign antigen entering the body through the skin and in immune surveillance. The distribution of Langerhans cells is restricted to the skin, lymph nodes, bronchial mucosa and thymus. The discovery by Nézelof in 1973 that the lesional cells in the disease then called 'Histiocytosis X' contained Birbeck granules established the close relationship between the Langerhans cell and this disease and led ultimately to the adoption of the name Langerhans cell histiocytosis to replace the older term. The LCH cell expresses the phenotype of a Langerhans cell apparently 'fixed' at an early stage of cell activation. The LCH cell is, however, functionally defective in antigen presentation, and the tissue distribution of the disease--affecting bone, skin, lymph node, lung, liver, spleen, CNS, gastro-intestinal tract and bone marrow--is quite different from the normal distribution of the Langerhans cell. Studies are now under way throughout the world to investigate the relationship between the normal Langerhans cell and the LCH cell. Specifically we need to identify whether the LCH cell is a cell arrested at a specific time in normal Langerhans cell ontogeny or if it represents a response to a biological insult to the mature Langerhans cell or its precursors. PMID:7521202

  3. Allergen presentation by epidermal Langerhans' cells from patients with atopic dermatitis is mediated by IgE.

    PubMed Central

    Mudde, G C; Van Reijsen, F C; Boland, G J; de Gast, G C; Bruijnzeel, P L; Bruijnzeel-Koomen, C A

    1990-01-01

    To investigate the role of IgE-bearing Langerhans' cells (LC) from atopic dermatitis (AD) patients in antigen presentation, IgE+LC and non-IgE bearing LC (IgE-LC) from AD patients were investigated for their antigen-presenting capacity and compared to antigen-presenting cells (APC) from peripheral blood. The T-cell response to Candida albicans, using IgE+LC from AD patients as APC, was in the same range as with IgE-LC. Also, the T-cell response to Candida with autologous APC from peripheral blood did not significantly differ between these groups. In contrast to this finding, the T-cell response to house dust allergen (HDA) was dependent on the type of APC used. If non-T cells from peripheral blood were used as APC, both AD patients and controls responded to HDA. However, when LC were used as APC, a T-cell response to HDA was only observed in the presence of IgE+LC. IgE-LC from AD patients or LC from normal controls were unable to present HDA. Preincubation of IgE+LC with anti-IgE or anti-kappa/lambda antibodies inhibited HDA-induced T-cell proliferation, whereas the response to Candida was not affected. These in vitro results, which demonstrate the necessity of cell-bound IgE on LC for the presentation of aero-allergens, strongly correlate with the in vivo presence of a positive delayed patch reaction to the same antigens. When the LC of a patient appeared to be IgE-, the in vitro proliferative response as well as, in most cases, the in vivo patch test reaction to the same antigens was negative. In conclusion, these experiments demonstrate that there are at least two different mechanisms by which LC capture antigens for antigen presentation. In one of them cell-bound IgE, as can be demonstrated on LC from AD patients, plays a crucial role. The binding and presentation of HDA by APC from peripheral blood can take place independently of cell-bound IgE. Candida can be presented by both types of APC in the absence of IgE. PMID:2179131

  4. Antigen processing by epidermal Langerhans cells correlates with the level of biosynthesis of major histocompatibility complex class II molecules and expression of invariant chain

    PubMed Central

    1990-01-01

    Two prior studies with a small number of T cell lines have shown that the presentation of native protein antigens by epidermal Langerhans cells (LC) is regulated. When freshly isolated, LC are efficient antigen-presenting cells (APC), but after a period of culture LC are inefficient or even inactive. The deficit in culture seems to be a selective loss in antigen processing, since cultured LC are otherwise rich in major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II products and are active APC for alloantigens and mitogens, which do not require processing. We have extended the analysis by studying presentation to bulk populations of primed lymph node and a T-T hybrid. Only freshly isolated LC can be pulsed with the protein antigens myoglobin and conalbumin, but once pulsed, antigen is retained in an immunogenic form for at least 2 d. The acquisition of antigen, presumably as MHC-peptide complexes, is inhibited if the fresh LC are exposed to foreign protein in the presence of chloroquine or cycloheximide. The latter, in contrast, improves the efficacy of antigen pulsing in anti-Ig- stimulated B blasts. In additional studies of mechanism, we noted that both fresh and cultured LC endocytose similar amounts of an antigen, rhodamineovalbumin, into perinuclear granules. However, freshly isolated LC synthesize high levels class II MHC molecules and express higher amounts of the class II-associated invariant chain. Fresh LC are at least 5-10 times more active than many other cells types in the level of biosynthesis of MHC class II products. These findings provide a physiologic model in which newly synthesized MHC class II molecules appear to be the principal vehicle for effective antigen processing by APC of the dendritic cell lineage. Another APC, the B lymphoblast, does not appear to require newly synthesized MHC class II molecules for presentation. PMID:2121888

  5. Commercial sunscreen lotions prevent ultraviolet radiation-induced depletion of epidermal Langerhans cells in Skh-1 and C3H mice.

    PubMed

    Beasley, D G; Montgomery, M A; Moloney, S J; Edmonds, S; Roberts, L K

    1998-01-01

    There is much controversy regarding the ability of sunscreens to prevent ultraviolet (UV)-induced immune suppression. Epidermal Langerhans cells (LC) play a key antigen-presenting role in the afferent limb of the immune system's response to antigens introduced through the skin. It has been suggested that depletion of LC in UV-exposed skin is a critical step toward the induction of immunosuppression by UV radiation. There are a number of disparate reports with inconsistent results concerning the ability of sunscreens to prevent UV-induced depletion of LC. The purpose of this study was to systematically evaluate the ability of sunscreens to prevent UV-induced LC depletion in mice. Epidermal sheets obtained from skin biopsies taken from mice exposed to UV radiation from Kodacel-filtered FS20 sunlamps, which do not emit UV power at wavelengths < 290 nm, were immunoperoxidase stained for LC using a rat monoclonal antibody against mouse Ia (major histocompatibility complex class II antigen). Time course and dose-response curves for LC depletion were generated for Skh-1 and C3H mice. Dose-response curves for acute UV exposure induced depletion of LC in Skh-1 and C3H mice were similar, but not identical. LC density in the skin of Skh-1 mice that received chronic UV exposure (3 days/week for 8 weeks) was reduced by 62% after 2 weeks of exposure, but returned to normal levels by 6 weeks. Five commercial sunscreen lotions with labeled sun protection factors (SPF) of 4, 8, 15, 30 and 45 were tested for their capacity to block UV-induced depletion of LC. LC were depleted approximately 75% in the skin of unprotected or placebo lotion treated Skh-1 mice exposed to UV given on two consecutive days. Conversely, LC depletion was prevented in similarly UV exposed Skh-1 mice protected with a SPF 30 sunscreen. In C3H mice the levels of protection against LC depletion provided by the five sunscreens were proportional to the level of protection predicted by their labeled SPF. Comparisons

  6. General Information about Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis (LCH)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis (LCH) Go to Health ... the PDQ Pediatric Treatment Editorial Board . Clinical Trial Information A clinical trial is a study to answer ...

  7. Staining of Langerhans Cells with Monoclonal Antibodies to Macrophages and Lymphoid Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haines, Kathleen A.; Flotte, Thomas J.; Springer, Timothy A.; Gigli, Irma; Thorbecke, G. Jeanette

    1983-06-01

    Langerhans cells are Ia-bearing antigen-presenting cells in the epidermis that share many functions with macrophages. We have used monoclonal antibodies to the macrophage antigens, Mac-2 and -3, Ia antigen, Fc fragment receptor, and the common leukocyte antigen CLA to compare the cell surface antigens of these cells with those of interdigitating and follicular dendritic cells and of macrophages in lymphoid tissues. Immunoperoxidase staining was carried out with epidermal sheets from BALB/c mice and epidermal cell suspensions enriched for Langerhans cells by Fc rosetting. Langerhans cells stained for all of these antigens. Comparison with the staining properties of other dendritic cells and macrophages, in combination with previous observations, indicates a close relationship of Langerhans cells to the interdigitating cells of lymphoid tissues.

  8. Dose response of Langerhans cells in mouse footpad epidermis after X irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, S.; Townsend, K.M.S.

    1985-08-01

    Effects of a range (2-50 Gy) of single doses of 250 kV X rays on epidermal Langerhans cells in vivo were quantified in groups of CBA/CaH mice. Animals were sacrificed and compared with controls on the 10th day after local irradiation of their hind feet, when Langerhans cell numbers were at a minimum. ATPase-positive Langerhans cells in sheets of footpad epidermis were counted by light microscopy and cells with Birbeck granules were enumerated by electron microscopy. Both methods revealed a dose-dependent loss of Langerhans cells after ionizing radiation. Loss of equivalent proportions of ATPase-positive and ultrastructurally indentifiable cells after a range of doses indicates that X rays do not merely alter Langerhans cell surface markers but actually deplete the epidermal population of these cells.

  9. Functional CD86 (B7-2/B70) on cultured human Langerhans cells.

    PubMed

    Yokozeki, H; Katayama, I; Ohki, O; Matsunaga, T; Watanabe, K; Satoh, T; Azuma, M; Okumura, K; Nishioka, K

    1996-01-01

    CD86 (B70/B7-2) has recently been identified as an alternative CD28/CTLA-4 ligand on activated B cells. CD86 has also been demonstrated as possibly serving as a primary costimulatory molecule in the initial immune response. Since the human Langerhans cell is one of the most potent antigen-presenting cells, we examined whether CD86 expression and function are found on organ-cultured skin, freshly isolated Langerhans cells, and cultured Langerhans cells in normal human epidermis. Immunohistochemical study in situ revealed that CD86 was expressed on dendritic cells with CD1a antigen in organ-cultured but not fresh skin. Fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis revealed that no staining for either CD80 or CD86 was observed in freshly isolated Langerhans cells but that both CD80 and CD86 were expressed on cultured Langerhans cells. The actual expression of CD86 on cultured Langerhans cells was further confirmed by the detection of 70-kDa glycoprotein on Western blot analysis. Analysis of polymerase chain reaction demonstrated that both CD80 and CD86 were specifically amplified from purified cultured and freshly isolated Langerhans cells but not from Langerhans cell-depleted epidermal cells, indicating that both CD80 and CD86 genes were expressed by Langerhans cells. The functional importance of CD86 on Langerhans cells was confirmed by the allogeneic CD4 T cell proliferative responses with enriched Langerhans cells. A monoclonal antibody against CD86 caused 81% inhibition in contrast with 29% inhibition produced by anti-CD80 monoclonal antibody. This inhibitory effect was enhanced to 85.3% inhibition when a combination of anti-CD86 and anti-CD80 was administered. These results indicate that CD86 is predominantly expressed on the surface of cultured Langerhans cells and may transduce a primordial costimulatory signal in the interaction of Langerhans cells and T cells.

  10. Establishing and maintaining the Langerhans cell network.

    PubMed

    Chopin, Michaël; Nutt, Stephen L

    2015-05-01

    Langerhans cells (LCs) are the unique antigen-presenting cell of the epidermis. LCs have long been depicted in textbooks as the archetypical dendritic cell that alerts the immune system upon pathogen induced skin barrier breakage, however recent findings argue instead for a more tolerogenic function. While the LCs that populate the epidermis in steady-state arise from progenitors that seed the skin during embryogenesis, it is now apparent that a second pathway generating LCs from a bone marrow derived progenitor is active in inflammatory settings. This review emphasizes the determinants underpinning the establishment of the LC network in steady-state and under inflammatory conditions, as well as the transcriptional machinery governing their differentiation. The dual origin of LCs raises important questions about the functional differences between these subsets in balancing the epidermal immune response between immunity and tolerance.

  11. [Langerhans cell histiocytosis in adults].

    PubMed

    Néel, A; Artifoni, M; Donadieu, J; Lorillon, G; Hamidou, M; Tazi, A

    2015-10-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare disease characterized by the infiltration of one or more organs by Langerhans cell-like dendritic cells, most often organized in granulomas. The disease has been initially described in children. The clinical picture of LCH is highly variable. Bone, skin, pituitary gland, lung, central nervous system, lymphoid organs are the main organs involved whereas liver and intestinal tract localizations are less frequently encountered. LCH course ranges from a fulminant multisystem disease to spontaneous resolution. Several randomized controlled trials have enable pediatricians to refine the management of children with LCH. Adult LCH has some specific features and poses distinct therapeutic challenges, knowing that data on these patients are limited. Herein, we will provide an overview of current knowledge regarding adult LCH and its management. We will also discuss recent advances in the understanding of the disease, (i.e. the role of BRAF oncogene) that opens the way toward targeted therapies.

  12. [Langerhans cell histiocytosis in adults].

    PubMed

    Néel, A; Artifoni, M; Donadieu, J; Lorillon, G; Hamidou, M; Tazi, A

    2015-10-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare disease characterized by the infiltration of one or more organs by Langerhans cell-like dendritic cells, most often organized in granulomas. The disease has been initially described in children. The clinical picture of LCH is highly variable. Bone, skin, pituitary gland, lung, central nervous system, lymphoid organs are the main organs involved whereas liver and intestinal tract localizations are less frequently encountered. LCH course ranges from a fulminant multisystem disease to spontaneous resolution. Several randomized controlled trials have enable pediatricians to refine the management of children with LCH. Adult LCH has some specific features and poses distinct therapeutic challenges, knowing that data on these patients are limited. Herein, we will provide an overview of current knowledge regarding adult LCH and its management. We will also discuss recent advances in the understanding of the disease, (i.e. the role of BRAF oncogene) that opens the way toward targeted therapies. PMID:26150351

  13. Genetics Home Reference: Langerhans cell histiocytosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... cell histiocytosis affects the lungs, liver, or blood-forming (hematopoietic) system; damage to these organs and tissues ... occurs when the Langerhans cells crowd out blood-forming cells in the bone marrow, leads to a ...

  14. Nail changes in Langerhans cell histiocytosis.

    PubMed

    Jain, S; Sehgal, V N; Bajaj, P

    2000-05-01

    Nail changes in Langerhans cell histiocytosis are distinctly uncommon. Paronychial erythema, swelling and subungual pustules of the fingernails and toenails were cardinal, and were supported by diffuse as well as dense collections of mononuclear Langerhans cells evidenced by microscopic investigation. Oral administration of co-trimoxazole (800 mg sulphamethoxazole + 160 mg trimethoprim) every 12 h, 50 mg/d cyclophosphamide and 80 mg/d predinisolone were the mainstay of treatment, supported by scalp tar shampoo and local betamethasone lotion application.

  15. Phenotypic and Functional Properties of Human Steady State CD14+ and CD1a+ Antigen Presenting Cells and Epidermal Langerhans Cells

    PubMed Central

    Fehres, Cynthia. M.; Bruijns, Sven C. M.; Sotthewes, Brigit N.; Kalay, Hakan; Schaffer, Lana; Head, Steven R.; de Gruijl, Tanja D.; Garcia-Vallejo, Juan J.; van Kooyk, Yvette

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous antigen presenting cells (APCs) are critical for the induction and regulation of skin immune responses. The human skin contains phenotypically and functionally distinct APCs subsets that are present at two separated locations. While CD1ahigh LCs form a dense network in the epidermis, the CD14+ and CD1a+ APCs reside in the dermal compartment. A better understanding of the biology of human skin APC subsets is necessary for the improvement of vaccine strategies that use the skin as administration route. In particular, progress in the characterization of uptake and activatory receptors will certainly improve APC-targeting strategies in vaccination. Here we performed a detailed analysis of the expression and function of glycan-binding and pattern-recognition receptors in skin APC subsets. The results demonstrate that under steady state conditions human CD1a+ dermal dendritic cells (DCs) were phenotypically most mature as measured by the expression of CD83 and CD86, whereas the CD14+ cells showed a higher expression of the CLRs DC-SIGN, mannose receptor and DCIR and had potent antigen uptake capacity. Furthermore, steady state LCs showed superior antigen cross-presentation as compared to the dermal APC subsets. Our results also demonstrate that the TLR3 ligand polyribosinic-polyribocytidylic acid (pI:C) was the most potent stimulator of cytokine production by both LCs and dDCs. These studies warrant further exploration of human CD1a+ dDCs and LCs as target cells for cancer vaccination to induce anti-tumor immune responses. PMID:26605924

  16. The histopathology of Langerhans cell histiocytosis.

    PubMed Central

    Favara, B. E.; Jaffe, R.

    1994-01-01

    Selected aspects of the histopathology of Langerhans cell histiocytosis representing diagnostic difficulty and/or controversy are presented with emphasis on the composition of pathological lesions. Lesional cell phenotypes and the factors influencing variations are noted. Features of several skin-based histiocytic disorders, dermatopathic lymphadenopathy and Rosai-Dorfman disease are compared. Associations between Langerhans cell histiocytosis and juvenile xanthogranuloma and malignant disorders are considered. Observations of potential significance in the eventual elucidation of the pathogenesis of these enigmatic diseases are presented. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:7521200

  17. Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis: An Illusion of Hope

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Vela D; Varma, Beena; Sharma, Rajeev

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare atypical cellular disorder characterized by clonal proliferation of Langerhans cells leading to myriad clinical presentations and variable outcomes. It usually occurs in children and young adults. It can be present with local and systemic manifestation involving skin, bone, mucosal tissues and internal organs. Aims and objectives: The stomatologist plays an important role in management of the disease by keeping in mind the various oral manifestations of the disease. Case report: Of a child with disseminated LCH with multiorgan involvement who presented with failure to thrive, osteolytic bony lesions and extensive cutaneous eruptions. Conclusion: Early diagnosis and awareness is necessary to treat the patients. How to cite this article: Desai VD, Priyadarshinni SR, Varma B, Sharma R. Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis: An Illusion of Hope. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2013;6(1):66-70. PMID:25206193

  18. Langerhans cell histiocytosis of the sacrum

    PubMed Central

    Hatem, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis is a rare disease with a wide spectrum of clinical presentations. It is a multisystemic disease with organ system involvement ranging from simple—where it involves only one organ—to widespread progressive disease. Although it can affect any age group, the peak incidence is between 1 and 3 years of age. PMID:27186251

  19. Human embryonic epidermis contains a diverse Langerhans cell precursor pool.

    PubMed

    Schuster, Christopher; Mildner, Michael; Mairhofer, Mario; Bauer, Wolfgang; Fiala, Christian; Prior, Marion; Eppel, Wolfgang; Kolbus, Andrea; Tschachler, Erwin; Stingl, Georg; Elbe-Bürger, Adelheid

    2014-02-01

    Despite intense efforts, the exact phenotype of the epidermal Langerhans cell (LC) precursors during human ontogeny has not been determined yet. These elusive precursors are believed to migrate into the embryonic skin and to express primitive surface markers, including CD36, but not typical LC markers such as CD1a, CD1c and CD207. The aim of this study was to further characterize the phenotype of LC precursors in human embryonic epidermis and to compare it with that of LCs in healthy adult skin. We found that epidermal leukocytes in first trimester human skin are negative for CD34 and heterogeneous with regard to the expression of CD1c, CD14 and CD36, thus contrasting the phenotypic uniformity of epidermal LCs in adult skin. These data indicate that LC precursors colonize the developing epidermis in an undifferentiated state, where they acquire the definitive LC marker profile with time. Using a human three-dimensional full-thickness skin model to mimic in vivo LC development, we found that FACS-sorted, CD207(-) cord blood-derived haematopoietic precursor cells resembling foetal LC precursors but not CD14(+)CD16(-) blood monocytes integrate into skin equivalents, and without additional exogenous cytokines give rise to cells that morphologically and phenotypically resemble LCs. Overall, it appears that CD14(-) haematopoietic precursors possess a much higher differentiation potential than CD14(+) precursor cells.

  20. Pericardial Effusion in Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Gholami, Narges

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a proliferative disorder of histiocytes in multiple organs. Langerhans cell histiocytosis involves bones, skin, lung and other organs. Case Presentation This study describes a seven-month-old Iranian girl who presented with skin rash and cervical lymphadenopathy. Langerhans cell histiocytosis was suspected when it was associated with anemia, splenomegaly and lytic bone lesions. A skin biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of Langerhans cell histiocytosis. During hospitalization, the patient looked ill with respiratory distress. A chest X-ray showed a ground glass view, and echocardiography showed moderate pericardial effusion. Conclusions Pericardial effusion was a rare finding in this case of Langerhans cell histiocytosis. Pericardial effusion in Langerhans cell histiocytosis, which is an unusual presentation, should be considered when the patient experiences respiratory distress.

  1. Pericardial Effusion in Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Gholami, Narges

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a proliferative disorder of histiocytes in multiple organs. Langerhans cell histiocytosis involves bones, skin, lung and other organs. Case Presentation This study describes a seven-month-old Iranian girl who presented with skin rash and cervical lymphadenopathy. Langerhans cell histiocytosis was suspected when it was associated with anemia, splenomegaly and lytic bone lesions. A skin biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of Langerhans cell histiocytosis. During hospitalization, the patient looked ill with respiratory distress. A chest X-ray showed a ground glass view, and echocardiography showed moderate pericardial effusion. Conclusions Pericardial effusion was a rare finding in this case of Langerhans cell histiocytosis. Pericardial effusion in Langerhans cell histiocytosis, which is an unusual presentation, should be considered when the patient experiences respiratory distress. PMID:27621925

  2. Langerhans cell hyperplasia from molluscum contagiosum

    PubMed Central

    Hatter, Alyn D.; Zhou, Xin; Honda, Kord; Popkin, Daniel L.

    2014-01-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) carries a prognosis which ranges from benign to potentially fatal. There is currently little framework to decipher metrics which predict the benign versus aggressive nature of LCH. We wanted to determine if molluscum contagiosum virus (MCV) DNA could be isolated from a cutaneous lesion demonstrating Langerhans cell hyperplasia resembling LCH in a patient with both. We performed polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on biopsy proven MCV and the hyperplastic lesion. Two specific regions within the MCV genome were detected from both biopsies. We report our findings and suggest that some MCV can produce histologic lesions resembling LCH, similar to the literature on scabies mimicking LCH. Efforts to find a reactive “driver” in LCH may significantly inform the clinical scenario. PMID:25140667

  3. Langerhans Cell Hyperplasia From Molluscum Contagiosum.

    PubMed

    Hatter, Alyn D; Zhou, Xin; Honda, Kord; Popkin, Daniel L

    2015-08-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) carries a prognosis, which ranges from benign to potentially fatal. There is currently little framework to decipher metrics, which predict the benign versus aggressive nature of LCH. We wanted to determine whether molluscum contagiosum virus (MCV) DNA could be isolated from a cutaneous lesion, demonstrating Langerhans cell hyperplasia resembling LCH in a patient with both. Polymerase chain reaction on biopsy-proven MCV and the hyperplastic lesion has been performed. Two specific regions within the MCV genome were detected from both biopsies. The authors report our findings and suggest that some MCV can produce histological lesions resembling LCH, similar to the literature on scabies mimicking LCH. Efforts to find a reactive "driver" in LCH may significantly inform the clinical scenario. PMID:25140667

  4. Vulvar Langerhans cell histiocytosis: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Khoummane, Nadia; Guimeya, Cyriane; Lipombi, Dominique; Gielen, François

    2014-01-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytoses (LCH) are a rare group of disorders that comprise a large spectrum of diseases initially known as histiocytosis X. In this case report, we relate a case of LCH affecting the vulva of a 47-year-old female. The patient presented since 3 years with a vulvar lesion characterized by non-healing ulcers and a perineal granuloma on which she underwent surgery. Professionals should keep in mind not to treat straightforwardly lesions of the genital tract as simple sexually transmitted diseases. Chronic, atypical genital lesions seen in women need to be worked up and dealt with accordingly. PMID:25404979

  5. Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis of the Clavicle

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shaowu; Zhang, Weisheng; Na, Shengbo; Zhang, Lina; Lang, Zhijin

    2014-01-01

    Abstract We report a rare case of solitary Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) involving the clavicle of an adult female. The patient was a 32-year-old female presenting with 1 month history of progressive pain, swelling, and tenderness in the region near the left sternoclavicular joint. Radiograph, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging showed an osteolytic lesion in the clavicle with tumor extension and soft tissue edema. Surgical curettage of the lesion was performed, and the histopathologic diagnosis was LCH. Because of its rarity and possibly variable presentation, LCH should be included and considered in the differential diagnosis when we encounter a clavicle lesion. PMID:25365405

  6. Langerhans cell histiocytosis of bone: MR imaging.

    PubMed

    George, J C; Buckwalter, K A; Cohen, M D; Edwards, M K; Smith, R R

    1994-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) images of 12 pathologically proven lesions of Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) of bone were reviewed retrospectively. MR identified all lesions, three of which were not identified on plain radiographs. In all cases, MR showed greater abnormality than did plain radiographs. With one exception, all lesions were hypointense on T1-weighted images and hyperintense on T2-weighted images. The lesions and associated soft tissue abnormalities were very conspicuous on short TI inversion sequences and T1-weighted post-contrast images. Follow-up MR studies in two patients after chemotherapy showed decreased size and enhancement of lesions compared with baseline studies.

  7. Squash smear cytology of Langerhans cell histiocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Nahm, Ji Hae; Yoon, Gun; Do, Sung-Im; Kim, Hyun-Soo

    2015-01-01

    Squash smear cytology of Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) has rarely been reported. We described squash cytological findings of cranial LCH. Additionally, based on recent data that suggests an association of LCH with either viral infection or genetic alteration, we investigated the presence of several viruses or mutation of TP53 and BRAF in LCH tissue samples. Intraoperative squash smears of a small tissue fragment excised from the lesion demonstrated a mixed population of eosinophils, neutrophils, small lymphocytes and a high content of histiocytes. The histiocytes possessed abundant dense cytoplasm with round cell shape and eccentrically located nuclei with fine chromatin, delicate nuclear membranes and prominent nuclear grooves, indentations and pseudoinclusions. The cytologic features were consistent with Langerhans cells (LCs). Subsequent histopathologic examination confirmed the diagnosis of LCH. Immunohistochemically, the LCs were positive for S-100, CD1a and langerin, but negative for adenovirus, CMV, EBV, HHV-8, HPV, HSV, SV 40 and p53. BRAF V600E mutation was absent. Our findings did not support the role of viruses and genetic abnormalities in the pathogenesis of LCH. In summary, the presence of a mixed population of inflammatory cells and a high content of histiocytes with characteristic cytomorphology, along with radiologic evidence and appropriate clinical findings, is highly suggestive of LCH on the intraoperative squash smears. Awareness of characteristic cytological features of LCH is necessary for rapid and accurate diagnosis. Squash smear cytology is a potentially useful tool in the intraoperative diagnosis of LCH. PMID:26339366

  8. Notch is active in Langerhans cell histiocytosis and confers pathognomonic features on dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Hutter, Caroline; Kauer, Max; Simonitsch-Klupp, Ingrid; Jug, Gunhild; Schwentner, Raphaela; Leitner, Judith; Bock, Peter; Steinberger, Peter; Bauer, Wolfgang; Carlesso, Nadia; Minkov, Milen; Gadner, Helmut; Stingl, Georg; Kovar, Heinrich; Kriehuber, Ernst

    2012-12-20

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is an enigmatic disease defined by the accumulation of Langerhans cell-like dendritic cells (DCs). In the present study, we demonstrate that LCH cells exhibit a unique transcription profile that separates them not only from plasmacytoid and myeloid DCs, but also from epidermal Langerhans cells, indicating a distinct DC entity. Molecular analysis revealed that isolated and tissue-bound LCH cells selectively express the Notch ligand Jagged 2 (JAG2) and are the only DCs that express both Notch ligand and its receptor. We further show that JAG2 signaling induces key LCH-cell markers in monocyte-derived DCs, suggesting a functional role of Notch signaling in LCH ontogenesis. JAG2 also induced matrix-metalloproteinases 1 and 12, which are highly expressed in LCH and may account for tissue destruction in LCH lesions. This induction was selective for DCs and was not recapitulated in monocytes. The results of the present study suggest that JAG2-mediated Notch activation confers phenotypic and functional aspects of LCH to DCs; therefore, interference with Notch signaling may be an attractive strategy to combat this disease.

  9. Langerhans cell sarcoma: an unusual microscopic presentation.

    PubMed

    Gagnon, A L; Daniel, S; Greer, K; Patterson, J W; Tchernev, G; Chokoeva, A A; Wollina, U; Lotti, T; Fioranelli, M; Roccia, M G; Guarneri, C; Aguilera, N

    2016-01-01

    A 70-year-old Caucasian male presented to our clinic for a pruritic eruption progressing over several months. He complained of fatigue with a 20-pound weight loss over the past year. On presentation, the patient had browny-yellow to violaceous, purpuric, macular and papular lesions on the legs, arms, lower abdomen and back. Initial biopsy showed an angiocentric infiltrate with a suggestion of intraluminal proliferation; CD31 and Fli-1 positivity suggested either reactive angioendotheliomatosis or an unusual intravascular histiocytosis. Further excisional biopsies demonstrated perivascular collections of cells with ample cytoplasm, prominent nuclear pleomorphism and mitotic activity. The nuclei demonstrated nuclear folding, grooves and indentations. The atypical cells were S100, CD1a and CD56 positive with immunohistochemistry. A diagnosis of Langerhans cell sarcoma (LCS) was made. LCS is a rare, aggressive malignancy that can involve multiple organs including the skin, lymph nodes, lung, bone marrow, spleen, heart, and brain. The skin and lymph nodes are commonly involved, and the cutaneous presentation varies greatly. Immunohistochemistry characteristically shows CD1a and S100 positivity. CD56 expression is uncommon and often portends a poor prognosis. There is no established treatment of LCS due to its rarity. Surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy have been used with varied outcomes. Our patient was treated with prednisone with improvement of cutaneous disease. He did not develop systemic involvement, but died 1.5 years later from complications associated with heart failure. Langerhans cell sarcoma should be considered when faced with an unusual angiocentric infiltrate in which initial immunohistochemical staining results may be misleading. PMID:27373133

  10. Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis: Emerging Insights and Clinical Implications.

    PubMed

    Zinn, Daniel J; Chakraborty, Rikhia; Allen, Carl E

    2016-02-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis is a disorder characterized by lesions that include CD207+ dendritic cells along with an inflammatory infiltrate. Langerhans cell histiocytosis has a highly variable clinical presentation, ranging from a single lesion to potentially fatal disseminated disease. The uncertainty as to whether Langerhans cell histiocytosis is a reactive or a neoplastic disease has resulted in a long-standing debate on this question, and the limited understanding of the pathogenesis of the disease has impeded clinical improvement for patients. The current standard of care for multisystem Langerhans cell histiocytosis, empirically derived chemotherapy with vinblastine and prednisone, cures fewer than 50% of patients, and optimal therapies for relapse and neurodegenerative disease remain uncertain. Recent research advances support a model in which Langerhans cell histiocytosis arises due to pathologic activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway in myeloid precursors. Redefinition of Langerhans cell histiocytosis as a myeloid neoplastic disorder driven by hyperactive ERK supports the potential of chemotherapy with efficacy against immature myeloid cells, as well as mutation-specific targeted therapy. PMID:26888790

  11. An unusual presentation of Langerhans cell histiocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Palak; Kaushal, Manju

    2014-01-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a relatively rare and unique disease. An incidence of 7.9% in the jaws is reported. We report a case of 9-year-old male child referred to us from dental outpatient department, who presented with a firm swelling in right lower jaw along with bilateral submandibular lymphadenopathy for 1-month. Fine-needle aspiration was done from lytic lesion in the body of mandible and multiple smears were prepared. On the basis of the clinical and cytomorphological findings, a diagnosis of LCH was suggested. The diagnosis was confirmed on histology. Thus, a high possibility of LCH should be considered in children presenting with lytic lesions in head and neck region. PMID:25745295

  12. Cytomegalovirus and Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis: Is There a Link?

    PubMed Central

    Khoddami, Maliheh; Nadji, Seyed-Alireza; Dehghanian, Paria; Vahdatinia, Mahsa; Shamshiri, Ahmad-Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background: Langerhans cell histiocytosis is a rare proliferative histiocytic disease of unknown etiology. Histologically, it is characterized by granuloma-like proliferation of Langerhans-type dendritic cells derived from bone marrow. Many investigators have suggested the possible role of viruses such as Epstein-Barr virus, human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6), herpes simplex virus (HSV) types 1 and 2, and Cytomegalovirus in the pathogenesis of Langerhans cell histiocytosis. Objectives: In this study, we have investigated the presence of Cytomegalovirus in Langerhans cell histiocytosis in Iranian children. Patients and Methods: In this retrospective study, we have investigated the presence of Cytomegalovirus DNA expression, using paraffin-embedded tissue samples of 30 patients with Langerhans cell histiocytosis and 30 age and site-matched controls by qualitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) method. Results: No significant difference in prevalence of Cytomegalovirus presence between patients and controls was found. Cytomegalovirus was found by qualitative PCR in only 2 (6.66%) out of 30 patients and in 1 (3.3%) of 30 control samples with a P value of 1 (1.00 > 0.05) using chi-square test with OR: 2.07; 95% CI of OR: 0.18 - 24.15. Conclusions: Our findings do not support the hypothesis of a possible role for Cytomegalovirus in the pathogenesis of Langerhans cell histiocytosis. PMID:27307972

  13. Langerhans cells and their role in oral mucosal diseases.

    PubMed

    Upadhyay, Juhi; Upadhyay, Ram B; Agrawal, Pankaj; Jaitley, Shweta; Shekhar, Rhitu

    2013-09-01

    Dendritic cells are arguably the most potent antigen-presenting cells and may be the only cells capable of initiating the adaptive immune response. The epithelial residents of dendritic cells are Langerhans cells, which serve as the "sentinels" of the mucosa, altering the immune system not only to pathogen entry but also of tolerance to self antigen and commensal microbes. Oral mucosal Langerhans cells are capable of engaging and internalizing a wide variety of pathogens and have been found responsive to nickel in patients with nickel allergies, oral Candida species, oral lichen planus, lichenoid drug eruptions, graft versus host diseases, periodontal diseases median rhomboid glossitis, human immunodeficiency virus infection, hairy leukoplakia of the tongue, and oral squamous cell carcinoma. Review focuses on the role of antigen-presenting cells in particular Langerhans cells to better understand the mechanisms underlying immune responses. In this review, comprehensive detail about mucosal diseases has been compiled using the PubMed database and through textbooks. PMID:24251267

  14. Cell(s) of Origin of Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis.

    PubMed

    Collin, Matthew; Bigley, Venetia; McClain, Kenneth L; Allen, Carl E

    2015-10-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is heterogeneous disease characterized by common histology of inflammatory lesions containing Langerin(+) (CD207) histiocytes. Emerging data support a model in which MAPK activation in self-renewing hematopoietic progenitors may drive disseminated high-risk disease, whereas MAPK activation in more differentiated committed myeloid populations may induce low-risk LCH. The heterogeneous clinical manifestations with shared histology may represent the final common pathway of an acquired defect of differentiation, initiated at more than one point. Implications of this model include re-definition of LCH as a myeloid neoplasia and re-focusing therapeutic strategies on the cells and lineages of origin. PMID:26461145

  15. Cell(s) of Origin of Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis.

    PubMed

    Collin, Matthew; Bigley, Venetia; McClain, Kenneth L; Allen, Carl E

    2015-10-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is heterogeneous disease characterized by common histology of inflammatory lesions containing Langerin(+) (CD207) histiocytes. Emerging data support a model in which MAPK activation in self-renewing hematopoietic progenitors may drive disseminated high-risk disease, whereas MAPK activation in more differentiated committed myeloid populations may induce low-risk LCH. The heterogeneous clinical manifestations with shared histology may represent the final common pathway of an acquired defect of differentiation, initiated at more than one point. Implications of this model include re-definition of LCH as a myeloid neoplasia and re-focusing therapeutic strategies on the cells and lineages of origin.

  16. Langerhans cell histiocytosis - a case report.

    PubMed

    Jeunon, Thiago; Sousa, Maria Auxiliadora Jeunon; Santos-Rodrigues, Nilton; Lopes, Raquel

    2012-01-01

    A 17-year-old male presented for dermatologic consultation with slightly elevated reddish papules covered by yellowish scales in the scalp for the last two years and reddish and indurated ulcers in the perineum lasting six months. Additional complaints included polyuria, polydipsia, delay in the development of secondary sexual characteristics and hearing loss of the right ear secondary to a medium otitis. Lesions from scalp and perineum were sampled for histopathologic examination and revealed a dense cellular infiltrate made up of mononuclear cells with conspicuous eosinophilic cytoplasm and large cleaved vesicular nucleus, some of them with shapes resembling the format of a kidney and others reminiscent of coffee beans. Numerous intermingling eosinophils were present. The diagnosis of Langerhans cell histiocytosis was then rendered and confirmed by positive immunostaining of neo-plastic cells for anti-CD1a and anti-S100 protein antibodies. The work-up revealed diabetes insipidus, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, hiperprolactenemia, growing-hormone deficiency and thickness of the pituitary stalk. The patient was treated with prednisone and vinblastin based chemotherapy regimen for six months with complete remission, but presented recurrence of some lesions in the scalp, which were handled with topical mustard and corticosteroids. After chemotherapy, the endocrinologic disturbances were corrected with hormonal replacement therapy. The patient is currently in good health with a follow-up of five years. PMID:24765546

  17. How I treat Langerhans cell histiocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Carl E.; Ladisch, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis” (LCH) describes a spectrum of clinical presentations ranging from a single bone lesion or trivial skin rash to an explosive disseminated disease. Regardless of clinical severity, LCH lesions share the common histology of CD1a+/CD207+ dendritic cells with characteristic morphology among an inflammatory infiltrate. Despite historical uncertainty defining LCH as inflammatory vs neoplastic and incomplete understanding of mechanisms of pathogenesis, clinical outcomes have improved markedly over the past decades through cooperative randomized clinical trials based on empiric therapeutic strategies. Significant advances include recognition of high- and low-risk clinical groups defined by hematopoietic and/or hepatic involvement, and of the importance of optimal intensity and of duration of chemotherapy. Nevertheless, mortality of high-risk patients, disease recurrence, lack of robustly tested salvage strategies, and significant disease morbidity of both high- and low-risk patients remain challenges. Recent discovery of recurrent somatic mutations in mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway genes at critical stages of myeloid hematopoietic differentiation in LCH patients supports redefinition of the disease as a myeloproliferative disorder and provides opportunities to develop novel approaches to diagnosis and therapy. PMID:25827831

  18. [Langerhans cell histiocytosis with atypical and early neonatal debut].

    PubMed

    García-Rodríguez, Esther; Bernabeu-Wittel, José; Calderón-López, Gemma; Pavón-Delgado, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis is a systemic disease associated with the proliferation of this type of cells in tissues. Its prevalence is estimated at 1-9/100 000. Bone is the most frequently affected organ, followed by the skin, lymph nodes, haematopoietic system, pituitary gland, lungs and liver. In the majority of cases, onset occurs during childhood, with peak between one and three years of age, and poor prognosis before two years of age. The haematological forms (pancytopenia) are usually aggressive in infants. We report a case of Langerhans cell histiocytosis with neonatal onset and complex diagnosis: maintained and significant leukocytosis was the predominant data for the first two months of life, so some type of leukemia was considered. However, the most common blood disorder in Langerhans cell histiocytosis is pancytopenia rather than leukocytosis, so that the diagnosis was delayed.

  19. Langerhans cell histiocytosis: Current concepts in dentistry and case report

    PubMed Central

    Ramos-Gutiérrez, Efraín; Alejo-González, Francisco; Ruiz-Rodríguez, Socorro; Garrocho-Rangel, José-Arturo

    2016-01-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH), which is a rare granulomatous pediatric disease of unknown etiology, is characterized by the idiopathic proliferation and accumulation of abnormal and clonal Langerhans cells or their marrow precursors, resulting in localized, solitary or multiple destructive lesions. These lesions are most commonly eosinophilic granuloma, which are found in craniofacial bone structures such as the skull and mandible, skin and other organs. In children, the disease has a variable initial presentation, and the clinical course, prognosis and survival are unpredictable. The aims of this report were to present an LCH case in a girl aged 2 years, 8 months and her clinicopathological features, to describe the bucodental management provided, and to discuss special dental considerations of this disease. Key words:Children, dental management, histiocytosis, Langerhans cells. PMID:26855698

  20. Langerhans cells increase in the dermal lesions of adult T cell leukaemia in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Shamoto, M

    1983-01-01

    In cases of adult T cell leukaemia neoplastic T cell infiltration in the skin was accompanied by an increase in Langerhans cells. This is in keeping with the view that Langerhans cells may induce antigen-specific and allogenic T cell activation. Images PMID:6600750

  1. A case of Langerhans' cell histiocytosis following Hodgkin's disease

    PubMed Central

    LI, XIN; DENG, QI; LI, YU-MING

    2016-01-01

    Langerhans' cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a group of disorders in various tissues characterized by the proliferation of Langerhans cells. It is rarely observed in adults. Langerhans cells are dendritic cells that express cluster of differentiation 1a (CD1a) and S100 protein, and contain Birbeck granules. Its etiopathogenesis remains to be elucidated. One possible etiological cause is a reactive proliferation of Langerhans cells following chemotherapy or radiotherapy for Hodgkin's disease (HD). A number of cases of LCH associated with malignant lymphoma have been reported previously. It may follow after the malignant lymphoma, or occur with it. However, fewer cases have been reported where the LCH followed after HD. In the present case report, a patient was diagnosed with HD following chemotherapy for LCH. As LCH was diagnosed, the patient was treated with a combination of various chemotherapeutic agents in two cycles of cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and prednisolone (COP), and eight cycles of cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone (CHOP). The patient went into a successful clinical remission. One year later, computed tomographic (CT) scans of the thorax and abdomen revealed augmentation of the tumor mass in the mediastinum. An excisional biopsy of the right inguinal lymph node was performed. The patient was diagnosed with nodular sclerosing Hodgkin's disease. Following four cycles of doxorubicin (Adriamycin), bleomycin, vinblastine and dacarbazine (ABVD) chemotherapy, a whole-body positron emission tomographic CT scan revealed a decrease in tumor mass in the mediastinum. At present, the patient remains in treatment, and the prognosis has yet to be fully determined. PMID:27330759

  2. Photodynamic therapy for multi-resistant cutaneous Langerhans cell histiocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Failla, Valérie; Wauters, Odile; Caucanas, Marie; Nikkels-Tassoudji, Nazli; Nikkels, Arjen F

    2010-01-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis is a rare group of proliferative disorders. Beside cutaneous involvement, other internal organs can be affected. The treatment of cutaneous lesions is difficult and relies on topical corticosteroids, carmustine, nitrogen mustard, and photochemotherapy. Systemic steroids and vinblastine are used for recalcitrant skin lesions. However, some cases fail to respond. An 18-month old boy presented a CD1a+, S100a+ Langerhans cell histocytosis with cutaneous and severe scalp involvement. Topical corticosteroids and nitrogen mustard failed to improve the skin lesions. Systemic corticosteroids and vinblastine improved the truncal involvement but had no effect on the scalp lesions. Methylaminolevulinate (MAL) based photodynamic therapy (PDT) resulted in a significant regression of the scalp lesions. Control histology revealed an almost complete clearance of the tumor infiltrate. Clinical follow-up after six months showed no recurrence. Although spontaneous regression of cutaneous Langerhans cell histiocytosis is observed, the rapid effect of photodynamic therapy after several failures of other treatment suggests that photodynamic therapy was successful. As far as we know this is the first report of photodynamic therapy for refractory skin lesions. Larger series are needed to determine whether photodynamic therapy deserves a place in the treatment of multiresistant cutaneous Langerhans cell histiocytosis. PMID:21139836

  3. Radiotherapy for Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis of Bilateral Eyelids

    PubMed Central

    Bourque, Jean-Marc; Lukovic, Jelena; Dar, A. Rashid

    2016-01-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare disorder with numerous clinicopathological variants with differing clinical courses, treatment methods, and prognoses. We report one patient with atypical LCH of the bilateral lower eyelids and subsequent successful treatment with local radiation therapy. PMID:27004151

  4. Congenital cutaneous Langerhans cell histiocytosis and cutaneous mastocytoma in a child.

    PubMed

    Lozano Masdemont, B; Campos Dominguez, M; Gomez-Recuero Munoz, L; Moreno Garcia, B; Parra Blanco, V; Suarez Fernandez, R

    2016-01-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis and mastocytoma are clonal disorders of bone-marrow-derived cells, most commonly seen in the pediatric age. Infiltration of mast cells and Langerhans cells in the same lesion has been published before, but, to our knowledge, this is the first time that the occurrence of two mastocytomas and Langerhans cell histiocytosis is reported. It could be hypothesized that both clonal disorders of bone-marrow-derived cells could have a common origin. PMID:27617456

  5. Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis Followed by Hodgkin Lymphoma: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Safaei, Akbar; Bagheri, Mandana; Shahryari, Jahanbanoo; Noori, Sadat; Esmailzade, Elmira

    2015-01-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare neoplasm defined as the proliferation of bone marrow langerhans cells, which is a kind of dendritic cells. The major pathological features of LCH are expression of CD1a and S100 as well as Birbeck granules. Its presentation can differ from a mild bone lesion to a multi-systemic evolved malignant neoplasm; however, the latter outcome is almost rare. Thus, LCH is mostly known as a benign neoplasm. In this study, we present a case of LCH followed by Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). Accompaniment of this disease with malignant lymphoma is rare and considered as case report. Several cases in which malignant lymphoma occurred prior to LCH are reported; however, few cases can be found with LCH followed by malignant lymphomas. PMID:25999631

  6. Langerhans cell histiocytosis revisited: Case report with review

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Y. Pavan; Agrawal, Jayshree; Mohanlakshmi, J.; Kumar, P. Suresh

    2015-01-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a group of idiopathic disorders characterized by proliferation of bone marrow derived Langerhans cells and mature eosinophils. Their clinical features simulate common oral findings such as gingival enlargement, oral ulcers, and mobility of teeth, along with nonspecific radiographic features; hence, diagnosing such lesions becomes difficult for the oral physicians. These lesions are commonly seen in childhood; however, we are reporting a case of LCH in 29-year-old adult male. A provisional diagnosis of giant cell granuloma was considered based on history and examination, although the lesion was histologically proven to be LCH and was confirmed with immunohistochemical staining of S100 protein and CD1a antigen. The purpose of this paper is to enhance the understanding of diverse, nonpathognomical oral presentation of LCH that is easily misdiagnosed and overlooked by dentist. PMID:26321851

  7. Juvenile xanthogranuloma developing after treatment of Langerhans cell histiocytosis: case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Strehl, Johanna D; Stachel, Klaus-Daniel; Hartmann, Arndt; Agaimy, Abbas

    2012-01-01

    The synchronous or metachronous development of Langerhans cell histiocytosis and non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis in the same patient is rare. To date, only seven cases of xanthogranulomas developing in young patients with a history of Langerhans cell histiocytosis and systemic therapy have been reported in the literature. As of yet, the pathogenesis and the clinical significance of this phenomenon are unclear. We report the case of a 3 year old boy who developed juvenile Xanthogranulomas on the forehead and right upper eye lid 1.5 years after systemic therapy for monosystemic Langerhans cell histiocytosis of the bone and complete disease remission. PMID:22977671

  8. Langerhans cell histiocytosis with presentation as orbital disease.

    PubMed

    Bhanage, Ashok B; Katkar, Anand D; Ghate, Prajakta S

    2015-01-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is an uncommon multisystem disease with an abnormal polyclonal proliferation of Langerhans cells that invade various organs. In rare instances, the affection of the orbit is the only and the first symptom. We report an unusual case of an 18-month-old male who presented with orbital disease as the first symptom, in the form of chronic presentation of periorbital swelling (2 months duration) with acute inflammation (1-week duration) giving a suspicion of orbital cellulitis. Histopathology after radical excision confirmed the diagnosis of LCH and was advised initial therapy as per Histiocyte Society Evaluation and Treatment Guidelines (2009) but was lost to follow-up only reappearing with progression (multisystem LCH with risk organ involvement) and developed progressive active disease on treatment after 5 weeks. He was treated with salvage therapy for risk patients achieving complete remission. PMID:26167225

  9. Langerhans cell histiocytosis with presentation as orbital disease

    PubMed Central

    Bhanage, Ashok B.; Katkar, Anand D.; Ghate, Prajakta S.

    2015-01-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is an uncommon multisystem disease with an abnormal polyclonal proliferation of Langerhans cells that invade various organs. In rare instances, the affection of the orbit is the only and the first symptom. We report an unusual case of an 18-month-old male who presented with orbital disease as the first symptom, in the form of chronic presentation of periorbital swelling (2 months duration) with acute inflammation (1-week duration) giving a suspicion of orbital cellulitis. Histopathology after radical excision confirmed the diagnosis of LCH and was advised initial therapy as per Histiocyte Society Evaluation and Treatment Guidelines (2009) but was lost to follow-up only reappearing with progression (multisystem LCH with risk organ involvement) and developed progressive active disease on treatment after 5 weeks. He was treated with salvage therapy for risk patients achieving complete remission. PMID:26167225

  10. Adult Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis with Hepatic and Pulmonary Involvement

    PubMed Central

    Araujo, Bruno; Costa, Francisco; Lopes, Joanne; Castro, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare proliferative disorder of Langerhans cells of unknown etiology. It can involve multiple organ systems with different clinical presentation, which complicates the diagnosis. It can range from isolated to multisystem disease with different prognosis. Although common among children, liver involvement is relatively rare in adults and frequently overlooked. Natural history of liver LCH fits into two stages: an early stage with infiltration by histiocytes and a late stage with sclerosis of the biliary tree. Pulmonary findings are more common and include multiple nodules in different stages of cavitation, predominantly in the upper lobes. We present a case of adult LCH with pulmonary and biopsy proven liver involvement with resolution of the hepatic findings after treatment. PMID:25977828

  11. Disseminated Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis Presenting as Cholestatic Jaundice

    PubMed Central

    Loizides, Anthony M.; Sachdeva, Soumya; Paul, Premila

    2015-01-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a disorder associated with proliferation of Langerhans cells in various organs. LCH secondary to multisystem involvement can present in a variety of ways. Because of its infiltrative nature, LCH can involve the skin, lymph nodes, the lung or the liver. Jaundice in LCH is a manifestation of liver disease; biliary dilatation secondary to lithiasis or may be due to coexistent Niemann-Pick disease. However, a case of cholestasis has been very rarely described. Cholestasis may result from lymph nodes obstructing the porta hepatis. In this report, we describe a case of type II histiocytosis X with obstructive cholestasis and pulmonary involvement in the form of cysts without significant lymphadenopathy at the porta. PMID:25859497

  12. A case of langerhans cell histiocytosis with anal fistula.

    PubMed

    Akbayram, Sinan; Akgun, Cihangir; Ozen, Suleyman; Kaya, Avni; Tuncer, Oguz; Yuca, Sevil Ari; Caksen, Huseyin; Oner, Ahmet Faik

    2009-01-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is an uncommon clinically heterogeneous disorder characterized by the proliferation and accumulation of Langerhans cells with local infiltration of tissues and organ destruction. LCH takes many clinical forms, affecting different systems and different sites in the same system with variable outcomes. Bone, skin, lymph node, pituitary, liver, lung, bone marrow and spleen involvement can be seen in patients with LCH. Involvement of the perianal site is rare. In this article, a 16-month-old boy with multiple organ involvement including skin, liver, lung, and bone is presented. Aside from these systemic involvements, he also had a simple anal fistula. According to our best knowledge, this case of LCH with anal fistula is only the second to be reported in childhood. We would like to emphasize that LCH may be associated with anal fistula; therefore, we suggest that patients with LCH should be examined for this condition. PMID:20505285

  13. Epidermal Stem Cells in Orthopaedic Regenerative Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jin; Zhen, Gehua; Tsai, Shin-Yi; Jia, Xiaofeng

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade, great advances have been made in epidermal stem cell studies at the cellular and molecular level. These studies reported various subpopulations and differentiations existing in the epidermal stem cell. Although controversies and unknown issues remain, epidermal stem cells possess an immune-privileged property in transplantation together with easy accessibility, which is favorable for future clinical application. In this review, we will summarize the biological characteristics of epidermal stem cells, and their potential in orthopedic regenerative medicine. Epidermal stem cells play a critical role via cell replacement, and demonstrate significant translational potential in the treatment of orthopedic injuries and diseases, including treatment for wound healing, peripheral nerve and spinal cord injury, and even muscle and bone remodeling. PMID:23727934

  14. Coincident expression of the chemokine receptors CCR6 and CCR7 by pathologic Langerhans cells in Langerhans cell histiocytosis.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Mark D; Pinkus, Jack L; Fournier, Marcia V; Alexander, Sarah W; Tam, Carmen; Loda, Massimo; Sallan, Stephen E; Nichols, Kim E; Carpentieri, David F; Pinkus, Geraldine S; Rollins, Barrett J

    2003-04-01

    It has been suggested that a switch in chemokine receptor expression underlies Langerhans cell migration from skin to lymphoid tissue. Activated cells are thought to down-regulate CCR6, whose ligand macrophage inflammatory protein-3 alpha (MIP-3 alpha)/CCL20 is expressed in skin, and up-regulate CCR7, whose ligands are in lymphoid tissues. In Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH), pathologic Langerhans cells (LCs) accumulate in several tissues, including skin, bone, and lymphoid organs. We have examined 24 LCH cases and find that pathologic LCs expressed CCR6 and CCR7 coincidentally in all cases. Furthermore, MIP-3 alpha/CCL20 is expressed by keratinocytes in involved skin and by macrophages and osteoblasts in involved bone. Expression of CCR6 by pathologic LCs may contribute to their accumulation in nonlymphoid organs such as skin and bone, whereas CCR7 expression may direct them to lymphoid tissue. Histiocytes in Rosai-Dorfman disease and hemophagocytic syndrome also coexpressed CCR6 and CCR7, suggesting that this may be a general attribute of abnormal histiocytes.

  15. Mechanotransduction in epidermal Merkel cells

    PubMed Central

    Nakatani, Masashi; Maksimovic, Srdjan; Baba, Yoshichika; Lumpkin, Ellen A.

    2014-01-01

    The cellular and molecular basis of vertebrate touch reception remains least understood among the traditional five senses. Somatosensory afferents that innervate the skin encode distinct tactile qualities, such as flutter, slip and pressure. Gentle touch is thought to be transduced by somatosensory afferents whose tactile end organs selectively filter mechanical stimuli. These tactile end organs comprise afferent terminals in association with non-neuronal cell types such as Merkel cells, keratinocytes and Schwann cells. An open question is whether these non-neuronal cells serve primarily as passive mechanical filters or whether they actively participate in mechanosensory transduction. This question has been most extensively studied in Merkel cells, which are epidermal cells that complex with sensory afferents in regions of high tactile acuity such as fingertips, whisker follicles, and touch domes. Merkel cell-neurite complexes mediate slowly adapting type I (SAI) responses, which encode sustained pressure and represent object features with high fidelity. How Merkel cells contribute to unique SAI firing patterns has been debated for decades; however, three recent studies in rodent models provide some direct answers. First, whole-cell recordings demonstrate that Merkel cells are touch-sensitive cells with fast, mechanically activated currents that require Piezo2. Second, optogenetics and intact recordings show that Merkel cells mediate sustained SAI firing. Finally, loss-of-function studies in transgenic mouse models reveal that SAI afferents are also touch sensitive. Together, these studies identify molecular mechanisms of mechanotransduction in Merkel cells, reveal unexpected functions for these cells in touch and support a revised, two-receptor site model of mechanosensory transduction. PMID:25053537

  16. Functional CD86 (B7-2/B70) is predominantly expressed on Langerhans cells in atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Ohki, O; Yokozeki, H; Katayama, I; Umeda, T; Azuma, M; Okumura, K; Nishioka, K

    1997-06-01

    Recently, we reported the functional expression of CD86 on cultured human Langerhans cells derived from normal epidermis. In the present study, we investigated the expression and function of co-stimulatory molecules in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis. In immunohistochemical analysis, CD80 and/or CD86 were detected on dendritic-shaped cells not only in the epidermis but also in the dermis in the inflammatory lesions of atopic dermatitis (n = 12). CD80 was expressed in only five cases (42%), while CD86 was expressed in all cases (100%). These molecules were not detected in normal control subjects (n = 8). In non-lesional skin of atopic dermatitis (n = 4), CD86 but not CD80 was detected in one case. CD86 was preferentially induced on dendritic-shaped cells in positive patch test sites to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus or house dust allergen in atopic dermatitis (n = 4). The CD80- or CD86-positive cells were confirmed as Langerhans cells by double immunostaining using anti-CD1a monoclonal antibody. Neither CD86 nor CD80 was detected on keratinocytes. Similar results of the stronger expression of CD86 over that of CD80 were obtained from psoriasis vulgaris (n = 11) and from contact dermatitis (n = 7), although CD86 was expressed only in 57% of the contact dermatitis cases. The percentage of Langerhans cells positive for CD86 was higher than for CD80, i.e. 48% compared with 9%, respectively, in the epidermis of lesional skin of atopic dermatitis (n = 8). The expression rate of these molecules on Langerhans cells increased in the dermis. To investigate the function of co-stimulatory molecules on Langerhans cells in atopic dermatitis, we conducted an inhibition test with antibodies. Anti-CD86 monoclonal antibody almost completely inhibited T-cell proliferation stimulated with crude extract of D. pteronyssinus in the presence of epidermal cells as antigen-presenting cells, whereas anti-CD80 monoclonal antibody produced less of an inhibitory effect. These data indicate

  17. Grafting of burns with widely meshed autograft split skin and Langerhans cell-depressed allograft split skin overlay

    SciTech Connect

    Alsbjoern, B.F.S.; Sorensen, B.

    1986-12-01

    Extensively burned patients suffer from lack of sufficient autologous donor skin. Meshing and wide expansion of the obtained split skin has met the requirement to a large degree. However, the wider the expansion, the less chance of a proper take. By covering widely expanded autografts with viable cadaver split skin, the take has been improved. If the epidermal Langerhans cells in the cadaver split skin are depressed by ultraviolet B light and glucocorticosteroids before grafting, a prolonged allograft take can be achieved and the healing of the underlying autografts is ensured for an extended period. Grafting results in 6 patients with extensive burns are reported.

  18. Langerhans cell precursors acquire RANK/CD265 in prenatal human skin.

    PubMed

    Schöppl, Alice; Botta, Albert; Prior, Marion; Akgün, Johnnie; Schuster, Christopher; Elbe-Bürger, Adelheid

    2015-01-01

    The skin is the first barrier against foreign pathogens and the prenatal formation of a strong network of various innate and adaptive cells is required to protect the newborn from perinatal infections. While many studies about the immune system in healthy and diseased adult human skin exist, our knowledge about the cutaneous prenatal/developing immune system and especially about the phenotype and function of antigen-presenting cells such as epidermal Langerhans cells (LCs) in human skin is still scarce. It has been shown previously that LCs in healthy adult human skin express receptor activator of NF-κB (RANK), an important molecule prolonging their survival. In this study, we investigated at which developmental stage LCs acquire this important molecule. Immunofluorescence double-labeling of cryostat sections revealed that LC precursors in prenatal human skin either do not yet [10-11 weeks of estimated gestational age (EGA)] or only faintly (13-15 weeks EGA) express RANK. LCs express RANK at levels comparable to adult LCs by the end of the second trimester. Comparable with adult skin, dermal antigen-presenting cells at no gestational age express this marker. These findings indicate that epidermal leukocytes gradually acquire RANK during gestation - a phenomenon previously observed also for other markers on LCs in prenatal human skin.

  19. Langerhans cell precursors acquire RANK/CD265 in prenatal human skin

    PubMed Central

    Schöppl, Alice; Botta, Albert; Prior, Marion; Akgün, Johnnie; Schuster, Christopher; Elbe-Bürger, Adelheid

    2015-01-01

    The skin is the first barrier against foreign pathogens and the prenatal formation of a strong network of various innate and adaptive cells is required to protect the newborn from perinatal infections. While many studies about the immune system in healthy and diseased adult human skin exist, our knowledge about the cutaneous prenatal/developing immune system and especially about the phenotype and function of antigen-presenting cells such as epidermal Langerhans cells (LCs) in human skin is still scarce. It has been shown previously that LCs in healthy adult human skin express receptor activator of NF-κB (RANK), an important molecule prolonging their survival. In this study, we investigated at which developmental stage LCs acquire this important molecule. Immunofluorescence double-labeling of cryostat sections revealed that LC precursors in prenatal human skin either do not yet [10–11 weeks of estimated gestational age (EGA)] or only faintly (13–15 weeks EGA) express RANK. LCs express RANK at levels comparable to adult LCs by the end of the second trimester. Comparable with adult skin, dermal antigen-presenting cells at no gestational age express this marker. These findings indicate that epidermal leukocytes gradually acquire RANK during gestation – a phenomenon previously observed also for other markers on LCs in prenatal human skin. PMID:25722033

  20. Cutaneous histiocytosis with Langerhans cell features induced by scabies: a case report.

    PubMed

    Talanin, N Y; Smith, S S; Shelley, E D; Moores, W B

    1994-12-01

    An infant with biopsy-proven scabies developed nodular lesions. Histopathology revealed atypical histiocytes with Langerhans cell features. Within six months after treatment all skin lesions gradually disappeared. We suggest that the nodules in scabies can be due to Langerhans cell proliferation.

  1. Growth hormone replacement in patients with Langerhan's cell histiocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Howell, S; Wilton, P; Shalet, S

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To assess the impact of growth hormone on growth and the underlying disease in children with growth hormone deficiency as a result of Langerhan's cell histiocytosis.
STUDY DESIGN—Retrospective analysis of data from the Kabi (Pharmacia & Upjohn) international growth database (KIGS) for 82 children with Langerhan's cell histiocytosis treated with recombinant growth hormone.
RESULTS—At the start of treatment the median (10-90th centile) age was 9.0 (5.2 to 14.7) years, with a median height standard deviation score (SDS) of −2.0 (−3.5 to −0.9). The median pretreatment height velocity (measured in cm/year) was 3.6 (0.9 to 6.4); this increased to 8.8 (3.8 to 12.0) in the first year of treatment with growth hormone, and then remained significantly greater than the pretreatment height velocity at 7.3 (4.4 to 9.7) and 7.1 (4.1 to 9.3) cm/year in the second and third years, respectively. The median height SDS increased from −2.0 to −0.8 (−2.3 to 0.6) by the end of three years of treatment. There was no increase in the recurrence rate of the underlying disease and no adverse event could be directly attributed to growth hormone treatment, apart from one case of benign intracranial hypertension that resolved on stopping treatment with growth hormone.
CONCLUSIONS—Growth hormone replacement treatment for patients with Langerhan's cell histiocytosis with growth hormone deficiency is beneficial and safe.

 PMID:9659097

  2. Pulmonary langerhans cell histiocytosis masquerading as tuberculosis in an infant.

    PubMed

    Senanayake, M P; Mettananda, S; De Silva, M V C

    2011-01-01

    A 4-month-old infant presented with continued fever, unresolving bronchopneumonia and household contact with sputum-smear-positive tuberculosis (TB) and showed marginal improvement on anti-TB chemotherapy. Recurrent pneumothorax prompted the clinical diagnosis of TB to be revised. High-resolution CT scan of the chest and open lung biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis. Treatment with prednisolone and vinblastin resulted in settling of fever and resolution of respiratory symptoms and signs. In communities where the prevalence of TB is high, unusual presentations should prompt consideration of alternative diagnoses. PMID:22041471

  3. Langerhans cells (CD1a and CD207), dermal dendrocytes (FXIIIa) and plasmacytoid dendritic cells (CD123) in skin lesions of leprosy patients.

    PubMed

    Hirai, Kelly Emi; Aarão, Tinara Leila de Sousa; Silva, Luciana Mota; de Sousa, Jorge Rodrigues; de Souza, Juarez; Dias, Leonidas Braga; Carneiro, Francisca Regina Oliveira; Fuzii, Hellen Thais; Quaresma, Juarez Antonio Simões

    2016-02-01

    The clinical course of infection with Mycobacterium leprae varies widely and depends on the pattern of the host immune response. Dendritic cells play an important role in the activation of the innate and adaptive immune system and seem to be essential for the development of the disease. To analyze the presence of epidermal dendritic cells (CD1a and CD207), plasmacytoid dendritic cells (CD123) and dermal dendrocytes (factor XIIIa) in lesion fragments of leprosy patients, skin samples from 30 patients were studied. These samples were submitted to immunohistochemistry against CD1a, CD207, FXIIIa, and CD123. The results showed a larger number of Langerhans cells, detected with the CD1a or CD207 marker, dermal dendrocytes and plasmacytoid dendritic cells in patients with the tuberculoid form. A positive correlation was observed between the Langerhans cell markers CD1a and CD207 in both the tuberculoid and lepromatous forms, and between Langerhans cells and dermal dendrocytes in samples with the tuberculoid form. The present results indicate the existence of a larger number of dendritic cells in patients at the resistant pole of the disease (tuberculoid) and suggest that the different dendritic cells studied play a role, favoring an efficient immune response against infection with M. leprae.

  4. Migration of Langerhans cells and gammadelta dendritic cells from UV-B-irradiated sheep skin.

    PubMed

    Dandie, G W; Clydesdale, G J; Radcliff, F J; Muller, H K

    2001-02-01

    Depletion of dendritic cells from UV-B-irradiated sheep skin was investigated by monitoring migration of these cells towards regional lymph nodes. By creating and cannulating pseudoafferent lymphatic vessels draining a defined region of skin, migrating cells were collected and enumerated throughout the response to UV-B irradiation. In the present study, the effects of exposing sheep flank skin to UV-B radiation clearly demonstrated a dose-dependent increase in the migration of Langerhans cells (LC) from the UV-B-exposed area to the draining lymph node. The range of UV-B doses assessed in this study included 2.7 kJ/m2, a suberythemal dose; 8 kJ/m2, 1 minimal erythemal dose (MED); 20.1 kJ/m2; 40.2 kJ/m2; and 80.4 kJ/m2, 10 MED. The LC were the cells most sensitive to UV-B treatment, with exposure to 8 kJ/m2 or greater reproducibly causing a significant increase in migration. Migration of gammadelta+ dendritic cells (gammadelta+ DC) from irradiated skin was also triggered by exposure to UV-B radiation, but dose dependency was not evident within the range of UV-B doses examined. This, in conjunction with the lack of any consistent correlation between either the timing or magnitude of migration peaks of these two cell types, suggests that different mechanisms govern the egress of LC and gammadelta+ DC from the skin. It is concluded that the depression of normal immune function in the skin after exposure to erythemal doses of UV-B radiation is associated with changes in the migration patterns of epidermal dendritic cells to local lymph nodes. PMID:11168622

  5. Increased Number of Langerhans Cells in the Epidermis of Diabetic Foot Ulcers Correlates with Healing Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Stojadinovic, Olivera; Yin, Natalie; Lehmann, Janin; Pastar, Irena; Kirsner, Robert S.; Tomic-Canic, Marjana

    2015-01-01

    Langerhans cells (LCs) are a specialized subset of epidermal dendritic cells. They represent one of the first cells of immunological barrier and play an important role during the inflammatory phase of acute wound healing. Despite considerable progress in our understanding of the immunopathology of diabetes mellitus and its associated co-morbidities such as diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs), considerable gaps in our knowledge exist. In this study, we utilized the human ex vivo wound model and confirmed the increased epidermal LCs at wound edges during early phases of wound healing. Next, we aimed to determine differences in quantity of LCs between normal human and diabetic foot skin and to learn if the presence of LCs correlates with the healing outcome in DFUs. We utilized immunofluorescence to detect CD207+ LCs in specimens from normal and diabetic foot skin and DFU wound edges. Specimens from DFUs were collected at the initial visit and 4 weeks at the time when the healing outcome was determined. DFUs that decreased in size by >50% were considered to be healing, while DFUs with a size reduction of <50% were considered non-healing. Quantitative assessment of LCs showed a higher number of LCs in healing when compared to non–healing DFU’s. Our findings provide evidence that LCs are present in higher number in diabetic feet than normal foot skin. Healing DFUs show a higher number of LCs compared to non-healing DFUs. These findings indicate that the epidermal immune barrier plays an important role in the DFU healing outcome and may offer new therapeutic avenues targeting LC in non-healing DFUs. PMID:24277309

  6. A Retrospective Analysis of Oral Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis in an Iranian Population: a 20-year Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Atarbashi Moghadam, Saede; Lotfi, Ali; Piroozhashemi, Batool; Mokhtari, Sepideh

    2015-01-01

    Statement of the Problem Langerhans cell histiocytosis is a rare disease with unknown pathogenesis and is characterized by local or disseminated proliferation of Langerhans cells. There is no previous investigation on prevalence of oral Langerhans cell histiocytosis in Iranian population. Purpose The purpose of this study was to assess the relative frequency of oral Langerhans cell histiocytosis in an Iranian population and to compare the data with previous reports. Materials and Method Pathology files of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology Department of Dental School of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences from 1992 to 2012 were searched for cases recorded as oral Langerhans cell histiocytosis. A total number of 20 cases were found and the clinical information of patients was recorded. Results The relative frequency of oral Langerhans cell histiocytosis was 0.34% and the most common location was the posterior mandible. In addition, the mean age of patients was 27 years and there was a definite male predominance. Most lesions were localized and tooth mobility was the most common oral presentation. Conclusion In Iranian population as in many other countries, the relative frequency of oral Langerhans cell histiocytosis is low. Moreover, tooth mobility and periodontal lesions are the frequent early signs of disease. Therefore, in patients with periodontal problems, good oral health, and no response to the treatment; Langerhans cell histiocytosis must be considered. Additionally, although most cases of oral Langerhans cell histiocytosis are localized, systemic involvement must also be considered and dental professionals have an important role in early detection of the disease. PMID:26535408

  7. Enhanced antigen-presenting capacity of cultured Langerhans' cells is associated with markedly increased expression of Ia antigen

    SciTech Connect

    Shimada, S.; Caughman, S.W.; Sharrow, S.O.; Stephany, D.; Katz, S.I.

    1987-10-15

    Recent studies indicate that when epidermal Langerhans' cells (LC) are cultured for 2 to 3 days they, in comparison to freshly prepared LC, exhibit markedly enhanced ability to stimulate T cell proliferative responses in oxidative mitogenesis and in the mixed epidermal-leukocyte reaction. In this study, we determined whether cultured LC enhance antigen-specific T cell responses, and whether such enhanced stimulatory capacity correlates with the level of Ia antigen expressed on LC. We used C3H/He (Iak) epidermal cells as stimulators and, as responder cells, both the trinitrophenyl-specific clones D8 and SE4, which were assayed for (/sup 3/H)dThd incorporation, and the pigeon cytochrome c specific hybridoma 2C2, which was assayed for interleukin 2 production. Cultured LC induced 10 to 100 times greater proliferation or interleukin 2 production by responder cells than did freshly prepared LC. The intensity of I-Ak and I-Ek, expressed on cultured LC as assessed by immunofluorescence and flow cytometry, was found to be 10 to 36 times greater on a per cell basis than that on freshly prepared LC. Depletion of LC from fresh epidermal cell suspensions by anti-Iak and complement or treatment with 50 mJ/cm/sup 2/ medium range ultraviolet light or cycloheximide before culture abrogated both the increase in Ia expression and antigen-specific clonal proliferation. The results suggest that when LC are removed from their usual epidermal milieu, they express increased amounts of Ia and become more potent stimulators of T cell responses.

  8. [Langerhans cell histiocytosis presenting as isolated adenitis in an infant: case report].

    PubMed

    Soriano-Ramos, María; Salcedo Lobato, Enrique; Baro Fernández, María; Blázquez-Gamero, Daniel

    2016-08-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis in infants is a rare condition, and presentation as an isolated cervical adenitis is exceptional at this age. We describe the case of a 3-month-old female infant presenting with a neck mass in the right mandibular angle with poor response to antibiotic treatment. Fine needle aspiration was performed and confirmed the diagnosis of Langerhans cell histiocytosis with complementary tests showing no features of systemic involvement. Langerhans cell histiocytosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of subacute neck masses with poor outcome in infants and physicians should consider performing a fine needle aspiration to establish the diagnosis. PMID:27399030

  9. [Langerhans cell histiocytosis presenting as isolated adenitis in an infant: case report].

    PubMed

    Soriano-Ramos, María; Salcedo Lobato, Enrique; Baro Fernández, María; Blázquez-Gamero, Daniel

    2016-08-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis in infants is a rare condition, and presentation as an isolated cervical adenitis is exceptional at this age. We describe the case of a 3-month-old female infant presenting with a neck mass in the right mandibular angle with poor response to antibiotic treatment. Fine needle aspiration was performed and confirmed the diagnosis of Langerhans cell histiocytosis with complementary tests showing no features of systemic involvement. Langerhans cell histiocytosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of subacute neck masses with poor outcome in infants and physicians should consider performing a fine needle aspiration to establish the diagnosis.

  10. Langerhans cell histiocytosis with nail changes and multisystem disease: a case report.

    PubMed

    De Jesus Semblano Bittencourt, Maraya; Moraes Dias, Carolina; Lima Lage, Thaiane; Magno Parijós, Amanda; Brito Mesquita, Letícia; Haber Carvalho, Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    Nail involvement in Langerhans cell histiocytosis is uncommon and is said to indicate a poor prognosis. We describe a 2-year-old boy with onycholysis, subungual hyperkeratosis, and hemorrhages on his fingernails. He also had hepatosplenomegaly and pulmonary involvement. The diagnosis of Langerhans cell histiocytosis was made by histopathologic examination of skin and liver.The role of nail involvement as an unfavorable prognostic sign is still unclear and this paper concludes that nail involvement in Langerhans cell histiocytosis is a possible sign of multisystemic involvement. PMID:27617727

  11. Glucocorticosteroids modify Langerhans cells to produce TGF-β and expand regulatory T cells.

    PubMed

    Stary, Georg; Klein, Irene; Bauer, Wolfgang; Koszik, Frieder; Reininger, Bärbel; Kohlhofer, Sabine; Gruber, Kristina; Skvara, Hans; Jung, Thomas; Stingl, Georg

    2011-01-01

    Although glucocorticosteroids (GCSs) have been used for many decades in transplantation and (auto)inflammatory diseases, the exact mechanisms responsible for their immunosuppressive properties are not fully understood. The purpose of this study was to characterize the effects of oral GCSs on the cutaneous immune response. We analyzed, by immunofluorescence staining and quantitative RT-PCR, residual skin biopsy material from a clinical study in which we had used oral GCS as positive control for determining the effects of candidate anti-inflammatory compounds on epicutaneous patch tests of Ni-allergic patients. Expectedly, oral GCS treatment led to a reduction of clinical symptoms and infiltrating leukocytes. Notably, we observed increased numbers of dermal FOXP3(+)CD25(+) T cells and epidermal Langerhans cells (LCs) that were associated with upregulated mRNA expression of TGF-β in lesions of GCS-treated Ni-allergic patients. To investigate this phenomenon further, we exposed purified LCs to GCS. They exhibited, in contrast to GCS-nonexposed LCs, 1) a more immature phenotype, 2) higher intracellular amounts of TGF-β, and 3) increased receptor activator for NF-κB expression, conditions that reportedly favor the expansion of regulatory T cells (Tregs). Indeed, we observed an enhancement of functionally suppressive FOXP3(+) T cells when CD3(+) cells were incubated with GCS-pretreated LCs. The expansion of Tregs was inhibited by TGF-β blockage alone, and their suppressive activity was neutralized by a combination of anti-TGF-β and anti-IL-10 Abs. Our data show that systemically applied GCSs endow LCs with Treg-promoting properties and thus shed new light on the mechanisms of GCS-mediated immunosuppression.

  12. In vivo study of targeted nanomedicine delivery into Langerhans cells by multiphoton laser scanning microscopy.

    PubMed

    Kolonics, Attila; Csiszovszki, Zsolt; Tőke, Enikő R; Lőrincz, Orsolya; Haluszka, Dóra; Szipőcs, Róbert

    2014-08-01

    Epidermal Langerhans cells (LCs) function as professional antigen-presenting cells of the skin. We investigated the LC-targeting properties of a special mannose-moiety-coated pathogen-like synthetic nanomedicine DermaVir (DV), which is capable to express antigens to induce immune responses and kill HIV-infected cells. Our aim was to use multiphoton laser microscopy (MLM) in vivo in order to visualize the uptake of Alexa-labelled DV (AF546-DV) by LCs. Knock-in mice expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) under the control of the langerin gene (CD207) were used to visualize LCs. After 1 h, AF546-DV penetrated the epidermis and entered the eGFP-LCs. The AF546-DV signal was equally distributed inside the LCs. After 9 h, we observed AF546-DV signal accumulation that occurred mainly at the cell body. We demonstrated in live animals that LCs picked up and accumulated the nanoparticles in the cell body. PMID:24903756

  13. No impairment of monocyte-derived Langerhans cell phenotype or function in early-onset psoriasis

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, F L; Kimber, I; Begum, R; Cumberbatch, M; Dearman, R J; Griffiths, C E M

    2012-01-01

    Background Migration of epidermal Langerhans cells (LCs) in response to the cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α is impaired in uninvolved skin of patients with early-onset psoriasis. Aim To investigate whether this impairment is a reflection of a systemic defect in dendritic cells (DCs), using an established model of monocyte-derived LC-like cells (mLCs). Methods CD14+ monocytes isolated from both patients with psoriasis and healthy control volunteers were cultured in a cytokine cocktail for 5 days to promote their differentiation into mLCs, then stimulated for 24 h with TNF-α, IL-1β (both 100 ng/mL) or medium alone. Cellular surface protein expression was quantified by flow cytometry, and the ability of cells to migrate to media supplemented with C-C motif ligand (CCL)19 was assessed using a Transwell migration assay. The cytokine and chemokine content of supernatants was analysed by cytokine array. Results CD14+ cells acquired an LC-like phenotype with high expression of CD1a and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II. There were no differences in the expression of activation markers or in the secretion of cytokines by mLCs isolated from patients with psoriasis and those isolated from healthy controls. Moreover, mLCs isolated from both groups displayed comparable ability to migrate in vitro. Conclusions These data suggest that the failure of LCs to migrate in response to stimulation in patients with psoriasis is not attributable to a systemic defect in DC function, but is rather a reflection of local changes in the epidermal microenvironment. PMID:21933242

  14. Otic Langerhans' Cell Histiocytosis in an Adult: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Gungadeen, Anil; Kullar, Peter; Yates, Philip

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To present a case of otic Langerhans' cell histiocytosis in an adult. Also included the diagnosis and management of the condition and a review of the relevant literature. Case Report. We report a case of a 41-year-old man with a history of persistent unilateral ear discharge associated with an aural polyp. Radiological imaging showed bony lesions of the skull and a soft-tissue mass within the middle ear. Histological analysis of the polyp demonstrated Langerhans' cell histiocytosis. His otological symptoms were completely resolved with the systemic therapy. Conclusions. Otic Langerhans' cell histiocytosis can present in adults. Persistent ear symptoms along with evidence of soft-tissue masses within the ear and bony lesions of the skull or elsewhere should prompt the otolaryngologists to include Langerhans' cell histiocytosis in their differential diagnosis. Management should be with systemic therapy rather than local surgical treatment. PMID:23762704

  15. Multisystem Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis in Adults Revealed by Skin Lesions.

    PubMed

    Atarguine, Hanane; Hocar, Ouafa; Oussmane, Samia; Mouafik, Sara Batoul; Hamdaoui, Abderrachid; Hafiane, Hanan; Belbaraka, Rhizlane; Akhdari, Nadia; Amal, Said

    2016-01-01

    A 37-year-old woman with no remarkable medical or family history presented with papules and vesicles on an erythematous background involving the neck, sacrum, and folds (postauricular, axillary, inguinal, and under the breasts) (Figure 1). During the previous year, she was treated with local and systemic antifungals without improvement. Her history included a secondary amenorrhea, polydipsia, and polyuria (6 L/d) that started 2 years prior. Physical examination revealed chronic bilateral purulent otorrhea with thick eardrums. Histologic examination of skin biopsy revealed a highly suggestive appearance of multisystem Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) with immunohistochemistry (anti-PS100 and anti-CD1a), which were positive (Figure 2A and 2B). Pituitary magnetic resonance imaging showed a thickening of the pituitary stalk in relation to a location histiocytic (Figure 3). Bone gaps were objectified on two radiographic tibial diaphyseal. Results from computed tomography (CT) scan showed a magma coelio mesenteric, axillary, and inguinal lymph nodes. PMID:27319965

  16. Severe Langerhans cell histiocytosis in an infant: haemophagocytic syndrome association

    PubMed Central

    Póvoas, Marta Isabel; Luís, Pedro Pereira; Esteves, Isabel; Ferrão, Anabela

    2014-01-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare disease of unknown origin with a heterogeneous clinical presentation, varying from benign and self-limited to lethal. It is classified as single or multisystemic, according to the number of organs involved (one or at least two, respectively). Diagnosis can be challenging and is based on the histological and immunophenotypic examination of affected tissues. Secondary haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis is rarely reported in association with LCH and may impair its diagnosis. Some authors suggest that the coexistence of the two disorders is more than coincidental. We present a case of multisystem LCH in a 5-month-old infant, with all risk organs involved, in which severity and rapid progression reflect an association with haemophagocytic syndrome. PMID:25336558

  17. Langerhans' cell histiocytosis of the temporal fossa: A case report

    PubMed Central

    LIANG, CHEN; LIANG, QIANLEI; DU, CHANGWANG; ZHANG, XIAODONG; GUO, SHIWEN

    2016-01-01

    Langerhans' cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare disease with a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations, varying from an isolated lesion to systemic involvement. The etiology of this disease remains to be elucidated. The present study reports a case of LCH with temporal fossa localization in an 8-year-old male patient, who had exhibited left temporal pain and headache for 1 month. Physical examination revealed slight exophthalmos and conjunctival hemorrhage in the patient's left eye, and non-contrast computed tomography imaging of the head revealed a soft tissue mass with unclear margins located in the left temporal fossa, as well as a wide bony defect. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a heterogeneously contrast-enhanced mass near the left temporal pole, which eroded into the patient's left orbit and maxillary sinus. The lesion was totally excised and confirmed to be LCH through biopsy. PMID:27073529

  18. Solitary Extragnathic Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis – A Rare Case

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Eppalapally Sharath Kumar; Bhavani, Sangala Naga; A, Krishna; Sekhar, Mane Srinivas Muni

    2015-01-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH), mainly affects the skull, vertebrae, ribs and mandible in children and the long bones of adults. Symptoms range from none to pain, swelling and tenderness over the site of the lesion. This disease presents oral manifestations which can sometimes be the first expression of the condition. It occurs in three forms namely eosinophilic granuloma in which isolated or multiple bones are involved, But has a good prognosis whereas other variants Hand-Shuller-Christian disease (chronic dessiminated variant) and Letterer-Siwe disease (acute dessiminated form) have poor prognosis. Occasionally only soft tissues are affected without bony involvement. Males are more commonly affected than females. This article describes a rare variant of eosinophilic granuloma of labial mucosa without bony involvement. PMID:25954715

  19. Redefining Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis as a Myeloid Dysplasia and Identifying B | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Redefining Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis as a Myeloid Dysplasia and Identifying Biomarkers for Early Detection and Risk Assessment. This application addresses Program Announcement PA-09-197: Biomarkers for Early Detection of Hematopoietic Malignancies (R01). The overall aim of this project is to identify novel biomarkers that may be used to diagnose and treat patients with Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis (LCH). LCH occurs with similar frequency as other rare malignancies including Hodgkin's lymphoma and AML. |

  20. Langerhans cell histiocytosis in monozygotic twins with central diabetes insipidus and hypophyseal masses

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Sung-Tai; Chen, Der-Cherng; Cho, Der-Yang; Lin, Hung-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a systemic disease mainly affecting children and young adults. It can manifest as single system disorder or multi-system involvement. When the central nervous system is involved, the hypothalamic–pituitary axis is the most common location affected. Herein we report a rare case of Langerhans cell histiocytosis in monozygotic twins both with central diabetes and hypophyseal masses. This is the first report about LCH in monozygotic twins with hypophyseal lesions. PMID:25972939

  1. An unusual case of adult disseminated cutaneous Langerhans cell histiocytosis.

    PubMed

    Moravvej, Hamideh; Yousefi, Maryam; Barikbin, Behrooz

    2006-01-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) represents a group of rare histiocytic syndromes characterized by tissue infiltration with dendritic cells. The management of LCH is difficult because these disorders respond inconsistently to immunosuppressive and chemotherapeutic strategies. We describe a refractory and relapsing case of skin and nail limited LCH in a 27-year-old man. He presented with a 7-year history of an erythematous papular eruption of the scalp, ears, face, trunk, axillae, groins, fingernails, feet, and toenails. Diagnosis of LCH was made based on skin histopathology and immunohistochemical staining. Histological studies of biopsy specimens revealed a dense infiltrate of histiocytic mononuclear cells beneath the epidermis; these cells reacted strongly with anti-S-100 antibodies. In addition, CD1a was positive in most of the infiltrating cells. Extensive investigations failed to detect systemic involvement. The patient's cutaneous eruption did not respond to various therapeutic interventions, including phototherapy with oral psoralen with long-wave UV radiation in the A range (PUVA) and cyclosporine. Marked but temporary clinical improvement was achieved with thalidomide, etoposide with systemic steroid, and total body electron beam radiotherapy. Now the patient is on maintenance therapy with thalidomide and is under acceptable control. PMID:17083893

  2. A rare occurrence of Langerhans cell histiocytosis in an adult

    PubMed Central

    Shevale, Vruturaj V; Ekta, K; Snehal, T; Geetanjal, M

    2014-01-01

    Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis (LCH) is a disease process characterized by accumulation and infiltration of cells, showing ultrastructural and immunohistochemical similarities to Langerhans’ cell, in the affected tissues. It exhibits extreme clinical heterogeneity. LCH was historically divided into 3 clinical entities based on extent of tissue involvement and severity of presentation. These 3 entities were eosinophilic granuloma, Hand-Schuler-Christian disease, Letterer-Siwe disease. Owing to similarities of their histologic appearance, they were grouped together under the term histiocytosis X. It was recently changed to LCH, emphasizing the primary cell involved in the disease process. LCH is a rare disease with an incidenceestimated to be 4.0 to 5.4 per million population. Males are affected twice as frequently as females. The disease may occur at any age with peak incidence in children aged 1 to 3 years. We describe an unusual case of a 65-year-old man who presented with painless swelling in anterior region of mandible. PMID:25948998

  3. Betamethasone, but Not Tacrolimus, Suppresses the Development of Th2 Cells Mediated by Langerhans Cell-Like Dendritic Cells.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Katsuhiko; Tamai, Saki; Ikeda, Reiko

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that Langerhans cells (LCs) work as the primary orchestrators in the polarization of the immune milieu towards a T helper type 1 (Th1) or T helper type 2 (Th2) response. In this study, we investigated the effects of tacrolimus and betamethasone, each used as topical applications in atopic dermatitis (AD), on Th2 cell development mediated by LCs. LC-like dendritic cells (LDCs) were generated from mouse bone marrow cells and used as substitutes for LCs. Mice were primed with ovalbumin (OVA) peptide-pulsed LDCs, which had been treated with tacrolimus or betamethasone, via the hind footpad. After 5 d, the cytokine response in the popliteal lymph nodes was investigated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The expression of cell surface molecules on LDCs was investigated via reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Administration of OVA peptide-pulsed LDCs, which had been treated with betamethasone, inhibited Th2 cell development, as represented by the down-regulation of interleukin-4 production, and also inhibited Th1 cell development, represented by the down-regulation of interferon-γ production. However, tacrolimus-treated LDCs did not induce such inhibition of the development of Th1 and Th2 cells. The inhibition of Th1 and Th2 cell development was associated with the suppression of CD40 and T-cell immunoglobulin, and mucin domain-containing protein (TIM)-4 expression, respectively, in LDCs. These results suggest that the topical application of betamethasone to skin lesions of patients with AD acts on epidermal LCs, and may inhibit the development of Th2 cells, thus being of benefit for the control of AD. PMID:27374298

  4. Polyclonal T-Cells Express CD1a in Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis (LCH) Lesions

    PubMed Central

    West, Jennifer A.; Olsen, Sharon L.; Mitchell, Jenée M.; Priddle, Ross E.; Luke, Jennifer M.; Åkefeldt, Selma Olsson; Henter, Jan-Inge; Turville, Christopher; Kannourakis, George

    2014-01-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a complex and poorly understood disorder that has characteristics of both inflammatory and neoplastic disease. By using eight-colour flow cytometry, we have identified a previously unreported population of CD1a+/CD3+ T-cells in LCH lesions. The expression of CD1a is regarded as a hallmark of this disease; however, it has always been presumed that it was only expressed by pathogenic Langerhans cells (LCs). We have now detected CD1a expression by a range of T-cell subsets within all of the LCH lesions that were examined, establishing that CD1a expression in these lesions is no longer restricted to pathogenic LCs. The presence of CD1a+ T-cells in all of the LCH lesions that we have studied to date warrants further investigation into their biological function to determine whether these cells are important in the pathogenesis of LCH. PMID:25343480

  5. Cell motion predicts human epidermal stemness

    PubMed Central

    Toki, Fujio; Tate, Sota; Imai, Matome; Matsushita, Natsuki; Shiraishi, Ken; Sayama, Koji; Toki, Hiroshi; Higashiyama, Shigeki

    2015-01-01

    Image-based identification of cultured stem cells and noninvasive evaluation of their proliferative capacity advance cell therapy and stem cell research. Here we demonstrate that human keratinocyte stem cells can be identified in situ by analyzing cell motion during their cultivation. Modeling experiments suggested that the clonal type of cultured human clonogenic keratinocytes can be efficiently determined by analysis of early cell movement. Image analysis experiments demonstrated that keratinocyte stem cells indeed display a unique rotational movement that can be identified as early as the two-cell stage colony. We also demonstrate that α6 integrin is required for both rotational and collective cell motion. Our experiments provide, for the first time, strong evidence that cell motion and epidermal stemness are linked. We conclude that early identification of human keratinocyte stem cells by image analysis of cell movement is a valid parameter for quality control of cultured keratinocytes for transplantation. PMID:25897083

  6. [Role of Langerhans cells in the physiopathology of atopic dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Bieber, T

    1995-12-01

    The demonstration of IgE receptors on the surface of epidermal dendritic cells and on other antigen presenting cells is a crucial element in the understanding of the pathophysiological role of these cells in the genesis of atopic disease, and especially the atopic dermatitis (AD). The sensibilisation phase to an aeroallergen at the level of nasal or bronchial mucosa and even at the skin may be mediated by dendritic cells expressing Fc epsilon RI. Distinct forms of AD may then represent the equivalent of the ellicitation phase of the classical allergic contact dermatitis. Fc epsilon RI would lead, via specific IgE, to an efficient antigen capture, to the activation of the dendritic cells and finally to an antigen presentation. Thus, AD may represent the paradigma of an IgE-mediated type IV reaction. PMID:8786892

  7. [Role of Langerhans cells in the physiopathology of atopic dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Bieber, T

    1995-12-01

    The demonstration of IgE receptors on the surface of epidermal dendritic cells and on other antigen presenting cells is a crucial element in the understanding of the pathophysiological role of these cells in the genesis of atopic disease, and especially the atopic dermatitis (AD). The sensibilisation phase to an aeroallergen at the level of nasal or bronchial mucosa and even at the skin may be mediated by dendritic cells expressing Fc epsilon RI. Distinct forms of AD may then represent the equivalent of the ellicitation phase of the classical allergic contact dermatitis. Fc epsilon RI would lead, via specific IgE, to an efficient antigen capture, to the activation of the dendritic cells and finally to an antigen presentation. Thus, AD may represent the paradigma of an IgE-mediated type IV reaction.

  8. Langerhans cells in human chronic gingivitis and phenytoin-induced gingival hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Kinane, D F; Drummond, J R; Chisholm, D M

    1990-01-01

    Langerhans cell numbers in oral epithelium increase as dental plaque accumulates. The anti-convulsant drug phenytoin predisposes to gingival hyperplasia in certain patients who take this medication for epilepsy and who also have poor oral hygiene. In this study 7 patients with phenytoin-induced gingival hyperplasia were compared with 5 subjects with chronic marginal gingivitis. On initial examination and on completion of the hygiene phase of periodontal therapy (a period ranging from 3.0 to 4.25 months), clinical indices of plaque and gingivitis were recorded and biopsies were taken from the lower anterior labial gingiva. Frozen sections were stained by an immunoperoxidase technique using the monoclonal antibody OKT6, and the number of Langerhans cells in a defined cross-sectional area was counted. In phenytoin-induced gingival hyperplasia there was a marked increase in Langerhans cells (13.8 +/- 0.45) when compared with chronic gingivitis (7.7 +/- 0.31; p less than 0.05). Both groups showed marked reductions in their plaque and gingival indices and numbers of Langerhans cells once treatment had been completed. However, levels of Langerhans cells in the drug-induced hyperplasia remained significantly higher (3.5 +/- 0.26) than in chronic gingivitis (1.5 +/- 0.22; p less than 0.05).

  9. Bisphosphonates in Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis: An International Retrospective Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Chellapandian, Deepak; Makras, Polyzois; Kaltsas, Gregory; van den Bos, Cor; Naccache, Lamia; Rampal, Raajit; Carret, Anne-Sophie; Weitzman, Sheila; Egeler, R. Maarten; Abla, Oussama

    2016-01-01

    Background Bone is the most common organ of involvement in patients with Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH), which is often painful and associated with significant morbidity from pathological fractures. Current first-line treatments include chemotherapy and steroids that are effective but often associated with adverse effects, whereas the disease may reactivate despite an initial response to first-line agents. Bisphosphonates are osteoclast inhibitors that have shown to be helpful in treating bone lesions of LCH. To date, there are no large international studies to describe their role in treating bone lesions of LCH. Method We conducted a multicenter retrospective review of 13 patients with histologically proven LCH, who had received bisphosphonates either at diagnosis or at disease reactivation. Results Ten patients (77%) had a single system bone disease, and 3 (23%) had bone lesions as part of multisystem disease. Median follow-up time post-bisphosphonate therapy was 4.6 years (range, 0.8 to 8.2 years). Treatment with bisphosphonates was associated with significant pain relief in almost all patients. Twelve (92%) achieved resolution of active bone lesions, and 10 out of them had no active disease for a median of 3.5 years (range, 0.8 to 5 years). One patient did not respond. No major adverse effects were reported in this series. Conclusion Bisphosphonates are well-tolerated drugs that can significantly improve bone pain and induce remission in active bone LCH. Future prospective studies evaluating the role of bisphosphonates in LCH are warranted. PMID:27413525

  10. Langerhans cell histiocytosis case with dense metaphyseal band sign.

    PubMed

    Kikkawa, Ichiro; Aihara, Toshinori; Morimoto, Akira; Watanabe, Hideaki; Furukawa, Rieko

    2013-02-01

    Eosinophilic granuloma, a type of Langerhans cell histiocytosis, exhibits a classic vertebral collapse, which is called vertebra plana (Calve's disease) and it manifests as a solitary bony lesion. Vertebra plana can cause severe pain in patients. Bisphosphonates (clodronate, pamidronate and zoledronic acid) have been recently used to treat osteolytic bone lesions of LCH. Zoledronic acid has 100 times relative potency that of pamidronate. We report a case of a 10-year-old girl who had zoledronic acid treatment for severe back pain due to vertebra plana. X-ray photographs of the patient's body showed dense metaphyseal band sign, which can be found in lead poisoning, treated leukemia, healing rickets, recovery from scurvy, vitamin D hypervitaminosis, congenital hypothyroidism and hypoparathyroidism. Increased biological potent zoledronic acid deprived her of severe back pain due to vertebra plana and might cause dense metaphyseal band sign of her skeleton. Conclusion; We have cured the severe back pain of a 10-year-old girl case of eosinophilic granuloma with zoledronic acid. After that treatment, X-ray photographs of the patient's body showed dense metaphyseal band sign. There have been few such cases reported until now. PMID:23409985

  11. Differentiating skin-limited and multisystem Langerhans cell histiocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Simko, Stephen J.; Garmezy, Benjamin; Abhyankar, Harshal; Lupo, Philip J.; Chakraborty, Rikhia; Lim, Karen Phaik Har; Shih, Albert; Hicks, M. John; Wright, Teresa S.; Levy, Moise L.; McClain, Kenneth L.; Allen, Carl E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To identify features associated with multisystem involvement and therapeutic failure in patients with skin Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH). Study design We reviewed medical records of 71 consecutive LCH patients with skin involvement evaluated at Texas Children’s Hospital and analyzed clinical features, laboratory results, and presence of circulating cells with the BRAF-V600E mutation, with respect to initial staging and clinical outcomes. Results Skin disease in patients older than 18 months at diagnosis was associated with presence of multisystem disease (OR 9.65, 95% CI 1.17–79.4). Forty percent of patients referred for presumed skin-limited LCH had underlying multisystem involvement, half of these with risk-organ involvement. Patients with skin-limited LCH had 3-year progression-free survival (PFS) of 89% after initial therapy, and none developed multisystem disease. Patients with skin/multisystem involvement had 3 year PFS of 44% with vinblastine/prednisone therapy, and risk-organ involvement did not correlate with failure to achieve non-active disease. Circulating cells with BRAF-V600E were detected at higher frequency in multisystem patients (8/11 skin/multisystem, 1/13 skin-limited, P=0.002). Conclusions Skin-limited LCH requires infrequent therapeutic intervention and has lower risk of progression relative to skin plus multisystem LCH. The less aggressive clinical course and lack of circulating cells with BRAF-V600E mutation in skin-limited LCH suggest a different mechanism of disease origin compared with multisystem or risk-organ disease. PMID:25441388

  12. [Neuroimaging of Langerhans cell histiocytosis in the central nervous system of children].

    PubMed

    De La Hoz Polo, M; Rebollo Polo, M; Fons Estupiña, C; Muchart López, J; Cruz Martinez, O

    2015-01-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare disease characterized by the accumulation within tissues of anomalous dendritic cells similar to Langerhans cells. The clinical presentation varies, ranging from the appearance of a single bone lesion to multisystemic involvement. Central nervous system (CNS) involvement, manifesting as diabetes insipidus secondary to pituitary involvement, has been known since the original description of the disease. Two types of CNS lesions are currently differentiated. The first, pseudotumoral lesions with infiltration by Langerhans cells, most commonly manifests as pituitary infiltration. The second, described more recently, consists of neurodegenerative lesions of the CNS associated with neurologic deterioration. This second type of lesion constitutes a complication of the disease; however, there is no consensus about the cause of this complication. Our objective was to describe the radiologic manifestations of LCH in the CNS in pediatric patients.

  13. Diagnosis of pulmonary histiocytosis X by immunodetection of Langerhans cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid.

    PubMed Central

    Chollet, S.; Soler, P.; Dournovo, P.; Richard, M. S.; Ferrans, V. J.; Basset, F.

    1984-01-01

    Based on the finding that Langerhans cells and histiocytosis X cells react with the monoclonal antibody OKT6, raised against a subset of thymocytes, we used this antibody to study the cells collected by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) from 131 patients, including 18 with pulmonary histiocytosis X, 43 with pulmonary sarcoidosis, 67 with miscellaneous pulmonary disorders, and 3 controls. Immunofluorescence studies demonstrated the presence of OKT6-reactive cells in all patients with pulmonary histiocytosis X (mean +/- SEM, 5.29% +/- 1.14% of all cells in BAL fluid). Immunoelectron microscopic studies revealed that the cells labeled in these patients (n = 13) contained Langerhans granules. The number of fluorescent cells in the other 113 patients was significantly smaller (mean +/- SEM, 0.20% +/- 0.04% of all cells; P less than 0.001). In the 3 control patients, in the 43 patients with sarcoidosis, and in 61 of the 67 patients with miscellaneous disorders unrelated to histiocytosis X, no cells or less than 1% of the total were labeled; however, in the 6 remaining patients in this miscellaneous group, 1.3 to 2.8% of all cells in BAL were labeled. In 3 of these 6 patients, immunoelectronmicroscopic examination showed that the cells labeled by OKT6 had the general characteristics of Langerhans cells but lacked Langerhans granules. OKT3, OKT4, and OKT8 monoclonal antibodies did not stain histiocytosis X cells in BAL fluid. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:6372496

  14. ICSBP is critically involved in the normal development and trafficking of Langerhans cells and dermal dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Schiavoni, Giovanna; Mattei, Fabrizio; Borghi, Paola; Sestili, Paola; Venditti, Massimo; Morse, Herbert C; Belardelli, Filippo; Gabriele, Lucia

    2004-03-15

    Interferon consensus sequence-binding protein (ICSBP) is a transcription factor belonging to the interferon regulatory factor (IRF) family, recently shown to play a critical role in dendritic cell (DC) differentiation. Here, we analyzed the role of ICSBP in the development and trafficking of epidermal Langerhans cells (LCs) and dermal DCs and the implications for initiation of a competent immune response. ICSBP-/- mice exhibited a reduced frequency of LCs and a delayed mobility of DCs from skin that reflected a slower turnover rate in lymph nodes during steady-state conditions. Even under inflammatory changes, ICSBP-/- DCs displayed reduced mobility from skin to lymph nodes and, as a consequence, failed to induce a contact hypersensitivity (CHS) response, suggesting that these DCs were unable to initiate a competent antigen (Ag)-specific T-cell-mediated immunity. Moreover, bone marrow (BM)-derived DCs from ICSBP-/- mice exhibited an immature phenotype and a severe reduction of interleukin 12 (IL-12) expression. These BM DCs also showed a marked defect in their migratory response to macrophage inflammatory protein 3 alpha (MIP-3 alpha), MIP-3 beta, and the CC chemokine CCL21/6Ckine, which was paralleled by an impaired expression of the CC chemokine receptors, CCR6 and CCR7. Together, these results indicate that ICSBP is critically required for the development and trafficking of skin DCs, thus playing a critical role in the DC-mediated initiation of T-cell immunity. PMID:14615368

  15. Atypical radiological manifestations of pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis in a 12-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Ko, S-M; Choe, B-K; Kim, H-S; Lee, H-J; Kwon, K-Y

    2008-10-01

    Pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis is a rare pulmonary disease that typically affects cigarette smokers from 30-40 years of age onwards. It is very rare in children, especially for those under 15 years of age. We report an atypical radiological manifestation of isolated pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis in a 12-year-old girl that showed multifocal consolidation and multiple small nodules on an initial chest radiograph, and gradual fibrotic change with multiple cysts on follow-up chest radiographs and CT scans.

  16. [The Langerhans cell histiocytosis with thymic localization as initial and exclusive place].

    PubMed

    Hernández Pérez, J M; Franquet Casas, T; Rodríguez, S; Giménez, A

    2007-10-01

    The Langerhans' cell histiocytosis (LCH), also known as Histiocitosis X it is an illness not very frequent granulomatosus etiology not clarified yet, that it can have different manifestations and localizations, however the thymic localization as initial and exclusive place gives presentation HCL it is quite unusual. The present case is presented a patient that debuted with a clinical unspecific, where the tests give image they put she gives apparent a mass in previous mediastinum and that after the pathologic and immunohistochemical analysis they evidenced a proliferation Langerhans s cells and eosinophils it being positive for CD1a and S-100 confirming the diagnosis of the LCH.

  17. Visual loss with Langerhans cell histiocytosis: multifocal central nervous system involvement.

    PubMed

    Job, O M; Schatz, N J; Glaser, J S

    1999-03-01

    A 42-year-old woman with a 6-year history of diabetes insipidus and progressive hypersomnolence presented with visual loss. Neuroimaging showed infiltration in the hypothalamus, the optic nerve, and the chiasm, as well as multiple lesions in other areas of the brain parenchyma. Biopsy showed Langerhans cell histiocytosis. This is an unusual presentation of Langerhans cell histiocytosis, involving the visual pathways without manifestations outside of the central nervous system. The differential diagnosis and the magnetic resonance imaging findings will be discussed. PMID:10098549

  18. A case of thymic Langerhans cell histiocytosis with diabetes insipidus as the first presentation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaoyan; Huang, Xiaochun; Qiu, Yuan; Chen, Hanzhang; Fu, Yingyu; Li, Xinchun

    2013-03-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is an idiopathic group of reactive proliferative diseases linked to aberrant immunity, pathologically characterized by clonal proliferation of Langerhans cells. LCH rarely involves the thymus. We report a case of thymic LCH with diabetes insipidus as the first presentation, without evidence of myasthenia gravis and without evidenced involvement of the skin, liver, spleen, bones, lungs and superficial lymph nodes. This present case may have important clinical implications. In screening for LCH lesions, attention should be attached to rarely involved sites in addition to commonly involved organs. Follow-up and imageological examination are very important to a final diagnosis.

  19. The cognitive spectrum in neurodegenerative Langerhans cell histiocytosis.

    PubMed

    Le Guennec, Loïc; Decaix, Caroline; Donadieu, Jean; Santiago-Ribeiro, Maria; Martin-Duverneuil, Nadine; Levy, Richard; Delgadillo, Daniel; Kas, Aurélie; Drier, Aurélie; Magy, Laurent; Bayen, Eleonore; Hoang-Xuan, Khe; Idbaih, Ahmed

    2014-08-01

    Clinical spectrum of cognitive troubles complicating neurodegenerative Langerhans cell histiocytosis (ND-LCH) is poorly known. The aim of this study is to evaluate cognitive functions in ND-LCH. The cognitive functions of a series of eight adult patients (7 males and 1 female; mean age 26 years IQ 25-75; range 20-33) suffering from clinical and/or radiological ND-LCH were evaluated using the following tests: (1) forward/backward digit and spatial span tasks of the WAIS-R scale and the Corsi block task, (2) the French version of the free and cued selective reminding test, (3) verbal fluency tests, (4) the Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB), (5) backward measurement of the verbal and visuospatial memories of the WAIS-R scale, (6) the Rey complex figure test, (7) the trail making tests A and B, (8) digit symbol and symbol search of the WAIS-IV scale, and (9) the Stroop test. Episodic (i.e. autobiographical or personal) memory free recall, categorical verbal fluency, phonological verbal fluency, visuospatial processing skills, attention, speed of processing, and sensitivity to interference were impaired in ND-LCH patients. In contrast, verbal and visuospatial short-term memories (i.e. immediate memories or forward span tasks) were preserved in all patients. Adult ND-LCH patients suffer from a severe but dissociated dysexecutive syndrome, mostly affecting executive strategies and relatively sparing short-term memory. Our study supports the need of assessing executive functions using comprehensive cognitive evaluation in ND-LCH patients for early diagnosis. PMID:24848633

  20. Langerhans cell histiocytosis of the female genital tract.

    PubMed

    Axiotis, C A; Merino, M J; Duray, P H

    1991-03-15

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) of the female genital tract is rare. Four new cases are reported, and there is a review of the 38 cases in the literature. This disease may involve the vulva, vagina, cervix, endometrium, and ovary. Four distinct patient groups, segregated on the basis of initial presentation and subsequent anatomic extent of disease, were categorized as follows: (1) "pure" genital LCH, (2) genital LCH with subsequent multi-organ involvement, (3) oral or cutaneous LCH with subsequent genital and multi-organ involvement, and (4) diabetes insipidus with subsequent genital and multi-organ disease. Although involvement of the genital tract can occur at any age, it is most common in young adulthood. Clinically, LCH may mimic either primary neoplasia or various inflammatory lesions; the major pathologic differential diagnosis is venereal and other inflammatory diseases. The pure genital form may have a distinct nosologic position in the spectrum of LCH similar to the "pure," self-limited cutaneous histiocytosis seen in infants. There is no correlation between histologic findings and the outcome of the genital lesions. There is also no correlation between clinical presentation and/or the extent of involvement and outcome of genital lesions; complete regression, partial improvement, persistent lesions, and recurrences were seen in all four groups of patients. The treatment of genital LCH is not well defined and is highly individualized. Therapy has included surgery, radiation, topical corticosteroids, topical nitrogen mustard, systemic chemotherapy, and combination therapy; mixed results were obtained with all treatment modalities. Although no modality has been shown to yield a superior outcome, complete surgical excision is advocated as initial therapy.

  1. Early Diagnosis and Monitoring of Neurodegenerative Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Mortilla, Marzia; Savelli, Sara; Grisotto, Laura; Di Giacomo, Gianpiero; Romano, Katiuscia; Fonda, Claudio; Biggeri, Annibale; Guerrini, Renzo; Aricò, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    Background Neurodegenerative Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis (ND-LCH) is a rare, unpredictable consequence that may devastate the quality of life of patients cured from LCH. We prospectively applied a multidisciplinary diagnostic work-up to early identify and follow-up patients with ND-LCH, with the ultimate goal of better determining the appropriate time for starting therapy. Methods We studied 27 children and young adults with either ND-LCH verified by structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (group 1) or specific risk factors for (diabetes insipidus, craniofacial bone lesions), but no evidence of, neurodegenerative MRI changes (group 2). All patients underwent clinical, neurophysiological and MRI studies. Results Seventeen patients had MRI alterations typical for ND-LCH. Nine showed neurological impairment but only three were symptomatic; 11 had abnormal somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs), and five had abnormal brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEPs). MR spectroscopy (MRS) showed reduced cerebellar NAA/Cr ratio in nine patients. SEPs showed sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) for predicting ND-LCH of 70.6% (95%CI, 44.0%-89.7%), 100% (69.2%-100%), 100% (73.5%-100%), and 66.7% (38.4%-88.2%), respectively. Repeated investigations in group 1 revealed increasingly abnormal EP parameters, or neurological examination, or both, in nine of fifteen patients while MRI remained unchanged in all but one patient. Conclusion A targeted MRI study should be performed in all patients with risk factors for ND-LCH for early identification of demyelination. The combined use of SEPs and careful neurological evaluation may represent a valuable, low-cost, well-tolerated and easily available methodology to monitor patients from pre-symptomatic to symptomatic stages. We suggest a multidisciplinary protocol including clinical, MRS, and neurophysiological investigations to identify a population target for future

  2. Pulmonary Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis: Case Series and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Ping; Lu, Hai-Wen; Jiang, Sen; Fan, Li-Chao; Li, Hui-Ping; Xu, Jin-Fu

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis (PLCH) is a rare disease with insidious onset and nonspecific manifestations. The objective of this article was to characterize the clinical manifestations and features of PLCH by retrospectively analyzing clinical data of patients with PLCH in addition to simultaneous review of literature. A retrospective analysis was conducted on clinical data of patients with PLCH (n = 7), whose conditions were diagnosed by biopsy from pulmonary tissue (n = 6) or enlarged lymph nodes in the neck (n = 1) and confirmed by PLCH typical radiological features on computed tomography (CT) scan, between January 2001 and September 2012 at the Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China. The review of published reports was made to further emphasize the clinical manifestation and radiological features of PLCH. Long history of cigarette smoking was found in 6 patients. Two patients had recurrent pneumothorax and the other 2 had pulmonary arterial hypertension (World Health Organization group 5 pulmonary hypertension), diagnosed through ultrasonic cardiogram. The nodular shadows were revealed by chest CT scan in 5 patients, cystic shadows in 5 patients, and reticular shadows in 2 patients, as major manifestations, respectively; most of the lesions were located in the middle or upper segments of the lung. The obvious shrank of lesion was found in 1 patient after completely quitting smoking. The pathogenesis of PLCH might be closely associated with smoking. The cystic or nodular lesion was the typical radiological features. Further prospective studies with large sample size are required to further validate the study results and understand the clinical characteristics of PLCH to avoid misdiagnosis. PMID:25415669

  3. The cognitive spectrum in neurodegenerative Langerhans cell histiocytosis.

    PubMed

    Le Guennec, Loïc; Decaix, Caroline; Donadieu, Jean; Santiago-Ribeiro, Maria; Martin-Duverneuil, Nadine; Levy, Richard; Delgadillo, Daniel; Kas, Aurélie; Drier, Aurélie; Magy, Laurent; Bayen, Eleonore; Hoang-Xuan, Khe; Idbaih, Ahmed

    2014-08-01

    Clinical spectrum of cognitive troubles complicating neurodegenerative Langerhans cell histiocytosis (ND-LCH) is poorly known. The aim of this study is to evaluate cognitive functions in ND-LCH. The cognitive functions of a series of eight adult patients (7 males and 1 female; mean age 26 years IQ 25-75; range 20-33) suffering from clinical and/or radiological ND-LCH were evaluated using the following tests: (1) forward/backward digit and spatial span tasks of the WAIS-R scale and the Corsi block task, (2) the French version of the free and cued selective reminding test, (3) verbal fluency tests, (4) the Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB), (5) backward measurement of the verbal and visuospatial memories of the WAIS-R scale, (6) the Rey complex figure test, (7) the trail making tests A and B, (8) digit symbol and symbol search of the WAIS-IV scale, and (9) the Stroop test. Episodic (i.e. autobiographical or personal) memory free recall, categorical verbal fluency, phonological verbal fluency, visuospatial processing skills, attention, speed of processing, and sensitivity to interference were impaired in ND-LCH patients. In contrast, verbal and visuospatial short-term memories (i.e. immediate memories or forward span tasks) were preserved in all patients. Adult ND-LCH patients suffer from a severe but dissociated dysexecutive syndrome, mostly affecting executive strategies and relatively sparing short-term memory. Our study supports the need of assessing executive functions using comprehensive cognitive evaluation in ND-LCH patients for early diagnosis.

  4. Contact sensitizers decrease 33D1 expression on mature Langerhans cells.

    PubMed

    Herouet, C; Cottin, M; Galanaud, P; Leclaire, J; Rousset, F

    1999-01-01

    Langerhans cells play a critical role in allergic contact hypersensitivity. In vivo, these cells capture xenobiotics that penetrate the skin and transport them through the lymphatic vessels into regional lymph nodes for presentation to T cells. During this migration step, Langerhans cells become mature dendritic cells according to their phenotype and their high immunostimulatory capacity. In vitro, when isolated from the skin and cultured for 3 days, Langerhans cells undergo similar phenotypic and functional maturation. In this study, the capacity of sensitizers, irritants and neutral chemicals to modulate the surface marker expression and morphology of pure mature murine Langerhans cells in vitro was examined. Contact with 4 sensitizers (2,4-dinitrobenzenesulfate, 4-ethoxymethylene-2-phenyl-2-oxazolin-5-one, p-phenylenediamine, mercaptobenzo-thiazole) resulted in a rapid, specific, marked fall in 33D1 expression, a murine specific dendritic cell marker. No effect was observed with 2 neutral chemicals (sodium chloride, methyl nicotinate) or 2 irritants (dimethyl sulfoxide, benzalkonium chloride). Nevertheless, sodium lauryl sulfate, a very irritant detergent, altered morphology and down-regulated all membrane markers. These preliminary data suggest that in vitro modulation of 33D1 expression by strong sensitizers may be an approach to the development of an in vitro model for the identification of chemicals that have the potential to cause skin sensitization and to distinguish them as far as possible from irritants.

  5. Characterization of murine lung dendritic cells: similarities to Langerhans cells and thymic dendritic cells

    PubMed Central

    1990-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) are potent accessory cells (AC) for the initiation of primary immune responses. Although murine lymphoid DC and Langerhans cells have been extensively characterized, DC from murine lung have been incompletely described. We isolated cells from enzyme-digested murine lungs and bronchoalveolar lavages that were potent stimulators of a primary mixed lymphocyte response (MLR). The AC had a low buoyant density, were loosely adherent and nonphagocytic. AC function was unaffected by depletion of cells expressing the splenic DC marker, 33D1. In addition, antibody and complement depletion of cells bearing the macrophage marker F4/80, or removal of phagocytic cells with silica also failed to decrease AC activity. In contrast, AC function was decreased by depletion of cells expressing the markers J11d and the low affinity interleukin 2 receptor (IL-2R), both present on thymic and skin DC. AC function was approximately equal in FcR+ and FcR- subpopulations, indicating there was heterogeneity within the AC population. Consistent with the functional data, a combined two-color immunofluorescence and latex bead uptake technique revealed that lung cells high in AC activity were enriched in brightly Ia+ dendritic- shaped cells that (a) were nonphagocytic, (b) lacked specific T and B lymphocyte markers and the macrophage marker F4/80, but (c) frequently expressed C3biR, low affinity IL-2R, FcRII, and the markers NLDC-145 and J11d. Taken together, the functional and phenotypic data suggest the lung cells that stimulate resting T cells in an MLR and that might be important in local pulmonary immune responses are DC that bear functional and phenotypic similarity to other tissues DC, such as Langerhans cells and thymic DC. PMID:2162904

  6. Langerhans cell histiocytosis in adults: a case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a proliferative disease of histiocyte-like cells that generally affects children. Immunohistochemistry is essential to obtain the correct diagnosis, and treatment protocols are controversial. Objective Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is easy to be misdiagnosed because of its various clinic features and laboratory results. This research focused on the clinicopathological, histopathological, immunohistochemical and other features of LCH and aimed to analyze LCH clinical features for improving diagnosis and decreasing misdiagnosis rate. Case report A case of rare adult LCH was reported and the clinicopathological features were summarized by literature review. The multifocal form of this case includes diabetes insipidus, exophthalmos and mucocutaneous lesions in axillae and anogenital regions, such as infiltrated nodules, extensive coalescing, scaling, crusted papules and ulcerated plaques. The Langerhans cells diffusely infiltrated in the dermis and the tumor cells were positive for CD1a and S-100 expression. The diagnosis was Langerhans cell histiocytosis based on the pathological and immunohistochemical changes. Conclusion LCH has high rate of misdiagnosis and definitive diagnosis depends on pathological biopsy and X-ray examination. The prognosis is related to the onset age and the quantity of affected organs. Although specific therapeutic approach hasn't been well established, combined chemotherapy for multisystem lesions and surgical operation or radiotherapy for unifocal lesions may improve the therapy. PMID:26942568

  7. Inhibition of two temporal phases of HIV-1 transfer from primary Langerhans cells to T cells: the role of langerin.

    PubMed

    Nasr, Najla; Lai, Joey; Botting, Rachel A; Mercier, Sarah K; Harman, Andrew N; Kim, Min; Turville, Stuart; Center, Rob J; Domagala, Teresa; Gorry, Paul R; Olbourne, Norman; Cunningham, Anthony L

    2014-09-01

    Epidermal Langerhans cells (eLCs) uniquely express the C-type lectin receptor langerin in addition to the HIV entry receptors CD4 and CCR5. They are among the first target cells to encounter HIV in the anogenital stratified squamous mucosa during sexual transmission. Previous reports on the mechanism of HIV transfer to T cells and the role of langerin have been contradictory. In this study, we examined HIV replication and langerin-mediated viral transfer by authentic immature eLCs and model Mutz-3 LCs. eLCs were productively infected with HIV, whereas Mutz-3 LCs were not susceptible because of a lack of CCR5 expression. Two successive phases of HIV viral transfer to T cells via cave/vesicular trafficking and de novo replication were observed with eLCs as previously described in monocyte-derived or blood dendritic cells, but only first phase transfer was observed with Mutz-3 LCs. Langerin was expressed as trimers after cross-linking on the cell surface of Mutz-3 LCs and in this form preferentially bound HIV envelope protein gp140 and whole HIV particles via the carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD). Both phases of HIV transfer from eLCs to T cells were inhibited when eLCs were pretreated with a mAb to langerin CRD or when HIV was pretreated with a soluble langerin trimeric extracellular domain or by a CRD homolog. However, the langerin homolog did not inhibit direct HIV infection of T cells. These two novel soluble langerin inhibitors could be developed to prevent HIV uptake, infection, and subsequent transfer to T cells during early stages of infection. PMID:25070850

  8. Topical steroid therapy induces pro-tolerogenic changes in Langerhans cells in human skin.

    PubMed

    Ali, Mohammad Alhadj; Thrower, Sally L; Hanna, Stephanie J; Coulman, Sion A; Birchall, James C; Wong, F Susan; Dayan, Colin Mark; Tatovic, Danijela

    2015-11-01

    We have investigated the efficacy of conditioning skin Langerhans cells (LCs) with agents to promote tolerance and reduce inflammation, with the goal of improving the outcomes of antigen-specific immunotherapy. Topical treatments were assessed ex vivo, using excised human breast skin maintained in organ bath cultures, and in vivo in healthy volunteers by analysing skin biopsies and epidermal blister roof samples. Following topical treatment with a corticosteroid, tumour necrosis factor-α levels were reduced in skin biopsy studies and blister fluid samples. Blister fluid concentrations of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, macrophage inflammatory proteins -1α and 1β and interferon-γ inducible protein-10 were also reduced, while preserving levels of interleukin-1α (IL-1α), IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10. Steroid pre-treatment of the skin reduced the ability of LCs to induce proliferation, while supernatants showed an increase in the IL-10/interferon-γ ratio. Phenotypic changes following topical steroid treatment were also observed, including reduced expression of CD83 and CD86 in blister-derived LCs, but preservation of the tolerogenic signalling molecules immunoglobulin-like transcript 3 and programmed death-1. Reduced expression of HLA-DR, CD80 and CD86 were also apparent in LCs derived from excised human skin. Topical therapy with a vitamin D analogue (calcipotriol) and steroid, calcipotriol alone or vitamin A elicited no significant changes in the parameters studied. These experiments suggest that pre-conditioning the skin with topical corticosteroid can modulate LCs by blunting their pro-inflammatory signals and potentially enhancing tolerance. We suggest that such modulation before antigen-specific immunotherapy might provide an inexpensive and safe adjunct to current approaches to treat autoimmune diseases.

  9. Langerhans cell histiocytosis: recurrent lesions affecting mandible in a 10-year-old patient.

    PubMed

    Loducca, S V; Mantesso, A; Araújo, N S; Magalhães, M H

    2001-01-01

    Hand-Schuller-Christian disease is a multifocal variant of eosinophilic granuloma, characterised by the classical triad of bony lesions, exophthalmos and diabetes insipidus. This case relates recurrent Langerhans' cell histiocytosis lesions presented as destruction of periodontal support associated with diabetes in a 10-year-old patient. Medical history suggests that the case represents a case of Hand-Schuller Christian disease.

  10. [Multifocal Langerhans cell histiocytosis of bone: late revelation in a 76-year-old woman].

    PubMed

    Lahiani, D; Hammami, B K; Maâloul, I; Frikha, M; Baklouti, S; Jlidi, R; Ben Jemaâ, M

    2008-03-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis or histiocytosis X has a variable course from a self-limited eosinophilic granuloma to an aggressive disseminated disease. It mainly affects children. We report a 76-year-old woman with multifocal bone histiocytosis X, involving the rachis, an iliac bone and the skull. The diagnosis has been established by histological exam. Outcome was favourable after chemotherapy.

  11. Pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis and diabetes insipidus in pregnant women: our experience.

    PubMed

    Fuks, Leonardo; Kramer, Mordechai R; Shitrit, David; Raviv, Yael

    2014-04-01

    Pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis (PLCH) occurs predominantly in young adult smokers. Diabetes insipidus occurs in up to 15 % patients with PLCH. Information on PLCH in pregnancy is sparse, especially associated with diabetes insipidus. We report three patients with these conditions and describe the disease history and pregnancy outcomes.

  12. Jarid2 regulates mouse epidermal stem cell activation and differentiation.

    PubMed

    Mejetta, Stefania; Morey, Lluis; Pascual, Gloria; Kuebler, Bernd; Mysliwiec, Matthew R; Lee, Youngsook; Shiekhattar, Ramin; Di Croce, Luciano; Benitah, Salvador Aznar

    2011-08-02

    Jarid2 is required for the genomic recruitment of the polycomb repressive complex-2 (PRC2) in embryonic stem cells. However, its specific role during late development and adult tissues remains largely uncharacterized. Here, we show that deletion of Jarid2 in mouse epidermis reduces the proliferation and potentiates the differentiation of postnatal epidermal progenitors, without affecting epidermal development. In neonatal epidermis, Jarid2 deficiency reduces H3K27 trimethylation, a chromatin repressive mark, in epidermal differentiation genes previously shown to be targets of the PRC2. However, in adult epidermis Jarid2 depletion does not affect interfollicular epidermal differentiation but results in delayed hair follicle (HF) cycling as a consequence of decreased proliferation of HF stem cells and their progeny. We conclude that Jarid2 is required for the scheduled proliferation of epidermal stem and progenitor cells necessary to maintain epidermal homeostasis.

  13. Metabolic profiling of Arabidopsis thaliana epidermal cells

    PubMed Central

    Ebert, Berit; Zöller, Daniela; Erban, Alexander; Fehrle, Ines; Hartmann, Jürgen; Niehl, Annette; Kopka, Joachim; Fisahn, Joachim

    2010-01-01

    Metabolic phenotyping at cellular resolution may be considered one of the challenges in current plant physiology. A method is described which enables the cell type-specific metabolic analysis of epidermal cell types in Arabidopsis thaliana pavement, basal, and trichome cells. To achieve the required high spatial resolution, single cell sampling using microcapillaries was combined with routine gas chromatography-time of flight-mass spectrometry (GC-TOF-MS) based metabolite profiling. The identification and relative quantification of 117 mostly primary metabolites has been demonstrated. The majority, namely 90 compounds, were accessible without analytical background correction. Analyses were performed using cell type-specific pools of 200 microsampled individual cells. Moreover, among these identified metabolites, 38 exhibited differential pool sizes in trichomes, basal or pavement cells. The application of an independent component analysis confirmed the cell type-specific metabolic phenotypes. Significant pool size changes between individual cells were detectable within several classes of metabolites, namely amino acids, fatty acids and alcohols, alkanes, lipids, N-compounds, organic acids and polyhydroxy acids, polyols, sugars, sugar conjugates and phenylpropanoids. It is demonstrated here that the combination of microsampling and GC-MS based metabolite profiling provides a method to investigate the cellular metabolism of fully differentiated plant cell types in vivo. PMID:20150518

  14. IL-4 Downregulates IL-1β and IL-6 and Induces GATA3 in Psoriatic Epidermal Cells: Route of Action of a Th2 Cytokine.

    PubMed

    Onderdijk, Armanda J; Baerveldt, Ewout M; Kurek, Dorota; Kant, Marius; Florencia, Edwin F; Debets, Reno; Prens, Errol P

    2015-08-15

    Clinical improvement of psoriasis induced by IL-4 treatment has been ascribed to changes in dermal inflammatory cells, such as activation of Th2 cells and tolerization of dendritic cells by suppressing IL-23 production. The pathologic epidermal alterations in psoriatic lesional skin include increased epidermal expression of IL-1β, IL-6, S100A7, and human β-defensin 2 (hBD2) and a downregulated expression of the epidermal transcription factor GATA3. Effects of IL-4 on the epidermal compartment of psoriasis lesions were not previously investigated. Therefore, we investigated whether IL-4 directly affects abovementioned psoriatic markers in the epidermal compartment. We cultured freshly isolated psoriatic epidermal cells, whole psoriatic and healthy skin biopsies, human keratinocytes and Langerhans cells with IL-4. The secretion of IL-1β and IL-6 by psoriatic epidermal cells was inhibited by IL-4 via transcriptional and posttranscriptional mechanisms, respectively. In normal skin, IL-4 inhibited IL-1β- and IL-17A-induced hBD2 expression in vitro. In addition, IL-4 reduced the protein expression of hBD2 in psoriatic skin biopsies and induced phospho-STAT6 protein. Epidermal GATA3 mRNA and protein were significantly upregulated by IL-4 in epidermal cells and keratinocytes. Our data argue that IL-4 improves psoriasis not only via modification/induction of Th2 cells and type II dendritic cells, but also via direct inhibition of inflammatory cytokines in resident IL-4R-expressing epidermal cells and thereby alters the psoriatic skin phenotype toward a healthy skin phenotype.

  15. Immunohistochemical analyses point to epidermal origin of human Merkel cells.

    PubMed

    Tilling, Thomas; Wladykowski, Ewa; Failla, Antonio Virgilio; Houdek, Pia; Brandner, Johanna M; Moll, Ingrid

    2014-04-01

    Merkel cells, the neurosecretory cells of skin, are essential for light-touch responses and may probably fulfill additional functions. Whether these cells derive from an epidermal or a neural lineage has been a matter of dispute for a long time. In mice, recent studies have clearly demonstrated an epidermal origin of Merkel cells. Given the differences in Merkel cell distribution between human and murine skin, it is, however, unclear whether the same holds true for human Merkel cells. We therefore attempted to gain insight into the human Merkel cell lineage by co-immunodetection of the Merkel cell marker protein cytokeratin 20 (CK20) with various proteins known to be expressed either in epidermal or in neural stem cells of the skin. Neither Sox10 nor Pax3, both established markers of the neural crest lineage, exhibited any cell co-labeling with CK20. By contrast, β1 integrin, known to be enriched in epidermal stem cells, was found in nearly 70 % of interfollicular epidermal and 25 % of follicular Merkel cells. Moreover, LRIG1, also enriched in epidermal stem cells, displayed significant co-immunolabeling with CK20 as well (approximately 20 % in the interfollicular epidermis and 7 % in the hair follicle, respectively). Further epidermal markers were detected in sporadic Merkel cells. Cells co-expressing CK20 with epidermal markers may represent a transitory state between stem cells and differentiated cells. β1 integrin is probably also synthesized by a large subset of mature Merkel cells. Summarizing, our data suggest that human Merkel cells may originate from epidermal rather than neural progenitors.

  16. Canine cutaneous histiocytoma is an epidermotropic Langerhans cell histiocytosis that expresses CD1 and specific beta 2-integrin molecules.

    PubMed Central

    Moore, P. F.; Schrenzel, M. D.; Affolter, V. K.; Olivry, T.; Naydan, D.

    1996-01-01

    Canine cutaneous histiocytoma (CCH) is a common, benign neoplasm of the dog. Histiocytomas most commonly occur as solitary lesions that undergo spontaneous regression. The age-specific incidence rate for histiocytomas drops precipitously after 3 years, although histiocytomas occur in dogs of all ages. Langerhans cells (LCs) in humans and dogs express abundant major histocompatibility complex class II molecules and a variety of leukocyte antigens characteristic of dendritic cell differentiation including CD1a, CD1b, CD1c, and CD11c. The immunophenotype of CCH resembled that of cutaneous LCs by virtue of the expression of CD1 molecules (CD1a, -b, and -c), CD11c, and major histocompatibility complex class II. Furthermore, histiocytoma cells had a tropism for epidermis, which was also consistent with an epidermal LC lineage. The expression of adhesion molecules such as CD11b (variable), CD44, CD54 (ICAM-1), and CD49d (VLA-4) in CCH indicated that the infiltrating cells had some of the characteristics of activated LCs, as these molecules are not expressed by normal, resting canine epidermal LCs. CCH did not express Thy-1 or CD4. Thy-1 expression is a characteristic of human and canine dermal dendrocytes, which are perivascular dendritic antigen-presenting cells closely related to epidermal LCs. CD4 expression is prevalent in human LC histiocytosis, and in this respect CCH differed from human LC histiocytosis. Here we demonstrate that CCH is a localized form of self-limiting LC histiocytosis, which predominantly expresses an epidermal LC phenotype. CCH occurs as solitary or, less commonly, as multiple cutaneous nodules or plaques, which rarely may extend beyond the skin to local lymph nodes. Regression of CCH occurs spontaneously in the vast majority of cases in primary and secondary sites, and is mediated by CD8+ alpha beta T cells. The high frequency of CCH within the general canine population offers the potential that the dog may provide an interesting model system to

  17. Immunohistochemical staining of Langerhans cells in HPV-positive and HPV-negative cases of oral squamous cells carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    PEREIRA, Karuza Maria Alves; SOARES, Rosilene Calazans; OLIVEIRA, Márcio Campos; PINTO, Leão Pereira; COSTA, Antônio de Lisboa Lopes

    2011-01-01

    The Human Papillomavirus (HPV) has been strongly implicated in development of some cases of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). However, the immunological system somehow reacts against the presence of this virus. Among the cells involved in such mechanism of defense Langerhans cells (LC) stand out, which are responsible for processing and presenting antigens. Objectives The purposes of this study were to investigate the presence of HPV DNA and to evaluate the immunohistochemical reactivity for Langerhans cells between HPV-positive and HPV-negative OSCC. Twenty-seven cases of OSSC were evaluated. Material and Methods DNA was extracted from paraffin-embedded tissue samples and amplified by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) for the detection of HPV DNA. Viral typing was performed by dot blot hybridization. Immunohistochemistry was performed by the Streptavidin-biotin technique. Results From the 27 cases, 9 (33.3%) were HPV-positive and 18 (66.0%) HPV-negative. HPV 18 was the most prevalent viral type (100% cases) and infection with HPV-16 (co-infection) was detected in only 1 case. In the OSCC specimens examined, immunoreactivity to S-100 antibody was detected in all cases, with a mean number of 49.48±30.89 Langerhans cells positive for immunostaining. The mean number of immunostained Langerhans cells was smaller in the HPV-positive cases (38 cells/case) than in the HPV-negative cases (42.5 cells/case), but this difference was not significant (p=0.38). Conclusions The low frequency of detection of HPV DNA in OSCC indicates a possible participation of the virus in the development and progression of only a subgroup of these tumors. There was no association between the immunohistochemical labeling for Langerhans cells (S-100+) and HPV infection of in OSSC. These findings suggest that the presence of HPV in such OSCC cases could not alter the immunological system, particularly the Langerhans cells. PMID:21710097

  18. The expression of peripheral benzodiazepine receptors in human skin: the relationship with epidermal cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Stoebner, P E; Carayon, P; Penarier, G; Fréchin, N; Barnéon, G; Casellas, P; Cano, J P; Meynadier, J; Meunier, L

    1999-06-01

    The peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR) is a protein of mitochondrial outer membranes utilizing porphyrins as endogenous ligands. PBR is part of a heteromeric receptor complex involved in the formation of mitochondrial permeability transition pores and in the early events of apoptosis. PBR may function as an oxygen-dependent signal generator; recent data indicate that these receptors may preserve the mitochondria of haematopoietic cell lines from damage caused by oxygen radicals. To identify PBRs in human skin, we used a specific monoclonal antibody directed against the C-terminus fragment of the human receptor. PBR immunoreactivity was found in keratinocytes, Langerhans cells, hair follicles and dermal vascular endothelial cells. Interestingly, confocal microscopic examination of skin sections revealed that PBR expression was strongly upregulated in the superficial differentiated layers of the epidermis. Ultrastructurally, PBRs were distributed throughout the cytoplasm but were selectively expressed on the mitochondrial membranes of epidermal cells. The elevated level of PBRs in the spinous layer was not associated with an increased number of mitochondria nor with an increased amount of mRNA as assessed by in situ hybridization on microautoradiographed skin sections. The present work provides, for the first time, evidence of PBR immunoreactivity in human skin. This mitochondrial receptor may modulate apoptosis in the epidermis; its increased expression in differentiated epidermal layers may represent a novel mechanism of natural skin protection against free radical damage generated by ultraviolet exposure. PMID:10354064

  19. S179D prolactin diminishes the effects of UV light on epidermal gamma delta T cells

    PubMed Central

    Guzmán, Esther A.; Langowski, John L.; De Guzman, Ariel; Konrad Muller, H.; Walker, Ameae M.; Owen, Laurie B.

    2008-01-01

    Epidermal gamma delta T cells (γδ T) and Langerhans cells (LC) are immune cells altered by exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVB), a powerful stressor resulting in immune suppression. Prolactin (PRL) has been characterized as an immunomodulator, particularly during stress. In this study, we have asked whether separate administration of the two major forms of prolactin, unmodified and phosphorylated, to groups of 15 mice (3 experiments, each with 5 mice per treatment group) affected the number and morphology of these epidermal immune cells under control conditions, and following UV irradiation. Under control conditions, both PRLs reduced the number of γδ T, but a molecular mimic of phosphorylated PRL (S179D PRL) was more effective, resulting in a 30% reduction. In the irradiated group, however, S179D PRL was protective against a UV-induced reduction in γδ T number and change in morphology (halved the reduction and normalized the morphology). In addition, S179D PRL, but not unmodified (U-PRL), maintained a normal LC: γδ T ratio and sustained the dendritic morphology of LC after UV exposure. These findings suggest that S179D PRL may have an overall protective effect, countering UV-induced cellular alterations in the epidermis. PMID:17945411

  20. A note on langerhans cells in the oesophagus epithelium of domesticated mammals.

    PubMed

    Meyer, W; Hornickel, I; Schoennagel, B

    2010-04-01

    Using the zinc-iodide osmium tetroxide (ZIO) method, TEM and immunohistochemistry (for CD1a and langerin), the study demonstrates Langerhans cells in the oesophageal epithelium of domesticated mammals (herbivores: horse, cattle, goat; omnivores: pig, dog, laboratory rat; carnivores: cat), although with variations between the species. The ZIO method and TEM showed this cell type in the cat and, sporadically, in the horse; CD1a (+) Langerhans cells were demonstrated in the ovine, porcine and murine oesophagus. Positive staining for langerin was detected in single cells of the caprine, canine, murine and feline oesophagus and more distinct in almost all the cell layers of the equine and porcine oesophagus epithelium. The findings are discussed comparing specifically the results for CD1a and langerin, whereby the latter C-type lectin may be of importance in species with a rather thick oesophagus epithelium, such as that present in the plantivorous and most of the omnivorous animals, where antigenic pressure is reduced.

  1. Unusual cutaneous histiocytosis expressing an intermediate immunophenotype between Langerhans' cells and dermal macrophages.

    PubMed

    Berti, E; Gianotti, R; Alessi, E

    1988-08-01

    Cutaneous histiocytosis was discovered in a 40-year-old man with a slow-growing nodule located on his right arm. Histologic findings showed an epidermotropic infiltrate of histiocytes with folded, irregular nuclei. Immunologically, the cells presented an intermediate phenotype between Langerhans' cells and dermal macrophages. After surgical removal of the lesion, neither a relapse nor visceral involvement was observed during two years of follow-up.

  2. Langerhans cell migration: not necessarily always at the center of the skin sensitization universe.

    PubMed

    Kimber, Ian; Cumberbatch, Marie; Dearman, Rebecca J

    2009-08-01

    Since their discovery in 1868, the role of Langerhans cells (LCs) in skin immunity has been researched extensively. Recent data deriving from transgenic animals that are deficient in LCs have begun to challenge the dogma that there is a universal requirement for these cells in the development of skin sensitization. This Commentary addresses relationships between LC mobilization, draining lymph node activation, and skin sensitization using immunomodulators agonistic for a family of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptors.

  3. Clinical Significance of Langerhans Cells in Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx

    PubMed Central

    Esteban, Francisco; Ruiz-Cabello, Francisco; Gonzalez-Moles, Miguel Angel; Lopez-Gonzalez, Miguel Angel; Funez, Rafael; Redondo, Maximino

    2012-01-01

    Langerhans cells (LCs) may be involved in the immunosurveillance against tumors as antigen-presenting cells. Our objective has been to determine the relevance of LC in progression of larynx squamous cell carcinomas and their relationship with different subpopulations of tumor-infiltrating cells. LCs were investigated by immunohistochemical methods using anti-CD1 antibody. LCs were detected in most of the primary tumors studied (44 out of 50) and also in metastases (6 out of 10) and recurrences (2 out of 3), but we did not find any statistical association between number of LCs and clinical-pathological parameters or survival. However, the number of LCs was increased in patients with evident infiltration of lymphocytes, mainly cytotoxic T cells. We can conclude that although LCs did not show clinical utility as prognostic marker, they may play a role in releasing an active immune response in larynx carcinomas, according to their ability to present antigens to sensitized T cells. PMID:22481933

  4. Langerhans cell function dictates induction of contact hypersensitivity or unresponsiveness to DNFB in Syrian hamsters

    SciTech Connect

    Streilein, J.W.; Bergstresser, P.R.

    1981-09-01

    The relationship between distribution and function of Langerhans cells within the epidermis and the capacity of cutaneous surfaces to promote the induction of contact hypersensitivity to DNFB have been examined in inbred Syrian hamsters. In a manner very similar to previous findings in mice, the results indicate that hamster cutaneous surfaces deficient in normally functioning Langerhans cells, naturally (cheek pouch epithelium) or artificially (after perturbation with ultraviolet light), are inefficient at promoting DNFB sensitization. Instead, DNFB applied to these regions of skin results in the induction of a state of specific unresponsiveness. Viable lymphoid cells from unresponsive hamsters can transfer the unresponsiveness to naive hamsters suggesting that active suppression is at least partly responsible, probably mediated by T lymphocytes.

  5. Requirement of MyD88 signaling in keratinocytes for Langerhans cell migration and initiation of atopic dermatitis-like symptoms in mice.

    PubMed

    Didovic, Sonja; Opitz, Friederike V; Holzmann, Bernhard; Förster, Irmgard; Weighardt, Heike

    2016-04-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory disease controlled by the innate and adaptive immune system. To elucidate the impact of innate immune signaling in AD, we analyzed MyD88-deficient mice in a murine model of AD-like dermatitis by epicutaneous sensitization with ovalbumin (OVA). Global MyD88 deficiency led to reduced epidermal thickening and diminished accumulation of macrophages within the inflamed skin. In addition, we observed impaired emigration of Langerhans cells (LCs) out of the epidermis of MyD88-deficient mice. These findings indicate that MyD88 deficiency affects various skin-resident cell types in the AD model. Moreover, production of IFN-g, IL-17, and CCL17 was reduced in skin draining lymph node cells and OVA-specific immunoglobulin levels were lower in MyD88-deficient mice. We further investigated the role of MyD88 in keratinocytes, as keratinocytes contribute to AD pathology. Exclusive expression of MyD88 in epidermal keratinocytes partially restored LC emigration after AD induction and expression of CCL17 in skin draining lymph nodes (LNs), but did not promote epidermal thickening nor production of IL-17. Altogether, these data demonstrate that MyD88 signaling in keratinocytes is able to restore LC migration in an otherwise MyD88-deficient background, and significantly contributes to the development of AD-like dermatitis.

  6. Specification of epidermal cell fate in plant shoots.

    PubMed

    Takada, Shinobu; Iida, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    Land plants have evolved a single layer of epidermal cells, which are characterized by mostly anticlinal cell division patterns, formation of a waterproof coat called cuticle, and unique cell types such as stomatal guard cells and trichomes. The shoot epidermis plays important roles not only to protect plants from dehydration and pathogens but also to ensure their proper organogenesis and growth control. Extensive molecular genetic studies in Arabidopsis and maize have identified a number of genes that are required for epidermal cell differentiation. However, the mechanism that specifies shoot epidermal cell fate during plant organogenesis remains largely unknown. Particularly, little is known regarding positional information that should restrict epidermal cell fate to the outermost cell layer of the developing organs. Recent studies suggested that certain members of the HD-ZIP class IV homeobox genes are possible master regulators of shoot epidermal cell fate. Here, we summarize the roles of the regulatory genes that are involved in epidermal cell fate specification and discuss the possible mechanisms that limit the expression and/or activity of the master transcriptional regulators to the outermost cell layer in plant shoots. PMID:24616724

  7. Dramatic and sustained responsiveness of pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis-associated pulmonary hypertension to vasodilator therapy

    PubMed Central

    May, Adam; Kane, Garvan; Yi, Eunhee; Frantz, Robert; Vassallo, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis (PLCH) is an uncommon diffuse lung disease characterized by the abnormal accumulation of Langerhans' cells around small airways and other distal lung compartments. Although pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a frequent complication of PLCH, the role of advanced PH therapies for PLCH-related PH is not well-established. We describe a PLCH patient with severe, disease-related PH that responded unexpectedly well to advanced PH therapy with sustained improvement over a 10 year follow-up period. This case indicates that PLCH-associated PH may, in certain instances, be highly responsive to advanced PH therapies and emphasizes the importance of trialing these therapies among patients with PLCH-related PH. PMID:26029568

  8. Case of Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis That Mimics Meningioma in CT and MRI

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Ming; Yu, Bing-Bing; Zhai, Ji-Liang

    2016-01-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare disorder histologically characterized by the proliferation of Langerhans cells. Here we present the case of a 13-year-old girl with LCH wherein CT and MRI results led us to an initially incorrect diagnosis of meningioma. The diagnosis was corrected to LCH based on pathology findings. An intracranial mass was found mainly in the dura mater, with thickening of the surrounding dura. It appeared to be growing downward from the calvaria, pressing on underlying brain tissue, and had infiltrated the inner skull, causing a bone defect. The lesion was calcified with the typical dural tail sign. The dural origin of the lesion was verified upon surgical dissection. There are no previous reports in the literature describing LCH of dural origin presenting in young patients with typical dural tail signs and meningioma-like imaging findings. The current case report underscores the need for thorough histological and immunocytochemical examinations in LCH differential diagnosis. PMID:26962425

  9. Langerhans cell histiocytosis in children diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration

    PubMed Central

    Handa, Uma; Kundu, Reetu; Punia, Rajpal Singh; Mohan, Harsh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare intricate pediatric neoplasm with varied clinical manifestations and multiple treatment modalities. Aim: To study the cytological features of LCH and the differential diagnoses on fine-needle aspiration (FNA). Materials and Methods: FNA was performed using a 23-gauge needle fitted to a 10 mL syringe mounted on syringe holder. LCH was diagnosed on FNA smears in seven cases confined to the head and neck region, which included three cases of lymphadenopathy, three cases of scalp swelling, and one case of orbital swelling. Results: The age of the patients ranged from 25 days to 11 years and male-to-female ratio was 1:1.3. Clinically, the diagnoses suggested were tuberculosis, inflammatory lesion, abscess, and malignancy. The cytologic findings included high cellularity, isolated Langerhans cells (LCs) with prominent nuclear indentation, grooves and abundant vacuolated cytoplasm, multinucleated giant cells, eosinophils, and lymphocytes. Areas of necrosis were noted in one case. Histopathology, along with positive S-100 immunohistochemistry, confirmed the diagnosis of LCH. Conclusions: LCH is a rare disease occurring predominantly in children and can be diagnosed with ease on FNA cytology by the presence of characteristic Langerhans cells. The S-100 positivity aids in suggesting a diagnosis of LCH. PMID:26811572

  10. Laryngeal Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis Presenting with Neck Mass in an Adult Woman

    PubMed Central

    Jahandideh, Hesam; Nasoori, Yasser; Rostami, Sara; Safdarian, Mahdi

    2016-01-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a very rare condition that commonly affects the head and neck region. There are very few cases of isolated laryngeal involvement by LCH, mostly reported in pediatric patients. Here, we report a case of laryngeal LCH in a 62-year-old woman presenting with a neck mass several weeks ago. The clinical and histopathological findings are reported with a brief discussion about the disease. PMID:27127670

  11. Pulmonary Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis with Lytic Bone Involvement in an Adult Smoker: Regression following Smoking Cessation

    PubMed Central

    Routy, B.; Hoang, J.; Gruber, J.

    2015-01-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare myeloid neoplasm characterized by the proliferation and dissemination of histiocytes. These in turn may cause symptoms ranging from isolated, infiltrative lesions to severe multisystem disease. Pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis (PLCH) presents as a localized polyclonal proliferation of Langerhans cells in the lungs causing bilateral cysts and fibrosis. In adults, this rare condition is considered a reactive process associated with cigarette smoking. Recently, clonal proliferation has been reported with the presence of BRAF V600E oncogenic mutation in a subset of PLCH patients. Spontaneous resolution was described; however, based on case series, smoking cessation remains the most effective way to achieve complete remission and prevent long term complications related to tobacco. Herein, we report the case of an adult woman with biopsy-proven PLCH presenting with thoracic (T8) vertebral bone destruction. Both the lung and the bone diseases regressed following smoking cessation, representing a rare case of synchronous disseminated PCLH with bone localization. This observation underscores the contribution of cigarette smoking as a systemic trigger of both pulmonary and extrapulmonary bone lesions. A review of similar cases in the literature is also presented. PMID:25789184

  12. Markers of epidermal stem cell subpopulations in adult mammalian skin.

    PubMed

    Kretzschmar, Kai; Watt, Fiona M

    2014-10-01

    The epidermis is the outermost layer of mammalian skin and comprises a multilayered epithelium, the interfollicular epidermis, with associated hair follicles, sebaceous glands, and eccrine sweat glands. As in other epithelia, adult stem cells within the epidermis maintain tissue homeostasis and contribute to repair of tissue damage. The bulge of hair follicles, where DNA-label-retaining cells reside, was traditionally regarded as the sole epidermal stem cell compartment. However, in recent years multiple stem cell populations have been identified. In this review, we discuss the different stem cell compartments of adult murine and human epidermis, the markers that they express, and the assays that are used to characterize epidermal stem cell properties.

  13. Dendritic and Langerhans cells respond to Aβ peptides differently: implication for AD immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Jiang; Lin, Xiaoyang; Morgan, David; Gordon, Marcia; Chen, Xi; Wang, Zhen-Hai; Li, Hai-Ning; He, Lan-Jie; Zhou, Shu-Feng; Cao, Chuanhai

    2015-01-01

    Both wild-type and mutated beta-amyloid (Aβ) peptides can elicit an immune response when delivered subcutaneously. However, only mutated forms of Aβ can sensitize dendritic cells when administered intravenously or intraperitoneally. To understand the role of mutation and delivery routes in creating immune responses, and the function of dendritic cells as therapeutic agents, we used fluorescent-conjugated WT Aβ1-40 (WT40) and artificially mutated Aβ1-40 (22W40) peptides to treat dendritic and Langerhans cells from young and/or old mice at different time points. The cell types were analyzed by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy to identify differences in function and antigen presentation, and Luminex and Western blots for cell activation and associated mechanisms. Our results demonstrated that the artificial mutant, 22W40, enhanced dendritic cell's phagocytosis and antigen presentation better than the WT40. Interestingly, Langerhans cells were more effective at early presentation. The artificial mutant 22W40 increased CD8α+ dendritic cells, CD8+ T-cells, and IFN-γ production when co-cultured with self-lymphocytes and dendritic cells from aged mice (30-month-old). Here, the 22W40 mutant peptide has been found to be potent enough to activate DCs, and that dendritic cell-based therapy may be a more effective treatment for age-related diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). PMID:26473448

  14. Presence of circulating abnormal CD34+ progenitors in adult Langerhans cell histiocytosis

    PubMed Central

    MISERY, L; ROUGIER, N; CRESTANI, B; FAURE, M; CLAUDY, A; SCHMITT, D; VINCENT, C

    1999-01-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is related to the proliferation of cells, which are similar to Langerhans cells (LC) but possess many abnormal characteristics. Lesions are widespread and this fact suggests that LCH cells or their precursors are present in the blood of patients. In five adult patients, we have isolated and cultured CD34+ blood progenitors of dendritic cells. We studied their phenotype by flow cytometry and their functional properties in mixed culture with heterologous lymphocytes and with autologous lymphocytes in the presence of tri-nitro-phenyl antigen (TNP). The amount of CD34+ precursors was dramatically higher than controls but a high mortality occurred during the in vitro differentiation. The phenotype of surviving cells was similar to LC phenotype (CD1a+, CD83+, Lag+) but some of them expressed CD2. These cells were able to induce T cell proliferation in mixed culture. They could not initiate primary response to TNP, except in a patient treated with thalidomide. In our hands, these CD34+ cells may be precursors of LCH cells. PMID:10403933

  15. Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis of the Thyroid with Multiple Cervical Lymph Node Involvement Accompanying Metastatic Thyroid Papillary Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ceyran, A. Bahar; Şenol, Serkan; Bayraktar, Barış; Özkanlı, Şeyma; Cinel, Z. Leyla; Aydın, Abdullah

    2014-01-01

    A 37-year-old male case was admitted with goiter. Ultrasonography of thyroid showed a 5 cm cystic nodule in the left lobe with a 1.5 cm solid component. Fine needle aspiration biopsy revealed atypia of undetermined significance or follicular lesion. The patient was operated on. The pathological diagnosis was reported as papillary thyroid carcinoma. The immunohistochemical examination showed multiple foci of Langerhans cell histiocytosis involving both lobes. The patient died due to cardiac arrest with respiratory causes in the early postoperative period. Langerhans cell histiocytosis is a rare primary condition which involves abnormal clonal proliferation of Langerhans cells in various tissues and organs. Thyroid involvement is infrequently seen. Although the etiology is unknown, genetic components may be linked to the disease. It is also associated with a family history of thyroid disease. Papillary thyroid carcinoma is the most common malignant epithelial tumor of the thyroid gland. Langerhans cell histiocytosis presenting with papillary thyroid carcinoma is rare. The privilege of our case is langerhans cell histiocytosis of the thyroid with multiple cervical lymph node involvement accompanying cervical lymph node metastatic thyroid papillary carcinoma. PMID:25349760

  16. Cultured human Langerhans' cells are superior to fresh cells at presenting native HIV-1 protein antigens to specific CD4+ T-cell lines.

    PubMed Central

    Girolomoni, G; Valle, M T; Zacchi, V; Costa, M G; Giannetti, A; Manca, F

    1996-01-01

    Cultured Langerhans' cells (CLC) exhibit enhanced antigen-presenting function compared to freshly isolated LC (FLC), but they are commonly believed to be inefficient at processing intact proteins. In this study, FLC and CLC from normal, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seronegative volunteers were compared for their ability to present the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp120 or reverse transcriptase (p66) antigens to autologous, specific CD4+ T cell lines. Epidermal cell suspensions enriched for LC were prepared from suction blister roofs. FLC stimulated T cells at lower antigen concentrations compared to unfractionated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). CLC were more potent on a per cell basis than FLC, PBMC or adherent monocytes at presenting native gp120, native p66 or immunogenic peptides. CLC were also more efficient than FLC or PBMC in terms of the amount of antigen required for T-cell activation. Chloroquine and leupeptin inhibited presentation of intact p66, but not of an immunodominant peptide, by FLC or CLC, thus indicating that both cells utilize antigen-processing mechanisms that are based on intracellular acidification and protease activity. Incubation of CLC with monoclonal antibodies against HLA-DR, CD11b, CD18, CD50, CD54, CD58 or CD80, but not anti-major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I), inhibited antigen-specific T-cell proliferation to varying degrees. We conclude that human CLC retain the ability to process and present protein antigens potently to CD4+ T cells. Thus, CLC have the capacity to participate actively in the generation and maintenance of T-helper cell immunity to viral antigens during HIV-1 infection. PMID:8698396

  17. [Lymph node eosinophilic granuloma. Apropos of 2 cases of Langerhans-cell histiocytosis with isolated lymph node involvement].

    PubMed

    Robert, M; Marty-Double, C

    1996-01-01

    The authors report two cases of isolated lymph node involvement by Langerhans' cell histiocytosis which affected two young children. The histologic aspect reveals that lymph nodes have been modified by a proliferation of large histiocyte-like cells, associated with eosinophils. An immunohistochemical study on paraffin sections and for one case on frozen sections, reveals the usual phenotype of Langerhans' cells: these cells stain positively with S 100 protein and CD1 and are negative for both lysozyme and al antichymotrypsine. After a period of two years for one child and four years for the other, these children are in total remission, one spontaneously, the other after chemotherapy. PMID:9339010

  18. Langerhans Cells Suppress CD49a+ NK Cell-Mediated Skin Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Scholz, Felix; Naik, Shruti; Sutterwala, Fayyaz S; Kaplan, Daniel H

    2015-09-01

    Recruitment of innate immune effector cells into sites of infection is a critical component of resistance to pathogen infection. Using a model of intradermal footpad injection of Candida albicans, we observed that inflammation as measured by footpad thickness and neutrophil recruitment occurred independent of adoptive immunity but was significantly reduced in MyD88(-/-) and IL-6(-/-) mice. Unexpectedly, huLangerin-DTA mice (ΔLC) that lack Langerhans cells (LC) developed increased skin inflammation and expressed higher amounts of IL-6, suggesting a suppressive role for LC. Increased inflammation also occurred in Rag1(-/-) ΔLC mice but was reversed by Ab-mediated ablation of NK cells. CXCR6(+)CD49a(+) NK cells are a liver-resident subset that can mediate inflammatory skin responses. We found that exaggerated skin inflammation was absent in ΔLC × CXCR6(-/-) mice. Moreover, the exaggerated response in ΔLC mice could be adoptively transferred with liver CD49a(+) NK cells. Finally, CD49a(+) NK cells in ΔLC but not control mice were recruited to the skin, and inhibition of their recruitment prevented the exaggerated response. Thus, in the absence of LC, CD49a(+) liver NK cells display an inappropriately proinflammatory phenotype that results in increased local skin inflammation. These data reveal a novel function for LC in the regulation of this recently described subset of skin tropic NK cells. PMID:26209621

  19. Expansion of Regulatory T Cells in Patients with Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Senechal, Brigitte; Elain, Gaelle; Jeziorski, Eric; Grondin, Virginie; Patey-Mariaud de Serre, Natacha; Jaubert, Francis; Beldjord, Kheira; Lellouch, Arielle; Glorion, Christophe; Zerah, Michel; Mary, Pierre; Barkaoui, Mohammed; Emile, Jean Francois; Boccon-Gibod, Liliane; Josset, Patrice; Debré, Marianne; Fischer, Alain; Donadieu, Jean; Geissmann, Frederic

    2007-01-01

    Background Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare clonal granulomatous disease that affects mainly children. LCH can involve various tissues such as bone, skin, lung, bone marrow, lymph nodes, and the central nervous system, and is frequently responsible for functional sequelae. The pathophysiology of LCH is unclear, but the uncontrolled proliferation of Langerhans cells (LCs) is believed to be the primary event in the formation of granulomas. The present study was designed to further investigate the nature of proliferating cells and the immune mechanisms involved in the LCH granulomas. Methods and Findings Biopsies (n = 24) and/or blood samples (n = 25) from 40 patients aged 0.25 to 13 y (mean 7.8 y), were studied to identify cells that proliferate in blood and granulomas. We found that the proliferating index of LCs was low (∼1.9%), and we did not observe expansion of a monocyte or dendritic cell compartment in patients. We found that LCH lesions were a site of active inflammation, tissue remodeling, and neo-angiogenesis, and the majority of proliferating cells were endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and polyclonal T lymphocytes. Within granulomas, interleukin 10 was abundant, LCs expressed the TNF receptor family member RANK, and CD4+ CD25high FoxP3high regulatory T cells (T-regs) represented 20% of T cells, and were found in close contact with LCs. FoxP3+ T-regs were also expanded compared to controls, in the blood of LCH patients with active disease, among whom seven out of seven tested exhibited an impaired skin delayed-type hypersensitivity response. In contrast, the number of blood T-regs were normal after remission of LCH. Conclusions These findings indicate that LC accumulation in LCH results from survival rather than uncontrolled proliferation, and is associated with the expansion of T-regs. These data suggest that LCs may be involved in the expansion of T-regs in vivo, resulting in the failure of the host immune system to eliminate LCH cells. Thus

  20. Do epidermal lens cells facilitate the absorptance of diffuse light?

    PubMed

    Brodersen, Craig R; Vogelmann, Thomas C

    2007-07-01

    Many understory plants rely on diffuse light for photosynthesis because direct light is usually scattered by upper canopy layers before it strikes the forest floor. There is a considerable gap in the literature concerning the interaction of direct and diffuse light with leaves. Some understory plants have well-developed lens-shaped epidermal cells, which have long been thought to increase the absorption of diffuse light. To assess the role of epidermal cell shape in capturing direct vs. diffuse light, we measured leaf reflectance and transmittance with an integrating sphere system using leaves with flat (Begonia erythrophylla, Citrus reticulata, and Ficus benjamina) and lens-shaped epidermal cells (B. bowerae, Colocasia esculenta, and Impatiens velvetea). In all species examined, more light was absorbed when leaves were irradiated with direct as opposed to diffuse light. When leaves were irradiated with diffuse light, more light was transmitted and more was reflected in both leaf types, resulting in absorptance values 2-3% lower than in leaves irradiated with direct light. These data suggest that lens-shaped epidermal cells do not aid the capture of diffuse light. Palisade and mesophyll cell anatomy and leaf thickness appear to have more influence in the capture and absorption of light than does epidermal cell shape.

  1. TGFβ Induces a SAMHD1-Independent Post-Entry Restriction to HIV-1 Infection of Human Epithelial Langerhans Cells.

    PubMed

    Czubala, Magdalena A; Finsterbusch, Katja; Ivory, Matthew O; Mitchell, J Paul; Ahmed, Zahra; Shimauchi, Takatoshi; Karoo, Richard O S; Coulman, Sion A; Gateley, Christopher; Birchall, James C; Blanchet, Fabien P; Piguet, Vincent

    2016-10-01

    Sterile alpha motif (SAM) and histidine-aspartic (HD) domains protein 1 (SAMHD1) was previously identified as a critical post-entry restriction factor to HIV-1 infection in myeloid dendritic cells. Here we show that SAMHD1 is also expressed in epidermis-isolated Langerhans cells (LC), but degradation of SAMHD1 does not rescue HIV-1 or vesicular stomatitis virus G-pseudotyped lentivectors infection in LC. Strikingly, using Langerhans cells model systems (mutz-3-derived LC, monocyte-derived LC [MDLC], and freshly isolated epidermal LC), we characterize previously unreported post-entry restriction activity to HIV-1 in these cells, which acts at HIV-1 reverse transcription, but remains independent of restriction factors SAMHD1 and myxovirus resistance 2 (MX2). We demonstrate that transforming growth factor-β signaling confers this potent HIV-1 restriction in MDLC during their differentiation and blocking of mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 2 (SMAD2) signaling in MDLC restores cells' infectivity. Interestingly, maturation of MDLC with a toll-like receptor 2 agonist or transforming growth factor-α significantly increases cells' susceptibility to HIV-1 infection, which may explain why HIV-1 acquisition is increased during coinfection with sexually transmitted infections. In conclusion, we report a SAMHD1-independent post-entry restriction in MDLC and LC isolated from epidermis, which inhibits HIV-1 replication. A better understanding of HIV-1 restriction and propagation from LC to CD4(+) T cells may help in the development of new microbicides or vaccines to curb HIV-1 infection at its earliest stages during mucosal transmission. PMID:27375111

  2. A Rare Case of Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis of the Skull in an Adult: a Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Chiong, Corinna; Jayachandra, Shruti; D. Eslick, Guy; Al-Khawaja, Darweesh; Casikar, Vidyasagar

    2013-01-01

    We report a 41-year old male who presented to the Emergency Department after falling while water-skiing. He had a previous medical history included chronic headaches, which had persisted for the last 2-3 months prior to presentation. Computed tomography of the head showed a small hypersensitivity with a small extra axial collection with a maximum thickness of 1mm. Differential diagnoses included an arachnoid cyst, haemangioma, meningioma or a secondary lesion. A diagnosis of Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis was made based on the histopathology examination and the immunoperoxidase staining. PMID:24179650

  3. Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis of the Rib in an Adult: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung Hyun; Choi, Moon Young

    2016-01-01

    Single-site, single-system Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) of the rib is one of the rarest causes of bone tumor in adults. Herein, we report a case of a healthy 35-year-old male who presented with upper back pain that was attributed to a solitary osteolytic lesion at the posterolateral aspect of his sixth rib. For diagnostic confirmation and treatment, partial resection of the sixth rib was performed and pathologic finding was consistent with LCH. At the final follow-up after 2 years, no local recurrence or metastasis was observed. PMID:26933424

  4. Langerhans cell sarcoma arising from the root of tongue: a rare case

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Jian-Jun; Zhao, Yu; Liu, Ming-Juan; Liu, Guo; Chen, Fei

    2015-01-01

    Langerhans cell sarcoma (LCS), a rare malignant disease with markedly malignant cytological features and poor outcome, originates from Langerhans cells and most commonly affects the lymph nodes, skin, and bone. This paper presents the case of a 58-year-old female with LCS at the root of her tongue, with neither local recurrence nor distant metastasis observed during 47 months of follow up following radiotherapy for more than one month after complete tumor resection. Histological and immunophenotypic tests revealed that the malignant tumor cells were positive for S-100 protein, CD1a, and LCA, and partially positive for CD3ε. By contrast, the tumor cells were negative for langenin, CD30, HMB45, PCK, CK5/6, and P63. Their Ki-67proliferation index ranged from 30% to 40%. This neoplasm was diagnosed as LCS according to the classification of WHO2008. This work is the first report on LCS arising from the root of tongue. This rare case may serve as a reference for future clinical studies. PMID:26823886

  5. Langerhans cells require signals from both tumour necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1 beta for migration.

    PubMed Central

    Cumberbatch, M; Dearman, R J; Kimber, I

    1997-01-01

    The induction phase of contact sensitization is associated with the movement of epidermal Langerhans cells (LC) from the skin and their migration, via afferent lymphatics, to draining lymph nodes where they accumulate as immunostimulatory dendritic cells (DC). It has been demonstrated previously that tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) provides an important signal for LC migration and that in the absence of this cytokine, movement of LC from the epidermis to regional lymph nodes is inhibited. Recent evidence indicates that interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta), a cytokine produced in murine epidermis exclusively by LC, may also play a role in LC migration. The purpose of the investigations described here was to clarify, using relevant neutralizing anti-cytokine antibodies, the contributions made by TNF-alpha and IL-1 beta to the migration of LC from the epidermis. It was found that like anti-TNF-alpha, anti-IL-1 beta administered systemically to mice (by intraperitoneal injection), prior to skin sensitization with the contact allergen oxazolone, resulted in a marked inhibition of DC accumulation in draining lymph nodes. It was shown also that anti-IL-1 beta inhibited TNF-alpha-induced LC migration and DC accumulation and that; in similar fashion, the stimulation of LC migration and DC accumulation induced by IL-1 beta was compromised by prior treatment with anti-TNF-alpha. Based upon these data it is proposed that the stimulation of LC migration in response to skin sensitization requires the receipt by LC of two independent signals, one provided by TNF-alpha and the other by IL-1 beta. Morphological analyses of LC in epidermal sheets prepared from animals exposed to these cytokines with or without prior systemic treatment with anti-cytokine antibody suggested that the changes induced in LC by TNF-alpha and IL-1 beta may include the altered expression of adhesion molecules and acquisition of the ability to interact with and pass through the basement membrane. Images

  6. Langerhans cell histiocytosis: literature review and descriptive analysis of oral manifestations.

    PubMed

    Madrigal-Martínez-Pereda, Cristina; Guerrero-Rodríguez, Vanesa; Guisado-Moya, Blanca; Meniz-García, Cristina

    2009-05-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare disease, of unknown pathogenesis, characterized by intense and abnormal proliferation of bone marrow-derived histiocytes (Langerhans cells). It can present both local and systemic manifestations involving bone, skin and mucosal tissue, and internal organs. Three basic clinical forms develop: Letterer-Siwe disease (subacute or acute disseminated form), Hand-Schüller-Christian disease (disseminated chronic form) and eosinophilic granuloma (localized chronic form). LCH may manifest orally with single or multiple lesions of the alveolar or basal bone, ulcerated mucosal lesions accompanied by adenopathies and/or periodontal lesions, presenting gingival inflammation, bleeding, recession, necrosis, odontalgia, dental hypermobility and premature loss of teeth. The principal differential diagnoses include advanced periodontal disease or a periapical process of dental or periodontal origin. The odontologist plays a vital role in the diagnosis and multidisciplinary treatment of such patients, by performing routine examinations for periodic follow-up of the disease and its possible oral manifestations, bearing in mind that these may be the first or only signs of LCH.

  7. Langerhans cell histiocytosis: literature review and descriptive analysis of oral manifestations.

    PubMed

    Madrigal-Martínez-Pereda, Cristina; Guerrero-Rodríguez, Vanesa; Guisado-Moya, Blanca; Meniz-García, Cristina

    2009-05-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare disease, of unknown pathogenesis, characterized by intense and abnormal proliferation of bone marrow-derived histiocytes (Langerhans cells). It can present both local and systemic manifestations involving bone, skin and mucosal tissue, and internal organs. Three basic clinical forms develop: Letterer-Siwe disease (subacute or acute disseminated form), Hand-Schüller-Christian disease (disseminated chronic form) and eosinophilic granuloma (localized chronic form). LCH may manifest orally with single or multiple lesions of the alveolar or basal bone, ulcerated mucosal lesions accompanied by adenopathies and/or periodontal lesions, presenting gingival inflammation, bleeding, recession, necrosis, odontalgia, dental hypermobility and premature loss of teeth. The principal differential diagnoses include advanced periodontal disease or a periapical process of dental or periodontal origin. The odontologist plays a vital role in the diagnosis and multidisciplinary treatment of such patients, by performing routine examinations for periodic follow-up of the disease and its possible oral manifestations, bearing in mind that these may be the first or only signs of LCH. PMID:19218906

  8. [Xanthomas in a patient with Langerhans cell histiocytosis and liver cirrhosis].

    PubMed

    Calzado, Leticia; Postigo, Concepción; Prado Sánchez-Caminero, M; Sanz, Henar; Guerra, Aurora; Vanaclocha, Francisco; Rodríguez-Peralto, José L

    2005-10-01

    Skin involvement in acute forms of Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is in the form of erythematous papules, although rare forms of xanthomatous lesions have been described. We present the case of a boy with acute disseminated LCH who, at the age of 16 months, began to experience outbreaks of seborrheic dermatitis-like skin lesions and progressive hepatic dysfunction. The symptoms were complicated by partial central diabetes insipidus and specific pulmonary infiltration by Langerhans cells, which led to fibrosis. During the course of the disease, the patient developed liver cirrhosis, alterations in the lipid profile and disseminated xanthomatous skin lesions, concomitant with the lesions specific to the LCH. Despite successive cycles of chemotherapy, the outcome was the death of the patient after five years, due to his liver disease. Xanthomatous lesions in LCH are typical of the late stages of chronic progressive forms, such as Hand-Schüller-Christian disease. When they appear in acute disseminated forms, there is some controversy over whether they correspond to a progression of the disease towards more chronic forms, or whether they are associated independent lesions, such as in this case.

  9. Role of multidisciplinary approach in a case of Langerhans cell histiocytosis with initial periodontal manifestations

    PubMed Central

    Cisternino, Angelo; Asa’ad, Farah; Fusco, Nicola; Ferrero, Stefano; Rasperini, Giulio

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare inflammatory myeloid neoplasia of unknown etiology occurring in both children and adults. This condition is characterized by an abnormal proliferation of Langerhans cells that may virtually affect all sites in the human body. Oral manifestations of LCH could be the first clinical sign of disease and its periodontal localization could be easily mistaken for other more common entities, such as chronic periodontitis, aggressive periodontitis, and necrotizing ulcerative periodontitis. Case presentation: A 32-years old female visited a private dental practice with a chief complaint of sensitivity in the mandibular left first molar. Clinical and radiographic examination revealed deep periodontal pocket, recession, furcation involvement, mobility, severe alveolar bone destruction and a diagnosis of aggressive periodontitis was rendered. Multiple tooth extractions were carried out due to progressive periodontal destruction with impaired healing and development of ulcerative lesions. Multidisciplinary investigation demonstrated that the periodontal involvement was a manifestation of an underlying systemic disease. A biopsy of a bone lesion was therefore performed, revealing the presence of multifocal single system LCH. Conclusion: The identification of periodontal LCH is not trivial given that it may clinically resemble other periodontal disease entities. The dentist can be the first health care personnel to unravel the presence of an underlying systemic LCH. PMID:26722570

  10. Isolated Langerhans cell histiocytosis of the sublingual gland in an adult

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shaodong; Chen, Xinming; Zhang, Jiali; Fang, Qiong

    2015-01-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare disorder characterized by the proliferation of pathologic Langerhans cells. Its clinical presentation is highly variable, that range from single-system, limited disease to severe, multi-organ disease with high mortality. LCH usually affects children and young adults. The most frequent sites for LCH are the bone, skin, lung, pituitary gland, and lymph nodes. Salivary gland involvement by LCH is extremely rare, and only a few cases of LHC involving the parotid glands have been reported in the English literature. To our knowledge, the involvement of the sublingual gland as a part of single or multisystem LCH has not been previously described. Herein we reported the first case of primary LCH of the sublingual gland. A 40-year-old woman presented with a 2-month history of a painless mass on the right sublingual area. Excision of the lesion including the right sublingual gland was performed. Histopathological diagnosis of LCH was rendered. The patient remains free of symptoms 17 months after surgery. PMID:26722591

  11. Molecular analysis of human papillomavirus virus-like particle activated Langerhans cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Woodham, Andrew W; Raff, Adam B; Da Silva, Diane M; Kast, W Martin

    2015-01-01

    Langerhans cells (LC) are the resident antigen-presenting cells in human epithelium, and are therefore responsible for initiating immune responses against human papillomaviruses (HPV) entering the epithelial and mucosal layers in vivo. Upon proper pathogenic stimulation, LC become activated causing an internal signaling cascade that results in the up-regulation of co-stimulatory molecules and the release of inflammatory cytokines. Activated LC then migrate to lymph nodes where they interact with antigen-specific T cells and initiate an adaptive T-cell response. However, HPV manipulates LC in a suppressive manner that alters these normal maturation responses. Here, in vitro LC activation assays for the detection of phosphorylated signaling intermediates, the up-regulation of activation-associated surface markers, and the release of inflammatory cytokines in response to HPV particles are described.

  12. Langerhans cells and more: langerin-expressing dendritic cell subsets in the skin

    PubMed Central

    Romani, Nikolaus; Clausen, Björn E.; Stoitzner, Patrizia

    2010-01-01

    Summary Langerhans cells (LCs) are antigen-presenting dendritic cells (DCs) that reside in epithelia. The best studied example is the LC of the epidermis. By electron microscopy, their identifying feature is the unique rod- or tennis racket-shaped Birbeck granule. The phenotypic hallmark is their expression of the C-type lectin receptor langerin/CD207. Langerin, however, is also expressed on a recently discovered population of DC in the dermis and other tissues of the body. These ‘dermal langerin+ dendritic cells’ are unrelated to LCs. The complex field of langerin-negative dermal DCs is not dealt with here. In this article, we briefly review the history, ontogeny, and homeostasis of LCs. More emphasis is laid on the discussion of functional properties in vivo. Novel models using genetically engineered mice are contributing tremendously to our understanding of the role of LCs in eliciting adaptive immune responses against pathogens or tumors and in inducing and maintaining tolerance against self antigens and innocuous substances in vivo. Also, innate effector functions are increasingly being recognized. Current activities in this area are reviewed, and possibilities for future exploitation of LC in medicine, e.g. for the improvement of vaccines, are contemplated. PMID:20193016

  13. Haematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation for Refractory Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis: Outcome by Intensity of Conditioning

    PubMed Central

    Veys, Paul A.; Nanduri, Vasanta; Baker, K. Scott; He, Wensheng; Bandini, Giuseppe; Biondi, Andrea; Dalissier, Arnaud; Davis, Jeffrey H.; Eames, Gretchen M.; Egeler, R. Maarten; Filipovich, Alexandra H.; Fischer, Alain; Jürgens, Herbert; Krance, Robert; Lanino, Edoardo; Leung, Wing H.; Matthes, Susanne; Michel, Gérard; Orchard, Paul J.; Pieczonka, Anna; Ringdén, Olle; Schlegel, Paul G.; Sirvent, Anne; Vettenranta, Kim; Eapen, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Summary Patients with Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) refractory to conventional chemotherapy have a poor outcome. There are currently two promising treatment strategies for high-risk patients: the first involves the combination of 2-chlorodeoxyadenosine and cytarbine; the other approach is allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Here we evaluated 87 patients with high-risk LCH who were transplanted between 1990–2013. Prior to the year 2000, most patients underwent HSCT following myeloablative conditioning (MAC): only 5 of 20 patients (25%) survived with a high rate (55%) of transplant-related mortality (TRM). After the year 2000 an increasing number of patients underwent HSCT with reduced intensity conditioning (RIC): 49/67 (73%) patients survived, however, the improved survival was not overtly achieved by the introduction of RIC regimens with similar 3-year probability of survival after MAC (77%) and RIC transplantation (71%). There was no significant difference in TRM by conditioning regimen intensity but relapse rates were higher after RIC compared to MAC regimens (28% vs. 8%, p=0.02), although most patients relapsing after RIC transplantation could be salvaged with further chemotherapy. HSCT may be a curative approach in 3 out of 4 patients with high risk LCH refractory to chemotherapy: the optimal choice of HSCT conditioning remains uncertain. PMID:25817915

  14. Markers of Epidermal Stem Cell Subpopulations in Adult Mammalian Skin

    PubMed Central

    Kretzschmar, Kai; Watt, Fiona M.

    2014-01-01

    The epidermis is the outermost layer of mammalian skin and comprises a multilayered epithelium, the interfollicular epidermis, with associated hair follicles, sebaceous glands, and eccrine sweat glands. As in other epithelia, adult stem cells within the epidermis maintain tissue homeostasis and contribute to repair of tissue damage. The bulge of hair follicles, where DNA-label-retaining cells reside, was traditionally regarded as the sole epidermal stem cell compartment. However, in recent years multiple stem cell populations have been identified. In this review, we discuss the different stem cell compartments of adult murine and human epidermis, the markers that they express, and the assays that are used to characterize epidermal stem cell properties. PMID:24993676

  15. Familial papular epidermal nevus with "skyline" basal cell layer.

    PubMed

    Brena, Michela; Besagni, Francesca; Boneschi, Vinicio; Tadini, Gianluca

    2014-01-01

    Papular epidermal nevus with "skyline" basal cell layer (PENS), a novel keratinocytic nevus, has recently been described as a mosaic condition with varying presentations. We herein describe typical PENS lesions, which usually occur sporadically, affecting two members of the same family. The concept of paradominant inheritance is proposed to explain the paradox of occasional transmission of normally sporadically occurring traits.

  16. Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis in an Infant Mimicking a Lymphoma at Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Madasu, Anjan; Noor Rana, Asim; Banat, Saleh; Humad, Hani; Mustafa, Rashid; AlJassmi, Abdulrahman Mohd

    2015-01-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare disorder characterized by proliferation and accumulation of clonal dendritic cells with varied clinical presentation and an unpredictable course. We report a 5-month-old infant with LCH who presented with severe respiratory distress, a large mediastinal mass, significant generalized lymphadenopathy, and hepatosplenomegaly. Lymphoma, especially T cell lymphoblastic lymphoma, can present with superior mediastinal syndrome needing urgent empirical therapy without biopsy. However, lack of response prompted a biopsy which confirmed it to be a case of LCH and that leads to appropriate therapy and survival. There have been reports of LCH presenting with isolated mediastinal mass or with generalized lymphadenopathy, but the combined presentation of generalized lymphadenopathy with large mediastinal mass, hepatosplenomegaly, and fever in an infant has rarely been reported. Conclusion. LCH should also be considered in the differential diagnosis of an infant presenting with generalized lymphadenopathy, mediastinal mass, hepatosplenomegaly, and fever. PMID:26587301

  17. The circadian molecular clock creates epidermal stem cell heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Janich, Peggy; Pascual, Gloria; Merlos-Suárez, Anna; Batlle, Eduard; Ripperger, Jürgen; Albrecht, Urs; Cheng, Hai-Ying M; Obrietan, Karl; Di Croce, Luciano; Benitah, Salvador Aznar

    2011-11-09

    Murine epidermal stem cells undergo alternate cycles of dormancy and activation, fuelling tissue renewal. However, only a subset of stem cells becomes active during each round of morphogenesis, indicating that stem cells coexist in heterogeneous responsive states. Using a circadian-clock reporter-mouse model, here we show that the dormant hair-follicle stem cell niche contains coexisting populations of cells at opposite phases of the clock, which are differentially predisposed to respond to homeostatic cues. The core clock protein Bmal1 modulates the expression of stem cell regulatory genes in an oscillatory manner, to create populations that are either predisposed, or less prone, to activation. Disrupting this clock equilibrium, through deletion of Bmal1 (also known as Arntl) or Per1/2, resulted in a progressive accumulation or depletion of dormant stem cells, respectively. Stem cell arrhythmia also led to premature epidermal ageing, and a reduction in the development of squamous tumours. Our results indicate that the circadian clock fine-tunes the temporal behaviour of epidermal stem cells, and that its perturbation affects homeostasis and the predisposition to tumorigenesis.

  18. Why do so many petals have conical epidermal cells?

    PubMed Central

    Whitney, Heather M.; Bennett, K. M. Veronica; Dorling, Matthew; Sandbach, Lucy; Prince, David; Chittka, Lars; Glover, Beverley J.

    2011-01-01

    Background The conical epidermal cells found on the petals of most Angiosperm species are so widespread that they have been used as markers of petal identity, but their function has only been analysed in recent years. This review brings together diverse data on the role of these cells in pollination biology. Scope The published effects of conical cells on petal colour, petal reflexing, scent production, petal wettability and pollinator grip on the flower surface are considered. Of these factors, pollinator grip has been shown to be of most significance in the well-studied Antirrhinum majus/bumble-bee system. Published data on the relationship between epidermal cell morphology and floral temperature were limited, so an analysis of the effects of cell shape on floral temperature in Antirrhinum is presented here. Statistically significant warming by conical cells was not detected, although insignificant trends towards faster warming at dawn were found, and it was also found that flat-celled flowers could be warmer on warm days. The warming observed is less significant than that achieved by varying pigment content. However, the possibility that the effect of conical cells on temperature might be biologically significant in certain specific instances such as marginal habitats or weather conditions cannot be ruled out. Conclusions Conical epidermal cells can influence a diverse set of petal properties. The fitness benefits they provide to plants are likely to vary with pollinator and habitat, and models are now required to understand how these different factors interact. PMID:21470973

  19. Estimating the Size of Onion Epidermal Cells from Diffraction Patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groff, Jeffrey R.

    2012-10-01

    Bioscience and premedical profession students are a major demographic served by introductory physics courses at many colleges and universities. Exposing these students to biological applications of physical principles will help them to appreciate physics as a useful tool for their future professions. Here I describe an experiment suitable for introductory physics where principles of wave optics are applied to probe the size of onion epidermal cells. The epidermis tissue is composed of cells of relatively uniform size and shape (Fig. 1) so the tissue acts like a one-dimensional transmission diffraction grating. The diffraction patterns generated when a laser beam passes through the tissue (Fig. 2) are analyzed and an estimate of the average width of individual onion epidermal cells is calculated. The results are compared to direct measurements taken using a light microscope. The use of microscopes and plant-cell tissue slides creates opportunities for cross-discipline collaboration between physics and biology instructors.

  20. Solitary Langerhans cell histiocytosis of the hard palate: a diagnostic pitfall

    PubMed Central

    Varsha, Dalal; Kaur, Manveen; Chaudhary, Neena; Siraj, Fouzia

    2016-01-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a relatively rare and unique disease characterized by an abnormal proliferation of immature dendritic cells. It is predominantly seen in children with adults showing less than ten times the incidence compared to childhood. The clinical presentation and organ involvement is highly variable. Oral manifestations generally consist of mucosal ulceration associated with lesions of the underlying bone. Lesions limited to the oral mucosa are rare. We present a case of a 45-year-old male who presented with an ulcer on the hard palate showing histopathologic features of LCH. The present case is a reminder of the possibility of occurrence of this unusual entity in the oral cavity. Appropriate use of immunohistochemistry is advocated to avoid diagnostic pitfalls. PMID:27703428

  1. Langerhans cell histiocytosis with multisystem involvement in an infant: A case report

    PubMed Central

    BI, LINTAO; SUN, BUTONG; LU, ZHENXIA; SHI, ZHANGZHEN; WANG, DAN; ZHU, ZHENXING

    2015-01-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a proliferative disease of histiocyte-like cells, with a wide range of clinical presentations that vary from a solitary lesion to more severe multifocal or disseminated lesions. The disease can affect any age group; however, the peak incidence rate is in infants aged between 1 and 3 years-old. Diagnosis of LCH should be based on the synthetical analysis of clinical presentations, in addition to features of imaging and histopathology. Although certain cases regress spontaneously, other patients require systemic chemotherapy together with the administration of steroids. The present study reports the case of an infant with LDH with multisystem involvement, including that of the bone, skin, orbit, spleen and lungs. The patient received chemotherapy and obtained rapid improvement in the involved systems. A total of 2.5 years after completion of the therapy, the patient still remains in follow-up and no evidence of active disease has been noted. PMID:26136948

  2. Female genital tract immunization: evaluation of candidate immunoadjuvants on epithelial cell secretion of CCL20 and dendritic/Langerhans cell maturation.

    PubMed

    Cremel, Magali; Hamzeh-Cognasse, Hind; Genin, Christian; Delézay, Olivier

    2006-07-17

    The female genital tract is an important site for numerous pathogens entry. Local immunization, generating specific mucosal IgA and systemic IgG, represents an interesting alternative immunization pathway. However, such a vaccine strategy needs mucosal adjuvants to obtain the best immune response. Considering that the immunization process is mainly dependent on the capture and on the transport of the antigen by Langerhans cells, we evaluated potential adjuvant molecules by analysing their effects on the CCL20 secretion by endocervical and exocervical/vaginal epithelial cells as well as on dendritic cell and Langerhans cell maturation. We demonstrated that DC-Chol and Zymosan are the most efficient mucosal candidate immunoadjuvants that generate a strong increase of CCL20 secretion by the two epithelial cell lines and the maturation of dendritic and Langerhans cells, respectively.

  3. Flow-cytometric DNA content of histiocytosis X (Langerhans cell histiocytosis).

    PubMed Central

    Rabkin, M. S.; Wittwer, C. T.; Kjeldsberg, C. R.; Piepkorn, M. W.

    1988-01-01

    Retrospective DNA-content analysis was performed by flow cytometry on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue from 36 patients with histiocytosis X (Langerhans cell histiocytosis). Included were 17 patients with solitary bone lesions, 4 patients with multiple bone lesions, 2 patients with solitary extraosseous lesions, 1 patient with congenital self-healing histiocytosis, and 12 patients with disseminated disease. The diagnosis was in each case verified by review of the clinical history and histopathologic material. None of the cases displayed significant cytologic atypia. DNA content analysis failed to reveal additional G0-G1 peaks or "shoulders" suggestive of aneuploid subpopulations in any case. Full-peak coefficients of variation ranged from 3.8 to 8.0. Our data suggest that despite a prior report of a single aneuploid case of histiocytosis X, DNA content analysis may not be useful in predicting clinical stage and outcome in this disease. Images Figure 1 PMID:3258734

  4. Pulmonary Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis and Diabetes Insipidus in a Young Smoker

    PubMed Central

    Earlam, K.; Souza, C. A.; Glikstein, R.; Gomes, M. M.; Pakhalé, S.

    2016-01-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis is characterized by the abnormal nodular proliferation of histiocytes in various organ systems. Pulmonary involvement seen in young adults is nearly always seen in the context of past or current cigarette smoking. Although it tends to be a single-system disease, extrapulmonary manifestations involving the skin, bone, and hypothalamic-pituitary-axis are possible. High resolution CT (HRCT) of the thorax findings includes centrilobular nodules and cysts that are bizarre in shape, variable in size, and thin-walled. Often the diagnosis can be made based on the appropriate clinical presentation and typical imaging findings. Treatment includes smoking cessation and the potential use of glucocorticoids or cytotoxic agents depending on the severity of disease and multisystem involvement. PMID:27445532

  5. A Rare Case of Erdheim-Chester Disease and Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis Overlap Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Nabi, Shahzaib; Arshad, Adeel; Jain, Tarun; Virk, Fawad; Gulati, Rohit; Awdish, Rana

    2015-01-01

    A 48-year-old woman with a past medical history of seizures and end-stage renal disease secondary to obstructive uropathy from retroperitoneal fibrosis presented to the emergency department with seizures and altered mental status. A Glasgow Coma Scale of 4 prompted intubation, and she was subsequently admitted to the intensive care unit. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain performed to elucidate the aetiology of her seizure showed a dural-based mass within the left temporoparietal lobe as well as mass lesions within the orbits. Further imaging showed extensive retroperitoneal fibrosis extending to the mediastinum with involvement of aorta and posterior pleural space. Imaging of the long bones showed bilateral sclerosis and cortical thickening of the diaphyses. Imaging of the maxillofacial structures showed osseous destructive lesions involving the mandible. These clinical and radiological features were consistent with a diagnosis of Erdheim-Chester disease; however, the patient's skin biopsy was consistent with Langerhans cell histiocytosis. PMID:26579323

  6. Pulmonary Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis and Diabetes Insipidus in a Young Smoker.

    PubMed

    Earlam, K; Souza, C A; Glikstein, R; Gomes, M M; Pakhalé, S

    2016-01-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis is characterized by the abnormal nodular proliferation of histiocytes in various organ systems. Pulmonary involvement seen in young adults is nearly always seen in the context of past or current cigarette smoking. Although it tends to be a single-system disease, extrapulmonary manifestations involving the skin, bone, and hypothalamic-pituitary-axis are possible. High resolution CT (HRCT) of the thorax findings includes centrilobular nodules and cysts that are bizarre in shape, variable in size, and thin-walled. Often the diagnosis can be made based on the appropriate clinical presentation and typical imaging findings. Treatment includes smoking cessation and the potential use of glucocorticoids or cytotoxic agents depending on the severity of disease and multisystem involvement. PMID:27445532

  7. A case of invasive Langerhans cell histiocytosis localizing only in the lung and diagnosed as pneumothorax in an adolescent female

    PubMed Central

    Dejima, Hitoshi; Morita, Shigeki; Takahashi, Yusuke; Matsutani, Noriyuki; Iinuma, Hisae; Kondo, Fukuo; Kawamura, Masafumi

    2015-01-01

    In infants, Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is associated with poor clinical outcomes as Langerhans cells invade and damage multiple organs, a presentation that is different from that in adults. Here, we present a case of a 15-year-old female who visited ourclinic complaining of right chest pain and dyspnea. She was diagnosed with right pneumothorax by chest X-ray. Chest computed tomography showed multiple cystic changes in the bilateral lung. Additionally, bullous lesions occupying the upper lobe and multiple white tiny nodules on the surface of the lung were observed by thoracoscopy. These nodules comprised proliferating atypical CD1a/S-100-positive cells invading the pulmonary parenchyma, leading to the diagnosis of LCH. Because of the extensive invasion into the pulmonary parenchyma, chemotherapy was administered. This case of LCH was unique in that the age of onset was atypical and the tumor cells occupied a single organ, despite their malignant behavior. PMID:26045867

  8. Detection of Epstein-Barr Virus DNA in Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Khoddami, Maliheh; Nadji, Seyed Alireza; Dehghanian, Paria; Vahdatinia, Mahsa; Shamshiri, Ahmad Reza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare histiocytic proliferation of unknown etiology. It is characterized by granuloma-like proliferation of Langerhans-type dendritic cells and mainly affects young children. Although multiple investigators have suggested the possible role of viruses, such as Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6), Herpes simplex virus (HSV) types 1 and 2, and Cytomegalovirus (CMV) in the pathogenesis of LCH, it remains, however, debated. Objectives: The EBV infection is reported to be associated with LCH. Nevertheless, no report could be found about involved Iranian children in English medical literature. In this study, we investigated the presence of EBV in Iranian children with LCH. Patients and Methods: In this retrospective study, in which we investigated the prevalence of presence of EBV DNA in LCH, using paraffin-embedded tissue samples of 30 patients with LCH and 30 age and tissue-matched controls, who were operated for reasons other than infectious diseases (between the years 2002 and 2012), by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method, in the department of pediatric pathology. No ethical issues arose in the study, because only the pathology reports were reviewed, retrospectively, and the patients were anonymous. Results: There was a significant difference in prevalence of EBV presence between patients and controls. The EBV was found by RT-PCR in 19 (63.33%) out of 30 patients and only in eight (26.7%) of 30 control samples. The P = 0.004, was calculated using chi-square test (OR: 4.75; 95% CI: 1.58 ‒ 14.25). Conclusions: Our study is the first investigation performed on patients with LCH and its possible association with EBV in Iran. Considering the P = 0.004, which is statistically significant, the findings do support the hypothesis of a possible role for EBV in the pathogenesis of LCH. These results are in accordance with several previous investigations, with positive findings. PMID:26870310

  9. Pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis: analysis of 14 patients and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Li, Cheng-Wei; Li, Man-Hui; Li, Jiang-Xiong; Tao, Ru-Jia; Xu, Jin-Fu

    2016-01-01

    Background Pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis (PLCH) is an orphan disease in respiratory medicine, which most affects adult smokers. The purpose of this article was to discuss the clinical features, especially the radiologic features of PLCH patients during their hospitalization through a retrospective analysis on clinical data. Furthermore, the current literature was also reviewed. Methods Between December 2008 and June 2012, 14 patients with PLCH were assessed at Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China. Among these patients, seven patients were diagnosed through tissue biopsy from the lung and one patient from enlarged cervical lymph nodes; the rest of six patients were diagnosed based on the clinical-radiological data. The data consisting of demographics, clinical presentation, smoking habits, pulmonary function tests (PFTs) and radiographic image from the medical records was analyzed retrospectively. Results The average age of patients (11 males and 3 females) was 42.79 (±13.71) years old. All male patients and one female patient had a long smoking history. The common manifestations were cough and exertional dyspnea. Spontaneous pneumothorax was found in three patients. Varieties of pulmonary shadows such as nodular, cystic, patch-like and cord-like were revealed by chest computed tomography (CT) examination. Large Langerhans cells (LCs) were discovered in biopsy tissue by immunohistochemical stains. Conclusions PLCH is still an orphan disease and maybe related to smoking. Clinical symptoms such as cough and exertional dyspnea are non-specific. We shall pay attention to recurrent pneumothorax as clinically it is associated with PLCH. The characteristic radiological manifestation is cystic or nodular shadow in the lungs, which plays crucial roles in diagnosing PLCH. PMID:27293848

  10. Spatiotemporal coordination of stem cell commitment during epidermal homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Rompolas, Panteleimon; Mesa, Kailin R.; Kawaguchi, Kyogo; Park, Sangbum; Gonzalez, David; Brown, Samara; Boucher, Jonathan; Klein, Allon M.; Greco, Valentina

    2016-01-01

    Adult tissues replace lost cells via pools of stem cells. However, the mechanisms of cell self-renewal, commitment, and functional integration into the tissue remain unsolved. Using imaging techniques in live mice, we captured the lifetime of individual cells in the ear and paw epidermis. Our data suggest that epidermal stem cells have equal potential to either divide or directly differentiate. Tracking stem cells over multiple generations reveals that cell behavior is not coordinated between generations. However, sibling cell fate and lifetimes are coupled. We did not observe regulated asymmetric cell divisions. Lastly, we demonstrated that differentiating stem cells integrate into preexisting ordered spatial units of the epidermis. This study elucidates how a tissue is maintained by both temporal and spatial coordination of stem cell behaviors. PMID:27229141

  11. EGFR-Ras-Raf Signaling in Epidermal Stem Cells: Roles in Hair Follicle Development, Regeneration, Tissue Remodeling and Epidermal Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Doma, Eszter; Rupp, Christian; Baccarini, Manuela

    2013-01-01

    The mammalian skin is the largest organ of the body and its outermost layer, the epidermis, undergoes dynamic lifetime renewal through the activity of somatic stem cell populations. The EGFR-Ras-Raf pathway has a well-described role in skin development and tumor formation. While research mainly focuses on its role in cutaneous tumor initiation and maintenance, much less is known about Ras signaling in the epidermal stem cells, which are the main targets of skin carcinogenesis. In this review, we briefly discuss the properties of the epidermal stem cells and review the role of EGFR-Ras-Raf signaling in keratinocyte stem cells during homeostatic and pathological conditions. PMID:24071938

  12. Interkeukin-34, a cytokine crucial for the differentiation and maintenance of tissue resident macrophages and Langerhans cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yaming; Colonna, Marco

    2014-01-01

    IL-34 is a recently discovered cytokine that acts on tissue resident macrophages and Langerhans cells upon binding the receptor for CSF-1, CSF-1R. The existence of two ligands for CSF-1R, IL-34, and CSF-1, raises several intriguing questions. Are IL-34 and CSF-1 redundant or does each perform temporally and spatially distinct functions? Is IL-34 involved in human pathology? Would therapeutic strategies based on selective inhibition or administration of either IL-34 or CSF-1 be advantageous for preventing human pathology? Recent in vivo studies indicate that IL-34 promotes the development, survival, and function of microglia and Langerhans cells; therefore, this cytokine may predominately function in brain and skin biology. Here, we review the evidence for IL-34 as a key cytokine in the development and function of these two diverse cell types and discuss its potential role in pathological conditions. PMID:24737461

  13. A rare case of solitary brain Langerhans cell histiocytosis with intratumoral hemorrhage in a patient affected by Turner syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Granata, Francesca; Morabito, Rosa; Grasso, Giovanni; Alafaci, Elisabetta; Salpietro, Francesco M.; Alafaci, Concetta

    2016-01-01

    Background: Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare disease involving clonal proliferation of cells with characteristics similar to bone marrow-derived Langerhans cells. The case of a young woman, affected by Turner syndrome and a solitary intraparenchymal LCH associated with an osteolytic lesion of the overlying skull, is presented. Case Description: The patient, with an insidious history of headache and a growing soft mass in the left frontal region, presented with a sudden generalized tonic-clonic epileptic seizure. Neuroradiological investigations showed an osteolytic lesion of the left frontal bone and an underlying brain lesion associated with recent signs of bleeding. The patient was operated on with a complete removal of the lesion. The postoperative course was uneventful. Conclusions: The clinical, neuroradiological, and intraoperative findings are presented, along with a review of the literature. Although rare, LCH should be considered in the differential diagnosis when a scalp lesion occurs with a progressive growing. PMID:27127696

  14. A mathematical model of β-cells in an islet of Langerhans sensing a glucose gradient.

    PubMed

    Meyer-Hermann, Michael; Benninger, Richard K P

    2010-04-01

    Pancreatic β-cells release insulin in response to increased glucose levels. Compared to isolated β-cells, β-cells embedded within the islets of Langerhans network exhibit a coordinated and greater insulin secretion response to glucose. This coordinated activity is considered to rely on gap-junctions. We investigated the β-cell electrophysiology and the calcium dynamics in islets in response to glucose gradients. While at constant glucose the network of β-cells fires in a correlated fashion, a glucose gradient induces a sharp division into an active and an inactive part. We hypothesized that this sharp transition is mediated by the specific properties of the gap-junctions. We used a mathematical model of the β-cell electrophysiology in islets to discuss possible origins of this sharp transition in electrical activity. In silico, gap-junctions were required for such a transition. However, the small width of transition was only found when a stochastic variability of the expression of key transmembrane proteins, such as the ATP-dependent potassium channel, was included. The agreement with experimental data was further improved by assuming a delay of gap-junction currents, which points to a role of spatial constraints in the β-cell. This result clearly demonstrates the power of mathematical modeling in disentangling causal relationships in complex systems.

  15. A multicentre retrospective survey of Langerhans' cell histiocytosis: 348 cases observed between 1983 and 1993. The French Langerhans' Cell Histiocytosis Study Group.

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    In a retrospective study involving 32 haematology/oncology departments in France, 348 cases of Langerhans' cell histiocytosis diagnosed between 1983 and 1993 were collated. The percentage of males was 56.4%. Median age at diagnosis was 30.2 months. The median follow up was 35.5 months. Initially, 108 patients (31%) had isolated unifocal or bifocal bone involvement, 67 (19%) had isolated multifocal bone involvement, 136 (39%) had soft tissue involvement without organ dysfunction, and 37 (11%) had organ dysfunction. Two thirds of the sites of involvement diagnosed throughout the course of the disease were present at diagnosis, while the remaining one third appeared during a relapse. Treatment was tailored to the individual patient and was extremely varied, hampering any comparison of regimens. Vinblastine with or without steroids was the most common regimen when systemic chemotherapy was used for the first episode (246/348). Twenty four of the 216 patients received VP 16 as first line treatment. Two patients with progressive multiorgan relapse, despite the use of several drugs, underwent bone marrow transplantation and are alive and disease free 60 and 22 months later. Altogether 21.9% of patients had sequelae, including diabetes insipidus in 17.5% of cases. The overall survival rate is 91.7% (confidence interval 90.7 to 95%) three years after diagnosis. In the univariate analysis, age less than 1 year, ear, nose, and throat, cutaneous, lymph node, liver, spleen, lung, marrow and intestinal involvement, male sex, progressive episodes, the absence of response, and partial responses, were associated with a poor vital prognosis. In a multivariate analysis of prognostic factors, poor early outcome emerged as the most important parameter, closely linked to other poor outcome features such as young age and organ dysfunction. It identified a small number of patients with a poor initial response to treatment, for whom intensive treatment should be assessed in a phase II

  16. Long-term effects of local ionizing radiation treatment on Langerhans cells in mouse footpad epidermis

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, S.

    1986-11-01

    Langerhans cells (LC) were studied with ADPase histochemistry in sheets of hind footpad epidermis from groups of CBA/H mice. Single, local 20-Gy doses of 250-kV x-rays were administered to the right hind feet of the mice when they were 3-4 months old, and LC were counted at intervals ranging from 2 to 24 months later. In unirradiated mice, aged 5-19 months, the mean density of LC in footpad was 1521-1617 cells/mm2. It dropped to 1137 +/- 86 cells/mm2 (mean +/- SE) in untreated 28-month-old mice. At times from 2-15 months after irradiation, normal mean densities of LC were present in footpad epidermis. On average, LC numbers were subsequently reduced to 1078 +/- 65/mm2 by 19 months after irradiation (71% of the cells in age-matched controls) and to 789 +/- 53/mm2 by 24 months (59% of the cells in age-matched controls). Loss of cells was focal. Chronic radiation-induced fibrosis and damage to circulatory function in skin may have contributed to impaired replacement of LC from bone marrow precursors. The possibility that late radiation-related depletion of the LC population permits development of skin tumors as a delayed consequence of exposure to ionizing radiation is discussed.

  17. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-17 differently affects Langerhans cell distribution and activation in an innovative three-dimensional model of normal human skin.

    PubMed

    Prignano, Francesca; Arnaboldi, Francesca; Cornaghi, Laura; Landoni, Federica; Tripo, Lara; Preis, Franz William Baruffaldi; Donetti, Elena

    2015-02-01

    Among the several cytokines involved in the psoriasis pathogenesis, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and interleukin (IL)-17 play a central role. Many biomolecular steps remain unknown due to difficulty to obtain psoriatic models. To investigate the effect of TNF-alpha and IL-17 on the ultrastructure, immunophenotype, and number of epidermal Langerhans cells (LCs), human skin explants (n=7) were cultured air-liquid interface in a Transwell system. Four different conditions were used: medium alone (control), medium added with 100 ng/ml TNF-alpha or 50 ng/ml IL-17 or a combination of both cytokines. Samples were harvested 24 and 48 h after cytokine addition and were frozen. Samples harvested at 24h were also processed for transmission electron microscopy (TEM). By immunofluorescence analysis with anti-human Langerin antibody (three experiments/sample) we calculated the percentage of LCs/mm(2) of living epidermis after 24 and 48 h of incubation (considering control as 100%). At 24h LC number was significantly higher in samples treated with both cytokines (216.71+15.10%; p<0.001) and in TNF-alpha (125.74+26.24%; p<0.05). No differences were observed in IL-17-treated samples (100.14+38.42%). After 48 h, the number of epidermal Langerin-positive cells in IL-17- and TNF-alpha treated samples slightly decreased (94.99+36.79% and 101.37+23% vs. their controls, respectively). With the combination of both cytokines epidermal LCs strongly decreased (120+13.36%). By TEM, upon TNF-alpha stimulus LCs appeared with few organelles, mostly mitochondria, lysosomes, and scattered peripherical BGs. Upon IL-17 stimulus, LCs showed a cytoplasm with many mitochondria and numerous BGs close to the perinuclear space and Golgi apparatus, but also at the periphery, at the beginning of the dendrites. The addition of both cytokines did not affect LC ultrastructure. Our study showed that IL-17 induced significant changes in LC ultrastructure, while the combination of both cytokines seems to

  18. Human dermal stem cells differentiate into functional epidermal melanocytes.

    PubMed

    Li, Ling; Fukunaga-Kalabis, Mizuho; Yu, Hong; Xu, Xiaowei; Kong, Jun; Lee, John T; Herlyn, Meenhard

    2010-03-15

    Melanocytes sustain a lifelong proliferative potential, but a stem cell reservoir in glabrous skin has not yet been found. Here, we show that multipotent dermal stem cells isolated from human foreskins lacking hair follicles are able to home to the epidermis to differentiate into melanocytes. These dermal stem cells, grown as three-dimensional spheres, displayed a capacity for self-renewal and expressed NGFRp75, nestin and OCT4, but not melanocyte markers. In addition, cells derived from single-cell clones were able to differentiate into multiple lineages including melanocytes. In a three-dimensional skin equivalent model, sphere-forming cells differentiated into HMB45-positive melanocytes, which migrated from the dermis to the epidermis and aligned singly among the basal layer keratinocytes in a similar fashion to pigmented melanocytes isolated from the epidermis. The dermal stem cells were negative for E-cadherin and N-cadherin, whereas they acquired E-cadherin expression and lost NGFRp75 expression upon contact with epidermal keratinocytes. These results demonstrate that stem cells in the dermis of human skin with neural-crest-like characteristics can become mature epidermal melanocytes. This finding could significantly change our understanding of the etiological factors in melanocyte transformation and pigmentation disorders; specifically, that early epigenetic or genetic alterations leading to transformation may take place in the dermis rather than in the epidermis.

  19. [Successful treatment with total cranial irradiation for central nervous system involvement of Langerhans cell sarcoma during chemotherapy].

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Noriharu; Yamazaki, Hirohito; Yamashita, Takeshi; Kondo, Yukio; Nakao, Shinji

    2016-01-01

    Langerhans cell sarcoma (LCS) is an extremely rare neoplasm of Langerhans cell origin characterized by systemic involvement and a poor prognosis. There are, however, few reports of LCS with central nervous system involvement. We experienced a patient with LCS recurrence in the brain that appeared during systemic chemotherapy. The brains lesions eventually responded to total cranial irradiation. A 60-year-old female presented with systemic lymphadenopathy. LCS was diagnosed based on neck lymph node biopsy findings. Two cycles of ESHAP induced marked regression of her lymphadenopathy, but FDG-PET/CT scan revealed new lesions in the central nervous system and her disorientation gradually worsened. We administered 37.5 Gy of total cranial irradiation which improved her consciousness and shrank the brain tumors as demonstrated by MRI. The patient's clinical course indicates that radiation therapy may be effective for central nervous system involvement of LCS even if the lesion is resistant to systemic chemotherapy. PMID:26861100

  20. Langerhans' cell histiocytosis involving posterior elements of the dorsal spine: An unusual cause of extradural spinal mass in an adult.

    PubMed

    Tyagi, Devendra K; Balasubramaniam, Srikant; Savant, Hemant V

    2011-07-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a clonal proliferation of Langerhans cells occurring as an isolated lesion or as part of a systemic proliferation. It is commoner in children younger than 10 years of age with sparing of the posterior elements in more than 95% of cases. We describe a case of LCH in an adult female presenting with paraplegia. MRI revealed a well-defined extradural contrast enhancing mass at D2-D4 vertebral level involving the posterior elements of spine. D2-5 laminectomy with excision of lesion was performed which lead to marked improvement of patients neurological status. Histopathology was suggestive of eosinophilic granuloma. We describe the case, discuss its uniqueness and review the literature on this rare tumor presentation.

  1. Adult Onset of BRAFV600E-Mutated Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis with Cutaneous Involvement Successfully Diagnosed by Immunohistochemical Staining

    PubMed Central

    Tono, Hisayuki; Fujimura, Taku; Kakizaki, Aya; Furudate, Sadanori; Ishibashi, Masaya; Aiba, Setsuya

    2015-01-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is characterized by the clonal proliferation of Langerhans cells; it is categorized as a single-system disease with single or multifocal lesions, and as a multi-system disease with or without the risk of organ involvement. Although the skin is not categorized as a risk organ, the precise diagnosis of skin lesions is necessary to determine the protocol for the treatment of LCH. In this report, we describe a 28-year-old Japanese man with adult onset of BRAFV600E-mutated LCH with cutaneous involvement successfully diagnosed by immunohistochemical staining. Our report suggests that immunohistochemical staining for the BRAFV600E gene could be a diagnostic tool to determine the clinical type of LCH. PMID:26500535

  2. Severe Periodontal Disease Manifested in Chronic Disseminated Type of Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis in a 3-Year Old Child

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Vinay Kumar; Bansal, Rajesh; Gupta, Vineeta; Bansal, Manish; Patne, Shashikant

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT% Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH), previously known as histio-cytosis X, is a rare idiopathic disorder of reticulo-endothelial system with abnormal proliferation of bone marrow derived Langerhans cells along with a variable number of leukocytes, such as eosinophils, neutrophils, lymphocytes and plasma cells. Three years old male child presented with multifocal osteolytic lesions and papulosquamous skin lesions. Clinical and radio-graphic features, such as severe alveolar bone loss, mobility of teeth, precocious eruption of teeth, foating appearance of teeth in orthopantomogram (OPG), osteolytic lesion in skull and cutaneous lesions were highly suggestive of LCH disease. Skin biopsy confirmed a diagnosis of LCH. Induction chemotherapy with oral prednisolone and intravenous vinblastine was started. Child responded well to chemotherapy. The clinical significance of the presented case is to diagnose the case of LCH on the basis of the manifestation of severe periodontal disease as this can be first or only manifestation of LCH. A dentist plays a major role in the multidisciplinary treatment of LCH through routine examination and periodic follow-up. How to cite this article: Bansal M, Srivastava VK, Bansal R, Gupta V, Bansal M, Patne S. Severe Periodontal Disease Manifested in Chronic Disseminated Type of Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis in a 3-Year Old Child. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014;7(3):217-219. PMID:25709306

  3. Successful outcome of Langerhans cell histiocytosis complicated by therapy-related myelodysplasia and acute myeloid leukemia: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Al-Anazi, Khalid A; Alshehri, Abdulrahman; Al-Zahrani, Hazza A; Al-Mohareb, Fahad I; Maghfoor, Irfan; Ajarim, Dahish

    2008-01-01

    Background Various therapeutic options are available for the management of Langerhans cell histiocytosis. However, treatment administered to control this disease may be complicated by acute leukemia. Case presentation A 34 years old male was diagnosed to have Langerhans cell histiocytosis in March 1999. Unfortunately, the cytotoxic chemotherapy and radiotherapy given to control the repeated relapses and exacerbations of the primary disease predisposed him to therapy-induced myelodysplastic syndrome which transformed into acute myeloid leukemia. After achieving complete remission of his leukemia, the patient received an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant. The allograft was complicated by chronic graft versus host disease that was controlled by various immunosuppressive agents and extracorporal photophoresis. Conclusion Management of complicated cases of histiocytosis requires various therapeutic modalities and a multidisciplinary approach. Having complications of therapy eg myelodysplasia or acute leukemia make the outcome more dismal and the management options limited to aggressive forms of treatment. High dose chemotherapy followed by an allograft may be a curative option not only for therapy-related myelodysplasia/acute leukemia, but also for frequently relapsing and poorly controlled Langerhans cell histiocytosis. PMID:18710527

  4. Age alters ADPase positive dendritic (Langerhans) cell response to P. aeruginosa ocular challenge.

    PubMed

    Hazlett, L D; Moon, M M; Dawisha, S; Berk, R S

    1986-05-01

    The morphology, distribution and quantitation of dendritic (Langerhans) cells (LC) was determined by analysis of ADPase stained epithelial flat mounts from 6-8 week young adult (resistant) and 24 month old (susceptible) aged mice before and after experimental infection with P. aeruginosa topically applied to the scarified cornea. The contralateral eye (controls) was also scarified and phosphate buffered saline applied similarly. This study has examined the changes in ADPase positive cell populations of the conjunctival limbal epithelium and corneal epithelium of naturally resistant mice (Swiss-Webster and CD2F1) following corneal infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa at two different ages, young adult (8 week old) and aged (24 month old). The young adult mice recover from their infection and restore corneal clarity while the aged mice have extensive ocular destruction and corneal scarring. Conjunctival limbal dendritic cell numbers in young adult mice were found to be significantly increased at day seven post infection and then returned to baseline levels. In contrast, conjunctival limbal dendritic cell numbers in aged mice were found to increase slowly and to peak at fourteen days after infection. Other differences between the two ages (young adult and aged) included an initial increase in dendritic cells five hours post infection in the young adult groups and an initial decrease at five hours in the aged groups of mice.

  5. Diagnosis and Intralesional Corticotherapy in Oral Ulcers Occurring as the Sole Manifestation of Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis. A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Gambirazi, Liane; Libório, Tatiana; Nunes, Fábio; Sugaya, Norberto; Migliari, Dante

    2016-01-01

    This article reports a case of oral mucosa lesions as the sole manifestation in Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH). This is a very uncommon manifestation of LCH since this disease preferably affects the bones with frequent involvement of the jaws. LCH may also involve other organs, particularly the lungs, liver, lymph nodes, and skin. The highlights of this report are the differential diagnosis, immunohistochemical analysis and, mostly, the therapeutic approach. PMID:27398106

  6. Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis of the Clavicle in an Adult: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Udaka, Toru; Susa, Michiro; Kikuta, Kazutaka; Nishimoto, Kazumasa; Horiuchi, Keisuke; Sasaki, Aya; Kameyama, Kaori; Nakamura, Masaya; Matsumoto, Morio; Chiba, Kazuhiro; Morioka, Hideo

    2015-01-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) usually occurs in children under the age of 10 years with a predilection for the skull, spine, rib and humerus. Solitary LCH occurring in an adult clavicle is uncommon with limited reports to date. The lesion in our patient was curetted with the intent to make a diagnosis, which subsequently lead to the remission of the symptom and the disease. At the final follow-up after 1 year, no local recurrence or metastasis is observed. PMID:26600774

  7. Heterogeneity of epidermal growth factor binding kinetics on individual cells.

    PubMed Central

    Chung, J C; Sciaky, N; Gross, D J

    1997-01-01

    Binding of fluorescein-conjugated epidermal growth factor (EGF) to individual A431 cells at 4 degrees C is measured by a quantitative fluorescence imaging technique. After background fluorescence and cell autofluorescence photobleaching corrections, the kinetic data are fit to simple models of one monovalent site and two independent monovalent sites, both of which include a first-order dye photobleaching process. Model simulations and the results from data analysis indicate that the one-monovalent-site model does not describe EGF binding kinetics at the single-cell level, whereas the two-site model is consistent with, but not proved by, the single-cell binding data. In addition, the kinetics of binding of fluorescein-EGF to different cells from the same coverslip often differ significantly from each other, indicating cell-to-cell variations in the binding properties of the EGF receptor. PMID:9251825

  8. Murine Langerin+ dermal dendritic cells prime CD8+ T cells while Langerhans cells induce cross-tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Flacher, Vincent; Tripp, Christoph H; Mairhofer, David G; Steinman, Ralph M; Stoitzner, Patrizia; Idoyaga, Juliana; Romani, Nikolaus

    2014-01-01

    Skin dendritic cells (DCs) control the immunogenicity of cutaneously administered vaccines. Antigens targeted to DCs via the C-type lectin Langerin/CD207 are cross-presented to CD8+ T cells in vivo. We investigated the relative roles of Langerhans cells (LCs) and Langerin+ dermal DCs (dDCs) in different vaccination settings. Poly(I:C) and anti-CD40 agonist antibody promoted cytotoxic responses upon intradermal immunization with ovalbumin (OVA)-coupled anti-Langerin antibodies (Langerin/OVA). This correlated with CD70 upregulation in Langerin+ dDCs, but not LCs. In chimeric mice where Langerin targeting was restricted to dDCs, CD8+ T-cell memory was enhanced. Conversely, providing Langerin/OVA exclusively to LCs failed to prime cytotoxicity, despite initial antigen cross-presentation to CD8+ T cells. Langerin/OVA combined with imiquimod could not prime CD8+ T cells and resulted in poor cytotoxicity in subsequent responses. This tolerance induction required targeting and maturation of LCs. Altogether, Langerin+ dDCs prime long-lasting cytotoxic responses, while cross-presentation by LCs negatively influences CD8+ T-cell priming. Moreover, this highlights that DCs exposed to TLR agonists can still induce tolerance and supports the existence of qualitatively different DC maturation programs. PMID:25085878

  9. A Case of Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis Manifested as a Suprasellar Mass

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Ju Young; Park, Byung-Kiu; Yoo, Heon; Lee, Sang Hyun; Hong, Eun Kyung; Park, Weon Seo; Kwon, Young Joo; Yoon, Jong Hyung

    2016-01-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) has diverse clinical manifestations, including intracranial mass lesions. We report a case of LCH that manifested as a suprasellar mass, and initially misdiagnosed as a germ cell tumor. A 29-year-old woman presented with polyuria, polydipsia and amenorrhea. Laboratory findings revealed hypopituitarism with central diabetes insipidus, and a suprasellar mass and a pineal mass were observed on magnetic resonance imaging. Under the clinical impression of a germ cell tumor, the patient was treated with germ cell tumor chemotherapy (cisplatin and etoposide) and radiation therapy without biopsy. After initial shrinkage of the lesions, further growth of the tumor was observed and a biopsy was performed. The histopathology revealed LCH. After chemotherapy according to the LCH III protocol, the tumor disappeared. She is on regular follow up for 5 years without relapse. The present findings indicate that LCH should be included in the differential diagnosis of a suprasellar mass, even in adults, especially when it manifests with diabetes insipidus. This case also underscores the importance of a histopathologic diagnosis in patients with suprasellar tumors before the initiation of a specific therapy, even if the clinical findings are highly suggestive of a specific diagnosis. PMID:27195259

  10. Pulmonary Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis in an Adult Male Presenting with Central Diabetes Insipidus and Diabetes Mellitus: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yeun Seoung; Lim, Jung Soo; Kwon, Woocheol; Jung, Soon-Hee; Park, Il Hwan; Lee, Myoung Kyu; Lee, Won Yeon; Yong, Suk Joong; Lee, Seok Jeong; Jung, Ye-Ryung; Choi, Jiwon; Choi, Ji Sun; Jeong, Joon Taek; Yoo, Jin Sae

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis is an uncommon diffuse cystic lung disease in adults. In rare cases, it can involve extrapulmonary organs and lead to endocrine abnormalities such as central diabetes insipidus. A 42-year-old man presented with polyphagia and polydipsia, as well as a dry cough and dyspnea on exertion. Magnetic resonance imaging of the hypothalamic-pituitary system failed to show the posterior pituitary, which is a typical finding in patients with central diabetes insipidus. This condition was confirmed by a water deprivation test, and the patient was also found to have type 2 diabetes mellitus. Computed tomographic scanning of the lungs revealed multiple, irregularly shaped cystic lesions and small nodules bilaterally, with sparing of the costophrenic angles. Lung biopsy through video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery revealed pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis. On a follow-up visit, only 1 year after the patient had quit smoking, clinical and radiological improvement was significant. Here, we report an uncommon case of pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis that simultaneously presented with diabetes insipidus and diabetes mellitus. PMID:26508947

  11. Pulmonary Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis in an Adult Male Presenting with Central Diabetes Insipidus and Diabetes Mellitus: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yeun Seoung; Lim, Jung Soo; Kwon, Woocheol; Jung, Soon-Hee; Park, Il Hwan; Lee, Myoung Kyu; Lee, Won Yeon; Yong, Suk Joong; Lee, Seok Jeong; Jung, Ye-Ryung; Choi, Jiwon; Choi, Ji Sun; Jeong, Joon Taek; Yoo, Jin Sae; Kim, Sang-Ha

    2015-10-01

    Pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis is an uncommon diffuse cystic lung disease in adults. In rare cases, it can involve extrapulmonary organs and lead to endocrine abnormalities such as central diabetes insipidus. A 42-year-old man presented with polyphagia and polydipsia, as well as a dry cough and dyspnea on exertion. Magnetic resonance imaging of the hypothalamic-pituitary system failed to show the posterior pituitary, which is a typical finding in patients with central diabetes insipidus. This condition was confirmed by a water deprivation test, and the patient was also found to have type 2 diabetes mellitus. Computed tomographic scanning of the lungs revealed multiple, irregularly shaped cystic lesions and small nodules bilaterally, with sparing of the costophrenic angles. Lung biopsy through video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery revealed pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis. On a follow-up visit, only 1 year after the patient had quit smoking, clinical and radiological improvement was significant. Here, we report an uncommon case of pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis that simultaneously presented with diabetes insipidus and diabetes mellitus.

  12. Effects of Nitrogen on Mesophyll Cell Division and Epidermal Cell Elongation in Tall Fescue Leaf Blades 1

    PubMed Central

    MacAdam, Jennifer W.; Volenec, Jeffrey J.; Nelson, Curtis J.

    1989-01-01

    Leaf elongation rate (LER) in grasses is dependent on epidermal cell supply (number) and on rate and duration of epidermal cell elongation. Nitrogen (N) fertilization increases LER. Longitudinal sections from two genotypes of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.), which differ by 50% in LER, were used to quantify the effects of N on the components of epidermal cell elongation and on mesophyll cell division. Rate and duration of epidermal cell elongation were determined by using a relationship between cell length and displacement velocity derived from the continuity equation. Rate of epidermal cell elongation was exponential. Relative rates of epidermal cell elongation increased by 9% with high N, even though high N increased LER by 89%. Duration of cell elongation was approximately 20 h longer in the high- than in the low-LER genotype regardless of N treatment. The percentage of mesophyll cells in division was greater in the high- than in the low-LER genotype. This increased with high N in both genotypes, indicating that LER increased with cell supply. Division of mesophyll cells adjacent to abaxial epidermal cells continued after epidermal cell division stopped, until epidermal cells had elongated to a mean length of 40 micrometers in the high-LER and a mean length of 50 micrometers in the low-LER genotype. The cell cycle length for mesophyll cells was calculated to be 12 to 13 hours. Nitrogen increased mesophyll cell number more than epidermal cell number: in both genotypes, the final number of mesophyll cells adjacent to each abaxial epidermal cell was 10 with low N and 14 with high N. A spatial model is used to describe three cell development processes relevant to leaf growth. It illustrates the overlap of mesophyll cell division and epidermal cell elongation, and the transition from epidermal cell elongation to secondary cell wall deposition. PMID:16666581

  13. Langerhans cell histiocytosis in Chinese adults: absence of BRAF mutations and increased FOXP3+ regulatory T cells

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Chunguang; Jia, Xingyuan; Jia, Yanjun; He, Yanling

    2014-01-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare disorder characterized by the proliferation of abnormal Langerhans cells. Previous studies mainly focused on children with LCH. However, there is limited information on the clinical and pathological aspects of LCH in adults. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the clinical and pathological aspects of LCH in Chinese adults. The results showed that the average age of 18 LCH patients was 35.22 ± 16.57 years old. The ratio of male to female was 3.5:1.14 patients (77.8%) had single-system involvement and 4 patients (22.2%) had multi-system diseases. The skin (38.9%) and lungs (44.4%) were the mainly affected organs. No BRAF mutations were detected in the lesions of 18 cases. The number of FOXP3+ Tregs was significantly increased in LCH. In conclusion, clinical features of LCH in adults are distinct from those in children. Adult LCH has a relatively good prognosis and presents as a benign disease. Immune regulation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of adult LCH. PMID:25031736

  14. Streptococcus induces circulating CLA(+) memory T-cell-dependent epidermal cell activation in psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Ferran, Marta; Galván, Ana B; Rincón, Catalina; Romeu, Ester R; Sacrista, Marc; Barboza, Erika; Giménez-Arnau, Ana; Celada, Antonio; Pujol, Ramon M; Santamaria-Babí, Luis F

    2013-04-01

    Streptococcal throat infection is associated with a specific variant of psoriasis and with HLA-Cw6 expression. In this study, activation of circulating psoriatic cutaneous lymphocyte-associated antigen (CLA)(+) memory T cells cultured together with epidermal cells occurred only when streptococcal throat extracts were added. This triggered the production of Th1, Th17, and Th22 cytokines, as well as epidermal cell mediators (CXCL8, CXCL9, CXCL10, and CXCL11). Streptococcal extracts (SEs) did not induce any activation with either CLA(-) cells or memory T cells cultured together with epidermal cells from healthy subjects. Intradermal injection of activated culture supernatants into mouse skin induced epidermal hyperplasia. SEs also induced activation when we used epidermal cells from nonlesional skin of psoriatic patients with CLA(+) memory T cells. Significant correlations were found between SE induced upregulation of mRNA expression for ifn-γ, il-17, il-22, ip-10, and serum level of antistreptolysin O in psoriatic patients. This study demonstrates the direct involvement of streptococcal infection in pathological mechanisms of psoriasis, such as IL-17 production and epidermal cell activation.

  15. Leishmania major lipophosphoglycan modulates the phenotype and inhibits migration of murine Langerhans cells

    PubMed Central

    Ponte-Sucre, Alicia; Heise, Dirk; Moll, Heidrun

    2001-01-01

    Langerhans cells (LC), members of the dendritic cell family, play a central role in the initiation and regulation of the immune response against the protozoan parasite Leishmania major. LC take up antigens in the skin and transport them to the regional lymph nodes for presentation to T cells. However, it is not known whether LC functions are modulated by parasite antigens. In the present study, we examined the effect of a major parasite surface molecule, L. major lipophosphoglycan (LPG), on the maturation of LC and their migratory properties. The results show that exposure to LPG did not affect the expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II and B7, but induced an up-regulation of CD25, CD31 and vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin expression and a down-regulation of Mac-1 expression, by LC. Importantly, LPG treatment inhibited the migratory activity of LC, as it reduced their efflux from skin explants and their migration in transwell cultures. These results suggest that Leishmania LPG impairs LC migration out of the skin and thus may modulate their immunostimulatory functions, which require LC translocation from skin to lymph nodes. PMID:11899433

  16. Using pancreas tissue slices for in situ studies of islet of Langerhans and acinar cell biology.

    PubMed

    Marciniak, Anja; Cohrs, Christian M; Tsata, Vasiliki; Chouinard, Julie A; Selck, Claudia; Stertmann, Julia; Reichelt, Saskia; Rose, Tobias; Ehehalt, Florian; Weitz, Jürgen; Solimena, Michele; Slak Rupnik, Marjan; Speier, Stephan

    2014-12-01

    Studies on the cellular function of the pancreas are typically performed in vitro on its isolated functional units, the endocrine islets of Langerhans and the exocrine acini. However, these approaches are hampered by preparation-induced changes of cell physiology and the lack of an intact surrounding. We present here a detailed protocol for the preparation of pancreas tissue slices. This procedure is less damaging to the tissue and faster than alternative approaches, and it enables the in situ study of pancreatic endocrine and exocrine cell physiology in a conserved environment. Pancreas tissue slices facilitate the investigation of cellular mechanisms underlying the function, pathology and interaction of the endocrine and exocrine components of the pancreas. We provide examples for several experimental applications of pancreas tissue slices to study various aspects of pancreas cell biology. Furthermore, we describe the preparation of human and porcine pancreas tissue slices for the validation and translation of research findings obtained in the mouse model. Preparation of pancreas tissue slices according to the protocol described here takes less than 45 min from tissue preparation to receipt of the first slices.

  17. Measurement of relative phase distribution of onion epidermal cells by using the polarization microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, In Hee; Lee, Ji Yong; Lee, Seungrag; Lee, Dong Ju; Kim, Dug Young

    2007-02-01

    Bio-cells and tissues have intrinsic polarization characteristics, which are changed by external stimulus and internal metamorphosis in cells and tissues and some of the bio-cells and tissues have intrinsic birefringence characteristics, which are also changed by external stimulus and internal metamorphosis in cells and tissues. In this paper, we have developed the polarization microscope for measurement of relative phase which results from birefringence characteristics of materials with improved linear polarizing method and have measured relative phase distribution of onion epidermal cells. From the measurement of the relative phase distribution of onion epidermal cells, decrease of relative phase distribution of onion epidermal cells was investigated as the elapse of time. In decrease of relative phase distribution, relative phase of cell membrane in onion epidermal cells decreased radically as compared with that of cytoplasm because decline of function in cell membrane that takes charge of matter transfer in onion epidermal cells has occurred.

  18. Growth of melanocytes in human epidermal cell cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Staiano-Coico, L.; Hefton, J.M.; Amadeo, C.; Pagan-Charry, I.; Madden, M.R.; Cardon-Cardo, C. )

    1990-08-01

    Epidermal cell cultures were grown in keratinocyte-conditioned medium for use as burn wound grafts; the melanocyte composition of the grafts was studied under a variety of conditions. Melanocytes were identified by immunohistochemistry based on a monoclonal antibody (MEL-5) that has previously been shown to react specifically with melanocytes. During the first 7 days of growth in primary culture, the total number of melanocytes in the epidermal cultures decreased to 10% of the number present in normal skin. Beginning on day 2 of culture, bipolar melanocytes were present at a mean cell density of 116 +/- 2/mm2; the keratinocyte to melanocyte ratio was preserved during further primary culture and through three subpassages. Moreover, exposure of cultures to mild UVB irradiation stimulated the melanocytes to proliferate, suggesting that the melanocytes growing in culture maintained their responsiveness to external stimuli. When the sheets of cultured cells were enzymatically detached from the plastic culture flasks before grafting, melanocytes remained in the basal layer of cells as part of the graft applied to the patient.

  19. Quantitative and morphological changes of Langerhans cells in Bowen's disease from patients with chronic arsenicism.

    PubMed

    Wang, B J; Lee, Y Y; Mak, C P; Kao, H F; Hsu, M L; Hsien, J R

    1991-11-01

    Langerhans cells (LCs) are considered to be responsible for the immunologic presentation of tumor-associated antigens and play a role in the elimination of neoplastic clones. Ultraviolet light B can cause dysfunction and loss of LCs. Both the number and dendritic morphology of LCs are known to be diminished in squamous cell carcinomas from sun-exposed skin. The effects of arsenics on LCs are unknown. Using an OKT-6 monoclonal antibody to stain intraepithelial LCs, we compared their number and morphology in Bowen's lesions and in the perilesional skin from sun-protected sites in ten patients with chronic arsenicism. There was a significant reduction in the numbers of LCs in the Bowen's lesions as compared to the perilesional skin specimens. Loss of dendrites was observed in all Bowen's lesions and in seven of the perilesional skin specimens. Ultrastructurally, the LCs showed an absence of dendrites, but the Birbeck granules were preserved. Since the specimens were not from sun-exposed skin in our study, the findings may be related to chronic arsenic intoxication. The morphologic alteration of LCs observed in the perilesional skin further suggests an arsenic-related systemic dysfunction of the LCs, which in turn may contribute to the development of skin cancers in these patients.

  20. Langerhans cells in lichen planus and lichenoid mucositis an immunohistochemical study

    PubMed Central

    Devi, M.; Saraswathi, T. R.; Ranganathan, K.; Vijayalakshmi, D.; Sreeja, C.; Fathima, S. Shabana

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study is to identify and evaluate Langerhans cell (LC) in lichen planus (LP), lichenoid mucositis (LM) and normal mucosa (NM) using CD1a monoclonal antibody immunohistochemically. Materials and Methods: A total of 15 cases of oral lichen planus and 15 cases of LM were selected based on clinical examination and confirmed by histopathological analysis. The biopsies from the 10 patients were taken from normal buccal mucosa as control. Paraffin blocks of tissue were made, which are used for routine hematoxylin and eosin staining and immunohistochemical staining using biotin streptavidin methods (CD1a monoclonal antibody). Analysis of CD1a expression was performed by evaluating the labeling index (LI) for each slide. Results: The mean CD1a LI for LP was significantly higher than that of LM and NM in the basal and supra basal layer. The mean CD1a positive cells in the connective tissues for LP were higher than that of LM and NM. Conclusion: This study clearly demonstrates a statistically significant increase in number of LC in LP than in LM, indicating the possible different immunopathogenic mechanisms. PMID:25210358

  1. Langerhans cells are generated by two distinct PU.1-dependent transcriptional networks.

    PubMed

    Chopin, Michaël; Seillet, Cyril; Chevrier, Stéphane; Wu, Li; Wang, Hongsheng; Morse, Herbert C; Belz, Gabrielle T; Nutt, Stephen L

    2013-12-16

    Langerhans cells (LCs) are the unique dendritic cells found in the epidermis. While a great deal of attention has focused on defining the developmental origins of LCs, reports addressing the transcriptional network ruling their differentiation remain sparse. We addressed the function of a group of key DC transcription factors-PU.1, ID2, IRF4, and IRF8-in the establishment of the LC network. We show that although steady-state LC homeostasis depends on PU.1 and ID2, the latter is dispensable for bone marrow-derived LCs. PU.1 controls LC differentiation by regulating the expression of the critical TGF-β responsive transcription factor RUNX3. PU.1 directly binds to the Runx3 regulatory elements in a TGF-β-dependent manner, whereas ectopic expression of RUNX3 rescued LC differentiation in the absence of PU.1 and promoted LC differentiation from PU.1-sufficient progenitors. These findings highlight the dual molecular network underlying LC differentiation, and show the central role of PU.1 in these processes.

  2. Dedifferentiation derived cells exhibit phenotypic and functional characteristics of epidermal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cuiping; Fu, Xiaobing; Chen, Peng; Bao, Xiaoxia; Li, Fu; Sun, Xiaoyan; Lei, Yonghong; Cai, Sa; Sun, Tongzhu; Sheng, Zhiyong

    2010-05-01

    Differentiated epidermal cells can dedifferentiate into stem cells or stem cell-like cells in vivo. In this study, we report the isolation and characterization of dedifferentiation-derived cells. Epidermal sheets eliminated of basal stem cells were transplanted onto the skin wounds in 47 nude athymic (BALB/c-nu/nu) mice. After 5 days, cells negative for CK10 but positive for CK19 and beta1-integrin emerged at the wound-neighbouring side of the epidermal sheets. Furthermore, the percentages of CK19 and beta1-integrin+ cells detected by flow cytometric analysis were increased after grafting (P < 0.01) and CK10+ cells in grafted sheets decreased (P < 0.01). Then we isolated these cells on the basis of rapid adhesion to type IV collagen and found that there were 4.56% adhering cells (dedifferentiation-derived cells) in the grafting group within 10 min. The in vitro phenotypic assays showed that the expressions of CK19, beta1-integrin, Oct4 and Nanog in dedifferentiation-derived cells were remarkably higher than those in the control group (differentiated epidermal cells) (P < 0.01). In addition, the results of the functional investigation of dedifferentiation-derived cells demonstrated: (1) the numbers of colonies consisting of 5-10 cells and greater than 10 cells were increased 5.9-fold and 6.7-fold, respectively, as compared with that in the control (P < 0.01); (2) more cells were in S phase and G2/M phase of the cell cycle (proliferation index values were 21.02% in control group, 45.08% in group of dedifferentiation); (3) the total days of culture (28 days versus 130 days), the passage number of cells (3 passages versus 20 passages) and assumptive total cell output (1 x 10(5) cells versus 1 x 10(12) cells) were all significantly increased and (4) dedifferentiation-derived cells, as well as epidermal stem cells, were capable of regenerating a skin equivalent, but differentiated epidermal cells could not. These results suggested that the characteristics of

  3. Circulating and in situ lymphocyte subsets and Langerhans cells in patients with compositae oleoresin dermatitis and increased ultraviolet A sensitivity during treatment with azathioprine

    SciTech Connect

    Baadsgaard, O.

    1986-04-01

    Circulating and in situ lymphocyte subsets and Langerhans cells in four patients with compositae oleoresin dermatitis and increased ultraviolet A sensitivity before and during treatment with azathioprine were estimated. It was found that the number of Leu 6+ Langerhans cells decreased during therapy. This decrease was accompanied by a reduction in the number of Leu 2a+, Leu 3a+, Leu 4+, DR+, and Leu M2+ cells in the blood and a reduction in the number of Leu 2a+, Leu 3a+, Leu 4+, and DR+ cells in the skin. Concomitantly with the changes in the number of immunocompetent cells, the eczema cleared.

  4. Langerhans cell histiocytosis: a retrospective analysis in a Korean tertiary hospital from 2003 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Soon Hyo; Choi, Jae Woo; Kim, Hyo Jin; Youn, Sang Woong

    2013-10-01

    Epidemiological study of Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) has been limited due to its rarity and multisystemic involvement. The aim of this study was to investigate the epidemiological features of LCH via the clinical data warehouse (CDW). Clinical data of 30 LCH patients from the all departments of a tertiary referral hospital between 2003 and 2012 were analyzed retrospectively by searching the CDW. The male-to-female ratio was 2.8:1. The age of onset ranged 7 days to 57 years with a median of 13 years. Of the patients, 36.7% presented initial symptoms before the age of 10 years. The involved organs at diagnosis were: bone (66.7%), skin (16.7%), lungs (13.3%) and lymph node (3.3%). For all of the 30 cases, there were 31 disease sites because of a single case of multisystemic disease involving both skin and bone. Of the 96.7% of patients with single-system disease, 69.0% had bony involvement. This study elucidated the clinical features of LCH from all the departments of a tertiary hospital via the CDW, which suggests a potential role of the CDW as a new epidemiological approach for rare diseases.

  5. Occult Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis Presenting with Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma, a Thickened Pituitary Stalk and Diabetes Insipidus.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Michael S; Gordon, Murray B

    2016-01-01

    Etiologies of a thickened stalk include inflammatory, neoplastic, and idiopathic origins, and the underlying diagnosis may remain occult. We report a patient with a thickened pituitary stalk (TPS) and papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) whose diagnosis remained obscure until a skin lesion appeared. The patient presented with PTC, status postthyroidectomy, and I(131) therapy. PTC molecular testing revealed BRAF mutant (V600E, GTC>GAG). She had a 5-year history of polyuria/polydipsia. Overnight dehydration study confirmed diabetes insipidus (DI). MRI revealed TPS with loss of the posterior pituitary bright spot. Evaluation showed hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and low IGF-1. Chest X-ray and ACE levels were normal. Radiographs to evaluate for extrapituitary sites of Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis (LCH) were unremarkable. Germinoma studies were negative: normal serum and CSF beta-hCG, alpha-fetoprotein, and CEA. Three years later, the patient developed vulvar labial lesions followed by inguinal region skin lesions, biopsy of which revealed LCH. Reanalysis of thyroid pathology was consistent with concurrent LCH, PTC, and Hashimoto's thyroiditis within the thyroid. This case illustrates that one must be vigilant for extrapituitary manifestations of systemic diseases to diagnose the etiology of TPS. An activating mutation of the protooncogene BRAF is a potential unifying etiology of both PTC and LCH. PMID:27656301

  6. Occult Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis Presenting with Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma, a Thickened Pituitary Stalk and Diabetes Insipidus

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Etiologies of a thickened stalk include inflammatory, neoplastic, and idiopathic origins, and the underlying diagnosis may remain occult. We report a patient with a thickened pituitary stalk (TPS) and papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) whose diagnosis remained obscure until a skin lesion appeared. The patient presented with PTC, status postthyroidectomy, and I131 therapy. PTC molecular testing revealed BRAF mutant (V600E, GTC>GAG). She had a 5-year history of polyuria/polydipsia. Overnight dehydration study confirmed diabetes insipidus (DI). MRI revealed TPS with loss of the posterior pituitary bright spot. Evaluation showed hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and low IGF-1. Chest X-ray and ACE levels were normal. Radiographs to evaluate for extrapituitary sites of Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis (LCH) were unremarkable. Germinoma studies were negative: normal serum and CSF beta-hCG, alpha-fetoprotein, and CEA. Three years later, the patient developed vulvar labial lesions followed by inguinal region skin lesions, biopsy of which revealed LCH. Reanalysis of thyroid pathology was consistent with concurrent LCH, PTC, and Hashimoto's thyroiditis within the thyroid. This case illustrates that one must be vigilant for extrapituitary manifestations of systemic diseases to diagnose the etiology of TPS. An activating mutation of the protooncogene BRAF is a potential unifying etiology of both PTC and LCH. PMID:27656301

  7. Cladribine and cytarabine in refractory multisystem Langerhans cell histiocytosis: results of an international phase 2 study

    PubMed Central

    Bernard, Frederic; van Noesel, Max; Barkaoui, Mohamed; Bardet, Odile; Mura, Rosella; Arico, Maurizio; Piguet, Christophe; Gandemer, Virginie; Armari Alla, Corinne; Clausen, Niels; Jeziorski, Eric; Lambilliote, Anne; Weitzman, Sheila; Henter, Jan Inge; Van Den Bos, Cor

    2015-01-01

    An international phase 2 study combining cladribine and cytarabine (Ara-C) was initiated for patients with refractory, risk-organ–positive Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) in 2005. The protocol, comprising at least two 5-day courses of Ara-C (1 g/m2 per day) plus cladribine (9 mg/m2 per day) followed by maintenance therapy, was administered to 27 patients (median age at diagnosis, 0.7 years; median follow-up, 5.3 years). At inclusion, all patients were refractory after at least 1 course of vinblastine (VBL) plus corticosteroid, all had liver and spleen involvement, and 25 patients had hematologic cytopenia. After 2 courses, disease status was nonactive (n = 2), better (n = 23), or stable (n = 2), with an overall response rate of 92%. Median disease activity scores decreased from 12 at the start of therapy to 3 after 2 courses (P < .0001). During maintenance therapy, 4 patients experienced reactivation in risk organs. There were 4 deaths; 2 were related to therapy toxicity and 2 were related to reactivation. All patients experienced severe toxicity, with World Health Organization grade 4 hematologic toxicity and 6 documented severe infections. The overall 5-year survival rate was 85% (95% confidence interval, 65.2%-94.2%). Thus, the combination of cladribine/Ara-C is effective therapy for refractory multisystem LCH but is associated with high toxicity. PMID:26194764

  8. Occult Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis Presenting with Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma, a Thickened Pituitary Stalk and Diabetes Insipidus

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Etiologies of a thickened stalk include inflammatory, neoplastic, and idiopathic origins, and the underlying diagnosis may remain occult. We report a patient with a thickened pituitary stalk (TPS) and papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) whose diagnosis remained obscure until a skin lesion appeared. The patient presented with PTC, status postthyroidectomy, and I131 therapy. PTC molecular testing revealed BRAF mutant (V600E, GTC>GAG). She had a 5-year history of polyuria/polydipsia. Overnight dehydration study confirmed diabetes insipidus (DI). MRI revealed TPS with loss of the posterior pituitary bright spot. Evaluation showed hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and low IGF-1. Chest X-ray and ACE levels were normal. Radiographs to evaluate for extrapituitary sites of Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis (LCH) were unremarkable. Germinoma studies were negative: normal serum and CSF beta-hCG, alpha-fetoprotein, and CEA. Three years later, the patient developed vulvar labial lesions followed by inguinal region skin lesions, biopsy of which revealed LCH. Reanalysis of thyroid pathology was consistent with concurrent LCH, PTC, and Hashimoto's thyroiditis within the thyroid. This case illustrates that one must be vigilant for extrapituitary manifestations of systemic diseases to diagnose the etiology of TPS. An activating mutation of the protooncogene BRAF is a potential unifying etiology of both PTC and LCH.

  9. Adult Multisystem Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis Presenting with Central Diabetes Insipidus Successfully Treated with Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jung-Eun; Lee, Hae Ri; Ohn, Jung Hun; Moon, Min Kyong; Park, Juri; Lee, Seong Jin; Choi, Moon-Gi; Yoo, Hyung Joon; Kim, Jung Han

    2014-01-01

    We report the rare case of an adult who was diagnosed with recurrent multisystem Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) involving the pituitary stalk and lung who present with central diabetes insipidus and was successfully treated with systemic steroids and chemotherapy. A 49-year-old man visited our hospital due to symptoms of polydipsia and polyuria that started 1 month prior. Two years prior to presentation, he underwent excision of right 6th and 7th rib lesions for the osteolytic lesion and chest pain, which were later confirmed to be LCH on pathology. After admission, the water deprivation test was done and the result indicated that he had central diabetes insipidus. Sella magnetic resonance imaging showed a mass on the pituitary stalk with loss of normal bright spot at the posterior lobe of the pituitary. Multiple patchy infiltrations were detected in both lung fields by computed tomography (CT). He was diagnosed with recurrent LCH and was subsequently treated with inhaled desmopressin, systemic steroids, vinblastine, and mercaptopurine. The pituitary mass disappeared after two months and both lungs were clear on chest CT after 11 months. Although clinical remission in multisystem LCH in adults is reportedly rare, our case of adult-onset multisystem LCH was treated successfully with systemic chemotherapy using prednisolone, vinblastine, and 6-mercaptopurine, which was well tolerated. PMID:25309800

  10. Clinicopathological pattern of cranial unifocal Langerhans cell histiocytosis: A study at medical college hospital

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Salma; Nazir, Parvez; Bashir, Humaira; Reshi, Ruby; Sheikh, Sheema; Wani, Rohi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Eosinophilic granuloma (EG) of bone refers to a generally benign form of Langerhans cell histiocytosis localized to the bone. Patients may present with a solitary lesion (monostotic) or multiple sites of involvement (polyostotic). Materials and Methods: This study was done to evaluate the clinicopathological pattern of 6 cases of EGs of the skull diagnosed at a tertiary care hospital. All patients of EG were included with the help of medical records over a 5-year period that is, November 2009 to November 2014. They all had been preoperatively evaluated by skull X-ray and computed tomography. To rule out a multifocal disease scintigraphy was performed in all cases preoperatively. Surgical excision was performed, and EG was diagnosed on histopathology and immunohistochemistry. Results: There was a male predominance. Parietal bone was the most common affected bone. Total excision of the lesion was performed in all cases. No patient received postoperative radiotherapy. The follow-up period ranged from 6 months to 3 years. No tumor recurrence was noted. Conclusion: With an unknown etiology, nonspecific clinical and radiological findings with diagnosis possible only on histopathological examination, EG needs to be considered in the differential diagnosis as a skull mass, especially in children. PMID:26855527

  11. Treatment of Langerhans-cell histiocytosis in children. Experience at the Children's Hospital of Nancy.

    PubMed

    Sessa, S; Sommelet, D; Lascombes, P; Prévot, J

    1994-10-01

    Forty children who had Langerhans-cell histiocytosis were followed for an average of six years (range, excluding patients who died of the disease, two to fifteen years). The patients were divided into two diagnostic groups: those who had localized disease (involving one bone or more only) and those who had multifocal disease (an osseous lesion and a soft-tissue mass, a skin rash, diabetes insipidus, or generalized disease). Methods of treatment included curettage, bone-grafting, chemotherapy, local or systemic corticosteroids, and radiotherapy. Nineteen of the thirty patients who had localized disease had a complete response to the therapy, four had a partial response, and seven had no response. Twenty-one of these thirty patients had not had a recurrence by the time of the latest follow-up examination; nine had a local recurrence within four years after the initial therapy but had no additional recurrences after treatment of the local recurrence. No recurrence occurred more than four years after the time that the initial diagnosis had been made. Five of the ten patients who had multifocal disease had a complete response to the therapy, two had a partial response, and three had no response. Six patients had a recurrence; four did not. Two patients died of the disease. As a result of this study, we recommend the avoidance of intensive measures of treatment, if possible, and we advise long-term follow-up of these patients. PMID:7929499

  12. Efficacy of vinblastine in central nervous system Langerhans cell histiocytosis: a nationwide retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Vinblastine (VBL) is the standard treatment for systemic Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH), but little is known about its efficacy in central nervous system (CNS) mass lesions. Methods A retrospective chart review was conducted. Twenty patients from the French LCH Study Group register met the inclusion criteria. In brief, they had CNS mass lesions, had been treated with VBL, and were evaluable for radiologic response. Results The median age at diagnosis of LCH was 11.5 years (range: 1-50). Intravenous VBL 6 mg/m2 was given in a 6-week induction treatment, followed by a maintenance treatment. The median total duration was 12 months (range: 3-30). Eleven patients received steroids concomitantly. Fifteen patients achieved an objective response; five had a complete response (CR: 25%), ten had a partial response (PR: 50%), four had stable disease (SD: 20%) and one patient progressed (PD: 5%). Of interest, four out of the six patients who received VBL without concomitant steroids achieved an objective response. With a median follow-up of 6.8 years, the 5-year event-free and overall survival was 61% and 84%, respectively. VBL was well-tolerated and there were no patient withdrawals due to adverse events. Conclusion VBL, with or without steroids, could potentially be a useful therapeutic option in LCH with CNS mass lesions, especially for those with inoperable lesions or multiple lesions. Prospective clinical trials are warranted for the evaluation of VBL in this indication. PMID:22151964

  13. Programmed Cell Death Progresses Differentially in Epidermal and Mesophyll Cells of Lily Petals

    PubMed Central

    Mochizuki-Kawai, Hiroko; Niki, Tomoko; Shibuya, Kenichi; Ichimura, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    In the petals of some species of flowers, programmed cell death (PCD) begins earlier in mesophyll cells than in epidermal cells. However, PCD progression in each cell type has not been characterized in detail. We separately constructed a time course of biochemical signs and expression patterns of PCD-associated genes in epidermal and mesophyll cells in Lilium cv. Yelloween petals. Before visible signs of senescence could be observed, we found signs of PCD, including DNA degradation and decreased protein content in mesophyll cells only. In these cells, the total proteinase activity increased on the day after anthesis. Within 3 days after anthesis, the protein content decreased by 61.8%, and 22.8% of mesophyll cells was lost. A second peak of proteinase activity was observed on day 6, and the number of mesophyll cells decreased again from days 4 to 7. These biochemical and morphological results suggest that PCD progressed in steps during flower life in the mesophyll cells. PCD began in epidermal cells on day 5, in temporal synchrony with the time course of visible senescence. In the mesophyll cells, the KDEL-tailed cysteine proteinase (LoCYP) and S1/P1 nuclease (LoNUC) genes were upregulated before petal wilting, earlier than in epidermal cells. In contrast, relative to that in the mesophyll cells, the expression of the SAG12 cysteine proteinase homolog (LoSAG12) drastically increased in epidermal cells in the final stage of senescence. These results suggest that multiple PCD-associated genes differentially contribute to the time lag of PCD progression between epidermal and mesophyll cells of lily petals. PMID:26605547

  14. CD1c-Related DCs that Express CD207/Langerin, but Are Distinguishable from Langerhans Cells, Are Consistently Present in Human Tonsils

    PubMed Central

    De Monte, Anne; Olivieri, Charles-Vivien; Vitale, Sébastien; Bailleux, Sonanda; Castillo, Laurent; Giordanengo, Valérie; Maryanski, Janet L.; Segura, Elodie; Doglio, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Several subsets of dendritic cells (DCs) are present in the oropharyngeal tonsillar tissues and are thought to behave as major actors in development and regulation of immunity by acting as a first line of recognition for airborne and alimentary antigens. We previously discovered in human adult tonsils infected with Epstein–Barr virus (EBV), a subset of DCs that expressed langerin/CD207, a lectin usually recognized as a hallmark of epidermal Langerhans cells (LCs). In the present study, we analyzed the content of several child and adult tonsils in order to characterize in more detail the phenotype of these tonsillar CD207-expressing DCs (tCD207 DCs) and to compare it with that of other human DC subsets. We showed that all the human tonsils studied (n = 12) contained significant proportions of tCD207 DCs among tonsillar cells expressing HLA-DR. Moreover, the presence of tCD207 DCs in tonsils from young children free of EBV infection indicated that these cells could be established early in the tonsil independently of EBV infection. We also showed that tCD207 DCs, that were found mainly located within the tonsillar lymphoid stroma, were distinguishable from LCs by the level of expression of CD1a and EpCAM, and also from human inflammatory DCs by the lack of CD1a, CD206, and CD14 expression. Detailed analysis of cell surface DC markers showed that tCD207 DCs were unrelated to CD141+ DCs or macrophages, but defined a subtype of tonsillar DCs closely related to myeloid resident CD1c DCs. Since it was established that blood CD1c myeloid DCs exhibit plasticity and are capable of expressing CD207 notably in the presence of inflammatory cytokines, it is tempting to speculate that CD207+ CD1c+ DCs may play a specific immune role. PMID:27252701

  15. Epidermal Development in Mammals: Key Regulators, Signals from Beneath, and Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shuang; Zhang, Huishan; Duan, Enkui

    2013-01-01

    Epidermis is one of the best-studied tissues in mammals that contain types of stem cells. Outstanding works in recent years have shed great light on behaviors of different epidermal stem cell populations in the homeostasis and regeneration of the epidermis as well as hair follicles. Also, the molecular mechanisms governing these stem cells are being elucidated, from genetic to epigenetic levels. Compared with the explicit knowledge about adult skin, embryonic development of the epidermis, especially the early period, still needs exploration. Furthermore, stem cells in the embryonic epidermis are largely unstudied or ambiguously depicted. In this review, we will summarize and discuss the process of embryonic epidermal development, with focuses on some key molecular regulators and the role of the sub-epidermal mesenchyme. We will also try to trace adult epidermal stem cell populations back to embryonic development. In addition, we will comment on in vitro derivation of epidermal lineages from ES cells and iPS cells. PMID:23708093

  16. Purely cutaneous Langerhans cell histiocytosis presenting as an ulcer on the chin in an elderly man successfully treated with thalidomide

    PubMed Central

    Subramaniyan, Radhakrishnan; Ramachandran, Rajagopal; Rajangam, Gnanasekaran; Donaparthi, Navya

    2015-01-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare, clonal proliferative disorder of Langerhans’ cells of unknown etiology. Although the clinical presentation and therapeutic approach to the disease in children have been well established; limited data is available about the disease in adults. Purely cutaneous involvement of LCH in a man older than 70 years has rarely been described. Herein we report the case of a 71-year-old man with cutaneous LCH confined to the perioral region, scalp, and flexures successfully treated with thalidomide. PMID:26753141

  17. Insights into the pathogenesis of Langerhans cell histiocytosis: the development of targeted therapies

    PubMed Central

    Hutter, Caroline; Minkov, Milen

    2016-01-01

    More than a century after its first description, Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) still remains an intriguing disease. Considerable progress in understanding its biology has been achieved recently. Description of the V600E BRAF mutation in samples of LCH tissue in 2010 was followed by description of additional mutations, all leading to constitutive ERK activation. Current experimental data suggest that LCH is a myeloid neoplasia with inflammatory properties, yet the exact pathophysiology remains poorly understood. Disease management paradigms have changed over time, closely reflecting the evolving view of the nature of the disease. The international Histiocyte Society have conducted three prospective clinical studies on multisystem LCH since the early 1990s. The standard frontline therapy for patients with multisystem LCH based on the cumulative knowledge of those trials consists of 6–12 weeks of initial therapy (daily oral steroids and weekly vinblastine injections), followed by pulses of prednisolone/vinblastine every 3 weeks, for a total treatment duration of 12 months. A currently ongoing study (LCH-IV) with a complex design (five interventional and two observational strata) targets further reduction of mortality and morbidity by tailoring treatment intensity depending on expected risk, as well as by exploring treatment regimens for special locations. Current knowledge on LCH pathobiology opens opportunities for improvement in the patient outcome. The activating BRAF and MAP2K1 mutations collectively accounting for about 75% of the LCH population as well as the resulting constitutive activation of downstream ERK offer an opportunity for targeted treatment. Related issues (eg, finding most effective and less toxic drugs or combinations, appropriate dosage, and optimal treatment duration) must be addressed in controlled prospective trials. Additional mechanisms, such as the interactions of the mutated dendritic cell clone with other inflammatory cells and

  18. Quiescent Innate Response to Infective Filariae by Human Langerhans Cells Suggests a Strategy of Immune Evasion

    PubMed Central

    Boyd, Alexis; Bennuru, Sasisekhar; Wang, Yuanyuan; Sanprasert, Vivornpun; Law, Melissa; Chaussabel, Damien; Nutman, Thomas B.

    2013-01-01

    Filarial infection is initiated by mosquito-derived third-stage larvae (L3) deposited on the skin that transit through the epidermis, which contains Langerhans cells (LC) and keratinocytes (KC), among other cells. This earliest interaction between L3 and the LC likely conditions the priming of the immune system to the parasite. To determine the nature of this interaction, human LC (langerin+ E-cadherin+ CD1a+) were generated in vitro and exposed to live L3. LC exposed to live L3 for 48 h showed no alterations in the cell surface markers CD14, CD86, CD83, CD207, E-cadherin, CD80, CD40, and HLA-DR or in mRNA expression of inflammation-associated genes, such as those for interleukin 18 (IL-18), IL-18BP, and caspase 1. In contrast to L3, live tachyzoites of Toxoplasma gondii, an intracellular parasite, induced production of CXCL9, IP-10, and IL-6 in LC. Furthermore, preexposure of LC to L3 did not alter Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3)- or TLR4-mediated expression of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β, gamma interferon (IFN-γ), IL-6, or IL-10. Interestingly, cocultures of KC and LC produced significantly more IL-18, IL-1α, and IL-8 than did cultures of LC alone, although exposure of the cocultures to live L3 did not result in altered cytokine production. Microarray examination of ex vivo LC from skin blisters that were exposed to live L3 also showed few significant changes in gene expression compared with unexposed blisters, further underscoring the relatively muted response of LC to L3. Our data suggest that failure by LC to initiate an inflammatory response to the invasive stage of filarial parasites may be a strategy for immune evasion by the filarial parasite. PMID:23429540

  19. Comparative analysis of CD80 and CD86 on human Langerhans cells: expression and function.

    PubMed

    Yokozeki, H; Takayama, K; Ohki, O; Satoh, T; Umeda, T; Katayama, I; Nishioka, K

    1998-10-01

    Although both CD80 (B7-1) and CD86 (B7-2/B70) have been recently identified in cultured human Langerhans cells (LC), little is known of the role and regulatory properties of CD80 and CD86 on human LC. We present here the results of a study comparing the expression and function of CD80 and CD86 in human LC using the T-helper type-1 cytokines IL-2 and interferon gamma (IFN)-gamma, and the T-helper type-2 cytokines IL-10, IL-4 and granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). Freshly isolated human LC expressed little CD80 and CD86 in vitro, but the expression of both molecules was rapidly induced during a 72-h incubation with cytokines and the expression of CD86 occurred much earlier and more strongly than that of CD80. The expression of both CD80 and CD86 was upregulated by GM-CSF and downregulated by IL-10, and the expression of CD86, but not that of CD80, was upregulated by both IL-4 and IFN-gamma. Finally, pretreatment of LC with GM-CSF and IFN-gamma, but not with IL-4, enhanced the alloreactive T-cell proliferation induced by the LC, and IL-10 pretreatment of LC decreased their capacity for alloreaction. These results indicate that the expression of both CD80 and CD86 on human LC may be regulated by these cytokines (IL-2, IL-4, GM-CSF, IFN-gamma and IL-10) secreted from helper T cells infiltrating into the inflammatory microenvironment.

  20. The Beta Cell in Its Cluster: Stochastic Graphs of Beta Cell Connectivity in the Islets of Langerhans

    PubMed Central

    Striegel, Deborah A.; Hara, Manami; Periwal, Vipul

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic islets of Langerhans consist of endocrine cells, primarily α, β and δ cells, which secrete glucagon, insulin, and somatostatin, respectively, to regulate plasma glucose. β cells form irregular locally connected clusters within islets that act in concert to secrete insulin upon glucose stimulation. Due to the central functional significance of this local connectivity in the placement of β cells in an islet, it is important to characterize it quantitatively. However, quantification of the seemingly stochastic cytoarchitecture of β cells in an islet requires mathematical methods that can capture topological connectivity in the entire β-cell population in an islet. Graph theory provides such a framework. Using large-scale imaging data for thousands of islets containing hundreds of thousands of cells in human organ donor pancreata, we show that quantitative graph characteristics differ between control and type 2 diabetic islets. Further insight into the processes that shape and maintain this architecture is obtained by formulating a stochastic theory of β-cell rearrangement in whole islets, just as the normal equilibrium distribution of the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process can be viewed as the result of the interplay between a random walk and a linear restoring force. Requiring that rearrangements maintain the observed quantitative topological graph characteristics strongly constrained possible processes. Our results suggest that β-cell rearrangement is dependent on its connectivity in order to maintain an optimal cluster size in both normal and T2D islets. PMID:26266953

  1. Tertiary lymphoid structures are confined to patients presenting with unifocal Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis.

    PubMed

    Quispel, Willemijn T; Steenwijk, Eline C; van Unen, Vincent; Santos, Susy J; Koens, Lianne; Mebius, Reina; Egeler, R Maarten; van Halteren, Astrid G S

    2016-08-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a neoplastic myeloid disorder with a thus far poorly understood immune component. Tertiary lymphoid structures (TLS) are lymph node-like entities which create an immune-promoting microenvironment at tumor sites. We analyzed the presence and clinical relevance of TLS in n = 104 H&E-stained, therapy-naive LCH lesions of non-lymphoid origin and applied immunohistochemistry to a smaller series. Lymphoid-follicular aggregates were detected in 34/104 (33%) lesions. In line with the lymphocyte recruitment capacity of MECA-79(+) high endothelial venules (HEVs), MECA-79(+)-expressing-LCH lesions (37/77, 48%) contained the most CD3(+) T-lymphocytes (p = 0.003). TLS were identified in 8/15 lesions and contained T-and B-lymphocytes, Follicular Dendritic Cells (FDC), HEVs and the chemokines CXCL13 and CCL21 representing key cellular components and TLS-inducing factors in conventional lymph nodes (LN). Lymphoid-follicular aggregates were most frequently detected in patients presenting with unifocal LCH (24/70, 34%) as compared to patients with poly-ostotic or multi-system LCH (7/30, 23%, p = 0.03). In addition, patients with lymphoid-follicular aggregates-containing lesions had the lowest risk to develop new LCH lesions (p = 0.04). The identification of various stages of TLS formation within LCH lesions may indicate a key role for the immune system in controlling aberrant histiocytes which arise in peripheral tissues.

  2. Tertiary lymphoid structures are confined to patients presenting with unifocal Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis.

    PubMed

    Quispel, Willemijn T; Steenwijk, Eline C; van Unen, Vincent; Santos, Susy J; Koens, Lianne; Mebius, Reina; Egeler, R Maarten; van Halteren, Astrid G S

    2016-08-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a neoplastic myeloid disorder with a thus far poorly understood immune component. Tertiary lymphoid structures (TLS) are lymph node-like entities which create an immune-promoting microenvironment at tumor sites. We analyzed the presence and clinical relevance of TLS in n = 104 H&E-stained, therapy-naive LCH lesions of non-lymphoid origin and applied immunohistochemistry to a smaller series. Lymphoid-follicular aggregates were detected in 34/104 (33%) lesions. In line with the lymphocyte recruitment capacity of MECA-79(+) high endothelial venules (HEVs), MECA-79(+)-expressing-LCH lesions (37/77, 48%) contained the most CD3(+) T-lymphocytes (p = 0.003). TLS were identified in 8/15 lesions and contained T-and B-lymphocytes, Follicular Dendritic Cells (FDC), HEVs and the chemokines CXCL13 and CCL21 representing key cellular components and TLS-inducing factors in conventional lymph nodes (LN). Lymphoid-follicular aggregates were most frequently detected in patients presenting with unifocal LCH (24/70, 34%) as compared to patients with poly-ostotic or multi-system LCH (7/30, 23%, p = 0.03). In addition, patients with lymphoid-follicular aggregates-containing lesions had the lowest risk to develop new LCH lesions (p = 0.04). The identification of various stages of TLS formation within LCH lesions may indicate a key role for the immune system in controlling aberrant histiocytes which arise in peripheral tissues. PMID:27622056

  3. Effects of Wnt3a on proliferation and differentiation of human epidermal stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Jia Liwei; Zhou Jiaxi; Peng Sha; Li Juxue; Cao Yujing; Duan Enkui

    2008-04-11

    Epidermal stem cells maintain development and homeostasis of mammalian epidermis throughout life. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in the proliferation and differentiation of epidermal stem cells are far from clear. In this study, we investigated the effects of Wnt3a and Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling on proliferation and differentiation of human fetal epidermal stem cells. We found both Wnt3a and active {beta}-catenin, two key members of the Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling, were expressed in human fetal epidermis and epidermal stem cells. In addition, Wnt3a protein can promote proliferation and inhibit differentiation of epidermal stem cells in vitro culture. Our results suggest that Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling plays important roles in human fetal skin development and homeostasis, which also provide new insights on the molecular mechanisms of oncogenesis in human epidermis.

  4. Interferon-gamma differentially regulates CD80 (B7-1) and CD86 (B7-2/B70) expression on human Langerhans cells.

    PubMed

    Yokozeki, H; Katayama, I; Ohki, O; Arimura, M; Takayama, K; Matsunaga, T; Satoh, T; Umeda, T; Azuma, M; Okumura, K; Nishioka, K

    1997-06-01

    CD80 (B7-1) and CD86 (B7-2/B70) have recently been identified in cultured human Langerhans cells (LCs), although their role and regulatory properties remain unclear. We present our comparison of the expression of the molecules, mRNAs and the function between CD80 and CD86 in human LCs treated by interferon gamma (IFN-gamma). We examined the regulatory properties of CD80 and CD86 expression in human LCs pretreated with IFN-gamma. Flow cytometric analysis indicated that the mean fluorescence intensity of CD86 but not CD80 was enhanced. However, the percentage modulation of both CD80 and CD86 positive cells were significantly up-regulated in a dose-dependent manner, after 48-h culturing with IFN-gamma. The regulatory properties of CD80 and CD86 mRNA expressions in human LC were studied using polymerase chain reaction methods. We found that both CD80 and CD86 mRNA of enriched LCs following IFN-gamma pretreatment for 12 h were higher than those without pretreatment. We have demonstrated that the primary allogeneic mixed epidermal cell-lymphocyte reaction induced by human LCs treated by IFN-gamma increased in a dose-dependent manner. There was a 61.5% inhibition by anti-CD86 monoclonal antibody and a 32.5% inhibition by anti-CD80 monoclonal antibody. These data indicate that the CD80 and CD86 expression of human LCs may be differently regulated by IFN-gamma.

  5. Role of abnormal Langerhans cells in oral epithelial dysplasia and oral squamous cell carcinoma: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Rani, Shyamsundar Vidya; Aravindha, Babu; Leena, Sankari; Balachander, Nandagopal; Malathi, Letchumana Kumar; Masthan, Mahaboob Kadar

    2015-01-01

    Background: The oral epithelial dysplasia (OED) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), although initiated by tobacco carcinogens, their progression is due to inability of Langerhans cells (LCs) to detect these abnormal cells and promote lymphocytes to destroy these cells. We assessed and quantified the tumor associated LCs and inflammation in OED and OSCC to understand their role. Materials and Methods: Fifty-five microscopic sections were assessed (27 OED and 28 OSCC). The LCs were detected using S-100 immunohistochemical marker. The number of tumor associated LCs were counted. The presence of abnormal appearing large cells and its relation to histopathologic grade and inflammation was assessed. Results: Significant increase in the LC count was observed in OSCC when compared to dysplasia. Large, abnormal appearing cells were observed in dysplasia and carcinomas however, these were more pronounced in moderate dysplasia and poorly-differentiated carcinomas. The presence of these abnormal appearing cells was associated with decrease in lymphocytic infiltrate. Conclusion: The present study indicates more LC are recruited into the carcinoma. These accumulated nonfunctional LC in the tumor tissue are indicative of aggressive tumor with potential malignant transformation. PMID:26604600

  6. Ectopic micronodular thymoma with lymphoid stroma in the cervical region: a rare case associated with Langerhans cells proliferation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Min; Meng, Yuan; Xu, Bin; Zhao, Lin; Zhang, Qingfu

    2016-01-01

    Micronodular thymoma (MNT) with lymphoid stroma is a rare thymic epithelial neoplasm with the characteristics of multiple nodules separated by abundant lymphoid stroma. MNTs mainly arise in the anterior mediastinum and thymus, while ectopic MNTs are extremely rarely seen. Here, we report an ectopic MNT that occurred in the neck of a 62-year-old woman. There were also scattered eosinophilic granulocytes and S100(+)/CD1a(+) Langerhans cells within the tumor. This case provides a better understanding of such rare, poorly understood cases. PMID:27486334

  7. Long-Term Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation as Bridging Strategies to Lung Transplantation in Rapidly Devastating Isolated Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis.

    PubMed

    Sacco, Oliviero; Moscatelli, Andrea; Conte, Massimo; Grasso, Chiara; Magnano, Gian Michele; Sementa, Angela Rita; Martelli, Alberto; Rossi, Giovanni A

    2016-05-01

    Isolated pulmonary involvement in pediatric Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is extremely rare. While the multisystem-LCH course varies from spontaneous remission to rapid deterioration with lethal outcome, single system involvement is generally associated with favorable prognosis. A child with isolated pulmonary LCH had an extremely rapid progression leading to respiratory failure, despite treatment with prednisone and vinblastine. Since lung hyperinflation and cystic degeneration contraindicated conventional mechanical ventilation, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) was chosen for 50 days as a bridge to lung transplantation. The mechanisms involved in disease progression and the usefulness of long-term ECMO are discussed. PMID:26840616

  8. Ectopic micronodular thymoma with lymphoid stroma in the cervical region: a rare case associated with Langerhans cells proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Min; Meng, Yuan; Xu, Bin; Zhao, Lin; Zhang, Qingfu

    2016-01-01

    Micronodular thymoma (MNT) with lymphoid stroma is a rare thymic epithelial neoplasm with the characteristics of multiple nodules separated by abundant lymphoid stroma. MNTs mainly arise in the anterior mediastinum and thymus, while ectopic MNTs are extremely rarely seen. Here, we report an ectopic MNT that occurred in the neck of a 62-year-old woman. There were also scattered eosinophilic granulocytes and S100+/CD1a+ Langerhans cells within the tumor. This case provides a better understanding of such rare, poorly understood cases. PMID:27486334

  9. The interfollicular epidermal stem cell saga: sensationalism versus reality check.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Pritinder; Potten, Christopher S

    2011-09-01

    Adult stem cells in rapidly renewing tissues have been classically defined as rare, relatively quiescent cells with the unique capacity to constantly self-renew and regenerate tissues during homeostasis. Although this view remains firmly embedded in the skin field, particularly in the area of hair follicle stem cell biology, it has been challenged by a number of notable publications in 2007. These papers leave an uncomfortable feeling with the reader if one believes that stem cells and transit amplifying cells are two polar opposites and 'never the twain shall meet.' Even if you do not subscribe to this extreme view, the implications appear to be far-reaching given that the majority of techniques devised for stem cell identification have used the fundamental tenet that the proliferating compartment is comprised of two distinct, mutually exclusive compartments, i.e. a minor proportion of long-lived quiescent stem cells with unlimited self-renewal and a large pool of rapidly cycling, short-lived transient amplifying cells with limited or no self-renewal capacity in normal steady-state conditions. However, these recent findings have resulted in papers that could be described as sensationalistic because they make little or no attempt to reconcile their observations with the large bulk of historical data with direct bearing on the interpretation of stem cell activity in normal steady-state conditions. Here, we offer some explanations that may help to integrate all of the data while presenting a case that both quiescent stem cells and cycling 'transit amplifying' cells contribute to epidermal replacement. PMID:21834906

  10. Central nervous system imaging in childhood Langerhans cell histiocytosis – a reference center analysis

    PubMed Central

    Porto, Luciana; Schöning, Stefan; Hattingen, Elke; Sörensen, Jan; Jurcoane, Alina; Lehrnbecher, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of our study was (1) to describe central nervous system (CNS) manifestations in children with Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) based on images sent to a reference center and meeting minimum requirements and (2) to assess the inter-rater agreement of CNS-MRI results, which represents the overall reproducibility of this investigation. Methods We retrospectively reviewed brain MRI examinations in children with LCH, for which MRI minimum requirements were met. Abnormalities were rated by two experienced neuroradiologists, and the inter-rater agreement was assessed. Results Out of a total of 94 imaging studies, only 31 MRIs met the minimum criteria, which included T2w, FLAIR, T1w images before/after contrast in at least two different section planes, and thin post contrast sagittal slices T1w through the sella. The most common changes were osseous abnormalities, followed by solid enlargement of the pineal gland, thickened enhancing stalk and signal changes of the dentate nucleus. Whereas inter-rater agreement in assessing most of the CNS lesions was relatively high (κ > 0.61), the application of minimum criteria often did not allow to evaluate the posterior pituitary. Conclusions The diversity of radiological protocols from different institutions leads to difficulties in the diagnosis of CNS abnormalities in children with LCH. Although the inter-rater agreement between neuroradiologists was high, not all the LCH manifestations could be completely ruled out when using the minimum criteria. Brain MRIs should therefore follow LCH guideline protocols and include T1 pre-gadolinium sagittal images, and be centrally reviewed in order to improve the comparison of clinical trials. PMID:26401129

  11. Macrophages in Langerhans cell histiocytosis are differentiated toward M2 phenotype: their possible involvement in pathological processes.

    PubMed

    Ohnishi, Koji; Komohara, Yoshihiro; Sakashita, Naomi; Iyama, Ken-Ichi; Murayama, Toshihiko; Takeya, Motohiro

    2010-01-01

    Although numerous macrophages are found in the lesions of Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH), their activation phenotypes and their roles in the disease process have not been clarified. Paraffin-embedded LCH samples were examined on immunohistochemistry and it was found that CD163 can be used to distinguish infiltrated macrophages from neoplastic Langerhans cells (LC). The number of CD163-positve macrophages was positively correlated with the number of multinucleated giant cells (MGC), indicating that most MGC are derived from infiltrated macrophages. A significant number of CD163-positive macrophages were positive for interleukin (IL)-10 and phospho-signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (pSTAT3), an IL-10-induced signal transduction molecule. This indicates that these macrophages are polarized to anti-inflammatory macrophages of M2 phenotype. Tumor-derived macrophage-colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) was considered to responsible for inducing M2 differentiation of infiltrated macrophages. The number of CD163-positive macrophages in different cases of LCH varied, and interestingly the density of CD163-positive macrophages was inversely correlated with the Ki-67-positivity of LC. Although the underlying mechanism is not fully elucidated, macrophage-derived IL-10 was considered to be involved in the suppression of tumor cell proliferation via activation of STAT3. PMID:20055949

  12. Retinoid-mediated transcriptional regulaton of keratin genes in human epidermal and squamous cell carcinoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Stellmach, V.; Leask, A.; Fuchs, E. )

    1991-06-01

    Vitamin A and other retinoids profoundly inhibit morphological and biochemical heatures of epidermal differentiation in vivo and in vitro. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying the differential expression of epidermal keratins and their regulation by retinoids, the authors retinoid-mediated changes in total protein expression, protein synthesis, mRNA expression, and transcription in cultured human keratinocytes and in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC-13) cells of epidermal origin. The studies revealed that the epidermal keratins, K5, K6, K14, and K16, their mRNAs, and their transcripts were diminished relative to actin as a consequence of retinoic acid (RA) treatment. The effects were most pronounced in SCC-13 and were detected as early as 6 hr post-RA treatment, with enhancement over an additional 24-48 hr. Repression was also observed when 5{prime} upstream sequences of K14 or K5 genes were used to drive expression of a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter gene in SCC-13 keratinocytes. Both cell types were found to express mRNAs for the RA receptors {alpha} and {gamma}, which may be involved in the RA-mediated transcriptional changes in these cells. The rapid transcriptional changes in epidermal keratin genes were in striking contrast to the previously reported slow transcriptional changes in simple epithelial keratin genes.

  13. In vivo/ex vivo targeting of Langerhans cells after topical application of the immune response modifier TMX-202: confocal Raman microscopy and histology analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darvin, Maxim E.; Thiede, Gisela; Ascencio, Saul Mujica; Schanzer, Sabine; Richter, Heike; Vinzón, Sabrina E.; Hasche, Daniel; Rösl, Frank; May, Roberto; Hazot, Yohan; Tamarkin, Dov; Lademann, Juergen

    2016-05-01

    The increased ability of TMX-202 (derivative of imiquimod) to penetrate the intact stratum corneum (SC) and the follicular orifices of porcine ear skin was shown ex vivo using confocal Raman microscopy and laser scanning microscopy. Moreover, to assess whether TMX-202 is able to reach the immune cells, Langerhans cells extracted from pretreated human skin were investigated ex vivo using confocal Raman microscopy combined with multivariate statistical methods. Tracking the Raman peak of dimethyl sulfoxide centered at 690 cm-1, the absorption of TMX-202 containing formulation by Langerhans cells was shown. To answer the question whether the TMX-202 active ingredient is able to reach Langerhans cells, the attraction of immune cells to TMX-202 containing formulation treated skin was measured in the in vivo rodent model Mastomys coucha. The results show that TMX-202 active ingredient is able to reach Langerhans cells after penetrating through the intact skin and subsequently attract immune cells. Both the intercellular/transcellular as well as the follicular pathways allow the penetration through the intact barrier of the SC.

  14. Arsenite maintains germinative state in cultured human epidermal cells

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, Timothy J.; Reznikova, Tatiana V.; Phillips, Marjorie A.; Rice, Robert H. . E-mail: rhrice@ucdavis.edu

    2005-08-22

    Arsenic is a well-known carcinogen for human skin, but its mechanism of action and proximal macromolecular targets remain to be elucidated. In the present study, low micromolar concentrations of sodium arsenite maintained the proliferative potential of epidermal keratinocytes, decreasing their exit from the germinative compartment under conditions that promote differentiation of untreated cells. This effect was observed in suspension and in post-confluent surface cultures as measured by colony-forming ability and by proportion of rapidly adhering colony-forming cells. Arsenite-treated cultures exhibited elevated levels of {beta}1-integrin and {beta}-catenin, two proteins enriched in cells with high proliferative potential. Levels of phosphorylated (inactive) glycogen synthase kinase 3{beta} were higher in the treated cultures, likely accounting for the increased levels of transcriptionally available {beta}-catenin. These findings suggest that arsenic could have co-carcinogenic and tumor co-promoting activities in the epidermis as a result of increasing the population and persistence of germinative cells targeted by tumor initiators and promoters. These findings also identify a critical signal transduction pathway meriting further exploration in pursuit of this phenomenon.

  15. B-RAF Mutant Alleles Associated with Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis, a Granulomatous Pediatric Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Hui-chun; Mian, Sophie; Trouillet, Celine; Mufti, Ghulam; Emile, Jean-Francois; Fraternali, Franca; Donadieu, Jean; Geissmann, Frederic

    2012-01-01

    Background Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) features inflammatory granuloma characterised by the presence of CD1a+ dendritic cells or ‘LCH cells’. Badalian-Very et al. recently reported the presence of a canonical V600EB-RAF mutation in 57% of paraffin-embedded biopsies from LCH granuloma. Here we confirm their findings and report the identification of two novel B-RAF mutations detected in LCH patients. Methods and Results Mutations of B-RAF were observed in granuloma samples from 11 out of 16 patients using ‘next generation’ pyrosequencing. In 9 cases the mutation identified was V600EB-RAF. In 2 cases novel polymorphisms were identified. A somatic 600DLATB-RAF insertion mimicked the structural and functional consequences of the V600EB-RAF mutant. It destabilized the inactive conformation of the B-RAF kinase and resulted in increased ERK activation in 293 T cells. The 600DLATB-RAF and V600EB-RAF mutations were found enriched in DNA and mRNA from the CD1a+ fraction of granuloma. They were absent from the blood and monocytes of 58 LCH patients, with a lower threshold of sequencing sensitivity of 1%–2% relative mutation abundance. A novel germ line T599AB-RAF mutant allele was detected in one patient, at a relative mutation abundance close to 50% in the LCH granuloma, blood monocytes and lymphocytes. However, T599AB-RAF did not destabilize the inactive conformation of the B-RAF kinase, and did not induce increased ERK phosphorylation or C-RAF transactivation. Conclusions Our data confirmed presence of the V600EB-RAF mutation in LCH granuloma of some patients, and identify two novel B-RAF mutations. They indicate that V600EB-RAF and 600DLATB-RAF mutations are somatic mutants enriched in LCH CD1a+ cells and absent from the patient blood. Further studies are needed to assess the functional consequences of the germ-line T599AB-RAF allele. PMID:22506009

  16. Epigenetic Regulation of Epidermal Stem Cell Biomarkers and Their Role in Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Saldanha, Sabita N.; Royston, Kendra J.; Udayakumar, Neha; Tollefsbol, Trygve O.

    2015-01-01

    As an actively renewable tissue, changes in skin architecture are subjected to the regulation of stem cells that maintain the population of cells responsible for the formation of epidermal layers. Stems cells retain their self-renewal property and express biomarkers that are unique to this population. However, differential regulation of the biomarkers can initiate the pathway of terminal cell differentiation. Although, pockets of non-clarity in stem cell maintenance and differentiation in skin still exist, the influence of epigenetics in epidermal stem cell functions and differentiation in skin homeostasis and wound healing is clearly evident. The focus of this review is to discuss the epigenetic regulation of confirmed and probable epidermal stem cell biomarkers in epidermal stratification of normal skin and in diseased states. The role of epigenetics in wound healing, especially in diseased states of diabetes and cancer, will also be conveyed. PMID:26712738

  17. Epigenetic Regulation of Epidermal Stem Cell Biomarkers and Their Role in Wound Healing.

    PubMed

    Saldanha, Sabita N; Royston, Kendra J; Udayakumar, Neha; Tollefsbol, Trygve O

    2015-12-24

    As an actively renewable tissue, changes in skin architecture are subjected to the regulation of stem cells that maintain the population of cells responsible for the formation of epidermal layers. Stems cells retain their self-renewal property and express biomarkers that are unique to this population. However, differential regulation of the biomarkers can initiate the pathway of terminal cell differentiation. Although, pockets of non-clarity in stem cell maintenance and differentiation in skin still exist, the influence of epigenetics in epidermal stem cell functions and differentiation in skin homeostasis and wound healing is clearly evident. The focus of this review is to discuss the epigenetic regulation of confirmed and probable epidermal stem cell biomarkers in epidermal stratification of normal skin and in diseased states. The role of epigenetics in wound healing, especially in diseased states of diabetes and cancer, will also be conveyed.

  18. JACKDAW controls epidermal patterning in the Arabidopsis root meristem through a non-cell-autonomous mechanism.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Hala; Scheres, Ben; Blilou, Ikram

    2010-05-01

    In Arabidopsis, specification of the hair and non-hair epidermal cell types is position dependent, in that hair cells arise over clefts in the underlying cortical cell layer. Epidermal patterning is determined by a network of transcriptional regulators that respond to an as yet unknown cue from underlying tissues. Previously, we showed that JACKDAW (JKD), a zinc finger protein, localizes in the quiescent centre and the ground tissue, and regulates tissue boundaries and asymmetric cell division by delimiting SHORT-ROOT movement. Here, we provide evidence that JKD controls position-dependent signals that regulate epidermal-cell-type patterning. JKD is required for appropriately patterned expression of the epidermal cell fate regulators GLABRA2, CAPRICE and WEREWOLF. Genetic interaction studies indicate that JKD operates upstream of the epidermal patterning network in a SCRAMBLED (SCM)-dependent fashion after embryogenesis, but acts independent of SCM in embryogenesis. Tissue-specific induction experiments indicate non-cell-autonomous action of JKD from the underlying cortex cell layer to specify epidermal cell fate. Our findings are consistent with a model where JKD induces a signal in every cortex cell that is more abundant in the hair cell position owing to the larger surface contact of cells located over a cleft.

  19. Gloss, colour and grip: multifunctional epidermal cell shapes in bee- and bird-pollinated flowers.

    PubMed

    Papiorek, Sarah; Junker, Robert R; Lunau, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Flowers bear the function of filters supporting the attraction of pollinators as well as the deterrence of floral antagonists. The effect of epidermal cell shape on the visual display and tactile properties of flowers has been evaluated only recently. In this study we quantitatively measured epidermal cell shape, gloss and spectral reflectance of flowers pollinated by either bees or birds testing three hypotheses: The first two hypotheses imply that bee-pollinated flowers might benefit from rough surfaces on visually-active parts produced by conical epidermal cells, as they may enhance the colour signal of flowers as well as the grip on flowers for bees. In contrast, bird-pollinated flowers might benefit from flat surfaces produced by flat epidermal cells, by avoiding frequent visitation from non-pollinating bees due to a reduced colour signal, as birds do not rely on specific colour parameters while foraging. Moreover, flat petal surfaces in bird-pollinated flowers may hamper grip for bees that do not touch anthers and stigmas while consuming nectar and thus, are considered as nectar thieves. Beside this, the third hypothesis implies that those flower parts which are vulnerable to nectar robbing of bee- as well as bird-pollinated flowers benefit from flat epidermal cells, hampering grip for nectar robbing bees. Our comparative data show in fact that conical epidermal cells are restricted to visually-active parts of bee-pollinated flowers, whereas robbing-sensitive parts of bee-pollinated as well as the entire floral surface of bird-pollinated flowers possess on average flat epidermal cells. However, direct correlations between epidermal cell shape and colour parameters have not been found. Our results together with published experimental studies show that epidermal cell shape as a largely neglected flower trait might act as an important feature in pollinator attraction and avoidance of antagonists, and thus may contribute to the partitioning of flower-visitors.

  20. Multifocal Langerhans cell histiocytosis in an adult with a pathological fracture of the mandible and spontaneous malunion: A case report

    PubMed Central

    SHI, SAILANG; LIU, YANMING; FU, TAO; LI, XIUZHEN; ZHAO, SHIFANG

    2014-01-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is rare in the adult population and even rarer with jaw involvement. The current study presents the case of a 39-year-old male who complained of recurrent pain, swelling of the gingiva and an occasional pus-like discharge in the right mandible for one year. The patient was previously prescribed antibiotics, but this did not resolve the problem. An initial panoramic radiograph showed an osteolytic lesion and bone fracture in the right mandible. Eight months later, a new radiograph showed the spontaneous malunion of the fractured mandible. The patient was eventually diagnosed with Langerhans cell histiocytosis by histopathology and immunohistochemistry. Further lesions were found in the ribs and ilium by nuclear bone scanning. The patient was subsequently treated with systemic chemotherapy, and the lesions are currently effectively being controlled. This study is the first to show that spontaneous intralesional bone regeneration may lead to reunification of the mandible fracture caused by LCH in an adult. PMID:25120660

  1. Langerhans cell histiocytosis in adults. Report from the International Registry of the Histiocyte Society.

    PubMed

    Aricò, M; Girschikofsky, M; Généreau, T; Klersy, C; McClain, K; Grois, N; Emile, J-F; Lukina, E; De Juli, E; Danesino, C

    2003-11-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH), characterised by the infiltration of one or more organs by large mononuclear cells, can develop in persons of any age. Although the features of this disease are well described in children, they remain poorly defined in adults. From January 2000 to June 2001, 274 adults from 13 countries, with biopsy-proven adult LCH, were registered with the International Histiocyte Society Registry. Information was collected about clinical presentation, family history, associated conditions, cigarette smoking and treatment, to assist in future management decisions in patients aged 18 years and older. There were slightly more males than females (143:126), and the mean ages at the onset and diagnosis of disease were 33 years (standard deviation (S.D.) 15 years) and 35 years (S.D. 14 years), respectively. 2 patients had consanguineous parents, and 1 had a family history of LCH; 129 reported smoking (47.1%); 17 (6.2%) had been diagnosed with different types of cancer. Single-system LCH, found in 86 patients (31.4%), included isolated pulmonary involvement in 44 cases; 188 patients (68.6%) had multisystem disease; 81 (29.6%) had diabetes insipidus. Initial treatment consisted of vinblastine administered with or without steroids, to 82 patients (29.9%), including 9 who had received it with etoposide, which was the sole agent given to 19 patients. 236 patients were considered evaluable for survival. At a median follow-up of 28 months from diagnosis, 15 patients (6.4%) had died (death rate, 1.5/100 person years, 95% Confidence Interval (95% CI) 0.9-2.4). The probability of survival at 5 years postdiagnosis was 92.3% (95% CI 85.6-95.9) overall, 100% for patients with single-system disease (n=37), 87.8% (95% CI 54.9-97.2) for isolated pulmonary disease (n=34), and 91.7% (95% CI 83.6-95.9) for multisystem disease (n=163). Survival did not differ significantly among patients with multisystem disease, with or without liver or lung involvement) 5-year

  2. Basal Cell Carcinoma Arising on a Verrucous Epidermal Nevus: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Viana, Analia; Aguinaga, Felipe; Marinho, Flauberto; Rodrigues, Rosangela; Cuzzi, Tullia; Ramos-e-Silva, Marcia

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of basal cell carcinoma that appeared from an epidermal verrucous nevus in a 61-year-old patient. The onset of basal cell carcinoma in sebaceous nevi, basal cell nevi and dysplastic nevi is relatively common, but it is rarely associated with epidermal verrucous nevi. There is no consensus on whether the two lesions have a common cellular origin or whether they merely represent a collision of two distinct tumors. Since this association – as with other malignant tumors – is rare, there is no need for prophylactic removal of epidermal verrucous nevi. PMID:25848348

  3. Immunoisolated transplantation of purified langerhans islet cells in testis cortex of male rats for treatment of streptozotocin induced diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Farhangi, Ali; Norouzian, Dariush; Mehrabi, Mohammad Reza; Chiani, Mohsen; Saffari, Zahra; Farahnak, Maryam; Akbarzadeh, Azim

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this study is to induce experimental diabetes mellitus by streptozotocin in normal adult Wistar rats via comparison of changes in body weight, consumption of food, volume of water, urine and levels of glucose, insulin and C-peptide in serum, between normal and diabetic rats. Intra-venous injection of 60 mg/kg dose of streptozotocin in 250-300 g (75-90 days) adult Wistar rats makes pancreas swell and causes degeneration in Langerhans islet β-cells and induces experimental diabetes mellitus in 2-4 days. For a microscopic study of degeneration of Langerhans islet β-cells of diabetic rats, biopsy from pancreas tissue of diabetic and normal rats, staining and comparison between them, were done. In this process, after collagenase digestion of pancreas, islets were isolated, dissociated and identified by dithizone method and then with enzymatic procedure by DNase and trypsin, the islet cells changed into single cells and β-cells were identified by immune fluorescence method and then assayed by flow-cytometer. Donor tissue in each step of work was prepared from 38 adult male Wistar rats weighted 250-300 g (75-90 days). Transplantation was performed in rats after 2-4 weeks of diabetes induction. In this study, the levels of insulin, C-peptide and glucose in diabetic rats reached to normal range as compared to un-diabetic rats in 20 days after transplantation of islet cells. Transplantation was performed under the cortex of testis as immunoisolated place for islet cells transplantation. PMID:25298622

  4. MUTZ-3 derived Langerhans cells in human skin equivalents show differential migration and phenotypic plasticity after allergen or irritant exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Kosten, Ilona J.; Spiekstra, Sander W.; Gruijl, Tanja D. de; Gibbs, Susan

    2015-08-15

    After allergen or irritant exposure, Langerhans cells (LC) undergo phenotypic changes and exit the epidermis. In this study we describe the unique ability of MUTZ-3 derived Langerhans cells (MUTZ-LC) to display similar phenotypic plasticity as their primary counterparts when incorporated into a physiologically relevant full-thickness skin equivalent model (SE-LC). We describe differences and similarities in the mechanisms regulating LC migration and plasticity upon allergen or irritant exposure. The skin equivalent consisted of a reconstructed epidermis containing primary differentiated keratinocytes and CD1a{sup +} MUTZ-LC on a primary fibroblast-populated dermis. Skin equivalents were exposed to a panel of allergens and irritants. Topical exposure to sub-toxic concentrations of allergens (nickel sulfate, resorcinol, cinnamaldehyde) and irritants (Triton X-100, SDS, Tween 80) resulted in LC migration out of the epidermis and into the dermis. Neutralizing antibody to CXCL12 blocked allergen-induced migration, whereas anti-CCL5 blocked irritant-induced migration. In contrast to allergen exposure, irritant exposure resulted in cells within the dermis becoming CD1a{sup −}/CD14{sup +}/CD68{sup +} which is characteristic of a phenotypic switch of MUTZ-LC to a macrophage-like cell in the dermis. This phenotypic switch was blocked with anti-IL-10. Mechanisms previously identified as being involved in LC activation and migration in native human skin could thus be reproduced in the in vitro constructed skin equivalent model containing functional LC. This model therefore provides a unique and relevant research tool to study human LC biology in situ under controlled in vitro conditions, and will provide a powerful tool for hazard identification, testing novel therapeutics and identifying new drug targets. - Highlights: • MUTZ-3 derived Langerhans cells integrated into skin equivalents are fully functional. • Anti-CXCL12 blocks allergen-induced MUTZ-LC migration.

  5. Osteopontin Is Involved in the Initiation of Cutaneous Contact Hypersensitivity by Inducing Langerhans and Dendritic Cell Migration to Lymph Nodes

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, J.M.; Renkl, A.C.; Maier, C.S.; Kimmig, M.; Liaw, L.; Ahrens, T.; Kon, S.; Maeda, M.; Hotta, H.; Uede, T.; Simon, J.C.

    2001-01-01

    Osteopontin (OPN) is a chemotactic protein that attracts immune cells, to inflammatory sites. The sensitization phase of allergic cutaneous contact hypersensitivity (CHS) requires the migration of Langerhans cells/dendritic cells (LCs/DCs) from skin to draining lymph nodes. Characterizing OPN function for LC/DC migration we found upregulated OPN expression in hapten sensitized skin and draining lymph nodes. OPN induces chemotactic LC/DC migration, initiates their emigration from the epidermis, and attracts LCs/DCs to draining lymph nodes by interacting with CD44 and αv integrin. Furthermore, OPN-deficient mice have a significantly reduced CHS response that correlates with an impaired ability of OPN-deficient mice to attract LCs/DCs to draining lymph nodes. In conclusion, OPN is an important factor in the initiation of CHS by guiding LCs/DCs from skin into lymphatic organs. PMID:11696588

  6. Pleiotropic age-dependent effects of mitochondrial dysfunction on epidermal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Velarde, Michael C; Demaria, Marco; Melov, Simon; Campisi, Judith

    2015-08-18

    Tissue homeostasis declines with age partly because stem/progenitor cells fail to self-renew or differentiate. Because mitochondrial damage can accelerate aging, we tested the hypothesis that mitochondrial dysfunction impairs stem cell renewal or function. We developed a mouse model, Tg(KRT14-cre/Esr1) (20Efu/J) × Sod2 (tm1Smel) , that generates mitochondrial oxidative stress in keratin 14-expressing epidermal stem/progenitor cells in a temporally controlled manner owing to deletion of Sod2, a nuclear gene that encodes the mitochondrial antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase 2 (Sod2). Epidermal Sod2 loss induced cellular senescence, which irreversibly arrested proliferation in a fraction of keratinocytes. Surprisingly, in young mice, Sod2 deficiency accelerated wound closure, increasing epidermal differentiation and reepithelialization, despite the reduced proliferation. In contrast, at older ages, Sod2 deficiency delayed wound closure and reduced epidermal thickness, accompanied by epidermal stem cell exhaustion. In young mice, Sod2 deficiency accelerated epidermal thinning in response to the tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate, phenocopying the reduced regeneration of older Sod2-deficient skin. Our results show a surprising beneficial effect of mitochondrial dysfunction at young ages, provide a potential mechanism for the decline in epidermal regeneration at older ages, and identify a previously unidentified age-dependent role for mitochondria in skin quality and wound closure.

  7. Isolation and cultivation of dermal stem cells that differentiate into functional epidermal melanocytes.

    PubMed

    Li, Ling; Fukunaga-Kalabis, Mizuho; Herlyn, Meenhard

    2012-01-01

    Human melanocytes have been extensively studied, but a melanocyte stem cell reservoir in glabrous skin has not yet been found. Human dermis contains cells that are nonpigmented but can differentiate to several different cell types. We have recently shown that multipotent dermal stem cells isolated from human neonatal foreskins are able to differentiate to multiple cell lineages, including pigmented melanocytes. The dermal stem cells grow as three-dimensional spheres in human embryonic stem cell medium and express some neural crest stem cell and embryonic stem cell markers. Melanocytes derived from dermal stem cells express melanocytic markers and act the same way as mature epidermal melanocytes. Dermal spheres, embedded in the reconstructed dermis consisting of collagen with fibroblasts, can migrate to the basement membrane, where they become pigmented in the same way as epidermal melanocytes suggesting that dermal stem cells can give rise to epidermal melanocytes.

  8. Expression and gene transcript of Fc receptors for IgG, HLA class II antigens and Langerhans cells in human cervico-vaginal epithelium.

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, L A; Kelly, C G; Fellowes, R; Hecht, E M; Wilson, J; Chapman, M; Lehner, T

    1992-01-01

    The mechanism of transmission of HIV from the male to the female genital tract or in the reverse order is not clear. CD4 glycoprotein is the receptor for HIV and Langerhans cells and the related dendritic cells could play a role in the initial transmission of HIV. Fc receptors (FcR) for IgG might be involved in antibody-mediated binding of HIV. We carried out an immunohistological study of normal human cervical and vaginal epithelia for the presence of CD4 glycoprotein, Langerhans cells and FcR to IgG. CD4+ glycoprotein was not found in the vaginal or cervical epithelium, with the exception of a few endocervical epithelial cells. A small number of CD4+ mononuclear cells were found in the endocervical epithelium of a third of the specimens but a large number of CD4+ cells was found in the submucosa of most of the cervical and vaginal specimens. Langerhans cells expressing CD4, HLA class II, Fc gamma R2 and Fc gamma R3 were detected in most vaginal, ectocervical and transformation zone epithelia and in 9/14 endocervical tissues. Fc gamma R3 was detected in about two-thirds of the columnar endocervical epithelium and the transformation zone. A smaller number of specimens expressed Fc gamma R2 in these epithelia, but Fc gamma R1 was not detected. We then demonstrated mRNA for Fc gamma R3 in the columnar endocervical epithelial cells and transformation zone by in situ hybridization, using a CD16-RNA probe. Fc gamma R3 and Fc gamma R2 gene transcripts were also found in fetal cervical tissue by applying the polymerase chain reaction to amplify portions of the Fc gamma R3 and Fc gamma R2 coding sequences in cDNA prepared from fetal RNA. HLA-DR was found in the endocervical cells, transformation zone and in Langerhans cells of all specimens. The presence of Langerhans cells, Fc gamma receptors and HLA class II antigen offers three potential mechanisms for cervico-vaginal HIV transmission: (i) direct HIV infection of Langerhans cells, (ii) binding of HIV antibody complexes

  9. Skin Treatment with Pulsed Monochromatic UVA1 355 Device and Computerized Morphometric Analysis of Histochemically Identified Langerhans Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zerbinati, Nicola; Riva, Federica; Paulli, Marco; Parodi, Pier Camillo

    2016-01-01

    Fluorescent or metal halide lamps are widely used in therapeutic applications in dermatological diseases, with broadband or narrow band emission UVA/UVA1 (320–400 nm) obtained with suitable passive filters. Recently, it has been possible for us to use a new machine provided with solid state source emitting pulsed monochromatic UVA1 355 nm. In order to evaluate the effects of this emission on immunocells of the skin, human skin samples were irradiated with monochromatic 355 nm UVA1 with different energetic fluences and after irradiation Langerhans cells were labeled with CD1a antibodies. The immunohistochemical identification of these cells permitted evaluating their modifications in terms of density into the skin. Obtained results are promising for therapeutical applications, also considering that a monochromatic radiation minimizes thermic load and DNA damage in the skin tissues. PMID:27525266

  10. Skin Treatment with Pulsed Monochromatic UVA1 355 Device and Computerized Morphometric Analysis of Histochemically Identified Langerhans Cells.

    PubMed

    Zerbinati, Nicola; Riva, Federica; Paulli, Marco; Parodi, Pier Camillo; Calligaro, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Fluorescent or metal halide lamps are widely used in therapeutic applications in dermatological diseases, with broadband or narrow band emission UVA/UVA1 (320-400 nm) obtained with suitable passive filters. Recently, it has been possible for us to use a new machine provided with solid state source emitting pulsed monochromatic UVA1 355 nm. In order to evaluate the effects of this emission on immunocells of the skin, human skin samples were irradiated with monochromatic 355 nm UVA1 with different energetic fluences and after irradiation Langerhans cells were labeled with CD1a antibodies. The immunohistochemical identification of these cells permitted evaluating their modifications in terms of density into the skin. Obtained results are promising for therapeutical applications, also considering that a monochromatic radiation minimizes thermic load and DNA damage in the skin tissues. PMID:27525266

  11. Distinct molecular signature of human skin Langerhans cells denotes critical differences in cutaneous dendritic cell immune regulation.

    PubMed

    Polak, Marta E; Thirdborough, Stephen M; Ung, Chuin Y; Elliott, Tim; Healy, Eugene; Freeman, Tom C; Ardern-Jones, Michael R

    2014-03-01

    Langerhans cells (LCs) are professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs) residing in the epidermis. Despite their high potential to activate T lymphocytes, current understanding of human LC biology is limited. Genome-wide comparison of the transcriptional profiles of human skin migratory CD1a+ LCs and CD11c+ dermal dendritic cells (DDCs) demonstrated significant differences between these "dendritic cell (DC)" types, including preferential expression of 625 genes (P<0.05) in LC and 914 genes (P<0.05) in DDC. Analysis of the temporal regulation of molecular networks activated after stimulation with tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) confirmed the unique molecular signature of LCs. Although LCs conformed to the phenotype of professional APC, inflammatory signaling activated primarily genes associated with cellular metabolism and mitochondrial activation (e.g., CYB561 and MRPS35), cell membrane re-organization, and antigen acquisition and degradation (CAV1 and PSMD14; P<0.05-P<0.0001). Conversely, TNF-α induced classical activation in DDCs with early downregulation of surface receptors (mannose receptor-1 (MRC1) and C-type lectins), and subsequent upregulation of cytokines, chemokines (IL1a, IL1b, and CCL18), and matrix metalloproteinases (MMP1, MMP3, and MMP9; P<0.05-P<0.0001). Functional interference of caveolin abrogated LCs superior ability to cross-present antigens to CD8+ T lymphocytes, highlighting the importance of these networks to biological function. Taken together, these observations support the idea of distinct biological roles of cutaneous DC types.

  12. Eosinophilic granuloma of bone and biochemical demonstration of 49-kDa CD1a molecule expression by Langerhans-cell histiocytosis.

    PubMed

    Cambazard, F; Dezutter-Dambuyant, C; Staquet, M J; Schmitt, D; Thivolet, J

    1991-09-01

    Histiocytic cells infiltrating the lesions in eosinophilic granuloma of bone as well as in cutaneous histiocytosis X were studied using a murine monoclonal antibody (MA) produced with proliferating cells from an eosinophilic granuloma of bone. This MA reacts with Langerhans cells (LC) of normal human skin or mucous membranes and with proliferating cells of eosinophilic granuloma of bone and skin lesions of Letter-Siwe disease, as shown by immunohistochemistry and immunogold labelling. As other murine MA's obtained after immunization with human cortical thymocytes, this MA immunoprecipitates the 49-kDa CD1a antigen found on human LC and thymic-cell surfaces but not its breakdown product after treatment with trypsin, as demonstrated by analysis of immunoelectron labelling, cytofluorometry and gel electrophoresis. This first production of a CD1a MA from an eosinophilic granuloma supports the concept of Langerhans-cell histiocytosis.

  13. PD-1 on Immature and PD-1 Ligands on Migratory Human Langerhans Cells Regulate Antigen-Presenting Cell Activity

    PubMed Central

    Peña-Cruz, Victor; McDonough, Sean M.; Diaz-Griffero, Felipe; Crum, Christopher P.; Carrasco, Ruben D.; Freeman, Gordon J.

    2010-01-01

    Langerhans cells (LCs) are known as “sentinels” of the immune system that function as professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs) after migration to draining lymph node. LCs are proposed to have a role in tolerance and the resolution of cutaneous immune responses. The Programmed Death-1 (PD-1) receptor and its ligands, PD-L1 and PD-L2, are a co-inhibitory pathway that contributes to the negative regulation of T-lymphocyte activation and peripheral tolerance. Surprisingly, we found PD-1 to be expressed on immature LCs (iLCs) in situ. PD-1 engagement on iLCs reduced IL-6 and macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1α cytokine production in response to TLR2 signals but had no effect on LC maturation. PD-L1 and PD-L2 were expressed at very low levels on iLCs. Maturation of LCs upon migration from epidermis led to loss of PD-l expression and gain of high expression of PD-L1 and PD-L2 as well as co-stimulatory molecules. Blockade of PD-L1 and/or PD-L2 on migratory LCs (mLCs) and DDCs enhanced T-cell activation, as has been reported for other APCs. Thus the PD-1 pathway is active in iLCs and inhibits iLC activities, but expression of receptor and ligands reverses upon maturation and PD-L1 and PD-L2 on mLC function to inhibit T-cell responses. PMID:20445553

  14. [Langerhans cell histiocytosis with vertebral involvement and soft tissue extension: clinical case].

    PubMed

    Luong, Tai C; Scrigni, Adriana; Paglia, Marcela; Garavaglia, Mariano; Aisenberg, Nuria; Rowensztein, Hernán; Sampor, Claudia

    2016-08-01

    La histiocitosis de células de Langerhans es una enfermedad heterogénea de etiología desconocida, que se caracteriza por la proliferación no controlada de histiocitos. Es poco frecuente y, si bien el compromiso óseo es común, la afectación vertebral es rara. Se presenta una niña de 4 años que consultó por dolor abdominal difuso de un mes de evolución, al que se agregó constipación y, posteriormente, debilidad en los miembros inferiores. El examen físico mostraba clonus e hiperreflexia en los miembros inferiores y la marcha era inestable. Se realizó una resonancia magnética, que mostró la vértebra dorsal 9 (D9) plana con tejido blando patológico en el espacio epidural y laterovertebral. Se realizó una cirugía descompresiva, artrodesis para fijar la columna y toma de biopsia, que confirmó el diagnóstico de histiocitosis de células de Langerhans. Recibió 6 meses de tratamiento con metilprednisona y vinblastina, de acuerdo con el protocolo LCH III, con excelente evolución y remisión completa. Conclusión: frente a una imagen radiológica de vértebra plana o colapso vertebral, debe pensarse en histiocitosis de células de Langerhans como diagnóstico diferencial.

  15. Mechanosensory calcium-selective cation channels in epidermal cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ding, J. P.; Pickard, B. G.

    1993-01-01

    This paper explores the properties and likely functions of an epidermal Ca(2+)-selective cation channel complex activated by tension. As many as eight or nine linked or linkable equivalent conductance units or co-channels can open together. Open time for co-channel quadruplets and quintuplets tends to be relatively long with millimolar Mg2+ (but not millimolar Ca2+) at the cytosolic face of excised plasma membrane. Sensitivity to tension is regulated by transmembrane voltage and temperature. Under some circumstances channel activity is sychronized in rhythmic pulses. Certain lanthanides and a cytoskeleton-disturbing herbicide that inhibit gravitropic reception act on the channel system at low concentrations. Specifically, ethyl-N-phenylcarbamate promotes tension-dependent activity at micromolar levels. With moderate suction, Gd3+ provided at about 0.5 micromole at the extracellular face of the membrane promotes for several seconds but may then become inhibitory. Provision at 1-2 micromoles promotes and subsequently inhibits more vigorously (often abruptly and totally), and at high levels inhibits immediately. La3+, a poor gravitropic inhibitor, acts similarly but much more gradually and only at much higher concentrations. These properties, particularly these susceptibilities to modulation, indicate that in vivo the mechanosensitive channel must be mechanosensory and mechanoregulatory. It could serve to transduce the shear forces generated in the integrated wall-membrane-cytoskeleton system during turgor changes and cell expansion as well as transducing the stresses induced by gravity, touch and flexure. In so far as such transduction is modulated by voltage and temperature, the channels would also be sensors for these modalities as long as the wall-membrane-cytoskeleton system experiences mechanical stress.

  16. Role of Pin1 in UVA-induced cell proliferation and malignant transformation in epidermal cells

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Chang Yeob; Hien, Tran Thi; Lim, Sung Chul; Kang, Keon Wook

    2011-06-24

    Highlights: {yields} Pin1 expression is enhanced by low energy UVA irradiation in both skin tissues of hairless mice and JB6 C141 epidermal cells. {yields} UVA irradiation increases activator protein-1 activity and cyclin D1 in a Pin1-dependent manner. {yields} UVA potentiates EGF-inducible, anchorage-independent growth of epidermal cells, and this is suppressed by Pin1 inhibition or by anti-oxidant. -- Abstract: Ultraviolet A (UVA) radiation ({lambda} = 320-400 nm) is considered a major cause of human skin cancer. Pin1, a peptidyl prolyl isomerase, is overexpressed in most types of cancer tissues and plays an important role in cell proliferation and transformation. Here, we demonstrated that Pin1 expression was enhanced by low energy UVA (300-900 mJ/cm{sup 2}) irradiation in both skin tissues of hairless mice and JB6 C141 epidermal cells. Exposure of epidermal cells to UVA radiation increased cell proliferation and cyclin D1 expression, and these changes were blocked by Pin1 inhibition. UVA irradiation also increased activator protein-1 (AP-1) minimal reporter activity and nuclear levels of c-Jun, but not c-Fos, in a Pin1-dependent manner. The increases in Pin1 expression and in AP-1 reporter activity in response to UVA were abolished by N-acetylcysteine (NAC) treatment. Finally, we found that pre-exposure of JB6 C141 cells to UVA potentiated EGF-inducible, anchorage-independent growth, and this effect was significantly suppressed by Pin1inhibition or by NAC.

  17. A Case Report: The Diagnosis and Therapeutic Evaluation for a Rare Disease of Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis Involving Thyroid

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Ye-Feng; Wang, Qing-Xuan; Ni, Chun-Jue; Dong, Si-Yang; Lv, Lin; Li, Quan; Chen, En-Dong; Zhang, Xiao-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) involving the thyroid gland is extremely rare. Currently, the diagnosis and therapeutic evaluation for LCH involving thyroid is a challenge. We reported a rare case of LCH involving thyroid, presenting as painless thyroid goiters, and successfully performed positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) to make an accurate diagnosis and therapeutic evaluation for LCH. Although the histology or cytology is the golden standard for the diagnosis of LCH involving thyroid, the PET/CT should be keep in mind when LCH involving thyroid with inconclusive cytologic results. During the treatment of LCH, PET/CT can be performed to assess the therapeutic effect and select the most effective and reliable treatment for LCH. PMID:26554785

  18. Strategies for the Prevention of Central Nervous System Complications in Patients with Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis: The Problem of Neurodegenerative Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Imashuku, Shinsaku; Arceci, Robert J

    2015-10-01

    Diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) are common in patients with Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH). Besides active LCH lesions, neurodegenerative (ND) lesions of the cerebellum and/or basal ganglia may occur as late sequelae of LCH. While the etiology of this ND disease remains unclear, biomarkers in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) may reflect the activity of CNS disease in these patients. However, no well-planned CSF studies have yet been performed in patients at high risk for ND-CNS-LCH. Potential parallels with other neuroinflammatory/neurodegenerative disease suggest the utility of examining these other disorders in establishing strategies for the prevention and/or treatment of ND-CNS-LCH.

  19. Total pleurectomy as the surgical treatment for recurrent secondary spontaneous pneumothorax in a child with severe pulmonary Langerhans cells histiocytosis.

    PubMed

    Abdul Aziz, Dayang Anita; Abdul Rahman, Nur Afdzillah; Tang, Swee Fong; Abdul Latif, Hasniah; Zaki, Faizah Mohd; Annuar, Zulfiqar Mohd; Alias, Hamidah; Abdul Latiff, Zarina

    2011-12-01

    Pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) in children is more extensive and is a rare cause of spontaneous secondary pneumothorax (SSP) which tends to be recurrent and refractory to conventional treatment. Its occurrence in paediatric patients posed great challenge to the choice of surgical management. Surgery in the form of pleurodesis is only considered if SSP does not improve after chemotherapy and after considering all relevant risk and benefits of surgery to patients. Chemical pleurodesis will not give the expected effect to eradicate SSP in this patient. Therefore mechanical pleurodesis is the treatment of choice. There are various techniques to perform mechanical pleurodesis; from pleural abrasion to pleurectomy. In the authors' experience, bilateral total pleurectomy provided the best outcome for this 9-year-old patient with persistent respiratory distress from SSP due to extensive pulmonary LCH.

  20. Combined Cutaneous Rosai-Dorfman Disease and Localized Cutaneous Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis Within a Single Subcutaneous Nodule

    PubMed Central

    Litzner, Brandon R.; Subtil, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: Rosai-Dorfman disease (RDD) is a reactive multisystem histiocytosis that typically presents with cervical lymphadenopathy and systemic symptoms. Cutaneous involvement occurs in approximately 10% of cases, and 3% of cases are limited to the skin without nodal or other extranodal involvement. Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a clonal histiocytosis with a wide spectrum of presentations ranging from isolated skin or bone disease to multisystem involvement. Rare case reports have identified concomitant presentation of RDD and LCH; however, most of these reports have involved LCH and RDD occurring concurrently but at separate sites. We present a rare case of concurrent RDD and LCH presenting within a single skin nodule. The patient did not have any evidence of systemic involvement and has remained stable without additional treatment. We also review the literature on this unusual co-presentation and suggest possible underlying mechanisms. Finally, we recommend baseline laboratory and imaging studies and discuss treatment options based on the available evidence. PMID:26588339

  1. Spontaneous extradural hemorrhage due to Langerhans cell histiocytosis of the skull in a child: A rare presentation

    PubMed Central

    Bakhaidar, Mohamad G.; Alghamdi, Fahad A.; Baeesa, Saleh S.

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophilic granuloma (EG) represents a local form of Langerhans cell histiocytosis that occurs mostly in children. It usually presents with a gradually enlarging painless skull mass, and rarely presents a rapid clinical deterioration. This 7-year-old boy who was diagnosed with EG, based on a magnetic resonance imaging scan, after presenting with a painless right parietal swelling of 7-week duration. Three weeks prior his scheduled surgery, he presented to the emergency department with a 2-day history of sudden increased of the subcutaneous swelling associated with a headache, vomiting, and decreased the level of consciousness; there was no history of trauma. Brain computed tomography revealed a right parietal bone defect with large subgaleal and extradural hematoma. He underwent emergent surgical excision of the skull lesion and evacuation of the hematoma. Histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of EG. We aim to raise the awareness of physicians of this rare spontaneous hemorrhagic complication of EG and review the literature. PMID:27195034

  2. Immunostimulatory Activity of the Cytokine-Based Biologic, IRX-2, on Human Papillomavirus-Exposed Langerhans Cells

    PubMed Central

    Da Silva, Diane M.; Woodham, Andrew W.; Naylor, Paul H.; Egan, James E.; Berinstein, Neil L.

    2016-01-01

    Langerhans cells (LCs) are the antigen-presenting cells of the epithelial layer and are responsible for initiating immune responses against skin and mucosa-invading viruses. Human papillomavirus (HPV)-mediated suppression of LC function is a crucial mechanism of HPV immune evasion, which can lead to persistent infection and development of several human cancers, including cervical, anal, and head and neck cancers. The cell-derived cytokine-based biologic, IRX-2, consists of multiple well-defined cytokines and is broadly active on various immune cell subsets. In this study, we investigated primary human LC activation after exposure to HPV16, followed by treatment with IRX-2 in vitro, and evaluated their subsequent ability to induce HPV16-specific T cells. In contrast to its activity on dendritic cells, HPV16 alone is not sufficient to induce phenotypic and functional activation of LCs. However, IRX-2 induces a significant upregulation of antigen presentation and costimulatory molecules, T helper 1 (Th1)-associated cytokine release, and chemokine-directed migration of LCs pre-exposed to HPV16. Furthermore, LCs treated with IRX-2 after HPV16 exposure induced CD8+ T-cell responses against specific HLA-A*0201-binding HPV16 T-cell epitopes. The present study suggests that IRX-2 is an attractive immunomodulator for assisting the immune response in eradication of HPV-infected cells, thereby potentially preventing HPV-induced cancers. PMID:26653678

  3. Langerhans cell histiocytosis is a neoplasm and consequently its recurrence is a relapse: In memory of Bob Arceci.

    PubMed

    Egeler, R Maarten; Katewa, Satyendra; Leenen, Pieter J M; Beverley, Peter; Collin, Matthew; Ginhoux, Florent; Arceci, Robert J; Rollins, Barrett J

    2016-10-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) remains a poorly understood disorder with heterogeneous clinical presentations characterized by focal or disseminated lesions that contain excessive CD1a+ langerin+ cells with dendritic cell features known as "LCH cells." Two of the major questions investigated over the past century have been (i) the origin of LCH cells and (ii) whether LCH is primarily an immune dysregulatory disorder or a neoplasm. Current opinion is that LCH cells are likely to arise from hematopoietic precursor cells, although the stage of derailment and site of transformation remain unclear and may vary in patients with different extent of disease. Over the years, evidence has provided the view that LCH is a neoplasm. The demonstration of clonality of LCH cells, insufficient evidence alone for neoplasia, is now bolstered by finding driver somatic mutations in BRAF in up to 55% of patients with LCH, and activation of the RAS-RAF-MEK-ERK (where MEK and ERK are mitogen-activated protein kinase and extracellular signal-regulated kinase, respectively) pathway in nearly 100% of patients with LCH. Herein, we review the evidence that recurrent genetic abnormalities characterized by activating oncogenic mutations should satisfy prerequisites for LCH to be called a neoplasm. As a consequence, recurrent episodes of LCH should be considered relapsed disease rather than disease reactivation. Mapping the complete genetic landscape of this intriguing disease will provide additional support for the conclusion that LCH is a neoplasm and is likely to provide more potential opportunities for molecularly targeted therapies. PMID:27314817

  4. In situ localization of epidermal stem cells using a novel multi epitope ligand cartography approach.

    PubMed

    Ruetze, Martin; Gallinat, Stefan; Wenck, Horst; Deppert, Wolfgang; Knott, Anja

    2010-06-01

    Precise knowledge of the frequency and localization of epidermal stem cells within skin tissue would further our understanding of their role in maintaining skin homeostasis. As a novel approach we used the recently developed method of multi epitope ligand cartography, applying a set of described putative epidermal stem cell markers. Bioinformatic evaluation of the data led to the identification of several discrete basal keratinocyte populations, but none of them displayed the complete stem cell marker set. The distribution of the keratinocyte populations within the tissue was remarkably heterogeneous, but determination of distance relationships revealed a population of quiescent cells highly expressing p63 and the integrins alpha(6)/beta(1) that represent origins of a gradual differentiation lineage. This population comprises about 6% of all basal cells, shows a scattered distribution pattern and could also be found in keratinocyte holoclone colonies. The data suggest that this population identifies interfollicular epidermal stem cells.

  5. Epidermal Merkel Cells are Mechanosensory Cells that Tune Mammalian Touch Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Maksimovic, Srdjan; Nakatani, Masashi; Baba, Yoshichika; Nelson, Aislyn M.; Marshall, Kara L.; Wellnitz, Scott A.; Firozi, Pervez; Woo, Seung-Hyun; Ranade, Sanjeev; Patapoutian, Ardem; Lumpkin, Ellen A.

    2014-01-01

    Touch submodalities, such as flutter and pressure, are mediated by somatosensory afferents whose terminal specializations extract tactile features and encode them as action potential trains with unique activity patterns1. Whether non-neuronal cells tune touch receptors through active or passive mechanisms is debated. Terminal specializations are thought to function as passive mechanical filters analogous to the cochlea’s basilar membrane, which deconstructs complex sounds into tones that are transduced by mechanosensory hair cells. The model that cutaneous specializations are merely passive has been recently challenged because epidermal cells express sensory ion channels and neurotransmitters2,3; however, direct evidence that epidermal cells excite tactile afferents is lacking. Epidermal Merkel cells display features of sensory receptor cells4,5 and make “synapse-like” contacts5,6 with slowly adapting type I (SAI) afferents7–9. These complexes, which encode spatial features such as edges and texture1, localize to skin regions with high tactile acuity, including whisker follicles, fingertips and touch domes. Here, we show that Merkel cells actively participate in touch reception in mice. First, Merkel cells display fast, touch-evoked mechanotransduction currents. Second, optogenetic approaches in intact skin show that Merkel cells are both necessary and sufficient for sustained action-potential firing in tactile afferents. Third, recordings from touch-dome afferents lacking Merkel cells demonstrate that Merkel cells confer high-frequency responses to dynamic stimuli and enable sustained firing. These data are the first to directly demonstrate a functional, excitatory connection between epidermal cells and sensory neurons. Together, these findings indicate that Merkel cells actively tune mechanosensory responses to facilitate high spatio-temporal acuity. Moreover, our results suggest a division of labour in the Merkel cell-neurite complex: Merkel cells signal

  6. Enrichment of epidermal stem cells of rats by Vario magnetic activated cell sorting system.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Zhang, Wei-wei; Shi, Chunying; Lian, Xiaohua; Yi, Shanghong; Yang, Tian

    2013-09-01

    Epidermal stem cells (ESCs) play an important role in skin homeostasis, wound repair, and tumorigensis which have great potential in scientific research and clinical application. So, the efficient isolation of these infrequent stem cells is very important for researchers to solve the problem of low purity and insufficient quantity of stem cells in vitro. The aim of this study was to investigate a method for the enrichment of ESCs by magnetic activated cell sorting system. The isolation strategy was CD71 depletion followed by α6-integrin positive selection. The percentage of α6(bri)CD71(dim) cells in isolated cells was 94.59%. Transmission electron microscopy results revealed that α6(bri) CD71(dim) cells exhibited some typical characteristics like progenitor cells, such as big nucleus, obvious nucleolus, large nuclear-cytoplasm ratio, and few organelles in cytoplasm. When cultured in vitro, the α6(bri)CD71(dim) cells had greater proliferating potential and higher colony-forming ability, and high levels of epidermal stem cell markers were expressed in our positive cells. ESCs have been successfully isolated from neonatal epidermis using Vario MACS and cultured in vitro. This isolation method is simple, fast, and inexpensive, providing an important tool for tissue engineering and cell transplantation studies.

  7. Regional differences in the density of Langerhans cells, CD8-positive T lymphocytes and CD68-positive macrophages: a preliminary study using elderly donated cadavers

    PubMed Central

    Omine, Yuya; Hinata, Nobuyuki; Kasahara, Masaaki; Matsunaga, Satoru; Murakami, Gen; Abe, Shin-ichi

    2015-01-01

    To provide a better understanding of the local immune system in the face and external genitalia, i.e., the oral floor, lower lip, palpebral conjunctiva, anus and penis, we examined the distribution and density of CD1a-positve Langerhans cells, CD8-positive suppressor T lymphocytes and CD68-positive macrophages using specimens from 8 male elderly cadavers. The density of Langerhans cells showed an individual difference of more than (or almost) 10-fold in the lip (oral floor). In the oral floor, Langerhans cells were often spherical. Submucosal or subcutaneous suppressor lymphocytes, especially rich in the oral floor and penile skin, migrated into the epithelium at 4 sites, except for the anus. In the conjunctiva, macrophage migration into the epithelium was seen in all 8 specimens. The density of suppressor lymphocytes showed a significant correlation between the oral floor and the lip (r=0.78). In contrast, the anal and penile skins showed no positive correlation in the density of all three types of immunoreactive cells examined. Overall, irrespective of the wide individual differences, the oral floor and conjunctiva seemed to be characterized by a rich content of all three cell types, whereas the penile skin was characterized by an abundance of suppressor lymphocytes. Based on the tables, as mean value, the relative abundance of three different cell types were as follows; CD1a-positive Langerhans cells (anus), CD8-positive lymphocytes (penis), and CD68-positive macrophages (lip). The present observations suggest that the local immune response is highly site-dependent, with a tendency for tolerance rather than rejection. PMID:26417477

  8. Epidermal Th22 and Tc17 cells form a localized disease memory in clinically healed psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Cheuk, Stanley; Wikén, Maria; Blomqvist, Lennart; Nylén, Susanne; Talme, Toomas; Ståhle, Mona; Eidsmo, Liv

    2014-04-01

    Psoriasis is a common and chronic inflammatory skin disease in which T cells play a key role. Effective treatment heals the skin without scarring, but typically psoriasis recurs in previously affected areas. A pathogenic memory within the skin has been proposed, but the nature of such site-specific disease memory is unknown. Tissue-resident memory T (TRM) cells have been ascribed a role in immunity after resolved viral skin infections. Because of their localization in the epidermal compartment of the skin, TRM may contribute to tissue pathology during psoriasis. In this study, we investigated whether resolved psoriasis lesions contain TRM cells with the ability to maintain and potentially drive recurrent disease. Three common and effective therapies, narrowband-UVB treatment and long-term biologic treatment systemically inhibiting TNF-α or IL-12/23 signaling were studied. Epidermal T cells were highly activated in psoriasis and a high proportion of CD8 T cells expressed TRM markers. In resolved psoriasis, a population of cutaneous lymphocyte-associated Ag, CCR6, CD103, and IL-23R expressing epidermal CD8 T cells was highly enriched. Epidermal CD8 T cells expressing the TRM marker CD103 responded to ex vivo stimulation with IL-17A production and epidermal CD4 T cells responded with IL-22 production after as long as 6 y of TNF-α inhibition. Our data suggest that epidermal TRM cells are retained in resolved psoriasis and that these cells are capable of producing cytokines with a critical role in psoriasis pathogenesis. We provide a potential mechanism for a site-specific T cell-driven disease memory in psoriasis.

  9. Homologs of SCAR/WAVE complex components are required for epidermal cell morphogenesis in rice.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wenqi; Wang, Yuchuan; Wu, Zhongliang; Luo, Liang; Liu, Ping; Yan, Longfeng; Hou, Suiwen

    2016-07-01

    Filamentous actins (F-actins) play a vital role in epidermal cell morphogenesis. However, a limited number of studies have examined actin-dependent leaf epidermal cell morphogenesis events in rice. In this study, two recessive mutants were isolated: less pronounced lobe epidermal cell2-1 (lpl2-1) and lpl3-1, whose leaf and stem epidermis developed a smooth surface, with fewer serrated pavement cell (PC) lobes, and decreased papillae. The lpl2-1 also exhibited irregular stomata patterns, reduced plant height, and short panicles and roots. Molecular genetic studies demonstrated that LPL2 and LPL3 encode the PIROGI/Specifically Rac1-associated protein 1 (PIR/SRA1)-like and NCK-associated protein 1 (NAP1)-like proteins, respectively, two components of the suppressor of cAMP receptor/Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein-family verprolin-homologous protein (SCAR/WAVE) regulatory complex involved in actin nucleation and function. Epidermal cells exhibited abnormal arrangement of F-actins in both lpl2 and lpl3 expanding leaves. Moreover, the distorted trichomes of Arabidopsis pir could be partially restored by an overexpression of LPL2 A yeast two-hybrid assay revealed that LPL2 can directly interact with LPL3 in vitro Collectively, the results indicate that LPL2 and LPL3 are two functionally conserved homologs of the SCAR/WAVE complex components, and that they play an important role in controlling epidermal cell morphogenesis in rice by organising F-actin.

  10. Embryonic control of epidermal cell patterning in the root and hypocotyl of Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Y; Schiefelbein, J

    2001-10-01

    A position-dependent pattern of epidermal cell types is produced during the development of the Arabidopsis seedling root and hypocotyl. To understand the origin and regulation of this patterning mechanism, we have examined the embryonic expression of the GLABRA2 (GL2) gene, which encodes a cell-type-specific transcription factor. Using in situ RNA hybridization and a sensitive GL2::GFP reporter, we discovered that a position-dependent pattern of GL2 expression is established within protodermal cells at the heart stage and is maintained throughout the remainder of embryogenesis. In addition, we show that an exceptional GL2 expression character and epidermal cell pattern arises during development of the root-hypocotyl junction, which represents an anatomical transition zone. Furthermore, we find that two of the genes regulating seedling epidermal patterning, TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA (TTG) and WEREWOLF (WER), also control the embryonic GL2 pattern, whereas the CAPRICE (CPC) and GL2 genes are not required to establish this pattern. These results indicate that position-dependent patterning of epidermal cell types begins at an early stage of embryogenesis, before formation of the apical meristems and shortly after the cellular anatomy of the protoderm and outer ground tissue layer is established. Thus, epidermal cell specification in the Arabidopsis seedling relies on the embryonic establishment of a patterning mechanism that is perpetuated postembryonically.

  11. A Historical Perspective on the Identification of Cell Types in Pancreatic Islets of Langerhans by Staining and Histochemical Techniques

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Before the middle of the previous century, cell types of the pancreatic islets of Langerhans were identified primarily on the basis of their color reactions with histological dyes. At that time, the chemical basis for the staining properties of islet cells in relation to the identity, chemistry and structure of their hormones was not fully understood. Nevertheless, the definitive islet cell types that secrete glucagon, insulin, and somatostatin (A, B, and D cells, respectively) could reliably be differentiated from each other with staining protocols that involved variations of one or more tinctorial techniques, such as the Mallory-Heidenhain azan trichrome, chromium hematoxylin and phloxine, aldehyde fuchsin, and silver impregnation methods, which were popularly used until supplanted by immunohistochemical techniques. Before antibody-based staining methods, the most bona fide histochemical techniques for the identification of islet B cells were based on the detection of sulfhydryl and disulfide groups of insulin. The application of the classical islet tinctorial staining methods for pathophysiological studies and physiological experiments was fundamental to our understanding of islet architecture and the physiological roles of A and B cells in glucose regulation and diabetes. PMID:26216133

  12. A Historical Perspective on the Identification of Cell Types in Pancreatic Islets of Langerhans by Staining and Histochemical Techniques.

    PubMed

    Baskin, Denis G

    2015-08-01

    Before the middle of the previous century, cell types of the pancreatic islets of Langerhans were identified primarily on the basis of their color reactions with histological dyes. At that time, the chemical basis for the staining properties of islet cells in relation to the identity, chemistry and structure of their hormones was not fully understood. Nevertheless, the definitive islet cell types that secrete glucagon, insulin, and somatostatin (A, B, and D cells, respectively) could reliably be differentiated from each other with staining protocols that involved variations of one or more tinctorial techniques, such as the Mallory-Heidenhain azan trichrome, chromium hematoxylin and phloxine, aldehyde fuchsin, and silver impregnation methods, which were popularly used until supplanted by immunohistochemical techniques. Before antibody-based staining methods, the most bona fide histochemical techniques for the identification of islet B cells were based on the detection of sulfhydryl and disulfide groups of insulin. The application of the classical islet tinctorial staining methods for pathophysiological studies and physiological experiments was fundamental to our understanding of islet architecture and the physiological roles of A and B cells in glucose regulation and diabetes.

  13. Identification of Candidate Transcriptional Regulators of Epidermal Transfer Cell Development in Vicia faba Cotyledons.

    PubMed

    Arun-Chinnappa, Kiruba S; McCurdy, David W

    2016-01-01

    Transfer cells (TCs) are anatomically-specialized cells formed at apoplasmic-symplasmic bottlenecks in nutrient transport pathways in plants. TCs form invaginated wall ingrowths which provide a scaffold to amplify plasma membrane surface area and thus increase the density of nutrient transporters required to achieve enhanced nutrient flow across these bottlenecks. Despite their importance to nutrient transport in plants, little is known of the transcriptional regulation of wall ingrowth formation. Here, we used RNA-Seq to identify transcription factors putatively involved in regulating epidermal TC development in cotyledons of Vicia faba. Comparing cotyledons cultured for 0, 3, 9, and 24 h to induce trans-differentiation of epidermal TCs identified 43 transcription factors that showed either epidermal-specific or epidermal-enhanced expression, and 10 that showed epidermal-specific down regulation. Members of the WRKY and ethylene-responsive families were prominent in the cohort of transcription factors showing epidermal-specific or epidermal-enhanced expression, consistent with the initiation of TC development often representing a response to stress. Members of the MYB family were also prominent in these categories, including orthologs of MYB genes involved in localized secondary wall deposition in Arabidopsis thaliana. Among the group of transcription factors showing down regulation were various homeobox genes and members of the MADs-box and zinc-finger families of poorly defined functions. Collectively, this study identified several transcription factors showing expression characteristics and orthologous functions that indicate likely participation in transcriptional regulation of epidermal TC development in V. faba cotyledons. PMID:27252730

  14. Regenerative and reparative effects of human chorion-derived stem cell conditioned medium on photo-aged epidermal cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiankun; Chen, Yan; Ma, Kui; Zhao, Along; Zhang, Cuiping; Fu, Xiaobing

    2016-01-01

    Epidermal cells are an important regenerative source for skin wound healing. Aged epidermal cells have a low ability to renew themselves and repair skin injury. Ultraviolet (UV) radiation, particularly UVB, can cause photo-aging of the skin by suppressing the viability of human epidermal cells. A chorion-derived stem cell conditioned medium (CDSC-CNM) is thought to have regenerative properties. This study aimed to determine the regenerative effects of CDSC-CNM on UVB-induced photo-aged epidermal cells. Epidermal cells were passaged four times and irradiated with quantitative UVB, and non-irradiated cells served as a control group. Cells were then treated with different concentrations of CDSC-CNM. Compared to the non-irradiated group, the proliferation rates and migration rates of UVB-induced photo-aged epidermal cells significantly decreased (p < 0.05) with increasing intracellular radical oxygen species (ROS) generation and DNA damage. After treatment with CDSC-CNM, photo-aged epidermal cells significantly improved their viability, and their ROS generation and DNA damage decreased. The secretory factors in CDSC-CNM, including epidermal growth factor (EGF), transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-8 and the related signaling pathway protein levels, increased compared to the control medium (CM). The potential regenerative and reparative effects of CDSC-CNM indicate that it may be a candidate material for the treatment of prematurely aged skin. The functions of the secretory factors and the mechanisms of CDSC-CNM therapy deserve further attention.

  15. Langerhans cells and melanocytes share similar morphologic features under in vivo reflectance confocal microscopy: a challenge for melanoma diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Hashemi, Pantea; Pulitzer, Melissa P.; Scope, Alon; Kovalyshyn, Ivanka; Halpern, Allan C.; Marghoob, Ashfaq A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Intraepidermal Langerhans cells (ILC) are difficult to differentiate from melanocytes under reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) and their presence may simulate pagetoid spread of melanocytes on RCM images. Objective To correlate bright round and dendritic cells in a pagetoid pattern identified on RCM with findings of conventional histopathology and immunohistochemistry for lesions that were falsely diagnosed as melanoma by RCM. Methods This retrospective study included histopathologically proven nevi, imaged by RCM, which displayed bright cells in a pagetoid pattern (BCPP) under RCM, resulting in the incorrect RCM diagnosis of melanoma. Morphological comparisons were histopathologically proven melanomas displaying BCPP on RCM and biopsy-proven nevi without such cells on RCM. Results We identified 24 nevi that were falsely diagnosed as melanoma by RCM due to the presence of BCPP. These pagetoid cells on RCM corresponded on histopathology to ILC with a high density in 23 of the 24 nevi (95%) and to melanocytes in 7 of the 24 nevi (29%). Among 6 melanomas displaying BCPP on RCM, ILC with high density were observed histopathologically in 5 of the 6 cases (83%) and pagetoid melanocytes were seen in all 6 cases (100%). Limitations The results cannot be generalized to clinically banal-appearing nevi. Conclusions Although the finding of BCPP is a useful RCM feature for the diagnosis of melanoma it does not always imply the presence of pagetoid melanocytes but may at times, represent ILC. PMID:21798622

  16. Abscisic acid induces ectopic outgrowth in epidermal cells through cortical microtubule reorganization in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Takatani, Shogo; Hirayama, Takashi; Hashimoto, Takashi; Takahashi, Taku; Motose, Hiroyasu

    2015-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) regulates seed maturation, germination and various stress responses in plants. The roles of ABA in cellular growth and morphogenesis, however, remain to be explored. Here, we report that ABA induces the ectopic outgrowth of epidermal cells in Arabidopsis thaliana. Seedlings of A. thaliana germinated and grown in the presence of ABA developed ectopic protrusions in the epidermal cells of hypocotyls, petioles and cotyledons. One protrusion was formed in the middle of each epidermal cell. In the hypocotyl epidermis, two types of cell files are arranged alternately into non-stoma cell files and stoma cell files, ectopic protrusions being restricted to the non-stoma cell files. This suggests the presence of a difference in the degree of sensitivity to ABA or in the capacity of cells to form protrusions between the two cell files. The ectopic outgrowth was suppressed in ABA insensitive mutants, whereas it was enhanced in ABA hypersensitive mutants. Interestingly, ABA-induced ectopic outgrowth was also suppressed in mutants in which microtubule organization was compromised. Furthermore, cortical microtubules were disorganized and depolymerized by the ABA treatment. These results suggest that ABA signaling induces ectopic outgrowth in epidermal cells through microtubule reorganization. PMID:26068445

  17. Insufficiency of Bone Scintigraphy in Vertebral Lesions of Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis Compared to F-18 Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography and Diagnostic Computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Koç, Zehra Pınar; Şimşek, Selçuk; Akarsu, Saadet; Balcı, Tansel Ansal; Onur, Mehmet Ruhi; Kepenek, Ferat

    2015-01-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a benign disorder related to the histiocytes which can infiltrate bone tissue. The most effective method for demonstrating severity of this disease is PET/CT and bone scintigraphy might show bone lesions. We present a seventeen year old male patient with disseminated LCH presented with exophtalmos and having multiple vertebral lesions which were identified by F-18 FDG PET/CT scan and diagnostic CT but not in the bone scintigraphy. PMID:25800594

  18. Insufficiency of bone scintigraphy in vertebral lesions of langerhans cell histiocytosis compared to f-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography and diagnostic computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Koç, Zehra Pınar; Şimşek, Selçuk; Akarsu, Saadet; Balcı, Tansel Ansal; Onur, Mehmet Ruhi; Kepenek, Ferat

    2015-02-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a benign disorder related to the histiocytes which can infiltrate bone tissue. The most effective method for demonstrating severity of this disease is PET/CT and bone scintigraphy might show bone lesions. We present a seventeen year old male patient with disseminated LCH presented with exophtalmos and having multiple vertebral lesions which were identified by F-18 FDG PET/CT scan and diagnostic CT but not in the bone scintigraphy.

  19. Single-cell gene expression profiling reveals functional heterogeneity of undifferentiated human epidermal cells

    PubMed Central

    Tan, David W. M.; Jensen, Kim B.; Trotter, Matthew W. B.; Connelly, John T.; Broad, Simon; Watt, Fiona M.

    2013-01-01

    Human epidermal stem cells express high levels of β1 integrins, delta-like 1 (DLL1) and the EGFR antagonist LRIG1. However, there is cell-to-cell variation in the relative abundance of DLL1 and LRIG1 mRNA transcripts. Single-cell global gene expression profiling showed that undifferentiated cells fell into two clusters delineated by expression of DLL1 and its binding partner syntenin. The DLL1+ cluster had elevated expression of genes associated with endocytosis, integrin-mediated adhesion and receptor tyrosine kinase signalling. Differentially expressed genes were not independently regulated, as overexpression of DLL1 alone or together with LRIG1 led to the upregulation of other genes in the DLL1+ cluster. Overexpression of DLL1 and LRIG1 resulted in enhanced extracellular matrix adhesion and increased caveolin-dependent EGFR endocytosis. Further characterisation of CD46, one of the genes upregulated in the DLL1+ cluster, revealed it to be a novel cell surface marker of human epidermal stem cells. Cells with high endogenous levels of CD46 expressed high levels of β1 integrin and DLL1 and were highly adhesive and clonogenic. Knockdown of CD46 decreased proliferative potential and β1 integrin-mediated adhesion. Thus, the previously unknown heterogeneity revealed by our studies results in differences in the interaction of undifferentiated basal keratinocytes with their environment. PMID:23482486

  20. p63 and Brg1 control developmentally regulated higher-order chromatin remodelling at the epidermal differentiation complex locus in epidermal progenitor cells

    PubMed Central

    Mardaryev, Andrei N.; Gdula, Michal R.; Yarker, Joanne L.; Emelianov, Vladimir N.; Poterlowicz, Krzysztof; Sharov, Andrey A.; Sharova, Tatyana Y.; Scarpa, Julie A.; Chambon, Pierre; Botchkarev, Vladimir A.; Fessing, Michael Y.

    2014-01-01

    Chromatin structural states and their remodelling, including higher-order chromatin folding and three-dimensional (3D) genome organisation, play an important role in the control of gene expression. The role of 3D genome organisation in the control and execution of lineage-specific transcription programmes during the development and differentiation of multipotent stem cells into specialised cell types remains poorly understood. Here, we show that substantial remodelling of the higher-order chromatin structure of the epidermal differentiation complex (EDC), a keratinocyte lineage-specific gene locus on mouse chromosome 3, occurs during epidermal morphogenesis. During epidermal development, the locus relocates away from the nuclear periphery towards the nuclear interior into a compartment enriched in SC35-positive nuclear speckles. Relocation of the EDC locus occurs prior to the full activation of EDC genes involved in controlling terminal keratinocyte differentiation and is a lineage-specific, developmentally regulated event controlled by transcription factor p63, a master regulator of epidermal development. We also show that, in epidermal progenitor cells, p63 directly regulates the expression of the ATP-dependent chromatin remodeller Brg1, which binds to distinct domains within the EDC and is required for relocation of the EDC towards the nuclear interior. Furthermore, Brg1 also regulates gene expression within the EDC locus during epidermal morphogenesis. Thus, p63 and its direct target Brg1 play an essential role in remodelling the higher-order chromatin structure of the EDC and in the specific positioning of this locus within the landscape of the 3D nuclear space, as required for the efficient expression of EDC genes in epidermal progenitor cells during skin development. PMID:24346698

  1. Activation of Langerhans-Type Dendritic Cells Alters Human Cytomegalovirus Infection and Reactivation in a Stimulus-Dependent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Coronel, Roxanne; Jesus, Desyree M.; Dalle Ore, Lucia; Mymryk, Joe S.; Hertel, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Oral mucosal Langerhans cells (LC) are likely to play important roles in host defense against infection by human cytomegalovirus (CMV). We previously showed that in vitro-differentiated immature LC (iLC) populations contain smaller amounts of infected cells but produce higher yields than mature LC (mLC) cultures, obtained by iLC stimulation with fetal bovine serum (FBS), CD40 ligand (CD40L) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Here, we sought to determine if exposure to select stimuli can improve LC permissiveness to infection, if specific components of the mLC cocktail are responsible for lowering viral yields, if this is due to defects in progeny production or release, and if these restrictions are also effective against reactivated virus. None of the stimuli tested extended the proportion of infected cells to 100%, suggesting that the block to infection onset cannot be fully removed. While CD40L and FBS exerted positive effects on viral progeny production per cell, stimulation with LPS alone or in combination with CD40L was detrimental. Reductions in viral titers were not due to defects in progeny release, and the permissive or restrictive intracellular environment established upon exposure to each stimulus appeared to act in a somewhat similar way toward lytic and latent infections. PMID:27683575

  2. Activation of Langerhans-Type Dendritic Cells Alters Human Cytomegalovirus Infection and Reactivation in a Stimulus-Dependent Manner.

    PubMed

    Coronel, Roxanne; Jesus, Desyree M; Dalle Ore, Lucia; Mymryk, Joe S; Hertel, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Oral mucosal Langerhans cells (LC) are likely to play important roles in host defense against infection by human cytomegalovirus (CMV). We previously showed that in vitro-differentiated immature LC (iLC) populations contain smaller amounts of infected cells but produce higher yields than mature LC (mLC) cultures, obtained by iLC stimulation with fetal bovine serum (FBS), CD40 ligand (CD40L) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Here, we sought to determine if exposure to select stimuli can improve LC permissiveness to infection, if specific components of the mLC cocktail are responsible for lowering viral yields, if this is due to defects in progeny production or release, and if these restrictions are also effective against reactivated virus. None of the stimuli tested extended the proportion of infected cells to 100%, suggesting that the block to infection onset cannot be fully removed. While CD40L and FBS exerted positive effects on viral progeny production per cell, stimulation with LPS alone or in combination with CD40L was detrimental. Reductions in viral titers were not due to defects in progeny release, and the permissive or restrictive intracellular environment established upon exposure to each stimulus appeared to act in a somewhat similar way toward lytic and latent infections. PMID:27683575

  3. Activation of Langerhans-Type Dendritic Cells Alters Human Cytomegalovirus Infection and Reactivation in a Stimulus-Dependent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Coronel, Roxanne; Jesus, Desyree M.; Dalle Ore, Lucia; Mymryk, Joe S.; Hertel, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Oral mucosal Langerhans cells (LC) are likely to play important roles in host defense against infection by human cytomegalovirus (CMV). We previously showed that in vitro-differentiated immature LC (iLC) populations contain smaller amounts of infected cells but produce higher yields than mature LC (mLC) cultures, obtained by iLC stimulation with fetal bovine serum (FBS), CD40 ligand (CD40L) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Here, we sought to determine if exposure to select stimuli can improve LC permissiveness to infection, if specific components of the mLC cocktail are responsible for lowering viral yields, if this is due to defects in progeny production or release, and if these restrictions are also effective against reactivated virus. None of the stimuli tested extended the proportion of infected cells to 100%, suggesting that the block to infection onset cannot be fully removed. While CD40L and FBS exerted positive effects on viral progeny production per cell, stimulation with LPS alone or in combination with CD40L was detrimental. Reductions in viral titers were not due to defects in progeny release, and the permissive or restrictive intracellular environment established upon exposure to each stimulus appeared to act in a somewhat similar way toward lytic and latent infections.

  4. New coal tar extract and coal tar shampoos. Evaluation by epidermal cell DNA synthesis suppression assay.

    PubMed

    Lowe, N J; Breeding, J H; Wortzman, M S

    1982-07-01

    Coal tar therapy has been used for many years in the treatment of scaling skin diseases, including psoriasis and eczema. Previous studies of the potential effectiveness of tar have utilized phototoxic erythema assays with long-wave ultraviolet light (UV-A). However, in clinical use, coal tar is rarely used with UV-A, particularly for scalp disease. Therefore, we investigated a nonphototoxic approach to evaluate different coal tar products. Coal tar was found to suppress epidermal cell DNA synthesis in the hairless mouse model, and this is the basis for the assay presented. Using the epidermal cell DNA synthesis suppression assay, we observed that crude coal tar and a new extract of crude coal tar were equally effective and that a concentration gradient effect was achieved. In addition, four commercial coal tar shampoos assayed varied greatly in their ability to suppress epidermal cell DNA synthesis. One shampoo was washed after ten minutes and no significant alteration of suppressive effect was seen.

  5. Persistence of skin-resident memory T cells within an epidermal niche

    PubMed Central

    Zaid, Ali; Mackay, Laura K.; Rahimpour, Azad; Braun, Asolina; Veldhoen, Marc; Carbone, Francis R.; Manton, Jonathan H.; Heath, William R.; Mueller, Scott N.

    2014-01-01

    Barrier tissues such as the skin contain various populations of immune cells that contribute to protection from infections. These include recently identified tissue-resident memory T cells (TRM). In the skin, these memory CD8+ T cells reside in the epidermis after being recruited to this site by infection or inflammation. In this study, we demonstrate prolonged persistence of epidermal TRM preferentially at the site of prior infection despite sustained migration. Computational simulation of TRM migration within the skin over long periods revealed that the slow rate of random migration effectively constrains these memory cells within the region of skin in which they form. Notably, formation of TRM involved a concomitant local reduction in dendritic epidermal γδ T-cell numbers in the epidermis, indicating that these populations persist in mutual exclusion and may compete for local survival signals. Accordingly, we show that expression of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor, a transcription factor important for dendritic epidermal γδ T-cell maintenance in skin, also contributes to the persistence of skin TRM. Together, these data suggest that skin tissue-resident memory T cells persist within a tightly regulated epidermal T-cell niche. PMID:24706879

  6. Persistence of skin-resident memory T cells within an epidermal niche.

    PubMed

    Zaid, Ali; Mackay, Laura K; Rahimpour, Azad; Braun, Asolina; Veldhoen, Marc; Carbone, Francis R; Manton, Jonathan H; Heath, William R; Mueller, Scott N

    2014-04-01

    Barrier tissues such as the skin contain various populations of immune cells that contribute to protection from infections. These include recently identified tissue-resident memory T cells (TRM). In the skin, these memory CD8(+) T cells reside in the epidermis after being recruited to this site by infection or inflammation. In this study, we demonstrate prolonged persistence of epidermal TRM preferentially at the site of prior infection despite sustained migration. Computational simulation of TRM migration within the skin over long periods revealed that the slow rate of random migration effectively constrains these memory cells within the region of skin in which they form. Notably, formation of TRM involved a concomitant local reduction in dendritic epidermal γδ T-cell numbers in the epidermis, indicating that these populations persist in mutual exclusion and may compete for local survival signals. Accordingly, we show that expression of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor, a transcription factor important for dendritic epidermal γδ T-cell maintenance in skin, also contributes to the persistence of skin TRM. Together, these data suggest that skin tissue-resident memory T cells persist within a tightly regulated epidermal T-cell niche.

  7. Engineered Microenvironments to Direct Epidermal Stem Cell Behavior at Single-Cell Resolution.

    PubMed

    Watt, Fiona M

    2016-09-26

    Mammalian epidermis is maintained through proliferation of stem cells and differentiation of their progeny. The balance between self-renewal and differentiation is controlled by a variety of interacting intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Although the nature of these interactions is complex, they can be modeled in a reductionist fashion by capturing single epidermal stem cells on micropatterned substrates and exposing them to individual stimuli, alone or in combination, over defined time points. These studies have shown that different extrinsic stimuli trigger a common outcome-initiation of terminal differentiation-by activating different signaling pathways and eliciting different transcriptional responses. PMID:27676433

  8. Fine structure of crystalline inclusions in B-cells of the islets of Langerhans in the alligator.

    PubMed

    Raska, I; Komrska, J; Titlbach, M; Rieder, M

    1978-03-13

    The ultrastructure of crystalline beta granules of the islets of Langerhans in the alligator has been investigated. From optical diffraction analysis and serial sectioning, the existence of four distinct types of crystalline inclusions was established in ultrathin sections. The first type is the most frequent and is interpreted as a rhombohedron with a base, the ortho-hexagonal unit-cell edges being a equal to 18.9 nm, c equal to 23.0 nm. The second type of crystal (not observed in serial sections) is found compatible with a rhomb-dodecahedron which indexes on a cubic cell with a equal to 9.6 nm. The third type of crystal was assigned to dipyramids. Dipyramids are extremely rare, and only two diffraction patterns were obtained; their crystal system could not be determined. Prisms, which are second in abundance, represent the fourth type of crystal. Spacings as well as the symmetry differ from those of the above three crystal types and indicate a tetragonal cell with a equal to 4.2 nm, c equal to 14.2 nm. The data for the prismatic crystals are strikingly similar to those of proinsulin and may represent the first case of agreement between crystals (i) formed in vitro and studied by X-ray diffraction and (ii) those investigated in situ by electron microscopy.

  9. Genetics Home Reference: epidermal nevus

    MedlinePlus

    ... primarily of a specific cell type called a keratinocyte. One group of epidermal nevi, called keratinocytic or nonorganoid epidermal nevi, includes nevi that involve only keratinocytes. Keratinocytic epidermal nevi are typically found on the ...

  10. Steroids are required for epidermal cell fate establishment in Arabidopsis roots.

    PubMed

    Kuppusamy, Kavitha T; Chen, Andrew Y; Nemhauser, Jennifer L

    2009-05-12

    The simple structure of Arabidopsis roots provides an excellent model system to study epidermal cell fate specification. Epidermal cells in contact with 2 underlying cortical cells differentiate into hair cells (H cells; trichoblasts), whereas cells that contact only a single cortical cell differentiate into mature hairless cells (N cells; atrichoblasts). This position-dependent patterning, in combination with the constrained orientation of cell divisions, results in hair and nonhair cell files running longitudinally along the root epidermis. Here, we present strong evidence that steroid hormones called brassinosteroids (BRs) are required to maintain position-dependent fate specification in roots. We show that BRs are required for normal expression levels and patterns of WEREWOLF (WER) and GLABRA2 (GL2), master regulators of epidermal patterning. Loss of BR signaling results in loss of hair cells in H positions, likely as a consequence of reduced expression of CAPRICE (CPC), a direct downstream target of WER. Our observations demonstrate that in addition to their well-known role in cell expansion, BRs play an essential role in directing cell fate.

  11. Management of adult patients with Langerhans cell histiocytosis: recommendations from an expert panel on behalf of Euro-Histio-Net.

    PubMed

    Girschikofsky, Michael; Arico, Maurizio; Castillo, Diego; Chu, Anthony; Doberauer, Claus; Fichter, Joachim; Haroche, Julien; Kaltsas, Gregory A; Makras, Polyzois; Marzano, Angelo V; de Menthon, Mathilde; Micke, Oliver; Passoni, Emanuela; Seegenschmiedt, Heinrich M; Tazi, Abdellatif; McClain, Kenneth L

    2013-01-01

    Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis (LCH) is an orphan disease of clonal dendritic cells which may affect any organ of the body. Most of the knowledge about the diagnosis and therapy is based on pedriatic studies. Adult LCH patients are often evaluated by physicians who focus on only the most obviously affected organ without sufficient evaluation of other systems, resulting in patients being underdiagnosed and/or incompletely staged. Furthermore they may be treated with pediatric-based therapies which are less effective and sometimes more toxic for adults. The published literature on adult LCH cases lacks a comprehensive discussion on the differences between pediatric and adult patients and there are no recommendations for evaluation and comparative therapies. In order to fill this void, a number of experts in this field cooperated to develop the first recommendations for management of adult patients with LCH. Key questions were selected according to the clinical relevance focusing on diagnostic work up, therapy, and follow up. Based on the available literature up to December 2012, recommendations were established, drafts were commented by the entire group, and redrafted by the executive editor. The quality of evidence of the recommendations is predominantly attributed to the level of expert opinion. Final agreement was by consensus. PMID:23672541

  12. Management of adult patients with Langerhans cell histiocytosis: recommendations from an expert panel on behalf of Euro-Histio-Net

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis (LCH) is an orphan disease of clonal dendritic cells which may affect any organ of the body. Most of the knowledge about the diagnosis and therapy is based on pedriatic studies. Adult LCH patients are often evaluated by physicians who focus on only the most obviously affected organ without sufficient evaluation of other systems, resulting in patients being underdiagnosed and/or incompletely staged. Furthermore they may be treated with pediatric-based therapies which are less effective and sometimes more toxic for adults. The published literature on adult LCH cases lacks a comprehensive discussion on the differences between pediatric and adult patients and there are no recommendations for evaluation and comparative therapies. In order to fill this void, a number of experts in this field cooperated to develop the first recommendations for management of adult patients with LCH. Key questions were selected according to the clinical relevance focusing on diagnostic work up, therapy, and follow up. Based on the available literature up to December 2012, recommendations were established, drafts were commented by the entire group, and redrafted by the executive editor. The quality of evidence of the recommendations is predominantly attributed to the level of expert opinion. Final agreement was by consensus. PMID:23672541

  13. The Langerhans islet cells of female rabbits are differentially affected by hypothyroidism depending on the islet size.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Castelán, J; Nicolás, L; Morimoto, S; Cuevas, E

    2015-04-01

    Effects of hypothyroidism on the glucose and insulin levels are controversial, and its impact on the Langerhans islet morphology of adult subjects has been poorly addressed. In spite of hypothyroidism and diabetes mellitus are more frequent in females than in males, most studies using animal models have been done in males. The effect of hypothyroidism on the immunolabeling of thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) and thyrotropin receptor (TSHR) of islet cells is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of hypothyroidism on the glucose and insulin concentrations, morphometry of islets, and immunostaining of TRs α1-2 and β1 and TSHR of islet cells in female rabbits. Control and hypothyroid (0.02% of methimazole for 30 days) animals were used to quantify blood levels of glucose and insulin, density of islets, cross-sectional area (CSA) of islets, number of cells per islet, cell proliferation, and the immunolabeling of TRs α1-2, TRβ1, and TSHR. Student's t or Mann-Whitney-U tests, two-way ANOVAs, and Fischer's tests were applied. Concentrations of glucose and insulin, as well as the insulin resistance were similar between groups. Hypothyroidism did not affect the density or the CSA of islets. The analysis of islets by size showed that hypothyroidism reduced the cell number in large and medium islets, but not in small ones. In small islets, cell proliferation was increased. The immunoreactivity of TRα1-2, TRβ1, and TSHR was increased by hypothyroidism in all islet sizes. Our results show that hypothyroidism affects differentially the islet cells depending on the size of islets.

  14. Intensified and prolonged therapy comprising cytarabine, vincristine and prednisolone improves outcome in patients with multisystem Langerhans cell histiocytosis: results of the Japan Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis Study Group-02 Protocol Study.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Akira; Shioda, Yoko; Imamura, Toshihiko; Kudo, Kazuko; Kawaguchi, Hiroshi; Sakashita, Kazuo; Yasui, Masahiro; Koga, Yuhki; Kobayashi, Ryoji; Ishii, Eiichi; Fujimoto, Junichiro; Horibe, Keizo; Bessho, Fumio; Tsunematsu, Yukiko; Imashuku, Shinsaku

    2016-07-01

    The JLSG-96 study reported very low mortality rates for children newly diagnosed with multifocal Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH). The JLSG-02 study was performed to further improve the prognosis from 2002 to 2009. The present study compared the therapeutic results of these two studies in terms of multisystem disease. All patients were treated with 6 weeks of the Induction A regimen, comprising cytarabine, vincristine and prednisolone, followed by maintenance therapy. Poor responders to Induction A were switched to Induction B. JLSG-02 has been revised from JLSG-96 in the following respects: prednisolone dosage during Induction A increased; duration of maintenance therapy extended from 24 to 48 weeks; cyclosporine introduced to Induction B for progressive disease. One hundred forty-seven children with multisystem LCH were evaluated. Of these, 84 were positive for risk of organ involvement (RO) and 63 were RO-negative. At the 6-week point, 76.2 % of RO+ and 93.7 % of RO- patients responded to Induction A. Five-year event-free survival (EFS) was 46.2 % [95 % confidence (CI), 35.5-56.9] for RO+ and 69.7 % (58.4-81.1) for RO-, which was significantly superior to that in JLSG-96 [26.8 % (13.3-40.4) and 38.9 % (16.4-61.4), respectively]. The intensified induction and prolonged maintenance regimens in JLSG-02 improved EFS in patients with multisystem LCH. PMID:27040279

  15. Intensified and prolonged therapy comprising cytarabine, vincristine and prednisolone improves outcome in patients with multisystem Langerhans cell histiocytosis: results of the Japan Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis Study Group-02 Protocol Study.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Akira; Shioda, Yoko; Imamura, Toshihiko; Kudo, Kazuko; Kawaguchi, Hiroshi; Sakashita, Kazuo; Yasui, Masahiro; Koga, Yuhki; Kobayashi, Ryoji; Ishii, Eiichi; Fujimoto, Junichiro; Horibe, Keizo; Bessho, Fumio; Tsunematsu, Yukiko; Imashuku, Shinsaku

    2016-07-01

    The JLSG-96 study reported very low mortality rates for children newly diagnosed with multifocal Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH). The JLSG-02 study was performed to further improve the prognosis from 2002 to 2009. The present study compared the therapeutic results of these two studies in terms of multisystem disease. All patients were treated with 6 weeks of the Induction A regimen, comprising cytarabine, vincristine and prednisolone, followed by maintenance therapy. Poor responders to Induction A were switched to Induction B. JLSG-02 has been revised from JLSG-96 in the following respects: prednisolone dosage during Induction A increased; duration of maintenance therapy extended from 24 to 48 weeks; cyclosporine introduced to Induction B for progressive disease. One hundred forty-seven children with multisystem LCH were evaluated. Of these, 84 were positive for risk of organ involvement (RO) and 63 were RO-negative. At the 6-week point, 76.2 % of RO+ and 93.7 % of RO- patients responded to Induction A. Five-year event-free survival (EFS) was 46.2 % [95 % confidence (CI), 35.5-56.9] for RO+ and 69.7 % (58.4-81.1) for RO-, which was significantly superior to that in JLSG-96 [26.8 % (13.3-40.4) and 38.9 % (16.4-61.4), respectively]. The intensified induction and prolonged maintenance regimens in JLSG-02 improved EFS in patients with multisystem LCH.

  16. Cell Fate Determination and the Switch from Diffuse Growth to Planar Polarity in Arabidopsis Root Epidermal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Balcerowicz, Daria; Schoenaers, Sébastjen; Vissenberg, Kris

    2015-01-01

    Plant roots fulfill important functions as they serve in water and nutrient uptake, provide anchorage of the plant body in the soil and in some species form the site of symbiotic interactions with soil-living biota. Root hairs, tubular-shaped outgrowths of specific epidermal cells, significantly increase the root’s surface area and aid in these processes. In this review we focus on the molecular mechanisms that determine the hair and non-hair cell fate of epidermal cells and that define the site on the epidermal cell where the root hair will be initiated (=planar polarity determination). In the model plant Arabidopsis, trichoblast and atrichoblast cell fate results from intra- and intercellular position-dependent signaling and from complex feedback loops that ultimately regulate GL2 expressing and non-expressing cells. When epidermal cells reach the end of the root expansion zone, root hair promoting transcription factors dictate the establishment of polarity within epidermal cells followed by the selection of the root hair initiation site at the more basal part of the trichoblast. Molecular players in the abovementioned processes as well as the role of phytohormones are discussed, and open areas for future experiments are identified. PMID:26779192

  17. Immunophenotypic characterization of the cutaneous exanthem of SIV-infected rhesus monkeys. Apposition of degenerative Langerhans cells and cytotoxic lymphocytes during the development of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Ringler, D. J.; Hancock, W. W.; King, N. W.; Letvin, N. L.; Daniel, M. D.; Desrosiers, R. C.; Murphy, G. F.

    1987-01-01

    A T-cell tropic retrovirus, simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), has recently been isolated from immunodeficient rhesus monkeys. This virus has remarkable similarities to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the etiologic agent of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Subsequent studies of simian infection with SIV have shown it to be a relevant animal model for studying the pathogenesis of AIDS in man. In both HIV-infected humans and SIV-infected monkeys, a cutaneous maculopapular eruption has been described. To date, the pathogenesis and possible relationship of these exanthema to the evolution of systemic immunosuppression have remained obscure. In this study, the mononuclear cell infiltrates that characterize skin rashes of SIV-infected rhesus monkeys were found to be composed predominantly of cells with phenotypic characteristics of cytotoxic/suppressor (T8+) lymphocytes and natural killer cells. Many of these cells expressed membrane-bound interleukin-2 receptor molecules. Double labeling and immunoelectron microscopy revealed these cells in direct contact with degenerative Langerhans cells within the epidermis and dermis. These observations suggest that the cutaneous rash associated with SIV infection may be the consequence of target cell injury of Langerhans cells by effector cells with cytotoxic potential. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:3030113

  18. A Theoretical Model of Jigsaw-Puzzle Pattern Formation by Plant Leaf Epidermal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Higaki, Takumi; Kutsuna, Natsumaro; Akita, Kae; Takigawa-Imamura, Hisako; Yoshimura, Kenji; Miura, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Plant leaf epidermal cells exhibit a jigsaw puzzle–like pattern that is generated by interdigitation of the cell wall during leaf development. The contribution of two ROP GTPases, ROP2 and ROP6, to the cytoskeletal dynamics that regulate epidermal cell wall interdigitation has already been examined; however, how interactions between these molecules result in pattern formation remains to be elucidated. Here, we propose a simple interface equation model that incorporates both the cell wall remodeling activity of ROP GTPases and the diffusible signaling molecules by which they are regulated. This model successfully reproduces pattern formation observed in vivo, and explains the counterintuitive experimental results of decreased cellulose production and increased thickness. Our model also reproduces the dynamics of three-way cell wall junctions. Therefore, this model provides a possible mechanism for cell wall interdigitation formation in vivo. PMID:27054467

  19. A Theoretical Model of Jigsaw-Puzzle Pattern Formation by Plant Leaf Epidermal Cells.

    PubMed

    Higaki, Takumi; Kutsuna, Natsumaro; Akita, Kae; Takigawa-Imamura, Hisako; Yoshimura, Kenji; Miura, Takashi

    2016-04-01

    Plant leaf epidermal cells exhibit a jigsaw puzzle-like pattern that is generated by interdigitation of the cell wall during leaf development. The contribution of two ROP GTPases, ROP2 and ROP6, to the cytoskeletal dynamics that regulate epidermal cell wall interdigitation has already been examined; however, how interactions between these molecules result in pattern formation remains to be elucidated. Here, we propose a simple interface equation model that incorporates both the cell wall remodeling activity of ROP GTPases and the diffusible signaling molecules by which they are regulated. This model successfully reproduces pattern formation observed in vivo, and explains the counterintuitive experimental results of decreased cellulose production and increased thickness. Our model also reproduces the dynamics of three-way cell wall junctions. Therefore, this model provides a possible mechanism for cell wall interdigitation formation in vivo.

  20. Beneficial Effects of the Genus Aloe on Wound Healing, Cell Proliferation, and Differentiation of Epidermal Keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Uda, Junki; Kubo, Hirokazu; Nakajima, Yuka; Goto, Arisa; Akaki, Junji; Yoshida, Ikuyo; Matsuoka, Nobuya; Hayakawa, Takao

    2016-01-01

    Aloe has been used as a folk medicine because it has several important therapeutic properties. These include wound and burn healing, and Aloe is now used in a variety of commercially available topical medications for wound healing and skin care. However, its effects on epidermal keratinocytes remain largely unclear. Our data indicated that both Aloe vera gel (AVG) and Cape aloe extract (CAE) significantly improved wound healing in human primary epidermal keratinocytes (HPEKs) and a human skin equivalent model. In addition, flow cytometry analysis revealed that cell surface expressions of β1-, α6-, β4-integrin, and E-cadherin increased in HPEKs treated with AVG and CAE. These increases may contribute to cell migration and wound healing. Treatment with Aloe also resulted in significant changes in cell-cycle progression and in increases in cell number. Aloe increased gene expression of differentiation markers in HPEKs, suggesting roles for AVG and CAE in the improvement of keratinocyte function. Furthermore, human skin epidermal equivalents developed from HPEKs with medium containing Aloe were thicker than control equivalents, indicating the effectiveness of Aloe on enhancing epidermal development. Based on these results, both AVG and CAE have benefits in wound healing and in treatment of rough skin. PMID:27736988

  1. In vivo confocal microscopic evaluation of corneal Langerhans cell density, and distribution and evaluation of dry eye in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Marsovszky, László; Resch, Miklós D; Németh, János; Toldi, Gergely; Medgyesi, Erzsébet; Kovács, László; Balog, Attila

    2013-01-01

    Corneal Langerhans cells (LCs) offer the opportunity to gain insight into the activity of the innate immunity. We examined the density and the distribution of LCs and compared the results with dry-eye parameters in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Fifty-two RA patients with various degrees of disease activity and 24 healthy subjects were enrolled. Peripheral and central LC number and morphology were assessed with in vivo laser confocal microscopy. In addition, ocular surface disease index (OSDI), lid parallel conjunctival folds, Schirmer test, and tear break-up time (TBUT) were evaluated. The prevalence of central and peripheral LC, and the central LC morphology values (LCM) were higher than normal in RA. Within the RA group, LC prevalence and morphology were not affected by disease activity. However, patients on anti-TNF or glucocorticosteroid (GCS) therapy exhibited normal LCM, and normal central and peripheral LC density. OSDI was higher and TBUT was lower than normal in RA. The alteration of LC in RA suggests an active inflammatory process in the cornea, which may reflect an increased activation state of the innate immune system-even in inactive stages of RA and without ocular symptoms. The results also indicate ocular effects of GCS therapy in RA.

  2. Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis with Atypical Intervertebral Disc and Sacroiliac Joint Involvement Mimicking Osteoarticular Tuberculosis in an Adult

    PubMed Central

    Özdemir, Zeynep Maraş; Kahraman, Ayşegül Sağır; Görmeli, Cemile Ayşe; Sevimli, Reşit; Akpolat, Nusret

    2016-01-01

    Background: Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH), typically found in children, is a rare single or multisystem disorder with a wide range of clinical and radiological manifestations. Unusual presentations of LCH are occasionally encountered and it may be difficult to distinguish LCH from an infection or a benign or malignant tumor. Results: A 35-year-old female presented with pain in her back and left buttock, malaise, and weight loss, with a duration of several months. Her laboratory test results were within the normal ranges except for the levels of acute phase reactants, which were elevated. Magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography revealed a unilateral destructive sacroiliac lesion, and multiple vertebral lesions with adjacent discal involvement and extensive soft tissue extensions. She was initially misdiagnosed with multifocal osteoarticular tuberculosis. An open biopsy and joint curettage was performed. Histopathological examination showed that she had LCH. Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of LCH associated with a destructive unilateral sacroiliac lesion, discal involvement, and involvement of the adjacent vertebrae, in an adult patient; the LCH mimicked osteoarticular tuberculosis. Disease onset in adulthood is rare, and this can potentially delay diagnosis. Familiarity with the imaging features of unusual LCH manifestations is necessary to ensure accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment. PMID:27761291

  3. Localized Langerhans cell histiocytosis masquerading as Brodie's abscess in a 2-year-old child: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Wei-Fang; Hsu, Yi-Chih; Wu, Yi-Der; Kuo, Chun-Lang; Huang, Guo-Shu

    2016-01-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH), formerly known as histiocytosis X, refers to a spectrum of diseases characterized by idiopathic proliferation of histiocytes that produce either focal (localized LCH) or systemic manifestations (Hand-Schüller-Christian disease and Letterer-Siwe disease). Localized LCH accounts for approximately 60-70 % of all LCH cases. Osseous involvement is the most common manifestation and typically involves the flat bones, along with lesions of the skull, pelvis, and ribs. Localized LCH in bone shows a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations and radiologic features that may mimic those of infections as well as benign and malignant tumors. The diagnostic imaging findings of localized LCH are also diverse and challenging. The penumbra sign is a common and characteristic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) feature of Brodie's abscess, but is rarely seen in localized LCH. In this report, we describe a case of localized LCH misdiagnosed as Brodie's abscess in a 2-year-old child based on clinical symptoms, laboratory findings, and pre-diagnostic MRI findings (penumbra sign). Therefore, the penumbra sign is not sufficient to clearly establish the diagnosis of Brodie's abscess, and the differential diagnosis of localized LCH should be considered when a child with an osteolytic lesion presents with a penumbra sign. PMID:27065773

  4. Long-term improvement during tadalafil therapy in a patient with pulmonary hypertension secondary to pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis.

    PubMed

    Nemoto, Kenji; Oh-Ishi, Shuji; Inui, Toshihide; Nakazawa, Mariko; Hyodo, Kentaro; Nakajima, Masayuki; Kanazawa, Jun; Miura, Yukiko; Takaku, Takio; Minami, Yuko; Hayashihara, Kenji; Saito, Takefumi; Kawabata, Yoshinori

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) secondary to pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis (PLCH) is known to be a relatively common complication and is associated with a poor prognosis. However, the optimal therapeutic approach for these cases remains to be established. A 57-year-old man visited our hospital because of a progressive dry cough. A thoracic computed tomography examination showed a combination of diffuse thick-walled cysts and reticulonodular shadows that were predominant in bilateral upper lobes of the lungs. He was diagnosed as having PLCH based on the results of video-assisted thoracoscopic lung biopsies. During a 3-year clinical course, his condition deteriorated despite smoking cessation. A systemic evaluation demonstrated precapillary PAH caused by PLCH (PAH-PLCH), and treatment with tadalafil, a phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor, was started. During a 50-month period of treatment with tadalafil, improvements in his dyspnea, 6-min walking distance, and hemodynamics were maintained without either overt hypoxemia or pulmonary edema. We considered that tadalafil therapy may be a useful option in the treatment of patients with PAH-PLCH. PMID:27330952

  5. Association of both Langerhans cell histiocytosis and Erdheim-Chester disease linked to the BRAFV600E mutation.

    PubMed

    Hervier, Baptiste; Haroche, Julien; Arnaud, Laurent; Charlotte, Frédéric; Donadieu, Jean; Néel, Antoine; Lifermann, François; Villabona, Carles; Graffin, Bruno; Hermine, Olivier; Rigolet, Aude; Roubille, Camille; Hachulla, Eric; Carmoi, Thierry; Bézier, Maud; Meignin, Véronique; Conrad, Marie; Marie, Laurence; Kostrzewa, Elise; Michot, Jean-Marie; Barete, Stéphane; Taly, Valerie; Cury, Karine; Emile, Jean-François; Amoura, Zahir

    2014-08-14

    Histiocytoses are a group of heterogeneous diseases that mostly comprise Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) and non-LCH. The association of LCH with non-LCH is exceptional. We report 23 patients with biopsy-proven LCH associated with Erdheim-Chester disease (ECD) (mixed histiocytosis) and discuss the significance of this association. We compare the clinical phenotypes of these patients with those of 56 patients with isolated LCH and 53 patients with isolated ECD. The average age at diagnosis was 43 years. ECD followed (n = 12) or was diagnosed simultaneously with (n = 11) but never preceded LCH. Although heterogeneous, the phenotype of patients with mixed histiocytosis was closer to that of isolated ECD than to that of isolated LCH (principal component analysis). LCH and ECD improved in response to interferon alpha-2a treatment in only 50% of patients (8 of 16). We found the BRAF(V600E) mutation in 11 (69%) of 16 LCH lesions and in 9 (82%) of 11 ECD lesions. Eight patients had mutations in both ECD and LCH biopsies. Our findings indicate that the association of LCH and ECD is not fortuitous and suggest a link between these diseases involving the BRAF(V600E) mutation.

  6. Association of both Langerhans cell histiocytosis and Erdheim-Chester disease linked to the BRAFV600E mutation.

    PubMed

    Hervier, Baptiste; Haroche, Julien; Arnaud, Laurent; Charlotte, Frédéric; Donadieu, Jean; Néel, Antoine; Lifermann, François; Villabona, Carles; Graffin, Bruno; Hermine, Olivier; Rigolet, Aude; Roubille, Camille; Hachulla, Eric; Carmoi, Thierry; Bézier, Maud; Meignin, Véronique; Conrad, Marie; Marie, Laurence; Kostrzewa, Elise; Michot, Jean-Marie; Barete, Stéphane; Taly, Valerie; Cury, Karine; Emile, Jean-François; Amoura, Zahir

    2014-08-14

    Histiocytoses are a group of heterogeneous diseases that mostly comprise Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) and non-LCH. The association of LCH with non-LCH is exceptional. We report 23 patients with biopsy-proven LCH associated with Erdheim-Chester disease (ECD) (mixed histiocytosis) and discuss the significance of this association. We compare the clinical phenotypes of these patients with those of 56 patients with isolated LCH and 53 patients with isolated ECD. The average age at diagnosis was 43 years. ECD followed (n = 12) or was diagnosed simultaneously with (n = 11) but never preceded LCH. Although heterogeneous, the phenotype of patients with mixed histiocytosis was closer to that of isolated ECD than to that of isolated LCH (principal component analysis). LCH and ECD improved in response to interferon alpha-2a treatment in only 50% of patients (8 of 16). We found the BRAF(V600E) mutation in 11 (69%) of 16 LCH lesions and in 9 (82%) of 11 ECD lesions. Eight patients had mutations in both ECD and LCH biopsies. Our findings indicate that the association of LCH and ECD is not fortuitous and suggest a link between these diseases involving the BRAF(V600E) mutation. PMID:24894769

  7. Outcome of pediatric patients with Langerhans cell histiocytosis treated with 2 chlorodeoxyadenosine: a nationwide survey in Japan.

    PubMed

    Imamura, Toshihiko; Sato, Takashi; Shiota, Yoko; Kanegane, Hirokazu; Kudo, Kazuko; Nakagawa, Shinichirou; Nakadate, Hisaya; Tauchi, Hisamichi; Kamizono, Junji; Morimoto, Akira

    2010-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the outcome of treatment with 2-chlorodeoxyadenosine (2-CdA) in pediatric patients with Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) in Japan. We retrospectively identified 17 pediatric LCH patients treated with 2-CdA. All patients were refractory or reactivated cases who had been initially treated according to the JLSG-02 protocol of the Japan LCH study group. At initiation of 2-CdA therapy, 4 patients had primary refractory multisystem (MS) disease with risk organ (RO) involvement (MS+), 9 patients had reactivated MS disease [5 MS+ and 4 without RO involvement (MS-)], and the remaining 4 patients had refractory/reactivated multifocal bone disease (MFB). Treatment with 2-CdA (4-9 mg/m(2)/day) was administered on 2-5 consecutive days and repeated every 3-4 weeks for a period that ranged from 2 to 12 months. Four primary refractory patients were treated with 2-CdA combined with high dose of cytarabine. In MS+ patients, response to treatment was observed in 5 of the 9 patients. In MS-/MFB patients, 5 of the 8 patients showed response to treatment. In the patients who were primary refractory or had reactivation during initial chemotherapy, 4 of 10 patients showed good response. On the other hand, in the patients having reactivation while off therapy, 6 of 7 patients showed good response. These findings suggest that 2-CdA is effective for reactivated LCH while off therapy.

  8. Localized Langerhans cell histiocytosis masquerading as Brodie's abscess in a 2-year-old child: a case report.

    PubMed

    Chang, Wei-Fang; Hsu, Yi-Chih; Wu, Yi-Der; Kuo, Chun-Lang; Huang, Guo-Shu

    2016-01-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH), formerly known as histiocytosis X, refers to a spectrum of diseases characterized by idiopathic proliferation of histiocytes that produce either focal (localized LCH) or systemic manifestations (Hand-Schüller-Christian disease and Letterer-Siwe disease). Localized LCH accounts for approximately 60-70 % of all LCH cases. Osseous involvement is the most common manifestation and typically involves the flat bones, along with lesions of the skull, pelvis, and ribs. Localized LCH in bone shows a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations and radiologic features that may mimic those of infections as well as benign and malignant tumors. The diagnostic imaging findings of localized LCH are also diverse and challenging. The penumbra sign is a common and characteristic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) feature of Brodie's abscess, but is rarely seen in localized LCH. In this report, we describe a case of localized LCH misdiagnosed as Brodie's abscess in a 2-year-old child based on clinical symptoms, laboratory findings, and pre-diagnostic MRI findings (penumbra sign). Therefore, the penumbra sign is not sufficient to clearly establish the diagnosis of Brodie's abscess, and the differential diagnosis of localized LCH should be considered when a child with an osteolytic lesion presents with a penumbra sign.

  9. Suppression of Langerhans cell activation is conserved amongst human papillomavirus α and β genotypes, but not a µ genotype.

    PubMed

    Da Silva, Diane M; Movius, Carly A; Raff, Adam B; Brand, Heike E; Skeate, Joseph G; Wong, Michael K; Kast, W Martin

    2014-03-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) has evolved mechanisms that allow it to evade the human immune system. Studies have shown HPV-mediated suppression of activation of Langerhans cells (LC) is a key mechanism through which HPV16 evades initial immune surveillance. However, it has not been established whether high- and low-risk mucosal and cutaneous HPV genotypes share a common mechanism of immune suppression. Here, we demonstrate that LC exposed to capsids of HPV types 18, 31, 45, 11, (alpha-papillomaviruses) and HPV5 (beta-papillomavirus) similarly suppress LC activation, including lack of costimulatory molecule expression, lack of cytokine and chemokine secretion, lack of migration, and deregulated cellular signaling. In contrast, HPV1 (mu-papillomavirus) induced costimulatory molecule and cytokine upregulation, but LC migration and cellular signaling was suppressed. These results suggest that alpha and beta HPV genotypes, and partially a mu genotype, share a conserved mechanism of immune escape that enables these viruses to remain undetected in the absence of other inflammatory events.

  10. Homologs of SCAR/WAVE complex components are required for epidermal cell morphogenesis in rice.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wenqi; Wang, Yuchuan; Wu, Zhongliang; Luo, Liang; Liu, Ping; Yan, Longfeng; Hou, Suiwen

    2016-07-01

    Filamentous actins (F-actins) play a vital role in epidermal cell morphogenesis. However, a limited number of studies have examined actin-dependent leaf epidermal cell morphogenesis events in rice. In this study, two recessive mutants were isolated: less pronounced lobe epidermal cell2-1 (lpl2-1) and lpl3-1, whose leaf and stem epidermis developed a smooth surface, with fewer serrated pavement cell (PC) lobes, and decreased papillae. The lpl2-1 also exhibited irregular stomata patterns, reduced plant height, and short panicles and roots. Molecular genetic studies demonstrated that LPL2 and LPL3 encode the PIROGI/Specifically Rac1-associated protein 1 (PIR/SRA1)-like and NCK-associated protein 1 (NAP1)-like proteins, respectively, two components of the suppressor of cAMP receptor/Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein-family verprolin-homologous protein (SCAR/WAVE) regulatory complex involved in actin nucleation and function. Epidermal cells exhibited abnormal arrangement of F-actins in both lpl2 and lpl3 expanding leaves. Moreover, the distorted trichomes of Arabidopsis pir could be partially restored by an overexpression of LPL2 A yeast two-hybrid assay revealed that LPL2 can directly interact with LPL3 in vitro Collectively, the results indicate that LPL2 and LPL3 are two functionally conserved homologs of the SCAR/WAVE complex components, and that they play an important role in controlling epidermal cell morphogenesis in rice by organising F-actin. PMID:27252469

  11. Identification of Candidate Transcriptional Regulators of Epidermal Transfer Cell Development in Vicia faba Cotyledons

    PubMed Central

    Arun-Chinnappa, Kiruba S.; McCurdy, David W.

    2016-01-01

    Transfer cells (TCs) are anatomically-specialized cells formed at apoplasmic-symplasmic bottlenecks in nutrient transport pathways in plants. TCs form invaginated wall ingrowths which provide a scaffold to amplify plasma membrane surface area and thus increase the density of nutrient transporters required to achieve enhanced nutrient flow across these bottlenecks. Despite their importance to nutrient transport in plants, little is known of the transcriptional regulation of wall ingrowth formation. Here, we used RNA-Seq to identify transcription factors putatively involved in regulating epidermal TC development in cotyledons of Vicia faba. Comparing cotyledons cultured for 0, 3, 9, and 24 h to induce trans-differentiation of epidermal TCs identified 43 transcription factors that showed either epidermal-specific or epidermal–enhanced expression, and 10 that showed epidermal-specific down regulation. Members of the WRKY and ethylene-responsive families were prominent in the cohort of transcription factors showing epidermal-specific or epidermal–enhanced expression, consistent with the initiation of TC development often representing a response to stress. Members of the MYB family were also prominent in these categories, including orthologs of MYB genes involved in localized secondary wall deposition in Arabidopsis thaliana. Among the group of transcription factors showing down regulation were various homeobox genes and members of the MADs-box and zinc-finger families of poorly defined functions. Collectively, this study identified several transcription factors showing expression characteristics and orthologous functions that indicate likely participation in transcriptional regulation of epidermal TC development in V. faba cotyledons. PMID:27252730

  12. Short communication: Initial evidence supporting existence of potential rumen epidermal stem and progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Yohe, T T; Tucker, H L M; Parsons, C L M; Geiger, A J; Akers, R M; Daniels, K M

    2016-09-01

    The bovine rumen epidermis is a keratinized multilayered tissue that experiences persistent cell turnover. Because of this constant cell turnover, epidermal stem cells and their slightly more differentiated daughter cells, epidermal progenitor cells, must exist in the stratum basale of rumen epidermis. To date, these 2 epidermal cell populations and any unique cellular markers they may possess remain completely uncharacterized in the bovine rumen. An important first step in this new research area is the demonstration of the relative abundance and existence of markers for these cells in rumen tissue. A related second step is to document rumen epidermal proliferative responses to an extrinsic signal such as nutrient concentration within the rumen. The objectives of this experiment were to evaluate the extrinsic effect of diet on (1) gene expression of 6 potential rumen epidermal stem or progenitor cell markers and (2) rumen epidermal cell proliferation within the stratum basale. Twelve preweaned Holstein heifers were fed either a restricted diet (R) or an enhanced diet (EH). Animals on R received a milk replacer (MR) diet fed at 0.44kg of powder dry matter (DM)/d (20.9% crude protein, 29.8% fat, DM basis) and EH received MR at 1.08kg of powder dry matter/d (28.9% crude protein, 26.2% fat, DM basis). All calves had access to a 20% crude protein starter and were weaned during wk 7 of the experiment. Lifetime DM intake was 0.73kg of DM/calf per day for R (5.88 Mcal of net energy/calf per day) and 1.26kg of DM/calf per day for EH (10.68 Mcal of net energy/calf per day). Twenty-four hours before slaughter heifers received an intravenous dose of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine to label proliferating cells. Heifers were slaughtered at 8 wk of age, and rumen samples from the ventral sac region were obtained and stored in RNA preservative and processed for routine histology. Quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase PCR was used to analyze relative abundance of genes. Candidate

  13. The effect of ruby laser light on cellular proliferation of epidermal cells.

    PubMed

    Liew, S H; Grobbelaar, A O; Gault, D T; Green, C J; Linge, C

    1999-11-01

    In ruby laser-assisted hair removal, microscopic damage is often seen in the basal epidermal cells, where melanosomes are concentrated. It is not known whether this treatment leads to cellular hyperproliferation. It was the aim of this study to investigate this. Ten white patients were treated with the Chromos 694-nm Depilation Ruby Laser, and biopsies taken before and after treatments to assess the presence of cell hyperproliferation, which normally accompanies epidermal damage, with immunohistochemical staining of keratin 16 and Ki67. No evidence of cell hyperproliferation was seen in all specimens examined after ruby laser irradiation. The authors conclude that despite the possible microscopic damages seen in the basal epidermis after laser hair removal, there is no evidence of cellular hyperproliferation. This is in contrast to ultraviolet-irradiated cell damage, in which increased basal cell turnover is seen.

  14. Dual mechanisms of green tea extract (EGCG)-induced cell survival in human epidermal keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Chung, Jin Ho; Han, Ji Hyun; Hwang, Eun Ju; Seo, Jin Young; Cho, Kwang Hyun; Kim, Kyu Han; Youn, Jai Il; Eun, Hee Chul

    2003-10-01

    Beneficial effects attributed to green tea, such as its anticancer and antioxidant properties, may be mediated by (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG). In this study, the effects of EGCG on cell proliferation and UV-induced apoptosis were investigated in normal epidermal keratinocytes. When topically applied to aged human skin, EGCG stimulated the proliferation of epidermal keratinocytes, which increased the epidermal thickness. In addition, this topical application also inhibited the UV-induced apoptosis of epidermal keratinocytes. EGCG was found to increase the phosphorylation of Bad protein at the Ser112 and Ser136. Moreover, EGCG-induced Erk phosphorylation was found to be critical for the phosphorylation of Ser112 in Bad protein, and the EGCG-induced activation of the Akt pathway was found to be involved in the phosphorylation of Ser136. Furthermore, EGCG increased Bcl-2 expression but decreased Bax expression, causing an increase in the Bcl-2-to-Bax ratio. In addition, we demonstrate the differential growth inhibitory effects of EGCG on cancer cells. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that EGCG promotes keratinocyte survival and inhibits the UV-induced apoptosis via two mechanisms: by phosphorylating Ser112 and Ser136 of Bad protein through Erk and Akt pathways, respectively, and by increasing the Bcl-2-to-Bax ratio. Moreover, these two proposed mechanisms of EGCG-induced cell proliferation may differ kinetically to promote keratinocyte survival.

  15. Epidermal stem cells: markers, patterning and the control of stem cell fate.

    PubMed Central

    Watt, F M

    1998-01-01

    Within the epidermis, proliferation takes place in the basal layer of keratinocytes that are attached to an underlying basement membrane. Cells that leave the basal layer undergo terminal differentiation as they move towards the tissue surface. The basal layer contains two types of proliferative keratinocyte: stem cells, which have unlimited self-renewal capacity, and transit amplifying cells, those daughters of stem cells that are destined to withdraw from the cell cycle and terminally differentiate after a few rounds of division. Stem cells express higher levels of the beta 1-integrin family of extracellular matrix receptors than transit amplifying cells and this can be used to isolate each subpopulation of keratinocyte and to determine its location within the epidermis. Variation in the levels of E-cadherin, beta-catenin and plakoglobin within the basal layer suggests that stem cells may also differ from transit amplifying cells in intercellular adhesiveness. Stem cells have a patterned distribution within the epidermal basal layer and patterning is subject to autoregulation. Constitutive expression of the transcription factor c-Myc promotes terminal differentiation by driving keratinocytes from the stem cell compartment into the transit amplifying compartment. PMID:9684280

  16. Effects of Telomerase and Telomere Length on Epidermal Stem Cell Behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, Ignacio; Cayuela, María L.; Blasco, María A.

    2005-08-01

    A key process in organ homeostasis is the mobilization of stem cells out of their niches. We show through analysis of mouse models that telomere length, as well as the catalytic component of telomerase, Tert, are critical determinants in the mobilization of epidermal stem cells. Telomere shortening inhibited mobilization of stem cells out of their niche, impaired hair growth, and resulted in suppression of stem cell proliferative capacity in vitro. In contrast, Tert overexpression in the absence of changes in telomere length promoted stem cell mobilization, hair growth, and stem cell proliferation in vitro. The effects of telomeres and telomerase on stem cell biology anticipate their role in cancer and aging.

  17. Epidermal Cells Expressing Putative Cell Markers in Nonglabrous Skin Existing in Direct Proximity with the Distal End of the Arrector Pili Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Rufaut, N. W.; Jones, L.; Sinclair, R.

    2016-01-01

    Inconsistent with the view that epidermal stem cells reside randomly spread along the basal layer of the epidermal rete ridges, we found that epidermal cells expressing stem cell markers in nonglabrous skin exist in direct connection with the distal end of the arrector pili muscle. The epidermal cells that express stem cell markers consist of a subpopulation of basal keratinocytes located in a niche at the lowermost portion of the rete ridges at the distal arrector pili muscle attachment site. Keratinocytes in the epidermal stem cell niche express K15, MCSP, and α6 integrin. α5 integrin marks the distal end of the APM colocalized with basal keratinocytes expressing stem cell markers located in a well-protected and nourished environment at the lowermost point of the epidermis; these cells are hypothesized to participate directly in epidermal renewal and homeostasis and also indirectly in wound healing through communication with the hair follicle bulge epithelial stem cell population through the APM. Our findings, plus a reevaluation of the literature, support the hierarchical model of interfollicular epidermal stem cell units of Fitzpatrick. This new view provides insights into epidermal control and the possible involvement of epidermal stem cells in nonmelanoma skin carcinogenesis. PMID:27375744

  18. A liquid film model of tetrakaidecahedral packing to account for the establishment of epidermal cell columns.

    PubMed

    Menton, D N

    1976-05-01

    The possiblity that the organization of cells into columns in the mammalian epidermis may be a result of the close packing of these cells has been investigated in a model system involving the association of randomly produced soap bubbles into a stable froth. Upon floating to the surface of a liquid, soap bubbles have been found to spontaneously assemble into precise columns of interdigitating bubbles. The tetrakaidecahedral shape and the spatial configuration of these bubbles closely resemble those of stacked epidermal cells, although the columns of a froth were oriented at a 60degrees angle to their substratum rather than at right angles as occurs in the epidermal cell columns. These observations lend support to the theory that the organization of the cells in the epidermis into columns is due to the assumption of the keratocytes of a minimum surface-close packing array. Such an organizing mechanism would be independent of both positional control of the underlying mitoses and active guidance of the cells as they become superficially displaced within the epidermis. The observation that a high rate of cell turnover is incompatible with the epidermal column structure may be related to the finding that rapidly produced soap bubbles do not, at least initially, assemble into a columnar array. PMID:1270835

  19. Three-dimensional culture of epidermal cells on ordered cellulose scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Seyama, Tomoko; Suh, Eun Young; Kondo, Tetsuo

    2013-06-01

    An ordered cellulose film scaffold, termed a nematic ordered cellulose (NOC) template, had unique surface properties and successfully induced the establishment of a three-dimensional (3D), hierarchical structure of epidermal cells by cell attachment and subsequent culture. Initially, the scaffold surface properties were characterized through contact angle measurements and atomic force microscopy to evaluate appropriate hydrophobicity and orientation of molecular chains for 3D culture. The template surfaces exhibited higher hydrophobicity, in the range of 70-75°, than usual cellulose films and appeared suitable for surface cell adhesion. In fact, epidermal cells successfully attached and proliferated favorably on the NOC templates, similar to development in normal culture flasks. Furthermore, the NOC film, as a semipermeable template, was also employed to allow 3D proliferation of epidermal cell layers in the perpendicular direction. The template proved to be suitable as a 3D cell culture device, resulting in the proposal that the construction processes of these 3D cell layers followed the basic concept of skin formation. PMID:23624420

  20. Single cell-type comparative metabolomics of epidermal bladder cells from the halophyte Mesembryanthemum crystallinum

    PubMed Central

    Barkla, Bronwyn J.; Vera-Estrella, Rosario

    2015-01-01

    One of the remarkable adaptive features of the halophyte Mesembryanthemum crystallinum are the specialized modified trichomes called epidermal bladder cells (EBC) which cover the leaves, stems, and peduncle of the plant. They are present from an early developmental stage but upon salt stress rapidly expand due to the accumulation of water and sodium. This particular plant feature makes it an attractive system for single cell type studies, with recent proteomics and transcriptomics studies of the EBC establishing that these cells are metabolically active and have roles other than sodium sequestration. To continue our investigation into the function of these unusual cells we carried out a comprehensive global analysis of the metabolites present in the EBC extract by gas chromatography Time-of-Flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF) and identified 194 known and 722 total molecular features. Statistical analysis of the metabolic changes between control and salt-treated samples identified 352 significantly differing metabolites (268 after correction for FDR). Principal components analysis provided an unbiased evaluation of the data variance structure. Biochemical pathway enrichment analysis suggested significant perturbations in 13 biochemical pathways as defined in KEGG. More than 50% of the metabolites that show significant changes in the EBC, can be classified as compatible solutes and include sugars, sugar alcohols, protein and non-protein amino acids, and organic acids, highlighting the need to maintain osmotic homeostasis to balance the accumulation of Na+ and Cl− ions. Overall, the comparison of metabolic changes in salt treated relative to control samples suggests large alterations in M. crystallinum epidermal bladder cells. PMID:26113856

  1. Confocal microscopy of epithelial and langerhans cells of the cornea in patients using travoprost drops containing two different preservatives.

    PubMed

    Marsovszky, László; Resch, Miklós D; Visontai, Zsuzsanna; Németh, János

    2014-07-01

    The recently developed confocal cornea microscopy offers the opportunity to examine pathologies of the cornea and to gain insight into the activity of innate immunity. We aimed to investigate the corneal epithelial and Langerhans cell (LC) densities along with dry eye parameters in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) subjects, treated with either of two commercially available travoprost 0.004 % topical medications containing different preservatives. (1: benzalkonium chloride 0.015 % (TravBAK) and 2: polyquaternium-1 (PQ) 0.001 % (TravPQ). Consecutive case series of nineteen POAG patients on TravBAK (mean age: 64.8 ± 13.6 years), nineteen POAG patients on TravPQ (mean age: 66.8 ± 11.3 years) and nineteen age-matched healthy control subjects (63.8 ± 8.2 years). Ocular surface disease index (OSDI), lid parallel conjunctival folds (LIPCOF), Schirmer test (ST) and tear break up time (TBUT) were assessed, and then corneal epithelial and LC densities were investigated with confocal microscopy. Tear production was significantly reduced in both glaucoma patient groups compared to healthy individuals (p < 0.05). TBUT was significantly reduced and epithelial cell densities were significantly greater in patients treated with TravBAK compared to healthy individuals (p < 0.05 for all). LC densities were greater in both glaucoma groups compared to control subjects (p < 0.05 for all). Travoprost therapy may compromise ocular surface. The limited alertness of the corneal immune system found in patients with TravPQ can be considered as indicators of a less disturbed ocular surface and better controlled corneal homeostasis.

  2. Confocal microscopy of epithelial and langerhans cells of the cornea in patients using travoprost drops containing two different preservatives.

    PubMed

    Marsovszky, László; Resch, Miklós D; Visontai, Zsuzsanna; Németh, János

    2014-07-01

    The recently developed confocal cornea microscopy offers the opportunity to examine pathologies of the cornea and to gain insight into the activity of innate immunity. We aimed to investigate the corneal epithelial and Langerhans cell (LC) densities along with dry eye parameters in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) subjects, treated with either of two commercially available travoprost 0.004 % topical medications containing different preservatives. (1: benzalkonium chloride 0.015 % (TravBAK) and 2: polyquaternium-1 (PQ) 0.001 % (TravPQ). Consecutive case series of nineteen POAG patients on TravBAK (mean age: 64.8 ± 13.6 years), nineteen POAG patients on TravPQ (mean age: 66.8 ± 11.3 years) and nineteen age-matched healthy control subjects (63.8 ± 8.2 years). Ocular surface disease index (OSDI), lid parallel conjunctival folds (LIPCOF), Schirmer test (ST) and tear break up time (TBUT) were assessed, and then corneal epithelial and LC densities were investigated with confocal microscopy. Tear production was significantly reduced in both glaucoma patient groups compared to healthy individuals (p < 0.05). TBUT was significantly reduced and epithelial cell densities were significantly greater in patients treated with TravBAK compared to healthy individuals (p < 0.05 for all). LC densities were greater in both glaucoma groups compared to control subjects (p < 0.05 for all). Travoprost therapy may compromise ocular surface. The limited alertness of the corneal immune system found in patients with TravPQ can be considered as indicators of a less disturbed ocular surface and better controlled corneal homeostasis. PMID:24623372

  3. Transcriptional down-regulation of epidermal growth factor receptors by nerve growth factor treatment of PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Shibutani, M; Lazarovici, P; Johnson, A C; Katagiri, Y; Guroff, G

    1998-03-20

    Treatment of PC12 cells with nerve growth factor leads to a decrease in the number of epidermal growth factor receptors on the cell membrane. The mRNA for the epidermal growth factor receptor decreases in a comparable fashion. This decrease appears due to a decrease in the transcription of the epidermal growth factor receptor gene because first, there is no difference in the stability of the epidermal growth factor receptor mRNA, second, newly transcribed epidermal growth factor receptor mRNA is decreased in nerve growth factor-differentiated cells, and third, constructs containing the promoter region of the epidermal growth factor receptor gene are transcribed much less readily in nerve growth factor-differentiated cells than in untreated cells. The decreases in mRNA are not seen in the p140(trk)-deficient variant PC12nnr5 cells nor in cells containing either dominant-negative Ras or dominant-negative Src. Treatment with nerve growth factor also increases the cellular content of GCF2, a putative transcription factor inhibitory for the transcription of the epidermal growth factor receptor gene. The increase in GCF2, like the decrease in the epidermal growth factor receptor mRNA, is not seen in PC12nnr5 cells nor in cells expressing either dominant-negative Ras or dominant-negative Src. The results suggest that nerve growth factor-induced down-regulation of the epidermal growth factor receptor is under transcriptional control, is p140(trk)-, Ras-, and Src-dependent, and may involve transcriptional repression by GCF2.

  4. Patterning as a signature of human epidermal stem cell regulation

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Allon M.; Nikolaidou-Neokosmidou, Varvara; Doupé, David P.; Jones, Philip H.; Simons, Benjamin D.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding how stem cells are regulated in adult tissues is a major challenge in cell biology. In the basal layer of human epidermis, clusters of almost quiescent stem cells are interspersed with proliferating and differentiating cells. Previous studies have shown that the proliferating cells follow a pattern of balanced stochastic cell fate. This behaviour enables them to maintain homeostasis, while stem cells remain confined to their quiescent clusters. Intriguingly, these clusters reappear spontaneously in culture, suggesting that they may play a functional role in stem cell auto-regulation. We propose a model of pattern formation that explains how clustering could regulate stem cell activity in homeostatic tissue through contact inhibition and stem cell aggregation. PMID:21632613

  5. Proliferative and toxic effects of ultraviolet light and inflammation on epidermal pigment cells

    SciTech Connect

    Nordlund, J.J.; Ackles, A.E.; Traynor, F.F.

    1981-10-01

    The ear of the mouse is useful for studying the effects of ultraviolet light on epidermal pigment cells. The quantity of light penetrating into the skin causing an inflammatory response can be assessed easily by measuring with an engineering calipers the swelling of the ear. The inflammatory response of the ear exhibits a linear relationship to the dose of light delivered. We observed that doses of shortwave ultraviolet light which are noninflammatory when repeated at daily intervals induce moderate to severe inflammation. Small doses of psoralen and prolonged exposure to UVA (PUVA) were more inflammatory than larger amounts of psoralen and short exposure to light. Doses of shortwave ultraviolet light and PUVA which produce only a minimal inflammation of the skin stimulate the proliferation of epidermal melanocytes. In contrast, PUVA in doses sufficiently large to cause a marked inflammatory reaction in the skin seems injurious to pigment cells and kills them or causes only a minimal proliferative response. The inflammatory reaction itself does not seem to stimulate or inhibit the proliferation of melanocytes. Prostaglandins A, E, and F2 alpha have no effect on the proliferation of epidermal pigment cells. In contrast, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and allergic contact dermatitis increase the numerical density of pigment cells. Steroids may block the function of the enzyme tyrosinase. Our experiments indicate that pigment cells, like many other varieties of cells, are susceptible to injury and can be killed at least by large doses of PUVA.

  6. Genetically induced cell death in bulge stem cells reveals their redundancy for hair and epidermal regeneration.

    PubMed

    Driskell, Iwona; Oeztuerk-Winder, Feride; Humphreys, Peter; Frye, Michaela

    2015-03-01

    Adult mammalian epidermis contains multiple stem cell populations in which quiescent and more proliferative stem and progenitor populations coexist. However, the precise interrelation of these populations in homeostasis remains unclear. Here, we blocked the contribution of quiescent keratin 19 (K19)-expressing bulge stem cells to hair follicle formation through genetic ablation of the essential histone methyltransferase Setd8 that is required for the maintenance of adult skin. Deletion of Setd8 eliminated the contribution of bulge cells to hair follicle regeneration through inhibition of cell division and induction of cell death, but the growth and morphology of hair follicles were unaffected. Furthermore, ablation of Setd8 in the hair follicle bulge blocked the contribution of K19-postive stem cells to wounded epidermis, but the wound healing process was unaltered. Our data indicate that quiescent bulge stem cells are dispensable for hair follicle regeneration and epidermal injury in the short term and support the hypothesis that quiescent and cycling stem cell populations are equipotent.

  7. Human epidermal neural crest stem cells as a source of Schwann cells

    PubMed Central

    Sakaue, Motoharu; Sieber-Blum, Maya

    2015-01-01

    We show that highly pure populations of human Schwann cells can be derived rapidly and in a straightforward way, without the need for genetic manipulation, from human epidermal neural crest stem cells [hEPI-NCSC(s)] present in the bulge of hair follicles. These human Schwann cells promise to be a useful tool for cell-based therapies, disease modelling and drug discovery. Schwann cells are glia that support axons of peripheral nerves and are direct descendants of the embryonic neural crest. Peripheral nerves are damaged in various conditions, including through trauma or tumour-related surgery, and Schwann cells are required for their repair and regeneration. Schwann cells also promise to be useful for treating spinal cord injuries. Ex vivo expansion of hEPI-NCSC isolated from hair bulge explants, manipulating the WNT, sonic hedgehog and TGFβ signalling pathways, and exposure of the cells to pertinent growth factors led to the expression of the Schwann cell markers SOX10, KROX20 (EGR2), p75NTR (NGFR), MBP and S100B by day 4 in virtually all cells, and maturation was completed by 2 weeks of differentiation. Gene expression profiling demonstrated expression of transcripts for neurotrophic and angiogenic factors, as well as JUN, all of which are essential for nerve regeneration. Co-culture of hEPI-NCSC-derived human Schwann cells with rodent dorsal root ganglia showed interaction of the Schwann cells with axons, providing evidence of Schwann cell functionality. We conclude that hEPI-NCSCs are a biologically relevant source for generating large and highly pure populations of human Schwann cells. PMID:26251357

  8. Prevention of skin tumorigenesis and impairment of epidermal cell proliferation by targeted aquaporin-3 gene disruption.

    PubMed

    Hara-Chikuma, Mariko; Verkman, A S

    2008-01-01

    Aquaporin-3 (AQP3) is a water/glycerol-transporting protein expressed strongly at the plasma membranes of basal epidermal cells in skin. We found that human skin squamous cell carcinoma strongly overexpresses AQP3. A novel role for AQP3 in skin tumorigenesis was discovered using mice with targeted AQP3 gene disruption. We found that AQP3-null mice were remarkably resistant to the development of skin tumors following exposure to a tumor initiator and phorbol ester promoter. Though tumor initiator challenge produced comparable apoptotic responses in wild-type and AQP3-null mice, promoter-induced cell proliferation was greatly impaired in the AQP3-null epidermis. Reductions of epidermal cell glycerol, its metabolite glycerol-3-phosphate, and ATP were found in AQP3 deficiency without impairment of mitochondrial function. Glycerol supplementation corrected the reduced proliferation and ATP content in AQP3 deficiency, with cellular glycerol, ATP, and proliferative ability being closely correlated. Our data suggest involvement of AQP3-facilitated glycerol transport in epidermal cell proliferation and tumorigenesis by a novel mechanism implicating cellular glycerol as a key determinant of cellular ATP energy. AQP3 may thus be an important determinant in skin tumorigenesis and hence a novel target for tumor prevention and therapy. PMID:17967887

  9. Epidermal Notch1 recruits RORγ+ group 3 innate lymphoid cells to orchestrate normal skin repair

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhi; Hodgkinson, Tom; Gothard, Elizabeth J.; Boroumand, Soulmaz; Lamb, Rebecca; Cummins, Ian; Narang, Priyanka; Sawtell, Amy; Coles, Jenny; Leonov, German; Reboldi, Andrea; Buckley, Christopher D.; Cupedo, Tom; Siebel, Christian; Bayat, Ardeshir; Coles, Mark C.; Ambler, Carrie A.

    2016-01-01

    Notch has a well-defined role in controlling cell fate decisions in the embryo and the adult epidermis and immune systems, yet emerging evidence suggests Notch also directs non-cell-autonomous signalling in adult tissues. Here, we show that Notch1 works as a damage response signal. Epidermal Notch induces recruitment of immune cell subsets including RORγ+ ILC3s into wounded dermis; RORγ+ ILC3s are potent sources of IL17F in wounds and control immunological and epidermal cell responses. Mice deficient for RORγ+ ILC3s heal wounds poorly resulting from delayed epidermal proliferation and macrophage recruitment in a CCL3-dependent process. Notch1 upregulates TNFα and the ILC3 recruitment chemokines CCL20 and CXCL13. TNFα, as a Notch1 effector, directs ILC3 localization and rates of wound healing. Altogether these findings suggest that Notch is a key stress/injury signal in skin epithelium driving innate immune cell recruitment and normal skin tissue repair. PMID:27099134

  10. Epidermal Notch1 recruits RORγ(+) group 3 innate lymphoid cells to orchestrate normal skin repair.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi; Hodgkinson, Tom; Gothard, Elizabeth J; Boroumand, Soulmaz; Lamb, Rebecca; Cummins, Ian; Narang, Priyanka; Sawtell, Amy; Coles, Jenny; Leonov, German; Reboldi, Andrea; Buckley, Christopher D; Cupedo, Tom; Siebel, Christian; Bayat, Ardeshir; Coles, Mark C; Ambler, Carrie A

    2016-01-01

    Notch has a well-defined role in controlling cell fate decisions in the embryo and the adult epidermis and immune systems, yet emerging evidence suggests Notch also directs non-cell-autonomous signalling in adult tissues. Here, we show that Notch1 works as a damage response signal. Epidermal Notch induces recruitment of immune cell subsets including RORγ(+) ILC3s into wounded dermis; RORγ(+) ILC3s are potent sources of IL17F in wounds and control immunological and epidermal cell responses. Mice deficient for RORγ(+) ILC3s heal wounds poorly resulting from delayed epidermal proliferation and macrophage recruitment in a CCL3-dependent process. Notch1 upregulates TNFα and the ILC3 recruitment chemokines CCL20 and CXCL13. TNFα, as a Notch1 effector, directs ILC3 localization and rates of wound healing. Altogether these findings suggest that Notch is a key stress/injury signal in skin epithelium driving innate immune cell recruitment and normal skin tissue repair. PMID:27099134

  11. Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis (LCH): Guidelines for Diagnosis, Clinical Work-Up, and Treatment for Patients Till the Age of 18 Years

    PubMed Central

    Haupt, Riccardo; Minkov, Milen; Astigarraga, Itziar; Schäfer, Eva; Nanduri, Vasanta; Jubran, Rima; Egeler, R Maarten; Janka, Gritta; Micic, Dragan; Rodriguez-Galindo, Carlos; Van Gool, Stefaan; Visser, Johannes; Weitzman, Sheila; Donadieu, Jean

    2013-01-01

    These guidelines for the management of patients up to 18 years with Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) have been set up by a group of experts involved in the Euro Histio Net project who participated in national or international studies and in peer reviewed publications. Existing guidelines were reviewed and changed where new evidence was available in the literature up to 2012. Data and publications have been ranked according to evidence based medicine and when there was a lack of published data, consensus between experts was sought. Guidelines for diagnosis, initial clinical work-up, and treatment and long-term follow-up of LCH patients are presented. PMID:23109216

  12. Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis in an Adult with Involvement of the Calvarium, Cerebral Cortex and Brainstem: Discussion of Pathophysiology and Rationale for the Use of Intravenous Immune Globulin

    PubMed Central

    Dardis, Christopher; Aung, Thandar; Shapiro, William; Fortune, John; Coons, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of Langerhans cell histiocytosis in a 64-year-old male who presented with symptoms and signs of brain involvement, including seizures and hypopituitarism. The diagnosis was confirmed with a biopsy of a lytic skull lesion. The disease affecting the bone showed no sign of progression following a short course of cladribine. Signs of temporal lobe involvement led to an additional biopsy, which showed signs of nonspecific neurodegeneration and which triggered status epilepticus. Lesions noted in the brainstem were typical for the paraneoplastic inflammation reported in this condition. These lesions improved after treatment with cladribine. They remained stable while on treatment with intravenous immune globulin. PMID:25873887

  13. Epidermal cells are the primary phagocytes in the fragmentation and clearance of degenerating dendrites in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Hui; Wang, Denan; Franc, Nathalie C.; Jan, Lily Yeh; Jan, Yuh-Nung

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY During developmental remodeling, neurites destined for pruning often degenerate on-site. Physical injury also induces degeneration of neurites distal to the injury site. Prompt clearance of degenerating neurites is important for maintaining tissue homeostasis and preventing inflammatory responses. Here we show that in both dendrite pruning and dendrite injury of Drosophila sensory neurons, epidermal cells rather than hemocytes are the primary phagocytes in clearing degenerating dendrites. Epidermal cells act via Draper-mediated recognition to facilitate dendrite degeneration and to engulf and degrade degenerating dendrites. Using multiple dendritic membrane markers to trace phagocytosis, we show that two members of the CD36 family, croquemort (crq) and debris buster (dsb), act at distinct stages of phagosome maturation for dendrite clearance. Our finding reveals the physiological importance of coordination between neurons and their surrounding epidermis, for both dendrite fragmentation and clearance. PMID:24412417

  14. Morphological and functional studies on the epidermal cells of amphioxus ( Branchiostoma belcheri tsingtauense) at different developmental stages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Bing-Yu; Sun, Xiao-Yang; Zhang, Hong-Wei; Zhang, Shi-Cui; Wu, Xian-Han

    1997-09-01

    Epidermal cells of amphioxus at different developmental stages were investigated by electron microscopy and colloidal carbon tracing experiments. Amphioxus epidermal cells showed different ultrastructural characteristics at larval and adult stages. The epidermal cells at all larval stages studied (24 96 h) had numerous vesicles containing electron dense materials in their apical cytoplasm. In tracing experiments, carbon particles were found in apical vesicles and interoellular spaces. Under scanning electron microscope, many crater-like protrusions were observed on the surface of the cells. These results indicated that amphioxus larval epidermal cells may be capable of endocytosis. The epidermal cells of 3-month and adult amphioxus were obviously secretory ones characterized by well-developed peripheral filaments, a prominent Golgi apparatus and abundant apical secretory vesicles. This study also showed that adult amphioxus body surface mucus contained lectin that could agglutinate human red blood cells. The authors propose that the epidermal cells of amphioxus larva and adult may contribute to the immune defense of the amimal by different means.

  15. Suppression of the CD8 T cell response by human papillomavirus type 16 E7 occurs in Langerhans cell-depleted mice

    PubMed Central

    Jemon, K.; Leong, C.-M.; Ly, K.; Young, S. L.; McLellan, A. D.; Hibma, M. H.

    2016-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is an epitheliotropic virus that is the primary causal agent for cervical cancer. Langerhans cells (LC) are skin antigen presenting cells that are reduced in number in HPV-infected skin. The aim of this study was to understand the immune-modulatory effects of HPV16 E7 on LC and on the CD8 T cell response to a skin-expressed antigen. To test this, HPV16 E7 was expressed in mouse skin keratinocytes with the model antigen ovalbumin (Ova). Similar to what is observed in HPV-infected human skin, LC numbers were significantly reduced in E7-expressing mouse skin. This shows that expression of the E7 protein alone is sufficient to mediate LC depletion. Expression of E7 with Ova in keratinocytes strongly suppressed the Ova-specific CD8+ T cell response in the skin draining lymph node. When tested in LC-ablated mice, the CD8 T cell response to skin-expressed Ova in control mice was not affected, nor was the T cell response to Ova restored in E7-expressing skin. These data indicate a role for E7 in regulation of LC homeostasis in the skin and in suppression of antigen specific CD8 T cell expansion, but suggest that these two effects occur independent of each other. PMID:27708419

  16. Indomethacin interferes with epidermal growth factor binding and proliferative response of gastric KATO III cells.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Y; Schmassmann, A; Arakawa, T; Halter, F; Tarnawski, A

    1995-01-01

    Indomethacin induces gastric ulcerations and decreases cell proliferation in the gastric ulcer margin. Since epithelial cell proliferation is under control of epidermal growth factor (EGF), we studied whether indomethacin may affect specific binding of [125I]-EGF to its receptors in cultured human gastric KATO III cells. To assess effects of EGF, indomethacin and their combination on cell proliferation, KATO III cells were incubated for 24 h with either (a) vehicle (b) indomethacin (doses from 10(-5) to 10(-3) M), EGF (doses 0.01, 0.05 or 0.1 microgram/ml) or (d) a combination of b and c, and the bromodeoxyuridine labeling index was determined. Indomethacin in a dose which did not affect cell viability significantly (by 21.5%) decreased [125I]-EGF binding to the KATO III cells and decreased the bromodeoxyuridine labeling index. Epidermal growth factor significantly increased cell proliferation and increased the labeling index from 28.9 +/- 0.6% in the vehicle group to 36.2 +/- 0.5%. Co-treatment with indomethacin significantly reduced the proliferative response of KATO III cells to EGF. In conclusion, indomethacin, in a dose which does not affect cell viability, decreased binding of EGF to cultured gastric KATO III cells and decreased their proliferative response to EGF. PMID:8549878

  17. Skin Stem Cells: At the Frontier Between the Laboratory and Clinical Practice. Part 1: Epidermal Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Pastushenko, I; Prieto-Torres, L; Gilaberte, Y; Blanpain, C

    2015-11-01

    Stem cells are characterized by their ability to self-renew and differentiate into the different cell lineages of their tissue of origin. The discovery of stem cells in adult tissues, together with the description of specific markers for their isolation, has opened up new lines of investigation, expanding the horizons of biomedical research and raising new hope in the treatment of many diseases. In this article, we review in detail the main characteristics of the stem cells that produce the specialized cells of the skin (epidermal, mesenchymal, and melanocyte stem cells) and their potential implications and applications in diseases affecting the skin. Part I deals with the principal characteristics and potential applications of epidermal stem cells in dermatology.

  18. Skin Stem Cells: At the Frontier Between the Laboratory and Clinical Practice. Part 1: Epidermal Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Pastushenko, I; Prieto-Torres, L; Gilaberte, Y; Blanpain, C

    2015-11-01

    Stem cells are characterized by their ability to self-renew and differentiate into the different cell lineages of their tissue of origin. The discovery of stem cells in adult tissues, together with the description of specific markers for their isolation, has opened up new lines of investigation, expanding the horizons of biomedical research and raising new hope in the treatment of many diseases. In this article, we review in detail the main characteristics of the stem cells that produce the specialized cells of the skin (epidermal, mesenchymal, and melanocyte stem cells) and their potential implications and applications in diseases affecting the skin. Part I deals with the principal characteristics and potential applications of epidermal stem cells in dermatology. PMID:26189363

  19. Identification of proliferative and mature β-cells in the islets of Langerhans.

    PubMed

    Bader, Erik; Migliorini, Adriana; Gegg, Moritz; Moruzzi, Noah; Gerdes, Jantje; Roscioni, Sara S; Bakhti, Mostafa; Brandl, Elisabeth; Irmler, Martin; Beckers, Johannes; Aichler, Michaela; Feuchtinger, Annette; Leitzinger, Christin; Zischka, Hans; Wang-Sattler, Rui; Jastroch, Martin; Tschöp, Matthias; Machicao, Fausto; Staiger, Harald; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Chmelova, Helena; Chouinard, Julie A; Oskolkov, Nikolay; Korsgren, Olle; Speier, Stephan; Lickert, Heiko

    2016-07-21

    Insulin-dependent diabetes is a complex multifactorial disorder characterized by loss or dysfunction of β-cells. Pancreatic β-cells differ in size, glucose responsiveness, insulin secretion and precursor cell potential; understanding the mechanisms that underlie this functional heterogeneity might make it possible to develop new regenerative approaches. Here we show that Fltp (also known as Flattop and Cfap126), a Wnt/planar cell polarity (PCP) effector and reporter gene acts as a marker gene that subdivides endocrine cells into two subpopulations and distinguishes proliferation-competent from mature β-cells with distinct molecular, physiological and ultrastructural features. Genetic lineage tracing revealed that endocrine subpopulations from Fltp-negative and -positive lineages react differently to physiological and pathological changes. The expression of Fltp increases when endocrine cells cluster together to form polarized and mature 3D islet mini-organs. We show that 3D architecture and Wnt/PCP ligands are sufficient to trigger β-cell maturation. By contrast, the Wnt/PCP effector Fltp is not necessary for β-cell development, proliferation or maturation. We conclude that 3D architecture and Wnt/PCP signalling underlie functional β-cell heterogeneity and induce β-cell maturation. The identification of Fltp as a marker for endocrine subpopulations sheds light on the molecular underpinnings of islet cell heterogeneity and plasticity and might enable targeting of endocrine subpopulations for the regeneration of functional β-cell mass in diabetic patients. PMID:27398620

  20. Substance P combined with epidermal stem cells promotes wound healing and nerve regeneration in diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Fei-Bin; Fang, Xiang-Jing; Liu, De-Wu; Shao, Ying; Zhang, Hong-Yan; Peng, Yan; Zhong, Qing-Ling; Li, Yong-Tie; Liu, De-Ming

    2016-03-01

    Exogenous substance P accelerates wound healing in diabetes, but the mechanism remains poorly understood. Here, we established a rat model by intraperitoneally injecting streptozotocin. Four wounds (1.8 cm diameter) were drilled using a self-made punch onto the back, bilateral to the vertebral column, and then treated using amniotic membrane with epidermal stem cells and/or substance P around and in the middle of the wounds. With the combined treatment the wound-healing rate was 100% at 14 days. With prolonged time, type I collagen content gradually increased, yet type III collagen content gradually diminished. Abundant protein gene product 9.5- and substance P-immunoreactive nerve fibers regenerated. Partial nerve fiber endings extended to the epidermis. The therapeutic effects of combined substance P and epidermal stem cells were better than with amniotic membrane and either factor alone. Our results suggest that the combination of substance P and epidermal stem cells effectively contributes to nerve regeneration and wound healing in diabetic rats.

  1. Substance P combined with epidermal stem cells promotes wound healing and nerve regeneration in diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Fei-bin; Fang, Xiang-jing; Liu, De-wu; Shao, Ying; Zhang, Hong-yan; Peng, Yan; Zhong, Qing-ling; Li, Yong-tie; Liu, De-ming

    2016-01-01

    Exogenous substance P accelerates wound healing in diabetes, but the mechanism remains poorly understood. Here, we established a rat model by intraperitoneally injecting streptozotocin. Four wounds (1.8 cm diameter) were drilled using a self-made punch onto the back, bilateral to the vertebral column, and then treated using amniotic membrane with epidermal stem cells and/or substance P around and in the middle of the wounds. With the combined treatment the wound-healing rate was 100% at 14 days. With prolonged time, type I collagen content gradually increased, yet type III collagen content gradually diminished. Abundant protein gene product 9.5- and substance P-immunoreactive nerve fibers regenerated. Partial nerve fiber endings extended to the epidermis. The therapeutic effects of combined substance P and epidermal stem cells were better than with amniotic membrane and either factor alone. Our results suggest that the combination of substance P and epidermal stem cells effectively contributes to nerve regeneration and wound healing in diabetic rats. PMID:27127492

  2. Selective and site-specific mobilization of dermal dendritic cells and Langerhans cells by Th1- and Th2-polarizing adjuvants.

    PubMed

    Sen, Debasish; Forrest, Luette; Kepler, Thomas B; Parker, Ian; Cahalan, Michael D

    2010-05-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) initiate and polarize adaptive immune responses toward varying functional outcomes. By means of intravital two-photon microscopy, we report that dermal dendritic cells (DDCs) and Langerhans cells (LCs) are differentially mobilized during contact sensitization and by adjuvants such as unmethylated CpG oligonucleotide (CpG) and LPS that induce T helper type 1 (Th1) responses, or papain that induces T helper type 2 (Th2) responses. In ear pinna, contact sensitization, CpG, LPS, and papain all mobilized DDCs in three distinct phases: increased motility and dendritic probing, directed migration, and entry into lymphatic vessels. During the same treatments, the adjacent LCs in ear pinna remained immotile over a 48-hr period of observation. In contrast, footpads lacked DDCs and Th1-polarizing adjuvants selectively induced a delayed mobilization of LCs after 48 hr. Th1 polarization of CD4(+) T cells was independent of the immunization site, whereas ear immunization favored Th2 polarization, correlating with site-specific DC distribution and dynamics. Our results provide an initial description of peripheral DC dynamics in response to adjuvants and imply that LC mobilization enhances a Th1 response and is not sufficient to trigger a Th2 response, whereas mobilization of DDCs alone is sufficient to trigger T-cell proliferation and to polarize initial T-cell activation toward a Th2 response. PMID:20404167

  3. IL-34 is a tissue-restricted ligand of CSF1R required for the development of Langerhans cells and microglia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yaming; Szretter, Kristy J; Vermi, William; Gilfillan, Susan; Rossini, Cristina; Cella, Marina; Barrow, Alexander D; Diamond, Michael S; Colonna, Marco

    2012-06-24

    The differentiation of bone marrow-derived progenitor cells into monocytes, tissue macrophages and some dendritic cell (DC) subtypes requires the growth factor CSF1 and its receptor, CSF1R. Langerhans cells (LCs) and microglia develop from embryonic myeloid precursor cells that populate the epidermis and central nervous system (CNS) before birth. Notably, LCs and microglia are present in CSF1-deficient mice but absent from CSF1R-deficient mice. Here we investigated whether an alternative CSF1R ligand, interleukin 34 (IL-34), is responsible for this discrepancy. Through the use of IL-34-deficient (Il34(LacZ/LacZ)) reporter mice, we found that keratinocytes and neurons were the main sources of IL-34. Il34(LacZ/LacZ) mice selectively lacked LCs and microglia and responded poorly to skin antigens and viral infection of the CNS. Thus, IL-34 specifically directs the differentiation of myeloid cells in the skin epidermis and CNS.

  4. Asymmetric growth of root epidermal cells is related to the differentiation of root hair cells in Hordeum vulgare (L.)

    PubMed Central

    Marzec, Marek

    2013-01-01

    The root epidermis of most vascular plants harbours two cell types, namely trichoblasts (capable of producing a root hair) and atrichoblasts. Here, in vivo analysis, confocal laser-scanning microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, histological analysis, and three-dimensional reconstruction were used to characterize the cell types present in the barley root epidermis and their distribution in the tissue. Both trichoblasts and atrichoblasts were present in the wild-type cultivars and could be distinguished from one another at an early stage. Trichoblast/atrichoblast differentiation depended on asymmetric cell expansion after a period of symmetrical cell division. After asymmetric growth, only the shorter epidermal cells could produce root hairs, whereas the longer cells became atrichoblasts. Moreover, the root epidermis did not develop root hairs at all if the epidermal cells did not differentiate into two asymmetric cell types. The root hairless phenotype of bald root barley (brb) and root hairless 1.b (rhl1.b) mutants was caused by a mutation in a gene related to the asymmetric expansion of the root epidermal cells. Additionally, the results showed that the mechanism of trichoblast/atrichoblast differentiation is not evolutionally conserved across the subfamilies of the Poaceae; in the Pooideae subfamily, both asymmetric division and asymmetric cell expansion have been observed. PMID:24043851

  5. Identifying subcellular protein localization with fluorescent protein fusions after transient expression in onion epidermal cells.

    PubMed

    Nebenführ, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Most biochemical functions of plant cells are carried out by proteins which act at very specific places within these cells, for example, within different organelles. Identifying the subcellular localization of proteins is therefore a useful tool to narrow down the possible functions that a novel or unknown protein may carry out. The discovery of genetically encoded fluorescent markers has made it possible to tag specific proteins and visualize them in vivo under a variety of conditions. This chapter describes a simple method to use transient expression of such fluorescently tagged proteins in onion epidermal cells to determine their subcellular localization relative to known markers.

  6. Effects of epidermal growth factor on neural crest cells in tissue culture

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, C.A.; Turley, E.A.

    1987-04-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulates the release of hyaluronic acid (HA) and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG) from quail trunk neural crest cultures in a dose-dependent fashion. It also promotes the expression of cell-associated heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG) as detected by immunofluorescence and immunoprecipitation of the /sup 3/H-labeled proteoglycan. Furthermore, EGF stimulates (/sup 3/H)thymidine incorporation into total cell DNA. These results raise the possibility that EGF or an analogous growth factor is involved in regulation of neural crest cell morphogenesis.

  7. Congenital "self-healing" Langerhans cell histiocytosis (Hashimoto-Pritzker disease): a report of two cases with the same cutaneous manifestations but different clinical course.

    PubMed

    Mandel, Victor Desmond; Ferrari, Chiara; Cesinaro, Anna Maria; Pellacani, Giovanni; Del Forno, Corrado

    2014-12-01

    Congenital self-healing Langerhans cell histiocytosis or Hashimoto-Pritzker disease is a rare condition present at birth or in the neonatal period characterized by small reddish-brown crusted papulonodular lesions. In most cases these lesions are not accompanied by systemic findings and tend to involute spontaneously within weeks or months, but in other cases there may be extracutaneous involvement and/or recurrence of the disease. This emphasizes that the clinical course is variable and a long-term follow-up is mandatory in order to reveal possible systemic involvement. We describe two cases of congenital self-healing Langerhans cell histiocytosis with widespread and very similar cutaneous manifestations but different clinical course. The first patient had multisystemic disease (with lymph nodes, bones, liver and lungs affected) that required systemic therapy. The second patient had cutaneous and bony lesions that resolved spontaneously. We think that the adjective "self-healing" is misleading and should be abandoned. We stress the importance of a complete systemic evaluation and the necessity of a long-term follow-up.

  8. Successful treatment of a case of acute myeloid leukemia following Langerhans cell histiocytosis in an adolescent: a case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Gaixiang; Yang, Min; Huang, Jian; Jin, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare histiocytic disorder of unknown etiopathogenesis. Its clinical presentation is variable and ranges from isolated skin or bone disease to a life-threatening multisystem condition. LCH can occur at any age but is more frequent in the pediatric population. The diagnosis depends on clinical, histopathological and radiographic examination and should be confirmed by immunohistochemical study with CD1a, S100 protein and langerin, three markers used widely for identifying Langerhans cells. Herein, we report an adolescent with acute myeloid leukemia (AML-M2) who was treated just with surgical management alone for LCH. As far as we know, this is the first case that the LCH patient without chemotherapy evolved into AML and was successfully cured. Cooperative studies of large numbers of LCH patients are needed to evaluate a possible association between LCH and acute leukemia, and to identify common risk factors or predisposing agents if such be present. The previously reported cases of LCH concomitant with other hematological disorders are also summarized and described compared with the present case. PMID:25932277

  9. Multifocal Skeletal Tuberculosis Mimicking Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis in a Child: a Case Report With a Long-Term Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Haghighatkhah, Hamidreza; Jafroodi, Yousef; Sanei Taheri, Morteza; Pourghorban, Ramin; Sadeghian Dehkordy, Afarin

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Multifocal skeletal tuberculosis is a rare condition that may masquerade as Langerhans cell histiocytosis, especially in children. Case Presentation: We report a case of multifocal osseous tuberculosis in a 5-year-old female patient admitted to our hospital with a complaint of low back pain but no history of respiratory symptoms or malaise. Radiological findings included vertebra plana and multiple lytic lesions in both the frontal and pelvic bones. An initial diagnosis of Langerhans cell histiocytosis was made based on imaging findings; however, the patient underwent further evaluation for Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and histopathologic findings confirmed the diagnosis of tuberculosis. The patient showed a nearly complete response after receiving a course of anti-tuberculosis drugs. Conclusions: A high index of suspicion is required for the early diagnosis and prompt treatment of patients with osseous tuberculosis. Given the high prevalence of tuberculosis in developing countries, tuberculosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of multifocal lytic lesions and vertebra plana, especially in children. PMID:26744631

  10. Mutual induction of growth factor gene expression by epidermal-dermal cell interaction

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal interactions control epidermal growth and differentiation, but little is known about the mechanisms of this interaction. We have examined the effects of human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (DMEC) and fibroblasts on keratinocytes in conventional (feeder layer) and organotypic cocultures (lifted collagen gels) and demonstrated the induction of paracrine growth factor gene expression. Clonal keratinocyte growth was similarly stimulated in cocultures with irradiated DMEC and fibroblasts as feeder cells. This effect is most probably caused by induction of growth factor expression in cocultured dermal cells. Keratinocytes stimulated mRNA levels for KGF and IL-6 in both mesenchymal cell types and GM-CSF in fibroblasts. The feeder effect could not be replaced by conditioned media or addition of isolated growth factors. In organotypic cocultures with keratinocytes growing on collagen gels (repopulated with dermal cells), a virtually normal epidermis was formed within 7 to 10 d. Keratinocyte proliferation was drastically stimulated by dermal cells (histone 3 mRNA expression and BrdU labeling) which continued to proliferate as well in the gel. Expression of all typical differentiation markers was provoked in the reconstituted epithelium, though with different localization as compared to normal epidermis. Keratins K1 and K10 appeared coexpressed but delayed, reflecting conditions in epidermal hyperplasia. Keratin localization and proliferation were normalized under in vivo conditions, i.e., in surface transplants on nude mice. From these data it is concluded that epidermal homeostasis is in part controlled by complex reciprocally induced paracrine acting factors in concert with cell-cell interactions and extracellular matrix influences. PMID:8320264

  11. Corrective transduction of human epidermal stem cells in laminin-5-dependent junctional epidermolysis bullosa.

    PubMed

    Dellambra, E; Vailly, J; Pellegrini, G; Bondanza, S; Golisano, O; Macchia, C; Zambruno, G; Meneguzzi, G; De Luca, M

    1998-06-10

    Laminin-5 is composed of three distinct polypeptides, alpha3, beta3, and gamma2, which are encoded by three different genes, LAMA3, LAMB3, and LAMC2, respectively. We have isolated epidermal keratinocytes from a patient presenting with a lethal form of junctional epidermolysis bullosa characterized by a homozygous mutation of the LAMB3 gene, which led to complete absence of the beta3 polypeptide. In vitro, beta3-null keratinocytes were unable to synthesize laminin-5 and to assemble hemidesmosomes, maintained the impairment of their adhesive properties, and displayed a decrease of their colony-forming ability. A retroviral construct expressing a human beta3 cDNA was used to transduce primary beta3-null keratinocytes. Clonogenic beta3-null keratinocytes were transduced with an efficiency of 100%. Beta3-transduced keratinocytes were able to synthesize and secrete mature heterotrimeric laminin-5. Gene correction fully restored the keratinocyte adhesion machinery, including the capacity of proper hemidesmosomal assembly, and prevented the loss of the colony-forming ability, suggesting a direct link between adhesion to laminin-5 and keratinocyte proliferative capacity. Clonal analysis demonstrated that holoclones expressed the transgene permanently, suggesting stable correction of epidermal stem cells. Because cultured keratinocytes are used routinely to make autologous grafts for patients suffering from large skin or mucosal defects, the full phenotypic reversion of primary human epidermal stem cells defective for a structural protein opens new perspectives in the long-term treatment of genodermatoses. PMID:9650620

  12. Low calcium culture condition induces mesenchymal cell-like phenotype in normal human epidermal keratinocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Takagi, Ryo; Yamato, Masayuki; Murakami, Daisuke; Sugiyama, Hiroaki; Okano, Teruo

    2011-08-26

    Highlights: {yields} Normal human epidermal keratinocytes serially cultured under low calcium concentration were cytokeratin and vimentin double positive cells. {yields} The human keratinocytes expressed some epithelial stem/progenitor cell makers, mesenchymal cell markers, and markers of epithelial-mesenchymal transition. {yields} Mesenchymal cell-like phenotype in the keratinocytes was suppressed under high-calcium condition. -- Abstract: Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is an important cellular phenomenon in organ developments, cancer invasions, and wound healing, and many types of transformed cell lines are used for investigating for molecular mechanisms of EMT. However, there are few reports for EMT in normal human epithelial cells, which are non-transformed or non-immortalized cells, in vitro. Therefore, normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEK) serially cultured in low-calcium concentration medium (LCM) were used for investigating relations between differentiation and proliferation and mesenchymal-like phenotype in the present study, since long-term cultivation of NHEK is achieved in LCM. Interestingly, NHEK serially cultured in LCM consisted essentially of cytokeratin-vimentin double positive cells (98%), although the NHEK exhibited differentiation under high-calcium culture condition with 3T3 feeder layer. The vimentin expression was suppressed under high-calcium condition. These results may indicate the importance of mesenchymal-like phenotype for serially cultivation of NHEK in vitro.

  13. A minor subset of Batf3-dependent antigen presenting cells in islets of Langerhans is essential for the development of autoimmune diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Ferris, Stephen T.; Carrero, Javier A.; Mohan, James F.; Calderon, Boris; Murphy, Kenneth M.; Unanue, Emil R.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Autoimmune diabetes is characterized by inflammatory infiltration; however the initiating events are poorly understood. We found that the islets of Langerhans in young non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice contained two antigen presenting cell (APC) populations: a major macrophage and a minor CD103+ dendritic cell (DC) population. By four weeks of age, CD4+ T cells entered islets coincident with an increase of CD103+ DCs. In order to examine the role of the CD103+ DCs in diabetes, we examined Batf3-deficient NOD mice that lacked the CD103+ DCs in islets and pancreatic lymph nodes. This led to a lack of autoreactive T cells in islets and, importantly, no incidence of diabetes. Additional examination revealed that presentation of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I epitopes in the pancreatic lymph nodes was absent with a partial impairment of MHC class II presentation. Altogether, this study reveals that CD103+ DCs were essential for autoimmune diabetes development. PMID:25367577

  14. Model system for plant cell biology: GFP imaging in living onion epidermal cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, A.; Wyatt, S.; Tsou, P. L.; Robertson, D.; Allen, N. S.

    1999-01-01

    The ability to visualize organelle localization and dynamics is very useful in studying cellular physiological events. Until recently, this has been accomplished using a variety of staining methods. However, staining can give inaccurate information due to nonspecific staining, diffusion of the stain or through toxic effects. The ability to target green fluorescent protein (GFP) to various organelles allows for specific labeling of organelles in vivo. The disadvantages of GFP thus far have been the time and money involved in developing stable transformants or maintaining cell cultures for transient expression. In this paper, we present a rapid transient expression system using onion epidermal peels. We have localized GFP to various cellular compartments (including the cell wall) to illustrate the utility of this method and to visualize dynamics of these compartments. The onion epidermis has large, living, transparent cells in a monolayer, making them ideal for visualizing GFP. This method is easy and inexpensive, and it allows for testing of new GFP fusion proteins in a living tissue to determine deleterious effects and the ability to express before stable transformants are attempted.

  15. Expression and function of monoacylglycerol lipase in mouse β-cells and human islets of Langerhans.

    PubMed

    Li, Chen; Vilches-Flores, Alonso; Zhao, Min; Amiel, Stephanie A; Jones, Peter M; Persaud, Shanta J

    2012-01-01

    Elements of the endocannabinoid system (ECS) are expressed by islet endocrine cells and activation of CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors regulates insulin secretion from mouse and human β-cells. The current study aimed to investigate the expression and function, in mouse and human β-cells, of monoacylglycerol lipase (MGL), an enzyme that facilitates degradation of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG). We found that MGL mRNA is expressed by MIN6 β-cells, mouse islets, human islets and enriched human islet β-cells, and immunohistochemistry indicated that MGL localisation in human islets is consistent with its expression by some β- and -α-cells. Blockade of MGL activity with the pharmacological inhibitor URB602 led to increased [Ca(2+)](i )and enhanced insulin secretion from MIN6 β-cells, and MGL inhibition also elevated insulin and glucagon secretion from isolated human islets in vitro. These data imply a stimulatory role for endogenous 2-AG in islets that is amplified when its degradation is blocked. PMID:22739267

  16. Functional Langerinhigh-Expressing Langerhans-like Cells Can Arise from CD14highCD16- Human Blood Monocytes in Serum-Free Condition.

    PubMed

    Picarda, Gaëlle; Chéneau, Coraline; Humbert, Jean-Marc; Bériou, Gaëlle; Pilet, Paul; Martin, Jérôme; Duteille, Franck; Perrot, Pierre; Bellier-Waast, Frédérique; Heslan, Michèle; Haspot, Fabienne; Guillon, Fabien; Josien, Regis; Halary, Franck Albert

    2016-05-01

    Langerhans cells (LCs) are epithelial APCs that sense danger signals and in turn trigger specific immune responses. In steady-state, they participate in the maintenance of peripheral tolerance to self-antigens whereas under inflammation LCs efficiently trigger immune responses in secondary lymphoid organs. It has been demonstrated in mice that LC-deprived epithelia are rapidly replenished by short half-life langerin-expressing monocyte-derived LCs (MDLCs). These surrogate LCs are thought to be progressively replaced by langerin(high) LCs arising from self-renewing epithelial precursors of hematopoietic origin. How LCs arise from blood monocytes is not fully understood. Hence, we sought to characterize key factors that induce differentiation of langerin(high)-expressing monocyte-derived Langerhans-like cells. We identified GM-CSF and TGF-β1 as key cytokines to generate langerin(high)-expressing cells but only in serum-free conditions. These cells were shown to express the LC-specific TROP-2 and Axl surface markers and contained Birbeck granules. Surprisingly, E-cadherin was not spontaneously expressed by these cells but required a direct contact with keratinocytes to be stably induced. MDLCs induced stronger allogeneic T cell proliferations but released low amounts of inflammatory cytokines upon TLR stimulation compared with donor-paired monocyte-derived dendritic cells. Immature langerin(high) MDLCs were responsive to MIP-3β/CCL20 and CTAC/CCL27 chemokine stimulations. Finally, we demonstrated that those cells behaved as bona fide LCs when inserted in a three-dimensional rebuilt epithelium by becoming activated upon TLR or UV light stimulations. Collectively, these results prompt us to propose these langerin(high) MDLCs as a relevant model to address LC biology-related questions. PMID:27016604

  17. Modulation of T cell responses to recall antigens presented by Langerhans cells in HIV-discordant identical twins by anti-interleukin (IL)-10 antibodies and IL-12.

    PubMed Central

    Blauvelt, A; Chougnet, C; Shearer, G M; Katz, S I

    1996-01-01

    Decreased antigen (Ag)-specific T cell (TC) proliferation and IL-2 production are detected in all stages of HIV disease. To determine whether dendritic cell dysfunction and/or abnormal cytokine production contribute to HIV-induced immune dysregulation, we studies TC responses to recall Ags (influenza virus and tetanus toxoid) presented by Langerhans cells (LC) in six pairs of HIV-discordant identical twins, and the modulation of these responses by anti-IL-10 (alphaIL-10) mAbs and IL-12. LC from HIV+ twins induced IL-2 comparable to normal LC in cultures containing TC from uninfected twins. In contrast, IL-2 production was markedly decreased in cultures containing TC from HIV+ twins. IL-12 enhanced Ag-specific IL-2 production by TC from two patients with CD4+ counts > 600. In contrast, alphaIL-10 mAbs enhanced IL-2 production in influenza virus-stimulated cultures containing TC from two patients with CD4+ counts < 20. Thus, these findings suggest that immunologic dysfunction of dendritic cells does not contribute to impaired secondary immune responses in HIV+ individuals. Although few patients were studied, partial immune reconstitution in vitro, as demonstrated here, may help to predict those individuals who might benefit from cytokines or antibodies against cytokines as immunotherapy for HIV disease. PMID:8617889

  18. Communication is key: Reducing DEK1 activity reveals a link between cell-cell contacts and epidermal cell differentiation status.

    PubMed

    Galletti, Roberta; Ingram, Gwyneth C

    2015-01-01

    Plant epidermis development requires not only the initial acquisition of tissue identity, but also the ability to differentiate specific cell types over time and to maintain these differentiated states throughout the plant life. To set-up and maintain differentiation, plants activate specific transcriptional programs. Interfering with these programs can prevent differentiation and/or force differentiated cells to lose their identity and re-enter a proliferative state. We have recently shown that the Arabidopsis Defective Kernel 1 (DEK1) protein is required both for the differentiation of epidermal cells and for the maintenance of their fully differentiated state. Defects in DEK1 activity lead to a deregulation of the expression of epidermis-specific differentiation-promoting HD-ZIP IV transcription factors. Here we propose a working model in which DEK1, by maintaining cell-cell contacts, and thus communication between neighboring cells, influences HD-ZIP IV gene expression and epidermis differentiation. PMID:27064205

  19. A novel endothelial cell surface receptor tyrosine kinase with extracellular epidermal growth factor homology domains.

    PubMed Central

    Partanen, J; Armstrong, E; Mäkelä, T P; Korhonen, J; Sandberg, M; Renkonen, R; Knuutila, S; Huebner, K; Alitalo, K

    1992-01-01

    Endothelial cell surfaces play key roles in several important physiological and pathological processes such as blood clotting, angiogenic responses, and inflammation. Here we describe the cloning and characterization of tie, a novel type of human endothelial cell surface receptor tyrosine kinase. The extracellular domain of the predicted tie protein product has an exceptional multidomain structure consisting of a cluster of three epidermal growth factor homology motifs embedded between two immunoglobulinlike loops, which are followed by three fibronectin type III repeats next to the transmembrane region. Additionally, a cDNA form lacking the first of the three epidermal growth factor homology domains was isolated, suggesting that alternative splicing creates different tie-type receptors. Cells transfected with tie cDNA expression vector produce glycosylated polypeptides of 117 kDa which are reactive to antisera raised against the tie carboxy terminus. The tie gene was located in chromosomal region 1p33 to 1p34. Expression of the tie gene appeared to be restricted in some cell lines; large amounts of tie mRNA were detected in endothelial cell lines and in some myeloid leukemia cell lines with erythroid and megakaryoblastoid characteristics. In addition, mRNA in situ studies further indicated the endothelial expression of the tie gene. The tie receptor tyrosine kinase may have evolved for multiple protein-protein interactions, possibly including cell adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Images PMID:1312667

  20. On the mechanism of callose synthesis induction by metal ions in onion epidermal cells.

    PubMed

    Kartusch, R

    2003-03-01

    Metal ions induce the synthesis of callose in Allium cepa epidermal cells. Callose is deposited as single knoblike local accumulations, aggregates of knobs, or furrowed clusters tightly attached to the cell wall. The most effective metal is copper, it induces callose formation at micromolar concentrations. Agents acting on inositolphosphate metabolism, phospholipase inhibitors, calcium channel inhibitors, modulators of cytoplasmic calcium, or receptor antagonists influence callose synthesis. It is concluded that metal ions, especially Cu(2+), initiate a signal transduction chain by activation of phospholipases and generation of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate, and that callose synthesis is a cellular defence reaction caused by the disturbance of intracellular calcium homeostasis. PMID:12664286

  1. Cell Surface Epidermal Growth Factor Receptors Increase Src and c-Cbl Activity and Receptor Ubiquitylation*

    PubMed Central

    Parks, Eileen E.; Ceresa, Brian P.

    2014-01-01

    There is an established role for the endocytic pathway in regulation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling to downstream effectors. However, because ligand-mediated EGFR endocytosis utilizes multiple “moving parts,” dissecting the spatial versus temporal contributions has been challenging. Blocking all endocytic trafficking can have unintended effects on other receptors as well as give rise to compensatory mechanisms, both of which impact interpretation of EGFR signaling. To overcome these limitations, we used epidermal growth factor (EGF) conjugated to polystyrene beads (EGF beads). EGF beads simultaneously activate the EGFR while blocking its endocytosis and allow analysis of EGFR signaling from the plasma membrane. Human telomerase immortalized corneal epithelial (hTCEpi) cells were used to model normal epithelial cell biology. In hTCEpi cells, both cell surface and intracellular EGFRs exhibited dose-dependent increases in effector activity after 15 min of ligand stimulation, but only the serine phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) was statistically significant when accounting for receptor phosphorylation. However, over time with physiological levels of receptor phosphorylation, cell surface receptors produced either enhanced or sustained mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK), Casitas B-lineage lymphoma (c-Cbl), and the pro-oncogene Src activity. These increases in effector communication by cell surface receptors resulted in an increase in EGFR ubiquitylation with sustained ligand incubation. Together, these data indicate that spatial regulation of EGFR signaling may be an important regulatory mechanism in receptor down-regulation. PMID:25074934

  2. Vanadate induces apoptosis in epidermal JB6 P+ cells via hydrogen peroxide-mediated reactions.

    PubMed

    Ye, J; Ding, M; Leonard, S S; Robinson, V A; Millecchia, L; Zhang, X; Castranova, V; Vallyathan, V; Shi, X

    1999-12-01

    Apoptosis is a physiological mechanism for the control of DNA integrity in mammalian cells. Vanadium induces both DNA damage and apoptosis. It is suggested that vanadium-induced apoptosis serves to eliminate DNA-damaged cells. This study is designed to clarify a role of reactive oxygen species in the mechanism of apoptosis induced by vanadium. We established apoptosis model with murine epidermal JB6 P+ cells in the response to vanadium stimulation. Apoptosis was detected by a cell death ELISA assay and morphological analysis. The result shows that apoptosis induced by vanadate is dose-dependent, reaching its saturation level at a concentration of 100 microM vanadate. Vanadyl (IV) can also induce apoptosis albeit with lesser potency. A role of reactive oxygen species was analyzed by multiple reagents including specific scavengers of different reactive oxygen species. The result shows that vanadate-induced apoptosis is enhanced by NADPH, superoxide dismutase and sodium formate, but was inhibited by catalase and deferoxamine. Cells exposed to vanadium consume more molecular oxygen and at the same time, produce more H2O2 as measured by the change in fluorescence of scopoletin in the presence of horseradish peroxidase. This change in oxygen consumption and H2O2 production is enhanced by NADPH. Taken together, these results show that vanadate induces apoptosis in epidermal cells and H2O2 induced by vanadate plays a major role in this process. PMID:10705990

  3. Mucosal Langerhans Cells Promote Differentiation of Th17 Cells in a Murine Model of Periodontitis but Are Not Required for Porphyromonas gingivalis–Driven Alveolar Bone Destruction

    PubMed Central

    Bittner-Eddy, Peter D.; Fischer, Lori A.; Kaplan, Daniel H.; Thieu, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    Periodontitis is a chronic oral inflammatory disease affecting one in five individuals that can lead to tooth loss. CD4+ Th cells activated by a microbial biofilm are thought to contribute to the destruction of alveolar bone surrounding teeth by influencing osteoclastogenesis through IL-17A and receptor activator for NF-κB ligand effects. The relative roles of mucosal Ag presentation cells in directing Th cell immune responses against oral pathogens and their contribution to destruction of alveolar bone remain unknown. We tested the contribution of mucosal Langerhans cells (LCs) to alveolar bone homeostasis in mice following oral colonization with a well-characterized human periodontal pathogen, Porphyromonas gingivalis. We found that oral mucosal LCs did not protect from or exacerbate crestal alveolar bone destruction but were responsible for promoting differentiation of Th17 cells specific to P. gingivalis. In mice lacking LCs the Th17 response was suppressed and a Th1 response predominated. Bypassing LCs with systemic immunization of P. gingivalis resulted in a predominantly P. gingivalis–specific Th1 response regardless of whether LCs were present. Interestingly, we find that in vivo clonal expansion of P. gingivalis–specific Th cells and induced regulatory T cells does not depend on mucosal LCs. Furthermore, destruction of crestal alveolar bone induced by P. gingivalis colonization occurred regardless of the presence of mucosal LCs or P. gingivalis–specific Th17 cells. Our data indicate that both LCs and Th17 cells are redundant in contributing to alveolar bone destruction in a murine model of periodontitis. PMID:27402698

  4. Ultrastructure of the Epidermal Cell Wall and Cuticle of Tomato Fruit (Solanum lycopersicum L.) during Development1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Segado, Patricia; Domínguez, Eva

    2016-01-01

    The epidermis plays a pivotal role in plant development and interaction with the environment. However, it is still poorly understood, especially its outer epidermal wall: a singular wall covered by a cuticle. Changes in the cuticle and cell wall structures are important to fully understand their functions. In this work, an ultrastructure and immunocytochemical approach was taken to identify changes in the cuticle and the main components of the epidermal cell wall during tomato fruit development. A thin and uniform procuticle was already present before fruit set. During cell division, the inner side of the procuticle showed a globular structure with vesicle-like particles in the cell wall close to the cuticle. Transition between cell division and elongation was accompanied by a dramatic increase in cuticle thickness, which represented more than half of the outer epidermal wall, and the lamellate arrangement of the non-cutinized cell wall. Changes in this non-cutinized outer wall during development showed specific features not shared with other cell walls. The coordinated nature of the changes observed in the cuticle and the epidermal cell wall indicate a deep interaction between these two supramolecular structures. Hence, the cuticle should be interpreted within the context of the outer epidermal wall. PMID:26668335

  5. Epidermal growth factor increases LRF/Pokemon expression in human prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Himanshu; Aggarwal, Anshu; Agrawal, Devendra K

    2011-10-01

    Leukemia/lymphoma related factor/POK erythroid myeloid ontogenic factor (LRF/Pokemon) is a member of the POK family of proteins that promotes oncogenesis in several forms of cancer. Recently, we found higher LRF expression in human breast and prostate carcinomas compared to the corresponding normal tissues. The aim of this study was to examine the regulation of LRF expression in human prostate cells. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) and its receptors mediate several tumorigenic cascades that regulate cell differentiation, proliferation, migration and survival of prostate cancer cells. There was significantly higher level of LRF expression in the nucleus of LNCaP and PC-3 cells than RWPE-1 cells. A significant increase in LRF expression was observed with increasing doses of EGF in more aggressive and androgen-sensitive prostate cancer cells suggesting that EGF signaling pathway is critical in upregulating the expression of LRF/Pokemon to promote oncogenesis. PMID:21640721

  6. Recycling of epidermal growth factor in a human pancreatic carcinoma cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Korc, M.; Magun, B.E.

    1985-09-01

    PANC-1 human pancreatic carcinoma cells readily bound and internalized /sup 125/I-labeled epidermal growth factor (EGF). Bound /sup 125/I-labeled EGF was then partially processed to a number of high molecular weight acidic species. Percoll gradient centrifugation of cell homogenates indicated that the majority of /sup 125/I activity localized to several intracellular vesicular compartments. Both intact EGF and its processed species were subsequently released into the incubation medium. A major portion of the released radioactivity was capable of rebinding to the cell. Only a small amount of bound /sup 125/I-labeled EGF was degraded to low molecular weight products, and this degradation was completely blocked by methylamine. These findings suggest that in PANC-1 cells, bound EGF undergoes only limited processing. Both intact EGF and its major processed species bypass the cellular degradative pathways, are slowly released from the cell, and then rebind to the cell.

  7. Basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors and epidermal cell fate determination in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hongtao; Li, Xia; Ma, Ligeng

    2012-01-01

    Cell fate determination is an important process in multicellular organisms. Plant epidermis is a readily-accessible, well-used model for the study of cell fate determination. Our knowledge of cell fate determination is growing steadily due to genetic and molecular analyses of root hairs, trichomes, and stomata, which are derived from the epidermal cells of roots and aerial tissues. Studies have shown that a large number of factors are involved in the establishment of these cell types, especially members of the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) superfamily, which is an important family of transcription factors. In this mini-review, we focus on the role of bHLH transcription factors in cell fate determination in Arabidopsis. PMID:23073001

  8. Evidence that the epidermal growth factor receptor on host cells confers reovirus infection efficiency.

    PubMed

    Strong, J E; Tang, D; Lee, P W

    1993-11-01

    Reovirus binds to multiple sialoglycoproteins on the host cell surface. In an attempt to probe additional specific determinants that dictate host cell susceptibility to reovirus infection, we found that two mouse cell lines (NR6 and B82) previously shown to express no endogenous epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptors were relatively resistant to reovirus infection, whereas the same cell lines transfected with the gene encoding the EGF receptor manifested significantly higher susceptibility as determined by induction of cytopathic effects, viral protein synthesis, and plaque titration. This enhancement of infection efficiency requires a functional EGF receptor since it was not observed in cells expressing a mutated (kinase-inactive) EGF receptor. The observed difference in infection efficiency is not due to differences in virus binding or internalization. These studies suggest that the reovirus infection process is closely coupled to the EGF receptor-mediated cell signal transduction pathway.

  9. Epidermal growth factor increases LRF/Pokemon expression in human prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Himanshu; Aggarwal, Anshu; Agrawal, Devendra K

    2011-10-01

    Leukemia/lymphoma related factor/POK erythroid myeloid ontogenic factor (LRF/Pokemon) is a member of the POK family of proteins that promotes oncogenesis in several forms of cancer. Recently, we found higher LRF expression in human breast and prostate carcinomas compared to the corresponding normal tissues. The aim of this study was to examine the regulation of LRF expression in human prostate cells. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) and its receptors mediate several tumorigenic cascades that regulate cell differentiation, proliferation, migration and survival of prostate cancer cells. There was significantly higher level of LRF expression in the nucleus of LNCaP and PC-3 cells than RWPE-1 cells. A significant increase in LRF expression was observed with increasing doses of EGF in more aggressive and androgen-sensitive prostate cancer cells suggesting that EGF signaling pathway is critical in upregulating the expression of LRF/Pokemon to promote oncogenesis.

  10. Surface position, not signaling from surrounding maternal tissues, specifies aleurone epidermal cell fate in maize.

    PubMed

    Gruis, Darren Fred; Guo, Hena; Selinger, David; Tian, Qing; Olsen, Odd-Arne

    2006-07-01

    Maize (Zea mays) endosperm consists of an epidermal-like surface layer of aleurone cells, an underlying body of starchy endosperm cells, and a basal layer of transfer cells. To determine whether surrounding maternal tissues perform a role in specifying endosperm cell fates, a maize endosperm organ culture technique was established whereby the developing endosperm is completely removed from surrounding maternal tissues. Using cell type-specific fluorescence markers, we show that aleurone cell fate specification occurs exclusively in response to surface position and does not require specific, continued maternal signal input. The starchy endosperm and aleurone cell fates are freely interchangeable throughout the lifespan of the endosperm, with internalized aleurone cells converting to starchy endosperm cells and with starchy endosperm cells that become positioned at the surface converting to aleurone cells. In contrast to aleurone and starchy endosperm cells, transfer cells fail to develop in in vitro-grown endosperm, supporting earlier indications that maternal tissue interaction is required to fully differentiate this cell type. Several parameters confirm that the maize endosperm organ cultures described herein retain the main developmental features of in planta endosperm, including fidelity of aleurone mutant phenotypes, temporal and spatial control of cell type-specific fluorescent markers, specificity of cell type transcripts, and control of mitotic cell divisions.

  11. Effect of Ca2+ on programmed death of guard and epidermal cells of pea leaves.

    PubMed

    Kiselevsky, D B; Kuznetsova, Yu E; Vasil'ev, L A; Lobysheva, N V; Zinovkin, R A; Nesov, A V; Shestak, A A; Samuilov, V D

    2010-05-01

    The effect of Ca2+ on programmed death of guard cells (GC) and epidermal cells (EC) determined from destruction of the cell nucleus was investigated in epidermis of pea leaves. Ca2+ at concentrations of 1-100 microM increased and at a concentration of 1 mM prevented the CN(-)-induced destruction of the nucleus in GC, disrupting the permeability barrier of GC plasma membrane for propidium iodide (PI). Ca2+ at concentrations of 0.1-1 mM enhanced drastically the number of EC nuclei stained by PI in epidermis treated with chitosan, an inducer of programmed cell death. The internucleosomal DNA fragmentation caused by CN(-) was suppressed by 2 mM Ca2+ on 6 h incubation, but fragmentation was stimulated on more prolonged treatment (16 h). Presumably, the disruption of the permeability barrier of plasma membrane for PI is not a sign of necrosis in plant cells. Quinacrine and diphenylene iodonium at 50 microM concentration prevented GC death induced by CN(-) or CN(-) + 0.1 mM Ca2+ but had no influence on respiration and photosynthetic O2 evolution in pea leaf slices. The generation of reactive oxygen species determined from 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein fluorescence was promoted by Ca2+ in epidermal peels from pea leaves.

  12. Response of mouse epidermal cells to single doses of heavy-particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leith, J. T.; Schilling, W. A.; Welch, G. P.

    1972-01-01

    The survival of mouse epidermal cells to heavy-particles has been studied In Vivo by the Withers clone technique. Experiments with accelerated helium, lithium and carbon ions were performed. The survival curve for the helium ion irradiations used a modified Bragg curve method with a maximum tissue penetration of 465 microns, and indicated that the dose needed to reduce the original cell number to 1 surviving cell/square centimeters was 1525 rads with a D sub o of 95 rads. The LET at the basal cell layer was 28.6 keV per micron. Preliminary experiments with lithium and carbon used treatment doses of 1250 rads with LET's at the surface of the skin of 56 and 193 keV per micron respectively. Penetration depths in skin were 350 and 530 microns for the carbon and lithium ions whose Bragg curves were unmodified. Results indicate a maximum RBE for skin of about 2 using the skin cloning technique. An attempt has been made to relate the epidermal cell survival curve to mortality of the whole animal for helium ions.

  13. Whole organ, venation and epidermal cell morphological variations are correlated in the leaves of Arabidopsis mutants.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Pérez, José Manuel; Rubio-Díaz, Silvia; Dhondt, Stijn; Hernández-Romero, Diana; Sánchez-Soriano, Joaquín; Beemster, Gerrit T S; Ponce, María Rosa; Micol, José Luis

    2011-12-01

    Despite the large number of genes known to affect leaf shape or size, we still have a relatively poor understanding of how leaf morphology is established. For example, little is known about how cell division and cell expansion are controlled and coordinated within a growing leaf to eventually develop into a laminar organ of a definite size. To obtain a global perspective of the cellular basis of variations in leaf morphology at the organ, tissue and cell levels, we studied a collection of 111 non-allelic mutants with abnormally shaped and/or sized leaves, which broadly represent the mutational variations in Arabidopsis thaliana leaf morphology not associated with lethality. We used image-processing techniques on these mutants to quantify morphological parameters running the gamut from the palisade mesophyll and epidermal cells to the venation, whole leaf and rosette levels. We found positive correlations between epidermal cell size and leaf area, which is consistent with long-standing Avery's hypothesis that the epidermis drives leaf growth. In addition, venation parameters were positively correlated with leaf area, suggesting that leaf growth and vein patterning share some genetic controls. Positional cloning of the genes affected by the studied mutations will eventually establish functional links between genotypes, molecular functions, cellular parameters and leaf phenotypes.

  14. A GFP-MAP4 reporter gene for visualizing cortical microtubule rearrangements in living epidermal cells

    PubMed

    Marc; Granger; Brincat; Fisher; Kao; McCubbin; Cyr

    1998-11-01

    Microtubules influence morphogenesis by forming distinct geometrical arrays in the cell cortex, which in turn affect the deposition of cellulose microfibrils. Although many chemical and physical factors affect microtubule orientation, it is unclear how cortical microtubules in elongating cells maintain their ordered transverse arrays and how they reorganize into new geometries. To visualize these reorientations in living cells, we constructed a microtubule reporter gene by fusing the microtubule binding domain of the mammalian microtubule-associated protein 4 (MAP4) gene with the green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene, and transient expression of the recombinant protein in epidermal cells of fava bean was induced. The reporter protein decorates microtubules in vivo and binds to microtubules in vitro. Confocal microscopy and time-course analysis of labeled cortical arrays along the outer epidermal wall revealed the lengthening, shortening, and movement of microtubules; localized microtubule reorientations; and global microtubule reorganizations. The global microtubule orientation in some cells fluctuates about the transverse axis and may be a result of a cyclic self-correcting mechanism to maintain a net transverse orientation during cellular elongation. PMID:9811799

  15. High-affinity immunoglobulin E receptor (Fc epsilon RI)-bearing eosinophils, mast cells, macrophages and Langerhans' cells in allergen-induced late-phase cutaneous reactions in atopic subjects.

    PubMed Central

    Ying, S; Barata, L T; Meng, Q; Grant, J A; Barkans, J; Durham, S R; Kay, A B

    1998-01-01

    We have used in situ hybridization (ISH) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) to investigate the kinetics of the expression for Fc epsilon RI mRNA (alpha-, beta- and gamma-chains), the alpha-chain protein product, as well as the phenotype of the mRNA- or protein-positive cells in allergen-induced late-phase skin reactions in atopic subjects. Compared with diluent controls, there were significant increases in the total number of mRNA+ cells for the alpha-, beta- and gamma-chains for Fc epsilon RI at all time-points (6, 24 and 48 hr) after allergen challenge (P < 0.01). By double IHC/ISH significant increases in alpha-, beta- and gamma-chain mRNA+ macrophages, eosinophils, mast cells and CD1a+ cells were also observed after allergen challenge (P < 0.05). The distribution of Fc epsilon RI subunit (alpha-, beta-, or gamma-chain) mRNA+ co-localization was CD68+ macrophages (42-47%), EG2+ eosinophils (33-39%), tryptase+ mast cells (5-11%) and CD1a+ Langerhans' cells (2-4%). Using single IHC, significant increases in the total number of Fc epsilon RI protein+ cells (P < 0.01) were observed 24 and 48 hr after allergen challenge. Double IHC showed that the distribution of Fc epsilon RI+ cells was tryptase+ mast cells (33%), CD68+ macrophages (36%), EG2+ eosinophils (20%), CD1a+ Langerhans' cells (4%) and unidentified cells (7%), at the 24-hr allergen-challenged sites. These observations suggest that the cutaneous late-phase reaction in man is associated with up-regulation of Fc epsilon RI on eosinophils, macrophages, mast cells and Langerhans' cells. Images Figure 6 PMID:9616380

  16. Characterization of powdered epidermal vaccine delivery with multiphoton microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulholland, William J.; Kendall, Mark A. F.; White, Nick; Bellhouse, Brian J.

    2004-11-01

    Multiphoton laser scanning microscopy (MPLSM) has been adapted to non-invasively characterize hand-held powdered epidermal vaccine delivery technology. A near infrared femtosecond pulsed laser, wavelength at approximately 920 nm, was used to evoke autofluorescence of endogenous fluorophores within ex vivo porcine and human skin. Consequently, sub cellular resolution three-dimensional images of stratum corneum and viable epidermal cells were acquired and utilized to observe the morphological deformation of these cells as a result of micro-particle penetration. Furthermore, the distributional pattern of micro-particles within the specific skin target volume was quantified by measuring the penetration depth as revealed by serial optical sections in the axial plane obtained with MPLSM. Additionally, endogenous fluorescence contrast images acquired at the supra-basal layer reveal cellular structures that may pertain to dendritic Langerhans cells of the epidermis. These results show that MPLSM has advantages over conventional histological approaches, since three-dimensional functional images with sub-cellular spatial resolution to depths beyond the epidermis can be acquired non-invasively. Accordingly, we propose that MPLSM is ideal for investigations of powdered epidermal vaccine delivery.

  17. Epidermal growth factor receptor subunit locations determined in hydrated cells with environmental scanning electron microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Peckys, Diana B.; Baudoin, Jean-Pierre; Eder, Magdalena; Werner, Ulf; de Jonge, Niels

    2013-01-01

    Imaging single epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFR) in intact cells is presently limited by the available microscopy methods. Environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) of whole cells in hydrated state in combination with specific labeling with gold nanoparticles was used to localize activated EGFRs in the plasma membranes of COS7 and A549 cells. The use of a scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) detector yielded a spatial resolution of 3 nm, sufficient to identify the locations of individual EGFR dimer subunits. The sizes and distribution of dimers and higher order clusters of EGFRs were determined. The distance between labels bound to dimers amounted to 19 nm, consistent with a molecular model. A fraction of the EGFRs was found in higher order clusters with sizes ranging from 32–56 nm. ESEM can be used for quantitative whole cell screening studies of membrane receptors, and for the study of nanoparticle-cell interactions in general. PMID:24022088

  18. Epidermal growth factor receptor subunit locations determined in hydrated cells with environmental scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Peckys, Diana B; Baudoin, Jean-Pierre; Eder, Magdalena; Werner, Ulf; de Jonge, Niels

    2013-01-01

    Imaging single epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFR) in intact cells is presently limited by the available microscopy methods. Environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) of whole cells in hydrated state in combination with specific labeling with gold nanoparticles was used to localize activated EGFRs in the plasma membranes of COS7 and A549 cells. The use of a scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) detector yielded a spatial resolution of 3 nm, sufficient to identify the locations of individual EGFR dimer subunits. The sizes and distribution of dimers and higher order clusters of EGFRs were determined. The distance between labels bound to dimers amounted to 19 nm, consistent with a molecular model. A fraction of the EGFRs was found in higher order clusters with sizes ranging from 32-56 nm. ESEM can be used for quantitative whole cell screening studies of membrane receptors, and for the study of nanoparticle-cell interactions in general.

  19. Transdifferentiation of Umbilical Cord-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Into Epidermal-Like Cells by the Mimicking Skin Microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Chen, Deyun; Hao, Haojie; Tong, Chuan; Liu, Jiejie; Dong, Liang; Ti, Dongdong; Hou, Qian; Liu, Huiling; Han, Weidong; Fu, Xiaobing

    2015-06-01

    Human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs) are multipotent, primitive, and have been widely used for skin tissue engineering. Their transdifferentiation is determined by the local microenvironment. In this study, we investigated the potential epidermal differentiation of UC-MSCs and the formation of epidermis substitutes in a 3-dimensional (3D) microenvironment, which was fabricated by UC-MSCs embedded into collagen-chitosan scaffolds (CCSs) combined with an air-liquid interface (ALI) culture system. Using fluorescence microscope, we observed that UC-MSCs were spindle-shaped and evenly distributed in the scaffold. Methyl thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide assay and Live/Dead assay indicated that the CCSs have good biocompatibility with UC-MSCs. Immunohistochemistry and western blotting assay showed that UC-MSCs on the surface of the CCSs were positive for the epidermal markers cytokeratin 19 and involucrin at 14 days. In addition, hematoxylin-eosin staining indicated that multilayered epidermis substitutes were established. The constructed epidermis substitutes were applied to treat full-thickness wounds in rats and proved to promote wound healing. In conclusion, manipulating the 3D microenvironment is a novel method for inducing the epidermal differentiation of MSCs to engineer epidermal substitutes, which provides an alternative strategy for skin tissue engineering. PMID:25700709

  20. IL-31-Driven Skin Remodeling Involves Epidermal Cell Proliferation and Thickening That Lead to Impaired Skin-Barrier Function

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Brijendra; Jegga, Anil G.; Shanmukhappa, Kumar S.; Edukulla, Ramakrishna; Khurana, Gurjit H.; Medvedovic, Mario; Dillon, Stacey R.; Madala, Satish K.

    2016-01-01

    Interleukin-31 (IL-31) is a type 2 helper T-cell-derived cytokine that has recently been shown to cause severe inflammation and tissue remodeling in multiple chronic diseases of the skin and lungs. IL-31 is upregulated in allergic and inflammatory diseases, including atopic dermatitis, asthma, cutaneous T-cell lymphomas, and allergic rhinitis, as well as autoimmune diseases such as systemic erythematosus. Overexpression of IL-31 in T cells causes severe inflammation, with histological features similar to skin lesions of patients with atopic dermatitis. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in IL31-driven pathological remodeling in skin diseases remain largely unknown. Here, we studied the role of IL-31 in skin damage as a result of intradermal administration of recombinant IL-31 into mice. Notably, IL-31 was sufficient to increase epidermal basal-cell proliferation and thickening of the epidermal skin layer. Our findings demonstrate a progressive increase in transepidermal water loss with chronic administration of IL-31 into the skin. Further, analysis of the skin transcriptome indicates a significant increase in the transcripts involved in epidermal-cell proliferation, epidermal thickening, and mechanical integrity. In summary, our findings demonstrate an important role for IL-31 signaling in epidermal cell proliferation and thickening that together may lead to impaired skin-barrier function in pathological remodeling of the skin. PMID:27556734

  1. IL-31-Driven Skin Remodeling Involves Epidermal Cell Proliferation and Thickening That Lead to Impaired Skin-Barrier Function.

    PubMed

    Singh, Brijendra; Jegga, Anil G; Shanmukhappa, Kumar S; Edukulla, Ramakrishna; Khurana, Gurjit H; Medvedovic, Mario; Dillon, Stacey R; Madala, Satish K

    2016-01-01

    Interleukin-31 (IL-31) is a type 2 helper T-cell-derived cytokine that has recently been shown to cause severe inflammation and tissue remodeling in multiple chronic diseases of the skin and lungs. IL-31 is upregulated in allergic and inflammatory diseases, including atopic dermatitis, asthma, cutaneous T-cell lymphomas, and allergic rhinitis, as well as autoimmune diseases such as systemic erythematosus. Overexpression of IL-31 in T cells causes severe inflammation, with histological features similar to skin lesions of patients with atopic dermatitis. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in IL31-driven pathological remodeling in skin diseases remain largely unknown. Here, we studied the role of IL-31 in skin damage as a result of intradermal administration of recombinant IL-31 into mice. Notably, IL-31 was sufficient to increase epidermal basal-cell proliferation and thickening of the epidermal skin layer. Our findings demonstrate a progressive increase in transepidermal water loss with chronic administration of IL-31 into the skin. Further, analysis of the skin transcriptome indicates a significant increase in the transcripts involved in epidermal-cell proliferation, epidermal thickening, and mechanical integrity. In summary, our findings demonstrate an important role for IL-31 signaling in epidermal cell proliferation and thickening that together may lead to impaired skin-barrier function in pathological remodeling of the skin. PMID:27556734

  2. Sunscreens and T4N5 liposomes differ in their ability to protect against ultraviolet-induced sunburn cell formation, alterations of dendritic epidermal cells, and local suppression of contact hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Wolf, P; Cox, P; Yarosh, D B; Kripke, M L

    1995-02-01

    Exposure of skin to ultraviolet (UV) radiation can lead to diverse biologic effects, including inflammation, sunburn cell formation, alterations of cutaneous immune cells, and impaired induction of contact hypersensitivity responses. The molecular mechanisms of these UV-induced effects are not completely understood. We investigated the ability of sunscreens and liposomes containing the DNA excision repair enzyme T4 endonuclease V to prevent these effects of UV radiation. The use of T4N5 liposomes, which increase the repair of cyclobutyl pyrimidine dimers, provides an approach for assessing the role of DNA damage in the effects of UV radiation on the skin. Exposing C3H mice to 500 mJ/cm2 UVB radiation from FS40 sunlamps resulted in skin edema, sunburn cell formation, and morphologic alterations and decreased numbers of Langerhans cells and Thy-1+ dendritic epidermal T cells. In addition, the induction of contact hypersensitivity after application of 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene on UV-irradiated skin was diminished by 80%. Applying sunscreens containing octyl-N-dimethyl-p-aminobenzoate, 2-ethylhexyl-p-methoxycinnamate, or benzophenone-3 before this dose of UV irradiation gave nearly complete protection against all of these effects of UV irradiation. In contrast, topical application of T4N5 liposomes after UV irradiation had no effect on UV-induced skin edema and only partially protected against sunburn cell formation and local suppression of contact hypersensitivity, although its ability to protect against alterations in dendritic immune cells was comparable to that of the sunscreens. These results suggest that DNA damage is involved in only some of the local effects of UV radiation on the skin. In addition, T4N5 liposomes may be a useful adjunct to sunscreens because they can reduce some of the deleterious effects of UV radiation on skin even after a sunburn has been initiated. PMID:7829886

  3. Islets of Langerhans from prohormone convertase-2 knockout mice show α-cell hyperplasia and tumorigenesis with elevated α-cell neogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Huw B; Reens, Jaimini; Brocklehurst, Simon R; Betts, Catherine J; Bickerton, Sue; Bigley, Alison L; Jenkins, Richard P; Whalley, Nicky M; Morgan, Derrick; Smith, David M

    2014-01-01

    Antagonism of the effects of glucagon as an adjunct therapy with other glucose-lowering drugs in the chronic treatment of diabetes has been suggested to aggressively control blood glucose levels. Antagonism of glucagon effects, by targeting glucagon secretion or disabling the glucagon receptor, is associated with α-cell hyperplasia. We evaluated the influence of total glucagon withdrawal on islets of Langerhans using prohormone convertase-2 knockout mice (PC2-ko), in which α-cell hyperplasia is present from a young age and persists throughout life, in order to understand whether or not sustained glucagon deficit would lead to islet tumorigenesis. PC2-ko and wild-type (WT) mice were maintained drug-free, and cohorts of these groups sampled at 3, 12 and 18 months for plasma biochemical and morphological (histological, immunohistochemical, electron microscopical and image analytical) assessments. WT mice showed no islet tumours up to termination of the study, but PC2-ko animals displayed marked changes in islet morphology from α-cell hypertrophy/hyperplasia/atypical hyperplasia, to adenomas and carcinomas, these latter being first encountered at 6–8 months. Islet hyperplasias and tumours primarily consisted of α-cells associated to varying degrees with other islet endocrine cell types. In addition to substantial increases in islet neoplasia, increased α-cell neogenesis associated primarily with pancreatic duct(ule)s was present. We conclude that absolute blockade of the glucagon signal results in tumorigenesis and that the PC2-ko mouse represents a valuable model for investigation of islet tumours and pancreatic ductal neogenesis. PMID:24456331

  4. Targeting epidermal growth factor receptor for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: still lost in translation?

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Christopher H.; Saba, Nabil F.

    2016-01-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is preferentially expressed in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), and is a promising therapeutic target. Yet other than cetuximab, no agent targeting EGFR has been approved for this disease, and none has shown benefit over the standard of care. Several randomized trials of antibody and small molecule agents have found no new indication for these agents, despite their initial promise. In this review, we examine the major clinical evidence and discuss potential future developments of translational science in this area, including use of these agents in risk-stratified subgroups, inhibition of downstream/parallel targets, and combination with immunotherapy. PMID:27004227

  5. Three-Dimensional Analysis of the Effect of Epidermal Growth Factor on Cell-Cell Adhesion in Epithelial Cell Clusters

    PubMed Central

    Notbohm, J.; Kim, J.-H.; Asthagiri, A.R.; Ravichandran, G.

    2012-01-01

    The effect that growth factors such as epidermal growth factor (EGF) have on cell-cell adhesion is of interest in the study of cellular processes such as epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Because cell-cell adhesions cannot be measured directly, we use three-dimensional traction force microscopy to measure the tractions applied by clusters of MCF-10A cells to a compliant substrate beneath them before and after stimulating the cells with EGF. To better interpret the results, a finite element model, which simulates a cluster of individual cells adhered to one another and to the substrate with linear springs, is developed to better understand the mechanical interaction between the cells in the experiments. The experiments and simulations show that the cluster of cells acts collectively as a single unit, indicating that cell-cell adhesion remains strong before and after stimulation with EGF. In addition, the experiments and model emphasize the importance of three-dimensional measurements and analysis in these experiments. PMID:22455915

  6. In Situ Measurement of Epidermal Cell Turgor, Leaf Water Potential, and Gas Exchange in Tradescantia virginiana L. 1

    PubMed Central

    Shackel, Kenneth A.; Brinckmann, Enno

    1985-01-01

    A combined system has been developed in which epidermal cell turgor, leaf water potential, and gas exchange were determined for transpiring leaves of Tradescantia virginiana L. Uniform and stable values of turgor were observed in epidermal cells (stomatal complex cells were not studied) under stable environmental conditions for both upper and lower epidermises. The changes in epidermal cell turgor that were associated with changes in leaf transpiration were larger than the changes in leaf water potential, indicating the presence of transpirationally induced within-leaf water potential gradients. Estimates of 3 to 5 millimoles per square meter per second per megapascal were obtained for the value of within-leaf hydraulic conductivity. Step changes in atmospheric humidity caused rapid changes in epidermal cell turgor with little or no initial change in stomatal conductance, indicating little direct relation between stomatal humidity response and epidermal water status. The significance of within-leaf water potential gradients to measurements of plant water potential and to current hypotheses regarding stomatal response to humidity is discussed. PMID:16664210

  7. Role of DNA endoreduplication, lipotubuloids, and gibberellic acid in epidermal cell growth during fruit development of Ornithogalum umbellatum.

    PubMed

    Kwiatkowska, Maria; Poplonska, Katarzyna; Kazmierczak, Andrzej; Stepinski, Dariusz; Rogala, Katarzyna; Polewczyk, Katarzyna

    2007-01-01

    Cytophotometry of individual nuclei was used to examine the level of endoreduplication in epidermal cells from the upper and lower parts of the ovary during Ornithogalum umbellatum flower and fruit development. An increase in DNA content from 2-4C to 2-8C in both parts of the ovary was observed, while the epidermal cell surface area grew about 6-fold and 15-fold in the lower and upper parts of the ovary, respectively. However, the correlation between mean epidermal cell size and ploidy was distinct during epidermis growth. Lipotubuloids became bigger in the upper than in the lower part during ovary and fruit development. In addition, more dynamic growth of the epidermal cells of the upper than of the lower part of the ovary was connected to the higher content of gibberellic acid. A hypothesis has been put forward that the role of DNA endoreduplication in epidermal cell growth was modulated by the function of lipotubuloids and the gradient of gibberellin.

  8. Loss of epidermal integrity by T cell-mediated attack induces long-term local resistance to subsequent attack. I. Induction of resistance correlates with increases in Thy-1+ epidermal cell numbers

    PubMed Central

    1990-01-01

    The cutaneous graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) lesions induced by intradermal injection of cloned autoreactive T cells have been shown to subside rapidly and the epidermis returns to normal 2 wk after injection. Those mice that had spontaneously recovered from the cutaneous GVHD became resistant to subsequent attempts to induce the cutaneous GVHD by the T cells while maintaining their activity to mount delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses and to induce the enlargement of the popliteal lymph nodes (PLN). The resistance appeared to be restricted to the epidermal structures of the injection sites, suggesting the involvement of locally acting suppression mechanisms. This local resistance was not specific for the clonotype used for the induction of the resistance. A loss of the epidermal integrity by an attack of T cells capable of producing cutaneous GVHD was a prerequisite for the induction of the resistance. By up to at least 8 mo after injection of the T cells, no mice became susceptible to the cutaneous GVHD again, provided that the T cells were injected into the same footpad sites that had initially received the T cells. This resistance correlated well with the great increase (20-30-fold) in Thy- 1+ EC number. The great increase in the number of Thy-1+ EC following destruction of epidermal structures may be important in protecting the epidermal integrity from an additional attack by T cells. PMID:1969918

  9. [Microtubules in epidermal and cortical root cells of Brassica rapa during clinorotation].

    PubMed

    Kalinina, Ia M

    2006-01-01

    Using confocal microscopy the organization of tubulin cytoskeleton including endoplasmic and cortical microtubules (CMTs) has been studied in epidermal and cortical cells of the different growth zones of main root of Brassica rapa L. 6-days-old seedlings in control conditions and under clinorotation. It was shown that changes in CMTs orientation occured only in the distal elongation zone (DEZ). In the control, CMT arrays oriented transversely to the root long axis. Under clinorotation appearance of the shorter randomly organized CMTs was observed. Simultaneously, a significant decrease in the cell length in the central elongation zone (CEZ) under clinorotation was detected. It is suggested that the decline of anisotropic growth typical for CEZ cells is connected with CMTs disorientation under clinorotation.

  10. Studying the Stoichiometry of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor in Intact Cells using Correlative Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Peckys, Diana B; de Jonge, Niels

    2015-09-11

    This protocol describes the labeling of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) on COS7 fibroblast cells, and subsequent correlative fluorescence microscopy and environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) of whole cells in hydrated state. Fluorescent quantum dots (QDs) were coupled to EGFR via a two-step labeling protocol, providing an efficient and specific protein labeling, while avoiding label-induced clustering of the receptor. Fluorescence microscopy provided overview images of the cellular locations of the EGFR. The scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) detector was used to detect the QD labels with nanoscale resolution. The resulting correlative images provide data of the cellular EGFR distribution, and the stoichiometry at the single molecular level in the natural context of the hydrated intact cell. ESEM-STEM images revealed the receptor to be present as monomer, as homodimer, and in small clusters. Labeling with two different QDs, i.e., one emitting at 655 nm and at 800 revealed similar characteristic results.

  11. Studying the Stoichiometry of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor in Intact Cells using Correlative Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Peckys, Diana B.; de Jonge, Niels

    2015-01-01

    This protocol describes the labeling of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) on COS7 fibroblast cells, and subsequent correlative fluorescence microscopy and environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) of whole cells in hydrated state. Fluorescent quantum dots (QDs) were coupled to EGFR via a two-step labeling protocol, providing an efficient and specific protein labeling, while avoiding label-induced clustering of the receptor. Fluorescence microscopy provided overview images of the cellular locations of the EGFR. The scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) detector was used to detect the QD labels with nanoscale resolution. The resulting correlative images provide data of the cellular EGFR distribution, and the stoichiometry at the single molecular level in the natural context of the hydrated intact cell. ESEM-STEM images revealed the receptor to be present as monomer, as homodimer, and in small clusters. Labeling with two different QDs, i.e., one emitting at 655 nm and at 800 revealed similar characteristic results. PMID:26383083

  12. Epidermal growth factor-mediated effects on equine vascular smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Grosenbaugh, D.A.; Amoss, M.S.; Hood, D.M.; Morgan, S.J.; Williams, J.D. )

    1988-10-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor binding kinetics and EGF-mediated stimulation of DNA synthesis and cellular proliferation were studied in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) from the equine thoracic aorta. Binding studies, using murine {sup 125}I-labeled EGF, indicate the presence of a single class of high-affinity binding sites, with an estimated maximal binding capacity of 5,800 sites/cells. EGF stimulated ({sup 3}H)thymidine uptake in confluent quiescent monolayers in a dose-dependent fashion, half-maximal stimulation occurring at 7.5 {times} 10{sup {minus}11} M. Likewise, EGF-mediated cellular proliferation was dose dependent under reduced serum concentrations. Equine VSMC contain specific receptors for EGF, and EGF can stimulate DNA synthesis and proliferation in these cultured cells, which suggests that EGF may participate in the proliferative changes observed in equine distal digital peripheral vascular disease.

  13. Regulation of human epidermal stem cell proliferation and senescence requires polycomb- dependent and -independent functions of Cbx4.

    PubMed

    Luis, Nuno Miguel; Morey, Lluis; Mejetta, Stefania; Pascual, Gloria; Janich, Peggy; Kuebler, Bernd; Cozutto, Luca; Roma, Guglielmo; Nascimento, Elisabete; Frye, Michaela; Di Croce, Luciano; Benitah, Salvador Aznar

    2011-09-01

    Human epidermal stem cells transit from a slow cycling to an actively proliferating state to contribute to homeostasis. Both stem cell states differ in their cell cycle profiles but must remain guarded from differentiation and senescence. Here we show that Cbx4, a Polycomb Repressive Complex 1 (PRC1)-associated protein, maintains human epidermal stem cells as slow-cycling and undifferentiated, while protecting them from senescence. Interestingly, abrogating the polycomb activity of Cbx4 impairs its antisenescent function without affecting stem cell differentiation, indicating that differentiation and senescence are independent processes in human epidermis. Conversely, Cbx4 inhibits stem cell activation and differentiation through its SUMO ligase activity. Global transcriptome and chromatin occupancy analyses indicate that Cbx4 regulates modulators of epidermal homeostasis and represses factors such as Ezh2, Dnmt1, and Bmi1 to prevent the active stem cell state. Our results suggest that distinct Polycomb complexes balance epidermal stem cell dormancy and activation, while continually preventing senescence and differentiation. PMID:21885019

  14. Cell culture from lizard skin: a tool for the study of epidermal differentiation.

    PubMed

    Polazzi, Elisabetta; Alibardi, Lorenzo

    2011-12-01

    An in vitro system of isolated skin cells has been developed in order to address the understanding on the factors that control the shedding cycle and differentiation of lizard epidermis. The skin from the regenerating lizard tail has been separated in epidermis and dermis, cells have been dissociated, cultivated in vitro, and studied ultrastructurally after 1-30 days of culture condition. Dissociated keratinocytes after 12 days in culture show numerous cell elongations and contain bundles of keratin or sparse keratin filaments. These cells often contain one to three 0.5-3 μm large and dense "keratinaceous bodies", an organelle representing tonofilament disassembling. Most keratinocytes have sparse tonofilaments in the cytoplasm and form shorter bundles of keratin in the cell periphery. The dissociated dermis mainly consists of mesenchymal cells containing sparse bundles of intermediate filaments. These cells proliferate and form multi-stratified layers and a dermal pellicle in about 2-3 weeks in vitro in our basic medium. Conversely, cultures of keratinocytes do not expand but eventually reduce to few viable cells within 2-3 weeks of in vitro condition. It is suggested that dermal cells sustain themselves through the production of growth factors but that epidermal cells requires specific growth factors still to be identified before setting-up an in vitro system that allows analyzing the control of the shedding cycle in lizards.

  15. Recurrent exposure to nicotine differentiates human bronchial epithelial cells via epidermal growth factor receptor activation

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez-Garcia, Eva; Irigoyen, Marta; Anso, Elena; Martinez-Irujo, Juan Jose; Rouzaut, Ana

    2008-05-01

    Cigarette smoking is the major preventable cause of lung cancer in developed countries. Nicotine (3-(1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)-pyridine) is one of the major alkaloids present in tobacco. Besides its addictive properties, its effects have been described in panoply of cell types. In fact, recent studies have shown that nicotine behaves as a tumor promoter in transformed epithelial cells. This research focuses on the effects of acute repetitive nicotine exposure on normal human bronchial epithelial cells (NHBE cells). Here we show that treatment of NHBE cells with recurrent doses of nicotine up to 500 {mu}M triggered cell differentiation towards a neuronal-like phenotype: cells emitted filopodia and expressed neuronal markers such as neuronal cell adhesion molecule, neurofilament-M and the transcription factors neuronal N and Pax-3. We also demonstrate that nicotine treatment induced NF-kB translocation to the nucleus, phosphorylation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and accumulation of heparin binding-EGF in the extracellular medium. Moreover, addition of AG1478, an inhibitor of EGFR tyrosine phosphorylation, or cetuximab, a monoclonal antibody that precludes ligand binding to the same receptor, prevented cell differentiation by nicotine. Lastly, we show that differentiated cells increased their adhesion to the extracellular matrix and their protease activity. Given that several lung pathologies are strongly related to tobacco consumption, these results may help to better understand the damaging consequences of nicotine exposure.

  16. The effect of the state of differentiation on labeling of epidermal cell surface glycoproteins

    SciTech Connect

    Brysk, M.M.; Snider, J.M.

    1982-05-01

    Epidermal cells were grown in a medium in which the Ca++ concentration controlled the stage of differentiation. Cell surface molecules of differentiated and undifferentiated cells were compared by lactoperoxidase-catalyzed iodination, by the interaction with /sup 125/I-lectins, and by the metabolic incorporation of L-(/sup 3/H)-fucose. Molecular weights of the labeled components were determined by SDS-PAGE and autoradiography. After lactoperoxidase iodination, most of the radioactivity was found in polypeptide bands of 79,000, 65,000 and 56,000 daltons. The 79,000 band is the most intense for undifferentiated cells but disappears as differentiation proceeds. The 56,000 band is present in normal cells at all stages of differentiation but is absent from neoplastic cells. Glycoproteins reacted with /sup 125/I-lectins were found at 180,000, 130,000 and 85,000 daltons. The 130,000 band was the most prominent for differentiated cells labeled with wheat germ agglutinin but was essentially absent from the undifferentiated cells. With Ricinus communis agglutinin, this band was weaker for undifferentiated than for differentiated cells but was the most intense for both. After metabolic incorporation of tritiated fucose, radioactive glycoproteins were found at 130,000 and 85,000 daltons, with comparable intensities for differentiated and undifferentiated cells.

  17. Blood Stem Cell Transplant in Treating Patients With Hematologic Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-06-05

    Adult Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis; Childhood Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis; Leukemia; Lymphoma; Multiple Myeloma and Plasma Cell Neoplasm; Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

  18. Studies on the relationship between epidermal cell turnover kinetics and permeability of hairless mouse skin

    SciTech Connect

    Han, S.R.

    1988-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to develop non-invasive, physical means to quantitatively assess the epidermal turnover kinetics and barrier properties of the skin and relate these to the cutaneous irritation which results from ultraviolet light irradiation and mold thermal burns. After systematically injecting radiolabeled glycine, the appearance of radioactivity at the skin's surface indicated the transit time of radiolabeled cells through the skin. By plotting the data as the cumulative specific activity against time and then fitting them with a third order polynomial equation, it is possible to estimate the turnover time of the stratum corneum. The skin turnover was coordinated with non-invasive transepidermal water loss (TEWL) studies determined with an evaporimeter. In vitro diffusion studies of the permeability of hydrocortisone through UVB irradiated and thermally burned skin were also performed. The studies indicated that irritated skin offers a relatively low diffusional resistance to hydrocortisone. Depending on the severity of the trauma, the increases in hydrocortisone's permeability coefficient through irritated skin ranged from a low of about 2 times normal to a high of about 210 times normal. Trauma-induced changes in hydrocortisone permeability parallel changes in TEWL, proving that the barrier deficient state resulting from rapid epidermal turnover is a general phenomenon.

  19. Epidermal growth factor mediated healing in stem cell-derived vocal fold mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Palencia, Liliana; Das, Amritava; Palecek, Sean P; Thibeault, Susan; Leydon, Ciara

    2015-01-01

    Background The goal of vocal fold wound healing is the reconstitution of functional tissue, including a structurally and functionally intact epithelium. Mechanisms underlying reepithelialization in vocal folds are not known, although it is suspected that healing involves the interplay between several growth factors. We used a three-dimensional human embryonic stem cell-derived model of vocal fold mucosa to examine the effects of one growth factor, exogenous epidermal growth factor (EGF), on wound healing. Materials and methods A scratch wound was created in the in vitro model. Rate of wound healing, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activation, and cell proliferation post-injury were analyzed with and without application of both exogenous EGF and an EGFR inhibitor, Gefitinib. Results Wound repair after injury was significantly hastened by application of exogenous EGF (13.3 µm/hour, ±2.63) compared to absence of exogenous EGF (7.1 µm/hour ±2.84), but inhibited with concurrent addition of Gefitinib (5.2 µm/hour, ±2.23), indicating that EGF mediates wound healing in an EGFR-dependent manner. Immunohistochemistry revealed that EGFR activation occurred only in the presence of exogenous EGF. While not statistically significant, increased density of Ki67 staining in epithelium adjacent to the scratch wound was observed following treatment with EGF, suggesting a tendency for exogenous EGF to increase epithelial cell proliferation. Conclusions Exogenous EGF increases the rate of wound healing in an EGFR-dependent manner in a three-dimensional stem cell-derived model of vocal fold mucosa. This model of wound healing can be used to gain insight into the mechanisms that regulate vocal fold epithelial repair following injury. PMID:25818979

  20. HIV-1 Replication in Langerhans and Interstitial Dendritic Cells Is Inhibited by Neutralizing and Fc-Mediated Inhibitory Antibodies ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Peressin, M.; Holl, V.; Schmidt, S.; Decoville, T.; Mirisky, D.; Lederle, A.; Delaporte, M.; Xu, K.; Aubertin, A. M.; Moog, C.

    2011-01-01

    Langerhans cells (LCs) and interstitial dendritic cells (IDCs) may be among the first human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) targets after sexual transmission. We generated cells of these types by differentiation of purified CD34+ cord blood cells. After in vitro infection with R5-tropic strains, we obtained similar percentages of infected cells for both dendritic cell (DC) subsets. Moreover, LC infection was not increased by blockage of langerin by antilangerin. These results indicate that, under our experimental conditions, there was no evidence of any preference of HIV replication in LCs versus IDCs. The inhibitory activity of HIV-1-specific IgAs and IgGs against HIV-1 replication in LCs and IDCs was analyzed. We found that neutralizing antibodies inhibit HIV-1 infection of both DC subsets. Interestingly, HIV-1 was inhibited more efficiently by the IgGs than the corresponding IgA, due to an Fcγ receptor-dependent mechanism. Moreover, nonneutralizing inhibitory IgGs were able to inhibit infection of both LCs and IDCs. These results underline the importance of HIV-1 inhibition by the binding of the Fc part of IgGs to Fcγ receptors and suggest that the induction of neutralizing and nonneutralizing inhibitory IgGs in addition to neutralizing IgAs at mucosal sites may contribute to protection against sexual transmission of HIV-1. PMID:21084491

  1. Three-Dimensional Analysis of Cell Division Orientation in Epidermal Basal Layer Using Intravital Two-Photon Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Nemoto, Tomomi

    2016-01-01

    Epidermal structures are different among body sites, and proliferative keratinocytes in the epidermis play an important role in the maintenance of the epidermal structures. In recent years, intravital skin imaging has been used in mammalian skin research for the investigation of cell behaviors, but most of these experiments were performed with rodent ears. Here, we established a non-invasive intravital imaging approach for dorsal, ear, hind paw, or tail skin using R26H2BEGFP hairless mice. Using four-dimensional (x, y, z, and time) imaging, we successfully visualized mitotic cell division in epidermal basal cells. A comparison of cell division orientation relative to the basement membrane in each body site revealed that most divisions in dorsal and ear epidermis occurred in parallel, whereas the cell divisions in hind paw and tail epidermis occurred both in parallel and oblique orientations. Based on the quantitative analysis of the four-dimensional images, we showed that the epidermal thickness correlated with the basal cell density and the rate of the oblique divisions. PMID:27657513

  2. Does salinity reduce growth in maize root epidermal cells by inhibiting their capacity for cell wall acidification?

    PubMed

    Zidan, I; Azaizeh, H; Neumann, P M

    1990-05-01

    The reduction in growth of maize (Zea mays L.) seedling primary roots induced by salinization of the nutrient medium with 100 millimolar NaCl was accompanied by reductions in the length of the root tip elongation zone, the length of fully elongated epidermal cells, and the apparent rate of cell production: Each was partially restored when calcium levels in the salinized growth medium were increased from 0.5 to 10.0 millimolar. We investigated the possibility that the inhibition of elongation growth by salinity might be associated with an inhibition of cell wall acidification, such as that which occurs when root growth is inhibited by IAA. A qualitative assay of root surface acidification, using bromocresol purple pH indicator in agar, showed that salinized roots, with and without extra calcium, produced a zone of surface acidification which was similar to that produced by control roots. The zone of acidification began 1 to 2 millimeters behind the tip and coincided with the zone of cell elongation. The remainder of the root alkalinized its surface. Kinetics of surface acidification were assayed quantitatively by placing a flat tipped pH electrode in contact with the elongation zone. The pH at the epidermal surfaces of roots grown either with 100 millimolar NaCl (growth inhibitory), or with 10 millimolar calcium +/- NaCl (little growth inhibition), declined from 6.0 to 5.1 over 30 minutes. We conclude that NaCl did not inhibit growth by reducing the capacity of epidermal cells to acidify their walls. PMID:16667468

  3. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Mutation Enhances Expression of Cadherin-5 in Lung Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Ming-Szu; Chen, I-Chuan; Lung, Jr-Hau; Lin, Paul-Yann; Li, Ya-Chin; Tsai, Ying-Huang

    2016-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activation has been shown to play a critical role in tumor angiogenesis. In this study, we investigate the correlation between EGFR mutations and cadherin-5 (CDH5), which is an angiogenic factor, in lung cancer cells. Increased expression CDH5 is observed in lung cancer cells with EGFR mutations. Stable lung cancer cell lines expressing mutant (exon 19 deletion E746-A750, and exon 21 missense mutation L858R) and wild type EGFR genes are established. A significantly higher expression of CDH5 is observed in exon 19 deletion stable lung cancer cells and mouse xenografts. Further studies show that expression of CDH5 is decreased after the inhibition of EGFR and downstream Akt pathways in lung cancer cells with EGFR mutation. In addition, mutant EGFR genes potentiates angiogenesis in lung cancer cells, which is inhibited by CDH5 siRNA, and potentiates migration and invasion in lung cancer cells. Our study shows that mutant EGFR genes are associated with overexpression of CDH5 through increased phosphorylation of EGFR and downstream Akt pathways. Our result may provide an insight into the association of mutant EGFR and CDH5 expression in lung cancer and aid further development of target therapy for NSCLC in the future. PMID:27362942

  4. Growth and differentiation in cultured human thyroid cells: effects of epidermal growth factor and thyrotropin.

    PubMed

    Errick, J E; Ing, K W; Eggo, M C; Burrow, G N

    1986-01-01

    Human thyroid cells were grown and subcultured in vitro to examine their responses to known hormones and growth factors, and to serum. The cells were obtained from surgical specimens and were either neoplastic or nonneoplastic. The effects of culture conditions on cell growth were measured by changes in cell numbers and by stimulation of [3H]thymidine incorporation. The results showed that serum (0.5%) was essential for cell proliferation, and that a mixture of insulin (10 micrograms/ml), transferrin (5 micrograms/ml), hydrocortisone (10 micrograms/ml), somatostatin (10 ng/ml), and glycyl-histidyl-lysine (10 ng/ml) enhanced the effect of serum. Maximum growth of the cells was obtained when epidermal growth factor was present at 10(-9) M. Differentiation was measured by production of thyroglobulin, which was found to be stimulated by thyrotropin. This system provides a means to study the hormonal control of growth and differentiation in human thyroid cells. PMID:3511027

  5. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Mutation Enhances Expression of Cadherin-5 in Lung Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Hung, Ming-Szu; Chen, I-Chuan; Lung, Jr-Hau; Lin, Paul-Yann; Li, Ya-Chin; Tsai, Ying-Huang

    2016-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activation has been shown to play a critical role in tumor angiogenesis. In this study, we investigate the correlation between EGFR mutations and cadherin-5 (CDH5), which is an angiogenic factor, in lung cancer cells. Increased expression CDH5 is observed in lung cancer cells with EGFR mutations. Stable lung cancer cell lines expressing mutant (exon 19 deletion E746-A750, and exon 21 missense mutation L858R) and wild type EGFR genes are established. A significantly higher expression of CDH5 is observed in exon 19 deletion stable lung cancer cells and mouse xenografts. Further studies show that expression of CDH5 is decreased after the inhibition of EGFR and downstream Akt pathways in lung cancer cells with EGFR mutation. In addition, mutant EGFR genes potentiates angiogenesis in lung cancer cells, which is inhibited by CDH5 siRNA, and potentiates migration and invasion in lung cancer cells. Our study shows that mutant EGFR genes are associated with overexpression of CDH5 through increased phosphorylation of EGFR and downstream Akt pathways. Our result may provide an insight into the association of mutant EGFR and CDH5 expression in lung cancer and aid further development of target therapy for NSCLC in the future.

  6. Partial regeneration of beta-cells in the islets of Langerhans by Nymphayol a sterol isolated from Nymphaea stellata (Willd.) flowers.

    PubMed

    Subash-Babu, P; Ignacimuthu, S; Agastian, P; Varghese, Babu

    2009-04-01

    Reduction of the beta-cell mass is critical in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus. The discovery of agents which induce regeneration of pancreatic beta-cells would be useful to develop new therapeutic approaches to treat diabetes. The present study was aimed at identifying a new agent for the control of diabetes through regeneration of pancreatic beta cells and insulin secretory potential. Nymphaea stellata flower chloroform extract (NSFCExt) showed significant plasma glucose lowering effect. Further NSFCExt was utilized to isolate and identify the lead compound based on bioassay guided fractionation; we found Nymphayol (25,26-dinorcholest-5-en-3beta-ol) a new crystal [space group P2(1) (No. 4), a=9.618(5), b=7.518(5), c=37.491(5)]. It was purified by repeat column. The structure was determined on the basis of X-ray crystallography and spectral data. Oral administration of Nymphayol for 45 days significantly (p<0.05) lowered the blood glucose level and more importantly it effectively increased the insulin content in diabetic rats. In addition, Nymphayol increased the number of beta cell mass enormously. Islet-like cell clusters in the islets of Langerhans were clearly observed based on histochemical and immunohistochemical study. PMID:19272781

  7. New melanogenesis and photobiological processes in activation and proliferation of precursor melanocytes after UV-exposure: ultrastructural differentiation of precursor melanocytes from Langerhans cells

    SciTech Connect

    Jimbow, K.; Uesugi, T.

    1982-02-01

    Photobiological processes involving new melanogenesis after exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light were experimentally studied in C57 black adult mice by histochemistry, cytochemistry, and autoradiography. The trunk and the plantar region of the foot, where no functioning melanocytes were present before exposure, were exposed to UV-A for 14 consecutive days. Both regions revealed a basically similar pattern for new melanogenesis which involved an activation of precursor melanocytes. Essentially all of ''indeterminate'' cells appeared to be precursor melanocytes, the fine structure of which could be differentiated even from poorly developed Langerhans cells. New melanogenesis was manifested by 4 stages of cellular and subcellular reactions of these cells as indicated by histochemistry of dihydroxyphenylalanine (dopa) and autoradiography of thymidine incorporation: (a) an initial lag in the activation of precursor melanocytes with development of Golgi cisternae and rough endoplasmic reticulum followed by formation of unmelanized melanosomes (day 0 to 2); (b) synthesis of active tyrosinase accumulated in Golgi cisternae and vesicles with subsequent formation of melanized melanosomes in these cells (day 3 to 5); (c) mitotic proliferation of many of these activated cells, followed by an exponential increase of new melanocytes (day 6 to 7); and (d) melanosome transfer with differentiation of 10 nm filaments and arborization of dendrites, but without any significant change in the melanocyte population (day 8 to 14). The melanosome transfer was, however, not obvious until after 7 days of exposure. The size of newly synthesized melanosomes was similar to that of tail skin where native melanocytes were present before exposure.

  8. High affinity nanobodies against human epidermal growth factor receptor selected on cells by E. coli display

    PubMed Central

    Salema, Valencio; Mañas, Carmen; Cerdán, Lidia; Piñero-Lambea, Carlos; Marín, Elvira; Roovers, Rob C.; Van Bergen en Henegouwen, Paul M.P.; Fernández, Luis Ángel

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Most therapeutic antibodies (Abs) target cell surface proteins on tumor and immune cells. Cloning of Ab gene libraries in E. coli and their display on bacteriophages is commonly used to select novel therapeutic Abs binding target antigens, either purified or expressed on cells. However, the sticky nature of bacteriophages renders phage display selections on cells challenging. We previously reported an E. coli display system for expression of VHHs (i.e., nanobodies, Nbs) on the surface of bacteria and selection of high-affinity clones by magnetic cell sorting (MACS). Here, we demonstrate that E. coli display is also an attractive method for isolation of Nbs against cell surface antigens, such as the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), upon direct selection and screening of Ab libraries on live cells. We employ a whole cell-based strategy using a VHH library obtained by immunization with human tumor cells over-expressing EGFR (i.e., A431), and selection of bacterial clones bound to murine fibroblast NIH-3T3 cells transfected with human EGFR, after depletion of non-specific clones on untransfected cells. This strategy resulted in the isolation of high-affinity Nbs binding distinct epitopes of EGFR, including Nbs competing with the ligand, EGF, as characterized by flow cytometry of bacteria displaying the Nbs and binding assays with purified Nbs using surface plasmon resonance. Hence, our study demonstrates that E. coli display of VHH libraries and selection on cells enables efficient isolation and characterization of high-affinity Nbs against cell surface antigens. PMID:27472381

  9. Sphingosine-1-phosphate mediates epidermal growth factor-induced muscle satellite cell activation.

    PubMed

    Nagata, Yosuke; Ohashi, Kazuya; Wada, Eiji; Yuasa, Yuki; Shiozuka, Masataka; Nonomura, Yoshiaki; Matsuda, Ryoichi

    2014-08-01

    Skeletal muscle can regenerate repeatedly due to the presence of resident stem cells, called satellite cells. Because satellite cells are usually quiescent, they must be activated before participating in muscle regeneration in response to stimuli such as injury, overloading, and stretch. Although satellite cell activation is a crucial step in muscle regeneration, little is known of the molecular mechanisms controlling this process. Recent work showed that the bioactive lipid sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) plays crucial roles in the activation, proliferation, and differentiation of muscle satellite cells. We investigated the role of growth factors in S1P-mediated satellite cell activation. We found that epidermal growth factor (EGF) in combination with insulin induced proliferation of quiescent undifferentiated mouse myoblast C2C12 cells, which are also known as reserve cells, in serum-free conditions. Sphingosine kinase activity increased when reserve cells were stimulated with EGF. Treatment of reserve cells with the D-erythro-N,N-dimethylsphingosine, Sphingosine Kinase Inhibitor, or siRNA duplexes specific for sphingosine kinase 1, suppressed EGF-induced C2C12 activation. We also present the evidence showing the S1P receptor S1P2 is involved in EGF-induced reserve cell activation. Moreover, we demonstrated a combination of insulin and EGF promoted activation of satellite cells on single myofibers in a manner dependent on SPHK and S1P2. Taken together, our observations show that EGF-induced satellite cell activation is mediated by S1P and its receptor.

  10. Parabens and Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Ligand Cross-Talk in Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Shawn; Yuan, Chaoshen; Tagmount, Abderrahmane; Rudel, Ruthann A.; Ackerman, Janet M.; Yaswen, Paul; Vulpe, Chris D.; Leitman, Dale C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Xenoestrogens are synthetic compounds that mimic endogenous estrogens by binding to and activating estrogen receptors. Exposure to estrogens and to some xenoestrogens has been associated with cell proliferation and an increased risk of breast cancer. Despite evidence of estrogenicity, parabens are among the most widely used xenoestrogens in cosmetics and personal-care products and are generally considered safe. However, previous cell-based studies with parabens do not take into account the signaling cross-talk between estrogen receptor α (ERα) and the human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER) family. Objectives: We investigated the hypothesis that the potency of parabens can be increased with HER ligands, such as heregulin (HRG). Methods: The effects of HER ligands on paraben activation of c-Myc expression and cell proliferation were determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction, Western blots, flow cytometry, and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays in ERα- and HER2-positive human BT-474 breast cancer cells. Results: Butylparaben (BP) and HRG produced a synergistic increase in c-Myc mRNA and protein levels in BT-474 cells. Estrogen receptor antagonists blocked the synergistic increase in c-Myc protein levels. The combination of BP and HRG also stimulated proliferation of BT-474 cells compared with the effects of BP alone. HRG decreased the dose required for BP-mediated stimulation of c-Myc mRNA expression and cell proliferation. HRG caused the phosphorylation of serine 167 in ERα. BP and HRG produced a synergistic increase in ERα recruitment to the c-Myc gene. Conclusion: Our results show that HER ligands enhanced the potency of BP to stimulate oncogene expression and breast cancer cell proliferation in vitro via ERα, suggesting that parabens might be active at exposure levels not previously considered toxicologically relevant from studies testing their effects in isolation. Citation: Pan S, Yuan C, Tagmount A, Rudel RA, Ackerman JM

  11. Gefitinib in the treatment of nonsmall cell lung cancer with activating epidermal growth factor receptor mutation

    PubMed Central

    Nurwidya, Fariz; Takahashi, Fumiyuki; Takahashi, Kazuhisa

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is still the main cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide, with most patients present with advanced disease and poor long-term prognosis. The aim of lung cancer treatment is to slow down the progression of the disease, to relieve the patients from the lung cancer symptoms and whenever possible, to increase the overall survival. The discovery of small molecule targeting tyrosine kinase of epidermal growth factor receptor opens a new way in the management of advanced nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC). This review will discuss several Phase II and III trials evaluated the clinical efficacy of gefitinib as monotherapy in pretreated patients with advanced NSCLC, as well as both monotherapy and combined with chemotherapy in chemotherapy-naive patients. PMID:27433059

  12. A tale of the epidermal growth factor receptor: The quest for structural resolution on cells.

    PubMed

    Tynan, Christopher J; Lo Schiavo, Valentina; Zanetti-Domingues, Laura; Needham, Sarah R; Roberts, Selene K; Hirsch, Michael; Rolfe, Daniel J; Korovesis, Dimitrios; Clarke, David T; Martin-Fernandez, Marisa L

    2016-02-15

    The challenge of determining the architecture and geometry of oligomers of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) on the cell surface has been approached using a variety of biochemical and biophysical methods. This review is intended to provide a narrative of how key concepts in the field of EGFR research have evolved over the years, from the origins of the prevalent EGFR signalling dimer hypothesis through to the development and implementation of methods that are now challenging the conventional view. The synergy between X-ray crystallography and cellular fluorescence microscopy has become particularly important, precisely because the results from these two methods diverged and highlighted the complexity of the challenge. We illustrate how developments in super-resolution microscopy are now bridging this gap. Exciting times lie ahead where knowledge of the nature of the complexes can assist with the development of a new generation of anti-cancer drugs. PMID:26484734

  13. Differentiating intratumoral melanocytes from Langerhans cells in nonmelanocytic pigmented skin tumors in vivo by label-free third-harmonic generation microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weng, Wei-Hung; Liao, Yi-Hua; Tsai, Ming-Rung; Wei, Ming-Liang; Huang, Hsin-Yi; Sun, Chi-Kuang

    2016-07-01

    Morphology and distribution of melanocytes are critical imaging information for the diagnosis of melanocytic lesions. However, how to image intratumoral melanocytes noninvasively in pigmented skin tumors is seldom investigated. Third-harmonic generation (THG) is shown to be enhanced by melanin, whereas high accuracy has been demonstrated using THG microscopy for in vivo differential diagnosis of nonmelanocytic pigmented skin tumors. It is thus desirable to investigate if label-free THG microscopy was capable to in vivo identify intratumoral melanocytes. In this study, histopathological correlations of label-free THG images with the immunohistochemical images stained with human melanoma black (HMB)-45 and cluster of differentiation 1a (CD1a) were made. The correlation results indicated that the intratumoral THG-bright dendritic-cell-like signals were endogenously derived from melanocytes rather than Langerhans cells (LCs). The consistency between THG-bright dendritic-cell-like signals and HMB-45 melanocyte staining showed a kappa coefficient of 0.807, 84.6% sensitivity, and 95% specificity. In contrast, a kappa coefficient of -0.37, 21.7% sensitivity, and 30% specificity were noted between the THG-bright dendritic-cell-like signals and CD1a staining for LCs. Our study indicates the capability of noninvasive label-free THG microscopy to differentiate intratumoral melanocytes from LCs, which is not feasible in previous in vivo label-free clinical-imaging modalities.

  14. INSULIN INDUCED EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR ACTIVATION IN VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS IS ADAM-DEPENDENT

    PubMed Central

    Roztocil, Elisa; Nicholl, Suzanne M.; Davies, Mark G.

    2008-01-01

    Background With the rise in metabolic syndrome, understanding the role of insulin signaling within the cells of vasculature has become more important but yet remains poorly defined. The study examines the role of insulin actions on a pivotal cross-talk receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR). EGFR is transactivated by both G-protein-coupled receptors and receptor linked tyrosine kinases and is key to many of their responses. Objective To determine the pathway of EGFR transactivation by insulin in human coronary smooth muscle cells (VSMC) Methods VSMC were cultured in vitro. Assays of EGFR phosphorylation were examined in response to insulin in the presence and absence of the plasmin inhibitors (e-aminocaproic acid and aprotinin) matrix metalloprotease (MMP) inhibitor GM6001, the ADAM (A Disintegrin And Metalloproteinase Domain) inhibitors TAPI-0 and TAPI-1, Heparin binding epidermal growth factor (HB-EGF) inhibitor, CRM197, HB-EGF inhibitory antibodies, EGF inhibitory antibodies and the EGFR inhibitor AG1478. Results Insulin induced time-dependent EGFR phosphorylation, which was inhibited by AG1478 in a concentration dependent manner. Application of the plasmin inhibitors did not block the response. EGFR phosphorylation by insulin was blocked by inhibition of MMP activity and the ligand HB-EGF. The presence of the ADAM inhibitors, TAPI-0 and TAPI-1 significantly decreased EGFR activation. EGFR phosphorylation by EGF was not interrupted by inhibition of plasmin, MMPs TAPIs, or HB-EGF. Direct blockade of the EGFR prevented activation by both insulin and EGF. Conclusion Insulin can induce transactivation of EGFR by an ADAM-mediated, HB-EGF dependent process. This is the first description of crosstalk via ADAM between insulin and EGFR in vascular SMC. Targeting a pivotal cross-talk receptor such as EGFR, which can be transactivated by both G-protein-coupled receptors and receptor tyrosine kinases is an attractive molecular target. PMID:18656632

  15. Effects of Epidermal Cell Shape and Pigmentation on Optical Properties of Antirrhinum Petals at Visible and Ultraviolet Wavelengths.

    PubMed Central

    Gorton, H. L.; Vogelmann, T. C.

    1996-01-01

    We used the Mixta+ and mixta- lines of Antirrhinum majus as a model system to investigate the effects of epidermal cell shape and pigmentation on tissue optical properties in the visible and ultraviolet (UV) spectral regions. Adaxial epidermal cells of Mixta+ flowers have a conical-papillate shape; in the mixta- line the cells are slightly domed. Mixta+ cells contained significantly more anthocyanin and other flavonoids than mixta- cells when plants were grown under either high- or low-UV conditions. Mixta+ cells focused light (3.5-4.7 times incident) within their pigmented interiors, whereas mixta- cells focused light (2.1-2.7 times incident) in the unpigmented mesophyll. UV light penetrated the epidermis (commonly 20-50% transmittance at 312 nm) mainly through the unpigmented peripheral regions of the cells that were similar for the two lines, so that overall penetration through Mixta+ and mixta- epidermises was equal. However, maximum UV absorption in the central region of epidermal cells was slightly greater in Mixta+ than mixta-, and intact Mixta+ flowers reflected less light in the spectral regions with intermediate flavonoid absorbance. In both cases, about 50 to 75% of the difference could be attributed to cell shape and resulting changes in the optical pathlength or focusing. PMID:12226425

  16. Model-based analysis of Arabidopsis leaf epidermal cells reveals distinct division and expansion patterns for pavement and guard cells.

    PubMed

    Asl, Leila Kheibarshekan; Dhondt, Stijn; Boudolf, Véronique; Beemster, Gerrit T S; Beeckman, Tom; Inzé, Dirk; Govaerts, Willy; De Veylder, Lieven

    2011-08-01

    To efficiently capture sunlight for photosynthesis, leaves typically develop into a flat and thin structure. This development is driven by cell division and expansion, but the individual contribution of these processes is currently unknown, mainly because of the experimental difficulties to disentangle them in a developing organ, due to their tight interconnection. To circumvent this problem, we built a mathematic model that describes the possible division patterns and expansion rates for individual epidermal cells. This model was used to fit experimental data on cell numbers and sizes obtained over time intervals of 1 d throughout the development of the first leaf pair of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). The parameters were obtained by a derivative-free optimization method that minimizes the differences between the predicted and experimentally observed cell size distributions. The model allowed us to calculate probabilities for a cell to divide into guard or pavement cells, the maximum size at which it can divide, and its average cell division and expansion rates at each point during the leaf developmental process. Surprisingly, average cell cycle duration remained constant throughout leaf development, whereas no evidence for a maximum cell size threshold for cell division of pavement cells was found. Furthermore, the model predicted that neighboring cells of different sizes within the epidermis expand at distinctly different relative rates, which could be verified by direct observations. We conclude that cell division seems to occur independently from the status of cell expansion, whereas the cell cycle might act as a timer rather than as a size-regulated machinery.

  17. Phosphatidylinositol kinase is activated in membranes derived from cells treated with epidermal growth factor.

    PubMed Central

    Walker, D H; Pike, L J

    1987-01-01

    The ability of epidermal growth factor (EGF) to stimulate phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns) kinase activity in A431 cells was examined. The incorporation of 32P from [gamma-32P]ATP into PtdIns by A431 membranes was increased in membranes prepared from cells that had been pretreated with EGF. Demonstration of a stimulation of the PtdIns kinase activity by EGF required the use of subconfluent cultures and was dependent on the inclusion of protease inhibitors in the buffers used to prepare the membranes. Stimulation of the PtdIns kinase activity was rapid. The activation peaked 2 min after the addition of EGF and declined slowly thereafter. Half-maximal stimulation of the PtdIns kinase occurred at 7 nM EGF. Kinetic analyses of the reaction indicated that treatment of the cells with EGF resulted in a decrease in the Km for PtdIns with no change in the Vmax. The kinetic parameters for the utilization of ATP were unchanged in the EGF-treated membranes compared to the control membranes. Pretreatment of the cells with the phorbol ester phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate blocked the ability of EGF to stimulate PtdIns kinase activity. These findings demonstrate that a PtdIns kinase activity in A431 cells is regulated by EGF and provide a good system for examining the mechanism by which EGF stimulates the activity of this intracellular enzyme. PMID:2823265

  18. Epidermal growth factor promotes proliferation of dermal papilla cells via Notch signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haihua; Nan, Weixiao; Wang, Shiyong; Zhang, Tietao; Si, Huazhe; Wang, Datao; Yang, Fuhe; Li, Guangyu

    2016-08-01

    The effect of epidermal growth factor (EGF) on the development and growth of hair follicle is controversial. In the present study, 2-20 ng/ml EGF promoted the growth of mink hair follicles in vitro, whereas 200 ng/ml EGF inhibited follicle growth. Further, dermal papilla (DP) cells, a group of mesenchymal cells that govern hair follicle development and growth, were isolated and cultured in vitro. Treatment with or forced expression of EGF accelerated proliferation and induced G1/S transition in DP cells. Moreover, EGF upregulated the expression of DP mesenchymal genes, such as alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1), as well as the Notch pathway molecules including Notch1, Jagged1, Hes1 and Hes5. In addition, inhibition of Notch signaling pathway by DAPT significantly reduced the basal and EGF-enhanced proliferation rate, and also suppressed cell cycle progression. We also show that the expression of several follicle-regulatory genes, such as Survivin and Msx2, were upregulated by EGF, and was inhibited by DAPT. In summary, our study demonstrates that the concentration of EGF is critical for the switch between hair follicle growth and inhibition, and EGF promotes DP cell proliferation via Notch signaling pathway.

  19. Oak ellagitannins suppress the phosphorylation of the epidermal growth factor receptor in human colon carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Fridrich, Diana; Glabasnia, Arne; Fritz, Jessica; Esselen, Melanie; Pahlke, Gudrun; Hofmann, Thomas; Marko, Doris

    2008-05-14

    The ellagitannins castalagin and vescalagin, and the C-glycosides grandinin and roburin E as well as ellagic acid were found to potently inhibit the growth of human colon carcinoma cells (HT29) in vitro. In a cell-free system these compounds were identified as potent inhibitors of the protein tyrosine kinase activity of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) with IC 50 values in the low nanomolar range. To address the question of whether the interference with the activity of the isolated EGFR also plays a role within intact cells, effects on the phosphorylation status of the EGFR, as a measure for its activity, were determined in HT29 cells. As exemplified for castalagin and grandinin, both the nonglycosylated and the glycosylated ellagitannins effectively suppressed EGFR phosphorylation, but only at concentrations > or =10 microM, thus, in a concentration range where growth inhibition was observed. These results indicate that the suppression of EGFR-mediated signaling might contribute to the growth inhibitory effects of these compounds present in oak-matured wines and spirits such as whiskey. In contrast, despite substantial growth inhibitory properties, ellagic acid did not significantly affect EGFR phosphorylation in HT29 cells up to 100 microM. PMID:18419129

  20. Intracellular processing of epidermal growth factor by early wound healing cells

    SciTech Connect

    Seyfer, A.E.; Nassaux, P.; Emory, R.; Wray, H.L.; Schaudies, R.P. )

    1990-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is a potent 53-amino-acid residue polypeptide that has been implicated in normal wound healing. Although past studies have shown that locally applied EGF accelerates wound healing, these studies have not examined intracellular events related to the processing of the growth factor. The objective of this study was to characterize both initial and later postbinding intracellular processing of EGF by a responsive cell line (osteoblasts) that is important in the healing of wounds. Cloned mouse calvarial osteoblasts (MC-3TC-E1) were incubated with radiolabeled EGF, with and without preincubation with nonlabeled EGF, for specific time intervals. Cell-associated radioactivity was characterized by nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Results showed that EGF is processed as three distinct species and that the relative proportions of these species are altered at later time periods when compared with initial processing. The patterns, similar to those reported for human fibroblasts, indicate a possible common pathway for the mitogenic signal in cells associated with the early events of wound healing. In addition, these data represent the first direct evidence that preexposure of cells to nonlabeled EGF alters the processing of radiolabeled EGF. This is significant, because cells must be exposed to EGF for 5 to 8 hours to elicit a growth response. Such data may help to explain the lag phase of wound healing.

  1. The Antiaging Properties of Andrographis paniculata by Activation Epidermal Cell Stemness.

    PubMed

    You, Jiyoung; Roh, Kyung-Baeg; Li, Zidan; Liu, Guangrong; Tang, Jian; Shin, Seoungwoo; Park, Deokhoon; Jung, Eunsun

    2015-01-01

    Andrographis paniculata (A. paniculata, Chuanxinlian), a medicinal herb with an extremely bitter taste that is native to China and other parts of Southeast Asia, possesses immense therapeutic value; however, its therapeutic properties have rarely been applied in the field of skin care. In this study, we investigated the effect of an A. paniculata extract (APE) on human epidermal stem cells (EpSCs), and confirmed its anti-aging effect through in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo study. An MTT assay was used to determine cell proliferation. A flow cytometric analysis, with propidium iodide, was used to evaluate the cell cycle. The expression of integrin β1 (CD29), the stem cell marker, was detected with antibodies, using flow cytometry in vitro, and immunohistochemical assays in ex vivo. Type 1 collagen and VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). During the clinical study, skin hydration, elasticity, wrinkling, sagging, and dermal density were evaluated before treatment and at four and eight weeks after the treatment with the test product (containing the APE) on the face. The proliferation of the EpSCs, treated with the APE, increased significantly. In the cell cycle analysis, the APE increased the G2/M and S stages in a dose-dependent manner. The expression of integrin β1, which is related to epidermal progenitor cell expansion, was up-regulated in the APE-treated EpSCs and skin explants. In addition, the production of VEGF in the EpSCs increased significantly in response to the APE treatment. Consistent with these results, the VEGF and APE-treated EpSCs conditioned medium enhanced the Type 1 collagen production in normal human fibroblasts (NHFs). In the clinical study, the APE improved skin hydration, dermal density, wrinkling, and sagging significantly. Our findings revealed that the APE promotes a proliferation of EpSCs, through the up-regulation of the integrin β1 and VEGF expression. The VEGF

  2. Influence of High Aspect Ratio Vessel Cell Culture on TNF-Alpha, Insulin Secretion and Glucose Homeostasis in Pancreatic Islets of Langerhans from Wistar Furth Rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tobin, Brian W.a; Leeper-Woodford, Sandra K.

    1999-01-01

    The present studies were carried out to determine the influence of a ground based microgravity paradigm, utilizing the High Aspect Ratio Vessel (HARV) cell culture upon lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) production of pancreatic islets of Langerhans. An additional aim was to elucidate alterations in insulin secretion and glucose utilization using the HARV low shear, gravity averaged vector, cell culture technique. Islets were isolated (1726 +/- 117, 150 micron islet equivalent units) from Wistar Furth rats and assigned to four treatment groups: 1) HARV, 2) HARV plus LPS, 3) static culture, 4) static culture plus LPS. Following 48 hours of culture, insulin concentration was increased in both HARV and static cultures (p<0.05). Islet medium from HARV and static cultures were assayed for TNF-alpha (L929 cytotoxicity assay) and was measured at selected time points for 48 hours. TNF-alpha was significantly increased in LPS-induced HARV and static cultures, yet the increase was more pronounced in the static culture group (p<0.05). This is a novel observation and indicates that TNF producing cells are present in islets and that LPS stimulates TNF secretion in isolated islets. A decrease in insulin concentration was demonstrated in the islet medium of the LPS stimulated HARV culture (p<0.05). That TNF-alpha is associated with a decreased insulin secretion is intriguing, both as it relates to in-flight investigations, and as it may provide insight into the pathophysiology of Type I and Type 11 diabetes. Glucose concentration in islet medium was lesser throughout the experiment in static cultures, suggesting a decreased reliance upon glucose as a metabolic substrate in the islets cultured in HARVS. In conclusion, the present studies demonstrate alterations in LPS induced TNF-alpha production of pancreatic islets of Langerhans, favoring a lesser TNF production in the microgravity HARV paradigm. Additionally, alterations in fuel

  3. WEREWOLF, a MYB-related protein in Arabidopsis, is a position-dependent regulator of epidermal cell patterning.

    PubMed

    Lee, M M; Schiefelbein, J

    1999-11-24

    The formation of the root epidermis of Arabidopsis provides a simple and elegant model for the analysis of cell patterning. A novel gene, WEREWOLF (WER), is described here that is required for position-dependent patterning of the epidermal cell types. The WER gene encodes a MYB-type protein and is preferentially expressed within cells destined to adopt the non-hair fate. Furthermore, WER is shown to regulate the position-dependent expression of the GLABRA2 homeobox gene, to interact with a bHLH protein, and to act in opposition to the CAPRICE MYB. These results suggest a simple model to explain the specification of the two root epidermal cell types, and they provide insight into the molecular mechanisms used to control cell patterning.

  4. Pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis with cervical lymph node involvement, and coexistence with pulmonary tuberculosis and right pneumothorax: a case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Gao, Limin; Li, Huifang; Li, Gandi; Liu, Weiping; Li, Jinnan; Zhang, Wenyan

    2015-01-01

    We report an uncommon 22-year-old male Pulmonary Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis (PLCH) case which co-existed with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). Unlike the common PLCH cases, this PLCH case has cervical lymph node involvement and right pneumothorax. The diagnosis was established by the imaging of lung and the biopsies of the lung and left neck lymph node. Imaging of the chest showed characteristic small nodules and thin-walled cysts and right pneumothorax. The LCH cells in the lung and left neck lymph node were characterized by large convoluted nuclei with cerebriform indentations of the nuclear envelope and longitudinal grooves. The nuclei contained small eosinophilic nucleoli and moderate amount cytoplasm. Immunohistochemically, the histiocytoid cells were positive for Langerin, CD1a and S-100. Acid-fast bacilli were found in sputum and lung biopsy tissue. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of PLCH with cervical lymph node involvement, and coexisted with pulmonary tuberculosis, right pneumothorax. A contribution of this case and review three of the five cases of PLCH with extrapulmonary involvement to lymph nodes resolved spontaneously after smoking cessation constitute a novel addition that it is inappropriate to regard pulmonary/nodal LCH as multi-organ or disseminated disease, and the treatment methods are the same whether the PLCH patient with lymph node involvement or not.

  5. Langerhans cell histiocytosis of the urinary bladder in a patient with bladder cancer previously treated with intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guérin therapy.

    PubMed

    Numakura, Satoe; Morikawa, Teppei; Ushiku, Tetsuo; Toyoshima, Toyoaki; Fukayama, Masashi

    2014-02-01

    We report an extremely rare case of Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) of the urinary bladder. A 68-year-old man presented with gross hematuria. Cystoscopy showed multiple papillary tumors in the urinary bladder, and transurethral resection was performed. Pathological diagnosis was high-grade papillary urothelial carcinoma with lamina propria invasion. The patient received six treatments with intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) therapy. Seven months after surgery, follow-up cystoscopy showed three elevated lesions in the urinary bladder, two of which were identified histologically as recurrent urothelial carcinoma. Microscopic examination of the lesion at the anterior wall revealed diffuse infiltration of medium to large histiocytoid cells in the lamina propria, many of which had distorted nuclei and nuclear grooves. Dense eosinophilic infiltration was also observed. Immunohistochemically, the histiocytoid cells were diffusely positive for S-100 and CD1a, but negative for cytokeratin AE1/AE3 and melanosome-associated antigen recognized by HMB-45. Based on the histological and immunohistochemical features, we diagnosed the lesion as LCH of the urinary bladder. There was no evidence of recurrence of either bladder cancer or LCH after an 18-month follow-up. To avoid misdiagnosis, urologists and pathologists should be aware that LCH may develop in the urinary bladder after intravesical BCG therapy for bladder cancer.

  6. Pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis with cervical lymph node involvement, and coexistence with pulmonary tuberculosis and right pneumothorax: a case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Limin; Li, Huifang; Li, Gandi; Liu, Weiping; Li, Jinnan; Zhang, Wenyan

    2015-01-01

    We report an uncommon 22-year-old male Pulmonary Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis (PLCH) case which co-existed with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). Unlike the common PLCH cases, this PLCH case has cervical lymph node involvement and right pneumothorax. The diagnosis was established by the imaging of lung and the biopsies of the lung and left neck lymph node. Imaging of the chest showed characteristic small nodules and thin-walled cysts and right pneumothorax. The LCH cells in the lung and left neck lymph node were characterized by large convoluted nuclei with cerebriform indentations of the nuclear envelope and longitudinal grooves. The nuclei contained small eosinophilic nucleoli and moderate amount cytoplasm. Immunohistochemically, the histiocytoid cells were positive for Langerin, CD1a and S-100. Acid-fast bacilli were found in sputum and lung biopsy tissue. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of PLCH with cervical lymph node involvement, and coexisted with pulmonary tuberculosis, right pneumothorax. A contribution of this case and review three of the five cases of PLCH with extrapulmonary involvement to lymph nodes resolved spontaneously after smoking cessation constitute a novel addition that it is inappropriate to regard pulmonary/nodal LCH as multi-organ or disseminated disease, and the treatment methods are the same whether the PLCH patient with lymph node involvement or not. PMID:25973117

  7. A single epidermal stem cell strategy for safe ex vivo gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Droz-Georget Lathion, Stéphanie; Rochat, Ariane; Knott, Graham; Recchia, Alessandra; Martinet, Danielle; Benmohammed, Sara; Grasset, Nicolas; Zaffalon, Andrea; Besuchet Schmutz, Nathalie; Savioz-Dayer, Emmanuelle; Beckmann, Jacques Samuel; Rougemont, Jacques; Mavilio, Fulvio; Barrandon, Yann

    2015-02-27

    There is a widespread agreement from patient and professional organisations alike that the safety of stem cell therapeutics is of paramount importance, particularly for ex vivo autologous gene therapy. Yet current technology makes it difficult to thoroughly evaluate the behaviour of genetically corrected stem cells before they are transplanted. To address this, we have developed a strategy that permits transplantation of a clonal population of genetically corrected autologous stem cells that meet stringent selection criteria and the principle of precaution. As a proof of concept, we have stably transduced epidermal stem cells (holoclones) obtained from a patient suffering from recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa. Holoclones were infected with self-inactivating retroviruses bearing a COL7A1 cDNA and cloned before the progeny of individual stem cells were characterised using a number of criteria. Clonal analysis revealed a great deal of heterogeneity among transduced stem cells in their capacity to produce functional type VII collagen (COLVII). Selected transduced stem cells transplanted onto immunodeficient mice regenerated a non-blistering epidermis for months and produced a functional COLVII. Safety was assessed by determining the sites of proviral integration, rearrangements and hit genes and by whole-genome sequencing. The progeny of the selected stem cells also had a diploid karyotype, was not tumorigenic and did not disseminate after long-term transplantation onto immunodeficient mice. In conclusion, a clonal strategy is a powerful and efficient means of by-passing the heterogeneity of a transduced stem cell population. It guarantees a safe and homogenous medicinal product, fulfilling the principle of precaution and the requirements of regulatory affairs. Furthermore, a clonal strategy makes it possible to envision exciting gene-editing technologies like zinc finger nucleases, TALENs and homologous recombination for next-generation gene therapy.

  8. Sphingosine-1-phosphate mediates epidermal growth factor-induced muscle satellite cell activation

    SciTech Connect

    Nagata, Yosuke Ohashi, Kazuya; Wada, Eiji; Yuasa, Yuki; Shiozuka, Masataka; Nonomura, Yoshiaki; Matsuda, Ryoichi

    2014-08-01

    Skeletal muscle can regenerate repeatedly due to the presence of resident stem cells, called satellite cells. Because satellite cells are usually quiescent, they must be activated before participating in muscle regeneration in response to stimuli such as injury, overloading, and stretch. Although satellite cell activation is a crucial step in muscle regeneration, little is known of the molecular mechanisms controlling this process. Recent work showed that the bioactive lipid sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) plays crucial roles in the activation, proliferation, and differentiation of muscle satellite cells. We investigated the role of growth factors in S1P-mediated satellite cell activation. We found that epidermal growth factor (EGF) in combination with insulin induced proliferation of quiescent undifferentiated mouse myoblast C2C12 cells, which are also known as reserve cells, in serum-free conditions. Sphingosine kinase activity increased when reserve cells were stimulated with EGF. Treatment of reserve cells with the D-erythro-N,N-dimethylsphingosine, Sphingosine Kinase Inhibitor, or siRNA duplexes specific for sphingosine kinase 1, suppressed EGF-induced C2C12 activation. We also present the evidence showing the S1P receptor S1P2 is involved in EGF-induced reserve cell activation. Moreover, we demonstrated a combination of insulin and EGF promoted activation of satellite cells on single myofibers in a manner dependent on SPHK and S1P2. Taken together, our observations show that EGF-induced satellite cell activation is mediated by S1P and its receptor. - Highlights: • EGF in combination with insulin induces proliferation of quiescent C2C12 cells. • Sphingosine kinase activity increases when reserve cells are stimulated with EGF. • EGF-induced activation of reserve cells is dependent on sphingosine kinase and ERK. • The S1P receptor S1P2 is involved in EGF-induced reserve cell activation. • EGF-induced reserve cell activation is mediated by S1P and its

  9. Epidermal growth factor receptors on PC12 cells: alteration of binding properties by lectins

    SciTech Connect

    Vale, R.D.; Shooter, E.M.

    1983-01-01

    The PC12 cell line displays cell surface receptors for both nerve growth factor (NGF) and epidermal growth factor (EGF). It has been previously shown that the lectin wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) alters the properties of NGF receptors on these cells. We now report that preincubations with either WGA or concanavalin A (Con A) decrease the binding of /sup 125/I-EGF to PC12 cells by greater than 50%. The inhibition of binding occurred at 37 degrees C and 4 degrees C and could be blocked or reversed by the addition of sugars which bind specifically to WGA or Con A. Scatchard analysis revealed that these lectins decreased binding primarily by lowering the affinity of the receptor and to a lesser extent by decreasing receptor number. Succinylation of Con A (sCon A) produced a derivative that was less effective than the native lectin in decreasing EGF binding; however, addition of an antibody against Con A restored the ability of sCon A to decrease binding. Similar to results obtained with /sup 125/I-NGF binding, WGA but not Con A was found to increase, by severalfold, the proportion of /sup 125/I-EGF binding that is resistant to solubilization by Triton X-100 detergent. A potential association of the EGF receptor with cytoskeletal elements is discussed which could account for such results.

  10. Epidermal growth factor induces tyrosine hydroxylase in a clonal pheochromocytoma cell line, PC-G2

    SciTech Connect

    Goodman, R.; Slater, E.; Herschman, H.R.

    1980-03-01

    We have previously described the isolation of a clonal cell line (PC-G2) in which the level of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the rate-limiting step in the synthesis of the catecholamine neurotransmitters, is induced by nerve growth factor (NGF). We now report that epidermal growth factor (EGF) also induces TH in the PC-G2 cell line. Although EFG has been shown to be mitogenic for many cultured cells, no neuronal function has been previously reported for this protein. The TH response to EGF is elicited in a dose-dependent fashion at concentrations as low as 0.1 ng/ml and is maximal at 10 ng/ml EGF. The maximal response is observed after 3 to 4 d of exposure to 10 ng/ml EGF. The induction by NGF and EGF is inhibited by their respective antisera. Dexamethasone, a synthetic glucocorticoid which we have previously shown modulates the response of PC-G2 cells to NGF, also modulates the TH induction elicited by EGF.

  11. Heterogeneity of silica and glycan-epitope distribution in epidermal idioblast cell walls in Adiantum raddianum laminae.

    PubMed

    Leroux, Olivier; Leroux, Frederic; Mastroberti, Alexandra Antunes; Santos-Silva, Fernanda; Van Loo, Denis; Bagniewska-Zadworna, Agnieszka; Van Hoorebeke, Luc; Bals, Sara; Popper, Zoë A; de Araujo Mariath, Jorge Ernesto

    2013-06-01

    Laminae of Adiantum raddianum Presl., a fern belonging to the family Pteridaceae, are characterised by the presence of epidermal fibre-like cells under the vascular bundles. These cells were thought to contain silica bodies, but their thickened walls leave no space for intracellular silica suggesting it may actually be deposited within their walls. Using advanced electron microscopy in conjunction with energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis we showed the presence of silica in the cell walls of the fibre-like idioblasts. However, it was specifically localised to the outer layers of the periclinal wall facing the leaf surface, with the thick secondary wall being devoid of silica. Immunocytochemical experiments were performed to ascertain the respective localisation of silica deposition and glycan polymers. Epitopes characteristic for pectic homogalacturonan and the hemicelluloses xyloglucan and mannan were detected in most epidermal walls, including the silica-rich cell wall layers. The monoclonal antibody, LM6, raised against pectic arabinan, labelled the silica-rich primary wall of the epidermal fibre-like cells and the guard cell walls, which were also shown to contain silica. We hypothesise that the silicified outer wall layers of the epidermal fibre-like cells support the lamina during cell expansion prior to secondary wall formation. This implies that silicification does not impede cell elongation. Although our results suggest that pectic arabinan may be implicated in silica deposition, further detailed analyses are needed to confirm this. The combinatorial approach presented here, which allows correlative screening and in situ localisation of silicon and cell wall polysaccharide distribution, shows great potential for future studies.

  12. Synergistic action of auxin and ethylene on root elongation inhibition is caused by a reduction of epidermal cell length

    PubMed Central

    Alarcón, M Victoria; Lloret, Pedro G; Salguero, Julio

    2014-01-01

    Auxin and ethylene have been largely reported to reduce root elongation in maize primary root. However the effects of auxin are greater than those caused by ethylene. Although auxin stimulates ethylene biosynthesis through the specific increase of ACC synthase, the auxin inhibitory effect on root elongation is not mediated by the auxin-induced increase of ethylene production. Recently it has been demonstrated that root inhibition by the application of the synthetic auxin NAA (1-naphtalenacetic acid) is increased if combined with the ethylene precursor ACC (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxilic acid) when both compounds are applied at very low concentrations. Root elongation is basically the result of two processes: a) cell divisions in the meristem where meristematic cells continuously generate new cells and b) subsequently polarized growth by elongation along the root axis as cells leave the meristem and enter the root elongation zone. Our results indicate that exogenous auxin reduced both root elongation and epidermal cell length. In a different way, ethylene at very low concentrations only inhibited root elongation without affecting significantly epidermal cell length. However, these concentrations of ethylene increased the inhibitory effect of auxin on root elongation and cell length. Consequently the results support the hypothesis that ethylene acts synergistically with auxin in the regulation of root elongation and that inhibition by both hormones is due, at least partially, to the reduction of cell length in the epidermal layer. PMID:24598313

  13. Synergistic action of auxin and ethylene on root elongation inhibition is caused by a reduction of epidermal cell length.

    PubMed

    Alarcón, M Victoria; Lloret, Pedro G; Salguero, Julio

    2014-01-01

    Auxin and ethylene have been largely reported to reduce root elongation in maize primary root. However the effects of auxin are greater than those caused by ethylene. Although auxin stimulates ethylene biosynthesis through the specific increase of ACC synthase, the auxin inhibitory effect on root elongation is not mediated by the auxin-induced increase of ethylene production. Recently it has been demonstrated that root inhibition by the application of the synthetic auxin NAA (1-naphtalenacetic acid) is increased if combined with the ethylene precursor ACC (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxilic acid) when both compounds are applied at very low concentrations.   Root elongation is basically the result of two processes: a) cell divisions in the meristem where meristematic cells continuously generate new cells and b) subsequently polarized growth by elongation along the root axis as cells leave the meristem and enter the root elongation zone. Our results indicate that exogenous auxin reduced both root elongation and epidermal cell length. In a different way, ethylene at very low concentrations only inhibited root elongation without affecting significantly epidermal cell length. However, these concentrations of ethylene increased the inhibitory effect of auxin on root elongation and cell length. Consequently the results support the hypothesis that ethylene acts synergistically with auxin in the regulation of root elongation and that inhibition by both hormones is due, at least partially, to the reduction of cell length in the epidermal layer.

  14. Gene silencing for epidermal growth factor receptor variant III induces cell-specific cytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Yamoutpour, Farnaz; Bodempudi, Vidya; Park, Shay E.; Pan, Weihong; Mauzy, Mary Jean; Kratzke, Robert A.; Dudek, Arkadiusz; Potter, David A.; Woo, Richard A.; O’Rourke, Donald M.; Tindall, Donald J.; Farassati, Faris

    2009-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor variant III (EGFRvIII) is a constitutively active mutant form of EGFR that is expressed in 40% to 50% of gliomas and several other malignancies. Here, we describe the therapeutic effects of silencing EGFRvIII on glioma cell lines in vitro and in vivo. A small interfering RNA molecule against EGFRvIII was introduced into EGFRvIII-expressing glioma cells (U87Δ) by electroporation resulting in complete inhibition of expression of EGFRvIII as early as 48 h post-treatment. During EGFRvIII silencing, a decrease in the proliferation and invasiveness of U87Δ cells was accompanied by an increase in apoptosis (P < 0.05). Notably, EGFRvIII silencing inhibited the signal transduction machinery downstream of EGFRvIII as evidenced by decreases in the activated levels of Ras and extracellular signal-regulated kinase. A lentivirus capable of expressing anti-EGFRvIII short hairpin RNA was also able to achieve progressive silencing of EGFRvIII in U87Δ cells in addition to inhibiting cell proliferation, invasiveness, and colony formation in a significant manner (P < 0.05). Silencing EGFRvIII in U87Δ cultures with this virus reduced the expression of factors involved in epithelial-mesenchymal transition including N-cadherin, β-catenin, Snail, Slug, and paxillin but not E-cadherin. The anti-EGFRvIII lentivirus also affected the cell cycle progression of U87Δ cells with a decrease in G1 and increase in S and G2 fractions. In an in vivo model, tumor growth was completely inhibited in severe combined immunodeficient mice (n = 10) injected s.c. with U87Δ cells treated with the anti-EGFRvIII lentivirus (P = 0.005). We conclude that gene specific silencing of EGFRvIII is a promising strategy for treating cancers that contain this mutated receptor. PMID:19001441

  15. Modulation of cultured porcine granulosa cell responsiveness to follicle stimulating hormone and epidermal growth factor

    SciTech Connect

    Buck, P.A.

    1986-01-01

    Ovarian follicular development is dependent upon the coordinated growth and differentiation of the granulosa cells which line the follicle. Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) induces granulosa cell differentiation both in vivo and in vitro. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulates granulosa cell proliferation in vitro. The interaction of these two effectors upon selected parameters of growth and differentiation was examined in monolayer cultures of porcine granulose cells. Analysis of the EGF receptor by /sup 125/I-EGF binding revealed that the receptor was of high affinity with an apparent dissociation constant of 4-6 x 10/sup -10/ M. The average number of receptors per cell varied with the state of differentiation both in vivo and in vitro; highly differentiated cells bound two-fold less /sup 125/I-EGF and this effect was at least partially induced by FSH in vitro. EGF receptor function was examined by assessing EGF effects on cell number and /sup 3/H-thymidine incorporation. EGF stimulated thymidine incorporation in both serum-free and serum-supplemented culture, but only in serum-supplemented conditions was cell number increased. EGF receptor function was inversely related to the state of differentiation and was attenuated by FSH. The FSH receptor was examined by /sup 125/I-FSH binding. EGF increased FSH receptor number, and lowered the affinity of the receptor. The function of these receptors was assessed by /sup 125/I-hCG binding and progesterone radioimmunoassay. If EGF was present continuously in the cultures. FSH receptor function was attenuated regardless of FSH receptor number. A preliminary effort to examine the mechanism of this interaction was performed by analyzing hormonally controlled protein synthesis with /sup 35/S-methionine labeling, SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and fluorography. FSH promoted the expression of a 27,000 dalton protein. This effect was attenuated by EGF.

  16. Rapid and dynamic subcellular reorganization following mechanical stimulation of Arabidopsis epidermal cells mimics responses to fungal and oomycete attack

    PubMed Central

    Hardham, Adrienne R; Takemoto, Daigo; White, Rosemary G

    2008-01-01

    Background Plant cells respond to the presence of potential fungal or oomycete pathogens by mounting a basal defence response that involves aggregation of cytoplasm, reorganization of cytoskeletal, endomembrane and other cell components and development of cell wall appositions beneath the infection site. This response is induced by non-adapted, avirulent and virulent pathogens alike, and in the majority of cases achieves penetration resistance against the microorganism on the plant surface. To explore the nature of signals that trigger this subcellular response and to determine the timing of its induction, we have monitored the reorganization of GFP-tagged actin, microtubules, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and peroxisomes in Arabidopsis plants – after touching the epidermal surface with a microneedle. Results Within 3 to 5 minutes of touching the surface of Arabidopsis cotyledon epidermal cells with fine glass or tungsten needles, actin microfilaments, ER and peroxisomes began to accumulate beneath the point of contact with the needle. Formation of a dense patch of actin was followed by focusing of actin cables on the site of contact. Touching the cell surface induced localized depolymerization of microtubules to form a microtubule-depleted zone surrounding a dense patch of GFP-tubulin beneath the needle tip. The concentration of actin, GFP-tubulin, ER and peroxisomes remained focused on the contact site as the needle moved across the cell surface and quickly dispersed when the needle was removed. Conclusion Our results show that plant cells can detect the gentle pressure of a microneedle on the epidermal cell surface and respond by reorganizing subcellular components in a manner similar to that induced during attack by potential fungal or oomycete pathogens. The results of our study indicate that during plant-pathogen interactions, the basal defence response may be induced by the plant's perception of the physical force exerted by the pathogen as it attempts to

  17. Glucose and ethylene signalling pathways converge to regulate trans-differentiation of epidermal transfer cells in Vicia narbonensis cotyledons.

    PubMed

    Andriunas, Felicity A; Zhang, Hui-Ming; Weber, Hans; McCurdy, David W; Offler, Christina E; Patrick, John W

    2011-12-01

    Transfer cells are specialized transport cells containing invaginated wall ingrowths that provide an amplified plasma membrane surface area with high densities of transporter proteins. They trans-differentiate from differentiated cells at sites where enhanced rates of nutrient transport occur across apo/symplasmic boundaries. Despite their physiological importance, the signal(s) and signalling cascades responsible for initiating their trans-differentiation are poorly understood. In culture, adaxial epidermal cells of Vicia narbonensis cotyledons were induced to trans-differentiate to a transfer cell morphology. Manipulating their intracellular glucose concentrations by transgenic knock-down of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase expression and/or culture on a high-glucose medium demonstrated that glucose functioned as a negative regulator of wall ingrowth induction. In contrast, glucose had no detectable effect on wall ingrowth morphology. The effect on wall ingrowth induction of culture on media containing glucose analogues suggested that glucose acts through a hexokinase-dependent signalling pathway. Elevation of an epidermal cell-specific ethylene signal alone, or in combination with glucose analogues, countered the negative effect of glucose on wall ingrowth induction. Glucose modulated the amplitude of ethylene-stimulated wall ingrowth induction by down-regulating the expression of ethylene biosynthetic genes and an ethylene insensitive 3 (EIN3)-like gene (EIL) encoding a key transcription factor in the ethylene signalling cascade. A model is presented describing the interaction between glucose and ethylene signalling pathways regulating the induction of wall ingrowth formation in adaxial epidermal cells.

  18. Effects of glass ionomers and dental resin composites on viability of beta-cells and insulin release in isolated islets of Langerhans.

    PubMed

    Persson-Sjögren, Solveig; Sjögren, Göran

    2003-09-01

    Information on the biocompatibility of glass ionomers and resin composites is sparse. To extend the scale of biological testing we evaluated the influence of those materials on insulin secretion at whole organ level in vitro. The effects on insulin secretion of three glass ionomers and two resin composites, aged for 1 week, were studied in isolated mouse islets of Langerhans at basal (5.5mM) and at stimulatory (11.1mM) D-glucose concentrations. In addition, viability of single mouse beta-cells was evaluated. The effect of glass ionomer specimens aged for 1 and 4 months on insulin secretion at 11.1mM D-glucose was also studied. None of the materials affected the viability of the beta-cells. At 5.5mM D-glucose none of the materials affected the insulin secretion. At 11.1mM D-glucose, the glass ionomers only decreased the secretion and glass ionomers aged for 1 month still decreased insulin release whereas after 4 months ageing only one of the glass ionomers affected the release. The result shows a dynamic effect on insulin release of the elements and/or compounds released from the specimens.

  19. High prevalence of BRAF V600E mutations in Erdheim-Chester disease but not in other non-Langerhans cell histiocytoses.

    PubMed

    Haroche, Julien; Charlotte, Frédéric; Arnaud, Laurent; von Deimling, Andreas; Hélias-Rodzewicz, Zofia; Hervier, Baptiste; Cohen-Aubart, Fleur; Launay, David; Lesot, Annette; Mokhtari, Karima; Canioni, Danielle; Galmiche, Louise; Rose, Christian; Schmalzing, Marc; Croockewit, Sandra; Kambouchner, Marianne; Copin, Marie-Christine; Fraitag, Sylvie; Sahm, Felix; Brousse, Nicole; Amoura, Zahir; Donadieu, Jean; Emile, Jean-François

    2012-09-27

    Histiocytoses are rare disorders of unknown origin with highly heterogeneous prognosis. BRAF mutations have been observed in Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH). We investigated the frequency of BRAF mutations in several types of histiocytoses. Histology from 127 patients with histiocytoses were reviewed. Detection of BRAF(V600) mutations was performed by pyrosequencing of DNA extracted from paraffin embedded samples. Diagnoses of Erdheim-Chester disease (ECD), LCH, Rosai-Dorfman disease, juvenile xanthogranuloma, histiocytic sarcoma, xanthoma disseminatum, interdigitating dendritic cell sarcoma, and necrobiotic xanthogranuloma were performed in 46, 39, 23, 12, 3, 2, 1, and 1 patients, respectively. BRAF status was obtained in 93 cases. BRAF(V600E) mutations were detected in 13 of 24 (54%) ECD, 11 of 29 (38%) LCH, and none of the other histiocytoses. Four patients with ECD died of disease. The high frequency of BRAF(V600E) in LCH and ECD suggests a common origin of these diseases. Treatment with vemurafenib should be investigated in patients with malignant BRAF(V600E) histiocytosis. PMID:22879539

  20. Effect of glucocorticoid on epidermal growth factor receptor in human salivary gland adenocarcinoma cell line HSG.

    PubMed

    Kyakumoto, S; Kurokawa, R; Ota, M

    1990-07-12

    Human salivary gland adenocarcinoma (HSG) cells treated with 10(-6) M triamcinolone acetonide for 48 h exhibited a 1.7- to 2.0-fold increase in [125I]human epidermal growth factor (hEGF) binding capacity as compared with untreated HSG cells. Scatchard analysis of [125I]EGF binding data revealed that the number of binding sites was 83,700 (+/- 29,200) receptors/cell in untreated cells and 160,500 (+/- 35,500) receptors/cell in treated cells. No substantial change in receptor affinity was detected. The dissociation constant of the EGF receptor was 0.78 (+/- 0.26).10(-9) M for untreated cells, whereas it was 0.93 (+/- 0.31).10(-9)M for treated cells. The triamcinolone acetonide-induced increase in [125I]EGF binding capacity was dose-dependent between 10(-9) and 10(-6)M, and maximal binding was observed at 10(-6)M. EGF receptors on HSG cells were affinity-labeled with [125I]EGF by use of the cross-linking reagent disuccinimidyl suberate (DSS). The cross-linked [125I]EGF was 3-4% of the total [125I]EGF bound to HSG cells. The affinity-labeled EGF receptor was detected as a specific 170 kDa band in the autoradiograph after SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Densitometric analysis revealed that triamcinolone acetonide amplified the intensity of this band 2.0-fold over that of the band of untreated cells. EGF receptor synthesis was also measured by immunoprecipitation of [3H]leucine-labeled EGF receptor protein with anti-hEGF receptor monoclonal antibody. Receptor synthesis was increased 1.7- to 1.8-fold when HSG cells were treated with 10(-8)-10(-6)M triamcinolone acetonide for 48 h. When the immunoprecipitated, [35S]methionine-pulse-labeled EGF receptor was analyzed by SDS-PAGE and fluorography, the newly synthesized EGF receptor was detected at the position of 170 kDa; and treatment of HSG cells with triamcinolone acetonide resulted in a 2.0-fold amplification of this 170 kDa band. There was no significant difference in turnover rate of EGF receptor

  1. An epidermal stem cells niche microenvironment created by engineered human amniotic membrane.

    PubMed

    Ji, Shi-zhao; Xiao, Shi-chu; Luo, Peng-fei; Huang, Guo-feng; Wang, Guang-yi; Zhu, Shi-hui; Wu, Min-juan; Xia, Zhao-fan

    2011-11-01

    How to amplify epidermal stem cells (ESCs) rapidly is a challenging crux in skin tissue engineering research. The present study describes the preparation of 3D micronized (300-600 μm) amniotic membrane (mAM) by means of repeated freeze-thawing cycles to deplete cell components and homogenized with a macrohomogenizer in liquid nitrogen. This newly prepared mAM not only possessed the characteristics of a microcarrier but completely retained the basement membrane structure and abundant active substances such as NGF, HGF, KGF, bFGF, TGF-β1 and EGF in the AM matrix. The result showed that mAM combined with rotary cell culture system (RCCS) was able to amplify ESCs quickly. The relative cell viability at day 7 and 14 was significantly higher than that of the conventional 2D plate culture (326 ± 28% and 535 ± 47% versus 232 ± 21% and 307 ± 32%, P < 0.05). In addition, the new method was able to prevent cell differentiation effectively and retain the characteristics of stem cells. When mAM loaded with ESCs (ESC-mAM) was further transplanted to full-thickness skin defects in nude mice, ESCs survived well and formed a new epidermis. Four weeks after transplantation, papilla-like structures were observed, and collagen fibers were well and regularly arranged in the newly formed dermal layer. In conclusion, the mAM as a novel natural microcarrier possesses an intact basement membrane structure and bioactivities. It not only provides the microenvironment similar to the stem cell niche within the human body favorable for ex vivo culture and amplification of ESCs but can be used as the dermal scaffold in constructing a skin substitute containing ESCs for the repair of full-thickness skin defects.

  2. Epidermal growth factor precursor in mouse lactating mammary gland alveolar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, C.F.; Teng, C.T.; Pentecost, B.T.; DiAugustine, R.P. )

    1989-07-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that high levels of epidermal growth factor (EGF) occur in human and rodent milk and that oral administration of this polypeptide stimulates rodent gastrointestinal development. It is not known whether EGF in milk originates from cells of the lactating mammary gland or is sequestered from an extramammary source. In the present study, prepro-EGF mRNA (approximately 4.7 kilobases) was detected in the CD-1 mouse mammary gland throughout the period of lactation; by comparison, negligible levels of this EGF transcript were found in the gland during pregnancy. Low levels of EGF immunoreactivity (4-5 ng/g wet wt tissue) were extracted from lactating (day 18) mammary glands with dilute acetic acid. Immunolocalization was evident with antisera to either EGF or two other regions of the EGF precursor in essentially all alveolar cells of the lactating gland. The most prominent staining with antiserum to EGF was observed along the luminal borders of cells; this pattern of cellular staining required proteolytic pretreatment of tissue sections. Western blot analyses of cell membranes isolated from the day 16 lactating mammary gland revealed an EGF-immunoreactive band at about 145K, which was equivalent in size to the EGF precursor found in mouse kidney cell membranes. Despite these findings, labeling of lactating mammary gland mince with L-(35S)methionine and cysteine for up to 4 h did not reveal any specific bands in immunoprecipitates. These cumulative findings suggest that the precursor form of EGF occurs in alveolar cells of lactating mammary gland and that this protein is translocated to the cell membrane.

  3. An epidermal stem cells niche microenvironment created by engineered human amniotic membrane.

    PubMed

    Ji, Shi-zhao; Xiao, Shi-chu; Luo, Peng-fei; Huang, Guo-feng; Wang, Guang-yi; Zhu, Shi-hui; Wu, Min-juan; Xia, Zhao-fan

    2011-11-01

    How to amplify epidermal stem cells (ESCs) rapidly is a challenging crux in skin tissue engineering research. The present study describes the preparation of 3D micronized (300-600 μm) amniotic membrane (mAM) by means of repeated freeze-thawing cycles to deplete cell components and homogenized with a macrohomogenizer in liquid nitrogen. This newly prepared mAM not only possessed the characteristics of a microcarrier but completely retained the basement membrane structure and abundant active substances such as NGF, HGF, KGF, bFGF, TGF-β1 and EGF in the AM matrix. The result showed that mAM combined with rotary cell culture system (RCCS) was able to amplify ESCs quickly. The relative cell viability at day 7 and 14 was significantly higher than that of the conventional 2D plate culture (326 ± 28% and 535 ± 47% versus 232 ± 21% and 307 ± 32%, P < 0.05). In addition, the new method was able to prevent cell differentiation effectively and retain the characteristics of stem cells. When mAM loaded with ESCs (ESC-mAM) was further transplanted to full-thickness skin defects in nude mice, ESCs survived well and formed a new epidermis. Four weeks after transplantation, papilla-like structures were observed, and collagen fibers were well and regularly arranged in the newly formed dermal layer. In conclusion, the mAM as a novel natural microcarrier possesses an intact basement membrane structure and bioactivities. It not only provides the microenvironment similar to the stem cell niche within the human body favorable for ex vivo culture and amplification of ESCs but can be used as the dermal scaffold in constructing a skin substitute containing ESCs for the repair of full-thickness skin defects. PMID:21803416

  4. Effects of Narrow Band UVB (311 nm) Irradiation on Epidermal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Reich, Adam; Mędrek, Karolina

    2013-01-01

    Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is known to be one of the most important environmental hazards acting on the skin. It was revealed that chronic exposure to UVR accelerates skin aging, induces immunosuppression and may lead to the development of skin cancers. On the other hand, UVR has been shown to be effective in the treatment of numerous skin diseases and thus, various phototherapy modalities have been developed to date. Narrow-band ultraviolet B (NB-UVB) emitting a light with a peak around 311 nm has been demonstrated to be effective in the treatment of various skin disorders; currently it is one of the most commonly used phototherapy devices. Despite NB-UVB has been developed more than 30 years ago, the exact mechanism of its therapeutic action remains poorly understood. To date, most of NB-UVB effects were attributed to its influence on immune cells; however, nearly 90% of NB-UVB irradiation is absorbed by epidermis and keratinocytes seem to be important players in mediating NB-UVB biological activity. Here, we have reviewed the current data about the influence of NB-UVB on epidermal cells, with a special emphasis on cell proliferation and death. PMID:23594996

  5. Autoradiographic localization of epidermal growth factor receptors to all major uterine cell types

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, T.H.; Mukku, V.R.; Verner, G.; Kirkland, J.L.; Stancel, G.M.

    1988-03-01

    We have recently studied the structure and function of the uterine epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor, its hormonal regulation, and its possible role in estrogen-induced uterine DNA synthesis. Since the uterus is composed of multiple cell types, we sought, in the work reported here, to localize EGF binding in this organ by autoradiography. Prior to the actual autoradiography, we performed a companion series of experiments to insure that EGF binding to uterine tissue in situ represented a true receptor interaction. Uteri from immature female rats were incubated in vitro with 125I-EGF at 25 degrees C. Tissue binding was maximal within 120 min and remained constant for at least an additional 120 min. This binding of labeled EGF was largely abolished by excess unlabeled EGF but not by other growth factors, indicating that binding was to specific receptors. The binding of 125I-EGF was saturable and reached a plateau at 4-8 nM; specific binding was half-maximal at 1-2 nM EGF. In situ cross-linking studies revealed that 125I-EGF was bound predominantly to a 170,000 MW EGF receptor similar to that seen in isolated uterine membranes. Incubation of uteri with 125I-EGF followed by autoradiography revealed binding to epithelial cells, stroma, and myometrium. These results provide evidence for the presence of specific EGF receptors in all major uterine cell types of the immature rat.

  6. The Potential of Menstrual Blood-Derived Stem Cells in Differentiation to Epidermal Lineage: A Preliminary Report

    PubMed Central

    Faramarzi, Hossein; Mehrabani, Davood; Fard, Maryam; Akhavan, Maryam; Zare, Sona; Bakhshalizadeh, Shabnam; Manafi, Amir; Kazemnejad, Somaieh; Shirazi, Reza

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Menstrual blood-derived stem cells (MenSCs) are a novel source of stem cells that can be easily isolated non-invasively from female volunteered donor without ethical consideration. These mesenchymal-like stem cells have high rate of proliferation and possess multi lineage differentiation potency. This study was undertaken to isolate the MenSCs and assess their potential in differentiation into epidermal lineage. METHODS About 5-10 ml of menstrual blood (MB) was collected using sterile Diva cups inserted into vagina during menstruation from volunteered healthy fertile women aged between 22-30 years. MB was transferred into Falcon tubes containing phosphate buffered saline (PBS) without Ca2+ or Mg2+ supplemented with 2.5 µg/ml fungizone, 100 µg/mL streptomycin, 100 U/mL penicillin and 0.5 mM EDTA. Mononuclear cells were separated using Ficoll-Hypaque density gradient centrifugation and washed out in PBS. The cell pellet was suspended in DMEM-F12 medium supplemented with 10% FBS and cultured in tissue culture plates. The isolated cells were co-cultured with keratinocytes derived from the foreskin of healthy newborn male aged 2-10 months who was a candidate for circumcision for differentiation into epidermal lineage. RESULTS The isolated MenSCs were adhered to the plate and exhibited spindle-shaped morphology. Flow cytometric analysis revealed the expression of mesenchymal markers of CD10, CD29, CD73, and CD105 and lack of hematopoietic stem cells markers. An early success in derivation of epidermal lineage from MenSCs was visible. CONCLUSION The MenSCs are a real source to design differentiation to epidermal cells that can be used non-invasively in various dermatological lesions and diseases. PMID:27308237

  7. Differentiation of ionic currents in CNS progenitor cells: dependence upon substrate attachment and epidermal growth factor.

    PubMed

    Feldman, D H; Thinschmidt, J S; Peel, A L; Papke, R L; Reier, P J

    1996-08-01

    Multipotential progenitor cells grown from central nervous system (CNS) tissues in defined media supplemented with epidermal growth factor (EGF), when attached to a suitable substratum, differentiate to express neural and glial histochemical markers and morphologies. To assess the functional characteristics of such cells, expression of voltage-gated Na+ and K+ currents (INa, IK) was studied by whole-cell patch clamp methods in progenitors raised from postnatal rat forebrain. Undifferentiated cells were acutely dissociated from proliferative "spheres," and differentiated cells were studied 1-25 days after plating spheres onto polylysine/laminin-treated coverslips. INa and IK were detected together in 58%, INa alone in 11%, and IK alone in 19% of differentiated cells recorded with K(+)-containing pipettes. With internal Cs+ (to isolate INa), INa up to 45 pA/pF was observed in some cells within 1 day after plating. I Na ranged up to 150 pA/pF subsequently. Overall, 84% of cells expressed I Na, with an average of 38 pA/pF. INa had fast kinetics, as in neurons, but steadystate inactivation curves were strongly negative, resembling those of glial INa. Inward tail currents sensitive to [K+]out were observed upon repolarization after the 10-ms test pulse with internal Cs+, indicating the expression of K+ channels in 82% of cells. In contrast to the substantial currents observed in differentiating cells, little or no INa or Ik-tail currents were detected in recordings from cells acutely dissociated from spheres. Thus, in the presence of EGF, ionic currents develop early during differentiation induced by attachment to an appropriate substratum. Cells switched from EGF to basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) when plated onto coverslips showed greatly reduced proliferation and developed less neuron-like morphologies than cells plated in the presence of EGF. INa was observed in only 53% of bFGF-treated cells, with an average of 9 pA/pF. Thus, in contrast to reports that b

  8. The carboxy-terminus of p63 links cell cycle control and the proliferative potential of epidermal progenitor cells

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Daisuke; Sahu, Raju; Leu, N. Adrian; Senoo, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    The transcription factor p63 (Trp63) plays a key role in homeostasis and regeneration of the skin. The p63 gene is transcribed from dual promoters, generating TAp63 isoforms with growth suppressive functions and dominant-negative ΔNp63 isoforms with opposing properties. p63 also encodes multiple carboxy (C)-terminal variants. Although mutations of C-terminal variants have been linked to the pathogenesis of p63-associated ectodermal disorders, the physiological role of the p63 C-terminus is poorly understood. We report here that deletion of the p63 C-terminus in mice leads to ectodermal malformation and hypoplasia, accompanied by a reduced proliferative capacity of epidermal progenitor cells. Notably, unlike the p63-null condition, we find that p63 C-terminus deficiency promotes expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21Waf1/Cip1 (Cdkn1a), a factor associated with reduced proliferative capacity of both hematopoietic and neuronal stem cells. These data suggest that the p63 C-terminus plays a key role in the cell cycle progression required to maintain the proliferative potential of stem cells of many different lineages. Mechanistically, we show that loss of Cα, the predominant C-terminal p63 variant in epithelia, promotes the transcriptional activity of TAp63 and also impairs the dominant-negative activity of ΔNp63, thereby controlling p21Waf1/Cip1 expression. We propose that the p63 C-terminus links cell cycle control and the proliferative potential of epidermal progenitor cells via mechanisms that equilibrate TAp63 and ΔNp63 isoform function. PMID:25503409

  9. The xipotl Mutant of Arabidopsis Reveals a Critical Role for Phospholipid Metabolism in Root System Development and Epidermal Cell Integrity

    PubMed Central

    Cruz-Ramírez, Alfredo; López-Bucio, José; Ramírez-Pimentel, Gabriel; Zurita-Silva, Andrés; Sánchez-Calderon, Lenin; Ramírez-Chávez, Enrique; González-Ortega, Emmanuel; Herrera-Estrella, Luis

    2004-01-01

    Phosphocholine (PCho) is an essential metabolite for plant development because it is the precursor for the biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine, which is the major lipid component in plant cell membranes. The main step in PCho biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana is the triple, sequential N-methylation of phosphoethanolamine, catalyzed by S-adenosyl-l-methionine:phosphoethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PEAMT). In screenings performed to isolate Arabidopsis mutants with altered root system architecture, a T-DNA mutagenized line showing remarkable alterations in root development was isolated. At the seedling stage, the mutant phenotype is characterized by a short primary root, a high number of lateral roots, and short epidermal cells with aberrant morphology. Genetic and biochemical characterization of this mutant showed that the T-DNA was inserted at the At3g18000 locus (XIPOTL1), which encodes PEAMT (XIPOTL1). Further analyses revealed that inhibition of PCho biosynthesis in xpl1 mutants not only alters several root developmental traits but also induces cell death in root epidermal cells. Epidermal cell death could be reversed by phosphatidic acid treatment. Taken together, our results suggest that molecules produced downstream of the PCho biosynthesis pathway play key roles in root development and act as signals for cell integrity. PMID:15295103

  10. The CD44+ALDH+ Population of Human Keratinocytes Is Enriched for Epidermal Stem Cells with Long-Term Repopulating Ability

    PubMed Central

    Szabo, Akos Z.; Fong, Stephen; Yue, Lili; Zhang, Kai; Strachan, Lauren R.; Scalapino, Kenneth; Mancianti, Maria Laura; Ghadially, Ruby

    2014-01-01

    Like for other somatic tissues, isolation of a pure population of stem cells has been a primary goal in epidermal biology. We isolated discrete populations of freshly obtained human neonatal keratinocytes (HNKs) using previously untested candidate stem cell markers aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) and CD44 as well as the previously studied combination of integrin α6 and CD71. An in vivo transplantation assay combined with limiting dilution analysis was used to quantify enrichment for long-term repopulating cells in the isolated populations. The ALDH+CD44+ population was enriched 12.6-fold for long-term repopulating epidermal stem cells (EpiSCs) and the integrin α6hiCD71lo population was enriched 5.6-fold, over unfractionated cells. In addition to long-term repopulation, CD44+ALDH+ keratinocytes exhibited other stem cell properties. CD44+ALDH+ keratinocytes had self-renewal ability, demonstrated by increased numbers of cells expressing nuclear Bmi-1, serial transplantation of CD44+ALDH+ cells, and holoclone formation in vitro. CD44+ALDH+ cells were multipotent, producing greater numbers of hair follicle-like structures than CD44−ALDH− cells. Furthermore, 58% ± 7% of CD44+ALDH+ cells exhibited label-retention. In vitro, CD44+ALDH+ cells showed enhanced colony formation, in both keratinocyte and embryonic stem cell growth media. In summary, the CD44+ALDH+ population exhibits stem cell properties including long-term epidermal regeneration, multipotency, label retention, and holoclone formation. This study shows that it is possible to quantify the relative number of EpiSCs in human keratinocyte populations using long-term repopulation as a functional test of stem cell nature. Future studies will combine isolation strategies as dictated by the results of quantitative transplantation assays, in order to achieve a nearly pure population of EpiSCs. PMID:23335266

  11. Preparation of Epidermal Peels and Guard Cell Protoplasts for Cellular, Electrophysiological, and -Omics Assays of Guard Cell Function.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Mengmeng; Jeon, Byeong Wook; Geng, Sisi; Yu, Yunqing; Balmant, Kelly; Chen, Sixue; Assmann, Sarah M

    2016-01-01

    Bioassays are commonly used to study stomatal phenotypes. There are multiple options in the choice of plant materials and species used for observation of stomatal and guard cell responses in vivo. Here, detailed procedures for bioassays of stomatal responses to abscisic acid (ABA) in Arabidopsis thaliana are described, including ABA promotion of stomatal closure, ABA inhibition of stomatal opening, and ABA promotion of reaction oxygen species (ROS) production in guard cells. We also include an example of a stomatal bioassay for the guard cell CO2 response using guard cell-enriched epidermal peels from Brassica napus. Highly pure preparations of guard cell protoplasts can be produced, which are also suitable for studies on guard cell signaling, as well as for studies on guard cell ion transport. Small-scale and large-scale guard cell protoplast preparations are commonly used for electrophysiological and -omics studies, respectively. We provide a procedure for small-scale guard cell protoplasting from A. thaliana. Additionally, a general protocol for large-scale preparation of guard cell protoplasts, with specifications for three different species, A. thaliana, B. napus, and Vicia faba is also provided. PMID:26577784

  12. Preparation of Epidermal Peels and Guard Cell Protoplasts for Cellular, Electrophysiological, and -Omics Assays of Guard Cell Function.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Mengmeng; Jeon, Byeong Wook; Geng, Sisi; Yu, Yunqing; Balmant, Kelly; Chen, Sixue; Assmann, Sarah M

    2016-01-01

    Bioassays are commonly used to study stomatal phenotypes. There are multiple options in the choice of plant materials and species used for observation of stomatal and guard cell responses in vivo. Here, detailed procedures for bioassays of stomatal responses to abscisic acid (ABA) in Arabidopsis thaliana are described, including ABA promotion of stomatal closure, ABA inhibition of stomatal opening, and ABA promotion of reaction oxygen species (ROS) production in guard cells. We also include an example of a stomatal bioassay for the guard cell CO2 response using guard cell-enriched epidermal peels from Brassica napus. Highly pure preparations of guard cell protoplasts can be produced, which are also suitable for studies on guard cell signaling, as well as for studies on guard cell ion transport. Small-scale and large-scale guard cell protoplast preparations are commonly used for electrophysiological and -omics studies, respectively. We provide a procedure for small-scale guard cell protoplasting from A. thaliana. Additionally, a general protocol for large-scale preparation of guard cell protoplasts, with specifications for three different species, A. thaliana, B. napus, and Vicia faba is also provided.

  13. Endothelial Cells Derived from the Blood-Brain Barrier and Islets of Langerhans Differ in their Response to the Effects of Bilirubin on Oxidative Stress Under Hyperglycemic Conditions.

    PubMed

    Kapitulnik, Jaime; Benaim, Clara; Sasson, Shlomo

    2012-01-01

    Unconjugated bilirubin (UCB) is a neurotoxic degradation product of heme. Its toxic effects include induction of apoptosis, and ultimately neuronal cell death. However, at low concentrations, UCB is a potent antioxidant that may protect cells and tissues against oxidative stress by neutralizing toxic metabolites such as reactive oxygen species (ROS). High glucose levels (hyperglycemia) generate rea