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Sample records for epidural patient-controlled analgesia

  1. Patient-controlled epidural analgesia: interactions between nalbuphine and hydromorphone.

    PubMed

    Parker, R K; Holtmann, B; White, P F

    1997-04-01

    Epidural opioid analgesia can offer advantages over intravenous administration, however, opioid-related side effects are common after epidural administration. We studied the effect of adding nalbuphine (NB), an opioid agonist-antagonist, to hydromorphone (HM) for patient-controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA) in 78 healthy women after elective cesarean delivery. Patients were randomly assigned to one of four treatment groups. The control group received preservative-free HM (Dilaudid) alone, 0.075 mg/mL, while the three study groups received HM, 0.075 mg/mL, containing preservative-free NB (Nubain) 0.02, 0.04, or 0.08 mg/mL. Intraoperatively, all patients received epidural bupivacaine 0.5%. Postoperatively, a patient-controlled anesthesia (PCA) device was connected to the epidural catheter and programmed to deliver a 3-mL loading dose of the analgesic solution. Subsequently, patients could self-administer 2 mL bolus doses on demand with a 30-min lockout interval. Patients were encouraged to ambulate approximately 8 h after surgery, and PCEA therapy was discontinued when a clear liquid diet was tolerated. Visual analog scale scores were used to assess pain at 8-h intervals while using PCEA therapy. Although the overall incidences of nausea (19%-35%) and pruritus (32%-62%) were similar in all four groups, the addition of NB decreased the need for bladder catheterization. The highest NB concentration resulted in increased PCA demands during the 32-h study period. In conclusion, the combination of HM 0.075 mg/mL and NB 0.04 mg/mL resulted in lower nausea scores and a decreased incidence of urinary retention compared with HM alone, without increasing the opioid analgesic requirement.

  2. Remifentanil patient controlled analgesia versus epidural analgesia in labour. A multicentre randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Pain relief during labour is a topic of major interest in the Netherlands. Epidural analgesia is considered to be the most effective method of pain relief and recommended as first choice. However its uptake by pregnant women is limited compared to other western countries, partly as a result of non-availability due to logistic problems. Remifentanil, a synthetic opioid, is very suitable for patient controlled analgesia. Recent studies show that epidural analgesia is superior to remifentanil patient controlled analgesia in terms of pain intensity score; however there was no difference in satisfaction with pain relief between both treatments. Methods/design The proposed study is a multicentre randomized controlled study that assesses the cost-effectiveness of remifentanil patient controlled analgesia compared to epidural analgesia. We hypothesize that remifentanil patient controlled analgesia is as effective in improving pain appreciation scores as epidural analgesia, with lower costs and easier achievement of 24 hours availability of pain relief for women in labour and efficient pain relief for those with a contraindication for epidural analgesia. Eligible women will be informed about the study and randomized before active labour has started. Women will be randomly allocated to a strategy based on epidural analgesia or on remifentanil patient controlled analgesia when they request pain relief during labour. Primary outcome is the pain appreciation score, i.e. satisfaction with pain relief. Secondary outcome parameters are costs, patient satisfaction, pain scores (pain-intensity), mode of delivery and maternal and neonatal side effects. The economic analysis will be performed from a short-term healthcare perspective. For both strategies the cost of perinatal care for mother and child, starting at the onset of labour and ending ten days after delivery, will be registered and compared. Discussion This study, considering cost effectiveness of remifentanil as

  3. Intermittent epidural TOP-UPS vs. patient control epidural analgesia during labor.

    PubMed

    Marijic, Vlatka; Bukovic, Damir; Mihaljevic, Slobodan; Oreskovic, Slavko; Persec, Jasminka; Zupic, Tomislav; Juras, Josip; Milinovic, Darko

    2013-12-01

    Pain during labor and delivery is often very unpleasant and stressful for the parturients. Patient controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA) has been found to be both safe and effective, providing optimal pain relief and allowing women to participate in their own analgesia). Compared to other epidural techniques, intermittent epidural top-ups and continuous epidural analgesia (CEA), PCEA uses diluted local anesthetic solutions with less motor block and less unscheduled clinician interventions. The purpose of our study was to compare intermittent bolus epidural top-ups and PCEA in labor. Sixty ASA I patients who requested epidural analgesia for labor and had written consent were included in the study. 30 patients in the first group received intermittent bolus epidural top-ups, while patients in the second group received PCEA. We evaluated duration of labor, maternal sense of pain using VAS scale and maternal satisfaction during fetal descent in both groups. We found that the duration of labor was significantly shorter and maternal sense of pain was lower in the PCEA group than in the group receiving epidural bolus top-ups. There were no differences between groups in maternal satisfaction during fetal descent.

  4. Patient-controlled epidural analgesia in labor does not always improve maternal satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Nikkola, Eeva; Läärä, Arja; Hinkka, Susanna; Ekblad, Ulla; Kero, Pentti; Salonen, Markku

    2006-01-01

    We investigated whether patient-controlled epidural analgesia in labor with bupivacaine and fentanyl provides more satisfaction to mothers than intermittent bolus epidural analgesia or patient-controlled epidural analgesia with plain bupivacaine. Ninety mothers with term, uncomplicated pregnancies were randomized to receive intermittent bolus epidural analgesia (bupivacaine + fentanyl), patient-controlled epidural analgesia (bupivacaine + fentanyl), or patient-controlled epidural analgesia (bupivacaine). Pain during labor was evaluated with a visual analog scale. Obstetric and neonatal outcomes were recorded. After delivery, the mothers were given a questionnaire covering the following themes: experience of labor pain, feeling of control, fears and expectations associated with pregnancy/with delivery/with becoming a mother, as well as pain, physical condition and emotions after delivery. To elaborate on these answers, 30 mothers were further randomized to a semistructured interview, in which the same topics were discussed. The main outcome measure was maternal satisfaction. The intermittent bolus epidural analgesia group felt they could influence labor most (p = 0.03), and in the interview they expressed most satisfaction. In this group, the total drug utilization was smallest (bupivacaine: p <0.0001 comparing all groups, fentanyl: p = 0.03 comparing the two fentanyl-receiving groups). No differences in pain occurred. Vomiting (p = 0.04) and pruritus (p <0.0001) were more common or more severe in the groups receiving fentanyl. We found no advantages for patient-controlled epidural analgesia over intermittent bolus epidural analgesia in terms of maternal satisfaction.

  5. Patient controlled analgesia with remifentanil versus epidural analgesia in labour: randomised multicentre equivalence trial

    PubMed Central

    Bloemenkamp, Kitty W; Franssen, Maureen T; Papatsonis, Dimitri N; Hajenius, Petra J; Hollmann, Markus W; Woiski, Mallory D; Porath, Martina; van den Berg, Hans J; van Beek, Erik; Borchert, Odette W H M; Schuitemaker, Nico; Sikkema, J Marko; Kuipers, A H M; Logtenberg, Sabine L M; van der Salm, Paulien C M; Oude Rengerink, Katrien; Lopriore, Enrico; van den Akker-van Marle, M Elske; le Cessie, Saskia; van Lith, Jan M; Struys, Michel M; Mol, Ben Willem J; Dahan, Albert; Middeldorp, Johanna M

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine women’s satisfaction with pain relief using patient controlled analgesia with remifentanil compared with epidural analgesia during labour. Design Multicentre randomised controlled equivalence trial. Setting 15 hospitals in the Netherlands. Participants Women with an intermediate to high obstetric risk with an intention to deliver vaginally. To exclude a clinically relevant difference in satisfaction with pain relief of more than 10%, we needed to include 1136 women. Because of missing values for satisfaction this number was increased to 1400 before any analysis. We used multiple imputation to correct for missing data. Intervention Before the onset of active labour consenting women were randomised to a pain relief strategy with patient controlled remifentanil or epidural analgesia if they requested pain relief during labour. Main outcome measures Primary outcome was satisfaction with pain relief, measured hourly on a visual analogue scale and expressed as area under the curve (AUC), thus providing a time weighted measure of total satisfaction with pain relief. A higher AUC represents higher satisfaction with pain relief. Secondary outcomes were pain intensity scores, mode of delivery, and maternal and neonatal outcomes. Analysis was done by intention to treat. The study was defined as an equivalence study for the primary outcome. Results 1414 women were randomised, of whom 709 were allocated to patient controlled remifentanil and 705 to epidural analgesia. Baseline characteristics were comparable. Pain relief was ultimately used in 65% (447/687) in the remifentanil group and 52% (347/671) in the epidural analgesia group (relative risk 1.32, 95% confidence interval 1.18 to 1.48). Cross over occurred in 7% (45/687) and 8% (51/671) of women, respectively. Of women primarily treated with remifentanil, 13% (53/402) converted to epidural analgesia, while in women primarily treated with epidural analgesia 1% (3/296) converted to remifentanil. The

  6. Inserting epidural patient controlled analgesia into a peripheral venous line.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    A case is reported from the Safety Reporting System in Anaesthesia and Resuscitation database. The event occurred in a patient undergoing abdominal surgery in whom an epidural catheter was inserted for analgesia. After the intervention, the patient was transferred to the recovery unit where the patient controlled analgesia (PCA) is programmed. Due to an error, the PCA was connected to a peripheral venous line, which was detected early without harm to the patient. Communication and analysis of this incident served to introduce a new drug delivery protocol through PCA pumps, including the obligation to prescribe the PCA in the electronic system, a dual computerised check immediately before connecting PCA, labelling the medication bag as well as the proximal and distal lines, standardisation of daily visits to patients, and monthly monitoring of results. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Epidural analgesia during labor: continuous infusion or patient-controlled administration?

    PubMed

    Benhamou, D

    1995-05-01

    Patient-controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA) has several advantages over continuous epidural infusion of bupivacaine during labor: it produces a good analgesia with a limited sensory spread; generally, less bupivacaine is administered and maternal satisfaction with pain control is increased. However, the quality of analgesia is similar to that obtained with other forms of epidural administration. Moreover, PCEA is only a particular form of epidural and, as such, has the same safety requirements. PCEA does not appear to reduce the workload of the anesthetic team. The cost of the PCA pump will need to be included in future evaluation of the cost/benefit ratio.

  8. Neostigmine Decreases Bupivacaine Use by Patient-Controlled Epidural Analgesia During Labor: A Randomized Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Vernon H.; Pan, Peter H.; Owen, Medge D; Seid, Melvin H.; Harris, Lynne; Clyne, Brittany; Voltaire, Misa; Eisenach, James C.

    2009-01-01

    Background Intrathecal neostigmine produces analgesia, but also severe nausea. In contrast, epidural neostigmine enhances opioid and local anesthetic analgesia without causing nausea. Previous studies examined only single epidural neostigmine bolus administration and did not assess the efficacy of continuous epidural infusion or several aspects of maternal and fetal safety. We therefore tested the hypothesis that epidural neostigmine in combination with bupivacaine by continuous infusion during labor would reduce the amount of bupivacaine required. Methods Twelve healthy women scheduled for elective cesarean delivery were assigned to receive epidural neostigmine, 40 μg (first 6 subjects) or 80 μg (second 6 subjects) as a single bolus, with fetal heart rate and uterine contractions monitored for 20 minutes. In a subsequent experiment, 40 healthy laboring women were randomized to receive bupivacaine 1.25 mg/mL alone or with neostigmine 4 μg/mL by patient-controlled epidural analgesia. The primary outcome measure was hourly bupivacaine use. Results Epidural neostigmine bolus did not alter baseline fetal heart rate, induce contractions or produce nausea. Epidural neostigmine infusion reduced bupivacaine requirement by 19% in all patients and 25% in those with > 4 hours of treatment (P<0.05 for both), but might have contributed to the incidence of mild sedation. Mode of delivery, incidence of maternal nausea and fetal heart rate abnormality were similar between groups. Conclusions These data show that adding epidural neostigmine 4 μg/mL reduces the hourly bupivacaine requirement by 19% to 25% with patient-controlled epidural analgesia during labor. Administered as a bolus and by continuous infusion at the studied doses, epidural neostigmine does not cause nausea and does not induce uterine contractions or fetal heart rate abnormalities, but mild sedation can occur. PMID:19377050

  9. [The influence of patient-controlled epidural analgesia on labor progress and neonatal outcome].

    PubMed

    Rzepka, Rafał; Zukowski, Maciej; Michalczyk, Michał; Nikodemski, Tomasz; Torbé, Andrzej; Kwiatkowski, Sebastian; Mikołajek-Bedner, Wioletta; Czajka, Ryszard

    2012-02-01

    The aim of the study was to check the influence of patient control epidural analgesia on labor progress and neonatal outcome. 144 parturients were included into the clinical trial. In 73 cases patient control epidural analgesia was used and in 71 cases pethidine (meperidine) solution was given intravenously. Apgar score, umbilical artery pH, pain intensity the time of the first, second and third stage of labor the rate of episiotomy and uterine postpartum abrasions and the rate of caesarean sections and vaginal operative delivery were compared. The time of the second stage of labor was significantly longer in the study group (40.99 vs 26.49 min, p- < 0.005), the neonatal outcome was comparable in both groups. There were no differences in the time of the first and the second stage of labor in primiparas and multiparas analyzed separately. Visual Analogue Score was lower in the study group (Ch(2)-12,48, p-0.25), especially in the subgroups of primiparas and multiparas. Patient control epidural analgesia does not affect the time of the first and second stage of labor, oxytocin augmentation of labor may be the reason of that. This method is a more effective way of relieving labor pain. An increase of operative delivery is not observed after patient control epidural analgesia on condition that low doses and concentrations of analgesic drugs are used.

  10. A randomized controlled trial of the efficacy and respiratory effects of patient-controlled intravenous remifentanil analgesia and patient-controlled epidural analgesia in laboring women.

    PubMed

    Stocki, Daniel; Matot, Idit; Einav, Sharon; Eventov-Friedman, Smadar; Ginosar, Yehuda; Weiniger, Carolyn F

    2014-03-01

    Safe and effective alternatives are required in labor when epidural analgesia is not appropriate. We hypothesized that patient-controlled IV remifentanil labor analgesia would not be inferior to patient-controlled epidural labor analgesia. This randomized nonblinded controlled noninferiority study in healthy women with a singleton fetus and vertex presentation was performed at 1 site. Women were randomized to receive patient-controlled IV analgesia titrated from 20 mcg up to a maximum bolus dose of 60 mcg with a lockout interval of 1 to 2 minutes, or patient-controlled epidural analgesia 0.1% bupivacaine with 2 mcg/mL fentanyl (initiation bolus 15 mL; maintenance bolus 10 mL, lockout interval 20 minutes, basal infusion 5 mL/h). Crossover was permitted after 30 minutes. The primary study outcome was efficacy (assessed as hourly numerical rating scale [NRS] pain score [11-point NRS] and maternal satisfaction [11-point NRS]); the secondary outcome was safety (maternal apnea). Supplementary oxygen was administered continuously during the respiratory monitoring period. During the first hour of analgesia, the heart rate, respiratory rate, pulse oximetry (SpO2), and end-tidal CO2, as an indication of apnea, were compared. Apnea lasting >40 seconds was managed by light stimulation by the attending anesthesiologist. Forty women were recruited to the following groups: remifentanil n = 19 (1 exclusion), epidural n = 20. Four crossed over: 3 from the remifentanil to epidural group and 1 from the epidural to remifentanil group. Mean (± SD) baseline NRS pain scores were similar, 8.4 ± 1.5 for remifentanil and 8.7 ± 1.2 for epidural analgesia, P = 0.52. Baseline adjusted mean NRS reduction at 30 minutes for remifentanil was -4.5 (± 0.6) vs -7.1(± 0.6) for epidural analgesia, P < 0.0001 for both. Pain score at 30 minutes was 3.7 ± 2.8 for remifentanil and 1.5 ± 2.2 for epidural analgesia, P = 0.009. Remifentanil was inferior to epidural analgesia with respect to the NRS at

  11. [Postoperative pain management after minimally invasive hysterectomy: thoracic epidural analgesia versus intravenous patient-controlled analgesia].

    PubMed

    Hensel, M; Frenzel, J; Späker, M; Keil, E; Reinhold, N

    2013-10-01

    In view of the development of innovative and non-traumatic surgical techniques, postoperative pain management should be carried out depending on the invasiveness of the intervention. In the present study two analgesic strategies were compared in patients undergoing minimally invasive hysterectomy: epidural analgesia (EDA) and intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (iv-PCA). For this prospective case controlled study 60 women with benign uterine diseases undergoing vaginal hysterectomy (VH) or laparoscopically assisted vaginal hysterectomy (LAVH) were enrolled. Patients were divided for analysis into two groups (n=30 each) according to the postoperative analgesic strategy (EDA group versus iv-PCA group). A matched-pair analysis was applied (matching criteria: risk assessment, surgeon and age of patient) to minimize the differences between both groups. Patients were evaluated with respect to the extent of pain determined by a numeric rating scale (NRS 0-10 scale), analgesic consumption, rate of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV), mobilization from bed, oral intake of nutrition, complications, duration of stay in the recovery room as well as hospital stay and health-related quality of life (SF-36 Health Survey; collected before and 6 weeks after surgery). Laparoscopically assisted removal of the uterus was carried out in 22 women and by vaginal hysterectomy in 38 women. No significant differences between the study groups were seen in the duration of surgery (iv-PCA 58 ± 25 min versus EDA 60 ± 26 min). Demographic data of both groups as well as intraoperative hemodynamic and respiratory parameters were comparable to a great extent. Compared to the iv-PCA group, women in the EDA group showed lower NRS values (p<0.01): recovery room admission 4.7 ± 2.5 iv-PCA vs. 0.9 ± 1.3 EDA, recovery room discharge 3.8 ± 1.8 iv-PCA vs. 1.0 ± 1.2 EDA, day of surgery at 8 p.m. 5.0 ± 2.1 iv-PCA vs. 1.8 ± 2.3 EDA and first postoperative day at 8 a.m. 3.5 ± 1.7 iv-PCA vs

  12. A Comparison of the Effect of Epidural Patient-Controlled Analgesia with Intravenous Patient-Controlled Analgesia on Pain Control after Posterior Lumbar Instrumented Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang Hoon; Kim, Kyung Hyun; Cheong, Seong-Mee; Kim, Sumi; Kooh, Mirang

    2011-01-01

    Objective Retrospective analysis to compare the effect and complication of epidural patient-controlled analgesia (epidural PCA) with intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (IV PCA) for the treatment of the post-operative pain after posterior lumbar instrumented fusion. Methods Sixty patients who underwent posterior lumbar instrumented fusion for degenerative lumbar disease at our institution from September 2007 to January 2008 were enrolled in this study. Out of sixty patients, thirty patients received IV PCA group and thirty patients received epidural PCA group. The pain scale was measured by the visual analogue scale (VAS) score. Results There were no significant difference between IV PCA group and epidural PCA group on the PCA related complications (p=0.7168). Ten patients in IV PCA group and six patients in epidural PCA group showed PCA related complications. Also, there were no significant differences in reduction of VAS score between two groups on postoperative 2 hours (p=0.9618) and 6 hours (p=0.0744). However, postoperative 12 hours, 24 hours and 48 hours showed the significant differences as mean of reduction of VAS score (p=0.0069, 0.0165, 0.0058 respectively). Conclusion The epidural PCA is more effective method to control the post-operative pain than IV PCA after 12 hours of spinal fusion operation. However, during the first twelve hours after operation, there were no differences between IV PCA and epidural PCA. PMID:22102950

  13. A comparison of thoracic or lumbar patient-controlled epidural analgesia methods after thoracic surgery

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background We aimed to compare patient-controlled thoracic or lumbar epidural analgesia methods after thoracotomy operations. Methods One hundred and twenty patients were prospectively randomized to receive either thoracic epidural analgesia (TEA group) or lumbar epidural analgesia (LEA group). In both groups, epidural catheters were administered. Hemodynamic measurements, visual analog scale scores at rest (VAS-R) and after coughing (VAS-C), analgesic consumption, and side effects were compared at 0, 2, 4, 8, 16, and 24 hours postoperatively. Results The VAS-R and VAS-C values were lower in the TEA group in comparison to the LEA group at 2, 4, 8, and 16 hours after surgery (for VAS-R, P = 0.001, P = 0.01, P = 0.008, and P = 0.029, respectively; and for VAS-C, P = 0.035, P = 0.023, P = 0.002, and P = 0.037, respectively). Total 24-hour analgesic consumption was different between groups (175 +/- 20 mL versus 185 +/- 31 mL; P = 0.034). The comparison of postoperative complications revealed that the incidence of hypotension (21/57, 36.8% versus 8/63, 12.7%; P = 0.002), bradycardia (9/57, 15.8% versus 2/63, 3.2%; P = 0.017), atelectasis (1/57, 1.8% versus 7/63, 11.1%; P = 0.04), and the need for intensive care unit (ICU) treatment (0/57, 0% versus 5/63, 7.9%; P = 0.03) were lower in the TEA group in comparison to the LEA group. Conclusions TEA has beneficial hemostatic effects in comparison to LEA after thoracotomies along with more satisfactory pain relief profile. PMID:24885545

  14. Postoperative patient-controlled epidural analgesia in patients with spondylodiscitis and posterior spinal fusion surgery.

    PubMed

    Gessler, Florian; Mutlak, Haitham; Tizi, Karima; Senft, Christian; Setzer, Matthias; Seifert, Volker; Weise, Lutz

    2016-06-01

    OBJECTIVE The value of postoperative epidural analgesia after major spinal surgery is well established. Thus far, the use of patient-controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA) has been denied to patients undergoing debridement and instrumentation in spondylodiscitis, with the risk of increased postoperative pain resulting in prolonged recovery. The value of PCEA with special regard to infectious complications remains to be clarified. The present study examined the value of postoperative PCEA in comparison with intravenous analgesia in patients with spondylodiscitis undergoing posterior spinal surgery. METHODS Thirty-two patients treated surgically for spondylodiscitis of the thoracic and lumbar spine were prospectively included in a database and retrospectively reviewed for this study. Postoperative antibiotic treatment, functional capacity, pain levels, side effects, and complications were documented. Sixteen patients were given patient-demanded intravenous analgesia (PIA) followed by 16 patients assigned to PCEA. If PCEA was applied, the insertion of an epidural catheter was performed under the direct visual guidance of the surgeon at the end of the surgery. RESULTS Three patients intended for PCEA treatment were excluded due to predefined exclusion criteria. Postoperative pain was significantly lower in the PCEA group during the first 48 hours after surgery (p = 0.03). As determined by the trunk control test conducted at 8 (p < 0.001), 24 (p = 0.004), 48 (p = 0.015), 72 (p = 0.0031), and 96 hours (p < 0.001), patients in the PCEA treatment group displayed significantly increased mobilization capacity compared with those of the PIA group. Time until normal accomplishment of all mobilization maneuvers was reduced in the PCEA group compared with that in the PIA group (p = 0.04). No differences in complication rates were observed between the 2 groups (p = 0.52). CONCLUSIONS PCEA may reduce postoperative pain and lead to earlier achievement of functional capacity at a low

  15. Epidural Neostigmine versus Fentanyl to Decrease Bupivacaine Use in Patient-controlled Epidural Analgesia during Labor: A Randomized, Double-blind, Controlled Study.

    PubMed

    Booth, Jessica L; Ross, Vernon H; Nelson, Kenneth E; Harris, Lynnette; Eisenach, James C; Pan, Peter H

    2017-07-01

    The addition of opioids to epidural local anesthetic reduces local anesthetic consumption by 20% but at the expense of side effects and time spent for regulatory compliance paperwork. Epidural neostigmine also reduces local anesthetic use. The authors hypothesized that epidural bupivacaine with neostigmine would decrease total hourly bupivacaine use compared with epidural bupivacaine with fentanyl for patient-controlled epidural analgesia. A total of 215 American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status II, laboring parturients requesting labor epidural analgesia consented to the study and were randomized to receive 0.125% bupivacaine with the addition of either fentanyl (2 μg/ml) or neostigmine (2, 4, or 8 μg/ml). The primary outcome was total hourly local anesthetic consumption, defined as total patient-controlled epidural analgesia use and top-ups (expressed as milliliters of 0.125% bupivacaine) divided by the infusion duration. A priori analysis determined a group size of 35 was needed to have 80% power at α = 0.05 to detect a 20% difference in the primary outcome. Of 215 subjects consented, 151 patients were evaluable. Demographics, maternal and fetal outcomes, and labor characteristics were similar among groups. Total hourly local anesthetic consumption did not differ among groups (P = 0.55). The total median hourly bupivacaine consumption in the fentanyl group was 16.0 ml/h compared with 15.3, 14.6, and 16.2 ml/h in the 2, 4, and 8 μg/ml neostigmine groups, respectively (P = 0.55). The data do not support any difference in bupivacaine requirements for labor patient-controlled epidural analgesia whether patients receive epidural bupivacaine with 2 to 8 μg/ml neostigmine or epidural bupivacaine with 2 μg/ml fentanyl.

  16. Obstetric outcomes and maternal satisfaction in nulliparous women using patient-controlled epidural analgesia.

    PubMed

    Haydon, Michael L; Larson, David; Reed, Enrique; Shrivastava, Vineet K; Preslicka, Christine W; Nageotte, Michael P

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare obstetric outcomes and maternal satisfaction in nulliparous women in spontaneous labor who used patient-controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA) vs continuous epidural infusion (CEI). We conducted a double-masked trial of 270 nulliparous women who were assigned randomly to 3 groups (with a concentration 0.1% bupivacaine and 2 μg/mL fentanyl): group I, CEI-only (10 mL/h); group II, CEI + PCEA (CEI 10 mL/h plus PCEA 10 mL, at 20 minutes); group III, PCEA-only (10 mL, at 20 minutes). A PCEA bolus button was given to each subject. The primary outcome was the dosage of local anesthetic that was used. The total milligrams of bupivacaine that were used was less in the PCEA-only group compared with CEI: group I. 74.8 ± 36 mg; group II, 97.3 ± 53 mg; group III, 52.4 ± 42 mg (P < .001). Pain with pushing, however, was worse in the PCEA-only group. Median satisfaction scores were similar (scale, 0 [best] to 100 [worst]: group I, 0; group II, 0; group III, 0 (P = .23). PCEA results in less anesthetic used, and maternal satisfaction remains high without a continuous infusion. Pain with pushing, however, was worse with the PCEA alone. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Epidural Analgesia Versus Patient-Controlled Analgesia for Pain Relief in Uterine Artery Embolization for Uterine Fibroids: A Decision Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Kooij, Sanne M. van der Moolenaar, Lobke M.; Ankum, Willem M.; Reekers, Jim A.; Mol, Ben Willem J.; Hehenkamp, Wouter J. K.

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: This study was designed to compare the costs and effects of epidural analgesia (EDA) to those of patient-controlled intravenous analgesia (PCA) for postintervention pain relief in women having uterine artery embolization (UAE) for systematic uterine fibroids. Methods: Cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) based on data from the literature by constructing a decision tree to model the clinical pathways for estimating the effects and costs of treatment with EDA and PCA. Literature on EDA for pain-relief after UAE was missing, and therefore, data on EDA for abdominal surgery were used. Outcome measures were compared costs to reduce one point in visual analogue score (VAS) or numeric rating scale (NRS) for pain 6 and 24 h after UAE and risk for complications. Results: Six hours after the intervention, the VAS was 3.56 when using PCA and 2.0 when using EDA. The costs for pain relief in women undergoing UAE with PCA and EDA were Euro-Sign 191 and Euro-Sign 355, respectively. The costs for EDA to reduce the VAS score 6 h after the intervention with one point compared with PCA were Euro-Sign 105 and Euro-Sign 179 after 24 h. The risk of having a complication was 2.45 times higher when using EDA. Conclusions: The results of this indirect comparison of EDA for abdominal surgery with PCA for UAE show that EDA would provide superior analgesia for post UAE pain at 6 and 24 h but with higher costs and an increased risk of complications.

  18. Predicting postoperative vomiting among orthopedic patients receiving patient-controlled epidural analgesia using SVM and LR.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hsin-Yun; Gong, Cihun-Siyong Alex; Lin, Shih-Pin; Chang, Kuang-Yi; Tsou, Mei-Yung; Ting, Chien-Kun

    2016-06-01

    Patient-controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA) has been applied to reduce postoperative pain in orthopedic surgical patients. Unfortunately, PCEA is occasionally accompanied by nausea and vomiting. The logistic regression (LR) model is widely used to predict vomiting, and recently support vector machines (SVM), a supervised machine learning method, has been used for classification and prediction. Unlike our previous work which compared Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) with LR, this study uses a SVM-based predictive model to identify patients with high risk of vomiting during PCEA and comparing results with those derived from the LR-based model. From January to March 2007, data from 195 patients undergoing PCEA following orthopedic surgery were applied to develop two predictive models. 75% of the data were randomly selected for training, while the remainder was used for testing to validate predictive performance. The area under curve (AUC) was measured using the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve (ROC). The area under ROC curves of LR and SVM models were 0.734 and 0.929, respectively. A computer-based predictive model can be used to identify those who are at high risk for vomiting after PCEA, allowing for patient-specific therapeutic intervention or the use of alternative analgesic methods.

  19. Effect of Combined Single-Injection Femoral Nerve Block and Patient-Controlled Epidural Analgesia in Patients Undergoing Total Knee Replacement

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ae-Ryung; Choi, Duck-Hwan; Choi, Soo-Joo; Hahm, Tae-Soo; Kim, Ga-Hyun; Moon, Young-Hwan

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Total knee replacement is one of the most painful orthopedic procedures, and effective pain relief is essential for early mobility and discharge from hospital. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether addition of single-injection femoral nerve block to epidural analgesia would provide better postoperative pain control, compared to epidural analgesia alone, after total knee replacement. Materials and Methods Thirty-eight patients received a single-injection femoral nerve block with 0.25% levobupivacaine (30 mL) combined with epidural analgesia (femoral nerve block group) and 40 patients received epidural analgesia alone (control group). Pain intensity and volume of patient-controlled epidural analgesia medication and rescue analgesic requirements were measured in the first 48 hours after surgery at three time periods; 0-6 hours, 6-24 hours, and 24-48 hours. Also, side effects such as nausea, vomiting, and pruritus were evaluated. Results Median visual analog scale at rest and movement was significantly lower until 48 hours in the femoral nerve block group. Patient-controlled epidural analgesia volume was significantly lower throughout the study period, however, rescue analgesia requirements were significantly lower only up to 6 hours in the femoral nerve block group. The incidences of nausea and vomiting and rescue antiemetic requirement were significantly lower in the femoral nerve block group up to 6 hours. Conclusion The combination of femoral nerve block with epidural analgesia is an effective pain management regimen in patients undergoing unilateral total knee replacement. PMID:21155047

  20. Comparison of bupivacaine, ropivacaine and levobupivacaine with sufentanil for patient-controlled epidural analgesia during labor: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-zhong; Chang, Xiang-yang; Liu, Xia; Hu, Xiao-xia; Tang, Bei-lei

    2010-01-20

    Ropivacaine and levobupivacaine have been introduced into obstetric analgesic practice with the proposed advantages of causing less motor block and toxicity compared with bupivacaine. However, it is still controversial whether both anesthetics are associated with any clinical benefit relative to bupivacaine for labor analgesia. This study aimed to compare the analgesic efficacy, motor block and side effects of bupivacaine, ropivacaine and levobupivacaine at lower concentrations for patient-controlled epidural labor analgesia. Four hundred and fifty nulliparous parturients were enrolled in this randomized clinical trial. A concentration of 0.05%, 0.075%, 0.1%, 0.125% or 0.15% of either bupivacaine (Group B), ropivacaine (Group R) or levobupivacaine (Group L) with sufentanil 0.5 microg/ml was epidurally administered by patient-controlled analgesia mode. Effective analgesia was defined as a visual analogue scale score was analgesia, pain scores, hourly local anesthetic amount used, sensory and motor blockade, labor duration and mode of delivery, side effects and maternal satisfaction (P>0.05). The relative median potency was bupivacaine/ropivacaine: 0.828 (0.602-1.091), bupivacaine/levobupivacaine: 0.845 (0.617-1.12), ropivacaine/levobupivacaine: 1.021 (0.774-1.354), respectively. However, a significantly less number of effective analgesia and higher hourly local anesthetic use were observed in the concentration of 0.05% than those of >or=0.1% within each group (P<0.05). Using patient-controlled epidural analgesia, lower concentrations of bupivacaine, ropivacaine and levobupivacaine with sufentanil produce similar

  1. Effects of ketorolac versus bupivacaine coadministration during patient-controlled hydromorphone epidural analgesia after thoracotomy procedures.

    PubMed

    Singh, H; Bossard, R F; White, P F; Yeatts, R W

    1997-03-01

    We studied the comparative effects of ketorolac versus bupivacaine supplementation of hydromorphone (HM) patient-controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA) on the HM requirement, postoperative pain, and pulmonary function in 62 consenting patients after thoracotomy procedures. Patients were randomly assigned to receive one of three different combinations of analgesic medications after the operation according to a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. The treatment groups consisted of: Group 1 (n = 23): PCEA HM 3-mL (0.15 mg) bolus doses + saline 1 mL intravenously (IV) q6h, Group 2 (n = 20): PCEA HM (0.15 mg) in 0.125% bupivacaine 3-mL bolus doses + saline 1 mL IV q6h, and Group 3 (n = 19): PCEA HM 3-mL (0.15 mg) bolus doses + ketorolac 1 mL (30 mg) IV q6h. Epidural HM and supplemental analgesic requirements, pain visual analog scale (VAS) scores, the incidence of nonincisional pain, and side effects were recorded at 24 and 48 h after surgery. Bedside pulmonary function tests were performed using a Puritan Bennett 100TM (Puritan-Bennett Corp., Wilmington, MA) spirometer before and 24 and 48 h after surgery. IV ketorolac supplementation of HM PCEA significantly reduced the incidence of nonincisional pain and the HM requirement over 48 h compared with the HM PCEA alone group (7% vs 26%; 3 +/- 1.6 mg vs 5.3 +/- 2.8 mg). Both ketorolac and bupivacaine supplementation of HM PCEA reduced the severity of pain on coughing and on movement compared with HM PCEA alone on postoperative day (POD) 1. Significant reductions in forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in 1 s, forced expiratory flow 25%-75% of the vital capacity, and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) were noted on PODs 1 and 2 in all three treatment groups. The decrease in PEFR on PODs 1 and 2 was significantly less with ketorolac compared with bupivacaine supplementation. We conclude that ketorolac supplementation of HM PCEA reduces the incidence of nonincisional pain and HM requirement compared with HM PCEA

  2. A comparison of sufentanil and fentanyl for patient-controlled epidural analgesia in arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Hye Rim; Lee, Se Jin; Lee, Joon Ho; Cho, Sung Hwan; Kim, Sang Hyun; Jin, Hee Cheol; Lee, Jeong Seok; Kim, Yong Ik

    2011-01-01

    Background The use of lipid soluble opioids such as fentanyl, alfentanil and sufentanil are recently on the increase for patient-controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA). In this study, the effects and adequate dose of sufentanil in arthroplasty were investigated. Methods Eighty patients scheduled for arthroplasty were enrolled for the study. Seventy-one patients (ASA physical status I-III) were randomly allocated into four groups. All groups received 0.1% ropivacaine through PCEA and each group received either fentanyl (group F: fentanyl 4 µg/ml) or sufentanil (group S1: sufentanil 0.5 µg/ml, group S2: sufentanil 0.75 µg/ml, and group S3: sufentanil 1.0 µg/ml). Postoperative pain scores were evaluated using VAS (visual analog scale, 0-10) and side effects such as hypotension, nausea/vomiting, pruritus and the degree of satisfaction were evaluated at 1, 6, 12, 24, 48 hours after surgery. Results Postoperative pain score (VAS) decreased gradually and the highest VAS score was recorded at 1 hour postoperative for all four groups. There were no differences in the degree of satisfaction and postoperative pain score between all groups. The incidence of pruritus was significantly lower in group S1 than in groups S2 and S3. Conclusions The incidence of side effects were significantly lower in group S1 (0.1% ropivacaine plus sufentanil 0.5 µg/ml). Therefore, 0.5 µg/ml of sufentanil through PCEA is the recommended dose for postoperative pain control in arthroplasty. PMID:21359080

  3. [Comparison of clinical effectiveness of thoracic epidural and intravenous patient-controlled analgesia for the treatment of rib fractures pain in intensive care unit].

    PubMed

    Topçu, Ismet; Ekici, Zeynep; Sakarya, Melek

    2007-07-01

    The results of thoracic epidural and systemic patient controlled analgesia practice were evaluated retrospectively in patients with thoracic trauma. Patients who were admitted to the intensive care unit between 1997 and 2003, with a diagnosis of multiple rib fractures related to thoracic trauma were evaluated retrospectively. Data were recorded from 49 patients who met the following criteria; three or more rib fractures, initiation of PCA with I.V. phentanyl or thoracic epidural analgesia with phentanyl and bupivacaine. There were no significant differences between the groups concerning injury severity score. APACHE II score (8.1+/-1.6 and 9.2+/-1.7) and the number of rib fractures (4+/-1.1 and 6.8+/-2.7) were higher in thoracic epidural analgesia group (p<0.05). Pain scores of patients who received thoracic epidural analgesia were significantly lower as from 6th hour during whole therapy (p<0.05). Length of intensive care unit stay (15.6+/-5.9 and 12.1+/-4.4 day) was found to be shorter in thoracic epidural analgesia group (p<0.05). There were no differences between the groups regarding mechanical ventilation requirement, pulmonary and cardiac complications. We suggest that the use of thoracic epidural analgesia with infusion of local anesthetics and opioids are more appropriate as they provide more effective analgesia and shorten length of intensive care unit stay in chest trauma patients with more than three rib fractures who require intensive care.

  4. Patient Controlled Epidural Labour Analgesia (PCEA): A Comparison Between Ropivacaine, Ropivacaine-Fentanyl and Ropivacaine-Clonidine

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Ravi; Kushwaha, Brij Bihari; Gaurav, Amrita; Verma, Reetu; Singh, Dinesh; Singh, Vineeta

    2014-01-01

    Background: Feeling of pain is one of the most important emotional determinants which dominate the perception of females who undergo the process of labour and delivery. Patient controlled epidural labour analgesia (PCEA) is convenient and safer technique for this purpose. Very few studies compared clonidine and fentanyl with ropivacaine in labour analgesia in past. This study was undertaken to compare fentanyl and clonidine in PCEA. Aims: To compare low concentration ropivacaine with or without fentanyl or clonidine for labour analgesia and its effect on maternal and foetal safety. Settings and Design: Prospective, double blind, randomized, comparative study. Materials and Methods: Ninety primegravida in labour were divided into three groups (n=30) and patient controlled epidural labour analgesia was given to them: Initial bolus of 10ml of ropivacaine 0.125% in Group I; with fentanyl 2 μg/ml in Group II and with clonidine 1μg/kg in Group III. Subsequently each group received ropivacaine 0.125% through patient controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA) as background infusion of 5 ml/hr with lockout interval time of 10min and subsequent bolus of 5ml. Hemodynamic parameters, sensory level, motor block and pain relief were noted. Total analgesic dose of local anaesthetic and feto-maternal adverse effects were also recorded. Results: At baseline, groups were matched demographically, hemodynamically as well as for intensity of pain. There was a statistically significant decrease in hemodynamic parameters from baseline in all groups with maximum reduction in group III. A significant difference among groups in VAS was observed at zero min and from 120min till 240min intervals and lowest values were in Group III. No significant difference was observed among the groups for mode of delivery and expulsive efforts. Total analgesic dose and PCA bolus requirement was maximum in Group I and minimum in Group III and the difference was statistically significant among groups. Six (20

  5. The efficacy of elastomeric patient-control module when connected to a balloon pump for postoperative epidural analgesia

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Myung Hwa; Shim, Yon Hee; Kim, Min-Soo; Shin, Yang-Sik; Lee, Hyun Joo; Lee, Jeong Soo

    2017-01-01

    Abstract When considering the principles of a pain control strategy by patients, reliable administration of additional bolus doses is important for providing the adequate analgesia and improving patient satisfaction. We compared the efficacy of elastomeric patient-control module (PCM) with conventional PCM providing epidural analgesia postoperatively. A noninferiority comparison was used. Eighty-six patients scheduled for open upper abdominal surgery were randomized to use either an elastomeric or conventional PCM connected to balloon pump. After successful epidural catheter insertion at T6–8 level, fentanyl (15–20 μg/kg) in 0.3% ropivacaine 100 mL was administered at basal rate 2 mL/h with bolus 2 mL and lock-out time 15 minutes. The primary outcome was the verbal numerical rating score for pain. The 95% confidence intervals for differences in pain scores during the first 48 hours postoperatively were <1, indicating noninferiority of the elastomeric PCM. The duration of pump reservoir exhaustion was shorter for the elastomeric PCM (mean [SD], 33 hours [8 hours] vs 40 hours [8 hours], P = 0.0003). There were no differences in the frequency of PCM use, additional analgesics, or adverse events between groups. The elastomeric PCM was as effective as conventional PCM with and exhibited a similar safety profile. PMID:28079812

  6. Predicting postoperative vomiting for orthopedic patients receiving patient-controlled epidural analgesia with the application of an artificial neural network.

    PubMed

    Gong, Cihun-Siyong Alex; Yu, Lu; Ting, Chien-Kun; Tsou, Mei-Yung; Chang, Kuang-Yi; Shen, Chih-Long; Lin, Shih-Pin

    2014-01-01

    Patient-controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA) was used in many patients receiving orthopedic surgery to reduce postoperative pain but is accompanied with certain incidence of vomiting. Predictions of the vomiting event, however, were addressed by only a few authors using logistic regression (LR) models. Artificial neural networks (ANN) are pattern-recognition tools that can be used to detect complex patterns within data sets. The purpose of this study was to develop the ANN based predictive model to identify patients with high risk of vomiting during PCEA used. From January to March 2007, the PCEA records of 195 patients receiving PCEA after orthopedic surgery were used to develop the two predicting models. The ANN model had a largest area under curve (AUC) in receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. The areas under ROC curves of ANN and LR models were 0.900 and 0.761, respectively. The computer-based predictive model should be useful in increasing vigilance in those patients most at risk for vomiting while PCEA is used, allowing for patient-specific therapeutic intervention, or even in suggesting the use of alternative methods of analgesia.

  7. Patient-controlled epidural technique improves analgesia for labor but increases cesarean delivery rate compared with the intermittent bolus technique.

    PubMed

    Halonen, P; Sarvela, J; Saisto, T; Soikkeli, A; Halmesmäki, E; Korttila, K

    2004-07-01

    We tested the hypothesis that patient-controlled epidural analgesia for labor (PCEA) provides better analgesia and satisfaction than the intermittent bolus technique (bolus) without affecting the mode of delivery. We randomized 187 parturients to receive labor analgesia using either the PCEA or bolus technique. The PCEA group received a starting bolus of 14 mg of bupivacaine and 60 micro g of fentanyl in a 15-ml volume, followed by a background infusion (bupivacaine 0.08% and fentanyl 2 microg ml(-1)) 5 ml h(-1) with a 5-ml bolus and 15-min lock-out interval. The bolus group received boluses of 20 mg of bupivacaine and 75 micro g of fentanyl in a 15-ml volume. Parturients in the PCEA group had significantly (P < 0.05-0.01) less pain during the first and second stages of labor. There was no difference in the spontaneous delivery rate between the groups, but the cesarean delivery rate was significantly (P < 0.05) higher (16.3% vs. 6.7%) in the PCEA group than in the bolus group. Bupivacaine consumption was significantly (P < 0.01) higher (11.2 mg h(-1) vs. 9.6 mg h(-1)) and the second stage of labor was significantly (P < 0.01) longer (70 min vs. 54 min) in the PCEA group than in the bolus group. Patient satisfaction was equally good in both groups. The PCEA technique provided better pain relief. This was associated with higher bupivacaine consumption, prolongation of the second stage of labor, and an increased rate of cesarean section. Copyright 2004 Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica

  8. Postoperative pain control using continuous i.m. bupivacaine infusion plus patient-controlled analgesia compared with epidural analgesia after major hepatectomy.

    PubMed

    Wong-Lun-Hing, Edgar M; van Dam, Ronald M; Welsh, Fenella K S; Wells, John K G; John, Timothy G; Cresswell, Adrian B; Dejong, Cornelis H C; Rees, Myrddin

    2014-07-01

    There is debate concerning the best mode of delivery of analgesia following liver resection, with continuous i.m. infusion of bupivacaine (CIB) plus patient-controlled i.v. analgesia (PCA) suggested as an alternative to continuous epidural analgesia (CEA). This study compares these two modalities. A total of 498 patients undergoing major hepatectomy between July 2004 and July 2011 were included. Group 1 received CIB + PCA (n = 429) and Group 2 received CEA (n = 69). Groups were analysed on baseline patient and surgical characteristics. Primary endpoints were pain severity scores and total opioid consumption. Secondary endpoints were pain management failures, need for rescue medication, postoperative (opioid-related) morbidity and hospital length of stay (LoS). In both groups pain was well controlled and >70% of patients had no or minimal pain on PoDs 1 and 2. The numbers of patients experiencing severe pain were similar in both groups: PoD 1 at rest: 0.3% in Group 1 and 0% in Group 2 (P = 1.000); PoD 1 on movement: 8% in Group 1 and 2% in Group 2 (P = 0.338); PoD 2 at rest: 0% in Group 1 and 2% in Group 2 (P = 0.126), and PoD 2 on movement: 5% in Group 1 and 5% in Group 2 (P = 1.000). Although the CIB + PCA group required more opioid rescue medication on PoD 0 (53% versus 22%; P < 0.001), they used less opioids on PoDs 0-3 (P ≤ 0.001), had lower morbidity (26% versus 39%; P = 0.018), and a shorter LoS (7 days versus 8 days; P = 0.005). The combination of CIB + PCA provides pain control similar to that provided by CEA, but facilitates lower opioid consumption after major hepatectomy. It has the potential to replace epidural analgesia, thereby avoiding the occurrence of rare but serious complications. © 2013 International Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association.

  9. [Patient-controlled intravenous analgesia with remifentanil as an alternative to epidural analgesia during labor: case series and discussion of medicolegal aspects].

    PubMed

    Frambach, T; Wirbelauer, J; Schelling, P; Rieger, L; Muellenbach, R M; Roewer, N; Kranke, P

    2010-08-01

    Epidural analgesia is considered as the standard method for labor analgesia by inducing a minimal negative impact on labor while providing effective analgesia. Labor analgesia in the absence of epidural analgesia is difficult to achieve with the commonly used analgesic interventions. If epidural analgesia is not feasible due to coagulation disorders, anticoagulation, inability to insert an epidural catheter or due to the mother''s refusal to accept neuraxial analgesia, there is a need for interventions to cope with labor pain. So far, pethidine, diamorphine, meptazinol and spasmolytics remain the most widely used substances for IM and IV use. Unfortunately, in addition to not being very effective, these interventions may be associated with undesirable side effects for the parturient and the newborn. For a decade, anaesthesiologists have experienced the unique properties of remifentanil in the settings of surgical anaesthesia and conscious sedation since it was introduced for labor analgesia. Unfortunately, remifentanil is not licensed for administration to the pregnant patient, and it is unlikely that the manufacturers would consider the cost justified. Therefore, relevant concerns, legal issues and precautions are discussed based on the presentation of case series and a protocol is presented on how the use of remifentanil can be safely implemented for labor analgesia in selected situations. Proper informed consent, appropriate monitoring for the mother and the newborn, one-to-one nursing or midwifery care as well as the availability of an attending physician experienced in neonatal resuscitation and an anaesthesiologist with experience regarding the use of remifentanil are important to ensure that this method retains its good reputation for obstetric analgesia. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Epidural Analgesia for Labor: Continuous Infusion Versus Programmed Intermittent Bolus.

    PubMed

    Onuoha, Onyi C

    2017-03-01

    Despite the traditional practice to maintain labor analgesia with a combination of continuous epidural infusion and patient-controlled epidural analgesia using an automated epidural pump; compelling data now shows that bolus injection through the epidural catheter may result in better distribution of anesthetic solution in the epidural space. The programmed intermittent epidural bolus technique is proposed as a better maintenance mode and may represent a more effective mode of maintaining epidural analgesia for labor, especially prolonged labor. Additional prospective and adequately powered studies are needed to confirm findings and determine the optimal combination of volume, rate, time, and drug concentration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Epidural analgesia for labor: Current techniques

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Marcos; Halpern, Stephen H

    2010-01-01

    Epidural analgesia is an extremely effective and popular treatment for labor pain. In this review, we trace the history of the use of epidural analgesia and its refinements. We then outline the goals of treatment and methods used to attain those goals. The use of low concentrations of local anesthetics, combined with lipid-soluble opioids, does not impede the progress of labor or depress the newborn. The incidence of side effects is low. Maintenance of analgesia that allows patient control enhances patient satisfaction. PMID:23144567

  12. EPIDURAL ANALGESIA IN LABOR - CONTROVERSIES.

    PubMed

    Bilić, Nada; Djaković, Ivka; Kličan-Jaić, Katarina; Rudman, Senka Sabolović; Ivanec, Željko

    2015-09-01

    Labor pain is one of the most severe pains. Labor is a complex and individual process with varying maternal requesting analgesia. Labor analgesia must be safe and accompanied by minimal amount of unwanted consequences for both the mother and the child, as well as for the delivery procedure. Epidural analgesia is the treatment that best meets these demands. According to the American Congress of Obstetrics and Gynecology and American Society of Anesthesiologists, mother's demand is a reason enough for the introduction of epidural analgesia in labor, providing that no contraindications exist. The application of analgesics should not cease at the end of the second stage of labor, but it is recommended that lower concentration analgesics be then applied. Based on the latest studies, it can be claimed that epidural analgesia can be applied during the major part of the first and second stage of labor. According to previous investigations, there is no definitive conclusion about the incidence of instrumental delivery, duration of second stage of labor, time of epidural analgesia initiation, and long term outcomes for the newborn. Cooperation of obstetric and anesthesiology personnel, as well as appropriate technical equipment significantly decrease the need of instrumental completion of a delivery, as well as other complications encountered in the application of epidural analgesia. Our hospital offers 24/7 epidural analgesia service. The majority of pregnant women in our hospital were aware of the advantages of epidural analgesia for labor, however, only a small proportion of them used it, mainly because of inadequate level of information.

  13. A randomized comparison of automated intermittent mandatory boluses with a basal infusion in combination with patient-controlled epidural analgesia for labor and delivery.

    PubMed

    Leo, S; Ocampo, C E; Lim, Y; Sia, A T

    2010-10-01

    Automated mandatory boluses (AMB), when used in place of a continuous basal infusion, have been shown to reduce overall local anesthetic consumption without compromising analgesic efficacy in patient-controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA). We hypothesized that our PCEA+AMB regimen could result in a reduction of breakthrough pain requiring epidural supplementation in comparison with PCEA with a basal infusion (PCEA+BI). We recruited sixty-two healthy ASA I nulliparous parturients in early labor. The parturients were randomized to receive 0.1% ropivacaine+fentanyl 2 μg/mL either via PCEA+BI (PCEA with basal continuous infusion of 5mL/h) or PCEA+AMB (PCEA with AMB of 5 mL every hour instead of a basal infusion) immediately following successful induction of combined spinal-epidural (CSE) analgesia. Block characteristics, incidence of breakthrough pain requiring epidural supplementation, side effects, obstetric outcomes, Apgar scores and overall maternal satisfaction with analgesia were noted. The time-weighted hourly consumption of ropivacaine (PCEA and clinician supplementation for breakthrough pain) was significantly lower in the PCEA+AMB group (mean=7.6 mL, SD 3.2) compared to the PCEA+BI group (mean=9.3 mL, SD 2.5; P<0.001). The mean time to first PCEA self-bolus following CSE was significantly longer in the PCEA+AMB group compared to the PCEA+BI group (268 min vs. 104 min; P<0.001). Parturients in Group PCEA+AMB also gave higher satisfaction scores. The incidence of breakthrough pain was similar in both groups. PCEA+AMB, when compared to PCEA+BI, confers greater patient satisfaction and a longer duration of effective analgesia after CSE despite reduced analgesic consumption. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of dexmedetomidine in combination with fentanyl-based intravenous patient-controlled analgesia on pain attenuation after open gastrectomy in comparison with conventional thoracic epidural and fentanyl-based intravenous patient-controlled analgesia

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Na Young; Kwon, Tae Dong; Bai, Sun Joon; Noh, Sung Hoon; Hong, Jung Hwa; Lee, Haeyeon; Lee, Ki-Young

    2017-01-01

    Background: This study was investigated the effects of dexmedetomidine in combination with fentanyl-based intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (IV-PCA) on pain attenuation in patients undergoing open gastrectomy in comparison with conventional thoracic epidural patient-controlled analgesia (E-PCA) and IV-PCA. Methods: One hundred seventy-one patients who planned open gastrectomy were randomly distributed into one of the 3 groups: conventional thoracic E-PCA (E-PCA group, n = 57), dexmedetomidine in combination with fentanyl-based IV-PCA (dIV-PCA group, n = 57), or fentanyl-based IV-PCA only (IV-PCA group, n = 57). The primary outcome was the postoperative pain intensity (numerical rating scale) at 3 hours after surgery, and the secondary outcomes were the number of bolus deliveries and bolus attempts, and the number of patients who required additional rescue analgesics. Mean blood pressure, heart rate, and adverse effects were evaluated as well. Results: One hundred fifty-three patients were finally completed the study. The postoperative pain intensity was significantly lower in the dIV-PCA and E-PCA groups than in the IV-PCA group, but comparable between the dIV-PCA group and the E-PCA group. Patients in the dIV-PCA and E-PCA groups needed significantly fewer additional analgesic rescues between 6 and 24 hours after surgery, and had a significantly lower number of bolus attempts and bolus deliveries during the first 24 hours after surgery than those in the IV-PCA group. Conclusions: Dexmedetomidine in combination with fentanyl-based IV-PCA significantly improved postoperative analgesia in patients undergoing open gastrectomy without hemodynamic instability, which was comparable to thoracic E-PCA. Furthermore, this approach could be clinically more meaningful owing to its noninvasive nature. PMID:28924366

  15. A Clinical Evaluation of the GemStar® and the AmbIT® Pumps for Patient-Controlled Epidural Analgesia

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Aneeta; Paech, Michael; Ledger, Rupert; McDonnell, Nolan; Nathan, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Background Patient-controlled analgesia is used for both labor and postoperative analgesia. Objectives This study aimed to assess user satisfaction and functionality of two ambulatory, electronic patient controlled analgesia devices, the GemStar pump Hospira Inc., Illinois, USA) and the ambIT Ambulatory Infusion Therapy pump (Sorenson Medical Products, Utah, USA). Patients and Methods It was a randomized clinical trial of laboring women and postoperative gynecology patients receiving patient-controlled epidural analgesia. Patients were randomized to use one of the pumps and both anesthesiologists and patients completed questionnaires about aspects of pump function, and rated their satisfaction with the equipment. Midwives and high-dependency unit nurses also evaluated the pumps in each clinical setting. Results Forty patients, 20 laboring women and 20 postoperative patients were randomized and completed the study. The pumps were compared by nine anesthesiologists. Patient and staff satisfaction with both devices was high. Patient satisfaction did not significantly differ between groups (median 10 [8, 10] for the GemStar and 10 [9, 10] for the ambIT, P = 0.525]. The median staff satisfaction score was 8 [6, 8] for the GemStar and 7 [5, 8] for the ambIT (P = 0.154). Both patient cohorts rated each pump highly for most aspects of clinical function. Staff rated the ambIT pump more favourably with respect to portability and storage at the bedside whilst the GemStar had better assessments with respect to its consumables and interactions involving the electronic interface. Conclusions Both devices were well-rated by patients and staff, with no significant difference between them for overall satisfaction, and only minor differences with respect to their respective strengths and weaknesses. PMID:24223340

  16. The efficacy of elastomeric patient-control module when connected to a balloon pump for postoperative epidural analgesia: A randomized, noninferiority trial.

    PubMed

    Kim, Myung Hwa; Shim, Yon Hee; Kim, Min-Soo; Shin, Yang-Sik; Lee, Hyun Joo; Lee, Jeong Soo

    2017-01-01

    When considering the principles of a pain control strategy by patients, reliable administration of additional bolus doses is important for providing the adequate analgesia and improving patient satisfaction. We compared the efficacy of elastomeric patient-control module (PCM) with conventional PCM providing epidural analgesia postoperatively.A noninferiority comparison was used. Eighty-six patients scheduled for open upper abdominal surgery were randomized to use either an elastomeric or conventional PCM connected to balloon pump. After successful epidural catheter insertion at T6-8 level, fentanyl (15-20 μg/kg) in 0.3% ropivacaine 100 mL was administered at basal rate 2 mL/h with bolus 2 mL and lock-out time 15 minutes. The primary outcome was the verbal numerical rating score for pain.The 95% confidence intervals for differences in pain scores during the first 48 hours postoperatively were <1, indicating noninferiority of the elastomeric PCM. The duration of pump reservoir exhaustion was shorter for the elastomeric PCM (mean [SD], 33 hours [8 hours] vs 40 hours [8 hours], P = 0.0003). There were no differences in the frequency of PCM use, additional analgesics, or adverse events between groups.The elastomeric PCM was as effective as conventional PCM with and exhibited a similar safety profile.

  17. Secondary erythromelalgia successfully treated with patient-controlled epidural analgesia and interferon α-2b: A case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    LI, XINGZHI; LI, YAOMIN; QU, YAO; LU, LAIJIN

    2016-01-01

    Erythromelalgia (EM) is a debilitating neurovascular disease that is refractory to numerous treatment modalities. The present study reported the case of a 72-year-old woman diagnosed with EM secondary to polycythemia vera (PV), who was effectively treated with the use of patient-controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA) and interferon α-2b therapy. The study aimed to provide clinical information on this condition based on the findings of the present case and previously-reported cases. PCEA containing local anesthetics and dexamethasone or fentanyl resulted in nearly complete relief of symptoms. Furthermore, continuous use of interferon α-2b for the treatment of the PV completely relieved the EM symptoms. In conclusion, PCEA and interferon α-2b may be promising treatments for EM secondary to PV. PMID:27168811

  18. The effect of inflatable obstetric belts in nulliparous pregnant women receiving patient-controlled epidural analgesia during the second stage of labor.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong-Woon; Kim, Yoon Ha; Cho, Hye Yon; Shin, Hee-Young; Shin, Jong Chul; Choi, Sea Kyung; Lee, Keun-Young; Song, Ji-Eun; Lee, Pil-Ryang

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of inflatable obstetric belts on uterine fundal pressure in the management of the second stage of labor. Between July 2009 and December 2010, 188 nulliparous women with a singleton pregnancy at term were enrolled and only one dropped. The participants were randomized to receive either standard care (control group, n = 91) or uterine fundal pressure by the Labor Assister (Baidy M-520/Curexo, Inc., Seoul, Korea; active group, n = 97) during the second stage of labor in addition to standard care. The Labor Assister is an inflatable obstetric belt that is synchronized to apply constant fundal pressure during a uterine contraction. The primary endpoint was duration of the second stage of labor in women who delivered vaginally (control, n = 80 versus active, n = 93). It was not analyzed in women who delivered by cesarean section (n = 14) and delivered precipitously (n = 1). The secondary outcomes are perinatal outcomes and perineal laceration. Participants received patient-controlled epidural analgesia. The 93 women in the active group spent less time in the second stage of labor when compared to the 80 women in the control group (46.51 ± 28.01 min versus 75.02 ± 37.48 min, p < 0.001). There was no significant difference in perinatal outcomes and perineal laceration between the two groups. The uterine fundal pressure exerted by the inflatable obstetric belt reduces the duration of the second stage of labor without complications in nulliparous women who receive patient-controlled epidural analgesia.

  19. Patient-controlled epidural analgesia or multimodal pain regimen with periarticular injection after total hip arthroplasty: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Jules-Elysee, Kethy M; Goon, Amanda K; Westrich, Geoffrey H; Padgett, Douglas E; Mayman, David J; Ranawat, Amar S; Ranawat, Chitranjan S; Lin, Yi; Kahn, Richard L; Bhagat, Devan D; Goytizolo, Enrique A; Ma, Yan; Reid, Shane C; Curren, Jodie; YaDeau, Jacques T

    2015-05-20

    The optimal postoperative analgesia after primary total hip arthroplasty remains in question. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study compared the use of patient-controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA) with use of a multimodal pain regimen including periarticular injection (PAI). We hypothesized that PAI would lead to earlier readiness for discharge, decreased opioid consumption, and lower pain scores. Forty-one patients received PAI, and forty-three patients received PCEA. Preoperatively, both groups were administered dexamethasone (6 mg, orally). The PAI group received a clonidine patch and sustained-release oxycodone (10 mg), while the PCEA group had placebo. Both groups received combined spinal-epidural anesthesia and used an epidural pain pump postoperatively; the PAI group had normal saline solution, while the PCEA group had bupivacaine and hydromorphone. The primary outcome, readiness for discharge, required the discontinuation of the epidural, a pain score of <4 (numeric rating scale) without parenteral narcotics, normal eating, minimal nausea, urination without a catheter, a dry surgical wound, no acute medical problems, and the ability to independently transfer and walk 12.2 m (40 ft). The mean time to readiness for discharge (and standard deviation) was 2.4 ± 0.7 days (PAI) compared with 2.3 ± 0.8 days (PCEA) (p = 0.86). The mean length of stay was 3.0 ± 0.8 days (PAI) compared with 3.1 ± 0.7 days (PCEA) (p = 0.46). A significant mean difference in pain score of 0.74 with ambulation (p = 0.01; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.18 to 1.31) and 0.80 during physical therapy (p = 0.03; 95% CI, 0.09 to 1.51) favored the PCEA group. The mean opioid consumption (oral morphine equivalents in milligrams) was significantly higher in the PAI group on postoperative day 0 (43 ± 21 compared with 28 ± 23; p = 0.002) and postoperative days 0 through 2 (136 ± 59 compared with 90 ± 79; p = 0.004). Opioid-Related Symptom Distress Scale (ORSDS) composite

  20. Comparison of computer-integrated patient-controlled epidural analgesia with no initial basal infusion versus moderate basal infusion for labor and delivery: A randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Sng, Ban Leong; Woo, David; Leong, Wan Ling; Wang, Hao; Assam, Pryseley Nkouibert; Sia, Alex TH

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims: Computer-integrated patient-controlled epidural analgesia (CIPCEA) is a novel epidural drug delivery system. It automatically adjusts the basal infusion based on the individual's need for analgesia as labor progresses. Materials and Methods: This study compared the time-weighted local anesthetic (LA) consumption by comparing parturients using CIPCEA with no initial basal infusion (CIPCEA0) with CIPCEA with initial moderate basal infusion of 5 ml/H (CIPCEA5). We recruited 76 subjects after ethics approval. The computer integration of CIPCEA titrate the basal infusion to 5, 10, 15, or 20 ml/H if the parturient required respectively, one, two, three, or four patient demands in the previous hour. The basal infusion reduced by 5 ml/H if there was no demand in the previous hour. The sample size was calculated to show equivalence in LA consumption. Results: The time-weighted LA consumption between both groups were similar with CIPCEA0 group (mean [standard deviation (SD)] 8.9 [3.5] mg/H) compared to the CIPCEA5 group (mean [SD] 9.9 [3.5] mg/H), P = 0.080. Both groups had a similar incidence of breakthrough pain, duration of the second stage, mode of delivery, and patient satisfaction. However, more subjects in the CIPCEA0 group required patient self-bolus. There were no differences in fetal outcomes. Discussion: Both CIPCEA regimens had similar time-weighted LA consumption and initial moderate basal infusion with CIPCEA may not be required. PMID:25425774

  1. The effect of adding a background infusion to patient-controlled epidural labor analgesia on labor, maternal, and neonatal outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Heesen, Michael; Böhmer, Johannes; Klöhr, Sven; Hofmann, Thomas; Rossaint, Rolf; Straube, Sebastian

    2015-07-01

    Patient-controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA) has gained popularity, but it is still unclear whether adding a background infusion confers any benefit. A systematic literature search in PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, LILACS, CENTRAL, Clinicaltrials.gov, and ISI WOS was performed to identify randomized controlled double-blind trials that compare PCEA-only with PCEA combined with a continuous infusion (PCEA + CI) in parturients. The data were subjected to meta-analyses using the random-effects model. Our primary outcome was the incidence of instrumental vaginal delivery. Secondary outcomes were incidences of spontaneous vaginal and cesarean deliveries, duration of labor, analgesic outcomes, maternal outcomes (visual analog scale scores for pain, maternal satisfaction, nausea, pruritus, hypotension), and neonatal outcomes (Apgar score, umbilical artery pH). We identified 7 trials with a low risk of bias, reporting on 891 parturients, for inclusion in our systematic review. The risk of instrumental vaginal delivery was increased in the PCEA + CI group, risk ratio (RR) 1.66 (95% confidence interval 1.08-2.56, P = 0.02; I = 0%); the RR for cesarean delivery was 0.83 (95% confidence interval 0.61-1.13, I = 0%). The second stage of labor was prolonged (weighted mean difference 12.3 minutes, 95% confidence interval 5.1-19.5 minutes, P = 0.0008; I = 0%) in the PCEA + CI group. Fewer patients in the PCEA + CI group required physician-administered boluses (RR 0.35 [95% confidence interval 0.25-0.47, P < 0.00001; I = 0%]). No differences regarding maternal adverse events (nausea, pruritus, hypotension) or neonatal outcomes (Apgar scores <7, umbilical artery pH) were observed. On the basis of current evidence, no conclusion can be drawn regarding the risks or benefits of adding a continuous background infusion to PCEA compared with PCEA-only epidural labor analgesia. Further high-quality studies involving a sufficient number of patients are required.

  2. Effect of Parecoxib as an Adjunct to Patient-Controlled Epidural Analgesia after Abdominal Hysterectomy: A Multicenter, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wei-Feng; Shu, Hai-Hua; Zhao, Guo-Dong; Peng, Shu-Ling; Xiao, Jin-Fang; Zhang, Guan-Rong; Liu, Ke-Xuan; Huang, Wen-Qi

    2016-01-01

    Objective This multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled study evaluated the efficacy and side effects of parecoxib during patient-controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA) after abdominal hysterectomy. Methods A total of 240 patients who were scheduled for elective abdominal hysterectomy under combined spinal-epidural anesthesia received PCEA plus postoperative intravenous parecoxib 40 mg or saline every 12 h for 48 h after an initial preoperative dose of parecoxib 40 mg or saline. An epidural loading dose of a mixture of 6 mL of 0.25% ropivacaine and 2 mg morphine was administered 30 min before the end of surgery, and PCEA was initiated using 1.25 mg/mL ropivacaine and 0.05 mg/mL morphine with a 2-mL/h background infusion and 2-mL bolus with a 15-min lockout. The primary end point of this study was the quantification of the PCEA-sparing effect of parecoxib. Results Demographic data were similar between the two groups. Patients in the parecoxib group received significantly fewer self-administrated boluses (0 (0, 3) vs. 7 (2, 15), P < 0.001) and less epidural morphine (5.01 ± 0.44 vs. 5.95 ± 1.29 mg, P < 0.001) but experienced greater pain relief compared with the control group (P < 0.001). Patient global satisfaction was higher in the parecoxib group than the control group (P < 0.001). Length of hospitalization (9.50 ± 2.1, 95% CI 9.12~9.88 vs. 10.41 ± 2.6, 95% CI 9.95~10.87, P = 0.003) and postoperative vomiting (17% vs. 29%, P < 0.05) were also reduced in the parecoxib group. There were no serious adverse effects in either group. Conclusion Our data suggest that adjunctive parecoxib during PCEA following abdominal hysterectomy is safe and efficacious in reducing pain, requirements of epidural analgesics, and side effects. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01566669) PMID:27622453

  3. A Retrospective Observational Study Examining the Effect of Thoracic Epidural and Patient Controlled Analgesia on Short-term Outcomes in Blunt Thoracic Trauma Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Edward James; Lee, Geraldine Ann

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Effective analgesia in the early stages after any major traumatic event remains pivotal to optimal trauma management. For patients with significant thoracic injuries, this is paramount to ensure ongoing efficient respiratory function. The aim of this study was to investigate the use of analgesic modes in the management of patients with a primary thoracic injury and blunt mechanism of injury. By understanding variables that influence the use of varying analgesic modes and influence the development of pulmonary complications, there should be more uniform evidence-based prescription in the future. This retrospective study considered analgesic use in patients admitted after blunt thoracic injuries at one major trauma center over a 2-year period. Pulmonary complications measured included both infective and ventilator-associated failure. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to identify patient and injury severity characteristics and their association with respiratory complications. A total of 401 cases were reviewed and analyzed: 159 received Patient Controlled Analgesia (PCA), 32 received PCA and epidural analgesia (EA), 6 received EA alone, and 204 received interval-administered analgesia. There were no significant differences in the rates of complication when compared between analgesic modes. Patients who developed pneumonia had significantly increased number of thoracic fractures and underlying organ injury (P < 0.05). Logistic regression analysis highlighted duration of intercostal drain insertion (OR 1.377, P = 0.001) and premorbid cardiac disease (OR 2.624, P = 0.042) and ICU length of stay (OR: 1.146, P < 0.001) as significant predictors of developing pneumonia in this patient group. Examining the different analgesic modes, this study failed to identify a particular analgesic mode that was more effective in preventing pulmonary complications in blunt thoracic injuries. However, variables that may influence usage of different

  4. Epidural optogenetics for controlled analgesia

    PubMed Central

    Bonin, Robert P; Wang, Feng; Desrochers-Couture, Mireille; Ga¸secka, Alicja; Boulanger, Marie-Eve; Côté, Daniel C

    2016-01-01

    Background Optogenetic tools enable cell selective and temporally precise control of neuronal activity; yet, difficulties in delivering sufficient light to the spinal cord of freely behaving animals have hampered the use of spinal optogenetic approaches to produce analgesia. We describe an epidural optic fiber designed for chronic spinal optogenetics that enables the precise delivery of light at multiple wavelengths to the spinal cord dorsal horn and sensory afferents. Results The epidural delivery of light enabled the optogenetic modulation of nociceptive processes at the spinal level. The acute and repeated activation of channelrhodopsin-2 expressing nociceptive afferents produced robust nocifensive behavior and mechanical sensitization in freely behaving mice, respectively. The optogenetic inhibition of GABAergic interneurons in the spinal cord dorsal horn through the activation of archaerhodopsin also produced a transient, but selective induction of mechanical hypersensitivity. Finally, we demonstrate the capacity of optogenetics to produce analgesia in freely behaving mice through the inhibition of nociceptive afferents via archaerhodopsin. Conclusion Epidural optogenetics provides a robust and powerful solution for activation of both excitatory and inhibitory opsins in sensory processing pathways. Our results demonstrate the potential of spinal optogenetics to modulate sensory behavior and produce analgesia in freely behaving animals. PMID:27030718

  5. Epidural optogenetics for controlled analgesia.

    PubMed

    Bonin, Robert P; Wang, Feng; Desrochers-Couture, Mireille; Ga Secka, Alicja; Boulanger, Marie-Eve; Côté, Daniel C; De Koninck, Yves

    2016-01-01

    Optogenetic tools enable cell selective and temporally precise control of neuronal activity; yet, difficulties in delivering sufficient light to the spinal cord of freely behaving animals have hampered the use of spinal optogenetic approaches to produce analgesia. We describe an epidural optic fiber designed for chronic spinal optogenetics that enables the precise delivery of light at multiple wavelengths to the spinal cord dorsal horn and sensory afferents. The epidural delivery of light enabled the optogenetic modulation of nociceptive processes at the spinal level. The acute and repeated activation of channelrhodopsin-2 expressing nociceptive afferents produced robust nocifensive behavior and mechanical sensitization in freely behaving mice, respectively. The optogenetic inhibition of GABAergic interneurons in the spinal cord dorsal horn through the activation of archaerhodopsin also produced a transient, but selective induction of mechanical hypersensitivity. Finally, we demonstrate the capacity of optogenetics to produce analgesia in freely behaving mice through the inhibition of nociceptive afferents via archaerhodopsin. Epidural optogenetics provides a robust and powerful solution for activation of both excitatory and inhibitory opsins in sensory processing pathways. Our results demonstrate the potential of spinal optogenetics to modulate sensory behavior and produce analgesia in freely behaving animals. © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. Patient-controlled intravenous analgesia as an alternative to epidural analgesia during labor: questioning the use of the short-acting opioid remifentanil. Survey in the French part of Belgium (Wallonia and Brussels).

    PubMed

    Lavand'homme, P; Roelants, F

    2009-01-01

    Childbirth ranks among the most intense experiences of acute pain. Neuraxial analgesia (i.e. epidural or combined spinal-epidural technique) is the most effective way to relieve that pain but it is contraindicated or impossible to perform for some parturients. We designed a survey of the current use of analgesic alternatives to epidural analgesia (EA) for labor pain, specifically the use of opioid patient-controlled intravenous analgesia (PCIA), in the French part of Belgium (Wallonia and Brussels). A questionnaire was mailed to the departmental chair of the hospitals with an obstetric unit, both in university and non-university centers (total of 53 centers). The questionnaire evaluated the availability of EA, the alternatives used when EA was contraindicated, the use of opioid-based PCIA for labor analgesia as well as opioid preference and doses, and finally the reasons for not using opioid PCIA. The response rate was 67.5% (36 centers). Among the responding hospitals, EA was available for 68% (range 25-85%) of labors and deliveries. When EA was not available or contraindicated, a parenteral opioid (piritramide, tramadol or pethidine) was proposed in 19% (7/36) of the centers, Entonox in 11% (4/36), a pudendal block by obstetricians in 28% (10/36) and non-pharmacologic alternatives (i.e. hypnosis, sophrology, baths and massages) in 19% (7/36). In 28% (10/36) of the centers however, no analgesic alternative was proposed. Opioid PCIA was employed in 36% (13/36) of the centers and for an additional 11% (4/36) only in case of intrauterine death. Remifentanil was the first choice (76.5% of the PCIA), followed by sufentanil (23.5%). Other opioids (piritramide, morphine, fentanyl) and ketamine were also administered by PCIA. Forty-five percents of the centers reported never using opioid PCIA by either lack of knowledge (7%), fear of maternal or fetal side effects (48%) and unability to provide a correct supervision of the parturient during PCIA use (48%), opposition from

  7. Techniques for the maintenance of epidural labor analgesia.

    PubMed

    Capogna, Giorgio; Stirparo, Silvia

    2013-06-01

    After initiating neuraxial labor analgesia, there are many techniques that can be used to maintain analgesia for the duration of labor. In this review, we have examined the new techniques of maintenance of epidural labor analgesia recently proposed to overcome the undesirable effects of continuous infusion and patient-controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA). As labor progresses, there is a greater need for analgesia. PCEA with basal infusion, automated intermittent mandatory boluses, programmed intermittent epidural boluses and computer-integrated PCEA have been introduced to combine the advantages of a manual bolus and continuous infusion, thus matching infusion rate and bolus modality to the patient's analgesic needs. Increased maternal satisfaction, reduced anesthetic consumption and decreased incidence of motor block are features of these new maintenance techniques. Technology has now provided us with more advanced drug delivery systems that may have the potential to fulfill the maternal requirements of a safe, natural, and painless childbirth, tailoring the analgesic regimen for each parturient's need.

  8. A randomised comparison of variable-frequency automated mandatory boluses with a basal infusion for patient-controlled epidural analgesia during labour and delivery.

    PubMed

    Sia, A T; Leo, S; Ocampo, C E

    2013-03-01

    This trial was conducted to compare the analgesic efficacy of administering variable-frequency automated boluses at a rate proportional to the patient's needs with fixed continuous basal infusion in patient-controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA) during labour and delivery. We recruited a total of 102 parturients in labour who were randomly assigned to receive either a novel PCEA with automated mandatory boluses of 5 ml administered once, twice, three or four times per hour depending on the history of the parturient's analgesic demands over the past hour (Automated bolus group), or a conventional PCEA with a basal infusion of 5 ml.h(-1) (Infusion group). The incidence of breakthrough pain requiring supplementation by an anaesthetist was significantly lower in the Automated bolus group, three out of 51 (5.9%) compared with the Infusion group, 12 out of 51 (23.5%, p = 0.023). The time-weighted mean (SD) hourly consumption of ropivacaine was similar in both groups, 10.0 (3.0) mg in the Automated bolus group vs 11.1 (3.2) mg in the Infusion group (p = 0.06). Parturients from the Automated bolus group reported higher satisfaction scores compared with those in the Infusion group, 96.5 (5.0) vs 89.2 (9.4), respectively (p < 0.001). There was no difference in the incidence of maternal side-effects and obstetric and neonatal outcomes. Anaesthesia © 2012 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  9. Effectiveness of Epidural Analgesia, Continuous Surgical Site Analgesia, and Patient-Controlled Analgesic Morphine for Postoperative Pain Management and Hyperalgesia, Rehabilitation, and Health-Related Quality of Life After Open Nephrectomy: A Prospective, Randomized, Controlled Study.

    PubMed

    Capdevila, Xavier; Moulard, Sebastien; Plasse, Christian; Peshaud, Jean-Luc; Molinari, Nicolas; Dadure, Christophe; Bringuier, Sophie

    2017-01-01

    There is no widely recognized effective technique to optimally reduce pain scores and prevent persistent postoperative pain after nephrectomy. We compared continuous surgical site analgesia (CSSA), epidural analgesia (EA), and a control group (patient-controlled analgesic morphine) in patients undergoing open nephrectomy. Sixty consecutive patients were randomized to be part of EA, CSSA, or control groups postoperatively for 72 hours. All patients received patient-controlled analgesic morphine, if needed. Hyperalgesia was assessed on the first, second, and third postoperative days. Chronic pain characteristics and quality of life were analyzed at 1 and 3 months. The primary outcome was the pain score at 24 hours. Secondary outcomes were morphine consumption, postoperative rehabilitation, hyperalgesia, chronic pain incidence, and quality-of-life parameters. At 24 hours, mean ± standard deviation pain values at rest (2.4 ± 1.7, 2.2 ± 1.2, and 4.2 ± 1.2, respectively, in EA, CSSA, and control groups, P <.001) and during coughing was lower in the EA and CSSA groups. Total morphine consumption was higher in the control group. Rehabilitation parameters improved sooner in the EA and CSSA groups. Median values of area of hyperalgesia differed at 48 hours between the EA group and the control group (36.4 cm) and (52 cm) (P = .01) and at 72 hours among the EA group, CSSA group, and the control group (40 cm, 39.5 cm, and 59 cm, respectively; P = .002). CSSA reduced the severity of pain and hyperalgesia at 1 month and optimized quality of life 3 months after surgery (role physical scores, P = .005). CSSA and EA significantly improve postoperative analgesia, reduce postoperative morphine consumption, area of wound hyperalgesia, and accelerate patient rehabilitation after open nephrectomy. CSSA significantly reduces the severity of residual pain 1 month after surgery and optimizes quality-of-life parameters 3 months after surgery.

  10. Epidural analgesia during labor vs no analgesia: A comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Mousa, Wesam Farid; Al-Metwalli, Roshdi; Mostafa, Manal

    2012-01-01

    Background: Epidural analgesia is claimed to result in prolonged labor. Previous studies have assessed epidural analgesia vs systemic opioids rather than to parturients receiving no analgesia. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of epidural analgesia on labor duration compared with parturients devoid of analgesia. Methods: One hundred sixty nulliparous women in spontaneous labor at full term with a singleton vertex presentation were assigned to the study. Parturients who request epidural analgesia were allocated in the epidural group, whereas those not enthusiastic to labor analgesia were allocated in the control group. Epidural analgesia was provided with 20 mL bolus 0.5% epidural lidocaine plus fentanyl and maintained at 10 mL for 1 h. Duration of the first and second stages of labor, number of parturients receiving oxytocin, maximal oxytocin dose required for each parturient, numbers of instrumental vaginal, vacuum-assisted, and cesarean deliveries and neonatal Apgar score were recorded. Results: There was no statistical difference in the duration of the active-first and the second stages of labor, instrumental delivery, vacuum-assisted or cesarean delivery rates, the number of newborns with 1-min and 5-min Apgar scores less than 7 between both groups and number of parturients receiving oxytocin, however, the maximal oxytocin dose was significantly higher in the epidural group. Conclusion: Epidural analgesia by lidocaine (0.5%) and fentanyl does not prolong labor compared with parturients without analgesia; however, significant oxytocin augmentation is required during the epidural analgesia to keep up the aforementioned average labor duration. PMID:22412775

  11. Antiemetic effects of midazolam added to fentanyl-ropivacaine patient-controlled epidural analgesia after subtotal gastrectomy: A prospective, randomized, double-blind, controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sioh; Seo, Jeongwon; Jeon, Younghoon

    2010-01-01

    Background: Nausea and vomiting are frequent adverse effects of patient-controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA) with opioids. Objective: This study was designed to assess the antiemetic effect of midazolam added to fentanyl—ropivacaine PCEA. Methods: In a prospective, randomized, double-blind, controlled trial, smoking patients with gastric cancer undergoing elective subtotal gastrectomy were evenly allocated to 1 of 2 treatment groups to manage postoperative pain: 0.2% ropivacaine mixed with fentanyl 4 μg/mL and midazolam 0.2 mg/mL (test group) or 0.2% ropivacaine mixed with fentanyl 4 μg/mL (control group). The PCEA infusion was set to deliver 4 μL/h of the study solution, with a bolus of 2 mL per demand and a 15-minute lockout time. The incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV), pain intensity, sedation score, usage of rescue analgesia and rescue antiemetic, respiratory depression, urinary retention, and pruritus were recorded at 2, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 hours after surgery. Total infused volume of PCEA at 72 hours after surgery was measured. Results: A total of 60 patients were approached and randomized to treatment. No patients were excluded by exclusion criteria and all enrolled patients completed this study. Incidence of nausea (7% vs 33%; P = 0.02) in the test group was significantly lower than in the control group. The overall frequency of PONV in the test group was significantly less than that of the control group (7% vs 40%; P = 0.006). In addition, the mean (SD) infused volume of PCEA in the test group was significantly lower than that in the control group (392.3 [68.9] vs 351.2 [49.8] mL; P = 0.01). However, there were no significant differences in pain intensity, usage of rescue antiemetics and rescue analgesics, and mild pruritus between groups. No patient reported moderate or severe sedation, respiratory depression, or hypoxemia. In addition, there were no severe adverse events. Conclusions: Midazolam added to fentanyl-ropivacaine PCEA

  12. Epidural analgesia improves postoperative nitrogen balance.

    PubMed Central

    Brandt, M R; Fernades, A; Mordhorst, R; Kehlet, H

    1978-01-01

    Postoperative nitrogen balance was monitored in twelve patients undergoing hysterectomy under either epidural analgesia or general anaesthesia. The mean cumulative five-day nitrogen losses were significantly lower after epidural analgesia than after general anaesthesia. Nitrogen sparing presumably results from inhibiting the stress-induced release of catabolic hormones, since epidural analgesia abolished postoperative hyperglycaemia and increase in plasma cortisol concentrations. No adverse effects of inhibiting the stress response were observed. Neurogenic stimuli thus play a crucial part in the catabolic response to surgery. Inhibiting the endocrine metabolic response to trauma by neurogenic blockade may reduce the morbidity precipitated in high-risk patients by the catabolic response to surgery. PMID:638618

  13. Epidural Analgesia in the Postoperative Period

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-10-01

    an unwanted side effect of surgery, and is associated with many postoperative complications. This descriptive study was conducted to determine which...surgical patients experienced the most analgesia with the fewest side effects when receiving epidural analgesia in the postoperative period. A...hospital. A description of the patients age, gender, type of surgery, type of epidural medication, side effects , incidence of breakthrough pain, and

  14. Biological rhythms of spinal-epidural labor analgesia.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Waleska Schneider; Hidalgo, Maria Paz Loayza; Torres, Iraci da Silva Lucena; Caumo, Wolnei

    2010-06-01

    Pain exhibits temporal variations in intensity due to multiple factors, including endogenous neuroendocrine and various external influences that vary over the 24 h. Also, medications can vary in potency and/or toxicity according to the time when they are administered. However, there is no consensus among studies regarding the 24-h pattern of analgesia during labor. Taking into account the time-of-day when labor analgesia is administered, this study aimed to answer two questions: (i) Is there diurnal variation in visual analogue scale (VAS)-rated pain relief and duration of intrathecal analgesia in patients undergoing labor analgesia? (ii) If there is, what is the influence of the duration of labor on the diurnal variation of the level of pain relief and duration of intrathecal analgesia? This prospective cohort included 41 healthy, nulliparous women in the first stage of labor undergoing spinal-epidural (CSE) analgesia using fentanyl combined with bupivacaine. Subjects had an epidural catheter fitted for additional, patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) if their pain relief was unsatisfactory. The number of VAS assessments (n = 558) was divided into six time periods of the 24 h. The adjusted coefficient of determination (r(2)), the proportion of the variance explained by the association between the duration of labor and the temporal pattern of the outcomes variable, was 58% (r(2) = 0.58) for pain relief and 44% (r(2) = 0.44) for duration of intrathecal analgesia. The peak effect of labor analgesia occurred between 02:00 and 05:59 h. However, the duration of intrathecal analgesia showed two peaks, i.e., at approximately 00:00 and approximately 12:00 h. These results demonstrate that labor analgesia achieved by fentanyl combined with bupivacaine shows a diurnal pattern in pain relief and duration of spinal analgesia. However, part of these temporal patterns was explained by the association with duration of labor.

  15. Comparison of continuous epidural infusion and programmed intermittent epidural bolus in labor analgesia

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yunan; Li, Qiang; Liu, Jinlu; Yang, Ruimin; Liu, Jingchen

    2016-01-01

    Background This study aims to investigate differences between continuous epidural infusion (CEI) and programmed intermittent epidural bolus (IEB) analgesia for the Chinese parturients undergoing spontaneous delivery and to approach their safety to parturients and neonates. Methods Two hundred healthy American Society of Anesthesiologists class I or II, term (≥37 weeks’ gestation), nulliparous women who requested analgesia for labor were recruited. Epidural analgesia was initiated with a solution of 0.15% ropivacaine 10 mL and maintained with 0.1% ropivacaine mixed with sufentanil 0.3 μg/mL by CEI at a rate of 5 mL/h combined with a patient-controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA) bolus of 5 mL of ropivacaine sufentanil mixture or IEB of 5 mL of ropivacaine sufentanil mixture combined with a PCEA bolus of 5 mL of ropivacaine sufentanil mixture. The lockout interval was 20 minutes in each arm between the CEI and the IEB group. After 20 minutes of first dosage, visual analog scale (VAS) score was obtained every 60 minutes. The maternal and fetal outcome and total consumption of analgesic solution were compared. Results There was no difference in demographic characteristics, duration of first and second stages, delivery methods, sensory block, fetal Apgar scores, and the maternal outcomes between the CEI and IEB groups. There was a significant difference in VAS scores and epidural ropivacaine total consumption between the two groups (IEB vs CEI: 51.27±9.61 vs 70.44±12.78 mg, P<0.01). Conclusion The use of programmed IEB mixed with PCEA improved labor analgesia compared to CEI mixed with PCEA, which could act as maintenance mode for epidural labor analgesia. PMID:27471390

  16. Effects of local anesthetic on the time between analgesic boluses and the duration of labor in patient-controlled epidural analgesia: prospective study of two ultra-low dose regimens of ropivacaine and sufentanil.

    PubMed

    Costa-Martins, José Manuel; Dias, Cláudia Camila; Pereira, Marco; Tavares, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Patient-controlled epidural analgesia with low concentrations of anesthetics is effective in reducing labor pain. The aim of this study was to assess and compare two ultra-low dose regimens of ropivacaine and sufentanil (0.1% ropivacaine plus 0.5 μg.ml-1 sufentanil vs. 0.06% ropivacaine plus 0.5 μg.ml-1 sufentanil) on the intervals between boluses and the duration of labor. In this non-randomized prospective study, conducted between January and July 2010, two groups of parturients received patient-controlled epidural analgesia: Group I (n = 58; 1 mg.ml-1 ropivacaine + 0.5 μg.ml-1 sufentanil) and Group II (n = 57; 0.6 mg.ml-1 ropivacaine + 0.5 μg.ml-1 sufentanil). Rescue doses of ropivacaine at the concentration of the assigned group without sufentanil were administered as necessary. Pain, local anesthetic requirements, neuraxial blockade characteristics, labor and neonatal outcomes, and maternal satisfaction were recorded. The ropivacaine dose was greater in Group I (9.5 [7.7-12.7] mg.h-1 vs. 6.1 [5.1-9.8 mg.h-1], p < 0.001). A time increase between each bolus was observed in Group I (beta = 32.61 min, 95% CI [25.39; 39.82], p < 0.001), whereas a time decrease was observed in Group II (beta = -1.40 min, 95% CI [-2.44; -0.36], p = 0.009). The duration of the second stage of labor in Group I was significantly longer than that in Group II (78 min vs. 65 min, p < 0.001). Parturients receiving 0.06% ropivacaine exhibited less evidence of cumulative effects and exhibited faster second stage progression than those who received 0.1% ropivacaine.

  17. Epidural Analgesia in the Postoperative Period

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-10-01

    violations. VI ABSTRACT Postoperative pain is an unwanted side effect of surgery, and is associated with many postoperative complications...This descriptive study was conducted to determine which surgical patients experienced the most analgesia with the fewest side effects when...epidural medication, side effects , incidence of breakthrough pain, and treatments were recorded and cross-tabulated. The following surgical categories

  18. Continuous epidural analgesia, a new prospect in analgesia of newborns.

    PubMed

    Mixa, V; Nedomova, B; Berka, I

    2015-01-01

    The popularity of continuous caudal epidural block in post-operative analgesia in very young children has been growing. This method of analgesia is used in major abdominal and urological surgeries. A local anaesthetic, usually levobupivacaine, is administered through an epidural catheter introduced via hiatus canalis sacralis. The usual type of the catheter is Arrow G20 armed with a metal spiral, which can be used for children of up to approximately 2000 g of body weight. We want to introduce a modification of the method which uses the thin silicone catheter Premicath G28. This catheter allows for the administration of caudal epidural analgesia even in premature children of approximately 500 g of body weight. This solution eliminates adverse effects of systemic opioid analgesia, accelerates surgical wound healing and disconnection from ventilation system, and improves the potential of enteral nutrition. Depth and quality of analgesia in very young children are monitored using a complex scheme called Comfort Neo Scale (Tab. 1, Fig. 2, Ref. 7).

  19. Epidural labour analgesia using Bupivacaine and Clonidine

    PubMed Central

    Syal, K; Dogra, RK; Ohri, A; Chauhan, G; Goel, A

    2011-01-01

    Background: To compare the effects of addition of Clonidine (60 μg) to Epidural Bupivacaine (0.125%) for labour analgesia, with regard to duration of analgesia, duration of labour, ambulation, incidence of instrumentation and caesarean section, foetal outcome, patient satisfaction and side effects. Patients & Methods: On demand, epidural labour analgesia was given to 50 nulliparous healthy term parturients (cephalic presentation), divided in two groups randomly. Group I received bupivacaine (0.125%) alone, whereas Group II received bupivacaine (0.125%) along with Clonidine (60 μg). 10 ml of 0.125% bupivacaine was injected as first dose and further doses titrated with patient relief (Numerical Rating Scale <3). Top ups were given whenever Numerical Rating Scale went above 5. Results: There was statistically significant prolongation of duration of analgesia in Group II, with no difference in duration of labour, ambulation, incidence of instrumentation and caesarean section or foetal outcome. Also clonidine gave dose sparing effect to bupivacaine and there was better patient satisfaction without any significant side effects in Group II. Conclusion: Clonidine is a useful adjunct to bupivacaine for epidural labour analgesia and can be considered as alternative to opioids. PMID:21804714

  20. [The efficacy and safety of continuous epidural analgesia versus intradural-epidural analgesia during labor].

    PubMed

    Gómez, P; Echevarría, M; Calderón, J; Caba, F; Martínez, A; Rodríguez, R

    2001-05-01

    To determine the efficacy and safety of intradural-epidural analgesia in comparison with continuous epidural analgesia during labor and childbirth. Forty-two women whose labor began spontaneously were enrolled and distributed randomly in two groups. The intradural-epidural analgesia group (IEA, n = 21) received 25 microgram of intradural fentanyl with 2.5 mg of isobaric bupivacaine with adrenalin, after which analgesia was maintained with epidural administration of one 8 mL bolus of 0.125% bupivacaine, followed by perfusion of a balanced concentration at a rate of 8 ml/h. Patients in the continuous epidural analgesia group (CEA, n = 21) were given 8 ml of 0.25% bupivacaine with adrenalin; the epidural perfusion of 0.125% bupivacaine and 1 microgram/ml of fentanyl was started at the same rate as in the IEA group. We recorded pain as assessed on a visual analog scale, extension of sensory and motor block, maternal hemodynamic constants, number of boluses of bupivacaine used, total doses of bupivacaine and oxytocin, instruments needed for childbirth, and side effects (pruritus, nausea and vomiting). Analgesic efficacy during the first 30 minutes was greater in the IEA group. The total dose of bupivacaine, required top-up boluses, and the extension of sensory block at 30 minutes, one hour and two hours were also significantly less in the IEA group. The incidence of pruritus was higher in the IEA group. No significant differences were observed for other variables. Intradural-epidural analgesia provides effective analgesia for labor, with rapid onset, reduced extension of sensory block, lower total doses of local anesthetics and few side effects.

  1. Combined spinal-epidural versus epidural analgesia in labour.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Scott W; Taghizadeh, Neda; Dennis, Alicia T; Hughes, Damien; Cyna, Allan M

    2012-10-17

    Traditional epidural techniques have been associated with prolonged labour, use of oxytocin augmentation and increased incidence of instrumental vaginal delivery. The combined spinal-epidural (CSE) technique has been introduced in an attempt to reduce these adverse effects. CSE is believed to improve maternal mobility during labour and provide more rapid onset of analgesia than epidural analgesia, which could contribute to increased maternal satisfaction. To assess the relative effects of CSE versus epidural analgesia during labour. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (28 September 2011) and reference lists of retrieved studies. We updated the search on 30 June 2012 and added the results to the awaiting classification section. All published randomised controlled trials (RCTs) involving a comparison of CSE with epidural analgesia initiated for women in the first stage of labour. Cluster-randomised trials were considered for inclusion. Quasi RCTs and cross-over trials were not considered for inclusion in this review. Three review authors independently assessed the trials identified from the searches for inclusion, assessed trial quality and extracted the data. Data were checked for accuracy. Twenty-seven trials involving 3274 women met our inclusion criteria. Twenty-six outcomes in two sets of comparisons involving CSE versus traditional epidurals and CSE versus low-dose epidural techniques were analysed.Of the CSE versus traditional epidural analyses five outcomes showed a significant difference. CSE was more favourable in relation to speed of onset of analgesia from time of injection (mean difference (MD) -2.87 minutes; 95% confidence interval (CI) -5.07 to -0.67; two trials, 129 women); the need for rescue analgesia (risk ratio (RR) 0.31; 95% CI 0.14 to 0.70; one trial, 42 women); urinary retention (RR 0.86; 95% CI 0.79 to 0.95; one trial, 704 women); and rate of instrumental delivery (RR 0.81; 95% CI 0.67 to 0.97; six trials

  2. Recent Advances in Epidural Analgesia

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Maria; George, John E.; Seif, John; Farag, Ehab

    2012-01-01

    Neuraxial anesthesia is a term that denotes all forms of central blocks, involving the spinal, epidural, and caudal spaces. Epidural anesthesia is a versatile technique widely used in anesthetic practice. Its potential to decrease postoperative morbidity and mortality has been demonstrated by numerous studies. To maximize its perioperative benefits while minimizing potential adverse outcomes, the knowledge of factors affecting successful block placement is essential. This paper will provide an overview of the pertinent anatomical, pharmacological, immunological, and technical aspects of epidural anesthesia in both adult and pediatric populations and will discuss the recent advances, the related rare but potentially devastating complications, and the current recommendations for the use of anticoagulants in the setting of neuraxial block placement. PMID:22174708

  3. Update on epidural analgesia during labor and delivery.

    PubMed

    Lurie, S; Priscu, V

    1993-05-01

    Properly administered epidural analgesia provides adequate pain relief during labor and delivery, shortens the first stage of labor, avoids adverse effects of narcotics, hypnotics, or inhalation drugs and it could be used as anesthesia in case a cesarean section is required. Epidural analgesia should be provided to all patients who need and ask for it with an exception of contraindications such as coagulation disorders, suspected infection or gross anatomic abnormality. The technique must be carried out with care if serious life-threatening complications, such as intravenous or intrathecal injection of local anesthetic, are to be avoided. The aim of many recent investigations has been to reduce the total dose of local anesthetic used. Supplementation of an opioid (mainly fentanyl) and introduction of the patient controlled epidural pump may not only serve this goal, but also reduce the demands on the time of obstetric anesthetists. We conclude that properly and skillfully administered epidural is the best form of pain relief during labor and delivery and we hope that more mothers could enjoy its benefits.

  4. A randomized trial of dural puncture epidural technique compared with the standard epidural technique for labor analgesia.

    PubMed

    Cappiello, Eric; O'Rourke, Nollag; Segal, Scott; Tsen, Lawrence C

    2008-11-01

    We designed this prospective, double-blind, randomized study to examine whether a dural puncture without intrathecal drug administration immediately before epidural drug administration would improve labor analgesia when compared to a traditional epidural technique without prior dural puncture. Eighty nulliparous parturients with cervical dilation less than 5 cm were randomly assigned to receive a standardized epidural technique, with or without a single dural puncture with a 25-gauge (G) Whitacre spinal needle. After successful placement of the needle(s) and the epidural catheter, 12 mL of bupivacaine 2.5 mg/mL was administered through the epidural catheter and a patient-controlled epidural infusion of bupivacaine 1.25 mg/mL + fentanyl 2 mug/mL was initiated. The presence of sacral analgesia (S1) and pain scores were compared between groups. In demographically similar groups, parturients with prior dural puncture had more frequent blockade of the S1 dermatome (absolute risk difference [95% confidence interval] 22% [6-39]), more frequent visual analog scale scores <10/100 at 20 min (absolute risk difference 20% [1-38]), and reduced one-sided analgesia (absolute risk difference [95% CI] 17% [2-330]). The highest median sensory level (T10) was no different between groups. Dural puncture with a 25-G spinal needle immediately before the initiation of epidural analgesia improves the sacral spread, onset, and bilateral pain relief produced by analgesic concentrations of bupivacaine with fentanyl in laboring nulliparous patients.

  5. [Maternal postures and epidural analgesia during labour].

    PubMed

    Ducloy-Bouthors, A-S; De Gasquet, B; Davette, M; Cuisse, M

    2006-06-01

    The evolution of birth is of interest for obstetricians and midwives. Postures with asymmetric stretching and balance, kneeling, or sitting have been claimed to be able to help foetal head rotation. Although walking during labour have no influence on the outcome of labour, hip-flexed postures enlarging the pelvic diameter are yet evaluated to improve the obstetric course of labour. In a prospective randomised study including 93 parturients, we compared the supine 30 degrees lateral tilt (control group) to three hip-flexed postures: sitting (S), right hip-flexed left lateral position (L) and left hip-flexed right lateral position (R). Epidural analgesia with 12 ml ropivacaine 0.1% and sufentanil 0.5 microg/ml was administered over a period of six minutes. The total epidural spread was 15+/-0.3 dermatomes and the upper level of thermo-analgesic blockade reached T7-T8 (T5 to T10) in each group. There were no differences between groups for the left and right total spread and upper level of epidural blockade, for the time to maximal block and pain relief. There was no motor block and no maternal or foetal side effects. We conclude that, for the three hip-flexed postures tested, position does not influence local anesthetic spread or symmetry of analgesia after induction of obstetric epidural anaesthesia.

  6. Effect of combined spinal-epidural analgesia versus epidural analgesia on labor and delivery duration.

    PubMed

    Pascual-Ramirez, Javier; Haya, Javier; Pérez-López, Faustino R; Gil-Trujillo, Silvia; Garrido-Esteban, Rosa A; Bernal, Ginés

    2011-09-01

    To determine whether combined spinal-epidural analgesia (CSEA) can decrease the known epidural effect of lengthening delivery. Between April and May 2010, 144 women undergoing childbirth in hospital with epidural pain relief were randomized to receive either low-dose epidural analgesia (LEA) or CSEA. The spinal component included 2.5mg of bupivacaine, 25 μg of fentanyl, and 200 μg of morphine. The epidural component of the CSEA procedure was started once pain returned. The primary outcome was total labor duration measured from the time of initiation of labor analgesia to delivery. The difference in duration between LEA (n=72) and CSEA (n=72) was 5 minutes for labor (P=0.82), 2 minutes for delivery (P=0.60), and 7 minutes for total labor duration (P=0.75). The combined group used less levobupivacaine (P<0.001) and had lower sensory blockade at the dermatomal level (P=0.037). Women in the CSEA group had a higher incidence of pruritus (P=0.002) and lightheadedness (P=0.02) during labor; and a higher incidence of pruritus (P=0.002), nausea-vomiting (P=0.026), and drowsiness (P=0.003) in the postpartum period. As compared with LEA, CSEA did not shorten the duration of labor length; however, it did reduce levobupivacaine consumption and motor weakness. Copyright © 2011 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Use of epidural analgesia in post-operative pain management.

    PubMed

    Weetman, Carole; Allison, Wendy

    This article provides an overview of the use of epidural infusion analgesia in the management of patients with post-operative pain. Epidural analgesia is an effective method for relieving pain and has minimal side effects. However, life-threatening complications can occur and nurses need to be able to identify these and provide safe care for patients.

  8. Difficulty in the removal of epidural catheter for labor analgesia.

    PubMed

    Hajnour, Mohamed S; Khokhar, Rashid Saeed; Ejaz, Abdul Aziz Ahmed; Al Zahrani, Tariq; Kanchi, Naveed Uddin

    2017-01-01

    For labor pain management epidural analgesia is a popular and an effective method. Difficult removal of epidural catheters occasionally occurs, and several maneuvers have been recommended. The purpose of this article is to raise awareness of the problem of retained epidural catheter fragments and identify the potential impact of complications.

  9. Difficulty in the removal of epidural catheter for labor analgesia

    PubMed Central

    Hajnour, Mohamed S.; Khokhar, Rashid Saeed; Ejaz, Abdul Aziz Ahmed; Al Zahrani, Tariq; Kanchi, Naveed Uddin

    2017-01-01

    For labor pain management epidural analgesia is a popular and an effective method. Difficult removal of epidural catheters occasionally occurs, and several maneuvers have been recommended. The purpose of this article is to raise awareness of the problem of retained epidural catheter fragments and identify the potential impact of complications. PMID:28217071

  10. The experience of giving birth with epidural analgesia.

    PubMed

    Jepsen, Ingrid; Keller, Kurt Dauer

    2014-06-01

    There is a lack of literature about what constitutes good midwifery care for women who have epidural analgesia during labour. It is known that an increasing number of women receive epidural analgesia for labour pain. We also know that while women rate the painkilling effect of the epidural analgesia as high, in general, their satisfaction with labour is unchanged or even lower when epidural analgesia is used. How do women experience being in labour with epidural analgesia, and what kind of midwifery care do they, consequently, need? A field study and semi-structured interviews were conducted on a phenomenological basis. Nine nulliparous women were observed from initiation of epidural analgesia until birth of their baby. They were interviewed the day after the birth and again 2 months later. The involved midwives were interviewed 2-3h after the birth. Initiation of epidural analgesia can have considerable implications for women's experience of labour. Two different types of emotional reactions towards epidural analgesia are distinguished, one of which is particularly marked by a subtle sense of worry and ambivalence. Another important finding refers to the labouring woman's relationship with the midwife, which represents an essential influencing factor on the woman' experience of labour. Within this relationship, some rather unnoticed matters of communication and recognition appear to be of decisive significance. After initiation of epidural analgesia the requirements of midwifery care seem to go beyond how women verbalise and define their own needs. The midwife should be attentive to the labouring woman's type of emotional reaction to epidural analgesia and her possible intricate worries. Copyright © 2014 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Epidural analgesia in cattle, buffalo, and camels.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Zuhair Bani

    2016-12-01

    Epidural analgesia is commonly used in large animals. It is an easy, cheap, and effective technique used to prevent or control pain during surgeries involving the tail, anus, vulva, perineum, caudal udder, scrotum, and upper hind limbs. The objectives of this article were to comprehensively review and summarize all scientific data available in the literature on new techniques and drugs or drug combinations used for epidural anesthesia in cattle, camel, and buffalo. Only articles published between 2006 and 2016 were included in the review. The most common sites for epidural administration in cattle, camels, and buffalos were the sacrococcygeal intervertebral space (S5-Co1) and first intercoccygeal intervertebral space (Co1-Co2). The most frequently used drugs and dosages were lidocaine (0.22-0.5 mg/kg), bupivacaine (0.125 mg/kg), ropivacaine (0.11 mg/kg), xylazine (0.05 mg/kg), medetomidine (15 µg/kg), romifidine (30-50 µg/kg), ketamine (0.3-2.5 mg/kg), tramadol (1 mg/kg), and neostigmine (10 µg/kg), and the clinical applications, clinical effects, recommendations, and side effects were discussed.

  12. [Epidemiology of complications of obstetrical epidural analgesia].

    PubMed

    Palot, M; Visseaux, H; Botmans, C; Pire, J C

    1994-01-01

    Epidural analgesia (EA) is the best technique to obtain pain relief during labour. But the needle, the catheter and the local anaesthetics (LA) are 3 reasons to cause maternal complications. In France we do not know the exact number of EA performed every year and it is very difficult to appreciate the incidence of maternal complications. Therefore, it is necessary to know it and try to reduce the incidence of some of them. Maternal complications after EA are classically: 1. caused by catheter or needle: massive subarachnoid injection, toxic intravenous injection with convulsions and/or cardiac arrest; 2. secondary to infectious problems: meningitis or epidural abscess; 3. due to LA with the very rare anaphylactoid reactions; 4. due to prolonged neurologic complications with epidural and subdural haematomas, subarachnoid cysts or arachnoiditis. These complications are rare: 1/4,700 in the largest series of literature, involving more than 500,000 EA. In France, we tried to quantify maternal complications among nearly 300,000 EA performed over a period of 5 years. The overall incidence of serious complications was 1/4,005 EA. The most frequent are accidental dural puncture (1/156), massive subarachnoid injections (1/8,010) and convulsions (1/9,011). The incidence of these 3 complications must be reduced by better training, material or attention during bolus injection of LA.

  13. Epidural analgesia in cattle, buffalo, and camels

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, Zuhair Bani

    2016-01-01

    Epidural analgesia is commonly used in large animals. It is an easy, cheap, and effective technique used to prevent or control pain during surgeries involving the tail, anus, vulva, perineum, caudal udder, scrotum, and upper hind limbs. The objectives of this article were to comprehensively review and summarize all scientific data available in the literature on new techniques and drugs or drug combinations used for epidural anesthesia in cattle, camel, and buffalo. Only articles published between 2006 and 2016 were included in the review. The most common sites for epidural administration in cattle, camels, and buffalos were the sacrococcygeal intervertebral space (S5-Co1) and first intercoccygeal intervertebral space (Co1-Co2). The most frequently used drugs and dosages were lidocaine (0.22-0.5 mg/kg), bupivacaine (0.125 mg/kg), ropivacaine (0.11 mg/kg), xylazine (0.05 mg/kg), medetomidine (15 µg/kg), romifidine (30-50 µg/kg), ketamine (0.3-2.5 mg/kg), tramadol (1 mg/kg), and neostigmine (10 µg/kg), and the clinical applications, clinical effects, recommendations, and side effects were discussed. PMID:28096620

  14. Epidural analgesia for labour: maternal knowledge, preferences and informed consent.

    PubMed

    Fröhlich, S; Tan, T; Walsh, A; Carey, M

    2011-01-01

    Epidural analgesia has become increasingly popular as a form of labour analgesia in Ireland. However obtaining true inform consent has always been difficult. Our study recruited 100 parturients who had undergone epidural analgesia for labour, aimed to determine the information they received prior to regional analgesia, and to ascertain their preferences regarding informed consent. Only 65 (65%) of patients planned to have an epidural. Knowledge of potential complications was variable and inaccurate, with less than 30 (30%) of women aware of the most common complications. Most women 79 (79%) believed that discomfort during labour affected their ability to provide informed consent, and believe consent should be taken prior to onset of labour (96, 96%). The results of this study helps define the standards of consent Irish patients expect for epidural analgesia during labour.

  15. An evaluation of epidural analgesia following circumferential belt lipectomy.

    PubMed

    Michaud, André-Paul; Rosenquist, Richard W; Cram, Albert E; Aly, Al S

    2007-08-01

    Belt lipectomy combines traditional abdominoplasty with a circumferential excision of skin and fat, with resultant buttock and lateral thigh lifts. Because of the extensive nature of the procedure, postoperative pain management can be difficult. Epidural analgesia has been shown to be efficacious in treating postoperative pain. This study compares the postoperative use of epidural analgesia with more traditional pain management regimens in a large series of belt lipectomy patients. Charts of 62 belt lipectomy patients were examined retrospectively. Postoperative pain control regimen, pain scores, total amount of opioids administered, and side effects encountered were recorded. Twenty-seven patients had traditional pain control regimens, opioids on demand, and pain control pumps. Thirty-five patients received epidural analgesia as their primary mode of postoperative pain control. Pain scores and total nonepidural opioids used were lower in the epidural analgesia group on postoperative days 0 and 1 compared with the nonepidural group. The two groups converged on postoperative days 2 through 5, sharing similar pain scores and opioid use after discontinuation of epidural analgesia. The incidence of side effects was similar in the two groups, with the exception of pruritus, which was much more prominent in the epidural group. Eight of the 35 epidural patients (23 percent) experienced transient and minor complications associated with epidural therapy; several resolved spontaneously, whereas the balance resolved with cessation or modification of the epidural infusion. Epidural analgesia is more effective than traditional pain control methods in reducing immediate postoperative pain in belt lipectomy patients. On the basis of these findings, epidural analgesia should also be considered for postoperative pain management in other truncal procedures.

  16. Comparison of Transversus Abdominis Plane Infiltration with Liposomal Bupivacaine versus Continuous Epidural Analgesia versus Intravenous Opioid Analgesia

    PubMed Central

    Ayad, Sabry; Babazade, Rovnat; Elsharkawy, Hesham; Nadar, Vinayak; Lokhande, Chetan; Makarova, Natalya; Khanna, Rashi; Sessler, Daniel I.; Turan, Alparslan

    2016-01-01

    Epidural analgesia is considered the standard of care but cannot be provided to all patients Liposomal bupivacaine has been approved for field blocks such as transversus abdominis plane (TAP) blocks but has not been clinically compared against other modalities. In this retrospective propensity matched cohort study we thus tested the primary hypothesis that TAP infiltration are noninferior (not worse) to continuous epidural analgesia and superior (better) to intravenous opioid analgesia in patients recovering from major lower abdominal surgery. 318 patients were propensity matched on 18 potential factors among three groups (106 per group): 1) TAP infiltration with bupivacaine liposome; 2) continuous Epidural analgesia with plain bupivacaine; and; 3) intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (IV PCA). We claimed TAP noninferior (not worse) over Epidural if TAP was noninferior (not worse) on total morphine-equivalent opioid and time-weighted average pain score (10-point scale) within first 72 hours after surgery with noninferiority deltas of 1 (10-point scale) for pain and an increase less of 20% in the mean morphine equivalent opioid consumption. We claimed TAP or Epidural groups superior (better) over IV PCA if TAP or Epidural was superior on opioid consumption and at least noninferior on pain outcome. Multivariable linear regressions within the propensity-matched cohorts were used to model total morphine-equivalent opioid dose and time-weighted average pain score within first 72 hours after surgery; joint hypothesis framework was used for formal testing. TAP infiltration were noninferior to Epidural on both primary outcomes (p<0.001). TAP infiltration were noninferior to IV PCA on pain scores (p = 0.001) but we did not find superiority on opioid consumption (p = 0.37). We did not find noninferiority of Epidural over IV PCA on pain scores (P = 0.13) and nor did we find superiority on opioid consumption (P = 0.98). TAP infiltration with liposomal bupivacaine and

  17. The dynamics of epidural and opioid analgesia during labour.

    PubMed

    Zondag, Dirkje C; Gross, Mechthild M; Grylka-Baeschlin, Susanne; Poat, Angela; Petersen, Antje

    2016-11-01

    To investigate the association of analgesia, opioids or epidural, or the combination of both with labour duration and spontaneous birth in nulliparous women. A secondary data analysis of an existing cohort study was performed and included nulliparous women (n = 2074). Durations of total labour and first and second labour stage were calculated with Kaplan-Meier estimation for the four different study groups: no analgesia (n = 620), opioid analgesia (n = 743), epidural analgesia (n = 482), and combined application (n = 229). Labour duration was compared by Cox regression while adjusting for confounders and censoring for operative births. Logistic regression was used to investigate the association between the administration of different types of analgesia and mode of birth. Most women in the combined application group were first to receive opioid analgesia. Women with no analgesia had the shortest duration of labour (log rank p < 0.001) and highest chance of a spontaneous birth (p < 0.001). If analgesia was administered, women with opioids had a shorter first stage (p = 0.018), compared to women with epidural (p < 0.001) or women with combined application (p < 0.001). Women with opioids had an increased chance to reach full cervical dilatation (p = 0.006). Women with epidural analgesia (p < 0.001) and women with combined application (p < 0.001) had a prolonged second stage and decreased chance of spontaneous birth compared to women without analgesia. Women with opioids had a prolonged first stage, but increased chance to reach full cervical dilatation. Women with epidural analgesia and women with both opioid and epidural analgesia had a prolonged first and second stage and a decreased chance of a spontaneous birth.

  18. Implementation of Programmed Intermittent Epidural Bolus for the Maintenance of Labor Analgesia.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Brendan; George, Ronald B; Cobb, Benjamin; McKenzie, Christine; Riley, Edward T

    2016-10-01

    Programmed intermittent epidural bolus (PIEB) is an exciting new technology that has the potential to improve the maintenance of epidural labor analgesia. PIEB compared with a continuous epidural infusion (CEI) has the potential advantage of greater spread within the epidural space and therefore better sensory blockade. Studies have demonstrated a local anesthetic-sparing effect, fewer instrumental vaginal deliveries, less motor blockade, and improvements in maternal satisfaction with PIEB compared with CEI. However, the optimal PIEB regimen and pump settings remain unknown, and there are a number of logistical issues and practical considerations that should be considered when implementing PIEB. The PIEB bolus size and interval, PIEB start time delay period, and patient-controlled epidural analgesia bolus size and lockout time can influence the efficacy of PIEB used for epidural labor analgesia. Educating all members of the health care team is critical to the success of the technique. This review summarizes the role of PIEB for the maintenance of labor analgesia, outlines implementation strategies, suggests optimal settings, and presents potential limitations of the technique.

  19. Postoperative analgesia with intravenous fentanyl PCA vs epidural block after thoracoscopic pectus excavatum repair in children.

    PubMed

    Butkovic, D; Kralik, S; Matolic, M; Kralik, M; Toljan, S; Radesic, L

    2007-05-01

    The aim of this prospective, randomized trial was to compare analgesia, sedation, and cardiorespiratory function in children after thoracoscopic surgery for pectus excavatum repair, using two types of analgesia--epidural block with bupivacaine plus fentanyl vs patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) with fentanyl. Twenty-eight patients scheduled for thoracoscopic pectus excavatum surgery were randomly assigned to receive either thoracic epidural block or i.v. PCA for postoperative analgesia. Pain was assessed using a visual-analogue scale (VAS). The Ramsay sedation score, arterial pressure, ventilatory frequency, and heart rate were also measured, and blood gas analysis was performed regularly during the first 48 h after surgery. A significant decrease in the VAS pain score, Ramsay sedation score, heart rate ventilatory frequency, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and PaCO2, and a significant increase in PaO2 and oxygen saturation were found over time. Patients in the PCA group had significantly higher PaCO2 values. In addition, a significantly slower decline of systolic blood pressure and heart rate, and faster recovery of PaCO2 were found in PCA patients than in patients with epidural block. I.V. fentanyl PCA is as effective as thoracic epidural for postoperative analgesia in children after thoracoscopic pectus excavatum repair. Bearing in mind the possible complications of epidural catheterization in children, the use of fentanyl PCA is recommended.

  20. Current status of patient-controlled analgesia in cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Ripamonti, C; Bruera, E

    1997-03-01

    Patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) is a relatively new technique in which patients are able to self-administer small doses of opioid analgesics when needed. Many different devices are available for opioid infusion, including a syringe pump, disposable plastic cylinder, and battery-operated computer-driven pump. These devices allow patients to choose an intermittent (demand) bolus, continuous infusion, or both modes of administration. Parameters, such as route, drug concentration dose, frequency, and maximum daily or hourly dose, are programmed by the physician. The patient decides whether or not to take a dose. Devices can be used to deliver the drug into a running intravenous infusion, the epidural space, or subcutaneously. Controlled trials indicate that PCA is probably superior to regular opioid administration in postoperative pain. Reported advantages include greater patient satisfaction, decreased sedation and anxiety, and reduced nursing time and hospitalization. Preliminary experience suggests that PCA is also useful and safe for cancer pain, but further research is greatly needed.

  1. EFFECT OF EPIDURAL ANALGESIA ON LABOR AND ITS OUTCOMES.

    PubMed

    Anwar, Sadia; Anwar, Muhannad Waseem; Ahmad, Sajjad

    2015-01-01

    Epidural analgesia is an effective and popular way to relieve labour pain but it may interfere with normal mechanism of labour. The objective of this study was to evaluate the outcome of labour in women with effective epidural analgesia in terms of duration of labour, mode of delivery and neonatal outcome. This was a quasi-experimental study conducted in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Shaikh Zayed Federal Postgraduate Medical Institute and Hospital, Lahore. One hundred pregnant women were selected by non-probability convenient sampling method. Subjects were divided into two groups of. 50 each as per convenience. Patients of any gravidity at term from 37-41 weeks were included in the sample. Epidural analgesia was applied to group B and distilled water to group A at the lumber region and the progress of labour, mode of delivery and effects on Apgar scores of neonates were evaluated. Out of hundred patients, 77 had normal duration of second stage while 23 had prolonged second stage. Among them, 18 patients (36%) were in epidural group and 5 patients (10%) in non-epidural group, while 4 patients (8%) in epidural group developed intra-partum complications; whereas among non-epidural group had such complications. 65 patients had spontaneous vaginal delivery while 35 patients had instrumental delivery. Among them 29 patients (58%) were in epidural group while only 6 patients (12%) were in non-epidural group. Babies born had Apgar score 5/10 (21.8%), 6/10 (59.4%) and 7/10 (17.8%) at 1 minute and 8/10 (74.3%) and 9/10 (24.8%) at 5 minutes in both groups and none of them needed bag and mask resuscitation. Epidural analgesia does prolong the duration of second stage of labour and increases the instrumental delivery rate. Neonatal outcome is satisfactory while only a few intra-partum complications are found with epidural analgesia.

  2. Subdural Hematoma Associated With Labor Epidural Analgesia: A Case Series.

    PubMed

    Lim, Grace; Zorn, Jamie M; Dong, Yuanxu J; DeRenzo, Joseph S; Waters, Jonathan H

    2016-01-01

    This report aimed to describe the characteristics and impact of subdural hematoma (SDH) after labor epidural analgesia. Eleven obstetric patients had SDHs associated with the use of labor epidural analgesia over 7 years at a tertiary care hospital. Ten of 11 patients had signs consistent with postdural puncture headache before the diagnosis of SDH. Five patients (45%) had a recognized unintentional dural puncture, 1 (9%) had a combined spinal-epidural with a 24-gauge needle, and 5 (45%) had no recognized dural puncture. For 10 of the 11 cases, SDH was diagnosed at a mean of 4.1 days (range, 1-7 days) after performance of labor epidural analgesia; one case was diagnosed at 25 days. Ten (91%) of 11 cases had a second hospital stay for a mean of 2.8 days (range, 2-4 days) for observation, without further requirement for neurosurgical intervention. One case (9%) had decompressive hemicraniectomy after becoming unresponsive. The observed rate of labor epidural analgesia-associated SDH was 0.026% (11 in 42,969, approximately 1:3900), and the rate of SDH was 1.1% (5 in 437, approximately 1:87) if a recognized dural puncture occurred during epidural catheter placement. Subdural hematoma after labor epidural anesthesia is rare but potentially more common than historically estimated. Cases of postdural puncture headache after labor epidural anesthesia should be monitored closely for severe neurologic signs and symptoms that could herald SDH.

  3. Labor Epidural Analgesia and Breastfeeding: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    French, Cynthia A; Cong, Xiaomei; Chung, Keun Sam

    2016-08-01

    Despite widespread use of epidural analgesia during labor, no consensus has been reached among obstetric and anesthesia providers regarding its effects on breastfeeding. The purpose of this review was to examine the relationship between labor epidural analgesia and breastfeeding in the immediate postpartum period. PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature were searched for articles published in 1990 or thereafter, using the search term breastfeeding combined with epidural, labor epidural analgesia, labor analgesia, or epidural analgesia Of 117 articles, 23 described empirical studies specific to labor epidural analgesia and measured a breastfeeding outcome. Results were conflicting: 12 studies showed negative associations between epidural analgesia and breastfeeding success, 10 studies showed no effect, and 1 study showed a positive association. Most studies were observational. Of 3 randomized controlled studies, randomization methods were inadequate in 2 and not evaluable in 1. Other limitations were related to small sample size or inadequate study power; variation and lack of information regarding type and dosage of analgesia or use of other intrapartum interventions; differences in timing, definition, and method of assessing breastfeeding success; or failure to consider factors such as mothers' intention to breastfeed, social support, siblings, or the mother's need to return to work or school. It is also unclear to what extent results are mediated through effects on infant neurobehavior, maternal fever, oxytocin release, duration of labor, and need for instrumental delivery. Clinician awareness of factors affecting breastfeeding can help identify women at risk for breastfeeding difficulties in order to target support and resources effectively.

  4. Epidural analgesia in labour and risk of caesarean delivery.

    PubMed

    Bannister-Tyrrell, Melanie; Ford, Jane B; Morris, Jonathan M; Roberts, Christine L

    2014-09-01

    A Cochrane Systematic Review of randomised controlled trials of epidural analgesia compared with other or no analgesia in labour reported no overall increased risk of caesarean delivery. However, many trials were affected by substantial non-compliance, and there are concerns about the external validity of some trials for contemporary maternity populations. We aimed to explore the association between epidural analgesia in labour and caesarean delivery in clinical practice and compare with findings from randomised controlled trials. Population-based cohort of pregnant women (n = 210 708) without major obstetrical complications who delivered a singleton live infant in hospitals in New South Wales, Australia, 2007-10. Data were obtained from linked, validated population-based data collections. Propensity score matching was used to examine the association between epidural analgesia in labour and caesarean delivery. Epidural analgesia in labour was used by a third (31.5%, n = 66 317) of the women, and 9.8% (n = 20 531) had a caesarean delivery. Epidural analgesia in labour was associated with increased risk of caesarean delivery {risk ratio [RR] 2.5, [95% confidence interval (CI) 2.5, 2.6]}. The association with epidural analgesia in labour was higher for caesarean delivery for failure to progress {RR 3.0, [95% CI 2.9, 3.0]} than for caesarean delivery for fetal distress {RR 1.9, [95% CI 1.8, 2.0]}. Epidural analgesia in labour is associated with caesarean delivery in a large maternity population. Population-based studies contribute important data about obstetrical care, when research settings and participants may not represent the clinical settings or broader population in which obstetrical interventions in labour are applied. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Catheter failure rates and time course with epidural versus combined spinal-epidural analgesia in labor.

    PubMed

    Groden, J; Gonzalez-Fiol, A; Aaronson, J; Sachs, A; Smiley, R

    2016-05-01

    The combined spinal-epidural technique for labor analgesia has several advantages over the traditional epidural technique, including faster onset, greater maternal satisfaction, and decreased need for physician boluses. Proponents of the epidural technique criticize the combined spinal-epidural technique, arguing that the epidural catheter remains untested and thus may not be reliable if needed for surgical intervention. We compared failure rates and time of failure between techniques in our tertiary-care academic practice. Data regarding failed catheters were collected from October 2012 to September 2014 as part of our Quality Assurance program. Failed catheters were defined as any catheter replaced after it was considered to be properly placed and then determined to be intravascular, one sided or resulting in poor maternal analgesia or anesthesia. A total of 5487 analgesics were performed (3980 combined spinal-epidural; 1507 epidural). Eighty-five combined spinal-epidural catheters (2.1%) and 59 epidural catheters (3.9%) were replaced during labor (P<0.001). Mean time to replacement was 512±422min and 354±300min for the combined spinal-epidural (n=80) and epidural (n=57) groups, respectively (P=0.02). Median time to replacement was 398 [IQR 131-578] min and 281 [IQR 186-767] min for combined spinal-epidural and epidural groups, respectively (P<0.0001). We were able to demonstrate that catheters placed using a combined spinal-epidural technique were less likely to fail during labor and that the time to detection of a failed catheter was significantly longer in the combined spinal-epidural group. Our findings validate the combined spinal-epidural technique as reliable for labor analgesia and tend to refute the theory of the untested catheter. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Influence of epidural dexamethasone on maternal temperature and serum cytokine concentration after labor epidural analgesia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Zhong; Hu, Xiao-Xia; Liu, Xia; Qian, Ping; Ge, Jia-Mei; Tang, Bei-Lei

    2011-04-01

    To evaluate the effects of epidural dexamethasone on maternal temperature and serum cytokine levels after labor epidural analgesia. Sixty healthy term nulliparas in spontaneous labor were randomized to receive epidural analgesia alone using bupivacaine 0.125% and fentanyl 1 μg/mL (group I) or epidural analgesia combined with dexamethasone 0.2mg/mL (group II) (n=30 per group). Maternal tympanic temperature was measured before epidural analgesia and hourly thereafter until delivery. Maternal and cord venous blood were sampled for analysis of interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-10 levels. There was no difference in the incidence of intrapartum fever (38 °C or more) between the 2 groups (3/30 versus 1/30, P=0.612). The mean maternal temperature increased with time in group I, with the elevation reaching statistical significance at 4 hours post analgesia and at delivery compared with baseline (P=0.012 and P=0.043, respectively). A similar trend was observed with maternal serum IL-6 levels in group I. In group II, maternal temperature and IL-6 levels did not differ from baseline at any time point during labor. Epidural dexamethasone alleviates maternal temperature elevation after epidural analgesia. This effect can be attributed to the decrease in IL-6 levels. Copyright © 2011 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. [Combined subarachnoid-epidural technique for obstetric analgesia].

    PubMed

    Fernández-Guisasola, J; García del Valle, S; Gómez-Arnau, J I

    2000-05-01

    Combined spinal-epidural blockade for labor pain has enjoyed increasing popularity in obstetric anesthesia. The usual procedure is to use a single space and a single needle for dural puncture, inserting a spinal needle through an epidural needle followed by insertion of a catheter. A small dose of one or several substances (usually a lipophilic opioid and a local anesthetic) is first injected in the intrathecal space to provide rapid, effective analgesia with minimal muscle blockade. The epidural catheter is used if labor lasts longer than the spinal block, if the spinal block is insufficient, or in case of cesarean section. Combined spinal-epidural blockade is a safe, valid alternative to conventional epidural analgesia and has become the main technique for providing obstetric analgesia in many hospitals. The most widely-recognized advantage of the technique is high maternal satisfaction with rapid and effective analgesia. Mobility of the lower extremities is preserved and the mother is often able to walk. Because opioids are injected into the intrathecal space and because the technique is more invasive than standard epidural analgesia, the potential risk to mother and fetus increases.

  8. Epidural and opioid analgesia following the Nuss procedure

    PubMed Central

    Walaszczyk, Malgorzata; Knapik, Piotr; Misiolek, Hanna; Korlacki, Wojciech

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background Parents have the right to decide on behalf of their children and deny consent to regional anaesthesia. The investigators decided to investigate quality of postoperative analgesia in adolescents undergoing epidural and opioid analgesia following the Nuss procedure. Material/Methods The study subjects were 61 adolescents aged 11–18 years who underwent pectus excavatum repair with the Nuss procedure. Patients were divided into epidural (n=41) and opioid (n=20) groups, depending on their parents’ consent to epidural catheter insertion. Intraoperatively, 0.5% epidural ropivacaine with fentanyl or intermittent intravenous injections of fentanyl were used. Postoperative analgesia was achieved with either epidural infusion of 0.1% ropivacaine with fentanyl, or subcutaneous morphine via an intraoperatively inserted “butterfly” cannula. Additionally, both groups received metamizol and paracetamol. Primary outcome variables were postoperative pain scores (Numeric Rating Scale and Prince Henry Hospital Pain Score). Secondary outcome variables included hemodynamic parameters, additional analgesia and side effects. Results Heart rate and blood pressure values in the postoperative period were significantly higher in the opioid group. Pain scores requiring intervention were noted almost exclusively in the opioid group. Conclusions Denial of parental consent to epidural analgesia following the Nuss procedure results in significantly worse control of postoperative pain. Our data may be useful when discussing with parents the available anaesthetic techniques for exceptionally painful procedures. PMID:22037752

  9. Hands-and-knees positioning during labor with epidural analgesia.

    PubMed

    Stremler, Robyn; Halpern, Stephen; Weston, Julie; Yee, Jennifer; Hodnett, Ellen

    2009-01-01

    Hands-and-knees position has shown promise as an intervention to improve labor and birth outcomes, but no reports exist that examine its use with women laboring with epidural analgesia. Concerns of safety, effects on analgesia, and acceptability of use may limit use of active positioning during labor with regional analgesia. This article presents a case study series of 13 women who used hands-and-knees position in the first stage of labor.

  10. Advantages and guidelines for using epidural drugs for analgesia.

    PubMed

    Pascoe, P J

    1992-03-01

    The administration of drugs by the epidural route is a safe and effective method for providing analgesia before, during, and after a surgical procedure. Local anesthetics administered by this route block nociceptive input as well as providing excellent muscle relaxation for surgery. The use of local anesthetics may be associated with short-term motor dysfunction and hypotension as a result of sympathetic blockade. Morphine given by the epidural route also provides effective analgesia and has the advantages of giving more prolonged analgesia with no effect on either motor or sympathetic pathways.

  11. [Epidural analgesia during labour: maternal, fetal and neonatal aspects].

    PubMed

    Soncini, E; Grignaffini, A; Anfuso, S; Cavicchioni, O

    2003-06-01

    The most effective technique for eliminating labour and childbirth pain is continuous lumbar epidural analgesia. The preoccupation regarding the possible negative effects on the time taken for labour and on dystocias in general represents one of the greatest hindrances in the way of its wider use. The purpose of the present study is to monitor the effects of continuous lumbar epidural analgesia on delivery times, on the state of the fetus, on the incidence of dystocic deliveries and on neonatal outcome. Comparative prospective study. The data relating to the deliveries of 148 nulliparas and 51 pluriparas at term, submitted to epidural analgesia at the Obstetric Clinic of the University of Parma in 1999-2000 were compared with data from 144 nulliparas in labour and 60 pluriparas without epidural analgesia, selected in random fashion out of 4251 women who delivered children in the same period. The anesthetic procedure employed consisted in an injection of 20 mg/10 ml ropivacaine and 50 mg fentanyl in the epidural space at intervals of 1-2 h. The duration of the dilatation period was not influenced by administration of epidural analgesia while the expulsion period was longer in the course of epidural analgesia. There were no significant differences between delivery modalities in the 2 groups either as regards vaginal operative delivery or the number of cesarean sections for dystocia. The cardiotocographic profile was similar in the 2 groups. The neonatal outcome (Apgar index at 1' and 5' and transfer to the intensive care department) did not show significant differences, confirming the absence of noteworthy side-effects even from the neonatal standpoint. The use of low concentrations of ropivacaine (0.2%) associated with fentanyl in the epidural space proved to be a safe and effective technique for controlling labour and delivery pain.

  12. [Epidural obstetric analgesia, maternal fever and neonatal wellness parameters].

    PubMed

    Fernández-Guisasola, J; Delgado Arnáiz, C; Rodríguez Caravaca, G; Serrano Rodríguez, M L; García del Valle, S; Gómez-Arnau, J I

    2005-04-01

    To study the relation between epidural analgesia and the development of maternal fever during labor and childbirth, and to determine the possible relation between that association and neonatal welfare and in the performance of tests to rule out sepsis in newborns. Prospective study of all women who gave birth at Fundación Hospital Alcorcón over a period of 3 years. All the women were offered epidural analgesia based on infusion of 0.0625% bupivacaine and 2 microg x mL(-1). Data collected were age, nulliparity, epidural analgesia infusion, induction of labor, uterine stimulation with oxytocin, type of birth, fetal weight, duration of dilation and expulsion, Apgar score (at 1 and 5 minutes), umbilical artery pH, and maternal temperature. Data for 4364 women were analyzed. Fever developed during labor in 5.7%; 93.7% of the fevers occurred in women receiving epidural analgesia (P<0.05). Logistic regression analysis revealed that independent risk factors for the development of fever were epidural analgesia (odds ratio [OR], 1.78; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05-3.04), nulliparity (OR, 2,929; 95% CI, 2.005-4.279), fetal weight (OR, 1.484; 95% CI, 1.102-2.001), and duration of labor (OR, 1.003; 95% CI, 1.003-1.004). No significant differences in Apgar score at 5 minutes or umbilical artery pH were found between the women with and without fever. Tests to rule out sepsis were ordered for 85.1% of the infants of mothers with fever after epidural analgesia. Epidural analgesia was associated with greater risk of developing fever in mothers giving birth, but that association had no repercussion on the neonatal wellness parameters studied.

  13. Effect of epidural analgesia with 0.075% ropivacaine versus 0.1% ropivacaine on the maternal temperature during labor: a randomized controlled study.

    PubMed

    Yue, Hong-Li; Shao, Liu-Jiazi; Li, Jin; Wang, Ya-Nan; Wang, Lei; Han, Ru-Quan

    2013-11-01

    A wealth of evidence has indicated that labor epidural analgesia is associated with an increased risk of hyperthermia and overt clinical fever. Recently, evidence is emerging that the epidural analgesia-induced fever is associated with the types of the epidural analgesia and the variations in the epidural analgesia will affect the incidence of fever. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of epidural analgesia with 0.075% or 0.1% ropivacaine on the maternal temperature during labor. Two hundred healthy term nulliparas were randomly assigned to receive epidural analgesia with either 0.1% ropivacaine or 0.075% ropivacaine. Epidural analgesia was initiated with 10 ml increment of the randomized solution and 0.5 µg/ml sufentanyl after a negative test dose of 5 ml of 1.5% lidocaine, and maintained with 7 ml bolus doses of the above mentioned mixed analgesics every 30 minutes by the patient-controlled epidural analgesia. The measurements included the maternal oral temperature, visual analog scale pain scores, labor events and neonatal outcomes. Epidural analgesia with 0.075% ropivacaine could significantly lower the mean maternal temperature at 4 hours after the initiation of analgesia and the oxytocin administration during labor compared with the one with 0.1% ropivacaine. Moreover, 0.075% ropivacaine treatment could provide satisfactory pain relief during labor and had no significant adverse effects on the labor events and neonatal outcomes. Epidural analgesia with 0.075% ropivacaine may be a good choice for the epidural analgesia during labor.

  14. Is epidural analgesia during labor related to retained placenta?

    PubMed

    Sarit, Avraham; Sokolov, Amit; Many, Ariel

    2016-05-01

    To explore the influence of epidural analgesia on the course of the third stage of labor and on the incidence of the complete retained placenta as well as retained parts of the placenta. This is a population-based cohort study in a tertiary medical center. We collected data from all 4227 spontaneous singleton vaginal deliveries during 6 months and compared the incidence of retained placenta in deliveries with epidural analgesia with those without analgesia. Multivariable logistic regression was used to control for possible confounders. More than two-thirds of the women (69.25%) used epidural analgesia during their delivery. A need for intervention due to placental disorder during the third stage of labor was noted in 4.2% of all deliveries. Epidural analgesia appeared to be significantly (P=0.028) related to placental disorders compared with no analgesia: 4.8% vs. 3%, respectively. Deliveries with manual interventions during the third stage, for either complete retained placenta or suspected retained parts of the placenta, were associated with the use of epidural analgesia (P=0.008), oxytocin (P=0.002) and older age at delivery (P=0.000), but when including all factors in a multivariable analysis, using a stepwise logistic regression, the factors that were independently associated with interventions for placental disruption during the third stage of delivery were previous cesarean section, oxytocin use and, marginally, older age. Complete retained placenta and retained parts of the placenta share the same risk factors. Epidural analgesia does not directly influence the incidence of complete retained placenta or retained parts, though clinically linked through increased oxytocin use. The factors that were independently associated with interventions for placental disruption during the third stage of delivery were previous cesarean section, oxytocin use and older age.

  15. Racial differences in the use of epidural analgesia for labor.

    PubMed

    Glance, Laurent G; Wissler, Richard; Glantz, Christopher; Osler, Turner M; Mukamel, Dana B; Dick, Andrew W

    2007-01-01

    There is strong evidence that pain is undertreated in black and Hispanic patients. The association between race and ethnicity and the use of epidural analgesia for labor is not well described. Using the New York State Perinatal Database, the authors examined whether race and ethnicity were associated with the likelihood of receiving epidural analgesia for labor after adjusting for clinical characteristics, demographics, insurance coverage, and provider effect. This retrospective cohort study was based on 81,883 women admitted for childbirth between 1998 and 2003. Overall, 38.3% of the patients received epidural analgesia for labor. After adjusting for clinical risk factors, socioeconomic status, and provider fixed effects, Hispanic and black patients were less likely than non-Hispanic white patients to receive epidural analgesia: The adjusted odds ratio was 0.85 (95% CI, 0.78-0.93) for white/Hispanic and 0.78 (0.74-0.83) for blacks compared with non-Hispanic whites. Compared with patients with private insurance, patients without insurance were least likely to receive epidural analgesia (adjusted odds ratio, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.64-0.89). Black patients with private insurance had similar rates of epidural use to white/non-Hispanic patients without insurance coverage: The adjusted odds ratio was 0.66 (95% CI, 0.53-0.82) for white/non-Hispanic patients without insurance versus 0.69 (0.57-0.85) for black patients with private insurance. Black and Hispanic women in labor are less likely than non-Hispanic white women to receive epidural analgesia. These differences remain after accounting for differences in insurance coverage, provider practice, and clinical characteristics.

  16. Patient controlled opioid analgesia versus non-patient controlled opioid analgesia for postoperative pain.

    PubMed

    McNicol, Ewan D; Ferguson, McKenzie C; Hudcova, Jana

    2015-06-02

    This is an updated version of the original Cochrane review published in Issue 4, 2006. Patients may control postoperative pain by self administration of intravenous opioids using devices designed for this purpose (patient controlled analgesia or PCA). A 1992 meta-analysis by Ballantyne et al found a strong patient preference for PCA over non-patient controlled analgesia, but disclosed no differences in analgesic consumption or length of postoperative hospital stay. Although Ballantyne's meta-analysis found that PCA did have a small but statistically significant benefit upon pain intensity, a 2001 review by Walder et al did not find statistically significant differences in pain intensity or pain relief between PCA and groups treated with non-patient controlled analgesia. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of patient controlled intravenous opioid analgesia (termed PCA in this review) versus non-patient controlled opioid analgesia of as-needed opioid analgesia for postoperative pain relief. We ran the search for the previous review in November 2004. For this update, we searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL 2014, Issue 12), MEDLINE (1966 to 28 January 2015), and EMBASE (1980 to 28 January 2015) for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in any language, and reference lists of reviews and retrieved articles. We selected RCTs that assessed pain intensity as a primary or secondary outcome. These studies compared PCA without a continuous background infusion with non-patient controlled opioid analgesic regimens. We excluded studies that explicitly stated they involved patients with chronic pain. Two review authors independently extracted data, which included demographic variables, type of surgery, interventions, efficacy, and adverse events. We graded each included study for methodological quality by assessing risk of bias and employed the GRADE approach to assess the overall quality of the evidence. We performed meta-analysis of outcomes that

  17. The association between epidural labor analgesia and maternal fever.

    PubMed

    Arendt, Katherine W; Segal, B Scott

    2013-09-01

    The association between epidural labor analgesia and maternal fever is complex and controversial. Observational, retrospective, before-and-after, and randomized controlled trials all support the association, with the most current evidence supporting the mechanistic involvement of noninfectious inflammation. Considering the clinically significant neonatal consequences that have been previously demonstrated, and the possibility of more common subclinical fetal brain injury that animal models imply, the avoidance of maternal fever during labor is imperative. With the current popularity of epidural analgesia in labor, it is important that clinicians delineate how epidurals cause maternal fever and how to block the noninfectious inflammatory response that seems to warm a subset of women laboring with epidurals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Epidural analgesia during labour - maternal understanding and experience - informed consent.

    PubMed

    Mahomed, K; Chin, D; Drew, A

    2015-01-01

    Women obtain information on epidural analgesia from various sources. For epidural for pain relief in labour this is provided by the anaesthetist as part of the consenting process. There is much discussion about the inadequacy of this consenting process; we report on women's knowledge, experience and recall of this process at a regional hospital with a 24-h epidural service. Fifty-four women were interviewed within 72 h of a vaginal birth. 91% of the women had acquired information from friends, relatives and antenatal classes. Lack of recall of benefits of epidural analgesia accounted for 26 (38%) and 25 (26%) of the responses, respectively. Similarly in terms of amount of pain relief they could expect, 13 (21%) could not remember and 13 (21%) thought that it may not work. We suggest use of varying methods of disseminating information and wider utilisation of anaesthetists in the antenatal educational programmes.

  19. Postoperative wound oxygen tension with epidural or intravenous analgesia: a prospective, randomized, single-blind clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Buggy, Donal J; Doherty, Warren L; Hart, Elaine M; Pallett, Edward J

    2002-10-01

    Adequate tissue oxygen tension is an essential requirement for surgical-wound healing. The authors tested the hypothesis that epidural anesthesia and analgesia increases wound tissue oxygen tension compared with intravenous morphine analgesia. In a prospective, randomized, blind clinical study, the authors allocated patients having major abdominal surgery (n = 32) to receive combined general and epidural anesthesia with postoperative patient-controlled epidural analgesia (epidural group, n = 16), or general anesthesia alone with postoperative patient-controlled intravenous analgesia (intravenous group, n = 16). An oxygen sensor and a temperature sensor were placed subcutaneously in the wound before closure. Wound oxygen tension (P(w)O(2)) and temperature were measured continuously for 24 h. Other variables affecting wound tissue oxygenation and visual analogue scale (VAS) pain scores were also documented. Despite epidural patients having lower body temperatures at the end of surgery (35.7 +/- 0.3) versus 36.3 +/- 0.5 degrees C, = 0.004), they had significantly higher mean P(w)O(2) over the 24 h period, compared with the intravenous group (64.4 +/- 14 vs. 50.7 +/- 15) mmHg, mean (SD), 95% CI difference, -22 to -5, = 0.002). Area under the P(w)O(2) -24 h time curve was also significantly higher in the epidural group (930 +/- 278 vs. 749 +/- 257) mmHg x h, 95% CI difference -344 to -18, = 0.03). VAS pain scores at rest and moving were significantly lower in the epidural group at all times. Epidural anesthesia and postoperative analgesia for major abdominal surgery increases wound tissue oxygen tension compared with general anesthesia and intravenous morphine analgesia.

  20. A randomized controlled comparison of epidural analgesia and combined spinal-epidural analgesia in a private practice setting: pain scores during first and second stages of labor and at delivery.

    PubMed

    Gambling, David; Berkowitz, Jonathan; Farrell, Thomas R; Pue, Alex; Shay, Dennis

    2013-03-01

    There has been no prospective evaluation of combined spinal-epidural (CSE) analgesia in a private practice setting and few studies have focused on pain relief during the second stage of labor and at delivery. In this randomized controlled trial, we compared verbal pain scores during the first and second stages of labor and at delivery in women receiving CSE or traditional epidural analgesia at a busy private maternity hospital. Healthy, term parturients received epidural or CSE analgesia for labor pain upon request. Epidural analgesia was initiated with 0.125% bupivacaine plus 2 μg/mL fentanyl, 15 mL; CSE analgesia was initiated with intrathecal plain bupivacaine 3.125 mg plus 5 μg fentanyl. Thereafter, patient-controlled epidural analgesia with 0.125% bupivacaine plus 2 μg/mL fentanyl was used for maintenance analgesia in both groups. The primary outcome was an assessment of "typical" pain, using a verbal rating pain score from 0 to 10, made at the end of the first stage of labor and shortly after delivery. Data from 398 epidural and 402 CSE subjects were analyzed. The typical verbal rating pain score during the first stage was lower in the CSE group (mean: 1.4 vs 1.9; P < 0.001; 99.5% confidence interval [CI] for difference: -0.92, -0.14). Pain scores during the second stage of labor (1.7 vs 1.9; P = 0.17; 99.5% CI for difference: -0.82, 0.28) and at delivery (2.0 vs 2.0; P = 0.77; 99.5% CI for difference: -0.73, 0.59) were the same between groups. Fewer patients received an epidural top-up dose in the CSE group (16.4% vs 25.6%; P = 0.002; 99.5% CI for difference: -17.0%, -1.0%). Epidural catheters were replaced in 1.2% CSE vs 2% in the epidural group (P = 0.39; 99.5% CI for difference: -3.3%, 1.8%). Compared with traditional epidural labor analgesia, CSE analgesia provided better first-stage analgesia despite fewer epidural top-up injections by an anesthesiologist.

  1. Unilateral anhidrosis: A rare complication of thoracic epidural analgesia.

    PubMed

    Gulbahar, Gultekin; Gundogdu, Ahmet Gokhan; Alkan, Güzide; Baysalman, Hatice Baran; Kaplan, Tevfik

    2016-02-01

    Management of pain following thoracotomy is an important issue for the control of early morbidity. We herein present the case of a patient who was referred to our hospital after a fall from a height. Right-sided multiple rib fractures, hemopneumothorax, and diaphragmatic rupture were detected. Thoracic epidural catheterization was performed for pain management just before thoracotomy. The patient developed unilateral anhidrosis postoperatively. We discuss this rare complication of thoracic epidural analgesia with a review of relevant literature.

  2. Hyperventilation-induced tetany associated with epidural analgesia for labor.

    PubMed

    Ray, N; Camann, W

    2005-01-01

    We report a case of painful carpo-pedal spasm associated with the initiation of epidural analgesia for labor. The patient, an otherwise healthy primigravida in early labor at term, was experiencing severe hyperventilation as a result of inappropriate use of the Lamaze breathing technique. Bilateral carpo-pedal spasm occurred, and produced severe pain. Resolution of symptoms coincided with onset of effective epidural labor pain relief. A diagnostic challenge was presented to the anesthesiologist, as the symptoms could have been consistent with subdural block, local anesthetic toxicity, high sensory level of analgesia or eclamptic neuro-excitation activity.

  3. Intravenous Remifentanil versus Epidural Ropivacaine with Sufentanil for Labour Analgesia: A Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zhendong; Su, Jing; Liu, Zhiqiang

    2014-01-01

    Remifentanil with appropriate pharmacological properties seems to be an ideal alternative to epidural analgesia during labour. A retrospective cohort study was undertaken to assess the efficacy and safety of remifentanil intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (IVPCA) compared with epidural analgesia. Medical records of 370 primiparas who received remifentanil IVPCA or epidural analgesia were reviewed. Pain and sedation scores, overall satisfaction, the extent of pain control, maternal side effects and neonatal outcome as primary observational indicators were collected. There was a significant decline of pain scores in both groups. Pain reduction was greater in the epidural group throughout the whole study period (0∼180 min) (P<0.0001), and pain scores in the remifentanil group showed an increasing trend one hour later. The remifentanil group had a lower SpO2 (P<0.0001) and a higher sedation score (P<0.0001) within 30 min after treatment. The epidural group had a higher overall satisfaction score (3.8±0.4 vs. 3.7±0.6, P = 0.007) and pain relief score (2.9±0.3 vs. 2.8±0.4, P<0.0001) compared with the remifentanil group. There was no significant difference on side effects between the two groups, except that a higher rate of dizziness (1% vs. 21.8%, P<0.0001) was observed during remifentanil analgesia. And logistic regression analysis demonstrated that nausea, vomiting were associated with oxytocin usage and instrumental delivery, and dizziness was associated to the type and duration of analgesia. Neonatal outcomes such as Apgar scores and umbilical-cord blood gas analysis were within the normal range, but umbilical pH and base excess of neonatus in the remifentanil group were significantly lower. Remifentanil IVPCA provides poorer efficacy on labor analgesia than epidural analgesia, with more sedation on parturients and a trend of newborn acidosis. Despite these adverse effects, remifentanil IVPCA can still be an alternative option for labor analgesia

  4. Negligible Effect of Perioperative Epidural Analgesia Among Patients Undergoing Elective Gastric and Pancreatic Resections

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Dhruvil R.; Brown, Erin; Russo, Jack E.; Li, Chin-Shang; Martinez, Steve R.; Coates, Jodi M.; Bold, Richard J.; Canter, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Background There are conflicting data regarding improvements in postoperative outcomes with perioperative epidural analgesia. We sought to examine the effect of perioperative epidural analgesia versus intravenous narcotic analgesia on perioperative outcomes including pain control, morbidity, and mortality in patients undergoing gastric and pancreatic resections. Methods We evaluated 169 patients from 2007 to 2011 who underwent open gastric and pancreatic resections for malignancy at a university medical center. Emergency, traumatic, pediatric, enucleations, and disseminated cancer cases were excluded. Clinicopathologic data were reviewed among epidural (E) and non-epidural (NE) patients for their association with perioperative endpoints. Results 120 patients (71%) received an epidural, and 49 (29%) did not. There were no significant differences (P > 0.05) in mean pain scores at each of the four days (days 0-3) among E ( 3.2 ± 2.7, 3.2 ± 2.3, 2.3 ± 1.9, and 2.1 ± 1.9, respectively) and NE patients ( 3.7 ± 2.7, 3.4 ± 1.9, 2.9 ± 2.1, and 2.4 ± 1.9, respectively). Within each of the E and NE patient groups, there were significant differences (P < 0.0001) in mean pain scores from day 0 to day 3 (P < 0.0001). 69% of E patients also received intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (PCA). Ileus (13% E vs. 8% NE), pneumonia (12% E vs. 8% NE), venous thromboembolism (6% E vs. 4% NE), length of stay [ 11.0±12.1(8,4-107) E vs. 12.2±10.7(7,3-54) NE], overall morbidity (36% E vs. 39% NE), and mortality (4% E vs. 2% NE) were not significantly different. Conclusions Routine use of epidurals in this group of patients does not appear to be superior to PCA. PMID:23345053

  5. Incidence of epidural catheter-associated infections after continuous epidural analgesia in children.

    PubMed

    Sethna, Navil F; Clendenin, David; Athiraman, Umeshkumar; Solodiuk, Jean; Rodriguez, Diana P; Zurakowski, David

    2010-07-01

    Clinical observation suggests that the number of serious epidural catheter-associated infections have increased recently in children. This increase is likely attributed to an increase in reporting and in frequency of epidural analgesia usage. Estimates of infection rates are difficult to determine primarily because of insufficient study of large pediatric populations. In this retrospective study, the authors investigated the incidence of epidural catheter-associated soft tissue and epidural infections after use of continuous epidural analgesia spanning 17 yr. A total of 10,653 epidural catheters were used in 7,792 children. The majority of catheters, 10,437 (98%), were placed for the management of postoperative pain, and 216 (2%) were placed for the management of chronic pain. The authors identified 13 cases of infections (nine cellulitis, two paravertebral musculature infections, one epidural inflammation, and one epidural abscess) between 3 and 11 days after catheter insertion. The incidence of infection was significantly higher in patients treated for chronic pain (7 of 216 = 3.2%) compared with postoperative pain (6 of 10,437 = 0.06%; P < 0.0001). Surgical drainage of subcutaneous pus was performed in three patients, and medical therapy was administered in the remainder of patients; all patients recovered without sequelae. Although rare, epidural catheter-associated infections remain a serious concern in high-risk children who may benefit the most from epidural analgesia. The findings of the authors support the low rate of epidural infection previously reported despite growing concerns of serious infections in children. These findings highlight the importance of vigilance to early diagnostic indicators of infection and provide practitioners and families with incidence data to guide informed medical decision-making.

  6. Epidural analgesia associated with better survival in colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Vogelaar, F J; Abegg, R; van der Linden, J C; Cornelisse, H G J M; van Dorsten, F R C; Lemmens, V E; Bosscha, K

    2015-08-01

    Surgery remains the mainstay of treatment for potentially curable colon cancer. Otherwise, the surgical stress response might increase the likelihood of cancer dissemination during and after cancer surgery. There is growing evidence that the type of anaesthesia during cancer surgery plays a role in the metastatic process. Therefore, we assessed if the method of anaesthesia is associated with long-term survival after colon cancer surgery. A retrospective single-centre study was conducted including 588 patients who underwent colorectal cancer surgery, TNM stage I-IV, in the Jeroen Bosch Hospital between 1995 and 2003. The Cox proportional hazard model was used for statistical analysis. Adjustments were made for age, sex, comorbidity, TNM stage, chemotherapy, emergency surgery status and year of incidence. Of the 588 primary colon cancer patients with a median age of 70 years, 399 (68 %) patients underwent colon surgery with epidural anaesthesia, whilst 189 (32 %) patients were operated without epidural anaesthesia. Five-year survival for patients not receiving epidural analgesia was 42 % versus 51 % for patients receiving epidural analgesia (p = 0.03). This effect remained after adjustment for relevant patient, tumour, and treatment characteristics (hazard ratio (HR) 1.30 (95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.05-1.59), p = 0.01). Subgroup analysis in patients of 80 years and older (n = 100) showed also a better overall survival after receiving epidural analgesia (HR 1.74 (95 % CI 1.11-2.72), p = 0.01). Epidural analgesia during colon cancer surgery was associated with a better overall survival. Prospective trials evaluating the effects of locoregional analgesia on colon cancer recurrence are warranted.

  7. Epidural morphine analgesia in Guillain Barré syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Genis, D; Busquets, C; Manubens, E; Dávalos, A; Baró, J; Oterino, A

    1989-01-01

    Severe pain is a frequent symptom in the Guillain Barré syndrome and can be intense, long lasting and with no response to the usual analgesics, including parenteral opiates. Epidural analgesia using morphine chloride in low doses has satisfactorily relieved pain in this disease in nine patients. PMID:2795070

  8. Overview of current development in patient-controlled analgesia.

    PubMed

    Lindley, C

    1994-09-01

    Over the past two decades, numerous trials have assessed the safety and efficacy of patient-controlled analgesia (PCA). Advantages over conventional parenteral narcotics reported from these trials include equivalent to superior pain relief, superior patient satisfaction, decreased sedation and anxiety, faster return to normal functional status, and reduction in nursing time and hospitalization. The majority of these trials have been conducted in the postoperative patient population. In the mid to late 1980s, interest arose in applying PCA technology to the management of cancer pain. Factors that served as an impetus for the use of PCA in cancer pain included favorable reports from the postoperative setting and the often-cited statistics regarding the magnitude of the cancer pain problem. Advances in PCA technology coupled with advances in vascular access technology that allow the placement of long-term ports and catheters to facilitate intravenous, epidural, or intrathecal administration of opioid analgesics have made the applicability of PCA in ambulatory cancer patients an attractive option. The greatest breakthrough in PCA technology came with the introduction of devices making it possible to choose between intermittent (demand bolus) and continuous administration (continuous infusion) or both intermittent and continuous modes. A comparison of these types of PCA devices is described. The limitations of the literature involving PCA therapy in cancer patients make it difficult to identify optimal patient selection criteria, PCA administration schedules, drug selection and dosing, and optimal route of administration. The current status and pertinent issues related to these topics are addressed.

  9. Combined spinal-epidural analgesia for labor pain: best timing of epidural infusion following spinal dose.

    PubMed

    Okutomi, Toshiyuki; Saito, Miwako; Mochizuki, Junko; Kuczkowski, Krzysztof M

    2009-03-01

    The combined spinal-epidural analgesia (CSEA) technique for labor pain has attained wide spread popularity in obstetric anesthesia. The onset of analgesia is rapid and reliable, and maternal satisfaction is very high. However, the best timing of an epidural infusion following the spinal dose and its effect on the total local anesthetics consumption has not been well determined. A total of 144 consenting healthy nulliparous parturients whose labor was induced and who labored under regional analgesia were enrolled in this study. Following induction of the CSEA with intrathecal injection of bupivacaine, 2.5 mg and fentanyl, 25 microg, the patients were randomized into one of four groups to receive a subsequent continuous epidural infusion [E (3), E (30), E (60) and E (90)], depending on the timing of the initiation of epidural infusion of 0.1% ropivacaine, 0.0002% fentanyl and 1:500,000 epinephrine at the rate of 10 ml/h. In study Groups E (3), E (30), E (60) and E (90), epidural infusion was initiated 3, 30, 60 and 90 min, respectively following spinal induction dose. Patients requesting additional labor analgesia were given an epidural bolus (8 ml) of ropivacaine, 0.2%. The number of parturients requesting additional boluses of ropivacaine and the total dose of ropivacaine required for labor analgesia were registered. The numbers of patients who required additional boluses of ropivacaine in Group E (3) and Group E (30) were significantly less than those in Group E (60) and Group E (90). The total dose of ropivacaine required for labor pain in Group E (3) and Group E (30) was insignificantly smaller than the total dose required in Group E (60) and Group E (90). Our results suggest that the best timing of epidural infusion following spinal dose was within 30 min of spinal induction dose.

  10. Stability of piritramide in patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) solutions.

    PubMed

    Remane, D; Scriba, G; Meissner, W; Hartmann, M

    2009-06-01

    For patient controlled analgesia, syringes with solutions of 1.5 mg/ml piritramide in 0.9% aqueous sodium chloride are used. The physical and chemical stability for dilutions of the commercially available preparation of piritramide is limited up to 72 hours by the manufacturer. Since application duration for patient-controlled analgesia can exceed that limited time, stability was investigated by HPLC. Our results show that these solutions are chemically stable over a time period of 60 days.

  11. Modern neuraxial labour analgesia.

    PubMed

    Sng, Ban L; Kwok, Sarah C; Sia, Alex T H

    2015-06-01

    Neuraxial analgesia is considered the gold standard of labour analgesia as it provides the most effective method of pain relief during childbirth. In this article, we explore the recent advances in the initiation and maintenance of epidural analgesia. Patient-controlled epidural analgesia, computer-integrated patient-controlled epidural analgesia, intermittent epidural bolus (programmed intermittent bolus, automated mandatory bolus) and variable frequency automated mandatory bolus administration are techniques that allow the individualized titration and optimization of labour analgesia. The debate has moved on to finding the optimal settings for epidural bolus dosing, time intervals and frequency for epidural analgesia with the hope of improving safety and efficacy as well as patient satisfaction. We examine these recent developments in pump technology and epidural delivery systems and evaluate how these have enhanced the mothers' birthing experiences.

  12. Does intrapartum epidural analgesia affect nulliparous labor and postpartum urinary incontinence?

    PubMed

    Liang, Ching-Chung; Wong, Shu-Yam; Chang, Yao-Lung; Tsay, Pei-Kwei; Chang, Shuenn-Dhy; Lo, Liang-Ming

    2007-01-01

    The effect of epidural analgesia on nulliparous labor and delivery remains controversial. In addition, pregnancy and delivery have long been considered risk factors in the genesis of stress urinary incontinence (SUI). We sought to determine the effect of epidural analgesia and timing of administration on labor course and postpartum SUI. Five hundred and eighty three nulliparous women were admitted for vaginal delivery at > or = 36 gestational weeks. We compared various obstetric parameters and SUI, at puerperium and 3 months postpartum, among patients who had epidural and non-epidural analgesia, and among those who had early (cervical dilatation < 3 cm) and late (cervical dilatation > or = 3 cm) epidural analgesia. When compared with the non-epidural analgesia group (n = 319), the group that received epidural analgesia (n = 264) had significant prolongation of the first and second stages of labor, and higher likelihood for instrumental and cesarean delivery but similar incidence of severe vaginal laceration and postpartum SUI. Except for the first stage of labor, early administration of epidural analgesia did not result in a significant influence on obstetric parameters or an increased incidence of postpartum SUI. Our findings showed that epidural analgesia is associated with an increased risk of prolonged labor, and instrumental and cesarean delivery but is not related to increased postpartum SUI. Regarding the impact of the timing of epidural analgesia given in the labor course, the first stage of labor appeared to last longer when analgesia was administered early rather than late.

  13. Epidural resiniferatoxin induced prolonged regional analgesia to pain.

    PubMed

    Szabo, T; Olah, Z; Iadarola, M J; Blumberg, P M

    1999-09-04

    Adequate treatment of cancer pain remains a significant clinical problem. To reduce side effects of treatment, intrathecal and epidural routes of administration have been used where appropriate to reduce the total dose of agent administered while achieving regional control. Resiniferatoxin (RTX), an ultrapotent capsaicin analog, gives long-term desensitization of nociception via C-fiber sensory neurons. We evaluate here the analgesic effect on rats of epidurally administered RTX, using latency of response to a thermal stimulus in unrestrained animals. Results were compared with those for systemically administered RTX. Vehicle or graded doses of RTX were injected subcutaneously (s.c.) or through an indwelling lumbar (L4) epidural catheter as a single dose. Both routes of application of RTX produced profound thermal analgesia, reaching a plateau within 4-6 h and showing no restoration of pain sensitivity over 7 days. Vehicle was without effect. For the epidural route, the effect was selective as expected for the targeted spinal cord region, whereas the subcutaneous administration of RTX had a generalized analgesic effect. At doses yielding a tripling of back paw withdrawal latency, epidural treatment was 25-fold more effective than the subcutaneous route of application. Consistent with the regional selectivity of the lumbar epidural route, the front paws showed no more effect than by systemic RTX treatment. Binding experiments with [3H]RTX provided further evidence of the segmental desensitization induced by epidural RTX. We conclude that epidural administration of RTX at the lumbar spinal level produces profound, long-lasting, segmental analgesia to C-fiber mediated pain in the rat.

  14. A retrospective comparison of programmed intermittent epidural bolus with continuous epidural infusion for maintenance of labor analgesia.

    PubMed

    Tien, Michael; Allen, Terrence K; Mauritz, Amy; Habib, Ashraf S

    2016-08-01

    To assess whether maintenance of labor epidural analgesia using programmed intermittent epidural bolus (PIEB) is associated with reduced local anesthetic (LA) consumption, patient-controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA) use, and rescue analgesia requirements compared to continuous epidural infusion (CEI). This is a retrospective study at an academic university medical center. Women receiving epidural labor analgesia from March to July of 2015 were identified and categorized into three groups: 1) CEI 5 mL/hr, 2) PIEB 5 mL/60 minutes, 3) PIEB 3 mL/30 minutes. The LA consisted of bupivacaine 0.125 mg/mL and fentanyl 2 μg/mL. All patients had similar PCEA settings. Data were collected on pattern of LA usage, obstetric outcomes and Bromage scores. The primary endpoint was total volume of LA consumed per hour. Secondary outcomes included need for clinician boluses, pattern of PCEA use, degree of motor blockade and delivery mode. We included 528 patients (262 had CEI, 162 had PIEB 5 mL/60 minutes, and 104 had PIEB 3 mL/30 minutes). Median LA consumed was 10.3, 9.5, and 9.7 mL/hr, respectively (p = 0.10). There were no differences in PCEA attempts or rescue clinician boluses, but PCEA volume (p = 0.03) and ratio of PCEA attempts/given (p < 0.01) were significantly different among the groups. Patients receiving PIEB 3 mL/30 minutes used lower PCEA volume than patients receiving CEI (p = 0.04). Patients with PIEB 5 mL/60 minutes and PIEB 3 mL/30 minutes had a higher ratio of PCEA attempts/given than CEI patients (p = 0.01 and p < 0.01, respectively). There were no differences in Bromage scores (p = 0.14) or delivery mode (p = 0.55) among the groups. The epidural maintenance regimen used (CEI vs. PIEB) was not associated with differences in LA consumption, motor blockade or delivery mode. Main limitations of the study include its single center retrospective design and the fact that patients were not randomized

  15. Intermittent epidural bolus compared with continuous epidural infusions for labor analgesia: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    George, Ronald B; Allen, Terrence K; Habib, Ashraf S

    2013-01-01

    The current standard labor epidural analgesic regimens consist of a local anesthetic in combination with an opioid delivered via continuous epidural infusion (CEI). With CEI local anesthetic, doses may be large with resulting profound motor blockade potentially affecting the incidence of instrumental deliveries. In this systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs), we compared the effect of intermittent epidural bolus (IEB) to standard CEI dosing with or without patient-controlled epidural analgesia on patient satisfaction, the need for manual anesthesia interventions, labor progression, and mode of delivery in healthy women receiving labor epidural analgesia. A systematic review of RCTs that compared CEI with IEB for labor analgesia was performed. The articles were evaluated for validity, and data were extracted by the authors and summarized using odds ratios (ORs), mean differences (MDs), and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Nine RCTs were included in this systematic review. Three hundred forty-four subjects received CEI, whereas 350 subjects received IEB labor analgesia. All 9 studies were deemed to be low risk of bias. There was no statistical difference detected between IEB and CEI in the rate of cesarean delivery (OR, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.56-1.35), duration of labor (MD, -17 minutes; 95% CI, -42 to 7), or the need for anesthetic intervention (OR, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.29-1.06). IEB did result in a small but statistically significant reduction in local anesthetic usage (MD, -1.2 mg bupivacaine equivalent per hour; 95% CI, -2.2 to -0.3). Maternal satisfaction score (100-mm visual analog scale) was higher with IEB (MD, 7.0 mm; 95% CI, 6.2-7.8). IEB is an appealing concept; current evidence suggests IEB slightly reduces local anesthetic usage and improves maternal satisfaction. Given the wide CIs of the pooled results for many outcomes, definite conclusions cannot be drawn for those outcomes, but there is also a potential that IEB improves instrumental delivery

  16. Morphine and hydromorphone epidural analgesia. A prospective, randomized comparison.

    PubMed

    Chaplan, S R; Duncan, S R; Brodsky, J B; Brose, W G

    1992-12-01

    Because evidence from uncontrolled, unblinded studies suggested fewer side effects from epidural hydromorphone than from epidural morphine, we employed a randomized, blinded study design to compare the side effects of lumbar epidural morphine and hydromorphone in 55 adult, non-obstetric patients undergoing major surgical procedures. A bolus dose of epidural study drug was given at least 1 h prior to the conclusion of surgery, followed by a continuous infusion of the same drug for two postoperative days. Infusions were titrated to patient comfort. Visual analog scale (VAS) pain scores, VAS sedation scores, and subjective ratings of nausea and pruritus were assessed twice daily. The two treatments provided equivalent analgesia. Sedation scores and prevalence of nausea did not differ significantly between groups. Prevalence of pruritus, however, differed significantly on postoperative day 1, with moderate to severe pruritus reported by 44.4% of patients in the morphine group versus 11.5% in the hydromorphone group (P < .01). On post-operative day 2, reports of pruritus by patients receiving morphine remained higher than those among the hydromorphone-treated subjects, although this difference was no longer statistically significant (32% vs. 16.7%, P = .18). We conclude that lumbar epidural morphine and hydromorphone afford comparable analgesia, but the occurrence of moderate to severe pruritus on the first postoperative day is reduced by the use of hydromorphone.

  17. Epidural analgesia complicated by dural ectasia in the Marfan syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Chelsea; Hofkamp, Michael P.; Noonan, Patrick T.; McAllister, Russell K.; Pilkinton, Kimberly A.; Diao, Zhiying

    2016-01-01

    Patients with the Marfan syndrome are considered to be high risk during pregnancy and warrant a complete multidisciplinary evaluation. One goal is to minimize hemodynamic fluctuations during labor since hypertensive episodes may result in aortic dissection or rupture. Although they may prevent these complications, neuraxial techniques may be complicated by dural ectasia. The case of a parturient with the Marfan syndrome and mild dural ectasia is presented. During attempted labor epidural placement, unintentional dural puncture occurred. A spinal catheter was used for adequate labor analgesia, and a resultant postdural puncture headache was alleviated by an epidural blood patch under fluoroscopic guidance. PMID:27695168

  18. Labour epidural analgesia in Poland in 2009 - a survey.

    PubMed

    Furmanik, Jacek

    2013-01-01

    Labour analgesia in most developed countries is funded by the state, available to every woman in labour, and plays an important role in the everyday activities of most anaesthetists. This paper presents the second part of an Obstetric Anaesthesia Survey which was conducted in 2009. The first part of the Survey, relating to anaesthesia for caesarean sections, was published in 2010. The author sent out 432 questionnaires containing questions about hospital size and location, staffing levels and numbers of deliveries per year. There were also questions regarding regional and other pain relief methods used in labour, ways of administration, drugs used and monitoring of patients. The response rate was 24%. Around 45% of responding hospitals had only 1-3 deliveries per year, which makes it difficult to provide separate obstetric anaesthetic cover. Only ten hospitals (11%) employed an anaesthetist for the labour ward. Epidural analgesia was used in 55% of hospitals but only 20% provided the service for 24 hours per day and free of charge. Entonox was used very occasionally, but the most common means of pain relief was pethidine injection. There were marked differences in the medication used for labour epidurals, with 18% of units using high concentrations of local anaesthetics which could result in motor block. Despite a lack of regulations in Polish law and a lack of proper training in 50% of units, midwives were looking after the patients with established labour epidural which could create medico-legal consequences. There was also a marked variation in the parameters monitored during labour analgesia. Epidural labour analgesia was offered for 24 hours per day and free of charge in only 20% of hospitals. Without public pressure it will be difficult to get more funding from the National Health Fund (NFZ) to enable other hospitals, especially those with small obstetric units, to introduce regional labour analgesia. Although the 2009 guidelines addressed most of the issues

  19. Epidural Dexamethasone Influences Postoperative Analgesia after Major Abdominal Surgery.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jeong-Min; Kim, Kyung-Hoon; Lee, Hyeon Jeong; Kwon, Jae-Young; Kim, Hae-Kyu; Kim, Hyae-Jin; Cho, Ah-Reum; Do, Wang-Seok; Kim, Hyo Sung

    2017-05-01

    Epidurally administered dexamethasone might reduce postoperative pain. However, the effect of epidural administration of dexamethasone on postoperative epidural analgesia in major abdominal surgery has been doubtful. To investigate the effects and optimal dose of epidural dexamethasone on pain after major abdominal surgery. A prospective randomized, double-blind study. University hospital. One hundred twenty ASA physical status I and II men, scheduled for gastrectomy, were enrolled. Patients were randomly assigned to receive one of 3 treatment regimens (n = 40 in each group): dexamethasone 5 mg (1 mL) with normal saline (1 mL) (group D) or dexamethasone 10 mg (2 mL) (group E) or 2 mL of normal saline (group C) mixed with 8 mL of 0.375% ropivacaine as a loading dose. After the surgery, 0.2% ropivacaine - fentanyl 4 ?g/mL was epidurally administered for analgesia. The infusion was set to deliver 4 mL/hr of the PCEA solution, with a bolus of 2 mL per demand and 15 minutes lockout time. The infused volume of PCEA, intensity of postoperative pain using visual analogue scale (VAS) during rest and coughing, incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV), usage of rescue analgesia and rescue antiemetic, and side effects such as respiratory depression, urinary retention, and pruritus were recorded at 2, 6, 12, 24, and 48 hours after the end of surgery. The resting and effort VAS was significantly lower in group E compared to group C at every time point through the study period. On the contrary, only the resting VAS in group D was lower at 2 hours and 6 hours after surgery. Total fentanyl consumption of group E was significantly lower compared to other groups. There was no difference in adverse effect such as hypotension, bradycardia, PONV, pruritis, and urinary retention among groups. Use of epidural PCA with basal rate might interrupt an accurate comparison of dexamethasone effect. Hyperglycemia and adrenal suppression were not evaluated. Epidural dexamethasone was

  20. Epidural Volume Extension During Combined Spinal-Epidural Labor Analgesia Does Not Increase Sensory Block.

    PubMed

    Zaphiratos, Valerie; George, Ronald B; Macaulay, Bruce; Bolleddula, Prasad; McKeen, Dolores M

    2016-09-01

    Combined spinal-epidural (CSE) analgesia is widely used for delivering labor analgesia. Epidural volume extension (EVE) involves the injection of fluid into the epidural space compressing the dural sac, causing cephalad shift of the cerebral spinal fluid. Our hypothesis was that EVE with 10 mL normal saline during CSE would increase the sensory block height at 15 minutes after intrathecal injection. We expected EVE to decrease pain scores, decrease analgesia onset time, and decrease motor block compared with performing CSE without EVE (NEVE). We randomly assigned 60 healthy term laboring nulliparous parturients with cervical dilation <5 cm to receive CSE either with EVE of 10 mL normal saline through the Tuohy needle before catheter insertion or CSE NEVE. Intrathecal analgesia consisted of 2 mg plain bupivacaine and 10 μg fentanyl (1 mL total). A blinded researcher assessed sensory dermatome level, analgesia, and motor blockade at regular intervals for 30 minutes. The primary outcome measure was the median peak sensory dermatome level at 15 minutes. Fifty-four parturients were analyzed. There was no significant difference in peak sensory dermatome levels at 15 minutes (median difference, 1 dermatome level; 95% confidence interval of median difference, 0 to 2; P = 0.22) and 30 minutes (median difference, 0 dermatome level; 95% confidence interval, -2 to 2; P = 0.76). There was no difference in the time to peak dermatome, minimum pain score, or the time to minimum pain score between groups. We found no significant difference between groups with regard to sensory dermatome level or pain scores when using EVE compared with NEVE. Our study demonstrates that addition of EVE does not offer superior analgesia when using a CSE technique for parturients requesting labor analgesia.

  1. Early versus late initiation of epidural analgesia for labour.

    PubMed

    Sng, Ban Leong; Leong, Wan Ling; Zeng, Yanzhi; Siddiqui, Fahad Javaid; Assam, Pryseley N; Lim, Yvonne; Chan, Edwin S Y; Sia, Alex T

    2014-10-09

    Pain during childbirth is arguably the most severe pain some women may experience in their lifetime. Epidural analgesia is an effective form of pain relief during labour. Many women have concerns regarding its safety. Furthermore, epidural services and anaesthetic support may not be available consistently across all centres. Observational data suggest that early initiation of epidural may be associated with an increased risk of caesarean section, but the same findings were not seen in recent randomised controlled trials. More recent guidelines suggest that in the absence of a medical contraindication, maternal request is a sufficient medical indication for pain relief during labour. The choice of analgesic technique, agent, and dosage is based on many factors, including patient preference, medical status, and contraindications. There is no systematically reviewed evidence on the maternal and foetal outcomes and safety of this practice. This systematic review aimed to summarise the effectiveness and safety of early initiation versus late initiation of epidural analgesia in women. We considered the obstetric and fetal outcomes relevant to women and side effects of the treatments, including risk of caesarean section, instrumental birth and time to birth. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (12 February 2014), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2014, Issue 1), MEDLINE (January 1966 to February 2014), Embase (January 1980 to February 2014) and reference lists of retrieved studies. We included all randomised controlled trials involving women undergoing epidural labour analgesia that compared early initiation versus late initiation of epidural labour analgesia. Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion, extracted the data and assessed the trial quality. Data were checked for accuracy. We included nine studies with a total of 15,752 women.The overall risk of bias of

  2. [Comparison of ropivacaine and bupivacaine for epidural analgesia during labor].

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Conde, P; Nicolás, J; Rodríguez, J; García-Castaño, M; del Barrio, E; Muriel, C

    2001-05-01

    To compare the analgesic efficacy and level of motor block using two local anesthetics, ropivacaine and bupivacaine, during labor. Sixty nulliparous women were enrolled during labor after full-term pregnancies. They were randomly assigned to receive epidural analgesia with ropivacaine (group R) or bupivacaine (group B). Group R patients received 10 ml of 0.18% ropivacaine with 5 microgram/ml of fentanyl followed by continuous epidural infusion of 0.1% ropivacaine with 2 microgram/ml of fentanyl at a rate of 10 ml/h. Group B patients received 10 ml of 0.15% bupivacaine with 5 microgram/ml of fentanyl followed by continuous epidural perfusion of 0.0625% bupivacaine with 2 microgram/ml of fentanyl at the same rate. Pain intensity was assessed on a visual analog scale, motor blockade on a Bromage scale, and level of sensory block at different moments. We also recorded total doses of local anesthetic employed during continuous epidural infusion, manner of final delivery, Apgar score, degree of maternal satisfaction and side effects. The demographic and delivery characteristics were similar in both groups. We found no statistically significant differences between the two groups for level of motor blockade, which was nil for 29 patients (96.66%) in group R and 28 patients (93.33%) in group B. No differences in degree of pain or level of sensory block (T8-T10 in both groups) were observed. The total doses of local anesthetic used were similar at 23.7 +/- 11.6 mg in group R and 16.5 +/- 7.3 mg in group B (non-significant difference). Nor did we find differences in manner of delivery, neonatal Apgar scores, degree of maternal satisfaction or side effects. Ropivacaine and bupivacaine are equally effective for epidural analgesia during labor at the doses used and they do not cause a relevant level of motor blockade.

  3. Effect of parecoxib combined with thoracic epidural analgesia on pain after thoracotomy

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Xiao-Min; Fang, Fang; Zhang, Xiao-Guang; Ding, Ming; Liu, Qiu-A-Xue

    2016-01-01

    Background Thoracotomy results in severe postoperative pain potentially leading to chronic pain. We investigated the potential benefits of intravenous parecoxib on postoperative analgesia combined with thoracic epidural analgesia (TEA). Methods Eighty-six patients undergoing thoracic surgery were randomized into two groups. Patient-controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA) was used until chest tubes were removed. Patients received parecoxib (group P) or placebo (group C) intravenously just 0.5 h before the operation and every 12 h after operation for 3 days. The intensity of pain was measured by using a visual analogue scale (VAS) and recorded at 2, 4, 8, 24, 48, 72 h after operation. The valid number of PCA, the side effects and the overall satisfaction to analgesic therapy in 72 h were recorded. Venous blood samples were taken before operation, the 1st and 3rd day after operation for plasma cortisol, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α level. The occurrence of residual pain was recorded using telephone questionnaire 2 and 12 months after surgery. Results Postoperative pain scores at rest and on coughing were significantly lower with the less valid count of PCA and greater patient satisfaction in group P (P<0.01). Adverse effect and the days fit for discharge were comparable between two groups. The cortisol levels in placebo group were higher than parecoxib group at T2. The level of ACTH both decreased in two groups after operation but it was significantly lower in group P than that in group C. There were no changes in plasma IL-6 and TNF-α levels before and after analgesia at T1 and T2 (P>0.05). The occurrence of residual pain were 25% and 51.2% separately in group P and C 3 months postoperatively (P<0.05). Conclusions Intravenous parecoxib in multimodal analgesia improves postoperative analgesia provided by TEA, relieves stress response after thoracotomy, and may restrain the development of chronic pain. PMID:27162662

  4. Epidural analgesia and anticoagulant therapy. Experience with one thousand cases of continuous epidurals.

    PubMed

    Odoom, J A; Sih, I L

    1983-03-01

    One thousand lumbar epidural blocks in 950 patients undergoing vascular surgery are reported. All patients were receiving oral anticoagulants pre-operatively. Mean thrombotest (TT) was 19.3% (normal range 70-130%). During surgery intravascular heparin was administered. At the end of surgery, the kaolin cephalin clotting time (KCCT) was 68 (+/- 0.8) seconds (normal range 35-60 seconds), and partial thromboplastin time (PTT) was 536 (77.9%, normal control of 100%). Despite the anticoagulant therapy, no side effects were observed in any patient which could be related to haemorrhage or haematoma formation in the epidural space. It is concluded that, provided adequate precautions are taken, epidural analgesia can be safely used in patients receiving anticoagulant therapy.

  5. Failure to Extend Epidural Labor Analgesia for Cesarean Delivery Anesthesia: A Focused Review.

    PubMed

    Mankowitz, Suzanne K W; Gonzalez Fiol, Antonio; Smiley, Richard

    2016-11-01

    Extension of epidural labor analgesia for cesarean delivery anesthesia may fail. There are a number of factors associated with labor epidural catheter failure. This focused review discusses these associations and anesthetic options when faced with inadequate surgical epidural anesthesia for cesarean delivery.

  6. Effect of magnesium infusion on thoracic epidural analgesia

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Sampa Dutta; Mitra, Koel; Mukherjee, Maitreyee; Roy, Suddhadeb; Sarkar, Aniruddha; Kundu, Sudeshna; Goswami, Anupam; Sarkar, Uday Narayan; Sanki, Prakash; Mitra, Ritabrata

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Patients of lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) having an ASA status III or more are likely to be further downgraded by surgery to critical levels of pulmonary function. Aim: To compare the efficacy of thoracic epidural block with (0.125%) bupivacaine, fentanyl combination and (0.125%) bupivacaine, fentanyl combination with adjunctive intravenous magnesium infusion for the relief of postoperative pain in patients undergoing LVRS. Methods: Patients were operated under general anesthesia. Thirty minutes before the anticipated completion of skin closure in both groups, (Group A and Group B) 7 ml of (0.125%) bupivacaine calculated as 1.5 ml/thoracic segment space for achieving analgesia in dermatomes of T4, T5, T6, T7, and T8 segments, along with fentanyl 50 μg (0.5 ml), was administered through the catheter, activating the epidural block, and the time was noted. Thereafter, in patients of Group A, magnesium sulfate injection 30 mg/kg i.v. bolus was followed by infusion of magnesium sulfate at 10 mg/kg/hr and continued up to 24 hours. Group B was treated as control. Results and Analysis: A significant increase in the mean and maximum duration of analgesia in Group A in comparison with Group B (P<0.05) was observed. Total epidural dose of fentanyl and bupivacaine required in Group A was significantly lower in comparison with Group B in 24 hours. Discussion: Requirement of total doses of local anesthetics along with opioids could be minimized by magnesium infusion; therefore, the further downgradation of patients of LVRS may be prevented. Conclusion: Intravenous magnesium can prolong opioid-induced analgesia while minimizing nausea, pruritus, and somnolence. PMID:21655018

  7. [Obstetric epidural analgesia: relationship between obstetric variables and the course of labor].

    PubMed

    Fernández-Guisasola, J; Rodríguez Caravaca, G; Serrano Rodríguez, Maria L; Delgado González, T; García del Valle, S; Gómez-Arnau, J I

    2004-03-01

    To analyze the relationship between epidural analgesia and diverse obstetric and fetal variables as well as the impact of epidural analgesia on the rates of instrumental and cesarean delivery. Observational study of women who gave birth at Fundación Hospital Alcorcón over a period of 3 years. All the women were offered obstetric epidural analgesia based on 0.0625% bupivacaine plus 2 microg/mL of fentanyl. The following data were recorded: age, nulliparity (yes/no) administration of epidural analgesia (yes/no), induction of labor (yes/no), stimulation of uterine activity with oxytocin (yes/no), type of delivery, fetal weight, duration of dilation, duration of expulsion, cause of cesarean. The records of 4364 women were gathered. The percentages of inductions, nulliparas, oxytocin stimulation, and fetal weight greater than 4 kg and less than 2.5 kg were higher among women taking epidural analgesia. The age of women who received epidurals was significantly lower. The durations of dilation and expulsion were longer among women receiving epidural analgesia, and epidural analgesia was associated with greater risk of instrumental and cesarean deliveries. The significant increase in administration of epidural blocks over the 3-year period of the study was not accompanied by an increased rate of instrumentally assisted deliveries or cesareans. It is difficult to evaluate the real influence of epidural analgesia on certain aspects of labor and its evolution. The strength of the association between epidural analgesia and greater risk of increased rates of instrumental and cesarean deliveries may be influenced by factors not considered in the present study.

  8. A comparison of the postoperative analgesic efficacy between epidural and intravenous analgesia in major spine surgery: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Yichen; Jiang, Heng; Zhang, Chenglin; Zhao, Jianquan; Wang, Ce; Gao, Rui; Zhou, Xuhui

    2017-01-01

    Postoperative analgesia remains a challenge for orthopedic surgeons. The aim of this meta-analysis is to compare the efficacy of epidural analgesia (EA) and intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (IV-PCA) following major spine surgery. We searched electronic databases, including the PubMed, EMBASE, Ovid and Cochrane databases, for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published before June 2016. The quality of the included trials was assessed using the Cochrane risk-of-bias tool. Random effects models were used to estimate the standardized mean differences (SMDs) and relative risks (RRs), with the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI). Subgroup analyses stratified by the type of epidural-infused medication and epidural delivery were also performed. A total of 17 trials matched the inclusion criteria and were chosen for the following meta-analysis. Overall, EA provided significantly superior analgesia, higher patient satisfaction and decreased overall opioid consumption compared with IV-PCA following major spine surgery. Additionally, no differences were found in the side effects associated with these two methods of analgesia. Egger’s and Begg’s tests showed no significant publication bias. We suggest that EA is superior to IV-PCA for pain management after major spine surgery. More large-scale, high-quality trials are needed to verify these findings. PMID:28243145

  9. Epidural analgesia during labor and delivery: effects on the initiation and continuation of effective breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Chang, Zorina Marzan; Heaman, Maureen I

    2005-08-01

    This prospective cohort study examined the association between epidural analgesia during labor and delivery, infant neurobehavioral status, and the initiation and continuation of effective breastfeeding. Healthy, term infants delivered vaginally by mothers who received epidural analgesia (n = 52) or no analgesia (n = 63) during labor and delivery were assessed at 8 to 12 hours postpartum, followed by a telephone interview with the mothers at 4 weeks postpartum. There was no significant difference between the epidural analgesia and no-analgesia groups in breastfeeding effectiveness or infant neurobehavioral status at 8 to 12 hours or in the proportion of mothers continuing to breastfeed at 4 weeks. Therefore, epidural analgesia did not appear to inhibit effective breastfeeding. There was a positive correlation between infant neurobehavioral status and breastfeeding effectiveness (Spearman rho = 0.48, P = .01), suggesting that neurobehavioral assessment may prove beneficial in identifying infants at greater risk for breastfeeding difficulties.

  10. Compartment syndrome obscured by post-operative epidural analgesia

    PubMed Central

    Azam, Md. Quamar; Ali, Mir Sadat; Al Ruwaili, Majed; Al Sayed, Hassan Noori

    2012-01-01

    Compartment syndrome is an orthopedic emergency that require early recognition and urgent intervention to avoid catastrophic complications. High index of suspicion is required for early diagnosis based on a constellation of signs and symptoms that include pain out of proportion and worsened by passive stretching, altered sensorium and palpable tenseness. Any event thus, that masks pain, may lead to delay the diagnosis of compartment syndrome. We report here a case of polytrauma where post-operative analgesia was administered using epidural catheter, which obscured pain and lead to delay in recognition of compartment syndrome. Authors wish to share a lesson, learned at the expense of tragedy. PMID:24765418

  11. [medullar adhesive arachnoiditis: a late complication after obstetrical epidural analgesia].

    PubMed

    Ploteau, S; de Kersaint-Gilly, A; Boog, G

    2004-11-01

    A 30-year-old woman, G3P3, was progressively affected by spastic paraparesis with loss of sensitivity and urinary incontinence due to medullar adhesive arachnoiditis occurring five months after an epidural analgesia for repeat cesarean section. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a voluminous subarachnoid cyst and a septated syringomyelic cavitation attributed to metabisulfite, the preservative of epinephrine and to multiple lidocaine injections through the catheter in the postoperative period. Despite two decompressive neurosurgical operations, the neurological state of the patient continues to worsen.

  12. Effects of postoperative epidural analgesia on recurrence-free and overall survival in patients with nonsmall cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Cata, Juan P; Gottumukkala, Vijaya; Thakar, Dilip; Keerty, Dinesh; Gebhardt, Rodolfo; Liu, Diane D

    2014-02-01

    To determine whether postoperative epidural analgesia is associated with better recurrence-free survival and overall survival after lung cancer surgery. Retrospective study. Academic hospital. Data of patients with stage 1, stage 2, and stage 3 nonsmall cell lung cancer, who underwent tumor resection surgery, were studied. Patient data were grouped into three different postoperative pain management interventions: intravenous patient-controlled analgesia, patient-controlled epidural analgesia, and their combination. Univariate and multicovariate Cox proportional hazards models were applied to assess the effects of covariates of interest on overall survival and recurrence-free survival. The type of postoperative analgesia used for patients who underwent surgery for nonsmall cell lung cancer did not affect recurrence-free survival or overall survival. However, certain variables, including age ≥ 65 years, male gender, body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m(2), ASA physical status 4, and the need for preoperative blood transfusions, pneumonectomy, and postoperative radiation, were associated with decreased recurrence-free survival and overall survival. The type of postoperative analgesia used after surgery for nonsmall cell lung cancer is not associated with better 2-year or 5-year recurrence-free survival or overall survival rates. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Epidural analgesia in the latent phase of labor and the risk of cesarean delivery: a five-year randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Wang, FuZhou; Shen, XiaoFeng; Guo, XiRong; Peng, YuZhu; Gu, XiaoQi

    2009-10-01

    The optimal timing of epidural analgesia has been a controversial issue, and how early women can benefit from epidural analgesia is still debated. The objective of this trial was to test the hypothesis that patient-controlled epidural analgesia given at cervical dilation of 1.0 cm or more does not increase the risk of prolonged labor or Cesarean delivery. After institutional review board approval and patient consent, 12,793 nulliparous patients requesting neuraxial analgesia were enrolled and randomized to an early epidural (cervical dilation at least 1.0 cm) or delayed epidural (cervical dilation at least 4.0 cm) group. A 15-ml epidural analgesic mixture consisting of 0.125% (1.25 mg/ml) ropivacaine plus 0.3 microg/ml sufentanil was given in a single bolus, followed by patient-controlled pump with a 10-ml bolus without background infusion. Repeatable meperidine (25 mg) was prescribed as being the rescue analgesic to patients in the delayed epidural group. The primary outcome was the rate of Cesarean section. The median diameters of cervical dilation were 1.6 cm and 5.1 cm in the early and delayed epidural groups, respectively (P < 0.0001). The duration of labor from analgesia request to vaginal delivery was equal in both groups (11.3 +/- 4.5 h for early epidural and 11.8 +/- 4.9 h for delayed epidural group women, P = 0.90). No statistically significant difference in the rate of Cesarean section was observed between the two groups on the intention-to-treat analysis (23.2% vs. 22.8% in the early and delayed epidural groups, respectively; P = 0.51). Epidural analgesia in the latent phase of labor at cervical dilation of 1.0 cm or more does not prolong the progression of labor and does not increase the rate of Cesarean in nulliparous women compared with the delayed analgesia at the cervical dilation of 4.0 cm or more.

  14. Patient-controlled analgesia after coronary artery bypass grafting.

    PubMed

    Dawkins, Sarah

    Patient-controlled analgesia is a method of pain control that allows the patient to self-administer opioid medication as and when it is needed. Pain is a personal experience and one pain-relieving intervention may not be effective for all patients. This article reviews the literature on patient-controlled analgesia, particularly with reference to patients after coronary artery bypass grafting. Pain policies and education programmes need to be proactive in addressing staff and patient gaps in knowledge and misconceptions about pain assessment and management. Nurses need to appreciate the nature and importance of research in promoting a more critical approach to patient care and the development of quality nursing practice.

  15. Effects of epidural analgesia on labor length, instrumental delivery, and neonatal short-term outcome.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Junichi; Farina, Antonio; Turchi, Giovanni; Hasegawa, Yuko; Zanello, Margherita; Baroncini, Simonetta

    2013-02-01

    We aimed to clarify whether the short-term adverse neonatal outcomes associated with epidural analgesia are due to the epidural analgesia itself or to the instrumental delivery. A retrospective case-control study was conducted to evaluate the relationship between epidural analgesia, labor length, and perinatal outcomes. A total of 350 pregnant women at term who delivered under epidural analgesia (cases) were compared with 1400 patients without epidural analgesia (controls). Vacuum extraction (6.5 vs. 2.9 %) and cesarean section (19.9 vs. 11.1 %) were more frequently performed in the cases than controls (p < 0.001). Using a Kaplan-Meier algorithm, it was determined that the mean lengths of the 1st and 2nd stages of labor and the overall durations of labor and delivery were significantly longer in cases compared with controls. A Cox regression analysis showed that the longer labor remained even after adjustment for parity. The neonatal variables stratified by mode of delivery were not different in cases and controls, except for a slightly lower umbilical arterial pH in spontaneous delivery for the cases group. However, the Apgar scores and umbilical arterial pH were significantly lower in the neonates delivered by vacuum extraction compared with those in the neonates delivered by spontaneous delivery or cesarean section, regardless of whether epidural analgesia was performed. A multivariable analysis showed that vacuum extraction much more consistently affected the arterial pH than the analgesia itself (the β coefficients were -0.036 for epidural analgesia vs. -0.050 for vacuum extraction). Epidural analgesia was associated with slowly progressing labor, thus resulting in an increased rate of instrumental delivery. This instrumental delivery appears to adversely affect the neonatal outcomes more strongly than the analgesia itself.

  16. Epidural catheter misplaced into the thoracic cavity: Utilized to provide interpleural analgesia

    PubMed Central

    Sundary, M. Thiriloga

    2015-01-01

    Thoracic epidural analgesia is one of the most effective and time-tested modalities of providing postthoracotomy pain relief. It improves postoperative pulmonary outcome. Nevertheless, being a blind procedure several complications have been associated with the technique. Pleural puncture is one rare complication that might occur following thoracic epidural catheterization. We have discussed a patient who underwent a right thoracotomy for excision of emphysematous bulla of lung under general anesthesia with thoracic epidural. The epidural catheter was misplaced in the pleural cavity and was detected intraoperatively after thoracotomy. The catheter was left in situ and was successfully utilized to provide postoperative analgesia via the interpleural route. PMID:25886437

  17. Continuous epidural infusion versus programmed intermittent epidural bolus for labor analgesia: optimal configuration of parameters to reduce physician-administered top-ups.

    PubMed

    Delgado, Carlos; Ciliberto, Christopher; Bollag, Laurent; Sedensky, Margaret; Landau, Ruth

    2017-09-06

    Programmed intermittent epidural bolus (PIEB) is a delivery mode associated with decreased local analgesia dosing, motor block, and physician-administered top-ups (PATU) during labor analgesia. We hypothesized that PIEB delivery at different settings will result in fewer PATU for labor analgesia than the same hourly volume of a continuous epidural infusion (CEI). 'Before and after' study design of combined-spinal epidural (CSE) for labor, with bupivacaine 0.0625%-fentanyl 2mcg/ml and patient-controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA; 5ml bolus with 10min lockout). The 'before' group (N = 120) received a CEI at 10ml/hour. PIEB groups received a programmed bolus of 10mL: every 60min (PIEB60, N = 120), every 45min (PIEB45, N = 140), or every 45min with high flow (500ml/hour) (PIEB45HF, N = 25). Number of women requesting a PATU, time intervals from CSE to PATU and to delivery, and obstetric outcomes. There was no difference in proportion of women requesting PATU between CEI and PIEB60 groups (45/120 versus 52/120, respectively; p > 0.05). PATU rate was lower in PIEB45 group compared with PIEB60 and CEI groups (23/140 versus 52/120 and 45/120, p < 0.005 and p < 0.05, respectively), and in PIEB45HF versus PIEB60 (5/25 versus 52/120, p < 0.05). No difference in other outcomes was observed. The number of women requesting a PATU was lowest with PIEB45 and PIEB45HF settings. There were no differences in any other outcomes between groups. This study emphasizes the many variations in programming that need to be further tested to establish the benefits of PIEB delivery compared with traditional CEI with PCEA.

  18. [Epidural analgesia in obstetrics: is there an effect on labor and delivery?].

    PubMed

    Segado Jiménez, M I; Arias Delgado, J; Domínguez Hervella, F; Casas García, M L; López Pérez, A; Izquierdo Gutiérrez, C

    2011-01-01

    Epidural analgesia is routinely used in obstetrics but has been blamed for possible effects on labor that lead to greater use of instruments or conversion to cesarean delivery. We aimed to assess this possibility in a cohort of obstetric patients receiving or not receiving epidural analgesia. Prospectively enrolled full-term obstetric patients were distributed in 2 groups according to whether they received epidural analgesia or not. We compared maternal and fetal characteristics, obstetric variables, and type of delivery between groups to record the likely causes of difficult labor and delivery and detect a possible influence of epidural analgesia. Of a total of 602 patients, 462 received epidural analgesia and 140 did not. Epidural analgesia was related to a higher rate of use of instruments but not cesareans (P < .01) and more frequent need for oxytocin (30.7% of the epidural analgesia group vs 0% of the group receiving no epidural analgesia, P < .001). The women receiving analgesia also had a longer mean (SD) duration of the dilatation phase of labor (6.4 [4.2] hours in the epidural group vs 4.7 [3.5] hours in the no-epidural group, P < .01) and of the expulsion phase (1.0 [0.6] hours vs 0.7 [0.6] hours, respectively; P<.01). We observed no effects on the incidence of tearing, rate of episiotomy, or other variables. Predictors of instrumentation or conversion to cesarean delivery were longer duration of the first phase (odds ratio [OR] 1.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1-1.3), longer duration of the second phase (OR 2.3; 95% CI, 1.3-3.9), and maternal obesity (OR, 1.1; 95% CI, 0.9-1.2). Previous deliveries and initiation of epidural analgesia after the fetus has reached Hodge's first plane decreased risk 2.7-fold and 3.03-fold, respectively. Although epidural analgesia has traditionally been associated with a higher incidence of difficult labor and delivery, this association was not unequivocally evident in this cohort of patients. The apparent increase seems

  19. Labor epidural analgesia and the incidence of instrumental assisted delivery.

    PubMed

    Rimaitis, Kęstutis; Klimenko, Olga; Rimaitis, Marius; Morkūnaitė, Asta; Macas, Andrius

    2015-01-01

    To assess the influence of labor epidural analgesia on the course of labor and to determine its association with instrumental assisted delivery rate. A retrospective case-control study was performed during 2007-2011 aiming to identify the relation between epidural analgesia (EA) and instrumental assisted delivery (IAD) rate. All patients in whom instrumental assistance for delivery was applied were allocated into either case (parturients who received EA and had IAD) or control (parturients who did not receive EA but had IAD) groups. Maternal demographic data, pregnancy and delivery characteristics as well as neonatal short-term outcome were studied. A total of 7675 vaginal deliveries occurred during the study period and 187 (2.43%) patients had IAD. Vacuum extraction was applied to 67 (2.16%) parturients who received EA, and to 120 (2.61%) who did not. The median duration of the first stage of labor was 510 min in the EA group as compared to 390 min in the control group (P=0.001). The median duration of the second stage of labor among cases and controls was 60 and 40 min, respectively (P<0.0005). Cases more often had their labor induced by oxytocin 80.3% as compared to 58.3% among controls (P=0.003). There was no significant association between the use of EA and increased IAD rate (OR=0.81; 95% CI, 0.60-1.09). Labor EA did not increase the incidence of IAD and the risk of adverse neonatal outcomes, but was associated with prolonged first and second stages of labor. Copyright © 2015 Lithuanian University of Health Sciences. Production and hosting by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparison of Dexmedetomidine and Fentanyl as an Adjuvant to Ropivacaine for Postoperative Epidural Analgesia in Pediatric Orthopedic Surgery.

    PubMed

    Park, Sang Jun; Shin, Seokyung; Kim, Shin Hyung; Kim, Hyun Woo; Kim, Seung Hyun; Do, Hae Yoon; Choi, Yong Seon

    2017-05-01

    Opioids are commonly used as an epidural adjuvant to local anesthetics, but are associated with potentially serious side effects, such as respiratory depression. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of dexmedetomidine with that of fentanyl as an adjuvant to epidural ropivacaine in pediatric orthopedic surgery. This study enrolled 60 children (3-12 years old) scheduled for orthopedic surgery of the lower extremities and lumbar epidural patient-controlled analgesia (PCA). Children received either dexmedetomidine (1 μg/kg) or fentanyl (1 μg/kg) along with 0.2% ropivacaine (0.2 mL/kg) via an epidural catheter at 30 minutes before the end of surgery. Postoperatively, the children were observed for ropivacaine consumption via epidural PCA, postoperative pain intensity, need for rescue analgesics, emergence agitation, and other adverse effects. The mean dose of bolus epidural ropivacaine was significantly lower within the first 6 h after surgery in the dexmedetomidine group, compared with the fentanyl group (0.029±0.030 mg/kg/h vs. 0.053±0.039 mg/kg/h, p=0.012). The median pain score at postoperative 6 h was also lower in the dexmedetomidine group, compared to the fentanyl group [0 (0-1.0) vs. 1.0 (0-3.0), p=0.039]. However, there was no difference in the need for rescue analgesia throughout the study period between groups. The use of dexmedetomidine as an epidural adjuvant had a significantly greater analgesic and local anesthetic-sparing effect, compared to fentanyl, in the early postoperative period in children undergoing major orthopedic lower extremity surgery.

  1. Comparison of Dexmedetomidine and Fentanyl as an Adjuvant to Ropivacaine for Postoperative Epidural Analgesia in Pediatric Orthopedic Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sang Jun; Shin, Seokyung; Kim, Shin Hyung; Kim, Hyun Woo; Kim, Seung Hyun; Do, Hae Yoon

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Opioids are commonly used as an epidural adjuvant to local anesthetics, but are associated with potentially serious side effects, such as respiratory depression. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of dexmedetomidine with that of fentanyl as an adjuvant to epidural ropivacaine in pediatric orthopedic surgery. Materials and Methods This study enrolled 60 children (3–12 years old) scheduled for orthopedic surgery of the lower extremities and lumbar epidural patient-controlled analgesia (PCA). Children received either dexmedetomidine (1 µg/kg) or fentanyl (1 µg/kg) along with 0.2% ropivacaine (0.2 mL/kg) via an epidural catheter at 30 minutes before the end of surgery. Postoperatively, the children were observed for ropivacaine consumption via epidural PCA, postoperative pain intensity, need for rescue analgesics, emergence agitation, and other adverse effects. Results The mean dose of bolus epidural ropivacaine was significantly lower within the first 6 h after surgery in the dexmedetomidine group, compared with the fentanyl group (0.029±0.030 mg/kg/h vs. 0.053±0.039 mg/kg/h, p=0.012). The median pain score at postoperative 6 h was also lower in the dexmedetomidine group, compared to the fentanyl group [0 (0–1.0) vs. 1.0 (0–3.0), p=0.039]. However, there was no difference in the need for rescue analgesia throughout the study period between groups. Conclusion The use of dexmedetomidine as an epidural adjuvant had a significantly greater analgesic and local anesthetic-sparing effect, compared to fentanyl, in the early postoperative period in children undergoing major orthopedic lower extremity surgery. PMID:28332374

  2. Early versus late epidural analgesia and risk of instrumental delivery in nulliparous women: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Wassen, M M L H; Zuijlen, J; Roumen, F J M E; Smits, L J M; Marcus, M A; Nijhuis, J G

    2011-05-01

    Review of the literature regarding the relation between the timing of epidural analgesia and the rate of caesarean or instrumental vaginal deliveries. Pubmed, Embase and the Cochrane Library were searched for articles published until 31 July 2010. Studies were selected in which the effects of early latent phase (defined as a cervical dilatation of 3 cm or less) epidural analgesia (including combined-spinal epidural) and late active phase epidural analgesia on the mode of delivery in nulliparous women at 36 weeks of gestation or more were evaluated. Data extraction was completed by using a data-extraction form. Risk ratio and its 95% confidence intervals were calculated for caesarean delivery and instrumental vaginal delivery. Pooled data were calculated. The search retrieved 20 relevant articles, of which six fulfilled the selection criteria of inclusion. These six studies reported on 15,399 nulliparous women in spontaneous or induced labour with a request for analgesia. Risk of caesarean delivery (pooled risk ratio 1.02, 95% CI 0.96-1.08) or instrumental vaginal delivery (pooled risk ratio 0.96, 95% CI 0.89-1.05) was not significantly different between groups. This systematic review showed no increased risk of caesarean delivery or instrumental vaginal delivery for women receiving early epidural analgesia at cervical dilatation of 3 m or less in comparison with late epidural analgesia. © 2011 The Authors BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology © 2011 RCOG.

  3. [Epidural anesthesia and analgesia in the perioperative treatment of a patient with Kartagener syndrome].

    PubMed

    Errando, C L; Sifre, C; López-Alarcón, D

    1998-12-01

    Kartagener's syndrome is an inherited disease characterized by a triad of symptoms--bronchiectasis, situs inversus and sinusitis--and is classified as an immotile cilia syndrome. Patients may experience specific airway problems when undergoing anesthesia for surgical procedures. We report the case of a woman with Kartagener's syndrome who underwent surgery under epidural anesthesia with postoperative epidural analgesia, both techniques proving successful.

  4. Evaluation of use of electronic patient controlled analgesia pumps to improve patient safety in an academic medical center.

    PubMed

    Ohashi, Kumiko; Dykes, Patricia; Mcintosh, Kathleen; Buckley, Elizabeth; Yoon, Catherine; Luppi, Carol; Bane, Anne; Bates, David W

    2014-01-01

    Patient controlled analgesia (PCA) and Patient-controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA) pumps are methods of pain control with complex smart infusion devices and are widely used in hospitals. Smart PCA/PCEA pumps can be programmed with the dose and rate of medications within pre-set ranges. However, adverse effects have been reported associated with these pumps' use. In this paper, we describe a prevalence observational study where observers used an electronic data collection tool to record pump settings and medications with PCA pumps, corresponding medication orders to identify errors. The results showed that there were many labeling and tubing change tag errors, which were a violation of hospital policy. A few potential harmful medication errors were identified but no critical errors. Study results suggest the importance of a standard process of PCA pump use. Next steps include implementing a safety bundle for improving PCA practice to support safe and effective pain management.

  5. No association of labor epidural analgesia with cerebral palsy in children.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Graham, Jove H; Feng, Wen; Lewis, Meredith W; Zhang, Xiaopeng; Kirchner, H Lester

    2016-12-01

    Some pregnant women avoid labor epidural analgesia because of their concerns about risk of cerebral palsy in children. Although it is believed that labor epidural does not contribute to cerebral palsy, to our knowledge no study has been published to specifically address this concern. We carried out a retrospective case-control study to investigate whether labor epidural analgesia is associated with cerebral palsy in children. This study used data that were collected and entered into the Geisinger electronic health records between January 2004 and January 2013. During this period, 20,929 children were born at Geisinger hospitals. Among them, 50 children were diagnosed with cerebral palsy, and 20 of those were born vaginally. Each of these 20 cerebral palsy children was matched with up to 5 non-cerebral palsy children born at the same hospitals in the same timeframe using propensity scoring methods. Analgesia was classified as epidural (including epidural or combined spinal and epidural) or non-epidural. Conditional logistic regression was used to compare the percentages of deliveries with each analgesia type between the cerebral palsy and non-cerebral palsy groups. In the non-cerebral palsy group, the percentage of patients receiving labor epidural analgesia was 72 %, and in the cerebral palsy group the percentage was 45 %. There was no significant difference between non-cerebral palsy and cerebral palsy groups (odds ratio, 0.57; 95 % confidence interval, 0.14-2.24; p = 0.42). We found no association between the use of labor epidural analgesia and the occurrence of cerebral palsy in children.

  6. Routine labour epidural analgesia versus labour analgesia on request: a randomised non-inferiority trial.

    PubMed

    Wassen, M M L H; Smits, L J M; Scheepers, H C J; Marcus, M A E; Van Neer, J; Nijhuis, J G; Roumen, F J M E

    2015-02-01

    To assess the effect on mode of delivery of the routine use of labour epidural analgesia (EA) compared with analgesia on request. Randomised non-inferiority trial. One university and one non-university teaching hospital in The Netherlands. Women with a singleton pregnancy in cephalic presentation beyond 36 + 0 weeks' gestation. Participants were randomly allocated to receive either routine EA or analgesia on request. Intention-to-treat (ITT) and per-protocol (PP) analyses were performed, with confidence intervals (CI) calculated for the differences in percentages or means. Rate of operative delivery (instrumental vaginal or caesarean), labour characteristics, and adverse labour and neonatal outcomes. A total of 488 women were randomly allocated to the routine EA (n = 233) or analgesia on request group (n = 255). In the routine EA group, 89.3% (208/233) received EA. According to ITT analysis, 34.8% (81/233) women in the routine EA group had an operative delivery, compared with 26.7% (68/255) in the analgesia on request group (difference 8.1%, 95% CI -0.1 to 16.3). The difference in rate of operative deliveries according to the PP analysis was statistically significant (difference 8.9%, 95% CI 0.4 to 17.4). Inferiority of EA could not be rejected, as in both analyses the upper bound of the confidence interval exceeded the pre-specified inferiority criterion of +10%. Women in the routine EA group had more adverse effects, including hypotension (difference 9.5%, 95% CI 4.2 to 14.9), and motor blockade (difference 6.8%, 95% CI 1.1 to 12.5). Non-inferiority of routine EA could not be demonstrated in this trial. Routine EA use is likely to lead to more operative deliveries and more maternal adverse effects. The results of our study do not justify routine use of EA. © 2014 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  7. Women's perception of the onset of labour and epidural analgesia: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Antje; Penz, Sarah M; Gross, Mechthild M

    2013-04-01

    childbearing women and their midwives differ in their diagnoses of the onset of labour. The symptoms women use to describe the onset of labour are associated with the process of labour. Perinatal factors and women's attitudes may be associated with the administration of epidural analgesia. Our study aimed to assess the correlation between women's perception of the onset of labour and the frequency and timing of epidural analgesia during labour. prospective cohort study. 41 maternity units in Lower Saxony, Germany. 549 nulliparae (as defined in the "Methods" section) and 490 multiparae giving birth between April and October 2005. Women were included after 34 completed weeks of gestation with a singleton in vertex presentation and planned vaginal birth. the association between women's symptoms at the onset of labour and the administration of epidural analgesia - frequency, timing in relation to onset of labour and cervical dilatation - was assessed. The analysis was performed by Kaplan-Meiers estimation, logistic regression and Cox regression. a total of 174 nulliparae and 49 multiparae received epidural analgesia during labour. Nulliparae received it at a median time of 5.47hrs (range: 0.25-51.17hrs) after onset of labour, at a median cervical dilatation of 3.3cm (range: 1.0-10.0cm). In multiparae, epidural analgesia was applied at a median time of 3.79hrs (range: 0.42-28.55hrs) after onset of labour; the median cervical dilatation was 3.0cm (range: 1.0-8.0cm). Women who were admitted with advanced cervical dilatation received epidural analgesia less often. Women who defined their onset of labour earlier than it was diagnosed by their midwives received epidural analgesia earlier. Gastrointestinal symptoms and irregular pain at the onset of labour were associated with later administration of epidural analgesia. Induction of labour was associated with a reduced interval from the onset of labour to epidural analgesia. women's self-diagnosis of the onset of labour and

  8. Uterine artery, umbilical, and fetal cerebral Doppler velocities after epidural analgesia during labor.

    PubMed

    Valentin, Morgane; Ducarme, Guillaume; Ceccaldi, Pierre-François; Bougeois, Bernard; Luton, Dominique

    2012-08-01

    To evaluate the effects of epidural analgesia on uterine artery, umbilical, and fetal cerebral Doppler velocities during labor. In a prospective study at Beaujon Hospital, Paris, France, between September and December 2010, uterine artery, umbilical, and fetal cerebral Doppler flow velocities were measured in 12 pregnant women during spontaneous labor with epidural analgesia. The data were registered in a period of uterine relaxation before, and 20 and 60 minutes after the first administration of epidural analgesic drugs. The changes in Doppler velocimetry values and fetal heart rate after epidural analgesia were analyzed. Uterine artery velocities, but neither umbilical nor fetal cerebral Doppler velocities, were decreased significantly at 20 minutes and 1 hour after epidural analgesia (P<0.005). Women with the greatest decrease in uterine artery Doppler flow velocities delivered neonates with the lowest values of umbilical artery blood pH. The data suggest that the Doppler flow velocity of uterine arteries is affected by epidural analgesia during labor. Numerous Doppler flow studies of the effect of neuraxial blockade during labor on umbilical and uterine arteries have been published with incredibly variable and inconsistent results. Copyright © 2012 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Bilateral Heel Numbness due to External Compression during Obstetric Epidural Analgesia

    PubMed Central

    Kamphuis, Vivian P.; Zegers, Marie P.A.; Koppen, Hille

    2015-01-01

    We describe the case of a 32-year-old woman who developed bilateral heel numbness after obstetric epidural analgesia. We diagnosed her with bilateral neuropathy of the medial calcaneal nerve, most likely due to longstanding pressure on both heels. Risk factors for the development of this neuropathy were prolonged labour with spinal analgesia and a continuation of analgesia during episiotomy. Padded footrests decrease pressure and can possibly prevent this neuropathy. PMID:25802500

  10. An Update on Drugs Used for Lumbosacral Epidural Anesthesia and Analgesia in Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Steagall, Paulo V. M.; Simon, Bradley T.; Teixeira Neto, Francisco J.; Luna, Stelio P. L.

    2017-01-01

    This review aims to report an update on drugs administered into the epidural space for anesthesia and analgesia in dogs, describing their potential advantages and disadvantages in the clinical setting. Databases searched include Pubmed, Google scholar, and CAB abstracts. Benefits of administering local anesthetics, opioids, and alpha2 agonists into the epidural space include the use of lower doses of general anesthetics (anesthetic “sparing” effect), perioperative analgesia, and reduced side effects associated with systemic administration of drugs. However, the potential for cardiorespiratory compromise, neurotoxicity, and other adverse effects should be considered when using the epidural route of administration. When these variables are considered, the epidural technique is useful as a complementary method of anesthesia for preventive and postoperative analgesia and/or as part of a balanced anesthesia technique. PMID:28553642

  11. An Update on Drugs Used for Lumbosacral Epidural Anesthesia and Analgesia in Dogs.

    PubMed

    Steagall, Paulo V M; Simon, Bradley T; Teixeira Neto, Francisco J; Luna, Stelio P L

    2017-01-01

    This review aims to report an update on drugs administered into the epidural space for anesthesia and analgesia in dogs, describing their potential advantages and disadvantages in the clinical setting. Databases searched include Pubmed, Google scholar, and CAB abstracts. Benefits of administering local anesthetics, opioids, and alpha2 agonists into the epidural space include the use of lower doses of general anesthetics (anesthetic "sparing" effect), perioperative analgesia, and reduced side effects associated with systemic administration of drugs. However, the potential for cardiorespiratory compromise, neurotoxicity, and other adverse effects should be considered when using the epidural route of administration. When these variables are considered, the epidural technique is useful as a complementary method of anesthesia for preventive and postoperative analgesia and/or as part of a balanced anesthesia technique.

  12. Placental abruption occurring soon after labor combined spinal-epidural analgesia.

    PubMed

    Jaime, F; Degani, J; Lam, N; Allen, G

    2012-10-01

    We present a case of placental abruption necessitating emergency cesarean section in an otherwise uncomplicated patient soon after initiation of combined spinal-epidural analgesia in labor. Administration of spinal opioids has the potential to cause fetal bradycardia due to uterine hypertonicity following rapid onset of analgesia. In this case, a previously bloody show before placement of combined spinal-epidural analgesia may have been evidence of a small abruption. We hypothesize that uterine hypertonicity following administration of spinal opioids may have hastened the development of an existing placental abruption. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of epidural analgesia on labor and delivery: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Gerli, Sandro; Favilli, Alessandro; Acanfora, Marta M; Bini, Vittorio; Giorgini, Carla; Di Renzo, Gian Carlo

    2011-03-01

    Two groups of women have been retrospectively compared: 155 women who received analgesia and 1355 women who delivered without analgesia. The duration of the first stage, second stage, and total duration of labor was longer in epidural group, however epidural analgesia was not demonstrated as an independent risk factor for a prolonged labor. The variable most influencing the total duration of labor and the duration of the first stage was nulliparity; the variables most influencing the duration of the second stage were the older age, a reduced body mass index, a high newborn weight and nulliparity.

  14. Thoracic epidural analgesia reduces gastric microcirculation in the pig.

    PubMed

    Ambrus, Rikard; Strandby, Rune B; Secher, Niels H; Rünitz, Kim; Svendsen, Morten B S; Petersen, Lonnie G; Achiam, Michael P; Svendsen, Lars B

    2016-10-06

    Thoracic epidural analgesia (TEA) is used for pain relief during and after abdominal surgery, but the effect of TEA on the splanchnic microcirculation remains debated. We evaluated whether TEA affects splanchnic microcirculation in the pig. Splanchnic microcirculation was assessed in nine pigs prior to and 15 and 30 min after induction of TEA. Regional blood flow was assessed by neutron activated microspheres and changes in microcirculation by laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI). As assessed by LSCI 15 min following TEA, gastric arteriolar flow decreased by 22 % at the antrum (p = 0.020) and by 19 % at the corpus (p = 0.029) of the stomach. In parallel, the microcirculation decreased by 19 % at the antrum (p = 0.015) and by 20 % at the corpus (p = 0.028). Reduced arteriolar flow and microcirculation at the antrum was confirmed by a reduction in microsphere assessed regional blood flow 30 min following induction of TEA (p = 0.048). These manifestations took place along with a drop in systolic blood pressure (p = 0.030), but with no significant change in mean arterial pressure, cardiac output, or heart rate. The results indicate that TEA may have an adverse effect on gastric arteriolar blood flow and microcirculation. LSCI is a non-touch technique and displays changes in blood flow in real-time and may be important for further evaluation of the concern regarding the effect of thoracic epidural anesthesia on gastric microcirculation in humans. Not applicable, non-human study.

  15. Labor epidural analgesia is independent risk factor for neonatal pyrexia.

    PubMed

    Agakidis, Charalampos; Agakidou, Eleni; Philip Thomas, Sumesh; Murthy, Prashanth; John Lloyd, David

    2011-09-01

    To explore whether epidural analgesia (EA) in labor is independent risk factor for neonatal pyrexia after controlling for intrapartum pyrexia. Retrospective observational study of 480 consecutive term singleton infants born to mothers who received EA in labor (EA group) and 480 term infants delivered to mothers who did not receive EA (NEA group). Mothers in the EA group had significantly higher incidence of intrapartum pyrexia [54/480 (11%) vs. 4/480 (0.8%), OR = 15.1, p < 0.0001] and neonatal pyrexia [68/480 (14.2%) vs. 15/480 (3.1%), OR = 5.1, p < 0.0001]. Neonates in the EA group had a median duration of pyrexia of 1 h (maximum 5 h) with a peak temperature within 1 h. Stepwise logistic regression analysis showed that maternal EA was independent risk factor for neonatal pyrexia (>37.5°C) after controlling for intrapartum pyrexia (>37.9°C) and other confounders (OR = 3.44, CI = 1.9-6.3, p < 0.0001). Sepsis work-up was performed significantly more frequently in infants in the EA group [11.7% vs. 2.5%, OR= 5.2, CI = 2.7-9.7, p < 0.0001] with negative blood cultures. EA in labor is an independent risk factor for pyrexia in term neonates. It is unnecessary to investigate febrile offspring of mothers who have had epidurals unless pyrexia persists for longer than 5 h or other signs or risk factors for neonatal sepsis are present.

  16. Effect of epidural analgesia on labor times and mode of delivery: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Indraccolo, U; Ripanelli, A; Di Iorio, R; Indraccolo, S R

    2012-01-01

    To assess changes in labor times and delivery outcome in low-risk women requesting pain relief and undergoing epidural analgesia, according to the epidural analgesia schemes. Prospective observational study of 499 low-risk women with epidural analgesia. Speed of dilatation (SD) (centimeters of dilatation / hours), speed of lowering of the fetal head through maternal pelvis (SL) (centimeters in lowering / hours), time of active phase of labor (TA), cesarean section (CS), vacuum application (VA) were dependent variables in multivariable linear and logistic regressions. Dilution of ropivacain, fentanyl amount, and volume of the first dose of epidural analgesia did not seem to affect labor times. Epidural analgesia with schemes used in this study favored both the dilatation and the fetal head lowering through maternal pelvis. Every five minutes from the first dose of epidural to the last top-up, SD decreased by about 13% (p=0.002), SL decreased by about 14% (p<0.001), and TA increased by about 40% (p<0.001). Additionally, every five minutes from the first dose of epidural to the last top-up, the odds of an operative vaginal birth (vacuum) increased by 0.7% (p<0.001). Increasing of number of top-ups independently caused a reduction in odds of undergoing CS (odds ratio 0.434; C.I. 95% 0.219-0.859, p=0.017), without influencing labor times. Epidural analgesia in patients requesting pain relief favors normal course of labor if it is not discontinued or delayed.

  17. [Low back pain and headache during immediate postpartum. Role of obstetrical epidural analgesia].

    PubMed

    Palot, P; Jolly, D H; Visseaux, H; Botmans, C; Abdi, M; Gabriel, R; Pire, J C

    1995-01-01

    The rate of low back pain and headache following parturition seems to be higher in patients delivered under epidural analgesia. The aim of this study, performed in the immediate postpartum (up to 3rd day) and including 200 patients delivered vaginally, was to assess the incidence and the risk factors of low back pain and headache. A total of 31.5% of them complained of low back pain (LBP+) after parturition. They were significantly younger than those without low back pain (LBP-) (p < 0.03) and have had significantly more often epidural analgesia (p < 0.05). However, there were no statistically significant differences concerning weight, weight gain, parity, duration of labour and duration of epidural analgesia. The LBP+ patients complained significantly more often of cervical (p < 0.04) and low back pain (p < 0.02) during pregnancy, than the LBP-. In the immediate postpartum period, cervical and dorsal pain as well as headache occurred significantly more often in LBP+ than in LBP+ (p < 0.001). The intensity of low back pain during pregnancy (p < 0.006). Risk factors for postpartum LBP were epidural analgesia (OR = odds ratio = 6.59), LBP (OR = 6.50) and cervical pain (OR = 2.75) during pregnancy. The influence of epidural analgesia is questionable, as there was no difference between duration of labour and duration of epidural analgesia, if used, between the two groups. Patients for whom epidural analgesia was required are probably more susceptible to pain during pregnancy. Patients who suffered from postpartum headache (PPHDA+) were comparable to those who did not (PPDHA-).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Epidural labor analgesia is associated with a decreased risk of postpartum depression: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Ding, Ting; Wang, Dong-Xin; Qu, Yuan; Chen, Qian; Zhu, Sai-Nan

    2014-08-01

    Postpartum depression is a common psychiatric disorder in parturients after delivery. The etiology remains unclear, and multiple factors may be involved. In this study, we investigated whether epidural labor analgesia was associated with a decreased risk of postpartum depression development. Two hundred fourteen parturients who were preparing for a vaginal delivery were enrolled in this prospective cohort study. Epidural labor analgesia was performed in 107 of 214 patients on their request. Parturients' mental status was assessed with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale at 3 days and 6 weeks after delivery. A score of 10 or higher on the scale at 6 weeks was used as an indication of postpartum depression. Parturients' characteristics together with perinatal variables were collected. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to assess an association between the use of epidural analgesia and the occurrence of postpartum depression. Postpartum depression occurred in 14.0% (15 of 107) of parturients who received epidural labor analgesia and in 34.6% (37 of 107) of those who did not (P < 0.001). Use of epidural labor analgesia was associated with a decreased risk of postpartum depression (odds ratio [OR] 0.31, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.12-0.82, P = 0.018). Attendance at childbirth classes during pregnancy (OR 0.30, 95% CI, 0.12-0.79, P = 0.015) and continued breast-feeding after delivery (OR 0.02, 95% CI, 0.00-0.07, P < 0.001) were also associated with decreased risks of postpartum depression. A high Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale score at 3 days postpartum was associated with an increased risk of postpartum depression (OR 1.20, 95% CI, 1.05-1.37, P = 0.009). Epidural labor analgesia was associated with a decreased risk of postpartum depression. Further study with a large sample size is needed to evaluate the impact of epidural analgesia on the occurrence of postpartum depression.

  19. Effect of programmed intermittent epidural boluses and continuous epidural infusion on labor analgesia and obstetric outcomes: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Ferrer, Leopoldo E; Romero, David J; Vásquez, Oscar I; Matute, Ednna C; Van de Velde, Marc

    2017-09-07

    Continuous epidural infusion and programmed intermittent epidural boluses are analgesic techniques routinely used for pain relief in laboring women. We aimed to assess both techniques and compare them with respect to labor analgesia and obstetric outcomes. After Institutional Review Board approval, 132 laboring women aged between 18 and 45 years were randomized to epidural analgesia of 10 mL of a mixture of 0.1% bupivacaine plus 2 µg/mL of fentanyl either by programmed intermittent boluses or continuous infusion (66 per group). Primary outcome was quality of analgesia. Secondary outcomes were duration of labor, total drug dose used, maternal satisfaction, sensory level, motor block level, presence of unilateral motor block, hemodynamics, side effects, mode of delivery, and newborn outcome. Patients in the programmed intermittent epidural boluses group received statistically less drug dose than those with continuous epidural infusion (24.9 vs 34.4 mL bupivacaine; P = 0.01). There was no difference between groups regarding pain control, characteristics of block, hemodynamics, side effects, and Apgar scores. Our study evidenced a lower anesthetic consumption in the programmed intermittent boluses group with similar labor analgesic control, and obstetric and newborn outcomes in both groups.

  20. Continuous intra- and postoperative thoracic epidural analgesia attenuates brain natriuretic peptide release after major abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Suttner, Stefan; Lang, Katrin; Piper, Swen N; Schultz, Harald; Röhm, Kerstin D; Boldt, Joachim

    2005-09-01

    We investigated whether blocking afferent nociceptive inputs by continuous intra- and postoperative thoracic epidural analgesia (TEA) would decrease plasma concentrations of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) in patients who were at risk for, or had, coronary artery disease. Twenty-eight patients undergoing major abdominal surgery received either general anesthesia supplemented with a continuous thoracic epidural infusion of 1.25 mg/mL bupivacaine and 1 microg/mL sufentanil (n = 14; TEA) or general anesthesia followed by IV patient-controlled analgesia (n = 14; IV PCA). Visual analog scale pain scores, hemodynamics, plasma catecholamines, cardiac troponin T, atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), and BNP were serially measured preoperatively, 90 min after skin incision, at arrival in the intensive care unit, and in the morning of the first, second, and third postoperative day. Dynamic visual analog scale scores were significantly less in the TEA group. TEA reduced the postoperative heart rate without affecting other hemodynamic variables. Plasma epinephrine increased perioperatively in both groups but was significantly lower in the TEA group. Baseline ANP and BNP concentrations were similar between groups (TEA 3.4 +/- 1.8 and 27.0 +/- 12.3 pg/mL; IV PCA 3.1 +/- 2.0 and 25.9 +/- 13.0 pg/mL, respectively). ANP and BNP increased perioperatively in both groups, with significantly lower postoperative BNP levels in TEA patients (TEA 92.1 +/- 31.9 pg/mL; IV PCA 161.2 +/- 44.7 pg/mL). No such difference was observed in plasma ANP concentrations. Plasma cardiac troponin T concentrations were within normal limits in both groups at all times. We conclude that continuous perioperative TEA using local anesthetics and opioids attenuated the release of BNP in patients undergoing major abdominal surgery who were at risk for, or had, coronary artery disease.

  1. The Effect of Epidural Analgesia on the Delivery Outcome of Induced Labour: A Retrospective Case Series

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To investigate whether the use of epidural analgesia during induced labour was a risk factor for instrumental vaginal delivery and caesarean section (CS) delivery. Study Design. This was a retrospective case series of primigravidae women being induced at term for all indications with a normal body mass index (BMI) at booking and under the age of 40 years. Results. We identified 1,046 women who fulfilled the inclusion criteria of which 31.2% had an epidural analgesia. Those with an epidural analgesia had significantly greater maternal age, higher BMI, greater percentage of oxytocin usage, and a longer first and second stage of labour. Women with an epidural analgesia had a higher instrumental delivery (37.9% versus 16.4%; p < 0.001) and CS delivery rate (26% versus 10.1%; p < 0.001). Multivariable analysis indicated that the use of an epidural was not a risk factor for a CS delivery but was a risk factor for an instrument-assisted delivery (adjusted OR = 3.63; 95% CI: 2.51–5.24; p < 0.001). Conclusion. Our study supports the literature evidence that the use of an epidural increases the instrumental delivery rates. It has also added that there is no effect on CS delivery and the observed increase is due to the presence of confounding factors. PMID:27990163

  2. Predicting early epidurals: association of maternal, labor, and neonatal characteristics with epidural analgesia initiation at a cervical dilation of 3 cm or less.

    PubMed

    Moore, Albert R; Shan, William Li Pi; Hatzakorzian, Roupen

    2013-01-01

    Retrospective studies have associated early epidural analgesia with cesarean delivery, but prospective studies do not demonstrate a causal relationship. This suggests that there are other variables associated with early epidural analgesia that increase the risk of cesarean delivery. This study was undertaken to determine the characteristics associated with early epidural analgesia initiation. Information about women delivering at 37 weeks or greater gestation with epidural analgesia, who were not scheduled for cesarean delivery, was extracted from the McGill Obstetric and Neonatal Database. Patients were grouped into those who received epidural analgesia at a cervical dilation of ≤3 cm and >3 cm. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression was used to determine the maternal, neonatal, and labor characteristics that increased the risk of inclusion in the early epidural group. Of the 13,119 patients analyzed, multivariable regression demonstrated odds ratios (OR) of 2.568, 5.915 and 10.410 for oxytocin augmentation, induction, and dinoprostone induction of labor (P < 0.001). Increasing parity decreased the odds of early epidural analgesia (OR 0.780, P < 0.001), while spontaneous rupture of membranes (OR 1.490) and rupture of membranes before labor commenced (OR 1.288) were also associated with early epidural analgesia (P < 0.001). Increasing maternal weight (OR 1.049, P = 0.002) and decreasing neonatal weight (OR 0.943, P < 0.001) were associated with increasing risk of early epidural analgesia. Labor augmentation and induction, nulliparity, rupture of membranes spontaneously and before labor starts, increasing maternal weight, and decreasing neonatal weight are associated with early epidural analgesia. Many of these variables are also associated with cesarean delivery.

  3. Epidural analgesia in association with duration of labor and mode of delivery: a quantitative review.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J; Klebanoff, M A; DerSimonian, R

    1999-04-01

    This study was undertaken to quantitatively summarize previous literature on the effects of epidural analgesia in labor on the duration of labor and mode of delivery. Original studies published in English from 1965 through December 1997 were reviewed and assigned a quality score independently by 2 of the authors. Studies that met the minimal requirements were evaluated further. Data syntheses were performed separately according to study design and outcome measurements, including cesarean delivery, instrumental delivery, oxytocin augmentation, and durations of the first and second stages of labor. Seven randomized clinical trials and 5 observational studies met the minimal requirements. Among them 4 studies of each sort were included in the data synthesis. Both types of studies showed that epidural analgesia increased risk of oxytocin augmentation 2-fold. Clinical trials suggested that epidural analgesia did not increase the risk of cesarean delivery either overall or for dystocia, nor did it significantly increase the risk of instrumental vaginal delivery; however, observational studies reported a more than 4-fold increased risk of cesarean and instrumental deliveries. Although most studies showed a longer labor among women with epidural analgesia than without it, especially during the second stage, most of the studies used inappropriate statistical analysis. Epidural analgesia with low-dose bupivacaine may increase the risk of oxytocin augmentation but not that of cesarean delivery.

  4. [Maternal satisfaction with the quality of epidural analgesia for pain relief in labor].

    PubMed

    Gredilla, E; Pérez Ferrer, A; Martínez, B; Alonso, E; Díez, J; Gilsanz, F

    2008-03-01

    To measure patient satisfaction with epidural analgesia in labor and to analyze the sociodemographic characteristics of the obstetric population treated in our hospital. We administered an anonymous questionnaire in July and December 2003 to all patients who received epidural analgesia during labor to obtain information on the intensity of pain before analgesia and the efficacy of this procedure. A total of 1067 questionnaires were returned. Of the patients who responded to the questionnaire, 91.3% were satisfied with the process of epidural anesthesia, 93.8% stated that they would recommend the technique used in our hospital, and 94% responded that they would request the technique again in our hospital. Spanish nationals accounted for 74.8% of the surveyed patients; the remaining 25.2% were from other countries-mainly from Central and South America (18% of the total). Before administration of epidural analgesia, 23.3% of Spanish primiparas defined labor pain as severe compared to 40.7% of foreign primiparas (P<.001). Of the multiparas, 212% of Spanish patients described the pain as severe compared to 40.4% of foreign women (P<.001). The overall level of satisfaction with the process of epidural analgesia is very high and was not influenced by sociodemographic factors. Labor pain is perceived as being more intense by non-Spanish women.

  5. Fentanyl versus tramadol with levobupivacaine for combined spinal-epidural analgesia in labor

    PubMed Central

    Chatrath, Veena; Khetarpal, Ranjana; Sharma, Sujata; Kumari, Pratibha; Sudha; Bali, Kusum

    2015-01-01

    Background: Neuraxial labor analgesia using new local anesthetics such as levobupivacaine has become very popular by virtue of the safety and lesser motor blockade caused by these agents. Combined spinal-epidural analgesia (CSEA) has become the preferred method for labor analgesia as it combines benefits of both spinal analgesia and flexibility of the epidural catheter. Adding opioids to local anesthetic drugs provide rapid onset and prolonged analgesia but may be associated with several maternal and fetal adverse effects. The purpose of this study is to compare fentanyl and tramadol used in CSEA in terms of duration of analgesia and frequency of the adverse fetomaternal outcome. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 primiparas with a singleton pregnancy in active labor were given CSEA after randomly allocating them in two groups of 30 each. Group I received intrathecal 2.5 mg levobupivacaine + 25 μg fentanyl followed by epidural top ups of 20 ml 0.125% solution of the same combination. Group II received 25 mg tramadol instead of fentanyl. Epidural top ups were given when parturient complained of two painful contractions (visual analogue scale ≥ 4). Data collected were demographic profile of the patients, analgesic qualities, side- effects and the fetomaternal outcome. Results: Patients in Group II had significantly prolonged analgesia (145 ± 9 minutes) than in Group I (95 ± 7 minutes). Patients receiving fentanyl showed rapid onset of analgesia, but there were more incidence of side-effects like shivering, pruritus, transient fetal bradycardia, hypotension, nausea and vomiting. Only side-effect in the tramadol group was nausea and vomiting. During labor, maternal satisfaction was excellent. Conclusions: Adding tramadol to local anesthetic provides prolonged analgesia with minimal side effects. Fentanyl, when used as adjuvant to local anesthetic, has a rapid onset of analgesia but has certain fetomaternal side-effects. PMID:26240543

  6. A prospective, randomized, blinded-endpoint, controlled study - continuous epidural infusion versus programmed intermittent epidural bolus in labor analgesia.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Joana; Nunes, Sara; Veiga, Mariano; Cortez, Mara; Seifert, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    There is evidence that administration of a programmed intermittent epidural bolus (PIEB) compared to continuous epidural infusion (CEI) leads to greater analgesia efficacy and maternal satisfaction with decreased anesthetic interventions. In this study, 166 women with viable pregnancies were included. After an epidural loading dose of 10mL with Ropivacaine 0.16% plus Sufentanil 10μg, parturient were randomly assigned to one of three regimens: A - Ropivacaine 0.15% plus Sufentanil 0.2μg/mL solution as continuous epidural infusion (5mL/h, beginning immediately after the initial bolus); B - Ropivacaine 0.1% plus Sufentanil 0.2μg/mL as programmed intermittent epidural bolus and C - Same solution as group A as programmed intermittent epidural bolus. PIEB regimens were programmed as 10mL/h starting 60min after the initial bolus. Rescue boluses of 5mL of the same solution were administered, with the infusion pump. We evaluated maternal satisfaction using a verbal numeric scale from 0 to 10. We also evaluated adverse, maternal and neonatal outcomes. We analyzed 130 pregnants (A=60; B=33; C=37). The median verbal numeric scale for maternal satisfaction was 8.8 in group A; 8.6 in group B and 8.6 in group C (p=0.83). We found a higher caesarean delivery rate in group A (56.7%; p=0.02). No differences in motor block, instrumental delivery rate and neonatal outcomes were observed. Maintenance of epidural analgesia with programmed intermittent epidural bolus is associated with a reduced incidence of caesarean delivery with equally high maternal satisfaction and no adverse outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  7. [A prospective, randomized, blinded-endpoint, controlled study - continuous epidural infusion versus programmed intermittent epidural bolus in labor analgesia].

    PubMed

    Nunes, Joana; Nunes, Sara; Veiga, Mariano; Cortez, Mara; Seifert, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    There is evidence that administration of a programmed intermittent epidural bolus (PIEB) compared to continuous epidural infusion (CEI) leads to greater analgesia efficacy and maternal satisfaction with decreased anesthetic interventions. In this study, 166 women with viable pregnancies were included. After an epidural loading dose of 10mL with Ropivacaine 0.16% plus Sufentanil 10μg, parturient were randomly assigned to one of three regimens: A - Ropivacaine 0.15% plus Sufentanil 0.2μg/mL solution as continuous epidural infusion (5mL/h, beginning immediately after the initial bolus); B - Ropivacaine 0.1% plus Sufentanil 0.2μg/mL as programmed intermittent epidural bolus and C - Same solution as group A as programmed intermittent epidural bolus. PIEB regimens were programmed as 10mL/h starting 60min after the initial bolus. Rescue boluses of 5mL of the same solution were administered, with the infusion pump. We evaluated maternal satisfaction using a verbal numeric scale from 0 to 10. We also evaluated adverse, maternal and neonatal outcomes. We analyzed 130 pregnants (A=60; B=33; C=37). The median verbal numeric scale for maternal satisfaction was 8.8 in group A; 8.6 in group B and 8.6 in group C (p=0.83). We found a higher caesarean delivery rate in group A (56.7%; p=0.02). No differences in motor block, instrumental delivery rate and neonatal outcomes were observed. Maintenance of epidural analgesia with programmed intermittent epidural bolus is associated with a reduced incidence of caesarean delivery with equally high maternal satisfaction and no adverse outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  8. A case of unilateral Horner's syndrome diagnosed in retrospect following epidural analgesia during labour and caesarean section.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Niraj; Ansari, Tarek

    2010-06-01

    Horner's syndrome is a rare complication of epidural analgesia in labour. Although it is a sign of high sympathetic block, patients are usually haemodynamicaly stable. We report a case of undiagnosed Horner's syndrome complicating epidural analgesia in labour, where a standard dose of local anaesthetic was given for an emergency caesarean section without problems. This may confirm the benign nature of the syndrome.

  9. The effect of manipulation of the programmed intermittent bolus time interval and injection volume on total drug use for labor epidural analgesia: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Wong, Cynthia A; McCarthy, Robert J; Hewlett, Bradley

    2011-04-01

    Programmed intermittent bolus administration of epidural anesthetic solution compared with continuous infusion results in decreased anesthetic consumption and increased patient satisfaction. In this randomized and blinded study, we evaluated bupivacaine consumption and other analgesic outcomes when the programmed intermittent bolus time interval and volume were manipulated during the maintenance of epidural labor analgesia. Healthy, term, nulliparous women in spontaneous labor had combined spinal-epidural labor analgesia initiated with intrathecal bupivacaine 1.25 mg and fentanyl 15 μg, followed by an epidural test dose (lidocaine 45 mg with epinephrine 15 μg). Subjects were randomized to 1 of 3 programmed intermittent bolus dose regimens for maintenance of analgesia: 2.5 mL every 15 minutes (2.5/15), 5 mL every 30 minutes (5/30), or 10 mL every 60 minutes (10/60). The maintenance epidural solution consisted of bupivacaine 0.625 mg/mL with fentanyl 1.95 μg/mL. Breakthrough pain was treated initially with patient-administered epidural bolus doses, followed by manual boluses administered by the anesthesiologist if necessary. The primary outcome was total bupivacaine consumption per hour of labor. A linear mixed-effects model was used to model each patient's overall bupivacaine consumption per hour; the fixed effect was basal bupivacaine administration rate and the random effect was the area under the pain score versus time curve. One hundred ninety women were studied. The median (interquartile range) adjusted bupivacaine consumption per hour of labor was 8.8 mg (8.0-9.7 mg) in group 10/60 compared with 10.0 mg (9.3-10.8 mg) in group 5/30 and 10.4 mg (9.6-11.2 mg) in group 2.5/15 (P = 0.005). There were no differences in area under the pain score versus time curve, pain scores at delivery, patient-controlled epidural analgesia requests or administrations, number of manual bolus doses for breakthrough pain, time to first patient-controlled epidural analgesia or

  10. Obstetric analgesia - update 2016.

    PubMed

    Heesen, Michael; Klimek, Markus

    2016-07-07

    Neuraxial labor analgesia can be initiated via combined spinal-epidural (CSE) or stand-alone epidural. Pros and cons of these techniques are outlined in this review. In recent years computer-integrated patient-controlled epidural analgesia (CI-PCEA) and programed intermittent epidural boluses (PIEB) have been developed, adding to continuous infusion and PCEA for the maintenance of neuraxial analgesia. Postdural puncture headache (PDPH) and fever can occur secondary to labor epidural that both have clinical relevance for the care givers. Insights into the mechanism of epidural fever and treatment strategies for PDPH are outlined. Due to the increase in obesity the specific considerations for this patient group are discussed. New data have been presented for remifentanil, an ultra-shortly acting opioid, that is used in obstetric analgesia. Without breaking new data, the use of nitrous oxide especially by midwives has a kind of renaissance, and this will be discussed, too.

  11. Post-operative pain management: transition from epidural to oral analgesia.

    PubMed

    Brown, Donna; O'Neill, Olga; Beck, Alexandra

    Although managing pain in the acute surgical setting is a priority, there is a dearth of evidence to guide clinicians on how best to approach the discontinuation and transition of patients from epidural analgesia to oral analgesia post-operatively. This article describes an audit at a regional trust which examined data on patients' observations charts, as well as patients' self-reports of pain. The authors found that reducing epidural opioid concentrations post-operatively is useful in analgesic transition, using bupivacaine only for weaning has limited value, and that the timing of oral analgesia administration is important. They conclude that comprehensive pain assessment and better documentation are necessary to improve pain management practices. While the results demonstrate the advantage of reducing epidural opioid concentrations, decisions should be based on the needs of individual patients and not form part of a routine task.

  12. Giving Birth With Epidural Analgesia: The Experience of First-Time Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Hidaka, Ryoko; Callister, Lynn Clark

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of our qualitative descriptive study was to describe the birth experiences of women using epidural analgesia for pain management. We interviewed nine primiparas who experienced vaginal births. Five themes emerged: (a) coping with pain, (b) finding epidural administration uneventful, (c) feeling relief having an epidural, (d) experiencing joy, and (e) having unsettled feelings of ambivalence. Although epidural analgesia was found to be effective for pain relief and may contribute to some women’s satisfaction with the birth experience, it does not guarantee a quality birth experience. In order to support and promote childbearing women’s decision making, we recommend improved education on the variety of available pain management options, including their risks and benefits. Fostering a sense of caring, connection, and control in women is a key factor to ensure positive birth experiences, regardless of pain management method. PMID:23277728

  13. Impact of first-stage ambulation on mode of delivery among women with epidural analgesia.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Christine L; Algert, Charles S; Olive, Emily

    2004-12-01

    New techniques for administering epidural analgesia allow increased mobility for labouring women with epidurals. To determine the effect of ambulation or upright positions in the first stage of labour among women with epidural analgesia on mode of delivery and other maternal and infant outcomes. We undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCT) of ambulation or upright positions versus recumbency in the first stage of labour among women with effective first-stage epidural analgesia in an uncomplicated pregnancy. Trials were identified by searching Medline, Embase and CINAHL databases and the Cochrane Trials Register to March 2004. Trial eligibility and outcomes were prespecified. Group tabular data were obtained for each trial and analysed using meta-analytic techniques. There were five eligible RCT, with a total of 1161 women. There was no statistically significant difference in the mode of delivery when women with an epidural ambulated in the first stage of labour compared with those who remained recumbent: instrumental delivery (relative risk (RR) = 1.16, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.93-1.44) and Caesarean section (RR = 0.91, 95% CI 0.70-1.19). There were no significant differences between the groups in use of oxytocin augmentation, the duration of labour, satisfaction with analgesia or Apgar scores. There were no apparent adverse effects of ambulation, but data were reported by only a few trials. Although ambulation in the first stage of labour for women with epidural analgesia provided no clear benefit to delivery outcomes or satisfaction with analgesia, neither were there are any obvious harms.

  14. Does epidural analgesia prolong labor and increase risk of cesarean delivery? A natural experiment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J; Yancey, M K; Klebanoff, M A; Schwarz, J; Schweitzer, D

    2001-07-01

    More than 50% of pregnant women in the United States are using epidural analgesia for labor pain. However, whether epidural analgesia prolongs labor and increases the risk of cesarean delivery remains controversial. We examined this question in a community-based, tertiary military medical center where the rate of continuous epidural analgesia in labor increased from 1% to 84% in a 1-year period while other conditions remained unchanged-a natural experiment. We systematically selected 507 and 581 singleton, nulliparous, term pregnancies with spontaneous onset of labor and vertex presentation from the respective times before and after the times that epidural analgesia was available on request during labor. We compared duration of labor, rate of cesarean delivery, instrumental delivery, and oxytocin use between these two groups. Despite a rapid and dramatic increase in epidural analgesia during labor (from 1% to 84% in 1 year), rates of cesarean delivery overall and for dystocia remained the same (for overall cesarean delivery: adjusted relative risk, 0.8; 95% confidence interval, 0.6-1.2; for dystocia: adjusted relative risk, 1.0; 95% confidence interval, 0.7-1.6). Overall instrumental delivery did not increase (adjusted relative risk, 1.0; 95% confidence interval, 0.8-1.4), nor did the duration of the first stage and the active phase of labor (multivariate analysis; P >.1). However, the second stage of labor was significantly longer by about 25 minutes (P <.001). Epidural analgesia during labor does not increase the risk of cesarean delivery, nor does it necessarily increase oxytocin use or instrumental delivery caused by dystocia. The duration of the active phase of labor appears unchanged, but the second stage of labor is likely prolonged. (Am J Obstet Gynecol 2001;185:128-34).

  15. Ethnic differences in the use of intrapartum epidural analgesia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Obstetric epidural analgesia (EA) is widely applied, but studies have reported that its use may be less extensive among immigrant women or those from minority ethnic groups. Our aim was to examine whether this was the case in our geographic area, which contains an important immigrant population, and if so, to describe the different components of this phenomenon. Methods Cross-sectional observational study. Setting: general acute care hospital, located in Marbella, southern Spain. Analysis of computer records of deliveries performed from 2004 to 2010. Comparison of characteristics of deliveries according to the mothers’ geographic origins and of vaginal deliveries noting whether EA was received, using univariate and bivariate statistical analysis and multiple logistic regression (MLR). Results A total of 21,034 deliveries were recorded, and 37.4% of these corresponded to immigrant women. EA was provided to 61.1% of the Spanish women and to 51.5% of the immigrants, with important variations according to geographic origin: over 52% of women from other European countries and South America received EA, compared with around 45% of the African women and 37% of the Asian women. These differences persisted in the MLR model after adjusting for the mother's age, type of labor initiation, the weight of the neonate and for single or multiple gestation. With the Spanish patients as the reference category, all the other countries of origin presented lower probabilities of EA use. This was particularly apparent for the patients from Asia (OR 0.38; 95%CI 0.31-0.46), Morocco (OR 0.49; 95%CI 0.43-0.54) and other Africa (OR 0.55; 95%CI 0.37-0.81). Conclusions We observed a different use of EA in vaginal deliveries, according to the geographic origin of the women. The explanation for this involves a complex set of factors, depending both on the patient and on the healthcare staff. PMID:22818255

  16. Epidural analgesia, fetal monitoring and the condition of the baby at birth with breech presentation.

    PubMed

    Donnai, P; Nicholas, A D

    1975-05-01

    Between December 1970 and March 1973, 138 patients with a singleton fetus presenting by the breech after 36 weeks of pregnancy were deemed suitable for vaginal delivery under epidural analgesia; 130 were delivered vaginally, 10 of them by breech extraction. There was one stillbirth and no neonatal deaths. Epidural analgesia for vaginal breech delivery seemed beneficial. In 65 cases it was possible to compare the umbilical vein pH with the Apgar score at one minute. In 35 patients a continuous recording of the fetal heart rate was used to predict the Apgar score at one minute and the results are discussed.

  17. Effect of maternal ambulation on labour with low-dose combined spinal-epidural analgesia.

    PubMed

    Collis, R E; Harding, S A; Morgan, B M

    1999-06-01

    Two hundred and twenty-nine nulliparous women who requested regional analgesia during labour were given a combined spinal-epidural block. They were randomly allocated to stay in bed or spend at least 20 min of every hour out of bed. There was no significant difference in duration of labour, analgesia requirements, mode of delivery or condition of the baby between the groups. Ambulation appeared to be safe for the mother and baby. Maternal satisfaction with the low-dose combined spinal-epidural was high in both groups.

  18. Bacterial Infection in Deep Paraspinal Muscles in a Parturient Following Epidural Analgesia

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Xuhong; Song, Jiefu; Liang, Qingyuan; Qin, Jibin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Bacterial infection related to epidural catheterizations could occur. In general, the incidence of postoperative infection at the insertion site is very low. Paucity literatures are reported for paraspinal muscle infection after epidural analgesia in parturient. We report a case of paraspinal muscle infection shortly after epidural analgesia in a parturient, who was subjected to because of threatened preterm labor. Epidural morphine was administered for 2 days for childbirth pain control. She began to have constant low-back pain and fever on postpartum Day 2. Magnetic resonance image revealed a broad area of subcutaneous edema with a continuum along the catheter trajectory deep to the paraspinal muscles. A catheter-related bacterial infection was suspected. The surgical debridement and drainage was required combined with intravenous antibiotics on postpartum Day 3. She was soon cured uncomplicatedly. Epidural analgesia is effective to control labor pain and, in general, it is safe. However, the sequelae of complicated infection may be underestimated. A literature search yielded 7 other cases of catheter-related epidural abscess or soft tissue infection. Vigilance for these infections, especially in postpartum patients with backache, is needed. Moreover, early detection and proper treatment of infectious signs at postanesthetic visit are very important. PMID:26683923

  19. Caudal epidural analgesia using lidocaine alone or in combination with ketamine in dromedary camels Camelus dromedarius.

    PubMed

    Azari, Omid; Molaei, Mohammad M; Ehsani, Amir H

    2014-02-27

    This study was performed to investigate the analgesic effect of lidocaine and a combination of lidocaine and ketamine following epidural administration in dromedary camels. Ten 12-18-month-old camels were randomly divided into two equal groups. In group L, the animals received 2% lidocaine (0.22 mg/kg) and in group LK the animals received a mixture of 10% ketamine (1 mg/kg) and 2% lidocaine (0.22 mg/kg) administered into the first intercoccygeal (Co1-Co2) epidural space while standing. Onset time and duration of caudal analgesia, sedation level and ataxia were recorded after drug administration. Data were analysed by U Mann-Whitney tests and significance was taken as p < 0.05. The results showed that epidural lidocaine and co-administration of lidocaine and ketamine produced complete analgesia in the tail, anus and perineum. Epidural administration of the lidocaine-ketamine mixture resulted in mild to moderate sedation, whilst the animals that received epidural lidocaine alone were alert and nervous during the study. Ataxia was observed in all test subjects and was slightly more severe in camels that received the lidocaine-ketamine mixture. It was concluded that epidural administration of lidocaine plus ketamine resulted in longer caudal analgesia in standing conscious dromedary camels compared with the effect of administering lidocaine alone.

  20. Must we press on until a young mother dies? Remifentanil patient controlled analgesia in labour may not be suited as a “poor man’s epidural”

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The epidural route is still considered the gold standard for labour analgesia, although it is not without serious consequences when incorrect placement goes unrecognized, e.g. in case of intravascular, intrathecal and subdural placements. Until now there has not been a viable alternative to epidural analgesia especially in view of the neonatal outcome and the need for respiratory support when long-acting opioids are used via the parenteral route. Pethidine and meptazinol are far from ideal having been described as providing rather sedation than analgesia, affecting the cardiotocograph (CTG), causing fetal acidosis and having active metabolites with prolonged half-lives especially in the neonate. Despite these obvious shortcomings, intramuscular and intravenously administered pethidine and comparable substances are still frequently used in delivery units. Since the end of the 90ths remifentanil administered in a patient-controlled mode (PCA) had been reported as a useful alternative for labour analgesia in those women who either don’t want, can’t have or don’t need epidural analgesia. Discussion In view of the need for conversion to central neuraxial blocks and the analgesic effect remifentanil has been demonstrated to be superior to pethidine. Despite being less effective in terms of the resulting pain scores, clinical studies suggest that the satisfaction with analgesia may be comparable to that obtained with epidural analgesia. Owing to this fact, remifentanil has gained a place in modern labour analgesia in many institutions. However, the fact that remifentanil may cause harm should not be forgotten when the use of this potent mu-agonist is considered for the use in labouring women. In the setting of one-to-one midwifery care, appropriate monitoring and providing that enough experience exists with this potent opioid and the treatment of potential complications, remifentanil PCA is a useful option in addition to epidural analgesia and other

  1. Postoperative epidural analgesia with bupivacaine and fentanyl: hourly pain assessment in 348 paediatric cases.

    PubMed

    Lejus, C; Surbled, M; Schwoerer, D; Renaudin, M; Guillaud, C; Berard, L; Pinaud, M

    2001-05-01

    The objective of this prospective study was the evaluation of the analgesia provided by an epidural infusion of bupivacaine and fentanyl after different types of surgery in children. Data were collected from 348 epidural analgesia in 87 children below 2 years of age, in 80 children between 2 and 6 years and 181 above 6 years of age, for a median duration of 43 postoperative hours. Bupivacaine (mean concentration 0.185%) and fentanyl (5 microg.kg-1.day-1) were administered on the surgical ward. Pain control was considered excellent in 86% of the 11 072 pain hourly assessments. Analgesia was found to be better for children older than 2 years, and the overall quality of their night's sleep was better than that of older children. Higher pain scores were noted for Nissen fundoplication surgery and club foot repairs. Early discontinuation rarely occurred, and only because of technical problems with the epidural catheter (4%) or insufficient analgesia (6%). Complications were minor (nausea/vomiting 14%, pruritus 0.6%, urinary retention 17%) and easily reversed. This combination of bupivacaine-fentanyl provides safe analgesia after major surgery in children with frequent clinical monitoring. Regular pain assessments of intensity and duration are useful to improve the quality of postoperative analgesia.

  2. Bilateral interpleural versus lumbar epidural bupivacaine-morphine analgesia for upper abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Demian, Atef D; Wahba, Ashraf M; Atia, Emad M; Hussein, Sami H

    2003-10-01

    This randomized study was designed to compare the effectiveness of bilateral interpleural analgesia with lumbar epidural analgesia, on postoperative pain relief in upper abdominal surgery. The studied patients were randomely allocated into either interpleural group "IP" (n = 15) or epidural group "EP" (n = 15). In "IP" group, preanesthetic bilateral interpleural block was done using a mixture of bupivacaine 0.5% (0.8 mg/kg) and 2 mg morphine diluted to 50 ml saline for each side. In "EP" group, the same mixture-diluted in 20 ml saline-was injected in the epidural space (L2-3). The general anesthetic technique was the same in both groups. Hemodynamic, gasometric, verbal pain score (VPS) values and complications were compared in both techniques. Heart rate (HR) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) readings were in the accepted normal range in the perioperative period although significant lower readings were detected in "EP" group. No significant differences were displayed in blood gasometric variables between the two groups. There were considerable level of analgesia in both groups in the postoperative period although "EP" analgesia was superior to "IP". More pain free patients (9 versus 4) and significant lower consumption of nalbuphine were detected in "EP" group. The results of this study indicate that bilateral "IP" analgesia may offer a satisfactory analgesia for upper abdominal surgery when the use of other analgesic techniques may be contraindicated.

  3. Addition of transversus abdominis plane block to patient controlled analgesia for laparoscopic high anterior resection improves analgesia, reduces opioid requirement and expedites recovery of bowel function

    PubMed Central

    Ris, F; Findlay, JM; Hompes, R; Rashid, A; Warwick, J; Cunningham, C; Jones, O; Crabtree, N

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Opioid sparing in postoperative pain management appears key in colorectal enhanced recovery. Transversus abdominis plane (TAP) blocks offer such an effect. This study aimed to quantify this effect on pain, opioid use and recovery of bowel function after laparoscopic high anterior resection. Methods This was a retrospective analysis of prospective data on 68 patients. Patients received an epidural (n=24), intravenous morphine patient controlled analgesia (PCA, n=22) or TAP blocks plus PCA (n=22) determined by anaesthetist preference. Outcome measures were numerical pain scores (0–3), cumulative intravenous morphine dose and time to recovery of bowel function (passage of flatus or stool). Results There were no differences in patient characteristics, complications or extraction site. The TAP block group had lower pain scores (0.7 vs 1.36, p<0.001) and morphine requirements (8mg vs 15mg, p=0.01) than the group receiving PCA alone at 12 hours and 24 hours. Earlier passage of flatus (2.0 vs 2.7 vs 3.4 days, p=0.002), stool (3.1 vs 4.1 vs 5.5 days, p=0.04) and earlier discharge (4 vs 5 vs 6 days, p=0.02) were also seen. Conclusions Use of TAP blocks was found to reduce pain and morphine use compared with PCA, expedite recovery of bowel function compared with PCA and epidural, and expedite hospital discharge compared with epidural. PMID:25350178

  4. Efficacy of single dose epidural morphine versus intermittent low-dose epidural morphine along with bupivacaine for postcaesarean section analgesia

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Kiran; Agarwal, Navneet; Agrawal, V. K.; Agarwal, Ashok; Sharma, Mahender

    2012-01-01

    Background: Obstetric anesthesia presents a challenge to the anesthesiologist. The effective pain management allows the partu-rient adequate degree of comfort and promotes physical reco-very and a sense of well being. Materials and Methods: This randomized controlled study was designed to assess the analgesic efficacy and side effects of 1.20 mg single-dose epidural morphine (Group 1) versus intermittent 12 hourly epidural morphine (0.5 mg) with bupivacaine (Group2) for postoperative analgesia in lower segment caesarean section cases. Results: Each group consisted of 36 patients. Demographic characteristics of two groups were comparable and differences among them were not statistically significant. Mean duration of analgesia was significantly longer in group one patients (16.5±2.5h) in comparison to group two patients (11.5±1.5h). Mean highest visual analog scales (VAS scale) was significantly lower (3.2±0.9) in group one patients in comparison of group two (6.7±0.8) patients. Only 43% patient in group one required supplementary perenteral analgesic (Paracetamole/Diclofenac) and 71% required epidural morphine/bupivacaine in group two. Mean number of supplementary perenteral analgesic required in group one was 0.7 and it was 1.8 in group two. There was no significant difference in nausea, vomiting, itching, and pruritis in two groups of patients. Conclusion: Our study showed that the use of single dose epidural morphine is associated with lower pain scores at rest and movement when compared to intermittent epidural morphine with bupivacaine in postcaesarean section analgesia. PMID:25885497

  5. Maternal and foetal outcome after epidural labour analgesia in high-risk pregnancies

    PubMed Central

    Samanta, Sukhen; Jain, Kajal; Bhardwaj, Neerja; Jain, Vanita; Samanta, Sujay; Saha, Rini

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Low concentration local anaesthetic improves uteroplacental blood flow in antenatal period and during labour in preeclampsia. We compared neonatal outcome after epidural ropivacaine plus fentanyl with intramuscular tramadol analgesia during labour in high-risk parturients with intrauterine growth restriction of mixed aetiology. Methods: Forty-eight parturients with sonographic evidence of foetal weight <1.5 kg were enrolled in this non-randomized, double-blinded prospective study. The epidural (E) group received 0.15% ropivacaine 10 ml with 30 μg fentanyl incremental bolus followed by 7–15 ml 0.1% ropivacaine with 2 μg/ml fentanyl in continuous infusion titrated until visual analogue scale was three. Tramadol (T) group received intramuscular tramadol 1 mg/kg as bolus as well as maintenance 4–6 hourly. Neonatal outcomes were measured with cord blood base deficit, pH, ionised calcium, sugar and Apgar score after delivery. Maternal satisfaction was also assessed by four point subjective score. Results: Baseline maternal demographics and neonatal birth weight were comparable. Neonatal cord blood pH, base deficit, sugar, and ionised calcium levels were significantly improved in the epidural group in comparison to the tramadol group. Maternal satisfaction (P = 0.0001) regarding labour analgesia in epidural group was expressed as excellent by 48%, good by 52% whereas it was fair in 75% and poor in 25% in the tramadol group. Better haemodynamic and pain scores were reported in the epidural group. Conclusion: Epidural labour analgesia with low concentration local anaesthetic is associated with less neonatal cord blood acidaemia, better sugar and ionised calcium levels. The analgesic efficacy and maternal satisfaction are also better with epidural labour analgesia. PMID:27013750

  6. Comparison of epidural oxycodone and epidural morphine for post-caesarean section analgesia: A randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Sng, Ban Leong; Kwok, Sarah Carol; Mathur, Deepak; Ithnin, Farida; Newton-Dunn, Clare; Assam, Pryseley Nkouibert; Sultana, Rehena; Sia, Alex Tiong Heng

    2016-03-01

    Epidural morphine after caesarean section may cause moderate to severe pruritus in women. Epidural oxycodone has been shown in non-obstetric trials to reduce pruritus when compared to morphine. We hypothesised that epidural oxycodone may reduce pruritus after caesarean section. A randomised controlled trial was conducted in pregnant women at term who underwent caesarean section with combined spinal-epidural technique initiated with intrathecal fentanyl 15 μg. Women received either epidural morphine 3 mg or epidural oxycodone 3 mg via the epidural catheter after delivery. The primary outcome was the incidence of pruritus at 24 h after caesarean section. The secondary outcomes were the pruritus scores, treatment for post-operative nausea and vomiting (PONV), pain scores and maternal satisfaction. One hundred women were randomised (group oxycodone O = 50, morphine M = 50). There was no difference between Group O and M in the incidence of pruritus (n [%] 28 [56%] vs. 31 [62%], P = 0.68) and the worst pruritus scores (mean [standard deviation] 2.6 (2.8) vs. 3.3 [3.1], P = 0.23), respectively. Both groups had similar pain scores at rest (2.7 [2.3] vs. 2.0 [2.7], P = 0.16) and sitting up (5.0 [2.3] vs. 4.6 [2.4], P = 0.38) at 24 h. Pruritus scores were lower at 4-8, 8-12 and 12-24 h with oxycodone, but pain scores were higher. Both groups had a similar need for treatment of PONV and maternal satisfaction with analgesia. There was no difference in the incidence of pruritus at 24 h between epidural oxycodone and morphine. However, pruritus scores were lower with oxycodone between 4 and 24 h after surgery with higher pain scores in the same period.

  7. Comparison of epidural oxycodone and epidural morphine for post-caesarean section analgesia: A randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Sng, Ban Leong; Kwok, Sarah Carol; Mathur, Deepak; Ithnin, Farida; Newton-Dunn, Clare; Assam, Pryseley Nkouibert; Sultana, Rehena; Sia, Alex Tiong Heng

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Epidural morphine after caesarean section may cause moderate to severe pruritus in women. Epidural oxycodone has been shown in non-obstetric trials to reduce pruritus when compared to morphine. We hypothesised that epidural oxycodone may reduce pruritus after caesarean section. Methods: A randomised controlled trial was conducted in pregnant women at term who underwent caesarean section with combined spinal-epidural technique initiated with intrathecal fentanyl 15 μg. Women received either epidural morphine 3 mg or epidural oxycodone 3 mg via the epidural catheter after delivery. The primary outcome was the incidence of pruritus at 24 h after caesarean section. The secondary outcomes were the pruritus scores, treatment for post-operative nausea and vomiting (PONV), pain scores and maternal satisfaction. Results: One hundred women were randomised (group oxycodone O = 50, morphine M = 50). There was no difference between Group O and M in the incidence of pruritus (n [%] 28 [56%] vs. 31 [62%], P = 0.68) and the worst pruritus scores (mean [standard deviation] 2.6 (2.8) vs. 3.3 [3.1], P = 0.23), respectively. Both groups had similar pain scores at rest (2.7 [2.3] vs. 2.0 [2.7], P = 0.16) and sitting up (5.0 [2.3] vs. 4.6 [2.4], P = 0.38) at 24 h. Pruritus scores were lower at 4–8, 8–12 and 12–24 h with oxycodone, but pain scores were higher. Both groups had a similar need for treatment of PONV and maternal satisfaction with analgesia. Conclusion: There was no difference in the incidence of pruritus at 24 h between epidural oxycodone and morphine. However, pruritus scores were lower with oxycodone between 4 and 24 h after surgery with higher pain scores in the same period. PMID:27053782

  8. Combined spinal epidural (CSE) analgesia: technique, management, and outcome of 300 mothers.

    PubMed

    Collis, R E; Baxandall, M L; Srikantharajah, I D; Edge, G; Kadim, M Y; Morgan, B M

    1994-04-01

    Epidural analgesia in labour is commonly associated with some degree of lower limb weakness often severe enough to be described as paralysis by the mother. We aimed to produce rapid reliable analgesia with no motor block throughout labour. We report a pilot survey of 300 consecutive women requesting regional analgesia in labour who received a combined spinal epidural blockade (CSE). The initial dose was given into the subarachnoid space and analgesia maintained via an epidural catheter. A subarachnoid injection of 2.5 mg bupivacaine and 25 mug fentanyl was successfully given in 268 women (89.3%). Completely pain-free contractions within 3 min of this injection occurred in 195 women (65%) and in all 300 within 20 min and there was no associated motor block in 291 (97%). 141 women chose to stand, walk or sit in a rocking chair at some time during labour. Only 38 women (12.6%) were immobile during the first stage of labour. Analgesia was maintained via the epidural catheter with bolus doses of 10-15 ml of 0.1% bupivacaine and 0.0002% fentanyl. The mean bupivacaine requirement was 9.5 mg/h throughout the entire duration of analgesia. The incidence of post lumbar puncture headache was 2.3%. Transient hypotension occurred in 24 women (8%) and was treated with 6 mg intravenous boluses of ephedrine. Complete satisfaction with analgesia and mobility was reported 12-24 h post partum by 95% of mothers. The use of this analgesic technique caused no alteration in obstetric management or post partum care of the women.

  9. Frequency of colonization and isolated bacteria from the tip of epidural catheter implanted for postoperative analgesia.

    PubMed

    Stabille, Débora Miranda Diogo; Diogo Filho, Augusto; Mandim, Beatriz Lemos da Silva; de Araújo, Lúcio Borges; Mesquita, Priscila Miranda Diogo; Jorge, Miguel Tanús

    2015-01-01

    The increased use of epidural analgesia with catheter leads to the need to demonstrate the safety of this method and know the incidence of catheter colonization, inserted postoperatively for epidural analgesia, and the bacteria responsible for this colonization. From November 2011 to April 2012, patients electively operated and maintained under epidural catheter for postoperative analgesia were evaluated. The catheter tip was collected for semiquantitative and qualitative microbiological analysis. Of 68 cultured catheters, six tips (8.8%) had positive cultures. No patient had superficial or deep infection. The mean duration of catheter use was 43.45 h (18-118) (p=0.0894). The type of surgery (contaminated or uncontaminated), physical status of patients, and surgical time showed no relation with the colonization of catheters. Microorganisms isolated from the catheter tip were Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Sphingomonas paucimobilis. Postoperative epidural catheter analgesia, under these study conditions, was found to be low risk for bacterial colonization in patients at surgical wards. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  10. Eisenmenger's syndrome in pregnancy: Use of epidural anesthesia and analgesia for elective cesarean section

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Lipi; Pani, Nibedita; Samantaray, Ramesh; Nayak, Kalyani

    2014-01-01

    We describe a case of a pregnant patient with a large ventricular septal defect (VSD) and pulmonary artery hypertension, presented to the hospital and underwent elective cesarean section under epidural anesthesia and postoperative analgesia. The procedure was uneventful till the patient was discharged on 10th day. PMID:25190960

  11. Side effects of spiramycin masquerading as local anesthetic toxicity during labor epidural analgesia.

    PubMed

    Julliac, B; Théophile, H; Begorre, M; Richez, B; Haramburu, F

    2010-07-01

    Significant fetal bradycardia occurred when a parturient receiving labor epidural analgesia experienced generalized numbness and tingling, a metallic taste and hot flushes. An emergent cesarean delivery under general anesthesia was performed with favorable outcomes for the mother and baby. The most likely source of the maternal symptoms was spiramycin, which was being administered for treatment of toxoplasmosis.

  12. [Effect of epidural analgesia on the duration of labor stages and delivery outcome].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guanglan; Feng, Yan

    2012-08-01

    To assess the effect of epidural analgesia on the duration of labor stages and the delivery outcome. This prospective study was conducted in 328 nulliparous term parturients presenting for delivery in December 1 to 31, 2011. The parturients were assigned into epidural analgesia group (n=162) and control group (n=166) according to their request when no contraindications were present. The stage I, stage II, and total duration of labor, volume blood loss, oxytocin use, delivery mode, and neonatal outcomes were compared between the two groups. In epidural analgesia group, the duration of stage I and stage II labor and the total duration of labor was 497.9∓168.4 min, 54.3∓43.8 min, and 522.1∓178.9 min, respectively, significantly longer than those in the control group (404.2∓156.0 min, 31.5∓19.8 min, and 435.8∓159.2 min, respectively, P≤0.05). No significant difference was found between the two groups in the rates of oxytocin use, emergency cesarean section, instrumental delivery, meconium-stained amniotic fluid, and low Apgar scores (P≥0.05). Epidural analgesia prolongs the labor duration, especially the second stage of labor, but it does not increase the incidences of emergency cesarean section or instrumental delivery or cause adverse effect on the neonatal outcome, and is therefore safe for pain relief in labor.

  13. Epidural hydromorphone with and without epinephrine for post-operative analgesia after cesarean delivery.

    PubMed

    Dougherty, T B; Baysinger, C L; Henenberger, J C; Gooding, D J

    1989-03-01

    The efficacy of epidural hydromorphone alone or in combination with epinephrine for postoperative analgesia was evaluated in 30 healthy women who underwent cesarean delivery with epidural anesthesia. They were assigned randomly to receive either 1.5 mg hydromorphone alone (N = 15) or 1.5 mg hydromorphone with 1/200,000 epinephrine (N = 15). Duration of analgesia (mean +/- SD) was 24.3 +/- 9.4 hours after the epidural injection of hydromorphone plus epinephrine. This was significantly greater (p less than 0.01) than the duration of 18.2 +/- 5.9 hours after the same dose of plain hydromorphone. Analgesia was more rapid in onset and significantly better at the 0.5, 1, 3, and 12 hours postoperatively in the hydromorphone-epinephrine group. Side effects including pruritus (73%), nausea (20%), and vomiting (15%) were of similar frequency with and without epinephrine. Although mean venous PCO2 (PvCO2) levels three and six hours after the hydromorphone-epinephrine dose were elevated significantly over the pre-drug PvCO2 levels, no respiratory depression was detected by an apnea monitor to which all patients were connected. The addition of epinephrine to epidural hydromorphone hastened onset and prolonged the duration of analgesia after cesarean section.

  14. Comparison of parturient - controlled remifentanil with epidural bupivacain and sufentanil for labour analgesia: randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Stourac, Petr; Suchomelova, Hana; Stodulkova, Marta; Huser, Martin; Krikava, Ivo; Janku, Petr; Haklova, Olga; Hakl, Lubomir; Stoudek, Roman; Gal, Roman; Sevcik, Pavel

    2014-06-01

    Epidural analgesia (EA) has significant contraindications including coagulation disorders and parturient refusal. One alternative is intravenous self-administered analgesia using the ultra short-acting opioid remifentanil (rPCA). We compared the efficiency and safety of standard epidural analgesia with parturient-controlled intravenous analgesia using remifentanil as well as personal satisfaction. We enrolled twelve ASA I classified women with singleton pregnancy who delivered vaginally in the period 3/2010-5/2010 and who received rPCA (n=12) in standard analgesic protocol: 20 µg boluses using PCA pump with a lockout interval of 3 min. The control group consisted of 12 pregnant women who received EA (n=12): 0.125% bupivacaine with sufentanil 0.5 µg/mL in top-up boluses every hour until delivery. Data were acquired from standard Acute Pain Service (APS) form and patient medical records (demographic, labour course parameters), Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), Bromage Scale (BS) and adverse effects of analgesia. There were no demographic or labour course parameter differences between groups (P>0.05). The differences in VAS decrease (P=0.056) and parturient satisfaction (P=0.24) during the whole analgesia administration were statistically insignificant. The main limitation of the study was small sample and enrolment of healthy singleton pregnant women only. Remifentanil use in obstetric analgesia is a viable alternative to EA, especially in cases of EA contraindications and parturient disapproval.

  15. Posterior paramedian subrhomboidal analgesia versus thoracic epidural analgesia for pain control in patients with multiple rib fractures.

    PubMed

    Shelley, Casey L; Berry, Stepheny; Howard, James; De Ruyter, Martin; Thepthepha, Melissa; Nazir, Niaman; McDonald, Tracy; Dalton, Annemarie; Moncure, Michael

    2016-09-01

    Rib fractures are common in trauma admissions and are associated with an increased risk of pulmonary complications, intensive care unit admissions, and mortality. Providing adequate pain control in patients with multiple rib fractures decreases the risk of adverse events. Thoracic epidural analgesia is currently the preferred method for pain control. This study compared outcomes in patients with multiple acute rib fractures treated with posterior paramedian subrhomboidal (PoPS) analgesia versus thoracic epidural analgesia (TEA). This prospective study included 30 patients with three or more acute rib fractures admitted to a Level I trauma center. Thoracic epidural analgesia or PoPS catheters were placed, and local anesthesia was infused. Data were collected including patients' pain level, adjunct morphine equivalent use, adverse events, length of stay, lung volumes, and discharge disposition. Nonparametric tests were used and two-sided p < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Nineteen (63%) of 30 patients received TEA and 11 (37%) of 30 patients received PoPS. Pain rating was lower in the PoPS group (2.5 vs. 5; p = 0.03) after initial placement. Overall, there was no other statistically significant difference in pain control or use of oral morphine adjuncts between the groups. Hypotension occurred in eight patients, 75% with TEA and only 25% with PoPS. No difference was found in adverse events, length of stay, lung volumes, or discharge disposition. In patients with rib fractures, PoPS analgesia may provide pain control equivalent to TEA while being less invasive and more readily placed by a variety of hospital staff. This pilot study is limited by its small sample size, and therefore additional studies are needed to prove equivalence of PoPS compared to TEA. Therapeutic study, level IV.

  16. Outcome and complications of epidural analgesia in patients with chronic cancer pain.

    PubMed

    Smitt, P S; Tsafka, A; Teng-van de Zande, F; van der Holt, R; Elswijk-de Vries, I; Elfrink, E; van den Bent, M J; Vecht, C J

    1998-11-01

    Some cancer patients require invasive techniques for control of chronic cancer pain. Many patients have benefited from local administration of opioids and anesthetics through an epidural catheter. However, epidural abscess and meningitis are side effects of epidural catheters that have serious morbidity and mortality. In a retrospective study, the charts of all patients who received an epidural catheter for the management of chronic cancer pain in a 3-year period (1993-1996) were reviewed. Patients with nervous system infections were identified and pertinent clinical, radiologic (magnetic resonance imaging), and bacteriologic data were analyzed. Ninety-one patients received 137 epidural catheters for a total of 4326 catheter days. All but four patients had died at the time of the final analysis. The median survival after placement of the first epidural catheter was 38 days (range, 1 day--> 1000 days). Seventy-two patients received a percutaneous port whereas 19 patients were treated with an implanted subcutaneous port. Adequate pain relief was obtained in 76% of the 58 patients with nociceptive pain and in 73% of 33 patients with neuropathic pain. All neuropathic pain was associated with active tumor and could be classified as nociceptive nerve pain. Technical complications and superficial infections occurred in as many as 43% of patients. Deep infections occurred in 12 patients, 11 of whom had a spinal epidural abscess. Deep infection is a frequent complication of epidural analgesia and is associated with a high morbidity and mortality. Only cancer patients with a short life expectancy (< or =3 months) should be treated with epidural analgesia.

  17. Effect of epidural analgesia on change in Mallampati class during labour.

    PubMed

    Guru, R; Carere, M D; Diwan, S; Morau, E L; Saunders, J; Shorten, G D

    2013-07-01

    Mallampati class has been shown to increase during labour. Epidural analgesia might influence this change. The aim of our study was to compare the change in Mallampati class during labour in parturients who did and did not receive epidural analgesia and study the association of these changes with pre-defined clinical characteristics. We performed a prospective observational study of 190 parturients. Using standard methodology, photographs of the upper airway were taken with a digital camera during early labour and within 90 min of delivery. Two to three consultant anaesthetists, blinded to the origin of the photographs, evaluated the images obtained and assigned a Mallampati class to each. Overall, Mallampati class increased in 61 (32.1%), decreased in 18 (9.5%) and did not change in 111 (58.4%) parturients (p<0.001). The proportions of parturients in the epidural and non-epidural groups who demonstrated an increase, decrease and no change in Mallampati class were similar. Of the relationships between change in Mallampati class and the other factors studied, only the total dose of epidural levobupivacaine during labour demonstrated a weak positive correlation 0.17 (p=0.039) with Mallampati class. This study confirms that labour is associated with an increase in the Mallampati class in approximately one third of parturients. Our findings indicate that having an epidural does not influence the likelihood of a change in Mallampati class during labour. Anaesthesia © 2013 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  18. Effects of epidural lidocaine analgesia on labor and delivery: A randomized, prospective, controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Nafisi, Shahram

    2006-01-01

    Background Whether epidural analgesia for labor prolongs the active-first and second labor stages and increases the risk of vacuum-assisted delivery is a controversial topic. Our study was conducted to answer the question: does lumbar epidural analgesia with lidocaine affect the progress of labor in our obstetric population? Method 395 healthy, nulliparous women, at term, presented in spontaneous labor with a singleton vertex presentation. These patients were randomized to receive analgesia either, epidural with bolus doses of 1% lidocaine or intravenous, with meperidine 25 to 50 mg when their cervix was dilated to 4 centimeters. The duration of the active-first and second stages of labor and the neonatal apgar scores were recorded, in each patient. The total number of vacuum-assisted and cesarean deliveries were also measured. Results 197 women were randomized to the epidural group. 198 women were randomized to the single-dose intravenous meperidine group. There was no statistical difference in rates of vacuum-assisted delivery rate. Cesarean deliveries, as a consequence of fetal bradycardia or dystocia, did not differ significantly between the groups. Differences in the duration of the active-first and the second stages of labor were not statistically significant. The number of newborns with 1-min and 5-min Apgar scores less than 7, did not differ significantly between both analgesia groups. Conclusion Epidural analgesia with 1% lidocaine does not prolong the active-first and second stages of labor and does not increase vacuum-assisted or cesarean delivery rate. PMID:17176461

  19. Epidural versus intra-articular infusion analgesia following total knee replacement.

    PubMed

    Kasture, Sarang; Saraf, Hrushikesh

    2015-12-01

    To compare the efficacy of epidural versus intra-articular infusion analgesia following total knee replacement (TKR). 25 men and 50 women aged 55 to 75 (mean, 67) years who underwent primary TKR by a single surgeon were randomised and consented to receive either epidural (n=35) or intra-articular (n=40) infusion analgesia for 48 hours at 5 ml/ hr. All patients also received intravenous aqueous diclofenac 50 mg twice a day. Patients were assessed 6 hourly for visual analogue score (VAS) for pain to determine the analgesic effect. Complications such as paraesthesia in the lower limbs, hypotension, urinary retention, and abdominal distension were recorded, as was the rehabilitation progress with respect to the time to stand, climb stairs, use of commode chair, and discharge. The epidural and intra-articular infusion groups were comparable with respect to age, sex, weight, and operating time, as was the analgesic efficacy within 48 hours of TKR. Patients with epidural infusion analgesia had a higher complication rate in terms of hypotension (51.4% vs. 22.5%, p=0.015) and troublesome paraesthesia in the lower limbs (45.7% vs. 12.5%, p=0.028), and a trend of higher abdominal distension rate (20% vs. 5%, p=0.073). Patients with intra-articular infusion analgesia were able to stand/ walk earlier (2.08 vs. 2.54 days, p<0.001). The 2 groups did not differ significantly in the time needed to climb stairs, use of commode chair, and discharge. The efficacy of epidural and intraarticular infusion analgesia was comparable. Intra-articular infusion was associated with fewer complications and earlier rehabilitation.

  20. A prospective cohort study of intrathecal versus epidural analgesia for patients undergoing hepatic resection

    PubMed Central

    Kasivisvanathan, Ramanathan; Abbassi-Ghadi, Nima; Prout, Jeremy; Clevenger, Ben; Fusai, Giuseppe K; Mallett, Susan V

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this prospective observational study was to compare peri/post-operative outcomes of thoracic epidural analgesia (TEA) versus intrathecal morphine and fentanyl patient-controlled analgesia (ITM+fPCA) for patients undergoing a hepatic resection (HR). Method Patients undergoing elective, one-stage, open HR for benign and malignant liver lesions, receiving central neuraxial block as part of the anaesthetic, in a high-volume hepato-pancreato-biliary unit, were included in the study. The primary outcome measure was post-operative length of stay (LoS). Results A total of 73 patients (36 TEA and 37 ITM+fPCA) were included in the study. The median (IQR) post-operative LoS was 13 (11–15) and 11 (9–13) days in the TEA and ITM+fPCA groups, respectively (P = 0.011). There was significantly lower median intra-operative central venous pressure (P < 0.001) and blood loss (P = 0.017) in the TEA group, and a significant reduction in the time until mobilization (P < 0.001), post-operative intra-venous fluid/vasopressor requirement (P < 0.001/P = 0.004) in the ITM+fPCA group. Pain scores were lower at a clinically significant level 12 h post-operatively in the TEA group (P < 0.001); otherwise there were no differences out to day five. There were no differences in quality of recovery or postoperative morbidity/mortality between the two groups. Conclusion ITM+fPCA provides acceptable post-operative outcomes for HR, but may also increase the incidence of intra-operative blood loss in comparison to TEA. PMID:24467320

  1. Informed consent for epidural analgesia in labour: a survey of Irish practice.

    PubMed

    Hegarty, A; Omer, W; Harmon, D

    2014-06-01

    Currently, we do not have a national standard regarding epidural consent in Ireland. The aim of this survey was to assess practice in obstetric units in Ireland with regard to obtaining informed consent prior to epidural insertion, and whether the risks discussed with women are being documented. A postal survey of anaesthetists in Irish obstetric units was performed in January 2012 to assess practice regarding obtaining informed consent prior to epidural insertion, and documentation of the risks discussed. The response rate was 16/18 (88%). There was major variation both in which risks are discussed with women in labour and what risks are quoted. The most frequently quoted risks were headache--15/16 (93.8% of the respondents), partially/not working epidural--15/16 (93.8%), drop in blood pressure--14/16 (87.5%) and temporary backache/local tenderness--12/16 (75%). The more serious risks were not discussed as frequently: permanent nerve damage--8/16 (50%), paralysis--8/16 (50%), epidural abscess/haematoma--6/16 (37.5%), meningitis--3/16 (18.7%). The vast majority of respondents supported introduction of a national standardised information leaflet, detailing all the benefits and risks of epidural analgesia, to be shown to all women before consenting to epidural insertion.

  2. [Obstetric analgesia using continuous epidural perfusion of bupivacaine, adrenaline, and fentanyl].

    PubMed

    Vilanova, F; Santacana, E; García, V; Villar-Landeira, J M

    1994-01-01

    To determine the efficacy and complications of continuous epidural perfusion of bupivacaine, adrenaline and fentanyl in the relief of pain during first and second stage labour during vaginal birth. Between January 1990 and March 1993 we used continuous epidural perfusion for control of pain during labor in 1307 women. The solution administered through an epidural catheter and maintained until expulsion was one 10 ml bolus of bupivacaine 0.25% with adrenaline 1:200,000 and fentanyl 25 micrograms followed by continuous perfusion of bupivacaine 0.0625% with adrenaline 1:200,000 and fentanyl 2 micrograms/ml at an infusion rate of 12 ml/h. When analgesia was insufficient, a bolus of local anesthetic was administered or a pudendal block was carried out. Ninety-two percent of the birthing women reported good analgesic effect during the first stage; for 7% the effect was fair and for 0.55% it was poor. During the second stage 88% reported satisfactory analgesia, and 8% fair or poor. Assessment was not possible for the remaining women, who underwent cesarean sections. Complications were few and easily controllable. Maintenance of epidural perfusion with 0.0625% bupivacaine with adrenaline 1:200,000 and fentanyl 2 micrograms/ml provides sufficient analgesia during all stages of childbirth.

  3. Programmed intermittent epidural bolus versus continuous epidural infusion for labor analgesia: the effects on maternal motor function and labor outcome. A randomized double-blind study in nulliparous women.

    PubMed

    Capogna, Giorgio; Camorcia, Michela; Stirparo, Silvia; Farcomeni, Alessio

    2011-10-01

    Programmed intermittent epidural anesthetic bolus (PIEB) technique may result in reduced total local anesthetic consumption, fewer manual boluses, and greater patient satisfaction compared with continuous epidural infusion (CEI). In this randomized, double-blind study, we compared the incidence of motor block and labor outcome in women who received PIEB or CEI for maintenance of labor analgesia. The primary outcome variable was maternal motor function and the secondary outcome was mode of delivery. Nulliparous, term women with spontaneous labor and cervical dilation <4 cm were eligible to participate in the study. Epidural analgesia was initiated and maintained with a solution of levobupivacaine 0.0625% with sufentanil 0.5 μg/mL. After an initial epidural loading dose of 20 mL, patients were randomly assigned to receive PIEB (10 mL every hour beginning 60 minutes after the initial dose) or CEI (10 mL/h, beginning immediately after the initial dose) for the maintenance of analgesia. Patient-controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA) using a second infusion pump with levobupivacaine 0.125% was used to treat breakthrough pain. The degree of motor block was assessed in both lower extremities using the modified Bromage score at regular intervals throughout labor; the end point was any motor block in either limb. We also evaluated PCEA bolus doses and total analgesic solution consumption. We studied 145 subjects (PIEB = 75; CEI = 70). Motor block was reported in 37% in the CEI group and in 2.7% in the PIEB group (P < 0.001; odds ratio = 21.2; 95% CI: 4.9-129.3); it occurred earlier (P = 0.008) (hazard ratio = 7.8; 95% CI: 1.9-30.8; P = 0.003) and was more frequent at full cervical dilation in the CEI group (P < 0.001). The incidence of instrumental delivery was 20% for the CEI group and 7% for the PIEB group (P = 0.03). Total levobupivacaine consumption, number of patients requiring additional PCEA boluses, and mean number of PCEA boluses per patient were lower in the PIEB

  4. Effect of early versus conventional epidural analgesia during labor on cytokine production.

    PubMed

    Orbach-Zinger, Sharon; Bessler, Hanna; Arnovetzky, Rosana; Levin, Yivgenia; Sulkes, Jaqueline; Bardin, Ron; Peleg, Dan; Eidelman, Leonid

    2012-03-01

    To compare the effect of early epidural analgesia (EEA) vs. conventional epidural analgesia (CEA) on cytokine production in mother and neonate. Healthy parturients with uncomplicated term pregnancies were randomized into two groups: EEA - parturients who would receive epidural analgesia before onset of pain and the control group, CEA - parturients who would receive epidural analgesia after onset of pain. Cytokines were measured in maternal blood at randomization Visual Analog Scale (VAS) < 30], 24 h postpartum, and in cord blood. Forty-one women were studied. Epidural was performed in EEA when VAS was 23 ± 10 and in CEA when VAS was77 ± 10 (p < 0.0001). Background data were similar except for ruptured membranes at admission (EEA 15%, CEA 46.6%; p = 0.03), transient hypotension (EEA 20%, CEA 0%; p = 0.03), and meconium (EEA 25%, CEA 0%; p = 0.01). No significant differences were found in cytokine levels between groups at any time. Interleukin (IL)-6 levels changed significantly only in the control group (p = 0.046). There was significant correlation between baseline maternal IL-6 level and cord blood level in CEA (r = 0.59, p = 0.005), while no significant correlation existed in EEA (r = 0.33, p = 0.16). Although there was no significant difference in cytokine levels between the groups, EEA prevented the significant increase in IL-6 during labor and interrupted IL-6 fetal-maternal dependency.

  5. Epidural Labor Analgesia-Fentanyl Dose and Breastfeeding Success: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Lee, Amy I; McCarthy, Robert J; Toledo, Paloma; Jones, Mary Jane; White, Nancy; Wong, Cynthia A

    2017-10-01

    Breastfeeding is an important public health concern. High cumulative doses of epidural fentanyl administered for labor analgesia have been reported to be associated with early termination of breastfeeding. We tested the hypothesis that breastfeeding success is adversely influenced by the cumulative epidural fentanyl dose administered for labor analgesia. The study was a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial of parous women at greater than 38 weeks gestation who planned to breastfeed, had successfully breastfed a prior infant, and who received neuraxial labor analgesia. Participants were randomized to receive one of three epidural maintenance solutions for labor analgesia (bupivacaine 1 mg/ml, bupivacaine 0.8 mg/ml with fentanyl 1 μg/ml, or bupivacaine 0.625 mg/ml with fentanyl 2 μg/ml). The primary outcome was the proportion of women breastfeeding at 6 weeks postpartum. Maternal and umbilical venous blood fentanyl and bupivacaine concentration at delivery were measured. A total of 345 women were randomized and 305 had complete data for analysis. The frequency of breastfeeding at 6 weeks was 97, 98, and 94% in the groups receiving epidural fentanyl 0, 1, and 2 μg/ml, respectively (P = 0.34). The cumulative fentanyl dose (difference: 37 μg [95% CI of the difference, -58 to 79 μg], P = 0.28) and maternal and umbilical cord venous fentanyl and bupivacaine concentrations did not differ between women who discontinued breastfeeding and those who were still breastfeeding at 6 weeks postpartum. Labor epidural solutions containing fentanyl concentrations as high as 2 μg/ml do not appear to influence breastfeeding rates at 6 weeks postpartum.

  6. A romifidine and morphine combination for epidural analgesia of the flank in cattle

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Abstract The objective of the study reported here was to determine the onset, duration, and degree of analgesia achieved with a combination of romifidine (50 μg/kg body weight [BW]) and morphine (0.1 mg/kg BW) administered epidurally. Ten adult Holstein Friesen cows were assigned to either a treatment group receiving the romifidine and morphine combination or a control group receiving 0.9% saline in a randomized, blinded, crossover design. Cows were assessed for degree of flank analgesia and systemic sedation at various time intervals over a period of 24 hours. The romifidine and morphine combination, compared with saline, provided significant analgesia for at least 10 minutes (P = 0.016) and up to 12 hours (P = 0.004) after epidural administration. Treated cows were sedate between 10 minutes (P = 0.016) and 6 hours (P = 0.002) after epidural administration. These results provide evidence for a potential cost-effective intra- and postoperative method of analgesia; however, the sedation seen in this study could be detrimental to patients expected return to the farm shortly after surgery. Further research into withdrawal times, systemic effects, and potential adverse effects are needed before an opiod and α2-adrenergic agonist combination can be used safely in a clinical setting PMID:15600157

  7. A romifidine and morphine combination for epidural analgesia of the flank in cattle.

    PubMed

    Fierheller, Erin E; Caulkett, Nigel A; Bailey, Jeremy V

    2004-11-01

    The objective of the study reported here was to determine the onset, duration, and degree of analgesia achieved with a combination of romifidine (50 microg/kg body weight [BW]) and morphine (0.1 mg/kg BW) administered epidurally. Ten adult Holstein Friesen cows were assigned to either a treatment group receiving the romifidine and morphine combination or a control group receiving 0.9% saline in a randomized, blinded, crossover design. Cows were assessed for degree of flank analgesia and systemic sedation at various time intervals over a period of 24 hours. The romifidine and morphine combination, compared with saline, provided significant analgesia for at least 10 minutes (P = 0.016) and up to 12 hours (P = 0.004) after epidural administration. Treated cows were sedate between 10 minutes (P = 0.016) and 6 hours (P = 0.002) after epidural administration. These results provide evidence for a potential cost-effective intra- and postoperative method of analgesia; however, the sedation seen in this study could be detrimental to patients expected return to the farm shortly after surgery. Further research into withdrawal times, systemic effects, and potential adverse effects are needed before an opiod and alpha2-adrenergic agonist combination can be used safely in a clinical setting.

  8. Continuous Cervical Epidural Analgesia in Metastatic Spinal Cord Compression

    PubMed Central

    Menon, Mahesh; Taha, Nafisa; Purohit, Navita; Kothari, Vatsal; Singh, Shweta

    2016-01-01

    Metastatic spinal cord compression is a devastating complication of cancer. Patients may often require high doses of opioids that may cause side effects, myoclonus being one such. A 63-year-old male suffering from malignant spinal cord compression was admitted to our institution. The primary team managed him conservatively with pharmacotherapy with no relief of pain, and he experienced myoclonus and sedation as adverse effects. A continuous cervical epidural catheter with local anesthetic infusion was inserted for 5 days to control his pain. This relieved his pain, which was sustained even after we removed the epidural catheter on day 5, for up to 64 days until the time of his death. Continuous cervical epidural local anesthetic infusions may help with refractory pain by deafferentation of noxious stimuli. Central neuraxial blocks may be a valuable rescue in selected patients. PMID:27803576

  9. Effect of naloxone on intravenous fentanyl patient-controlled analgesia after laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jun; Han, Wen; Han, Xiao-Dong; Ma, Xiao-Yuan; Zhang, Pengbo

    2016-11-01

    This study aims to evaluate the effect of naloxone on intravenous fentanyl patient-controlled analgesia after laparoscopic cholecystectomy under total intravenous anesthesia.A total of 90 patients, who underwent intravenous fentanyl patient-controlled analgesia after laparoscopic cholecystectomy under total intravenous anesthesia, were included into this study. All patients were randomly divided into 3 groups (each group, n=30): naloxone group (naloxone+fentanyl), tropisetron group (tropisetron+fentanyl), and fentanyl group (fentanyl). Patients in each group were given a corresponding dose of naloxone. Postoperative analgesia effect and the incidence of side effects such as nausea and vomiting were observed.Small doses of naloxone or tropisetron combined with fentanyl used for intravenous patient-controlled analgesia can significantly reduce the incidence of nausea and vomiting. Six hours after surgery, visual analogue scale (VAS) scores were significantly lower in patients that underwent intravenous patient-controlled analgesia using low-dose naloxone combined with fentanyl compared with patients who received fentanyl alone; however, the postoperative analgesic effect of tropisetron was not observed. Compared with the combination of tropisetron and fentanyl, low-dose naloxone combined with fentanyl can obviously reduce the incidence of nausea and vomiting in patients who underwent intravenous patient-controlled analgesia after laparoscopic cholecystectomy, and enhance the analgesic effect of fentanyl 6 hours after surgery.Low-dose naloxone can reduce the incidence of nausea and vomiting in patients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy under total intravenous anesthesia, and exhibits a certain synergic analgesic effect.

  10. Effect of naloxone on intravenous fentanyl patient-controlled analgesia after laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Jun; Han, Wen; Han, Xiao-Dong; Ma, Xiao-Yuan; Zhang, Pengbo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This study aims to evaluate the effect of naloxone on intravenous fentanyl patient-controlled analgesia after laparoscopic cholecystectomy under total intravenous anesthesia. A total of 90 patients, who underwent intravenous fentanyl patient-controlled analgesia after laparoscopic cholecystectomy under total intravenous anesthesia, were included into this study. All patients were randomly divided into 3 groups (each group, n=30): naloxone group (naloxone+fentanyl), tropisetron group (tropisetron+fentanyl), and fentanyl group (fentanyl). Patients in each group were given a corresponding dose of naloxone. Postoperative analgesia effect and the incidence of side effects such as nausea and vomiting were observed. Small doses of naloxone or tropisetron combined with fentanyl used for intravenous patient-controlled analgesia can significantly reduce the incidence of nausea and vomiting. Six hours after surgery, visual analogue scale (VAS) scores were significantly lower in patients that underwent intravenous patient-controlled analgesia using low-dose naloxone combined with fentanyl compared with patients who received fentanyl alone; however, the postoperative analgesic effect of tropisetron was not observed. Compared with the combination of tropisetron and fentanyl, low-dose naloxone combined with fentanyl can obviously reduce the incidence of nausea and vomiting in patients who underwent intravenous patient-controlled analgesia after laparoscopic cholecystectomy, and enhance the analgesic effect of fentanyl 6 hours after surgery. Low-dose naloxone can reduce the incidence of nausea and vomiting in patients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy under total intravenous anesthesia, and exhibits a certain synergic analgesic effect. PMID:27902584

  11. Early versus late initiation of epidural analgesia in labor: does it increase the risk of cesarean section? A randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Ohel, Gonen; Gonen, Roni; Vaida, Sonia; Barak, Shlomi; Gaitini, Luis

    2006-03-01

    To determine whether early initiation of epidural analgesia in nulliparous women affects the rate of cesarean sections and other obstetric outcome measures. A randomized trial in which 449 at term nulliparous women in early labor, at less than 3 cm of cervical dilatation, were assigned to either immediate initiation of epidural analgesia at first request (221 women), or delay of epidural until the cervix dilated to at least 4 cm (228 women). At initiation of the epidural the mean cervical dilatation was 2.4 cm in the early epidural group and 4.6 cm in the late group (P < 0.0001). The rates of cesarean section were not significantly different between the groups--13% and 11% in the early and late groups, respectively (P = 0.77). The mean duration from randomization to full dilatation was significantly shorter in the early compared to the late epidural group--5.9 hours and 6.6 hours respectively (P = 0.04). When questioned after delivery regarding their next labor, the women indicated a preference for early epidural. Initiation of epidural analgesia in early labor, following the first request for epidural, did not result in increased cesarean deliveries, instrumental vaginal deliveries, and other adverse effects; furthermore, it was associated with shorter duration of the first stage of labor and was clearly preferred by the women.

  12. Quality of Labor Epidural Analgesia and Maternal Outcome With Levobupivacaine and Ropivacaine: A Double-Blinded Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, T. Senthil; Rani, P.; Hemanth Kumar, V. R.; Samal, Sunita; Parthasarathy, S.; Ravishankar, M.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Quality of labor analgesia plays a vital role in the maternal outcome. Very few literature are available analyzing the quality of epidural labor analgesia. Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of 0.1% levobupivacaine and 0.1% ropivacaine with fentanyl as an adjuvant for epidural labor analgesia in terms of onset, duration, quality of analgesia, and degree of motor blockade. Methodology: Sixty nulliparous parturients, with singleton uncomplicated pregnancy, were recruited by continuous sampling. Parturients were randomized to receive either levobupivacaine 0.1% or ropivacaine 0.1% with 2 μg/ml fentanyl as an intermittent epidural bolus. The epidural analgesia was initiated with 12 ml of study drug solution in the active stage of labor (cervix 3 cm dilated). Demand bolus was given whenever the visual analog scale (VAS) score >3. Onset, duration, and quality of analgesia and degree of motor blockade were analyzed. Maternal outcome was evaluated in terms of mode of delivery, duration of labor, and assisted vaginal delivery. Statistical Analysis: All the data were recorded in Microsoft Office Excel. Statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS version 19.0 (IBM SPSS, USA) software with Regression Modules installed. Descriptive analyses were reported as mean and standard deviation of continuous variables. Results: The mean onset of analgesia was shorter in ropivacaine (21.43 ± 2 min) than in levobupivacaine group (23.57 ± 1.71 min) (P = 0.000). Duration of analgesia was shorter in ropivacaine (60 ± 14 min) than levobupivacaine (68 ± 11 min) (P = 0.027). Levobupivacaine produced a better quality of analgesia in terms of not perceiving pain and uterine contraction during labor analgesia but was associated with 37% incidence of instrumental delivery. Duration of labor and rate of cesarean section were comparable between the groups. Conclusion: Quality of analgesia in labor epidural was superior to levobupivacaine but was associated

  13. Efficacy of the methoxyflurane as bridging analgesia during epidural placement in laboring parturient

    PubMed Central

    Anwari, Jamil S.; Khalil, Laith; Terkawi, Abdullah S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Establishing an epidural in an agitated laboring woman can be challenging. The ideal pain control technique in such a situation should be effective, fast acting, and short lived. We assessed the efficacy of inhalational methoxyflurane (Penthrox™) analgesia as bridging analgesia for epidural placement. Materials and Methods: Sixty-four laboring women who requested epidural analgesia with pain score of ≥7 enrolled in an observational study, 56 of which completed the study. The parturients were instructed to use the device prior to the onset of uterine contraction pain and to stop at the peak of uterine contraction, repeatedly until epidural has been successfully placed. After each (methoxyflurane inhalation-uterine contraction) cycle, pain, Richmond Agitation Sedation Scale (RASS), nausea and vomiting were evaluated. Maternal and fetal hemodynamics and parturient satisfaction were recorded. Results: The mean baseline pain score was 8.2 ± 1.5 which was reduced to 6.2 ± 2.0 after the first inhalation with a mean difference of 2.0 ± 1.1 (95% confidence interval 1.7-2.3, P < 0.0001), and continued to decrease significantly over the study period (P < 0.0001). The RASS scores continuously improved after each cycle (P < 0.0001). Only 1 parturient from the cohort became lightly sedated (RASS = −1). Two parturients vomited, and no significant changes in maternal hemodynamics or fetal heart rate changes were identified during treatment. 67% of the parturients reported very good or excellent satisfaction with treatment. Conclusion: Penthrox™ provides rapid, robust, and satisfactory therapy to control pain and restlessness during epidural placement in laboring parturient. PMID:26543451

  14. Epidural Analgesia with Ropivacaine during Labour in a Patient with a SCN5A Gene Mutation

    PubMed Central

    Duvekot, J. J.; Roos-Hesselink, J. W.; Gonzalez Candel, A.; van der Marel, C. D.; Adriaens, V. F. R.

    2016-01-01

    SCN5A gene mutations can lead to ion channel defects which can cause cardiac conduction disturbances. In the presence of specific ECG characteristics, this mutation is called Brugada syndrome. Many drugs are associated with adverse events, making anesthesia in patients with SCN5A gene mutations or Brugada syndrome challenging. In this case report, we describe a pregnant patient with this mutation who received epidural analgesia using low dose ropivacaine and sufentanil during labour. PMID:27668095

  15. [The characteristics of epidural analgesia during the removal of lumbar intervertebral disk hernias].

    PubMed

    Arestov, O G; Solenkova, A V; Lubnin, A Iu; Shevelev, I N; Konovalov, N A

    2000-01-01

    Epidural analgesia (EA) was used in 29 patients undergoing surgical removal of lumbar discal hernia. Marcain EA with controlled medicinal sleep and non-assisted breathing allowed to perform the whole operation in 27 patients. EA may be ineffective in combination of sequestrated disk hernia with scarry adhesive process. The technique of the operation demands a single use of the anesthetic drug which is potent enough to make blockade throughout the operation up to the end.

  16. Informed consent for epidural analgesia in labour: a survey of UK practice.

    PubMed

    Middle, J V; Wee, M Y K

    2009-02-01

    Anaesthetists are legally obliged to obtain informed consent before performing regional analgesia in labour. A postal survey of consultant-led UK anaesthetic units was performed in September 2007 to assess practice regarding obtaining informed consent before inserting an epidural, and documentation of the risks discussed. The response rate was 72% (161/223). There was great variation between units regarding which risks women were informed about and the likely incidence of that risk. One hundred and twenty-three respondents out of 157 providing an epidural service (78%) supported a national standardised information card endorsed by the Obstetric Anaesthetists' Association, with all the benefits and risks stated, to be shown to all women before consenting to an epidural in labour.

  17. A comprehensive analysis of continuous epidural analgesia's effect on labor and neonates in maternal hypertensive disorder patients.

    PubMed

    Han, Bin; Xu, Mingjun

    2017-01-01

    Maternal hypertensive disorder is one of the most common and severe medical complications during pregnancy. Epidural analgesia administration is widely used during labor process. To evaluate the potential advantage or disadvantage of continuous epidural analgesia's on labor and neonates for maternal hypertensive disorder patients comprehensively. We have retrospectively analyzed 232 patients who diagnosed as maternal hypertensive disorder in our hospital since 2015. Among which, 126 patients including 28 cases of severe preeclampsia were administrated with continuous epidural analgesia (Analgesia group), the other 106 patients were untreated (Control group). We have compared the maternal age, body weight, gestational weeks, period for the first and second labor stage; the incidence of eclampsia, natural labor, cesarean section, forceps delivery and postpartum hemorrhage between these two groups respectively; furthermore, we recorded patients who received oxytocin and antihypertensive treatment during the delivery progress as well as evaluated the neonate body weight, Apgar score and performed umbilical cord blood gas analysis. Continuous epidural analgesia does not affect the first and second labor stage period (p=0.36), However, there is a significantly higher demand for oxytocin treatment (36.5% Vs 19.8%, p<0.01) and a significantly lower requirement for antihypertensive treatment (22.2% Vs 81.1%, p<0.001) in analgesia group compared to control group. We also notice that the natural delivery ratio in analgesia group is higher than control group and most importantly, continuous epidural analgesia can increase 1min Apgar score and has no other effect on neonates' body weight, umbilical cord blood gas parameters, 5min and 10min Apgar score. Our result based on a large cohort comprehensive analysis indicates that continuous epidural analgesia can benefit both maternal hypertensive disorder patients and neonates without any side effect. Copyright © 2016 International

  18. A randomized, double-masked, multicenter comparison of the safety of continuous intrathecal labor analgesia using a 28-gauge catheter versus continuous epidural labor analgesia.

    PubMed

    Arkoosh, Valerie A; Palmer, Craig M; Yun, Esther M; Sharma, Shiv K; Bates, James N; Wissler, Richard N; Buxbaum, Jodie L; Nogami, Wallace M; Gracely, Edward J

    2008-02-01

    Continuous intrathecal labor analgesia produces rapid analgesia or anesthesia and allows substantial flexibility in medication choice. The US Food and Drug Administration, in 1992, removed intrathecal microcatheters (27-32 gauge) from clinical use after reports of neurologic injury in nonobstetric patients. This study examined the safety and efficacy of a 28-gauge intrathecal catheter for labor analgesia in a prospective, randomized, multicenter trial. Laboring patients were randomly assigned to continuous intrathecal analgesia with a 28-gauge catheter (n = 329) or continuous epidural analgesia with a 20-gauge catheter (n = 100), using bupivacaine and sufentanil. The primary outcome was the incidence of neurologic complications, as determined by masked neurologic examinations at 24 and 48 h postpartum, plus telephone follow-up at 7-10 and 30 days after delivery. The secondary outcomes included adequacy of labor analgesia, maternal satisfaction, and neonatal status. No patient had a permanent neurologic change. The continuous intrathecal analgesia patients had better early analgesia, less motor blockade, more pruritus, and higher maternal satisfaction with pain relief at 24 h postpartum. The intrathecal catheter was significantly more difficult to remove. There were no significant differences between the two groups in neonatal status, post-dural puncture headache, hemodynamic stability, or obstetric outcomes. Providing intrathecal labor analgesia with sufentanil and bupivacaine via a 28-gauge catheter has an incidence of neurologic complication less than 1%, and produces better initial pain relief and higher maternal satisfaction, but is associated with more technical difficulties and catheter failures compared with epidural analgesia.

  19. Meralgia paresthetica-like symptoms following epidural analgesia after total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Shin, H J; Kim, Y H; Lee, H W

    2014-11-01

    Meralgia paresthetica (MP) is generally caused by entrapment of the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve (LFCN), and presents with pain and paresthesia in the anterolateral thigh. This paper describes a patient who had MP-like symptoms as a result of continuous epidural analgesia after total knee arthroplasty. The patient with pre-existing left foraminal stenosis at L3-L4 and disc herniations at L4-5 did not complain of paresthesia or pain during the combined spinal-epidural anesthetic procedure. However, during epidural analgesia on the second post-operative day, he complained of paresthesia and pain in the anterolateral thigh of the contralateral leg. Electromyography showed a neurogenic lesion at the level of L3. Although an ultrasound-guided diagnostic block of the LFCN was performed twice post-operatively, the patient's symptoms persisted. The symptoms gradually resolved 12 months after the surgery. In our case, we suggest that the continuous epidural infusate caused neural ischemia of the L3 nerve root by a compressive effect. © 2014 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Comparison of efficacy of bupivacaine and fentanyl with bupivacaine and sufentanil for epidural labor analgesia

    PubMed Central

    Kalra, Sumit; Saraswat, Namita; Agnihotri, G. S.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: A study to compare the efficacy between fentanyl and sufentanil combined with low concentration (0.0625%) of bupivacaine for epidural labor analgesia in laboring women Materials and Methods: Fifty full term parturients received an initial bolus dose of a 10 ml solution containing 0.125% bupivacaine. The patients were randomly divided into two: group F received 0.0625% bupivacaine with 2.5 mcg/ml fentanyl and group S received 0.0625% bupivacaine with 0.25 mcg/ml sufentanil. Verbal analogue pain scores, need of supplementary/rescue boluses dose of bupivacaine consumed, mode of delivery, maternal satisfaction, and neonatal Apgar scores were recorded. No significant difference was observed between both groups. Results: Both the groups provided equivalent labor analgesia and maternal satisfaction. The chances of cesarean delivery were also not increased in any group. No difference in the cephalad extent of sensory analgesia, motor block or neonatal Apgar score were observed. Although mean pain scores throughout the labor and delivery were similar in both groups, more patients in fentanyl group required supplementary boluses though not statistically significant. Conclusion: We conclude that both 0.0625% bupivacaine-fentanyl (2.5 μg/ml) and 0.0625% bupivacaine-sufentanil (0.25 μg/ml) were equally effective by continuous epidural infusion in providing labor analgesia with hemodynamic stability achieving equivalent maternal satisfaction without serious maternal or fetal side effects. We found that sufentanil was 10 times more potent than fentanyl as an analgesic for continuous epidural labor analgesia. PMID:21189856

  1. Postoperative analgesia in children: A comparison of three different doses of caudal epidural morphine

    PubMed Central

    Baduni, Neha; Sanwal, Manoj Kumar; Vajifdar, Homay; Agarwala, Radhika

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Caudal epidural block is the most commonly used neuraxial block in children. Morphine has been used as a caudal additive for more than three decades. The aim of our study was to evaluate the efficacy and duration of analgesia of three different doses of caudal epidural morphine (CEM), and to find out the incidence of side effects. Material and Methods: This study was conducted on 75 patients of American Society of Anesthesiologists grades I and II, aged 2-12 years, undergoing lower abdominal and urogenital surgeries. Patients were randomly allocated to one of the three groups according to the dose of morphine. Group I received 30 μg/kg, group II 50 μg/kg, and group III 70 μg/kg. Heart rate, blood pressure, oxygen saturation, electrocardiogram, pain score, sedation score, duration of analgesia, and side-effects were noted. Results: The mean duration of analgesia was 8.63 h in group I, 13.36 h in group II and 19.19 h in group III. Respiratory depression was noted in three patients in group III. One patient in group I had itching. One patient each in groups I, II, and III had nausea/vomiting. Conclusion: CEM significantly prolongs the duration of analgesia, though with a higher dose the risk of respiratory depression should always be kept in mind. PMID:27275053

  2. Neuraxial block and postoperative epidural analgesia: effects on outcomes in the POISE-2 trial†

    PubMed Central

    Leslie, K.; McIlroy, D.; Kasza, J.; Forbes, A.; Kurz, A.; Khan, J.; Meyhoff, C. S.; Allard, R.; Landoni, G.; Jara, X.; Lurati Buse, G.; Candiotti, K.; Lee, H-S.; Gupta, R.; VanHelder, T.; Purayil, W.; De Hert, S.; Treschan, T.; Devereaux, P. J.

    2016-01-01

    Background. We assessed associations between intraoperative neuraxial block and postoperative epidural analgesia, and a composite primary outcome of death or non-fatal myocardial infarction, at 30 days post-randomization in POISE-2 Trial subjects. Methods. 10 010 high-risk noncardiac surgical patients were randomized aspirin or placebo and clonidine or placebo. Neuraxial block was defined as intraoperative spinal anaesthesia, or thoracic or lumbar epidural anaesthesia. Postoperative epidural analgesia was defined as postoperative epidural local anaesthetic and/or opioid administration. We used logistic regression with weighting using estimated propensity scores. Results. Neuraxial block was not associated with the primary outcome [7.5% vs 6.5%; odds ratio (OR), 0.89; 95% CI (confidence interval), 0.73–1.08; P=0.24], death (1.0% vs 1.4%; OR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.53–1.35; P=0.48), myocardial infarction (6.9% vs 5.5%; OR, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.74–1.12; P=0.36) or stroke (0.3% vs 0.4%; OR, 1.05; 95% CI, 0.44–2.49; P=0.91). Neuraxial block was associated with less clinically important hypotension (39% vs 46%; OR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.81–1.00; P=0.04). Postoperative epidural analgesia was not associated with the primary outcome (11.8% vs 6.2%; OR, 1.48; 95% CI, 0.89–2.48; P=0.13), death (1.3% vs 0.8%; OR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.35–1.99; P=0.68], myocardial infarction (11.0% vs 5.7%; OR, 1.53; 95% CI, 0.90–2.61; P=0.11], stroke (0.4% vs 0.4%; OR, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.18–2.32; P=0.50] or clinically important hypotension (63% vs 36%; OR, 1.40; 95% CI, 0.95–2.09; P=0.09). Conclusions. Neuraxial block and postoperative epidural analgesia were not associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes among POISE-2 subjects. PMID:26209855

  3. Comparison Between the Use of Ropivacaine Alone and Ropivacaine With Sufentanil in Epidural Labor Analgesia

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xian; Xu, Shiqin; Qin, Xiang; Li, Xiaohong; Feng, Shan-Wu; Liu, Yusheng; Wang, Wei; Guo, Xirong; Shen, Rong; Shen, Xiaofeng; Wang, Fuzhou

    2015-01-01

    Abstract To compare the analgesic efficacy and safety of the sole local anesthetic ropivacaine with the combination of both local anesthetic ropivacaine and opioidergic analgesic sufentanil given epidurally on the labor pain control. After institutional review board approval and patient consent, a total of 500 nulliparas requesting epidural labor analgesia were enrolled and 481 eventually were randomized into 2 groups: a sole local anesthetic group (ropivacaine 0.125%) and a combination of local anesthetic and opioidergic analgesic group (0.125% ropivacaine + 0.3 μg/mL sufentanil). After the test dose, a 10-mL epidural analgesic solution was given in a single bolus, followed by intermittent bolus injection of 10 to 15 mL of the solution. The primary outcome was the analgesic efficacy measured using Numerical Rating Scale (NRS) of pain. Other maternal and infant variables were evaluated as secondary outcomes. A total of 346 participants completed the study. The median NRS pain score during the 1st stage of labor was significantly lower in the combination group 2.2 (interquartile range [IQR]: 1.8–2.7) comparing to the sole local analgesic group 2.4 (IQR: 2.0–2.8) (P < 0.0001). No significant difference was observed in NRS pain score prior epidural analgesia and during the 2nd stage of labor. Patients in both groups rated same satisfaction of analgesia. Patients in the sole local analgesic group experienced fewer side effects than those in the combination group (37.7% vs 47.2%, P = 0.082). The individual analgesia-related cost in the sole local analgesic group was less ($5.7 ± 2.06) than that in the combination group ($9.76 ± 3.54) (P < 0.0001). The incidence of 1-minute Apgar ≤ 7 was lower in the sole local analgesic group 2 (1.2%) than the combination group 10 (5.5%) (P = 0.038). No difference was found between other secondary outcomes. The sole local anesthetic ropivacaine produces a comparable labor analgesic effect as the

  4. Comparison Between the Use of Ropivacaine Alone and Ropivacaine With Sufentanil in Epidural Labor Analgesia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xian; Xu, Shiqin; Qin, Xiang; Li, Xiaohong; Feng, Shan-Wu; Liu, Yusheng; Wang, Wei; Guo, Xirong; Shen, Rong; Shen, Xiaofeng; Wang, Fuzhou

    2015-10-01

    To compare the analgesic efficacy and safety of the sole local anesthetic ropivacaine with the combination of both local anesthetic ropivacaine and opioidergic analgesic sufentanil given epidurally on the labor pain control.After institutional review board approval and patient consent, a total of 500 nulliparas requesting epidural labor analgesia were enrolled and 481 eventually were randomized into 2 groups: a sole local anesthetic group (ropivacaine 0.125%) and a combination of local anesthetic and opioidergic analgesic group (0.125% ropivacaine + 0.3 μg/mL sufentanil). After the test dose, a 10-mL epidural analgesic solution was given in a single bolus, followed by intermittent bolus injection of 10 to 15 mL of the solution. The primary outcome was the analgesic efficacy measured using Numerical Rating Scale (NRS) of pain. Other maternal and infant variables were evaluated as secondary outcomes.A total of 346 participants completed the study. The median NRS pain score during the 1st stage of labor was significantly lower in the combination group 2.2 (interquartile range [IQR]: 1.8-2.7) comparing to the sole local analgesic group 2.4 (IQR: 2.0-2.8) (P < 0.0001). No significant difference was observed in NRS pain score prior epidural analgesia and during the 2nd stage of labor. Patients in both groups rated same satisfaction of analgesia. Patients in the sole local analgesic group experienced fewer side effects than those in the combination group (37.7% vs 47.2%, P = 0.082). The individual analgesia-related cost in the sole local analgesic group was less ($5.7 ± 2.06) than that in the combination group ($9.76 ± 3.54) (P < 0.0001). The incidence of 1-minute Apgar ≤ 7 was lower in the sole local analgesic group 2 (1.2%) than the combination group 10 (5.5%) (P = 0.038). No difference was found between other secondary outcomes.The sole local anesthetic ropivacaine produces a comparable labor analgesic effect as the combination of

  5. Epidural administration of liposome-encapsulated hydromorphone provides extended analgesia in a rodent model of stifle arthritis.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Jennifer R; Krugner-Higby, Lisa; Heath, Timothy D; Sullivan, Ruth; Smith, Lesley J

    2011-07-01

    Liposome encapsulation of opioids by using an ammonium-sulfate-gradient loading technique significantly slows the release time of the drug. This study evaluated the duration of analgesia in a rodent model of monoarthritis after epidural administration of liposome-encapsulated hydromorphone (LE-hydromorphone; prepared by ammonium-sulfate-gradient loading) compared with standard hydromorphone and a negative control of blank liposomes. Analgesia was assessed by changes in thermal withdrawal latency, relative weight-bearing, and subjective behavioral scoring. Analgesia in arthritic rats was short-lived after epidural hydromorphone; increases in pain threshold were observed only at 2 h after administration. In contrast, thermal pain thresholds after epidural LE-hydromorphone were increased for as long as 72 h, and subjective lameness scores were lower for as long as 96 h after epidural administration. Injection of LE-hydromorphone epidurally was associated with various mild changes in CNS behavior, and 2 rats succumbed to respiratory depression and death. In conclusion, LE-hydromorphone prolonged the duration of epidural analgesia compared with the standard formulation of hydromorphone, but CNS side effects warrant careful administration of this LE-hydromorphone in future studies.

  6. [Prolonged epidural analgesia induced by clopheline in combination with lidocaine in obstetric analgesia].

    PubMed

    Semenikhin, A A; En Din Kim; Kurbanov, S D

    1998-01-01

    The study was carried out in 178 women without grave obstetrical or extragenital diseases. In group 1 labor pain was relieved by prolonged epidural anesthesia with 2% lidocaine solution (2-2.5 mg/kg), in group 2 prolonged epidural anesthesia with 1% lidocaine solution (1 mg/kg) and 0.01% clofelin (1 microgram/kg) was administered. Central hemodynamics, heart rhythm, external respiration function, uterine contractility, and fetal intrauterine status were assessed. The findings indicate that none of the methods had a negative impact on the vital parameters of women and newborns at any stage of anesthesia. However, a combination of epidural clofelin (1 microgram/kg) with lidocaine permits an appreciable decrease in the doses of both drugs without decreasing the efficacy of anesthesia. This method has a favorable effect on the course of labor: the mouth of the womb opens sooner at a lower uterine activity and there are no negative effects on the fetus and newborn.

  7. Thromboprophylaxis and major oncologic surgery performed with epidural analgesia.

    PubMed

    Shouhed, Daniel; Amersi, Farin; Sibert, Thomas; Sibert, Karen; Hemaya, Emad; Silberman, Allan W

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate clinical outcomes in patients with cancer undergoing major abdominal surgery who received preoperative indwelling epidural catheters (ECs) and no postoperative thromboprophylaxis. Retrospective analysis of a prospective database. Tertiary referral medical center. PATIENTS Between January 1, 2009, and July 31, 2011, 119 patients, with a mean age of 64.5 years (range, 34-95 years), underwent major abdominal oncologic surgery with an indwelling EC. Records of all patients were reviewed for age, duration of surgery, hospital length of stay, and clinical outcomes. All patients underwent lower extremity venous duplex ultrasonography prior to hospital discharge. The average operative time was 338 minutes. Mean (SD) intensive care unit stay was 2.8 (1.4) days (range, 1-7 days). Patients ambulated by postoperative day 1 or 2. Most ECs were removed on postoperative day 4. There were no major complications from the EC. Fifty-two patients (44%) were treated with deep venous thrombosis prophylaxis on postoperative day 4 after removal of the EC. Lower extremity duplex studies showed 8 patients (6.7%) had an acute thrombus. One patient (0.8%) developed an asymptomatic proximal deep venous thrombosis and 7 patients (5.9%) developed distal superficial thrombi. No patient developed a pulmonary embolus. CONCLUSIONS Thromboembolic complications following major abdominal surgery for cancer may be reduced with the use of ECs. Epidural catheters may directly prevent deep venous thrombosis through sympathetic blockade, resulting in increased blood flow to the lower extremities. This effect may also be attributable to earlier ambulation. These results suggest that patients who have an EC and do not receive concurrent postoperative thromboprophylaxis do not have an increased risk for thromboembolic events.

  8. Comparing epidural analgesia and ON-Q infiltrating catheters for pain management after hepatic resection

    PubMed Central

    Gebhardt, Rodolfo; Feng, Lei; Dong, Wenli; Reich, Margaret; Curley, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives Pain control after hepatic resection presents unique challenges as subcostal incisions, rib retraction, and diaphragmatic irritation can lead to significant pain. Both epidural analgesia and ON-Q catheters have been used for postoperative pain management after hepatic surgery, but to our knowledge have not been directly compared. Methods The records of 143 patient between the ages 18 and 70 were reviewed who underwent hepatic resection by a single surgeon. Patients were categorized according to method of postoperative pain control. Average pain scores for both study groups were collected until POD#3. Results Demographic data and the length of surgery were similar between the groups (all p>0.05). On the day of surgery and POD#1, average pain scores for the epidural group were lower than the ON-Q group (P<0.0001 and P=0.0008 respectively). There was no difference in pain scores on POD #2 (P=.2369) or POD #3 (P=0.2289). Conclusions Epidural analgesia provides superior pain control on the day of surgery and POD#1 when compared to On-Q catheter with IV PCA. There was no difference in pain scores on POD#2 or POD#3. Future prospective randomized trials comparing these analgesic methods will be required to further evaluate enhanced recovery after hepatic surgery. PMID:25580374

  9. Epidural analgesia in children: planning, organization and development of a new program.

    PubMed

    Ingelmo, P M; Gelsumino, C; Acosta, A P; Lopez, V; Gimenez, C; Halac, A; Lira, P; Schon, A; Spagnolo, B; Pignataro, A; Nunez, G; Gamboa, M; Buquicchio, I; Astuto, M; Fumagalli, R

    2007-11-01

    The goal of the present work is to describe the development and results of the pediatric epidural analgesia program at the ''Hospital Nacional de Pediatria Prof. Dr. J. P. Garrahan'' in Argentina. Patients with thoracotomy, abdominal surgery, osteotomy, amputations or severe trauma were included in the program. The program provided training to the entire staff, control and record of pain treatment and its consequences, 24 h a day availability of anesthesia staff and standard polices and procedures. One hundred fifty children under 16 years of age (median age 11 years, median weight 35 kg) were included in the program during the first 18 months. The median of maximum pain reported during activity was 1 (interquartile range 1 to 4 points) using the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) or Objective Pain Scale (OPS). Eighty seven children (CI 95% 50% to 67%) presented with postoperative nausea and vomiting, urinary retention, itching, motor blockade or sedation. No patient presented with respiratory depression, hypotension, local anaesthetic toxicity, epidural catheter related infection or death during the program evaluation. The postoperative care program enabled a 98-day reduction in treatment in the intensive care unit. The safe use of pediatric epidural analgesia in general wards may require the careful selection of patients, systematic assessment by trained personnel, training of medical and nursing personnel, clear distribution of responsibilities, use of printed indications, systematic record of pain, sedation and complications, information and education of patients and parents, supply of systems for airway resuscitation and management and continuous quality control and revision of the methods.

  10. Combined spinal-epidural analgesia in labour: its effects on delivery outcome.

    PubMed

    Singh, Suneet Kaur Sra Charanjit; Yahya, Nurlia; Misiran, Karis; Masdar, Azlina; Nor, Nadia Md; Yee, Lee Choon

    2016-01-01

    Combined spinal-epidural (CSE) has become an increasingly popular alternative to traditional labour epidural due to its rapid onset and reliable analgesia provided. This was a prospective, convenient sampling study to determine the effects of CSE analgesia on labour outcome. One hundred and ten healthy primigravida parturients with a singleton pregnancy of ≥37 weeks gestation and in the active phase of labour were studied. They were enrolled to the CSE (n=55) or Non-CSE (n=55) group based on whether they consented to CSE analgesia. Non-CSE parturients were offered other methods of labour analgesia. The duration of the first and second stage of labour, rate of instrumental vaginal delivery and emergency cesarean section, and Apgar scores were compared. The mean duration of the first and second stage of labour was not significantly different between both groups. Instrumental delivery rates between the groups were not significantly different (CSE group, 11% versus Non-CSE group, 16%). The slightly higher incidence of cesarean section in the CSE group (16% versus 15% in the Non-CSE group) was not statistically significant. Neonatal outcome in terms of Apgar score of less than 7 at 1 and 5min was similar in both groups. There were no significant differences in the duration of labour, rate of instrumental vaginal delivery and emergency cesarean section, and neonatal outcome in parturients who received compared to those who did not receive CSE for labour analgesia. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  11. [Combined spinal-epidural analgesia in labour: its effects on delivery outcome].

    PubMed

    Singh, Suneet Kaur Sra Charanjit; Yahya, Nurlia; Misiran, Karis; Masdar, Azlina; Nor, Nadia Md; Yee, Lee Choon

    2016-01-01

    Combined spinal-epidural (CSE) has become an increasingly popular alternative to traditional labour epidural due to its rapid onset and reliable analgesia provided. This was a prospective, convenient sampling study to determine the effects of CSE analgesia on labour outcome. One hundred and ten healthy primigravida parturients with a singleton pregnancy of ≥37 weeks gestation and in the active phase of labour were studied. They were enrolled to the CSE (n=55) or Non-CSE (n=55) group based on whether they consented to CSE analgesia. Non-CSE parturients were offered other methods of labour analgesia. The duration of the first and second stage of labour, rate of instrumental vaginal delivery and emergency cesarean section, and Apgar scores were compared. The mean duration of the first and second stage of labour was not significantly different between both groups. Instrumental delivery rates between the groups were not significantly different (CSE group, 11% versus Non-CSE group, 16%). The slightly higher incidence of cesarean section in the CSE group (16% versus 15% in the Non-CSE group) was not statistically significant. Neonatal outcome in terms of Apgar score of less than 7 at 1 and 5min was similar in both groups. There were no significant differences in the duration of labour, rate of instrumental vaginal delivery and emergency cesarean section, and neonatal outcome in parturients who received compared to those who did not receive CSE for labour analgesia. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  12. A comparison of ropivacaine, ropivacaine with tramadol and ropivacaine with midazolam for post-operative caudal epidural analgesia

    PubMed Central

    Krishnadas, A; Suvarna, K; Hema, VR; Taznim, M

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Caudal epidural analgesia is the most commonly used method of post-operative analgesia in children undergoing subumbilical surgeries. Many additive drugs have been used to prolong the post-operative analgesia. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of tramadol or midazolam addition to caudal ropivacaine for post-operative analgesia in children undergoing subumbilical surgeries. Methods: In this prospective, randomised, double-blinded comparative study, sixty children of either gender, in the age group of 1–5 years and scheduled for elective subumbilical surgeries were randomly divided into three groups of twenty each. Children in Group R received an epidural injection of 1 mL/kg of 0.2% plain ropivacaine whereas children in Group RT received an epidural injection of 2 mg/kg of tramadol plus 1 mL/kg of 0.2% ropivacaine and Group RM received an epidural injection of 50 μg/kg midazolam plus 1 mL/kg of 0.2% ropivacaine. The primary outcome variable was the duration of time to rescue analgesia. The secondary outcome variables were motor block, sedation score and urinary retention. Statistical comparison among the three groups was performed using one-way ANOVA with post hoc analysis using Bonferroni. For qualitative variables, Chi-square test was used. Statistical significance was defined as P < 0.05. Results: The mean duration of time to rescue analgesia was significantly longer (P < 0.001) in Group RT (913 ± 315.5 min) and Group RM (769.2 ± 331.9 min) compared to Group R (437.75 ± 75.68 min). However, there was no significant difference in the duration of time to rescue analgesia between RT and RM groups. Motor block and sedation scores were comparable between groups. Conclusions: The addition of tramadol or midazolam to caudal epidural ropivacaine prolongs the duration of analgesia without causing significant side effects. PMID:27942056

  13. A comparison of epidural bupivacaine, levobupivacaine, and ropivacaine on postoperative analgesia and motor blockade.

    PubMed

    De Negri, Pasquale; Ivani, Giorgio; Tirri, Tiziana; Modano, Pasqualina; Reato, Cesare; Eksborg, Staffan; Lonnqvist, Per-Arne

    2004-07-01

    In this prospective, randomized, observer-blinded clinical trial, we compared the incidence of unwanted lower extremity motor blockade and the analgesic efficacy between small-dose (0.125%; 0.2 mg x kg(-1) x h(-1)) postoperative epidural infusions of bupivacaine (Group B; n = 28), levobupivacaine (Group L; n = 27), and ropivacaine (Group R; n = 26) in children after hypospadias repair. Motor blockade and pain were assessed at predetermined time points during 48 h by using a modified Bromage scale and the Children's and Infant's Postoperative Pain Scale (CHIPPS). Postoperative analgesia was almost identical in all three study groups (CHIPPS range, 0-3), with no need for the administration of supplemental analgesia in any patient. However, significantly more patients in Group B (n = 6; P = 0.03) displayed signs of unwanted motor blockade during the observation period compared with Group L (n = 0) and Group R (n = 0). In conclusion, significantly less unwanted motor blockade was associated with postoperative epidural infusions of 0.125% levobupivacaine or ropivacaine in children after hypospadias repair as compared with a similar infusion of bupivacaine. However, no difference with regard to postoperative analgesia could be detected among the three different local anesthetics studied.

  14. Epidural Dexamethasone for Postoperative Analgesia in Patients Undergoing Unilateral Inguinal Herniorrhaphy: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Razavizadeh, M. R.; Heydarian, N.; Atoof, F.

    2017-01-01

    Background. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of adding dexamethasone to epidural bupivacaine on postoperative analgesia in unilateral inguinal herniorrhaphy. Methods. Forty-four patients were enrolled in this double-blind, clinical trial study. Patients were randomly allocated into dexamethasone or control group. In the dexamethasone group, patients received 18 ml of bupivacaine 0.5% and 2 ml (8 mg) of dexamethasone; in the control group, patients received 18 ml of bupivacaine 0.5% and 2 ml of normal saline. The onset of sensory block and its duration and incidence of nausea and vomiting were recorded. Results. The onset of epidural anesthesia was significantly more rapid in the dexamethasone group than in the control group (P < 0.001). Duration of analgesia was markedly prolonged in the dexamethasone group than in the control group (P < 0.001). Five patients (22.7%) in the control group had nausea in the first hour after the procedure (P = 0.048). None of the patients in the dexamethasone group had nausea. None of our patients had vomiting in the two groups. Conclusions. This study showed that adding dexamethasone to bupivacaine significantly prolongs the duration of postoperative analgesia. This trial is registered with Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (IRCT) number IRCT2012062910137N1. PMID:28348504

  15. Thoracic epidural analgesia to control malignant pain until viability in a pregnant patient

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Jaideep H; Gibson, Mary Elizabeth; Amaro-Driedger, David; Hussain, Mahammad N

    2016-01-01

    Management of nonobstetric pain in the pregnant patient presents unique challenges related to transplacental fetal exposure to opioids and the subsequent risk of neonatal withdrawal syndrome. We present the case of a pregnant patient suffering from the pain of a progressively enlarging thoracoabdominal sarcoma. Epidural analgesia (using local anesthetics with minimal opioid) was utilized over a span of weeks to manage oncologic pain, limiting fetal opioid exposure and culminating in the birth of a healthy infant. While nonobstetric abdominal pain during pregnancy is not that uncommon, neoplastic abdominal pain does appear to be rare. Combined local anesthetic and opioid continuous epidural infusion should be considered a viable option in the pain management approach to obstetric patients with nonobstetric pain associated with malignancy. PMID:27358573

  16. Improved peri-operative outcomes with epidural analgesia in patients undergoing a pancreatectomy: a nationwide analysis.

    PubMed

    Sanford, Dominic E; Hawkins, William G; Fields, Ryan C

    2015-06-01

    In spite of limited evidence demonstrating a benefit, epidural analgesia (EA) is often used for patients undergoing a pancreatectomy. In the present study, the impact of epidural analgesia on post-operative outcomes after a pancreatectomy is examined. Utilizing the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, the effect of EA on peri-operative outcomes after a pancreatectomy was examined. Multivariable logistic and linear regression with propensity score matching were utilized for risk adjustment. From 2008-2011, 12,440 patients underwent a pancreatectomy. Of these, 1130 (9.1%) patients received epidural analgesia. Using univariate comparison, patients receiving EA had a significantly decreased length of stay (LOS), hospital charges and post-operative inpatient mortality. In multivariate analyses, EA was independently associated with a decreased post-operative LOS (adjusted mean difference = -1.19 days, P < 0.001), decreased hospital charges (adjusted mean difference = -$16,814, P = 0.002) and decreased post-operative inpatient mortality [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 0.42, P < 0.001]. Using 1:1 propensity score matching, patients who received an EA (n = 1070) had significantly decreased post-operative LOS (11.0 versus 12.1 days, P = 0.011), lower hospital charges ($112,086 versus $128,939, P = 0.001) and decreased post-operative inpatient mortality (1.5% versus 3.6%, P = 0.002) compared with matched controls without EA (n = 1070). Analysis of a large hospital database reveals that EA is associated with improved peri-operative outcomes after a pancreatectomy. Additional studies are required to understand fully if this relationship is causal. © 2015 International Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association.

  17. Differential effects of epidural analgesia on modes of delivery and perinatal outcomes between nulliparous and multiparous women: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Hung, Tai-Ho; Hsieh, T'sang-T'ang; Liu, Hung-Pin

    2015-01-01

    Epidural analgesia is considered one of the most effective methods for pain relief during labor. However, it is not clear whether similar effects of epidural analgesia on the progression of labor, modes of delivery, and perinatal outcomes exist between nulliparous and multiparous women. A retrospective cohort study was conducted to analyze all deliveries after 37 weeks of gestation, with the exclusion of pregnancies complicated by multiple gestations and fetal anomalies and deliveries without trials of labor; these criteria produced a study population of n=16,852. A multivariable logistic regression model was constructed to control for confounders. In total, 7260 of 10,175 (71.4%) nulliparous and 2987 of 6677 (44.7%) multiparous parturients were administered epidural analgesia. The independent factors for intrapartum epidural analgesia included a low prepregnancy body mass index, genetic amniocentesis, group B streptococcal colonization of the genito-rectal tract, and augmentation and induction of labor. In the nulliparous women, epidural analgesia was a significant risk factor for operative vaginal delivery (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 2.14, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.80-2.54); however, it was a protective factor against Caesarean delivery (adjusted OR 0.62, 95% CI 0.55-0.69). Epidural analgesia remained a significant risk factor for operative vaginal delivery (adjusted OR 2.17, 95% CI 1.58-2.97) but not for Caesarean delivery (adjusted OR 1.09, 95% CI 0.77-1.55) in the multiparous women. Furthermore, the women who were administered epidural analgesia during the trials of labor had similar rates of adverse perinatal outcomes compared with the women who were not administered epidural analgesia, except that a higher rate of 1-minute Apgar scores less than 7 was noted in the nulliparous women who were administered epidural analgesia. Intrapartum epidural analgesia has differential effects on the modes of delivery between nulliparous and multiparous women, and it is

  18. Maternal and neonatal effects of adding morphine to low-dose bupivacaine for epidural labor analgesia.

    PubMed

    Dostbil, A; Celik, M; Alici, H A; Erdem, A F; Aksoy, M; Ahiskalioglu, A

    2014-01-01

    Labor is one of the most painful experiences a woman may face during her lifetime. One of the most effective methods used for eliminating this pain is epidural analgesia. The aim of this study to determine the impact of adding morphine to low-dose bupivacaine epidural anesthesia on labor and neonatal outcomes, and maternal side effects. This is a prospective randomized double-blind study comparing two regimens of anesthetic agents used for epidural anesthesia in labor. A total of 120 pregnant women were randomized into two groups with 60 subjects in each study arm. A catheter was inserted, and 0.1% bupivacaine + 2 μg/mL fentanyl in 15 mL saline were given to Group bupivacaine-fentanyl (Group BF), while 0.0625% bupivacaine + 2 μg/ml fentanyl + 2 mg morphine in 15 mL saline were given to Group bupivacaine-fentanyl-morphine (Group BFM) with no test dosing from the needle. No morphine was added to the subsequent epidural injections in Group BFM. The total dose of bupivacaine was significantly lower in Group BFM relative to Group BF (P = 0.0001). The visual analogu scalescores at 15, 30, and 45 min were significantly lower in Group BF compared to thosein Group BFM (P = 0.0001, P = 0.001, and P = 0.006, respectively). The second stage of labor was significantly shorter in Group BFM relative to Group BF (P = 0.027 and P = 0.003, respectively). The satisfaction with analgesia following the first dose was higher in the nonmorphine group (P = 0.0001). However, maternal postpartum satisfaction was similar in both groups. Either nausea or vomiting was recorded in eight patients in Group BFM. We believe that epidural analgesia comprised of a low-dose local anaesthetic and 2 mg morphine provides a painless labor that significantly reducesthe use of local anesthetic without changing the efficiency of the analgesic, ensuring the mother's satisfaction without leading to an adverse effect on the mother or foetus, while mildly (but significantly) shortening the second stage of

  19. Epidural analgesia for traumatic rib fractures is associated with worse outcomes: a matched analysis.

    PubMed

    McKendy, Katherine M; Lee, Lawrence F; Boulva, Kerianne; Deckelbaum, Dan L; Mulder, David S; Razek, Tarek S; Grushka, Jeremy R

    2017-06-15

    The optimal method of pain control for patients with traumatic rib fractures is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of epidural analgesia on respiratory complications and in-hospital mortality in patients with rib fractures. Adult patients at a level I trauma center with ≥1 rib fracture from blunt trauma were included (2004-2013). Those with a blunt-penetrating mechanism, traumatic brain injury, or underwent a laparotomy or thoracotomy were excluded. Patients who were treated with epidural analgesia (EPI) were compared with those were not treated with epidural analgesia (NEPI) using coarsened exact matching. Primary outcomes were respiratory complications (pneumonia, deep vein thrombosis/pulmonary embolus, and respiratory failure) and 30-d in-hospital mortality. Secondary outcomes were total hospital and intensive care unit length of stay, and duration of ventilator support. About 1360 patients (EPI: 329 and NEPI: 1031) met inclusion criteria (mean age: 54.2 y; standard deviation [SD]: 19.7; 68% male). The mean number of rib fractures was 4.8 (SD: 3.3; 21% bilateral) with a high total burden of injury (mean Injury Severity Score: 19.9 [SD: 8.9]). The overall incidence of respiratory complications was 13% and mortality was 4%. After matching, 204 EPI patients were compared with 204 NEPI patients, with no differences in baseline characteristics. EPI patients experienced more respiratory complications (19% versus 10%, P = 0.009), but no differences in 30-d mortality (5% versus 2%, P = 0.159), duration of mechanical ventilation (EPI: 148 h [SD: 167] versus NEPI: 117 h [SD: 187], P = 0.434), or duration of intensive care unit length of stay (6.5 d [SD: 7.6] versus 5.8 d [SD: 9.1], P = 0.626). Hospital stay was higher in the EPI group (16.6 d [SD: 19.6] vs 12.7 d [SD: 15.2], P = 0.026). Epidural analgesia is associated with increased respiratory complications without providing mortality benefit after traumatic rib fractures

  20. The Effect of Epidural Analgesia on Labour, Mode of Delivery and Neonatal Outcome in Nullipara of India, 2011-2014

    PubMed Central

    Makhija, Bela; Arora, Manjeet; Haritwal, Arpana; Gurha, Pavan

    2014-01-01

    Aims: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of ropivacaine epidural analgesia on duration and outcome of labour in nulliparous parturients of India with parturient not receiving any analgesia. Settings and Design: One hundred and twenty nulliparous parturient in established labour at full term with a singleton vertex presentation were assigned to the study. Parturients who request epidural analgesia were allocated in the epidural group (n=60), whereas those not enthusiastic to labour analgesia were allocated in the control group (n=60). Materials and Methods: Epidural analgesia was provided by a bolus injection of 10 ml of ropivacaine 0.2% and 50μg fentanyl and maintained by using a continuous infusion of ropivacaine 0.1% with fentanyl 2μl/ml at a 10ml/hour rate. The outcomes were duration of labour, incidence of cesarean sections and instrumental vaginal delivery and neonatal outcome. Statistical Analysis used: Statistical analysis was conducted using unpaired student t-test and chi-square test as required. All tests of significance were performed using two-tailed probability tests. Differences were considered significant when p-value was <0.05. Results: The two groups were comparable in terms of socio-demographic data. The mean duration of first stage of labour was shorter in epidural group (4.83 ± 1.59 h) compared with control group (5.48 ± 1.56 h) while the duration of second stage of labour was prolong in epidural group (33.13 ± 12.78 min) as compared to control (27.53 ± 11.73 min). Instrumental vaginal or caesarean delivery rate did not increase in the epidural group. The APGAR scores at 5 min were statistically similar in both groups. Conclusion: Epidural analgesia by ropivacaine in Indian nulliparous resulted in shorter duration of first stage and prolongs duration of second stage of labour compared with parturients without analgesia; however, instrumental vaginal or caesarean delivery rate does not increase in the epidural group. PMID:25478409

  1. Foetal heart rate deceleration with combined spinal-epidural analgesia during labour: a maternal haemodynamic cardiac study.

    PubMed

    Valensise, Herbert; Lo Presti, Damiano; Tiralongo, Grazia Maria; Pisani, Ilaria; Gagliardi, Giulia; Vasapollo, Barbara; Frigo, Maria Grazia

    2016-01-01

    To understand the mechanisms those are involved in the appearance of foetal heart rate decelerations (FHR) after the combined epidural analgesia in labour. Observational study done at University Hospital for 86-term singleton pregnant women with spontaneous labour. Serial bedside measurement of the main cardiac maternal parameters with USCOM technique; stroke volume (SV), heart rate (HR), cardiac output (CO) and total vascular resistances (TVR) inputting systolic and diastolic blood pressure before combined epidural analgesia and after 5', 10', 15' and 20 min. FHR was continuously recorded though cardiotocography before and after the procedure. Correlation between the appearance of foetal heart rate decelerations and the modification of maternal haemodynamic parameters. Fourteen out of 86 foetuses showed decelerations after the combined spino epidural procedure. No decelerations occurred in the women with low TVR (<1000 dyne/s/cm(-5)) at the basal evaluation. FHR abnormalities were concentrated in 39 women who presented elevated TVR values at the basal evaluation (>1200 dyne/s/cm(-5)). Soon after the epidural procedure, the absence of increase in SV and CO was observed in these women. No variations in systolic and diastolic blood pressure values were found. The level of TVR before combined epidural analgesia in labour may indicate the risk of FHR abnormalities after the procedure. Low TVR (<1000 dyne/s/cm(-5)) showed a reduced risk of FHR abnormalities. FHR decelerations seem to occur in women without the ability to upregulate SV and CO in response to the initial effects of analgesia.

  2. A study of pethidine kinetics and analgesia in women in labour following intravenous, intramuscular and epidural administration.

    PubMed Central

    Husemeyer, R P; Cummings, A J; Rosankiewicz, J R; Davenport, H T

    1982-01-01

    1 Epidural administration of opiates for analgesia has recently generated widespread interest and would theoretically be advantageous as a method for relief of pain in labour. 2 Plasma pethidine concentrations were measured after intravenous, intramuscular and epidural administration of pethidine to women in labour and after epidural administration to non-pregnant female surgical patients. 3 Kinetic parameters were derived from the plasma concentration data in each group of subjects and the relationship between plasma kinetics and analgesia in labour were examined. 4 Absorption of pethidine from the epidural space in pregnant women in rapid and excepting the lower initial values, the average plasma concentration and area under the plasma concentration v time curve did not differ significantly (P less than 0.01) from those obtained with intravenous dosage, but were significantly higher (P less than 0.01) during the first 2 h after dosage than the results after intramuscular administration. The analgesia provided by the epidural route of administration was greater than with intravenous or intramuscular administration. 5 It is postulated that the analgesic efficacy of epidural pethidine in women in labour is due to a combination of systemic and local effects and that the local effect is attributable to the local anaesthetic properties of pethidine rather than a selective anti-nociceptive action on the spinal cord. PMID:7059414

  3. Combined Spinal Epidural Technique for Labor Analgesia Does Not Delay Recognition of Epidural Catheter Failures: A Single-center Retrospective Cohort Survival Analysis.

    PubMed

    Booth, Jessica M; Pan, Joshua C; Ross, Vernon H; Russell, Gregory B; Harris, Lynne C; Pan, Peter H

    2016-09-01

    It is unclear whether recognition of epidural catheter failures is delayed with combined spinal epidural technique (CSE) compared to traditional epidural technique (EPID) when used for labor analgesia. The authors hypothesized that recognition of failed catheters is not delayed by CSE. Anesthetic, obstetric, and quality assurance records from 2,395 labor neuraxial procedures (1,440 CSE and 955 EPID) performed at Forsyth Medical Center (Winston-Salem, North Carolina) between June 30 and December 31, 2012, were retrospectively analyzed. The primary outcome was catheter survival (failure-free) time during labor analgesia. A proportional hazards model with the counting method was used to assess relationships between the techniques and survival (failure-free) time of catheters, while controlling for subjects' body mass index and providers' level of training in the final best-fit multivariable regression model. Cumulative incidence of epidural catheter failures was 6.6% for CSE and 11.6% for EPID (P = 0.001). In the multivariable regression model, catheters placed with CSE versus epidural were less likely to fail (hazard ratio, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.43 to 0.79; P = 0.0002) for labor analgesia. Among the catheters that failed, there was no overall difference in failure time course between the techniques (hazard ratio, 1.17; 95% CI, 0.89 to 1.54; P = 0.26) even though more failed catheters with CSE (48.4%) than with EPID (30.6%) were recognized within the first 30 min of placement (P = 0.009). In this cohort, CSE has a significantly lower risk of overall epidural catheter failures than EPID and does not delay recognition of epidural catheter failures. Choice of CSE versus EPID should be based on overall risk of failure, efficacy, and side effects.

  4. Differences in postoperative opioid consumption in patients prescribed patient-controlled analgesia versus intramuscular injection.

    PubMed

    Everett, Bronwyn; Salamonson, Yenna

    2005-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine differences in opioid consumption in patients prescribed patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) versus intramuscular injection (IMI) in the early postoperative period after open abdominal surgery. A retrospective audit of 115 patients elicited demographic and clinical data. No significant differences were found between the demographic variables of the PCA and IMI groups. There was a significant difference in the mean opioid dose used during the first 3 postoperative days (p < .01). Mean opioid consumption was 136.89 mg for the PCA group and 50.79 mg for the IMI group. Although there was a reduction in the amount of opioid consumed over the first 3 postoperative days, the PCA group consistently consumed more opioid analgesia compared with the IMI group. Furthermore, there was a disproportionate reduction in opioid consumption between the two groups from Day 1 (r = .34; p < .01) to Day 3 (r = .14; p = .14). This study shows that the amount of analgesia consumed during the postoperative period by patients who had abdominal surgery varied markedly depending on the mode of analgesia (PCA or IMI). The difference in analgesic consumption was also found to increase throughout the 3-day postoperative period. This divergence in the amount of opioid consumption between patients who were prescribed PCA and patients who were prescribed IM analgesia heightens the need for vigilance in assessment and management of pain during the early postoperative period, particularly in patients prescribed IM analgesia on an "as-needed" basis.

  5. Epidural analgesia with morphine or buprenorphine in ponies with lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced carpal synovitis

    PubMed Central

    Freitas, Gabrielle C.; Carregaro, Adriano B.; Gehrcke, Martielo I.; De La Côrte, Flávio D.; Lara, Valéria M.; Pozzobon, Ricardo; Brass, Karin E.

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the analgesia effects of the epidural administration of 0.1 mg/kg bodyweight (BW) of morphine or 5 μg/kg BW of buprenorphine in ponies with radiocarpal joint synovitis. Six ponies were submitted to 3 epidural treatments: the control group (C) received 0.15 mL/kg BW of a 0.9% sodium chloride (NaCl) solution; group M was administered 0.1 mg/kg BW of morphine; and group B was administered 5 μg/kg BW of buprenorphine, both diluted in 0.9% NaCl to a total volume of 0.15 mL/kg BW administered epidurally at 10 s/mL. The synovitis model was induced by injecting 0.5 ng of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the left or right radiocarpal joint. An epidural catheter was later introduced in the lumbosacral space and advanced up to the thoracolumbar level. The treatment started 6 h after synovitis induction. Lameness, maximum angle of carpal flexion, heart rate, systolic arterial pressure, respiratory rate, temperature, and intestinal motility were evaluated before LPS injection (baseline), 6 h after LPS injection (time 0), and 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 16, 20, and 24 h after treatments. Although the model of synovitis produced clear clinical signs of inflammation, the lameness scores in group C were different from the baseline for only up to 12 h. Both morphine and buprenorphine showed a reduction in the degree of lameness starting at 0.5 and 6 h, respectively. Reduced intestinal motility was observed at 0.5 h in group M and at 0.5 to 1 h in group B. Epidural morphine was a more effective analgesic that lasted for more than 12 h and without side effects. It was concluded that morphine would be a valuable analgesic option to alleviate joint pain in the thoracic limbs in ponies. PMID:21731186

  6. Epidural analgesia with morphine or buprenorphine in ponies with lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced carpal synovitis.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Gabrielle C; Carregaro, Adriano B; Gehrcke, Martielo I; De La Côrte, Flávio D; Lara, Valéria M; Pozzobon, Ricardo; Brass, Karin E

    2011-04-01

    This study evaluated the analgesia effects of the epidural administration of 0.1 mg/kg bodyweight (BW) of morphine or 5 μg/kg BW of buprenorphine in ponies with radiocarpal joint synovitis. Six ponies were submitted to 3 epidural treatments: the control group (C) received 0.15 mL/kg BW of a 0.9% sodium chloride (NaCl) solution; group M was administered 0.1 mg/kg BW of morphine; and group B was administered 5 μg/kg BW of buprenorphine, both diluted in 0.9% NaCl to a total volume of 0.15 mL/kg BW administered epidurally at 10 s/mL. The synovitis model was induced by injecting 0.5 ng of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the left or right radiocarpal joint. An epidural catheter was later introduced in the lumbosacral space and advanced up to the thoracolumbar level. The treatment started 6 h after synovitis induction. Lameness, maximum angle of carpal flexion, heart rate, systolic arterial pressure, respiratory rate, temperature, and intestinal motility were evaluated before LPS injection (baseline), 6 h after LPS injection (time 0), and 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 16, 20, and 24 h after treatments. Although the model of synovitis produced clear clinical signs of inflammation, the lameness scores in group C were different from the baseline for only up to 12 h. Both morphine and buprenorphine showed a reduction in the degree of lameness starting at 0.5 and 6 h, respectively. Reduced intestinal motility was observed at 0.5 h in group M and at 0.5 to 1 h in group B. Epidural morphine was a more effective analgesic that lasted for more than 12 h and without side effects. It was concluded that morphine would be a valuable analgesic option to alleviate joint pain in the thoracic limbs in ponies.

  7. [Assessment of maternal satisfaction with epidural analgesia for pain control during labour].

    PubMed

    Marenco-Arellano, V; Ferreira, L; Ramalle-Gómara, E; Crespo, A; Rupérez, A; Fraile, E

    To determine the level of satisfaction and the sociodemographic characteristics of patients who receive epidural analgesia during labour. A SERVQHOS questionnaire administered, with consecutive sampling, to 140 patients who had received an epidural anaesthetic for pain control during labour between January and June 2014, at the Hospital San Pedro. A total of 140 questionnaires were completed. The mean overall satisfaction (SERVQHOS scale) was 4.4 with standard deviation (SD):±0.9, with the best results being obtained in the subjective ítems: (4.3; SD 0.81) compared to the objective ítems (4; SD: 0.9). The large majority (84.3%) showed satisfaction with the epidural anaesthetic, and 100% would ask for it again. No significant differences were found in epidural satisfaction or pain perception related to socioeconomic variables (age, nationality, employment conditions, education level or marital status). As regards nationality, 119 (85%) were Spanish, and 14.3% (20) of other nationalities, with 1 patient not answering the nationality question. As regards marital status, 79.3% (111) were married, 1.4% (2), single, and 2.9% (4) were widows or separated, and 2.9% (4) did not answer. The mean age was 33.3 years (SD: 4.4). Prior to the administration of the epidural anaesthetic 93.2% of the Spanish citizens group described the pain as severe compared to 95% of the other nationalities group, but this difference had no statistical significance (p=.279). The level of satisfaction reported by the patients with this technique was high, with subjective items (good manners and trust) being appreciated more. Copyright © 2016 SECA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparison of Epidural Analgesia with Transversus Abdominis Plane Analgesia for Postoperative Pain Relief in Patients Undergoing Lower Abdominal Surgery: A Prospective Randomized Study

    PubMed Central

    Iyer, Sadasivan Shankar; Bavishi, Harshit; Mohan, Chadalavada Venkataram; Kaur, Navdeep

    2017-01-01

    Background: Anesthesiologists play an important role in postoperative pain management. For analgesia after lower abdominal surgery, epidural analgesia and ultrasound-guided transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block are suitable options. The study aims to compare the analgesic efficacy of both techniques. Materials and Methods: Seventy-two patients undergoing lower abdominal surgery under spinal anesthesia were randomized to postoperatively receive lumbar epidural catheter (Group E) or ultrasound-guided TAP block (Group T) through intravenous cannulas placed bilaterally. Group E received 10 ml 0.125% bupivacaine stat and 10 ml 8th hourly for 48 h. Group T received 20 ml 0.125% bupivacaine bilaterally stat and 20 ml bilaterally 8th hourly for 48 h. Pain at rest and on coughing, total paracetamol and tramadol consumption were recorded. Results: Analgesia at rest was comparable between the groups in the first 16 h. At 24 and 48 h, Group E had significantly better analgesia at rest (P = 0.001 and 0.004 respectively). Patients in Group E had significantly higher number of patients with nil or mild pain on coughing at all times. Paracetamol consumption was comparable in both groups, but tramadol consumption was significantly higher in Group T at the end of 48 h (P = 0.001). Conclusion: For lower abdominal surgeries, analgesia provided by intermittent boluses of 0.125% is comparable for first 16 h between epidural and TAP catheters. However, the quality of analgesia provided by the epidural catheter is superior to that provided by TAP catheters beyond that both at rest and on coughing with reduced opioid consumption. PMID:28928569

  9. Analgesia after Epidural Dexamethasone is Further Enhanced by IV Dipyrone, but Not IV Parecoxibe Following Minor Orthopedic Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Righeti, Claudia CF; Kitayama, Antonio T

    2014-01-01

    Background Epidural administration of dexamethasone has been suggested for pain control after minor orthopedic surgery. This study was conducted to assess its efficacy after such surgery, combined or not to IV dipyrone, IV parecoxibe or their combination. Methods 91 patients were randomly assigned to seven groups. Patients were submitted to spinal bupivacaine anesthesia combined to epidural administration of either 10 ml saline or 10 mg dexamethasone diluted to 10-ml volume. Patients also received 10 ml IV saline or 1 gr dipyrone and/or 40 mg parecoxibe diluted to 10 ml with saline. Control group (CG) received epidural and IV saline. Dexamethasone group (DexG) received epidural dexamethasone and IV saline. Dipyrone group (DipG) received epidural saline and IV dipyrone. Dex-Dip G received epidural dexamethasone and IV dipyrone. Parecoxibe group (ParG) received epidural saline and IV parecoxibe. Dex-ParG received epidural dexamethasone and IV parecoxibe. Finally, Dex-Dip-ParG received epidural dexamethasone and IV dipyrone plus IV parecoxibe. Results The CG expressed 4h of analgesia and sooner requested pain killer. DexG was similar to DipG or ParG or Dex-ParG (7-hours), and they requested less ketoprofen compared to the CG (P < 0.05). However, the Dex-DipG and the Dex-Dip-ParG resulted in longer time to demand pain killer (17-hours) and less ketoprofen consumption in 24-hours (P < 0.002). Adverse effects were similar among groups. Conclusions The analgesia secondary to epidural dexamethasone was enhanced by IV dipyrone, while no effects were observed by the addition of IV parecoxibe. PMID:25317284

  10. Effectiveness and safety of continuous ultrasound-guided femoral nerve block versus epidural analgesia after total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Fedriani de Matos, J J; Atienza Carrasco, F J; Díaz Crespo, J; Moreno Martín, A; Tatsidis Tatsidis, P; Torres Morera, L M

    2017-02-01

    Total knee arthroplasty is associated with severe postoperative pain. The aim of this study was to compare continuous ultrasound-guided femoral nerve block with continuous epidural analgesia, both with low concentrations of local anaesthetic after total knee arthroplasty. A prospective, randomised, unblinded study of 60 patients undergoing total knee replacement, randomised into two groups. A total of 30 patients received continuous epidural block, while the other 30 received continuous ultrasound-guided femoral nerve block, as well as using 0.125% levobupivacaine infusion in both groups. Differences in pain control, undesirable effects, and complications between the two techniques were assessed, as well as the need for opioid rescue and the level of satisfaction with the treatment received during the first 48hours after surgery. No differences were found in demographic and surgical variables. The quality of analgesia was similar in both groups, although in the first six hours after surgery, patients in the epidural group had less pain both at rest and with movement (P=.007 and P=.011). This difference was not observed at 24hours (P=.084 and P=.942). Pain control at rest in the femoral block group was better at 48hours after surgery than in the epidural group (P=.009). The mean consumption of morphine and level of satisfaction were similar. Epidural analgesia showed the highest rate of side effects (P=.003). Continuous ultrasound-guided femoral nerve block provides analgesia and morphine consumption similar to epidural analgesia, with the same level of satisfaction, but with a lower rate of side effects after total knee arthroplasty. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Factors influencing the quality of postoperative epidural analgesia: an observational multicenter study

    PubMed Central

    Wranicz, Piotr; Andersen, Hege; Nordbø, Arve; Kongsgaard, Ulf E

    2014-01-01

    Background Epidural analgesia (EDA) is used widely for postoperative pain treatment. However, studies have reported a failure rate of EDA of up to 30%. We aimed to evaluate the quality of postoperative EDA in patients undergoing a laparotomy in five Norwegian hospitals. Methods This was a multicenter observational study in patients undergoing a laparotomy with epidural-based postoperative analgesia. Data were registered at three time points. Technical aspects, infusion rates, pain intensity, assessment procedures, side effects, and satisfaction of patients and health personnel were recorded. The use of other pain medications and coanalgesics was registered. Results Three hundred and seventeen patients were included. Pain control at rest was satisfactory in 89% of patients at 24 hours and in 91% at 48 hours. Pain control when coughing was satisfactory in 62% at 24 hours and in 59% at 48 hours. The spread of hypoesthesia was consistent for each individual patient but varied between patients. The hypoesthetic area was not associated with pain intensity, and the precision of the EDA insertion point was not associated with the pain score. Few side effects were reported. EDA was regarded as effective and functioning well by 64% of health personnel. Conclusion EDA was an effective method for postoperative pain relief at rest but did not give sufficient pain relief during mobilization. The use of cold stimulation to assess the spread of EDA had limited value as a clinical indicator of the efficacy of postoperative pain control. Validated tools for the control of EDA quality are needed. PMID:25206312

  12. Dural Puncture Epidural Technique Improves Labor Analgesia Quality With Fewer Side Effects Compared With Epidural and Combined Spinal Epidural Techniques: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Chau, Anthony; Bibbo, Carolina; Huang, Chuan-Chin; Elterman, Kelly G; Cappiello, Eric C; Robinson, Julian N; Tsen, Lawrence C

    2017-02-01

    The dural puncture epidural (DPE) technique is a modification of the combined spinal epidural (CSE) technique, where a dural perforation is created from a spinal needle but intrathecal medication administration is withheld. The DPE technique has been shown to improve caudal spread of analgesia compared with epidural (EPL) technique without the side effects observed with the CSE technique. We hypothesized that the onset of labor analgesia would follow this order: CSE > DPE > EPL techniques. A total of 120 parturients in early labor were randomly assigned to EPL, DPE, or CSE groups. Initial dosing for EPL and DPE consisted of epidural 20 mL of 0.125% bupivacaine plus fentanyl 2 μg/mL over 5 minutes, and for CSE, intrathecal 0.25% bupivacaine 1.7 mg and fentanyl 17 μg. Upon block completion, a blinded coinvestigator assessed the outcomes. Two blinded obstetricians retrospectively interpreted uterine contractions and fetal heart rate tracings 1 hour before and after the neuraxial technique. The primary outcome was time to numeric pain rating scale (NPRS) ≤ 1 analyzed by using Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox proportional hazard model. Secondary outcomes included block quality, maternal adverse effects, uterine contraction patterns, and fetal outcomes analyzed by using the χ test with Yates continuity correction. There was no significant difference in the time to NPRS ≤ 1 between DPE and EPL (hazard ratio 1.4; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.83-2.4, P = .21). DPE achieved NPRS ≤ 1 significantly slower than CSE (hazard ratio 0.36; 95% CI 0.22-0.59, P = .0001). The median times (interquartile range) to NPRS ≤ 1 were 2 (0.5-6) minutes for CSE, 11 (4-120) minutes for DPE, and 18 (10-120) minutes for EPL. Compared with EPL, DPE had significantly greater incidence of bilateral S2 blockade at 10 minutes (risk ratio [RR] 2.13; 95% CI 1.39-3.28; P < .001), 20 minutes (RR 1.60; 95% CI 1.26-2.03; P < .001), and 30 minutes (RR 1.18; 95% CI 1.01-1.30; P < .034), a lower

  13. Oxytocin augmentation of labour in women with epidural analgesia for reducing operative deliveries.

    PubMed

    Costley, Philippa L; East, Christine E

    2012-05-16

    The rate of operative deliveries (both caesarean sections, vacuum extractions and forceps), continues to rise throughout the world. These are associated with significant maternal and neonatal morbidity. The most common reasons for operative births in nulliparous women are labour dystocia (failure to progress), and non-reassuring fetal status. Epidural analgesia has been shown to slow the progress of labour, as well as increase the rate of instrumental deliveries. However, it is unclear whether the use of oxytocin in women with epidural analgesia results in a reduction in operative deliveries, and thereby reduces both maternal and fetal morbidity. To determine whether augmentation of women using epidural analgesia with oxytocin will decrease the incidence of operative deliveries and thereby reduce fetal and maternal morbidity. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (29 February 2012). All published and unpublished randomised and quasi-randomised trials that compared augmentation with oxytocin of women in spontaneous labour with epidural analgesia versus intent to manage expectantly were included. Cluster-randomised trials were eligible for inclusion but none were identified.Cross-over study designs were unlikely to be relevant for this intervention, and we planned to exclude them if any were identified. We did not include results that were only available in published abstracts. The two review authors independently assessed for inclusion the 16 studies identified as a result of the search strategy. Both review authors independently assessed the risk of bias for each included study. Both review authors independently extracted data. Data were checked for accuracy. We included two studies, involving 319 women. There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups in either of the primary outcomes of caesarean section (risk ratio (RR) 0.95, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.42 to 2.12) or instrumental delivery (RR 0

  14. Oxytocin augmentation of labour in women with epidural analgesia for reducing operative deliveries.

    PubMed

    Costley, Philippa L; East, Christine E

    2013-07-11

    The rate of operative deliveries (both caesarean sections, vacuum extractions and forceps), continues to rise throughout the world. These are associated with significant maternal and neonatal morbidity. The most common reasons for operative births in nulliparous women are labour dystocia (failure to progress), and non-reassuring fetal status. Epidural analgesia has been shown to slow the progress of labour, as well as increase the rate of instrumental deliveries. However, it is unclear whether the use of oxytocin in women with epidural analgesia results in a reduction in operative deliveries, and thereby reduces both maternal and fetal morbidity. To determine whether augmentation of women using epidural analgesia with oxytocin will decrease the incidence of operative deliveries and thereby reduce fetal and maternal morbidity. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (30 June 2013). All published and unpublished randomised and quasi-randomised trials that compared augmentation with oxytocin of women in spontaneous labour with epidural analgesia versus intent to manage expectantly were included. Cluster-randomised trials were eligible for inclusion but none were identified.Cross-over study designs were unlikely to be relevant for this intervention, and we planned to exclude them if any were identified. We did not include results that were only available in published abstracts. The two review authors independently assessed for inclusion the 16 studies identified as a result of the search strategy. Both review authors independently assessed the risk of bias for each included study. Both review authors independently extracted data. Data were checked for accuracy. We included two studies, involving 319 women. There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups in either of the primary outcomes of caesarean section (risk ratio (RR) 0.95, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.42 to 2.12) or instrumental delivery (RR 0.88, 95

  15. Consent for labour epidural analgesia: an observational study in a single institution.

    PubMed

    Trumble, J; Lee, J; Slater, P M; Sellors, J; Cyna, A M

    2015-05-01

    There is a wide range of practice amongst obstetric anaesthetists when obtaining consent for women requesting labour epidural analgesia. This is the first prospective observational study recording the number and types of risks mentioned and whether the risk was quantified. Statements of benefits and alternatives to the procedure were also noted. Fourteen anaesthetists, each consulting a single patient, were recorded during the process of obtaining consent and inserting the epidural. The most commonly mentioned risks (median 7) were headache/dural puncture, failure/difficulty with insertion, nerve damage, bleeding/haematoma and infection/epidural abscess. There was no difference between consultants and trainees, although consultants showed greater variance. It was uncommon for anaesthetists to state a benefit (21%) or mention an alternative option (21%), but there was usually a quantitative statement of risk (71%). Data showed a deviation from the Australian and New Zealand College of Anaesthetists guidelines and these findings may encourage anaesthetists to reflect on their own practice and guide future research.

  16. Risk factors for failed conversion of labor epidural analgesia to cesarean delivery anesthesia: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational trials.

    PubMed

    Bauer, M E; Kountanis, J A; Tsen, L C; Greenfield, M L; Mhyre, J M

    2012-10-01

    This systematic review and meta-analysis evaluates evidence for seven risk factors associated with failed conversion of labor epidural analgesia to cesarean delivery anesthesia. Online scientific literature databases were searched using a strategy which identified observational trials, published between January 1979 and May 2011, which evaluated risk factors for failed conversion of epidural analgesia to anesthesia or documented a failure rate resulting in general anesthesia. 1450 trials were screened, and 13 trials were included for review (n=8628). Three factors increase the risk for failed conversion: an increasing number of clinician-administered boluses during labor (OR=3.2, 95% CI 1.8-5.5), greater urgency for cesarean delivery (OR=40.4, 95% CI 8.8-186), and a non-obstetric anesthesiologist providing care (OR=4.6, 95% CI 1.8-11.5). Insufficient evidence is available to support combined spinal-epidural versus standard epidural techniques, duration of epidural analgesia, cervical dilation at the time of epidural placement, and body mass index or weight as risk factors for failed epidural conversion. The risk of failed conversion of labor epidural analgesia to anesthesia is increased with an increasing number of boluses administered during labor, an enhanced urgency for cesarean delivery, and care being provided by a non-obstetric anesthesiologist. Further high-quality studies are needed to evaluate the many potential risk factors associated with failed conversion of labor epidural analgesia to anesthesia for cesarean delivery. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Intrapartum sonography head transverse and asynclitic diagnosis with and without epidural analgesia initiated early during the first stage of labor.

    PubMed

    Malvasi, A; Tinelli, A; Brizzi, A; Guido, M; Laterza, F; De Nunzio, G; Bochicchio, M; Ghi, T; Stark, M; Benhamou, D; Di Renzo, G C; Di Renzo, G

    2011-05-01

    To investigate if early epidural analgesia can influence fetal head engagement into the pelvis and if it can increase the rate of transverse and asynclitic position during labour. 195 women with combined spinal-epidural analgesia (CSE) or without neuraxial analgesia were studied. CSE was performed using a mixture of ropivacaine 0.02% with 0.3 microg/ml of sufentanil administered in the spinal space. Maintenance of analgesia was managed with intermittent epidural administration of 10-15 ml of ropivacaine (0.07%-0.10%) mixed with 0.5 microg/ml of sufentanil, based on the stage of labour and the degree of pain. 2D transabdominal ultrasound (US) was used. Serial transabdominal US examinations were performed at 45-90 min intervals to detect transverse and asynclitic positions, using the following signs: squint sign, sunset thalamus and cerebellum signs that best details the fetal head station. After delivery, the complete set of clinical and US data obtained by each examination were recorded and compared in women with and without labour analgesia. Data were examined by independent reviewers. There was no difference in obstetric outcome between women in whom CSE had been used and those who did not request analgesia during labour (p > 0.05). Epidural analgesia initiated early during labour and using low doses does not increase the rate of dystocic labors. Transverse fetal head positioning with anterior or posterior asynclitism does not seem to be promoted by drug or technique-related mechanisms, but rather should be the consequence of cephalopelvic disproportion.

  18. Comparison of Epidural Butorphanol with Neostigmine and Epidural Sufentanyl with Neostigmine for First Stage of Labor Analgesia: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Chaurasia, Manoj; Saxena, Ashok Kumar; Chilkoti, Geetanjali T.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Epidural administration of neostigmine appears to be safe in the obstetric population. Recently, few studies have concluded 10 μg sufentanil to be an effective adjuvant with epidural neostigmine in providing labor analgesia. However, no study has evaluated the analgesic effect of epidural butorphanol with neostigmine for the same. Materials and Methods: The parturients were randomly allocated to one of the three study groups - Group A (n = 30) received butorphanol 1 mg and neostigmine 7 μg/kg. Group B (n = 30) received sufentanil 10 μg and neostigmine 7 μg/kg. Group C (n = 30) received neostigmine 7 μg/kg and 0.9% normal saline. Maternal hemodynamic parameters and fetal heart rate (FHR) were continuously monitored. The level of sensory and motor block, and visual analog scale (VAS) pain score were recorded at designated time points. In addition, the total duration of analgesia, duration of labor, mode of delivery, and any maternal or fetal adverse effects were also recorded. Statistical Analysis Used: A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with post hoc Tukey's test was used to compare mean value among the three groups for age, height, weight, gestational age, and cervical dilatation. Repeated measure ANOVA was used to compare mean difference among the time points and also the trend among the various time points for hemodynamic parameters, VAS pain score, and FHR. For inter-group comparison among the groups, post hoc Tukey test was used. Results: There was a statistically significant longer effect of analgesic drug in Group B with respect to Group A and C (P < 0.001); however, the parturient in Group C had minimum duration of analgesia. Epidural neostigmine combined with sufentanil produces effective analgesia in early labor (VAS <30 within 10 min in 63.3% of parturient and within 15 min in 83.3% parturient) with average duration of 111.67 ± 24.51 min without motor block or other side effect in mother and fetus. No significant effect was observed

  19. Comparison of Epidural Butorphanol with Neostigmine and Epidural Sufentanyl with Neostigmine for First Stage of Labor Analgesia: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Chaurasia, Manoj; Saxena, Ashok Kumar; Chilkoti, Geetanjali T

    2017-01-01

    Epidural administration of neostigmine appears to be safe in the obstetric population. Recently, few studies have concluded 10 μg sufentanil to be an effective adjuvant with epidural neostigmine in providing labor analgesia. However, no study has evaluated the analgesic effect of epidural butorphanol with neostigmine for the same. The parturients were randomly allocated to one of the three study groups - Group A (n = 30) received butorphanol 1 mg and neostigmine 7 μg/kg. Group B (n = 30) received sufentanil 10 μg and neostigmine 7 μg/kg. Group C (n = 30) received neostigmine 7 μg/kg and 0.9% normal saline. Maternal hemodynamic parameters and fetal heart rate (FHR) were continuously monitored. The level of sensory and motor block, and visual analog scale (VAS) pain score were recorded at designated time points. In addition, the total duration of analgesia, duration of labor, mode of delivery, and any maternal or fetal adverse effects were also recorded. A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with post hoc Tukey's test was used to compare mean value among the three groups for age, height, weight, gestational age, and cervical dilatation. Repeated measure ANOVA was used to compare mean difference among the time points and also the trend among the various time points for hemodynamic parameters, VAS pain score, and FHR. For inter-group comparison among the groups, post hoc Tukey test was used. There was a statistically significant longer effect of analgesic drug in Group B with respect to Group A and C (P < 0.001); however, the parturient in Group C had minimum duration of analgesia. Epidural neostigmine combined with sufentanil produces effective analgesia in early labor (VAS <30 within 10 min in 63.3% of parturient and within 15 min in 83.3% parturient) with average duration of 111.67 ± 24.51 min without motor block or other side effect in mother and fetus. No significant effect was observed in the duration of labor and mode of delivery in-between the two groups

  20. [Frequency of colonization and isolated bacteria from the tip of the epidural catheter implanted for postoperative analgesia].

    PubMed

    Stabille, Débora Miranda Diogo; Filho, Augusto Diogo; Mandim, Beatriz Lemos da Silva; Araújo, Lúcio Borges de; Mesquita, Priscila Miranda Diogo; Jorge, Miguel Tanús

    2015-01-01

    The increased use of epidural analgesia with catheter leads to the need to demonstrate the safety of this method and know the incidence of catheter colonization, inserted postoperatively for epidural analgesia, and the bacteria responsible for this colonization. From November 2011 to April 2012, patients electively operated and maintained under epidural catheter for postoperative analgesia were evaluated. The catheter tip was collected for semiquantitative and qualitative microbiological analysis. Of 68 cultured catheters, six tips (8.8%) had positive cultures. No patient had superficial or deep infection. The mean duration of catheter use was 43.45hours (18-118) (p=0.0894). The type of surgery (contaminated or uncontaminated), physical status of patients, and surgical time showed no relation with the colonization of catheters. Microorganisms isolated from the catheter tip were Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Sphingomonas paucimobilis. Postoperative epidural catheter analgesia, under this study conditions, was found to be low risk for bacterial colonization in patients at surgical wards. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  1. The degree of labor pain at the time of epidural analgesia in nulliparous women influences the obstetric outcome

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Jae Hee; Lee, Guie Yong; Baik, Hee Jung; Kim, Youn Jin; Chung, Rack Kyung; Yun, Du Gyun; Lim, Chae Hwang

    2015-01-01

    Background The increased pain at the latent phase can be associated with dysfunctional labor as well as increases in cesarean delivery frequency. We aimed to research the effect of the degree of pain at the time of epidural analgesia on the entire labor process including the mode of delivery. Methods We performed epidural analgesia to 102 nulliparous women on patients' request. We divided the group into three based on NRS (numeric rating scale) at the moment of epidural analgesia; mild pain, NRS 1-4; moderate pain, NRS 5-7; severe pain, NRS 8-10. The primary outcome was the mode of delivery (normal labor or cesarean delivery). Results There were significant differences in the mode of delivery among groups. Patients with severe labor pain had a significantly higher cesarean delivery compared to patients with moderate labor pain (P = 0.006). The duration of the first and second stage of labor, fetal heart rate, use of oxytocin and premature rupture of membranes had no differences in the three groups. Conclusions Our research showed that the degree of pain at the time of epidural analgesia request might influence the rate of cesarean delivery. Further research would be necessary for clarifying the mechanism that the augmentation of pain affects the mode of delivery. PMID:26045927

  2. Adjustment for compliance behavior in trials of epidural analgesia in labor using instrumental variable meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Bannister-Tyrrell, Melanie; Miladinovic, Branko; Roberts, Christine L; Ford, Jane B

    2015-05-01

    Intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) may cause bias when compliance is poor. Noncompliance describes failure to comply with allocation in the intervention arm, and contamination describes uptake of the intervention in the control arm. Instrumental variable (IV) analysis can be applied in addition to the primary ITT analysis to estimate the causal effect adjusted for noncompliance and contamination, assuming that noncompliers would have had the same treatment benefit as compliers. We aimed to compare ITT and IV meta-analysis of the association between epidural analgesia in labor and cesarean section. The study was restricted to 27 trials in a Cochrane Systematic Review. The association between epidural analgesia in labor and cesarean section was calculated using ITT and IV analyses. Pooled risk ratios (RRs) were calculated using fixed-effects meta-analysis. In 18 trials with compliance data, noncompliance was 23% and contamination was 27%. In 10 trials with outcome data stratified by compliance, the pooled RR for cesarean section following epidural analgesia was 1.37 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.00, 1.89; P = 0.049] using IV compared with 1.19 (95% CI: 0.93, 1.51; P = 0.16) using ITT. ITT meta-analysis underestimates the effect of receiving epidural analgesia in labor on cesarean section compared with IV meta-analysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The degree of labor pain at the time of epidural analgesia in nulliparous women influences the obstetric outcome.

    PubMed

    Woo, Jae Hee; Kim, Jong Hak; Lee, Guie Yong; Baik, Hee Jung; Kim, Youn Jin; Chung, Rack Kyung; Yun, Du Gyun; Lim, Chae Hwang

    2015-06-01

    The increased pain at the latent phase can be associated with dysfunctional labor as well as increases in cesarean delivery frequency. We aimed to research the effect of the degree of pain at the time of epidural analgesia on the entire labor process including the mode of delivery. We performed epidural analgesia to 102 nulliparous women on patients' request. We divided the group into three based on NRS (numeric rating scale) at the moment of epidural analgesia; mild pain, NRS 1-4; moderate pain, NRS 5-7; severe pain, NRS 8-10. The primary outcome was the mode of delivery (normal labor or cesarean delivery). There were significant differences in the mode of delivery among groups. Patients with severe labor pain had a significantly higher cesarean delivery compared to patients with moderate labor pain (P = 0.006). The duration of the first and second stage of labor, fetal heart rate, use of oxytocin and premature rupture of membranes had no differences in the three groups. Our research showed that the degree of pain at the time of epidural analgesia request might influence the rate of cesarean delivery. Further research would be necessary for clarifying the mechanism that the augmentation of pain affects the mode of delivery.

  4. Chemical stability of hydromorphone hydrochloride in patient-controlled analgesia injector.

    PubMed

    Khondkar, Dristi; Chopra, Poonam; McArter, John P; Rosen, Joseph A; Li, S Kevin

    2010-01-01

    The chemical stability of hydromorphone hydrochloride in patient-controlled analgesia injectors was studied for 34 weeks at different temperatures. The sterility of the solution was also monitored at the end of 16-week storage. For the determination of stability of hydromorphone, five groups of six patient-controlled analgesia injectors containing hydromorphone solutions of 0.2 mg/mL (6 mg of drug solution in 30 mL 0.9% normal saline) sealed with plastic tip caps were stored at 5 degrees Celsius in refrigerator, 20 degrees Celsius on bench top, 20 degrees Celsius in dark, 35 degrees Celsius in dark, and 50 degrees Celsius in dark. Chemical stability was determined throughout a storage period of 34 weeks using high performance liquid chromatography. Sterility test was also performed at 16 weeks. Hydromorphone solutions stored in different conditions up to 34 weeks remained clear and free of visible precipitation throughout the study. After 8 weeks of storage in the patient-controlled analgesia injectors in different temperature conditions, the concentrations of hydromorphone in all the samples remained over 95% of their original value. At 16 and 34 weeks, the concentration of hydromorphone in the injectors decreased to 92% to 96% and 86% to 88% of their original value, respectively. In the sterility test of bacterial contamination of the hydromorphone solutions in the patient-controlled analgesia injectors at 16 weeks, none of the injector solutions showed evidence of microbial growth after 14 days of incubation in fluid thioglycolate medium. This study demonstrates the stability and sterility of hydromorphone hydrochloride solution.

  5. Efficacy and tolerability of intravenous morphine patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) in women undergoing cesarean delivery.

    PubMed

    Andziak, Marta; Beta, Jarosław; Barwijuk, Michal; Issat, Tadeusz; Jakimiuk, Artur J

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate analgesic efficacy and tolerability of patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) with intravenous morphine. Our observational study included 50 women who underwent a Misgav-Ladach or modified Misgav-Ladach cesarean section. Automated PCA infusion device (Medima S-PCA Syringe Pump, Medima, Krakow, Poland) was used for postoperative pain control. Time of morphine administration or initiation of intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (IV PCA) with morphine was recorded, as well as post-operative pain at rest assessed by a visual analogue scale (VAS). All patients were followed up for 24 hours after discharge from the operating room, taking into account patient records, worst pain score at rest, number of IV PCA attempts, and drug consumption. Median of total morphine doses used during the postoperative period was 42.9mg (IQR 35.6-48.5), with median infusion time of 687.0 min. (IQR 531.0-757.5). Pain severity and total drug consumption improved after the first 3 hours following cesarean delivery (p < 0.01). Mean number of PCA attempts per patient was 33 (IQR: 24-37), with median of 11 placebo attempts (IQR: 3-27). Patient-controlled analgesia with morphine is an efficient and acceptable analgesic method in women undergoing cesarean section.

  6. [Evaluation of the knowledge and attitude of obstetric patients on epidural analgesia].

    PubMed

    Pirbudak, L; Balat, O; Tuncer, S; Oner, U

    2004-01-01

    Epidural analgesia (EA) is one of the most commonly used techniques in obstetric analgesia. Our objective was to evaluate patients who experienced EA during labour as well as to find out their knowledge, attitude and behaviour in this matter, prospectively. Between 1997 and 2002, a questionnaire, "patient evaluation form for EA", was delivered to 190 obstetric patients. The patients were divided into two groups. In Group I there were 100 patients who were evaluated between 1997 and 1999, and Group II was comprised of 90 patients who were evaluated between 2000 and 2002. Demographic data of the patients were similar in both groups. The question "How have you been informed about EA?" was replied as "TV or newspaper" by 50% of the patients in Group I while the answer was "from someone who experienced it before" by 60% of the patients in Group II (p < 0.01). With these information about EA, 30% and 40% of the patients in Group I were found out to be worried about neural paralysis and some possible disorders related to their babies, respectively. However, 40% of the patients in Grup II worried about back pain and headache (p < 0.01). As a result, considering the mother candidates' high information rate from someone who experienced EA before (60%), interest to the labour analgesia will increase as the mothers are satisfied with the results of EA.

  7. Analysis and evaluation of the effectiveness of epidural analgesia and its relationship with eutocic or dystocic delivery.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Migallón, V; Sánchez, E; Raynard, M; Miranda, A; Borràs, R M

    Numerous studies have demonstrated the difference in the verbal rating scale with regard to obstructed labour and induced labour, so that obstructed labour and foetal macrosomia have been related to a greater sensation of pain during labour, particularly in the first stage. Even the epidural analgesia is linked to the need for instrumented or caesarean section due to foetal obstruction. The goal of the study is to analyze and evaluate the effectiveness of epidural analgesia in normal versus obstructed labour. One hundred and eighty pregnant women were included in an observational, analytical, longitudinal and prospective study, that was performed in the Obstetrics Department of the Hospital Universitario Dexeus. All the nulliparous or multiparous over 36 weeks of pregnancy, after 3cm of cervical dilatation in spontaneous or induced labor were included. All the patients were given epidural analgesia according to protocol. The basic descriptive methods were used for the univariate statistical analysis of the sample and the Mann-Whitney U test was used for the comparison of means between both groups. The correlations between variables were studied by means of the Spearman coefficient of correlation. The differences regarded as statistically significant are those whose P<.05. In our population there were no statistically significant differences in the effectiveness of epidural analgesia in normal versus obstructed labour. Patients who got epidural analgesia and had obstructed labors have the same degree of verbal rating scale as patients that do not had obstructed labors (P>.05). Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparison of analgesia provided by lidocaine, lidocaine-morphine or lidocaine-tramadol delivered epidurally in dogs following orchiectomy.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Ricardo M; Escobar, André; Maguilnik, Samara

    2010-11-01

    To evaluate and compare the postoperative analgesia provided by epidural lidocaine, lidocaine/morphine or lidocaine/tramadol in dogs following elective orchiectomy. Prospective experimental trial. Thirty-six mongrel dogs aged 2-8 years old, weighing 6.6-22 kg. The dogs received 6.0 mg kg(-1) of lidocaine combined with 1.0 mg kg(-1) of tramadol, 0.1 mg kg(-1) of morphine or 0.01 mL kg(-1) of 0.9% NaCl epidurally. Analgesia was assessed at 4, 8, 12, 18 and 24 hours (T4, T8, T12 and T24) after the offset of lidocaine using a scale composed of physiologic and behavioral parameters. Rescue analgesia with morphine (0.2 mg kg(-1) , IM) was performed if the evaluation score exceeded 10 during the postoperative period. The scores over time were analyzed using the Friedman's two-way analysis of variance and the comparison between groups was made by the Kruskal-Wallis test with statistical significances accepted if p ≤ 0.05. There were no differences in the pain scores between the morphine and tramadol groups over time and no rescue analgesia was administered. In the NaCl group, rescue analgesia was needed at T4, T8 and T12. Within this group, the final evaluation times (T18 and T24) had lower pain scores than at T4, T8 and T12. Epidural lidocaine/tramadol provided an analgesic effect comparable to that of epidural lidocaine/morphine during the first 12 hours after surgical castration without substantial side effects, suggesting that tramadol may be an effective postoperative analgesic in dogs submitted to this surgical procedure. © 2010 The Authors. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia © 2010 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesiologists.

  9. Postoperative epidural analgesia for patients undergoing pectus excavatum corrective surgery: a 10-year retrospective analysis

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqui, Asad; Tse, Andrew; Paul, James E; Fitzgerald, Peter; Teh, Bernice

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Managing postoperative pain in patients undergoing minimally invasive pectus excavatum repair (Nuss procedure) is challenging but essential in facilitating ambulation and minimizing the length of stay. Although multiple epidural regimens with varying opioids are presently used for pain management, there is currently no clinical consensus regarding which epidural regimen provides the best analgesia outcomes with the fewest side effects. This 10-year retrospective cohort study was performed to compare the quality of analgesia and the incidence of side effects associated with the three most common epidural regimens used at a tertiary care children’s hospital, in patients undergoing the Nuss procedure. Methods Seventy-two pediatric patients were identified as having been treated with one of three epidural regimens for postoperative pain management following the Nuss procedure: Group A (n=12) received 0.125% bupivacaine and 5 µg/mL fentanyl, Group B (n=21) received 0.125% bupivacaine and 10 µg/mL hydromorphone, and Group C (n=39) received 0.1% ropivacaine and 20 µg/mL hydromorphone. Our primary outcome was maximal daily pain scores (numerical rating scale 0–10), with an analytical focus on postoperative day 1 scores. The primary outcome was analyzed using linear regression. The secondary outcomes included the length of stay, side-effect profiles as reflected by the number of treatments for nausea and pruritus, pain scores according to epidural site insertion, occurrence of breakthrough pain, and presence of severe pain throughout their hospital stay. Secondary outcomes were analyzed using linear or logistic regression adjusted for pain scores at baseline. The criterion for statistical significance was set a priori at alpha =0.05. Results Group A had significantly higher day-1 pain scores (score 5.42/10) than Group B (4.52/10; P=0.030) and Group C (4.49/10; P=0.015) after adjusting for baseline pain and age. No significant difference in maximum daily

  10. The effect of bupivacaine with fentanyl temperature on initiation and maintenance of labor epidural analgesia: a randomized controlled study.

    PubMed

    Sviggum, H P; Yacoubian, S; Liu, X; Tsen, L C

    2015-02-01

    Labor epidural analgesia is highly effective, but can be limited by slow onset and incomplete blockade. The administration of warmed, compared to room temperature, bupivacaine has resulted in more rapid onset epidural anesthesia. We hypothesized that the administration of bupivacaine with fentanyl at 37°C versus 20°C would result in improved initial and ongoing labor epidural analgesia. In this prospective, randomized, doubled blinded study, 54 nulliparous, laboring women were randomized to receive epidural bupivacaine 0.125% with fentanyl 2 μg/mL (20 mL initial and 6 mL hourly boluses) at either 37°C or 20°C. Pain verbal rating scores (VRS), sensory level, oral temperature, and side effects were assessed after epidural loading (time 0), at 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 60 min, and at hourly intervals. The primary outcome was the time to achieve initial satisfactory analgesia (VRS ⩽3). Secondary outcomes included ongoing quality of sensory blockade, body temperature and shivering. There were no differences between groups in patient demographics, initial pain scores, cervical dilatation, body temperature or mode of delivery. Epidural bupivacaine at 37°C resulted in shorter mean (±SD) analgesic onset time (9.2±4.7 vs. 16.0±10.5 min, P=0.005) and improved analgesia for the first 15 min after initial bolus (P=0.001-0.03). Although patient temperature increased during the study (P<0.01), there were no differences between the groups (P=0.09). Six (24%) and 10 (40%) patients experienced shivering in the 37°C and 20°C groups, respectively (P=0.23). The administration of epidural 0.125% bupivacaine with fentanyl 2μg/mL at 37°C versus 20°C resulted in more rapid onset and improved labor analgesia for the first 15 min. There was no evidence of improved ongoing labor analgesia or differences in side effects between groups. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Continuous physostigmine combined with morphine-based patient-controlled analgesia in the postoperative period.

    PubMed

    Beilin, B; Bessler, H; Papismedov, L; Weinstock, M; Shavit, Y

    2005-01-01

    Recently, new drugs and techniques for the treatment of postoperative pain were introduced, with the goal of enhancing opiates' analgesia while minimizing their side-effects. Cholinergic agents play an antinociceptive role, but their clinical use is quite limited, due to side-effects. Physostigmine is a cholinesterase inhibitor, which crosses the blood-brain barrier and elevates brain acetylcholine level. Physostigmine can produce analgesia by itself, and enhance opiate analgesia; but these effects are of short duration following bolus administration. We compared pain intensity and morphine consumption in two postoperative treatment groups: One group received continuous physostigmine infusion combined with morphine-based patient-controlled analgesia (PCA), and the other received PCA alone. Cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathways have recently been described. We therefore also compared changes in proinflammatory cytokine production in the two pain management groups. Continuous infusion of physostigmine combined with morphine-based PCA in the postoperative period significantly reduced opiate consumption, and enhanced the analgesic response. Patients in the physostigmine group also exhibited reduced ex-vivo production of the proinflammatory cytokine, IL-1beta. At the same time, physostigmine increased nausea and vomiting, mostly in the first 2 h of the postoperative period. Physostigmine combined with morphine in the postoperative period reduced morphine consumption, enhanced analgesia, and attenuated production of the proinflammatory cytokine, IL-1beta. This latter finding may account for the decreased pain observed in this group; this cytokine is known to mediate basal pain sensitivity and induce hyperalgesia in inflammatory conditions. Taking into account the other potential beneficial effects of physostigmine, we suggest that a continuous infusion of physostigmine should be considered as a useful component in multimodal postoperative analgesia.

  12. Posterior Intercostal Nerve Block With Liposomal Bupivacaine: An Alternative to Thoracic Epidural Analgesia.

    PubMed

    Rice, David C; Cata, Juan P; Mena, Gabriel E; Rodriguez-Restrepo, Andrea; Correa, Arlene M; Mehran, Reza J

    2015-06-01

    Pain relief using regional neuroaxial blockade is standard care for patients undergoing major thoracic surgery. Thoracic epidural analgesia (TEA) provides effective postoperative analgesia but has unwanted side effects, including hypotension, urinary retention, nausea, and vomiting, and is highly operator dependent. Single-shot intercostal nerve and paravertebral blockade have not been widely used because of the short duration of action of most local anesthetics; however, the recent availability of liposomal bupivacaine (LipoB) offers the potential to provide prolonged blockade of intercostal nerves (72 to 96 hours). We hypothesized that a five-level unilateral posterior intercostal nerve block using LipoB would provide effective analgesia for patients undergoing thoracic surgery. We identified patients who underwent lung resection using intraoperative LipoB posterior intercostal nerve blockade and retrospectively compared them with a group of patients who had TEA and who were matched for age, sex, type of surgery, and surgical approach. We analyzed perioperative morbidity, pain scores and narcotic requirements. There were 54 patients in each group. Mean hospital stay was 3.5 days and 4.5 days (p = 0.004) for LipoB group and TEA group, respectively. There were no significant differences in perioperative complications, postoperative pain scores, or in narcotic utilization between LipoB group and TEA group. No acute toxicity related to LipoB was observed. Posterior intercostal nerve blockade using LipoB is safe and provides effective analgesia for patients undergoing thoracic surgery. It may be considered as a suitable alternative to TEA. Copyright © 2015 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Patient-Controlled Fentanyl Iontophoretic Transdermal System Improved Postoperative Mobility Compared to Intravenous Patient-Controlled Analgesia Morphine: A Pooled Analysis of Randomized, Controlled Trials.

    PubMed

    Oliashirazi, Ali; Wilson-Byrne, Timothy; Shuler, Franklin D; Parvizi, Javad

    2017-02-01

    Postoperative pain management protocols that use patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) can hinder mobility due to attached machinery and tubing. Immobility in the postoperative setting can increase complications, length of stay (LOS), and costs. Early and enhanced mobilization can reduce the cost of care while improving patient outcomes. A needle-free, compact, patient-activated, and portable fentanyl iontophoretic transdermal system (fentanyl ITS, IONSYS; The Medicines Company, Parsippany NJ) has been shown to provide comparable efficacy and tolerability to intravenous (IV) PCA morphine that promotes improved mobility. This pooled analysis of 1,882 patients across three randomized, controlled trials compared fentanyl ITS to IV PCA morphine for postoperative pain management. Outcomes of patient mobility were assessed by a validated Patient Ease of Care Questionnaire that was given to patients, patients' nurses, and physical therapists involved in patient care. Safety was assessed via spontaneously reported treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAE). Fentanyl ITS significantly improved overall patient mobility, each mobility subscore (P < 0.0001) across all demographics (male/female; elderly/non-elderly; normal BMI/overweight/obese/morbidly obese) and surgery types, and was consistent across nurses and physical therapists mobility assessments. TEAEs were generally similar between the two groups. However, more patients reported an opioid-related TEAE with morphine IV PCA than with fentanyl IV PCA (P = 0.003). Due to improved mobility with fentanyl ITS, complications are expected to be less frequent than with IV PCA and epidural PCA. Incorporation of this strategy into postoperative pain management protocols may reduce LOS and total hospital costs. © 2016 World Institute of Pain.

  14. Epidural analgesia during labour, routinely or on request: a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Bonouvrié, Kimberley; van den Bosch, Anouk; Roumen, Frans J M E; van Kuijk, Sander M; Nijhuis, Jan G; Evers, Silvia M A A; Wassen, Martine M L H

    2016-12-01

    To assess the cost-effectiveness of routine labour epidural analgesia (EA), from a societal perspective, as compared with labour analgesia on request. Women delivering of a singleton in cephalic presentation beyond 36+0 weeks' gestation were randomly allocated to routine labour EA or analgesia on request in one university and one non-university teaching hospital in the Netherlands. Costs included all medical, non-medical and indirect costs from randomisation to 6 weeks postpartum. Effectiveness was defined as a non-operative, spontaneous vaginal delivery without EA-related maternal adverse effects. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was defined as the ratio of the difference in costs and the difference in effectiveness between both groups. Data were analysed according to intention to treat and divided into a base case analysis and a sensitivity analysis. Total delivery costs in the routine EA group (n=233) were higher than in the labour on request group (n=255) (difference -€ 322, 95% CI -€ 60 to € 355) due to more medication costs (including EA), a longer stay in the labour ward, and more operations including caesarean sections. Total postpartum hospital costs in the routine EA group were lower (difference -€ 344, 95% CI -€ 1338 to € 621) mainly due to less neonatal admissions (difference -€ 472, 95% CI -€ 1297 to € 331), whereas total postpartum home and others costs were comparable (difference -€ 20, 95% CI -€ 267 to € 248, and -€ 1, 95% CI -€ 67 to € 284, respectively). As a result, the overall mean costs per woman were comparable between the routine EA group and the analgesia on request group (€ 8.708 and € 8.710, respectively, mean difference -€ 2, 95% CI -€ 1.012 to € 916). Routine labour EA resulted in more deliveries with maternal adverse effects, nevertheless the ICER remained low (€ 8; bootstrap 95% CI -€ 6.120 to € 8.659). The cost-effectiveness acceptability curve indicated a low probability that

  15. Differences Between Patient and Provider Perceptions of Informed Decision Making About Epidural Analgesia Use During Childbirth

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, Holly Bianca; Shorten, Allison

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether differences exist between patient and provider perceptions regarding the decision-making process around use of epidural analgesia during childbirth. The dyadic patient–provider Decisional Conflict Scale was modified to measure first-time mother (n = 35) and maternity care provider (n = 52) perceptions. Providers perceived a greater degree of informed decision making than patients (84.97 vs. 79.41, p = .04) and were more likely to recall they upheld patients’ rights to make informed choices than patients were to perceive their rights had been upheld (85.95 vs. 71.73, p < .01). This incongruity highlights the need to align legal principles with practice to create mutual agreement between stakeholder perceptions of informed decision making. PMID:24839385

  16. Analgesic efficacy using loss of resistance to air vs. saline in combined spinal epidural technique for labour analgesia.

    PubMed

    Leo, S; Lim, Y; Sia, A T H

    2008-09-01

    Identification of the epidural space is often performed using the loss of resistance technique to either air or saline. We sought to investigate if the medium used affected the quality of analgesia obtained by parturients who received labour epidurals. We conducted a retrospective audit of labour epidurals performed on nulliparous parturients in our institution from May 2003 to March 2005. All epidural catheters were inserted by senior obstetric anaesthetists using a combined spinal epidural technique. The following information was recorded: parturients' demographic data, loss of resistance technique used, type and amount of local anaesthetic solution administered, complications encountered during procedure, pre-block and post-block pain scores, incidence of breakthrough pain requiring supplemental medication and post-block side-effects. Data from 2848 patients were collected and analysed; 56% of patients made up the saline group and 44% the air group. Patients in both groups had similar demographic profiles and similar incidences of complications and post-block side-effects. However patients in the air group had a higher incidence of recurrent breakthrough pain P = 0.023). We also identified three other factors that were associated with an increased incidence of recurrent breakthrough pain; administration of pre-block oxytocin, sitting position of the parturient during the procedure and the use of intrathecal bupivacaine for induction of analgesia. Our findings suggest that a loss of resistance to air is associated with a higher incidence of recurrent breakthrough pain among parturients who received combined spinal epidural analgesia for labour than a loss of resistance to saline.

  17. Thoracic epidural analgesia in a child with multiple traumatic rib fractures.

    PubMed

    Keech, Brian M

    2015-12-01

    The morbidity and mortality associated with blunt thoracic trauma are significant and can be multisystem in nature. Of these, pulmonary complications, including ventilatory impairment secondary to pain, have been recognized to be the most consequential. Although several analgesic strategies have emerged, thoracic epidural analgesia (TEA) has arguably demonstrated superior efficacy and is used frequently in adults. Unfortunately, TEA is rarely used in children after blunt thoracic trauma, but may be of considerable benefit. This low rate of use likely reflects one or more of several factors potentially encountered when considering the use of TEA in pediatric chest wall trauma. Among them are (1) uncertainty regarding safety and efficacy; (2) the technical challenges of pediatric thoracic epidural placement, including technique and equipment concerns; and (3) drug selection, dosing, and toxicity. The following case review describes the successful application of TEA in a 4-year-old boy after multiple traumatic rib fractures and associated pneumothorax and pulmonary contusion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Diamorphine for pain relief in labour : a randomised controlled trial comparing intramuscular injection and patient-controlled analgesia.

    PubMed

    McInnes, Rhona J; Hillan, Edith; Clark, Diana; Gilmour, Harper

    2004-10-01

    To compare the efficacy of diamorphine administered by a patient-controlled pump (patient-controlled analgesia) with intramuscular administration for pain relief in labour. Randomised controlled trial. The South Glasgow University Hospitals NHS Trust. Primigravidae and multigravidae in labour at term (37-42 weeks). Women were randomised in labour to the study (patient-controlled analgesia) or control group (intramuscular). Randomisation was achieved through a random permuted block design stratified by parity. Study group women were given a loading dose of 1.2 mg diamorphine intravenously and then attached to the pump. Control group women received intramuscular diamorphine as per hospital protocol. Participants were also given 3 mg of buccal Stemetil. Data were collected throughout labour and at six postnatal weeks. Analgesia requirements during labour and women's satisfaction with the method of pain relief. Women in the study group (patient-controlled analgesia) used significantly less diamorphine than women in the control group (intramuscular) but were significantly more likely to state that they were very dissatisfied with their use of diamorphine and were significantly more likely to opt out of the trial before the birth of the baby. The majority of women in both groups used other analgesia concurrent with diamorphine such as Entonox, aromatherapy or TENS. Patient-controlled analgesia administration of diamorphine for the relief of pain in labour offers no significant advantages over intramuscular administration. The results also suggest that diamorphine is a poor analgesic for labour pain irrespective of the mode of administration.

  19. Intrapartum epidural analgesia and onset of lactation: a prospective study in an Italian birth centre.

    PubMed

    Mauri, Paola Agnese; Contini, Norma Nilde Guerrini; Giliberti, Simona; Barretta, Francesco; Consonni, Dario; Negri, Mariangela; Di Benedetto, Irene

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the relationship between epidural analgesia (EDA) in labor and the onset of lactation in healthy women after birth. In a Regional Perinatal Center in northern Italy, women who had had a vaginal delivery were recruited by convenience sampling. Analyses were carried out on the data of 366 women. 209 women received EDA and 157 women did not receive EDA or any other pharmacological analgesia. A structured follow-up was carried out interviewing women by telephone after 5 days and, a second time, 20 days after delivery. The primary outcome was the time (in hours) of the onset of lactation. Timing of the onset of lactation in the EDA and non-EDA groups did not statistically differ (p = 0.15), although the non-EDA group was more likely to initiate breastfeeding. On the basis of the results of this study, we concluded that intrapartum EDA does not have an effect on delays in the onset of lactation.

  20. The effect of pre-emptive intravenous Dexketoprofen + thoracal epidural analgesia on the chronic post-thoracotomy pain

    PubMed Central

    Comez, Mehmet; Celik, Mine; Dostbil, Aysenur; Aksoy, Mehmet; Ahiskalioglu, Ali; Erdem, Ali Fuat; Aydin, Yener; İnce, İlker

    2015-01-01

    Post thoracotomy chronic pain is a severe problem that affects the majority of patients and decreases the quality of life. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the long-term effects of thoracal epidural levobupivacaine and intravenous dexketoprofen analgesia formed pre-emptively on the wound site pain after major thoracotomy operations. This randomised, prospective and double-blind study was performed with 60 patients undergoing thoracic surgery. Patients were divided into three groups; Control Group (Group C), Pre-emptive Epidural Group (Group PE) and Pre-emptive Dexketoprofen + Epidural Group (Group PED). Patients in the Group C did not receive epidural analgesics and i.v. dexketoprofen before and during the operation. 10-15 ml 0.125% levobupivacaine was given to cases in Group PE pre-emptively through epidural catheter before the anesthesia induction. The cases in Group PED were given 10-15 ml 0.125% epidural levobupivacaine and 50 mg dexketoprofen with i.v. infusion pre-emptively. The VAS score was found to be lower in Group PED during postoperative 24 and 48 hours and before the discharge (P<0.05). The VAS score was similar in all groups during the first and third months (P>0.05). A statistically significant decrease was determined in the VAS score in Group PED during the sixth month, compared to the other groups (P<0.05). When the scores of Patient Satisfaction Scale (PSS) of the cases were compared, they were found to be higher in Group PED as statistically significant during the discharge period (P<0.001). Scores of PSS were higher in Group PED as statistically significant during the postoperative month 6 (P = 0.008). Combined application of pre-emptive intravenous dexketoprofen and thoracal epidural analgesia reduce the chronic post-thoracotomy pain. PMID:26221376

  1. The RESPITE trial: remifentanil intravenously administered patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) versus pethidine intramuscular injection for pain relief in labour: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Matthew; MacArthur, Christine; Gao Smith, Fang; Homer, Leanne; Handley, Kelly; Daniels, Jane

    2016-12-12

    The commonest opioid used for pain relief in labour is pethidine (meperidine); however, its effectiveness has long been challenged and the drug has known side effects including maternal sedation, nausea and potential transfer across the placenta to the foetus. Over a third of women receiving pethidine require an epidural due to inadequate pain relief. Epidural analgesia increases the risk of an instrumental vaginal delivery and its associated effects. Therefore, there is a clear need for a safe, effective, alternative analgesic to pethidine. Evidence suggests that remifentanil patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) reduces epidural conversion rates compared to pethidine; however, no trial has yet investigated this as a primary endpoint. We are, therefore, comparing pethidine intramuscular injection to remifentanil PCA in a randomised controlled trial. Women in established labour, requesting systemic opioid pain relief, will be randomised to either intravenously administered remifentanil PCA (intervention) or pethidine intramuscular injection (control) in an unblinded, 1:1 individual randomised trial. Following informed consent, 400 women in established labour, who request systemic opioid pain relief, from NHS Trusts across England will undergo a minimised randomisation by a computer or automated telephone system to either pethidine or remifentanil. In order to balance the groups this minimisation is based on four parameters; parity (nulliparous versus multiparous), maternal age (<20, 20 < 30, 30 < 40, 40+ years), ethnicity (South Asian (Pakistani/Indian/Bangladeshi) versus Other) and induced versus spontaneous labour. The effectiveness of pain relief provided by each technique will be recorded every 30 min after time zero, until epidural placement, delivery or transfer to theatre, quantified by Visual Analogue Scale. Incidence of maternal side effects including sedation, delivery mode, foetal distress requiring delivery, neonatal status at delivery and rate of

  2. Efficacy and tolerability of oxycodone versus fentanyl for intravenous patient-controlled analgesia after gastrointestinal laparotomy

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Zhen; Wang, Kaiguo; Wang, Baosheng; Zhou, Naibao; Li, Hao; Yan, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: It has been suggested that oxycodone is effective in relieving acute postoperative pain. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy and tolerability of oxycodone (O) versus fentanyl (F), and the adequate potency ratio of oxycodone and fentanyl in patients with intravenous patient-controlled analgesia after gastric laparotomy. Methods: In this double-blinded, randomized, controlled study, 60 patients undergoing elective gastric laparotomy were allocated to receive either oxycodone or fentanyl for postoperative intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (potency ratio 60:1). The patients received ketorolac 60 mg before the end of anesthesia and then continued with patient-controlled analgesia for 48 hours postsurgery. Pain severity, side effects and respiration rate were recorded 30 minutes, 3, 6, 12, 24, and 48 hours after the surgery. Cumulative opioid requirements and patient satisfaction were also measured. Results: The median consumption more than 48 hours after operation of oxycodone was 50 mg (range: 40.0–62.4 mg) and fentanyl was 0.8 mg (range: 0.6–1.1 mg), and the percentage of patients requiring rescue medication was not statistically significant. Numeric rating scores at rest and upon movement were significantly lower in group O than in F (P < 0.05). Whereas the incidences of adverse events were similar between the groups (33.3% vs 27.6%, P = 0.64), a significant higher sedation scores were found in patients given fentanyl at 30 minutes after the surgery (P = 0.04). Conclusion: Oxycodone was comparable to fentanyl in the relief of postoperative pain following gastric laparotomy. Oxycodone not only provides better postoperative pain relief and less sedation, but also there was a tendency toward more side effects with oxycodone. PMID:27684835

  3. Labour analgesia: Recent advances

    PubMed Central

    Pandya, Sunil T

    2010-01-01

    Advances in the field of labour analgesia have tread a long journey from the days of ether and chloroform in 1847 to the present day practice of comprehensive programme of labour pain management using evidence-based medicine. Newer advances include introduction of newer techniques like combined spinal epidurals, low-dose epidurals facilitating ambulation, pharmacological advances like introduction of remifentanil for patient-controlled intravenous analgesia, introduction of newer local anaesthetics and adjuvants like ropivacaine, levobupivacaine, sufentanil, clonidine and neostigmine, use of inhalational agents like sevoflourane for patient-controlled inhalational analgesia using special vaporizers, all have revolutionized the practice of pain management in labouring parturients. Technological advances like use of ultrasound to localize epidural space in difficult cases minimizes failed epidurals and introduction of novel drug delivery modalities like patient-controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA) pumps and computer-integrated drug delivery pumps have improved the overall maternal satisfaction rate and have enabled us to customize a suitable analgesic regimen for each parturient. Recent randomized controlled trials and Cochrane studies have concluded that the association of epidurals with increased caesarean section and long-term backache remains only a myth. Studies have also shown that the newer, low-dose regimes do not have a statistically significant impact on the duration of labour and breast feeding and also that these reduce the instrumental delivery rates thus improving maternal and foetal safety. Advances in medical technology like use of ultrasound for localizing epidural space have helped the clinicians to minimize the failure rates, and many novel drug delivery modalities like PCEA and computer-integrated PCEA have contributed to the overall maternal satisfaction and safety. PMID:21189877

  4. Perioperative epidural or intravenous ketamine does not improve the effectiveness of thoracic epidural analgesia for acute and chronic pain after thoracotomy.

    PubMed

    Tena, Beatriz; Gomar, Carmen; Rios, Jose

    2014-06-01

    Persistent postsurgical pain (PPP) after thoracotomy effect 50% to 80%. Nerve damage and central sensitization involving NDMDAr activation may play an important role. This study evaluates the efficacy of adding intravenous (IV) or epidural ketamine to thoracic epidural analgesia (TEA) after thoracotomy. Double-blind randomized study on patients undergoing thoracotomy allocated to one of the following: group Kiv (IV racemic ketamine 0.5 mg/kg preincisional +0.25 mg/kg/h for 48 h), group Kep (epidural racemic ketamine 0.5 mg/kg preincisional +0.25 mg/kg/h for 48 h), or group S (saline). Postoperative analgesia was ensured by TEA with ropivacaine and fentanyl. Pain visual analog scales (VAS), Neuropathic Pain Symptom Inventory, Catastrophizing Scale, and Quantitative Sensory Testing, measuring both the peri-incisional and distant hyperalgesia area, were conducted preoperatively and postoperatively until 6 months. Plasma ketamine levels and stability of the analgesic solutions were analyzed. A total of 104 patients were included. PPP incidence was 20% at 6 months. Pain scores on coughing were significantly lower in Kiv and Kep than in S at 24 and 72 hours, but there were no differences afterwards. There were no significant differences in pain at rest, Neuropathic Pain Symptom Inventory, and Catastrophizing Scale, or in the area of mechanical allodynia at any time. Adverse effects were mild. Plasma ketamine levels did not differ significantly between groups. Analgesic solutions were stable. Adding epidural or IV racemic ketamine to TEA after thoracotomy did not lead to any reduction in PPP or allodynia. Epidural administration produced similar plasma ketamine levels to the IV route.

  5. [Pressure Ulcer Caused by Long-term Keeping of the Same Body Position during Epidural Labour Analgesia].

    PubMed

    Naruse, Satoshi; Uchizaki, Sakiko; Mimura, Shinichiro; Taniguchi, Mizuki; Akinaga, Chieko; Sato, Shigehito

    2016-06-01

    We report the case of a 34-year-old woman (height: 153 cm, weight : 62.4 kg, non-pregnant weight : 52 kg, uniparous) without underlying diseases who developed pressure ulcer due to keeping a similar body position during long-term epidural delivery. Induction of childbirth was started in gestational week 40, causing reduction of fetal heart rate, which improved after adoption of a right lateral recumbent position. Severe contractions occurred and epidural labour analgesia was started. The fetal heart rate decreased again and induction of childbirth was suspended, but the right lateral recumbent position was maintained. Epidural administration was continued due to persistent contractions. Next morning, induction of childbirth was restarted and birth occurred in approximately 6 hours. The right lateral recumbent position was maintained for approximately 20 hours. At childbirth, a pressure ulcer was present in the intertrochanteric part of the right femur. The causes included insufficient knowledge of medical staff about the risk of pressure ulcer during epidural delivery, and no position change. A decreased sensation and blocked motor nerve caused by epidural anesthesia might have accelerated pressure ulcer development. This case suggests that preventive measures against pressure ulcer are required in epidural anesthesia in pregnant women.

  6. Differential Effects of Epidural Analgesia on Modes of Delivery and Perinatal Outcomes between Nulliparous and Multiparous Women: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Tai-Ho; Hsieh, T’sang-T’ang; Liu, Hung-Pin

    2015-01-01

    Background Epidural analgesia is considered one of the most effective methods for pain relief during labor. However, it is not clear whether similar effects of epidural analgesia on the progression of labor, modes of delivery, and perinatal outcomes exist between nulliparous and multiparous women. Methodology/Principal Findings A retrospective cohort study was conducted to analyze all deliveries after 37 weeks of gestation, with the exclusion of pregnancies complicated by multiple gestations and fetal anomalies and deliveries without trials of labor; these criteria produced a study population of n=16,852. A multivariable logistic regression model was constructed to control for confounders. In total, 7260 of 10,175 (71.4%) nulliparous and 2987 of 6677 (44.7%) multiparous parturients were administered epidural analgesia. The independent factors for intrapartum epidural analgesia included a low prepregnancy body mass index, genetic amniocentesis, group B streptococcal colonization of the genito-rectal tract, and augmentation and induction of labor. In the nulliparous women, epidural analgesia was a significant risk factor for operative vaginal delivery (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 2.14, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.80-2.54); however, it was a protective factor against Caesarean delivery (adjusted OR 0.62, 95% CI 0.55-0.69). Epidural analgesia remained a significant risk factor for operative vaginal delivery (adjusted OR 2.17, 95% CI 1.58-2.97) but not for Caesarean delivery (adjusted OR 1.09, 95% CI 0.77-1.55) in the multiparous women. Furthermore, the women who were administered epidural analgesia during the trials of labor had similar rates of adverse perinatal outcomes compared with the women who were not administered epidural analgesia, except that a higher rate of 1-minute Apgar scores less than 7 was noted in the nulliparous women who were administered epidural analgesia. Conclusions/Significance Intrapartum epidural analgesia has differential effects on the

  7. Patient controlled intravenous analgesia (PCIA) in postoperative surgical patients: an audit.

    PubMed

    Zafar, S U; Hamid, M; Hoda, M Q U

    2004-07-01

    We conducted an audit for the evaluation of the effectiveness, adverse effects and degree of patient satisfaction with Patient Controlled Intravenous Analgesia (PCIA) for postoperative pain control in surgical patients. This was an observational study. Patient, scheduled for different surgical procedures, were informed about PCIA a day before surgery and were offered PCIA for pain control after surgery. All the patients were asked to fill a questionnaire 24 hours after the start of PCIA, that contained the relevant questions reflecting the objectives of the study. Seventy-six patients participated in the study of whom 91% had a visual analogue pain score of <3 at rest and 83% had a score of <3 at movement on visual analogue scale of 0-10. Eighty percent of patients rated the convenience of pain control as being excellent, whereas 92% stated that the dependence on nursing staff for pain management was nil. The incidence of drowsiness and nausea was 28% each, while 21% of the patients complained of restricted mobility. Patient controlled intravenous analgesia is an excellent method of postoperative pain relief, which provides a high degree of satisfaction to the patients.

  8. Transdermal nitroglycerin as an adjuvant to patient-controlled morphine analgesia after total knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Orbach-Zinger, Sharon; Lenchinsky, Artium; Paul-Kesslin, Lesley; Velks, Steven; Salai, Moses; Eidelman, Leonid A

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nitroglycerin (NTG) has been shown to be a useful adjunct for pain treatment without increasing adverse side effects. The effects of NTG on postoperative morphine consumption after knee replacement were evaluated. METHODS: After undergoing total knee replacement, patients receiving patient-controlled morphine analgesia were randomly assigned to receive either an NTG or a placebo patch. The blinded investigator assessed each patient using a visual analogue scale at rest and while moving, as well as the patient’s morphine requirements, sedation score, sleep quality, nausea and vomiting, vital signs and postoperative bleeding. RESULTS: Two of the patients in the NTG group suffered postoperative myocardial infarctions after removal of the patch. Because of these two serious adverse effects, the study was stopped prematurely. In the subset of patients studied, NTG conferred no advantage over placebo in pain control (visual analogue scale at rest or during movement) and in satisfaction scores. CONCLUSIONS: The use of NTG patches conferred no advantage over the use of placebo in patients receiving patient-controlled morphine analgesia after total knee replacement. Two myocardial infarcts occurred in this group. Therefore, the safety of postoperative NTG patch use for pain control must be questioned. PMID:19532851

  9. Comparison of the Effects of Sufentanil and Fentanyl Intravenous Patient Controlled Analgesia after Lumbar Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Do Keun; Yoon, Seung Hwan; Kim, Ji Yong; Oh, Chang Hyun; Jung, Jong Kwon; Kim, Jin

    2017-01-01

    Objective Postoperative pain is one of the major complaints of patients after lumbar fusion surgery. The authors evaluated the effects of intravenous patient controlled analgesia (IV-PCA) using fentanyl or sufentanil on postoperative pain management and pain-related complications. Methods Forty-two patients that had undergone surgery with lumbar instrumentation and fusion at single or double levels constituted the study cohort. Patients were equally and randomly allocated to a sufentanil group (group S) or a fentanyl group (group F) for patient controlled analgesia (PCA). Group S received sufentanil at a dose of 4 μg/kg IV-PCA and group F received fentanyl 24 μg/kg IV-PCA. A numeric rating scale (NRS) of postoperative pain was applied before surgery, and immediately and at 1, 6, and 24 hours (hrs) after surgery. Oswestry disability index (ODI) scores were obtained before surgery and one month after surgery. Opioid-related side effects were also evaluated. Results No significant intergroup difference was observed in NRS or ODI scores at any of the above-mentioned time points. Side effects were more frequent in group F. More specifically, nausea, vomiting rates were significantly higher (p=0.04), but pruritus, hypotension, and headache rates were non-significantly different in the two groups. Conclusion Sufentanil displayed no analgesic advantage over fentanyl postoperatively. However, sufentanil should be considerable for patients at high risk of GI issues, because it had lower postoperative nausea and vomiting rates than fentanyl. PMID:28061485

  10. Regular intermittent bolus provides similar incidence of maternal fever compared with continuous infusion during epidural labor analgesia

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Shan-Wu; Xu, Shi-Qin; Ma, Li; Li, Cai-Juan; Wang, Xian; Yuan, Hong-Mei; Wang, Fu-Zhou; Shen, Xiao-Feng; Ding, Zheng-Nian

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To compare the effects of regular intermittent bolus versus continuous infusion for epidural labor analgesia on maternal temperature and serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) level. Methods: This randomized trial was performed in Nanjing Maternity and Child Health Care Hospital, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, China between October 2012 and February 2014. Either regular intermittent bolus (RIB, n=66) or continuous infusion (CI, n=66) was used for epidural labor analgesia. A bolus dose (10 ml of 0.08% ropivacaine + 0.4 µg·ml-1 sufentanil) was manually administrated once an hour in the RIB group, whereas the same solution was continuously infused at a constant rate of 10 ml·h-1 in the CI group. Maternal tympanic temperature and serum IL-6 level were measured hourly from baseline to one hour post partum. The incidences of fever (≥38ºC) were calculated. Results: The incidence of maternal fever was similar between the 2 groups. There was a rising trend in mean temperature over time in both groups, but no statistical difference was detected between the groups at respective time points; maternal serum IL-6 showed similar changes. Conclusion: Compared with continuous infusion, regular intermittent bolus presents with the same incidence of maternal fever for epidural labor analgesia. Interleukin-6 elevation could be involved in mean maternal temperature increase. PMID:25316469

  11. Regular intermittent bolus provides similar incidence of maternal fever compared with continuous infusion during epidural labor analgesia.

    PubMed

    Feng, Shan-Wu; Xu, Shi-Qin; Ma, Li; Li, Cai-Juan; Wang, Xian; Yuan, Hong-Mei; Wang, Fu-Zhou; Shen, Xiao-Feng; Ding, Zheng-Nian

    2014-10-01

    To compare the effects of regular intermittent bolus versus continuous infusion for epidural labor analgesia on maternal temperature and serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) level. This randomized trial was performed in Nanjing Maternity and Child Health Care Hospital, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, China between October 2012 and February 2014. Either regular intermittent bolus (RIB, n=66) or continuous infusion (CI, n=66) was used for epidural labor analgesia. A bolus dose (10 ml of 0.08% ropivacaine + 0.4 ug·ml-1 sufentanil) was manually administrated once an hour in the RIB group, whereas the same solution was continuously infused at a constant rate of 10 ml·h-1 in the CI group. Maternal tympanic temperature and serum IL-6 level were measured hourly from baseline to one hour post partum. The incidences of fever (>/=38 degree celsius ) were calculated. The incidence of maternal fever was similar between the 2 groups. There was a rising trend in mean temperature over time in both groups, but no statistical difference was detected between the groups at respective time points; maternal serum IL-6 showed similar changes. Compared with continuous infusion, regular intermittent bolus presents with the same incidence of maternal fever for epidural labor analgesia. Interleukin-6 elevation could be involved in mean maternal temperature increase. 

  12. Safety and Efficacy of a Pharmacist-Managed Patient-Controlled Analgesia Service in Postsurgical Patients.

    PubMed

    McGonigal, Katrina H; Giuliano, Christopher A; Hurren, Jeff

    2017-09-01

    To compare the safety and efficacy of a pharmacist-managed patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) service with physician/midlevel provider-managed (standard) PCA services in postsurgical patients. This was a multicenter, retrospective cohort study performed at 3 major hospitals in the Detroit, Michigan, metropolitan area. Postsurgical patients from October 2012 to December 2013 were included. The primary outcome compared the pain area under the curve adjusted for time on PCA (AUC/T) of patients receiving pharmacist-managed PCA services vs. standard care, up to 72 hours after initiation of PCA. Secondary outcomes included initial opioid selection, programmed PCA settings, duration of PCA use, frequency of adjunct analgesia utilization, and frequency of breakthrough analgesia utilization. Safety outcomes were assessed as a composite safety endpoint and individually. Total pain AUC/T scores did not differ between the pharmacist-managed and standard-managed groups (3.25 vs. 3.25, respectively; P = 0.98). Adjunct pain medications were given with similar frequency in the 2 groups; however, significantly fewer patients required breakthrough pain medication in the pharmacist-managed group (11% vs. 36%, respectively; P < 0.0001). A composite endpoint of any adverse event occurring was found to be greater in the pharmacist-managed group. This was driven by a higher proportion of patients requiring antiemetic use (46% vs. 32%; P = 0.04). A pharmacist-managed PCA service provided no difference in pain control compared to standard management. The requirement for breakthrough analgesia was decreased in the pharmacist group, while the need for antiemetic use was increased. Further research should be conducted to evaluate different PCA management strategies. © 2016 World Institute of Pain.

  13. Epidural analgesia using loss of resistance with air versus saline: does it make a difference? Should we reevaluate our practice?

    PubMed

    Norman, David

    2003-12-01

    The choice of using air or saline in epidural syringes during the loss-of-resistance technique, for identifying the epidural space, has been based largely on personal preference of the anesthesia provider. A survey of practice in the United Kingdom, thought to be similar to practice in the United States, revealed that the majority of anesthesia providers use air. Case reports have appeared in the literature suggesting that air may be harmful to patients or, at the very least, impede the onset and quality of epidural analgesia. Two studies have evaluated air vs saline to determine whether one may lead to more rapid or better quality epidural analgesia in laboring parturients. Results are mixed. However, they seem to indicate that the use of saline for the loss-of-resistance may result in more rapid and satisfactory quality of pain relief in laboring parturients. Current anesthesia literature suggests using saline with an air bubble in the loss-of-resistance syringe. Many anesthesia training programs continue to teach the use of air, saline, and saline with an air bubble. Further studies may help to determine whether there is a scientific or safety basis for using air vs saline.

  14. Comparison between epidural fentanyl, sufentanil, carfentanil, lofentanil and alfentanil in the rat: analgesia and other in vivo effects.

    PubMed

    Meert, T F; Lu, H R; van Craenndonck, H; Janssen, P A

    1988-09-01

    The effects of epidural fentanyl, sufentanil, carfentanil, lofentanil and alfentanil were compared in the rat. All five opiates produced analgesia with the relative order of potency being lofentanil greater than carfentanil greater than sufentanil greater than fentanyl greater than alfentanil, and the relative order of duration at comparative doses lofentanil greater than sufentanil greater than carfentanil greater than fentanyl greater than alfentanil. Because epidural administered opiates still exert some effects within the brain, specificity ratios (defined as the ratio between the ED50s for a prolongation of the tail-withdrawal reaction latency and a blockade of the pinna reflex) were calculated. The relative order of specificity between the five opiates was fentanyl greater than lofentanil greater than sufentanil greater than carfentanil greater than alfentanil. These results are discussed in the context of the search for a safe and sufficiently long-acting lipid soluble epidural analgesic. It is concluded that of these five opiates, sufentanil appears to be the best drug of choice for epidural analgesia.

  15. Effects of OPRM1 A118G polymorphism on epidural analgesia with fentanyl during labor: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Song, Zheming; Du, Boxiang; Wang, Kai; Shi, Xueyin

    2013-10-01

    Emerging evidence has shown that the most common polymorphism (A118G; rs1799971 A>G) in the μ-opioid receptor (OPRM1) gene may influence the response to labor analgesia, but individually published studies showed inconclusive results. This meta-analysis aimed to derive a more precise estimation of the effects of the OPRM1 A118G polymorphism on epidural analgesia with fentanyl during labor. A literature search was conducted on PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and China BioMedicine databases before April 1st, 2013. The crude standardized mean difference (SMD) or odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated. Six clinical studies were included with a total 838 women who received epidural analgesia with fentanyl during labor. The meta-analysis results indicated that women carrying the G allele (AG+GG) of the OPRM1 A118G polymorphism required less fentanyl doses to achieve adequate pain relief compared with those with the AA homozygote (SMD=-0.24, 95% CI [-0.44, -0.03], p=0.022). The 118G variant was associated with a decreased ED50 of fentanyl for labor analgesia (SMD=-1.56, 95% CI [-1.97, -1.15], p<0.001). The analgesia satisfaction in women carrying the G allele (AG+GG) was higher than those with the AA homozygote (SMD=0.22, 95% CI [0.05, 0.39], p=0.012). However, there were no statistically significant differences between an AA homozygote and a G carrier (AG+GG) in the incidence of nausea and vomiting (OR=1.99, 95% CI [0.88, 4.52], p=0.101). In conclusion, the current meta-analysis indicates that women carrying the G allele (AG+GG) of OPRM1 A118G polymorphism may have a good response to epidural analgesia with fentanyl during labor. The OPRM1 A118G polymorphism may help predict individuals' response to epidural labor analgesia and so optimize postoperative pain control.

  16. A Comparative Study for Post Operative Analgesia in the Emergency Laparotomies: Thoracic Epidural Ropivacaine with Nalbuphine and Ropivacaine with Butorphanol

    PubMed Central

    Babu, Saravana; Gupta, Bikram Kumar; Gautam, Gyanendra Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Background: Adequate postoperative pain therapy for emergency abdominal surgeries is important far beyond the perioperative period because sensitization to painful stimuli can cause postoperative morbidity. A prospective, double-blind, randomized study was carried out to compare the quality of postoperative analgesia and side-effect profile between epidurally administered butorphanol and nalbuphine as an adjuvant to 0.2% ropivacaine. Materials and Methods: A total of eighty patients, 43 men and 37 women between the age of 18 and 65 years of American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) Class I E and II E, who underwent intestinal perforation repair surgery were randomly allocated into two groups ropivacaine with butorphanol (RB) and ropivacaine with nalbuphine (RN), comprising of 40 patients each. Group RB received 0.2% ropivacaine containing 2 mg butorphanol while Group RN received 0.2% ropivacaine containing 10 mg nalbuphine through thoracic epidural catheter. Quality of analgesia, cardiorespiratory parameters, side-effects, and the need of rescue intravenous analgesia were observed. Results: The demographic profile and ASA Class were comparable between the groups. RN group had good quality of analgesia and stable cardiorespiratory parameters for the initial 6 h of postoperative period, after which they were comparable in both groups. Furthermore, the need of rescue analgesia was higher (20%) in the RB group during the first 6 h. The side-effect profile was comparable with a little higher incidence of nausea in both groups. Conclusion: Thoracic epidurally administered ropivacaine with nalbuphine is more effective than ropivacaine with butorphanol for immediate postoperative pain relief in patients undergoing emergency exploratory laparotomy. PMID:28298776

  17. Serial Peak Expiratory Flow Rates in Patients Undergoing Upper Abdominal Surgeries Under General Anaesthesia and Thoracic Epidural Analgesia.

    PubMed

    Misquith, Julie C R; Rao, Rammoorthi; Ribeiro, Karl Sa

    2016-02-01

    Anaesthesia and upper abdominal surgeries alter lung compliance and functional residual capacity resulting from atelectasis. Upper abdominal surgeries also cause a decrease in peak expiratory flow rates, cough reflex due to pain limited inspiration. This study aimed to study the effect of thoracic epidural analgesia (TEA) on the peak expiratory flow rates in patients undergoing upper abdominal surgeries. A total of 44 patients posted for elective surgery were enrolled. Group 1 patients received GA + 0.125% bupivacaine infusion TEA and Group 2 received GA + Inj. Diclofenac sodium 50 mg slow i.v. TID for Postoperative analgesia. Haemodynamics, VAS pain score, PEFR measurements were done at 60 minutes, 24 hours, 48 hours and 4 days after surgery in both groups. ABG analysis was taken pre operatively and 24 hours after surgery. The SBP and DBP values obtained at 60 minutes (p<0.016) 24 and 48 hours (p<0.001) and day 4 (p<0.02) postoperative showed highly significant difference between the two groups which indicate better haemodynamic parameters in patients receiving epidural analgesia. Postoperatively the difference in PEFR values at 60 minutes, 24 hour, 48 hour and day 4 were very highly significant. (p<0.001). Group1 had a 10.739% deficit on day 4 from its pre operative baseline value while group 2 showed a 34.825 % deficit which was very highly significant (p<0.001). The difference in VAS scores recorded at 60 minutes, 24 hours, 48 hours and day 4 post op were very highly statistically significant (p < 0.001). The ABG taken at 24 hours shows statistically significant difference with patients in group 2 showing decreased values in pCO2 and pO2 reflecting poorer ventilation and oxygenation. Thoracic epidural analgesia provides superior analgesia, better cough reflex as seen by better PEFR values, were haemodynamically more stable and their ABG values were better than the NSAID group.

  18. Intraoperative antinociception and postoperative analgesia following epidural anesthesia versus femoral and sciatic nerve blockade in dogs undergoing stifle joint surgery.

    PubMed

    Caniglia, Andrea M; Driessen, Bernd; Puerto, David A; Bretz, Brian; Boston, Raymond C; Larenza, M Paula

    2012-12-15

    To compare analgesic efficacy of preoperative epidural anesthesia with efficacy of femoral and sciatic nerve blockade in dogs undergoing hind limb orthopedic surgery. Prospective randomized blinded clinical study. 22 dogs requiring stifle joint surgery. Dogs were premedicated with acepromazine and morphine, and anesthesia was induced with diazepam and propofol and maintained with sevoflurane in oxygen. Prior to surgery, a combination of 1.0% lidocaine solution with 0.25% bupivacaine solution was administered either into the lumbosacral epidural space (11 dogs) or perineurally along the femoral and sciatic nerves (11). Intraoperative nociception was assumed if heart rate or systolic blood pressure increased by > 10% from baseline, in which case fentanyl (2 μg/kg [0.9 μg/lb], IV) was administered as rescue analgesia. Following recovery from anesthesia, signs of postoperative pain were assessed every 30 minutes for 360 minutes from the time of local anesthetic administration via the modified Glasgow pain scale. Patients with scores > 5 (scale, 0 to 20) received hydromorphone (0.1 mg/kg [0.05 mg/lb], IV) as rescue analgesia and were then withdrawn from further pain scoring. Treatment groups did not differ significantly in the number fentanyl boluses administered for intraoperative rescue analgesia. Time to administration of first postoperative rescue analgesia was comparable between groups. Furthermore, there was no significant difference between groups in baseline pain scores, nor were there significant differences at any other point during the postoperative period. Femoral and sciatic nerve blocks provided intraoperative antinociception and postoperative analgesia similar to epidural anesthesia in dogs undergoing stifle joint surgery.

  19. Manipulation with prolonged epidural analgesia for treatment of TKA complicated by arthrofibrosis.

    PubMed

    Pariente, Gerardo Mangino; Lombardi, Adolph V; Berend, Keith R; Mallory, Thomas H; Adams, Joanne B

    2006-01-01

    Inability to achieve adequate range of motion (ROM) after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) represents a frustrating complication for both patient and surgeon. Manipulation under anesthesia is indicated in TKA having less than 90 degrees ROM after six weeks, with no progression or regression in ROM. A modified technique has evolved for patients with chronic regional pain syndrome (CRPS) symptoms or persistent stiffness after standard manipulation. A retrospective review was conducted to determine the efficacy of the modified technique, which uses epidural anesthesia continued for postoperative analgesia, hospital stay of one to three days, continuous passive motion (CPM) for two to three days, and daily physical therapy (PT). Between 1997 and 2003, 5714 TKAs were performed in 4106 patients. Manipulation using a standard technique was performed on 334 (5.8%) knees in 273 patients. Manipulation using a modified technique was performed on 65 (1%) knees in 60 patients. Age averaged 58 years and body mass index (BMI) averaged 34.39. Follow up averaged 18.4 months. ROM improved significantly from 71 degrees to 102 degrees (p < 0.0001). Knee Society pain, function, and total clinical scores all improved significantly (all p < 0.0001). Successful results were observed in 48 (74%) knees. Four (6%) additional knees achieved a successful result after a subsequent manipulation. Nine (14%) knees required component revision for treatment of persistent arthrofibrosis, which included one full revision, five polyethylene exchanges, and three revisions of femoral component and polyethylene. Two significant complications occurred: one subdural hematoma and one death due to pulmonary embolism. Although not without complications, manipulation under epidural anesthesia represents a viable option for treatment of persistent stiffness after TKA; 80% of these difficult cases achieved successful results.

  20. Epidural analgesia and cesarean delivery in multiple sclerosis post-partum relapses: the Italian cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Few studies have systematically addressed the role of epidural analgesia and caesarean delivery in predicting the post-partum disease activity in women with Multiple Sclerosis (MS). The objective of this study was to assess the impact of epidural analgesia (EA) and caesarean delivery (CD) on the risk of post-partum relapses and disability in women with MS. Methods In the context of an Italian prospective study on the safety of immunomodulators in pregnancy, we included pregnancies occurred between 2002 and 2008 in women with MS regularly followed-up in 21 Italian MS centers. Data were gathered through a standardized, semi-structured interview, dealing with pregnancy outcomes, breastfeeding, type of delivery (vaginal or caesarean) and EA. The risk of post-partum relapses and disability progression (1 point on the Expanded Disability Status Sclae, EDSS, point, confirmed after six months) was assessed through a logistic multivariate regression analysis. Results We collected data on 423 pregnancies in 415 women. Among these, 349 pregnancies resulted in full term deliveries, with a post-partum follow-up of at least one year (mean follow-up period 5.5±3.1 years). One hundred and fifty-five patients (44.4%) underwent CD and 65 (18.5%) EA. In the multivariate analysis neither CD, nor EA were associated with a higher risk of post-partum relapses. Post-partum relapses were related to a higher EDSS score at conception (OR=1.42; 95% CI 1.11-1.82; p=0.005), a higher number of relapses in the year before pregnancy (OR=1.62; 95% CI 1.15-2.29; p=0.006) and during pregnancy (OR=3.07; 95% CI 1.40-6.72; p=0.005). Likewise, CD and EA were not associated with disability progression on the EDSS after delivery. The only significant predictor of disability progression was the occurrence of relapses in the year after delivery (disability progression in the year after delivery: OR= 4.00; 95% CI 2.0-8.2; p<0.001; disability progression over the whole follow-up period: OR= 2.0; 95

  1. An observational study of agreement between percentage pain reduction calculated from visual analog or numerical rating scales versus that reported by parturients during labor epidural analgesia.

    PubMed

    Pratici, E; Nebout, S; Merbai, N; Filippova, J; Hajage, D; Keita, H

    2017-05-01

    This study aimed to determine the level of agreement between calculated percentage pain reduction, derived from visual analog or numerical rating scales, and patient-reported percentage pain reduction in patients having labor epidural analgesia. In a prospective observational study, parturients were asked to rate their pain intensity on a visual analog scale and numerical rating scale, before and 30min after initiation of epidural analgesia. The percentage pain reduction 30min after epidural analgesia was calculated by the formula: 100×(score before epidural analgesia-score 30min after epidural analgesia)/score before epidural analgesia. To evaluate agreement between calculated percentage pain reduction and patient-reported percentage pain reduction, we computed the concordance correlation coefficient and performed Bland-Altman analysis. Ninety-seven women in labor were enrolled in the study, most of whom were nulliparous, with a singleton fetus and in spontaneous labor. The concordance correlation coefficient with patient-reported percentage pain reduction was 0.76 (95% CI 0.6 to 0.8) and 0.77 (95% CI 0.6 to 0.8) for the visual analog and numerical rating scale, respectively. The Bland-Altman mean difference between calculated percentage pain reduction and patient-reported percentage pain reduction for the visual analog and numerical rating scales was -2.0% (limits of agreement at 29.8%) and 0 (limits of agreement at 28.2%), respectively. The agreement between calculated percentage pain reduction from a visual analog or numerical rating scale and patient-reported percentage pain reduction in the context of labor epidural analgesia was moderate. The difference could range up to 30%. Patient-reported percentage pain reduction has advantages as a measurement tool for assessing pain management for childbirth but differences compared with other assessment methods should be taken into account. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Ambulatory postoperative ward-based epidural analgesia: a retrospective review of 1,147 cases.

    PubMed

    Duff, P; Daly, C; McCrory, C

    2013-03-01

    A retrospective review of 1,147 patients who received epidural analgesia (EA) in surgical wards from January 2008 to December 2009 to determine the prevalence of early ambulation and assess the efficacy and safety of EA for postoperative pain management. Outcome measures were the prevalence of ambulation, pain scores at rest/movement and adverse events. Patients (N = 1,147) who received postoperative EA between January 2008 and December 2009 were included. Motor function was assessed using the Bromage scale. Ambulation was defined as: Day 1: mobilisation from bed to chair, walking on the spot, taking a few steps, thereafter walks of increasing duration and distance at least twice daily. Pain scores were measured using the verbal numerical rating scale (0-10), ≤4 signifying successful analgesia. Daily assessments and data recordings were performed by clinical nurse specialists (CNSs) using standardised charts. Data collected included patient demographics, surgical procedure, ambulation achieved, pain scores at rest/movement and adverse events. The data was analysed using Microsoft Excel(®). The prevalence of ambulation was 88% and this was maintained for the duration of EA. Ninety-eight percent of patients reported pain scores of ≤4 at rest and 88% reported pain scores of ≤4 on movement. Adverse events included motor block 12%, nausea 9%, hypotension 8%, catheter dislodgement 3.8%, leakage from insertion site 1.6%, decubitus ulcers 0.58% and infection 0.001%. Mean duration of EA was 4 days. Ward-based EA facilitates early ambulation, provides excellent postoperative pain relief and is associated with low prevalence of adverse events.

  3. Impact of patient-controlled analgesia on required nursing time and duration of postoperative recovery.

    PubMed

    Chan, V W; Chung, F; McQuestion, M; Gomez, M

    1995-01-01

    Patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) offers effective postoperative pain management. However, the evidence of economic benefits associated with its use is lacking. Although suggestive, the potential economic advantages of PCA in saving nursing time and shortening hospital stay need objective documentation. This study compared the effects of morphine administered by PCA systems with intramuscular (i.m.) morphine injection on patient analgesic response, satisfaction, nursing time requirements, and postoperative recovery in 23 patients undergoing "open" cholecystectomy and 44 patients undergoing lumbar laminectomy and bony fusion. After the operation, patients in the PCA group received 1.5-2 mg morphine with a lockout of 5-10 minutes on demand, whereas those in the i.m. group received 0.15-0.2 mg/kg every 4 hours on demand. Visual analog scale (VAS) pain scores and satisfaction scores were evaluated at 4-hour intervals while nursing time spent on both analgesia-related and non-analgesia-related activities was recorded continuously by a team of independent observers on the ward. Recovery time profile for the return of bowel function, activities of daily living, ambulation without support, and length of hospital stay was also recorded. It was found that morphine consumption, VAS, and satisfaction scores were similar in both PCA and i.m. treatment groups following both types of surgery. However, the delay in nurse response to i.m. morphine request ranged from 27.2 +/- to 42.1 +/- 11.8 minutes. The demand of nursing time on analgesia administration was less with PCA. The magnitude of time saving was 10 min/patient/d in cholecystectomy patients and 13 min/patient/d in laminectomy patients. The speed of postoperative patient recovery was similar between the two analgesia groups. Length of hospital stay following cholecystectomy was shorter--92.0 +/- 5.9 hours with PCA versus 128.6 +/- 22.2 hours with i.m. (not statistically significant)--whereas that following laminectomy was

  4. An audit of patient-controlled analgesia after appendicectomy in children.

    PubMed

    Ousley, Rowan; Burgoyne, Laura L; Crowley, Nicola R; Teague, Warwick J; Costi, David

    2016-10-01

    Patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) is commonly used after appendicectomy in children. The aim of this study was to characterize the analgesic use of children prescribed PCA after appendicetomy, in order to rationalize future use of this modality. We retrospectively audited all cases of acute appendicitis over a 4-year period in a single pediatric hospital, recording demographics, surgical approach, pathology, analgesia use, pain scores, and duration of PCA. We preplanned subgroup analyses for surgical approach, pathology, and intraoperative nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) administration. We subsequently identified a patient subgroup who were unlikely to require PCA and conducted a (2 months) prospective audit of such patients (uncomplicated appendicitis with intraoperative NSAID) having non-PCA (oral) analgesia. Of the 649 patients undergoing appendicectomy for acute appendicitis, 85% were prescribed an opioid PCA, 8% received an opioid infusion (younger patients), and 7% received neither PCA nor infusion. Of the 541 bolus only PCA patients, 49% had laparoscopic surgery, 36% had complicated appendicitis, and 49% received intraoperative NSAID (diclofenac). Mean (SD) duration of PCA was shorter with uncomplicated vs complicated appendicitis (21.9 ± 10.7 vs 32.8 ± 21.1 h, P < 0.001, difference in means [95% CI]: 10.9 [7.7-14.1]), and with intraoperative NSAID (23.2 ± 14.4 vs 28.4 ± 17.4 h, P < 0.001, difference in means [95% CI]: 5.2 [2.5-7.9]). There was no difference in the time to PCA cessation between laparoscopic and open approach. Morphine consumption and pain scores were lower in the early postoperative period for those patients receiving intraoperative NSAID. In the prospective audit, 44 of 69 patients had uncomplicated appendicitis. Thirty-eight of these were prescribed oral analgesia and none required any parenteral opioid or acute pain service intervention postoperatively. Parental satisfaction level was high (>90%) with oral analgesia. It

  5. Audit of the influence of body mass index on the performance of epidural analgesia in labour and the subsequent mode of delivery.

    PubMed

    Dresner, M; Brocklesby, J; Bamber, J

    2006-10-01

    To assess the influence of body mass index (BMI) on the performance of epidural analgesia in labour and the subsequent mode of delivery. A retrospective audit of prospectively collected quality assurance data. The delivery suite of Leeds General Infirmary, Leeds, UK. This is a 4500-delivery teaching hospital unit. All women receiving epidural analgesia during labour in our unit between April 1997 and December 2005. Epidural recipients were divided into BMI groups according to World Health Organization (WHO) categories and compared for indices of epidural performance and mode of delivery. Midwife and patient satisfaction scores with epidural analgesia, epidural resite rates, and mode of delivery. Data from 13 299 epidural recipients were analysed. Using WHO definitions, 22.8% were of normal body mass, 41.9% were overweight, 31.9% obese, and 3.4% morbidly obese. Epidurals were more likely to fail as BMI increased, as judged by midwife satisfaction scores (P < 0.001) and epidural resite rates (P < 0.01). This trend was not seen for maternal satisfaction scores using the WHO BMI categories. However, if women with BMI below 30 kg/m2 were grouped together, a significant trend was found (P < 0.01). BMI had no influence on vaginal instrumental deliveries, but caesarean section rates rose from 11.5% in women of normal BMI to 29.2% in the morbidly obese women (P < 0.001). Obesity increases the incidence of analgesic failure and the need for resite of epidurals. The caesarean section rate among epidural recipients increases dramatically as BMI rises.

  6. Thoracic epidural analgesia: a new approach for the treatment of acute pancreatitis?

    PubMed

    Windisch, Olivier; Heidegger, Claudia-Paula; Giraud, Raphaël; Morel, Philippe; Bühler, Léo

    2016-05-04

    This review article analyzes, through a nonsystematic approach, the pathophysiology of acute pancreatitis (AP) with a focus on the effects of thoracic epidural analgesia (TEA) on the disease. The benefit-risk balance is also discussed. AP has an overall mortality of 1 %, increasing to 30 % in its severe form. The systemic inflammation induces a strong activation of the sympathetic system, with a decrease in the blood flow supply to the gastrointestinal system that can lead to the development of pancreatic necrosis. The current treatment for severe AP is symptomatic and tries to correct the systemic inflammatory response syndrome or the multiorgan dysfunction. Besides the removal of gallstones in biliary pancreatitis, no satisfactory causal treatment exists. TEA is widely used, mainly for its analgesic effect. TEA also induces a targeted sympathectomy in the anesthetized region, which results in splanchnic vasodilatation and an improvement in local microcirculation. Increasing evidence shows benefits of TEA in animal AP: improved splanchnic and pancreatic perfusion, improved pancreatic microcirculation, reduced liver damage, and significantly reduced mortality. Until now, only few clinical studies have been performed on the use of TEA during AP with few available data regarding the effect of TEA on the splanchnic perfusion. Increasing evidence suggests that TEA is a safe procedure and could appear as a new treatment approach for human AP, based on the significant benefits observed in animal studies and safety of use for human. Further clinical studies are required to confirm the clinical benefits observed in animal studies.

  7. Vaginal delivery and continuous epidural analgesia: should we change our clinical approach?

    PubMed

    Sindik, Nebojsa; Petrović, Oleg; Manestar, Marinka; Francisković, Vedran; Klarić, Marko; Marić, Marinko

    2012-06-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of continuous epidural analgesia (EA) on the course of vaginal delivery with an emphasis on duration of labor and instrumental interventions. In a prospective 2-year trial, the study group included singleton vaginal births between 35 and 41 gestational weeks with a vertex fetus, in which continuous EA with bupivacaine or chirocaine in concentration of 0.125% combined with 2-4 microg of fentanyl or 0.5 microg of sufenta was used. The control group was created randomly from laboring patients with singleton pregnancies but without EA. The groups were adjusted for epidemiological characteristics and compared regarding the obstetric data and perinatal outcome. Student t-test and Mann-Whitney U-test were performed for normally and non-normally distributed results, respectively. Out of 1284 patients, 551 pregnant women were included in the study group and 733 in the control group. The statistically significant differences between the groups related to duration of the first and second stage of labor, frequency of premature rupture of membranes, intrapartal complications, and incidence of operative deliveries were found. Both stages of labor were significantly protracted and the incidence of operative deliveries was higher in the study group of patients compared with controls. There is a need for an active obstetric approach and management of vaginal deliveries of women who receive continuous EA, particularly if it is medically indicated.

  8. Performance of the Angle Labor Pain Questionnaire During Initiation of Epidural Analgesia in Early Active Labor.

    PubMed

    Angle, Pamela J; Kurtz Landy, Christine; Djordjevic, Jasmine; Barrett, Jon; Kibbe, Alanna; Sriparamananthan, Saiena; Lee, Yuna; Hamata, Lydia; Zaki, Pearl; Kiss, Alex

    2016-12-01

    The Angle Labor Pain Questionnaire (A-LPQ) is a new, 22-item multidimensional psychometric questionnaire that measures the 5 most important dimensions of women's childbirth pain experiences using 5 subscales: The Enormity of the Pain, Fear/Anxiety, Uterine Contraction Pain, Birthing Pain, and Back Pain/Long Haul. Previous work showed that the A-LPQ has overall good psychometric properties and performance during early active labor in women without pain relief. The current study assessed the tool's sensitivity to change during initiation of labor epidural analgesia with the standardized response mean (SRM, primary outcome). Two versions of the A-LPQ were administered once, in each of 2 test sessions, by the same trained interviewer during early active labor. The sequence of administration was randomized (ie, standard question order version [Test 1] followed by mixed version [Test 2] or vice versa). Test 1 was completed before epidural insertion; Test 2 commenced 20 to 30 minutes after the test dose. Providers assessed/treated pain independently of the study. Sensitivity to change was assessed using SRMs, Cohen's d, and paired t tests. Overall pain intensity was concurrently examined using Numeric Rating Scale and the Verbal Rating Scale (VRS); coping was assessed with the Pain Mastery Scale. Changes in pain were measured with the Patient Global Impression of Change Scale. Internal consistency was assessed with Cronbach's α. Concurrent validity with other tools was assessed using Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. A total of 51 complete datasets were analyzed. Most women reported moderate (63%, 32/51) or severe (18%, 9/51) baseline pain on VRS scores during Test 1; 29% (15/51) reported mild pain, and 6% (3/51) reported moderate pain during Test 2. Approximately 90% (46/51) of women reported much or very much improved pain at the end of testing. Cronbach's α for A-LPQ summary scores was excellent (0.94) and ranged from 0.78 (acceptable) to 0.92 (excellent) for

  9. A multidimensional comparison of morphine and hydromorphone patient-controlled analgesia.

    PubMed

    Rapp, S E; Egan, K J; Ross, B K; Wild, L M; Terman, G W; Ching, J M

    1996-05-01

    Although patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) pumps have been in use for more than a decade, the optimal PCA analgesic has yet to be identified. Many drugs are used; however, morphine remains the "gold standard" of opioid analgesics worldwide. The present study evaluated morphine and hydromorphone (Dilaudid) PCA with respect to analgesic efficacy, side effects, mood, and cognitive function. Sixty-one opioid naive patients undergoing lower abdominal surgery participated in the double-blind protocol. Verbal rating scores, use of medication, and side effects for the two medications were recorded. Cognitive functioning was assessed by computation of Digit Symbol and Trails Making B Tests. Self-reported affective state (mood) was measured by Profile of Mood States (POMS) inventory. Both medications provided adequate analgesia without a difference in side effects. Cognitive performance was poorer in the hydromorphone group (P < 0.05). Patients receiving hydromorphone reported less anger/hostility (P < 0.01) and generally better mood elevations on the other subscales than those receiving morphine. A similar incidence of side effects and dose medication can be anticipated with morphine and hydromorphone. When considering cognitive effects, morphine had less adverse consequences, while hydromorphone appeared to result in improved mood. We conclude that hydromorphone may provide a suitable alternative to morphine.

  10. Patient-controlled analgesia in orthognathic surgery: evaluation of the relationship to anxiety and anxiolytics.

    PubMed

    Geha, H; Nimeskern, N; Beziat, J L

    2009-09-01

    Although patient-controlled analgesia' (PCA) use has been reported in oral and maxillofacial surgery,(8) it has not been evaluated for use in orthognathic surgery. In this study, we evaluated the relationship between age, gender, and preoperative anxiety and postoperative morphine intake after orthognathic surgery in the PCA environment. Fifty-one patients (34 female, 17 male) underwent orthognathic surgery. Patients' anxiety was evaluated preoperatively. All patients received morphine-based postoperative PCA. Relationship between preoperative anxiety and postoperative visual analog scale (VAS) and 24 hour morphine intake was evaluated. Patients were randomly grouped according to whether preoperative oral anxiolytics were prescribed. Age and VAS were correlated, as well as preoperative anxiety score and postoperative morphine intake (P < .05). Female patients receiving anxiolytics before surgery had less morphine consumption than those who did not. Preoperative anxiety directly influences postoperative PCA morphine intake. Anxiolytics preoperatively seem to reduce the need for postoperative analgesics.

  11. [Satisfaction with delivery and maternal identity with epidural labor analgesia among Japanese women with children younger than 3 years of age: a web-based survey].

    PubMed

    Ishibashi, Chika; Horiguchi, Itsuko; Sumikura, Hiroyuki; Inada, Eiichi

    2014-12-01

    In Japan, it has been thought that pain during labor develops maternal identity and there are cultural and psychological barriers to the use of epidural labor analgesia. The objective of this study was to examine epidemiologic data and psychological data about satisfaction with delivery and maternal identity with epidural labor analgesia. A web-based survey was randomly conducted in 1,000 women (ages, 20-40 years) with children under the age of 3 years. The questionnaire included the basic characteristics of the participants and children, their experiences with delivery and two scales to evaluate satisfaction of delivery and maternal identity. There were a total of 1,030 respondents and 50 (5.0%) respondents reported having epidural labor analgesia. Scores about self-evaluation scales for satisfaction of delivery and maternal identity among women of epidural labor analgesia were not significantly different with those among women of spontaneous delivery. Satisfaction with delivery and maternal identity are not influenced by chosing epidural labor analgesia.

  12. [Combined epidural-spinal analgesia during labor: a quantitative systematic review of the literature (meta-analysis)].

    PubMed

    Pascual-Ramírez, J; Haya Palazuelo, J; Valverde Mantecón, J M

    2013-11-01

    To perform a meta-analysis on the use of combined epidural-intrathecal analgesia during labor, including intrathecal fentanyl and/or morphine compared to usual epidural techniques. A literature search was made looking for randomized clinical trials in MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Library. The size of the effect for quantitative variables was analyzed by weighted mean difference; for qualitative variables, by odds ratio. Variables analyzed were: labor duration, type of delivery (spontaneous, instrumental and caesarean section), motor blockade, pain, and satisfaction. The analysis used in most cases was a random effects model. A total of 21 trials, which included 3.646 patients, were selected out of the 38 initially found. The type of delivery variable with its 3 subgroups was the only one to show uniformity (p>Q 0.1; I(2)<50%). There were no differences in the variables analyzed except pain, which was advantageous for the group with intrathecal fentanyl or morphine by 0.55 points out of 10. Combined analgesia including intrathecal fentanyl-morphine does not offer significant advantages compared to the standard epidural. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  13. Use of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation as an adjunctive to epidural analgesia in the management of acute thoracotomy pain

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, Alka; Banavaliker, Jayant N; Das, Pradeep K; Hasti, Sheel

    2010-01-01

    The present randomized study was conducted in our institute of pulmonary medicine and tuberculosis over a period of 1 year. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) as an adjunctive to thoracic epidural analgesia for the treatment of postoperative pain in patients who underwent posterolateral thoracotomy for decortication of lung. Sixty patients in the age group 15–40 years scheduled to undergo elective posterolateral thoracotomy were divided into two groups of 30 each. Patients were alternatively assigned to one of the groups. In group I, only thoracic epidural analgesia with local anaesthetics was given at regular intervals; however, an identical apparatus which did not deliver an electric current was applied to the control (i.e. group I) patients. While in group II, TENS was started immediately in the recovery period in addition to the epidural analgesia. A 0–10 visual analog scale (VAS) was used to assess pain at regular intervals. The haemodynamics were also studied at regular intervals of 2 h for the first 10 h after the surgery. When the VAS score was more than three, intramuscular analgesia with diclofenac sodium was given. The VAS score and the systolic blood pressure were comparable in the immediate postoperative period (P = NS) but the VAS score was significantly less in group II at 2, 4, 6, 8 h (P < 0.01, P < 0.05, P < 0.05, P < 0.05, respectively), and at 10 h the P value was not significant. Similarly, the systolic blood pressure was significantly less in group II at 2, 4, 6 h after surgery, that is P < 0.02, P < 0.01, P < 0.01, respectively, but at 8 and 10 h the pressures were comparable in both the groups. Adding TENS to epidural analgesia led to a significant reduction in pain with no sequelae. The haemodynamics were significantly stable in group II compared to group I. TENS is a valuable strategy to alleviate postoperative pain following thoracic surgery with no side effects and with

  14. Neuraxial analgesia versus intravenous remifentanil for pain relief in early labor in nulliparous women.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Mohamed Taha; Hassanin, Maher Z

    2012-12-01

    To assess if there is a difference in duration of labor, the mode of delivery, average Visual Analog Scale (VAS) pain scores, maternal overall satisfaction with analgesia, side effects and neonatal outcomes in nulliparous women who received early labor analgesia with either epidural, patient-controlled IV analgesia (PCIA) with remifentanil or combined spinal-epidural (CSE) techniques. This is a prospective randomized interventional study. The study included 1,140 healthy nulliparous women (with term, singleton pregnancies) early in labor, requesting labor analgesia, during the period from September 2009 to August 2011 at TAIBA Hospital in Kuwait. The participants were randomized to receive either epidural analgesia (Group I), or PCIA with remifentanil (Group II) or CSE analgesia (Group III). The primary outcome was the rate of cesarean delivery. CSE analgesia was associated with a statistically highly significant decrease in labor duration (from analgesia to vaginal delivery), duration of latent and active phases of the first stage, and duration of the second stage of labor, average VAS pain scores, and a highest maternal overall satisfaction score with analgesia (P<0.01) as compared to epidural analgesia or PCIA with remifentanil. In terms of labor duration, average VAS pain scores, and maternal overall satisfaction score with analgesia, CSE analgesia is superior to that provided by epidural analgesia or PCIA with remifentanil for pain relief in early labor in nulliparous women. However, there were no differences in the mode of delivery, side effects or neonatal outcomes between the three techniques.

  15. Effects of Epidural Labor Analgesia With Low Concentrations of Local Anesthetics on Obstetric Outcomes: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ting-Ting; Sun, Shen; Huang, Shao-Qiang

    2017-05-01

    Low concentrations of local anesthetics (LCLAs) are increasingly popular for epidural labor analgesia. The effects of epidural analgesia with low concentrations of anesthetics on the duration of the second stage of labor and the instrumental birth rate, however, remain controversial. A systematic review was conducted to compare the effects of epidural analgesia with LCLAs with those of nonepidural analgesia on obstetric outcomes. The databases of PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane controlled trials register were independently searched by 2 researchers, and randomized controlled trials that compared epidural labor analgesia utilizing LCLAs with nonepidural analgesia were retrieved. The primary outcomes were the duration of the second stage of labor and the instrumental birth rate; secondary outcomes included the cesarean delivery rate, the spontaneous vaginal delivery rate, and the duration of the first stage of labor. Ten studies (1809 women) were included. There was no significant difference between groups in the duration of the second stage of labor (mean difference = 5.71 minutes, 95% confidence interval [CI], -6.14 to 17.83; P = .36) or the instrumental birth rate (risk ratio [RR] = 1.52, 95% CI, 0.97-2.4; P = .07). There was no significant difference between groups in the cesarean delivery rate (RR = 0.8, 95% CI, 0.6-1.05; P = .11), the spontaneous vaginal delivery rate (RR = 0.98, 95% CI, 0.91-1.06; P = .62), or the duration of the first stage of labor (mean difference = 17.34 minutes, 95% CI, -5.89 to 40.56; P = .14). Compared with nonepidural analgesia, epidural analgesia with LCLAs is not associated with a prolonged duration of the second stage of labor or an increased instrumental birth rate. The results of this meta-analysis are based on small trials of low quality. These conclusions require confirmation by large-sample and high-quality trials in the future.

  16. Clinical assessment of epidural analgesia induced by xylazine-lidocaine combination accompanied by xylazine sedation in calves

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether epidural administration of a xylazine-lidocaine combination accompanied by xylazine sedation would provide satisfactory analgesia for some surgical procedures on 10 calves admitted to the Department of Veterinary Surgery, University of Kafkas with perineal urolithiasis (n:2), rectovaginal fistula (n:1), atresia ani (n:2), omphalophlebitis (n:2), omphaloarteritis (n:1) and umbilical hernia (n:2). Following intramuscular injection of xylazine at a dose of 0.05 mg/kg for sedation, xylazine-lidocaine combination (0.2 mg/kg lidocaine + 0.02 mg/kg xylazine + 5 ml 0.9% NaCl) was administrated into the lumbosacral (L6-S1), sacrococcygeal (S5-Co1) or intercoccygeal (Co1-Co2) space. Heart rate, respiratory rate and rectal temperature were recorded prior to and during analgesia at 5, 10, 15, 30 and 60 minutes. Furthermore, depth and duration of analgesia were evaluated during surgical intervention. The study revealed that the combination of epidural xylazine-lidocaine with xylazine sedation was highly satisfactory for surgery of the lower urinary tract and the perineal region, but it was less so for surgery of the umbilical area. PMID:21851664

  17. [0.2% ropivacaine vs. 0.1% ropivacaine plus fentanyl in obstetric epidural analgesia].

    PubMed

    Ferrer Gómez, C; Saludes Serra, J; Tello Galindo, I; Gómez Montemayor, E; Bella Romera, S; Cuenca Peña, J

    2000-10-01

    To compare the analgesic efficacy of epidural administration of 0.2% ropivacaine alone to that of 0.1% ropivacaine plus 0.0002% fentanyl during childbirth. We performed a prospective, randomized single-blind study of 84 women in labor (aged 16 to 40 y, ASA I-II, weight over 110 kg, height over 150 cm, gestational age 37 to 42 weeks). The women were randomly assigned to two groups: group I consisted of 42 patients who received an initial bolus of 10 ml of ropivacaine 0.2% followed by continuous perfusion of ropivacaine 0.2% at a rate of 6 to 10 ml/h; group II was composed of 42 women who received an initial bolus of ropivacaine 0.2% with 50 micrograms of fentanyl followed by continuous infusion of ropivacaine 0.1% and fentanyl 2 micrograms/ml at a rate of 6 to 10 ml/h. Data recorded were parity and type of delivery, blood pressure, heart rate (HR), time to onset of pain relief, motor blockade on a modified Bromage scale, pain on a visual analog scale (VAS) and fetal HR, Apgar score and arterial and venous pH of umbilical blood. We found no significant differences in demographic or hemodynamic data in mothers or fetuses, in type of delivery or motor block, although the latter tended to be slightly lower in group II. In group II, the total anesthetic dose used was significantly lower (p = 0.003); time until onset of pain relief was significantly shorter (p = 0.044); and VAS scores were significantly lower at 15 min (p = 0.005), 30 min (p = 0.029), 60 min (p = 0.017) and 90 min (p = 0.002). The number of top-up boluses needed for deliveries involving instruments was significantly greater in group II (p = 0.37). The protocol of ropivacaine 0.1% with 2 micrograms/ml of fentanyl provides satisfactory analgesia throughout labor, allowing lower doses of local anesthetic to be used, with shorter onset of pain relief and reduced motor blockade; however the analgesia provided is insufficient for deliveries assisted by instruments.

  18. Intravenous Paracetamol Versus Patient-Controlled Analgesia With Morphine for the Pain Management Following Diagnostic Knee Arthroscopy in Trauma Patients: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Hashemi, Seyed Masoud; Esmaeelijah, Aliakbar; Golzari, Samad; Keyhani, Sohrab; Maserrat, Azita; Mohseni, Gholamreza; Ardehali, Seyed Hosein

    2015-01-01

    Background: Most patients undergoing outpatient surgeries have the unpleasant experience of high level pain after surgery. Compared with open surgeries, arthroscopic procedures are less painful; however, inadequate pain management could be associated with significant concerns. Opioids alone or in combination with local anesthetics are frequently used for diminishing postoperative pain using intravenous or epidural infusion pumps. Despite morphine various disadvantages, it is commonly used for controlling pain after surgery. Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare intravenous paracetamol and patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) with morphine for the pain management following diagnostic knee arthroscopy in trauma patients. Patients and Methods: Sixty trauma patients who were scheduled to undergo knee arthroscopy were randomly divided into two groups. Patients immediately received intravenous infusion of 1 g paracetamol within 15 minutes after surgery and every 6 hours to 24 hours in the paracetamol group. The patient-controlled analgesia group received morphine through PCA infusion pump at 2 mL/h base rate and 1mL bolus every 15 minutes. Pain level, nausea and vomiting, and sedation were measured and recorded during entering the recovery, 15 and 30 minutes after entering the recovery, 2, 6, and 24 hours after starting morphine pump infusion in the morphine and paracetamol in the paracetamol groups. Results: There was no significant difference regarding the pain level at different times after entering the recovery between the two groups. No one from the paracetamol group developed drug complications. However, 22.3% in the PCA morphine suffered from postoperative nausea; there was a statistically significant difference regarding the sedation level, nausea, and vomiting at various times between the two groups. Conclusions: Intravenous administration of paracetamol immediately after knee arthroscopy improved postoperative pain, decreased analgesic administration

  19. Analgesic Choice in Management of Rib Fractures: Paravertebral Block or Epidural Analgesia?

    PubMed

    Malekpour, Mahdi; Hashmi, Ammar; Dove, James; Torres, Denise; Wild, Jeffrey

    2017-06-01

    Rib fractures are commonly encountered in the setting of trauma. The aim of this study was to assess the association between the clinical outcome of rib fracture and epidural analgesia (EA) versus paravertebral block (PVB) using the National Trauma Data Bank (NTDB). Using the 2011 and 2012 versions of the NTDB, we retrieved completed records for all patients above 18 years of age who were admitted with rib fractures. Primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. Secondary outcomes were length of stay (LOS), intensive care unit (ICU) admission, ICU LOS, mechanical ventilation, duration of mechanical ventilation, development of pneumonia, and development of any other complication. Clinical outcomes were first compared between propensity score-matched EA and PVB patients. Then, EA and PVB patients were combined into the procedure group and the outcomes were compared with propensity score-matched patients that received neither intervention (no-procedure group). A total of 194,766 patients were included in the study with 1073 patients having EA, 1110 patients having PVB, and 192,583 patients having neither procedure. After propensity score matching, comparison of primary and secondary outcomes between EA and PVB patients showed no difference. Comparison of propensity score-matched procedure and no-procedure patients showed prolonged LOS and more frequent ICU admissions in patients receiving a procedure (both P < .0001), yet having no procedure was associated with a significantly increased odds of mortality (odds ratio: 2.25; 95% confidence interval, 1.14-3.84; P = .002). Using the NTDB, EA and PVB were not found to be significantly different in management of rib fractures. There was an association between use of a block and improved outcome, but this could be explained by selection of healthier patients to receive a block. Prospective study of this association is recommended.

  20. Epidural analgesia in patients with traumatic rib fractures: a systematic review of randomised controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Duch, P; Møller, M H

    2015-07-01

    Traumatic rib fractures are a common condition associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. Observational studies have suggested improved outcome in patients receiving continuous epidural analgesia (CEA). The aim of the present systematic review of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) was to assess the benefit and harm of CEA compared with other analgesic interventions in patients with traumatic rib fractures. We performed a systematic review with meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis (TSA). Eligible trials were RCTs comparing CEA with other analgesic interventions in patients with traumatic rib fractures. Cumulative relative risks (RRs) and mean differences (MDs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated, and risk of systematic and random errors was assessed. The predefined primary outcome measures were mortality, pneumonia and duration of mechanical ventilation. A total of six trials (n = 223) were included; all were judged as having a high risk of bias. In the conventional meta-analyses, there was no statistically significant difference in mortality (RR 2.18, 95% CI 0.21-22.42; P = 0.51; I(2)  = 0%), duration of mechanical ventilation (MD -7.53, 95% CI -16.32 to 1.26; P = 0.09; I(2)  = 91%) or pneumonia (RR 0.49, 95% CI 0.19-1.25; P = 0.13; I(2)  = 0%) between CEA and other analgesic interventions. Subgroup analyses and sensitivity analyses, including TSA confirmed the results. The quality and quantity of evidence for the use of CEA in patients with traumatic rib fractures is low, and there is no firm evidence for benefit or harm of CEA compared with other analgesic interventions. Well-powered RCTs with low risk of bias reporting clinically relevant patient-centred outcome measures are needed. © 2015 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Outcomes of labor epidural analgesia among women aged over 40: A single-institution retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Atsuko; Fukushima, Risa; Nagashima, Sayuri; Mazda, Yusuke; Tamura, Kazumi; Terui, Katsuo; Tanaka, Motoshi

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of labor epidural analgesia (LEA) on maternal and neonatal outcomes among parturients aged 40 years or older. We retrospectively reviewed medical records of all laboring, singleton and cephalic deliveries at ≥36 weeks' gestation at the Saitama Medical Center from April 2003 to September 2012. Women aged ≥40 years who received LEA (≥40 with LEA group) were compared with women aged ≥40 years who delivered without LEA (≥40 without LEA group) and women <40 years who received LEA (<40 with LEA group). Extracted outcomes included mode of delivery, oxytocin augmentation, duration of labor, amount of estimated blood loss, umbilical artery pH, Apgar scores, and neonatal intensive care unit admission. This study included 4441 women. There were 74 women in the ≥40 with LEA group, 369 in the ≥40 without LEA group, and 601 in the <40 with LEA group. The maternal outcomes of emergency cesarean delivery rate (9.5%, 12.5%, 9.0%), instrumental delivery rate (33.8%, 10.3%, 28.3%), duration of labor (521 min, 321 min, 565 min), and estimated blood loss (524 g, 351 g, 412 g) were reported for the ≥40 with LEA, ≥40 without LEA, and <40 with LEA groups, respectively. Neonatal outcomes were not different between these groups. LEA use was not associated with emergency cesarean delivery in the multivariable analysis. Our study showed that parturients aged ≥40 with LEA can expect similar LEA-associated labor outcomes to younger parturients with LEA. © 2016 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  2. Does postoperative delirium limit the use of patient-controlled analgesia in older surgical patients?

    PubMed

    Leung, Jacqueline M; Sands, Laura P; Paul, Sudeshna; Joseph, Tim; Kinjo, Sakura; Tsai, Tiffany

    2009-09-01

    BACKGROUNDPostoperative pain Is an independent predictor of postoperative delirium. Whether postoperative delirium limits patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) use has not been determined. The authors conducted a nested cohort study in older patients undergoing noncardiac surgery and used PCA for postoperative analgesia. Delirium was measured by using the Confusion Assessment Method. The authors computed a structural equation model to determine the effects of pain and opioid consumption on delirium status and the effect of delirium on opioid use. Of 335 patients, 108 (32.2%) developed delirium on postoperative day (POD) 1, and 120 (35.8%) on POD 2. Postoperative delirium did not limit the use of PCA. Patients with postoperative delirium used more PCA in a 24-h period (POD 2) compared to those without delirium (mean dose of hydromorphone +/- SE adjusted for covariates was 2.24 +/- 0.71 mg vs. 1.25 +/- 0.67 mg, P = 0.02). Despite more opioid use, patients with delirium reported higher Visual Analogue Scale scores than those without delirium (POD 1: mean visual analog scale +/- SE at rest 4.2 +/- 0.23 vs. 3.3 +/- 0.22, P = 0.0051; POD 2: 3.3 +/- 0.23 vs. 2.5 +/- 0.19, P = 0.004). Path coefficients from structural equation model revealed that pain and opioid use affect delirium status, but delirium does not affect subsequent opioid dose. Postoperative delirium did not limit PCA use. Despite more opioid use, visual analog scale scores were higher in patients with delirium. Future studies on delirium should consider the role of pain and pain management as potential etiologic factors.

  3. Long-Term Stability of Tramadol and Ketamine Solutions for Patient-Controlled Analgesia Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Junfeng; Qin, Wengang; Chen, Fuchao; Xia, Zhongyuan

    2015-01-01

    Background Subanesthetic doses of ketamine as an adjuvant to tramadol in patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) for postoperative pain have been shown to improve the quality of analgesia. However, there are no such commercially available drug mixtures, and the stability of the combination has rarely been assessed. Material/Methods Admixtures were assessed for periods of up to 14 days at 4°C and 25°C. Three different mixtures of tramadol and ketamine (tramadol 5.0 mg/mL + ketamine 0.5 mg/mL, tramadol 5.0 mg/mL + ketamine 1.0 mg/mL, and tramadol 5.0 mg/mL + ketamine 2.0 mg/mL) were prepared in polyolefin bags by combining these 2 drugs with 0.9% sodium chloride (normal saline [NS]). The chemical stability of the admixtures was evaluated by a validated high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method and by measurement of pH values. Solution appearance and color were assessed by observing the samples against black and white backgrounds. Solutions were considered stable if they maintained 90% of the initial concentration of each drug. Results The percentages of initial concentration of tramadol and ketamine in the various solutions remained above 98% when stored at 4°C or 25°C over the testing period. No changes in color or turbidity were observed in any of the prepared solutions. Throughout this period, pH values remained stable. Conclusions The results indicate that the drug mixtures of tramadol with ketamine in NS for PCA delivery systems were stable for 14 days when stored in polyolefin bags at 4°C or 25°C. PMID:26306476

  4. Long-Term Stability of Tramadol and Ketamine Solutions for Patient-Controlled Analgesia Delivery.

    PubMed

    Gu, Junfeng; Qin, Wengang; Chen, Fuchao; Xia, Zhongyuan

    2015-08-26

    Subanesthetic doses of ketamine as an adjuvant to tramadol in patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) for postoperative pain have been shown to improve the quality of analgesia. However, there are no such commercially available drug mixtures, and the stability of the combination has rarely been assessed. Admixtures were assessed for periods of up to 14 days at 4°C and 25°C. Three different mixtures of tramadol and ketamine (tramadol 5.0 mg/mL + ketamine 0.5 mg/mL, tramadol 5.0 mg/mL + ketamine 1.0 mg/mL, and tramadol 5.0 mg/mL + ketamine 2.0 mg/mL) were prepared in polyolefin bags by combining these 2 drugs with 0.9% sodium chloride (normal saline [NS]). The chemical stability of the admixtures was evaluated by a validated high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method and by measurement of pH values. Solution appearance and color were assessed by observing the samples against black and white backgrounds. Solutions were considered stable if they maintained 90% of the initial concentration of each drug. The percentages of initial concentration of tramadol and ketamine in the various solutions remained above 98% when stored at 4°C or 25°C over the testing period. No changes in color or turbidity were observed in any of the prepared solutions. Throughout this period, pH values remained stable. The results indicate that the drug mixtures of tramadol with ketamine in NS for PCA delivery systems were stable for 14 days when stored in polyolefin bags at 4°C or 25°C.

  5. Oxycodone versus fentanyl for intravenous patient-controlled analgesia after laparoscopic supracervical hysterectomy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Nan Seol; Lee, Jeong Seok; Park, Su Yeon; Ryu, Aeli; Chun, Hea Rim; Chung, Ho Soon; Kang, Kyou Sik; Chung, Jin Hun; Jung, Kyung Taek; Mun, Seong Taek

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Oxycodone, a semisynthetic thebaine derivative opioid, is widely used for the relief of moderate to severe pain. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and side effects of oxycodone and fentanyl in the management of postoperative pain by intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (IV-PCA) in patients who underwent laparoscopic supracervical hysterectomy (LSH). Methods: The 127 patients were randomized to postoperative pain treatment with either oxycodone (n = 64, group O) or fentanyl group (n = 63, group F). Patients received 7.5 mg oxycodone or 100 μg fentanyl with 30-mg ketorolac at the end of anesthesia followed by IV-PCA (potency ratio 75:1) for 48 hours postoperatively. A blinded observer assessed postoperative pain based on the numerical rating scale (NRS), infused PCA dose, patient satisfaction, sedation level, and side effects. Results: Accumulated IV-PCA consumption in group O was less (63.5 ± 23.9 mL) than in group F (85.3 ± 2.41 mL) during the first 48 hours postoperatively (P = 0.012). The NRS score of group O was significantly lower than that of group F at 4 and 8 hours postoperatively (P < .001); however, the incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV), dizziness, and drowsiness was significantly higher in group O than in group F. Patient satisfaction was lower in group O than in group F during the 48 hours after surgery (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Oxycodone IV-PCA (potency ratio 1:75) provided superior analgesia to fentanyl IV-PCA after LSH; however, the higher incidence of side effects, including PONV, dizziness, and drowsiness, suggests that the doses used in this study were not equipotent. PMID:28272250

  6. Bacterial Infection in Deep Paraspinal Muscles in a Parturient Following Epidural Analgesia: A Case Report and Literature Review: A CARE-Compliant Article.

    PubMed

    Xue, Xuhong; Song, Jiefu; Liang, Qingyuan; Qin, Jibin

    2015-12-01

    Bacterial infection related to epidural catheterizations could occur. In general, the incidence of postoperative infection at the insertion site is very low. Paucity literatures are reported for paraspinal muscle infection after epidural analgesia in parturient. We report a case of paraspinal muscle infection shortly after epidural analgesia in a parturient, who was subjected to because of threatened preterm labor. Epidural morphine was administered for 2 days for childbirth pain control. She began to have constant low-back pain and fever on postpartum Day 2. Magnetic resonance image revealed a broad area of subcutaneous edema with a continuum along the catheter trajectory deep to the paraspinal muscles. A catheter-related bacterial infection was suspected. The surgical debridement and drainage was required combined with intravenous antibiotics on postpartum Day 3. She was soon cured uncomplicatedly. Epidural analgesia is effective to control labor pain and, in general, it is safe. However, the sequelae of complicated infection may be underestimated. A literature search yielded 7 other cases of catheter-related epidural abscess or soft tissue infection. Vigilance for these infections, especially in postpartum patients with backache, is needed. Moreover, early detection and proper treatment of infectious signs at postanesthetic visit are very important.

  7. One-Day vs Two-Day Epidural Analgesia for Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA): A Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Corbett, Kelly L; Reichmann, William M; Katz, Jeffrey N; Beagan, Carolyn; Corsello, Paul; Ghazinouri, Roya; Dang, Bachyen; Mikulinsky, Regina; Losina, Elena; Wright, John

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Over 500,000 total knee arthroplasties (TKAs) are performed annually in the US, yet postoperative pain management varies widely. In patients managed with epidural analgesia, the epidural catheter is generally removed on the second postoperative day. We compared in-hospital outcomes associated with removing the epidural catheter on postoperative day 1 (POD1-group) vs on postoperative day 2 (POD2-group) among patients undergoing TKA. Methods: We identified 89 patients who had TKA performed by a single surgeon from January through July 2007, and who were managed with epidural analgesia. This study took advantage of a change of policy from removing the epidural on the second postoperative day prior to March 2007 (n = 34) to removing the epidural on the first postoperative day thereafter (n = 55). Data were obtained by medical record review and analyzed with bivariate and multivariate techniques. Outcomes included knee range of motion (ROM), pain (0-10 scale), distance walked, narcotic usage, and length of stay. Results: The mean patient age was 68 ± 10 years. We did not identify clinically important differences in preoperative characteristics across groups. Patients in the POD1- group had a shorter length of stay (median of 3 vs 4 days in the POD2-group, p<0.001). The POD1-group also walked a greater distance on the second postoperative day (mean of 38 feet vs 9 feet in the POD2-group, p < 0.002). We did not observe a difference between the two groups with respect to change in passive ROM, pain on the second postoperative day, or narcotic usage. The POD1-group had more restricted continuous passive motion settings on the second postoperative day than the POD2-group (50° vs 65°, p = 0.031), and the POD1-group had somewhat worse passive range of motion at discharge (e.g. passive flexion 82o vs 76o in the POD2- group, p = 0.078). Conclusion: The balance between a shorter hospital stay and earlier walking achievement with the POD1-strategy-- vs better ROM

  8. Maternal and Cord Serum Cytokine Changes with Continuous and Intermittent Labor Epidural Analgesia: A Randomized Study

    PubMed Central

    Mantha, Venkat R.; Vallejo, Manuel C.; Ramesh, Vimala; Jones, Bobby L.; Ramanathan, Sivam

    2012-01-01

    Background. Maternal fever during labor epidural analgesia (LEA) may cause increased maternal and cord serum inflammatory cytokines. We report the effects of intermittent and continuous LEA on these cytokines. Methods. Ninety-two women were randomly assigned to continuous (CLEA) or intermittent (ILEA) groups, 46 in each. Maternal temperature was checked and blood drawn at epidural insertion (baseline) and four-hourly until 4 h postpartum (4 PP). Cord blood was drawn after placental delivery. Interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8), granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were measured and analyzed according to group randomization, and then combined and reanalyzed as febrile (temperature ≥38°C) or afebrile groups. Results. Significant intragroup changes from baseline were noted in some groups. Data are pg/mL, median (Q1/Q3). IL-6 rose at all time points in all groups. CLEA: baseline: 18.5 (12.5/31.1), 4 h: 80.0 (46.3/110.8), 8 h: 171.9 (145.3/234.3), and 4 PP: 81 (55.7/137.4). ILEA: baseline: 15.7 (10.2/27.1), 4 h: 68.2 (33.3/95.0), 8 h: 125.0 (86.3/195.0), and 4 PP: 70.2 (54.8/103.6). Febrile group: baseline: 21.6 (13.8/40.9), 4 h: 83.9 (47.5/120.8), 8 h: 186.7 (149.6/349.9), and 4 PP: 105.8 (65.7/158.8). Afebrile group: baseline: 10.9 (2.1/17.4), 4 h: 38.2 (15.0/68.2), 8 h: 93.8 (57.1/135.7), and 4 PP: 52.9 (25.1/78). IL-8 rose at all time points in CLEA: baseline: 2.68 (0.0/4.3), 4 h: 3.7 (0.0/6.5), 8 h: 6.0 (3.3/9.6), 4 PP: 5.6 (0.8/8.0), and afebrile group baseline: 2.5 (0.0/4.7), 4 h: 3.3 (0.0/6.2), 8 h: 5.3 (1.9/9.8), and 4 PP: 4.7 (0.0/7.6). It fell at 4 PP in febrile group: baseline: 4.1 (0.0/6.4), 4 h: 3.8 (0.0/6.5), 8 h: 5.2 (2.5/8.0), and 4 PP: 2.9 (0.0/4.0). GM-CSF increased at 8 h and decreased at 4 PP in ILEA baseline: 2.73 (0.0/7.2), 4 h: 2.73 (0.0/7.9), 8 h: 3.9 (2.7/11.5), and 4 PP: 2.0 (0.0/7.2). It

  9. Gender differences in post-operative pain and patient controlled analgesia use among adolescent surgical patients.

    PubMed

    Logan, Deirdre E; Rose, John B

    2004-06-01

    The aim of this study was to explore gender differences in anticipatory emotional distress, coping strategies, post-operative pain perception, and patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) use among adolescent surgical patients. One hundred and two 12-18-year-old adolescents undergoing surgeries with overnight hospital stay were recruited. Participants completed pre-operative measures of anxiety and anticipated pain. Post-operatively, they reported on coping skills, post-operative anxiety, and pain. Data on PCA use were recorded from medical records. Girls reported higher levels of pre-operative state anxiety and anticipated more pain. After surgery, girls and boys differed on their lowest daily pain ratings and average daily pain ratings, with girls reporting more pain in both cases. Reports of highest daily pain were similar across genders. Gender was found to moderate the relationship between anticipatory distress and post-operative pain, such that higher anticipatory distress before surgery predicted more post-operative pain for girls, but not for boys. Patterns of PCA use did not vary by gender on post-operative days 0 or 1. Findings suggest that adolescent boys' and girls' pain experiences are different in several important respects, although somewhat less divergent than has been reported in samples of adult males and females. Results have implications for the development of targeted intervention strategies to help adolescents cope effectively with acute post-operative pain.

  10. Impact of Frequent Interruption on Nurses' Patient-Controlled Analgesia Programming Performance.

    PubMed

    Campoe, Kristi R; Giuliano, Karen K

    2017-09-01

    The purpose was to add to the body of knowledge regarding the impact of interruption on acute care nurses' cognitive workload, total task completion times, nurse frustration, and medication administration error while programming a patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) pump. Data support that the severity of medication administration error increases with the number of interruptions, which is especially critical during the administration of high-risk medications. Bar code technology, interruption-free zones, and medication safety vests have been shown to decrease administration-related errors. However, there are few published data regarding the impact of number of interruptions on nurses' clinical performance during PCA programming. Nine acute care nurses completed three PCA pump programming tasks in a simulation laboratory. Programming tasks were completed under three conditions where the number of interruptions varied between two, four, and six. Outcome measures included cognitive workload (six NASA Task Load Index [NASA-TLX] subscales), total task completion time (seconds), nurse frustration (NASA-TLX Subscale 6), and PCA medication administration error (incorrect final programming). Increases in the number of interruptions were associated with significant increases in total task completion time ( p = .003). We also found increases in nurses' cognitive workload, nurse frustration, and PCA pump programming errors, but these increases were not statistically significant. Complex technology use permeates the acute care nursing practice environment. These results add new knowledge on nurses' clinical performance during PCA pump programming and high-risk medication administration.

  11. Ketamine and midazolam delivered by patient-controlled analgesia in relieving pain associated with burns dressings.

    PubMed

    MacPherson, Ross D; Woods, David; Penfold, Joanna

    2008-09-01

    A study involving the use of a mixture of ketamine and midazolam delivered via patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) device was trialed to assess its effectiveness in reducing pain associated with repeated burns dressings in an adult population. Patients undergoing burns dressings changes were given a PCA device of ketamine and midazolam to use during the procedure. The aims were to investigate the efficacy of the device and to ascertain what (if any) adverse effects were associated with its use. During the trial period, 44 patients who underwent 95 separate procedures were enrolled. The effectiveness of the device was rated (out of 10) by both staff and patients with the mean scores being 8.47 and 8.50, respectively. In all but 1 case, the proposed procedure was carried out successfully. Thirteen patients reported a total of 23 adverse effects, with hallucinations (11) being the most common. The use of ketamine/midazolam delivered by PCA was shown to be an effective means of pain control during burns dressings as assessed by both staff and patients. The incidence of adverse events was low.

  12. Morphine for Intravenous Patient-Controlled Analgesia May Inhibit Delirium Tremens

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Chia-Ta; Liao, Wen-Wei; Huang, William

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Alcoholism is common among trauma patients and often lacks the appropriate monitoring. Alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS), including delirium tremens (DT), can be associated with significant postoperative morbidity and mortality. However, appropriate acute pain management may protect against delirium; the administration of intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (IV - PCA) may not only alleviate pain, but also reduce the incidence of post-operative delirium. IV-PCA is widely used today; however, little attention has been paid to its influence on the development of AWS or DT post-surgery. Here we present a case in which the administration of IV-PCA may have delayed the onset of DT that interfered with postoperative care and the initiation of psychiatric consultation. The literature was reviewed to determine the potential mechanisms behind the effects of IV-PCA on the onset of AWS or DT. IV-PCA may delay the onset of DT. It is imperative to take into consideration trauma patients’ psychiatric history including answers to questions on alcoholism, so that when an IV-PCA is administered and then discontinued, adequate interventions to prevent further morbidity associated with AWS and DT can be initiated in sufficient time. PMID:26512587

  13. Patient Controlled Analgesia for Adults with Sickle Cell Disease Awaiting Admission from the Emergency Department

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Josue; Jones, Sasia; Wakefield, Daniel; Grady, James; Andemariam, Biree

    2016-01-01

    Background. A treatment algorithm for sickle cell disease (SCD) pain in adults presenting to a single emergency department (ED) was developed prioritizing initiation of patient controlled analgesia (PCA) for patients awaiting hospitalization. Objectives. Evaluate the proportion of ED visits in which PCA was started in the ED. Methods. A two-year retrospective chart review of consecutive SCD pain ED visits was undertaken. Data abstracted included PCA initiation, low versus high utilizer status, pain scores, bolus opioid number, treatment times, and length of hospitalization. Results. 258 visits resulted in hospitalization. PCA was initiated in 230 (89%) visits of which 157 (68%) were initiated in the ED. Time to PCA initiation was longer when PCA was begun after hospitalization versus in the ED (8.6 versus 4.5 hours, p < 0.001). ED PCA initiation was associated with fewer opioid boluses following decision to admit and less time without analgesic treatment (all p < 0.05). Mean pain intensity (MPI) reduction did not differ between groups. Among visits where PCA was begun in the ED, low utilizers demonstrated greater MPI reduction than high utilizers (2.8 versus 2.0, p = 0.04). Conclusions. ED PCA initiation for SCD-related pain is possible and associated with more timely analgesic delivery. PMID:27445606

  14. [Factors justifying the choice of labor epidural analgesia by nulliparous women: experience at a maternity center in Antananarivo, Madagascar].

    PubMed

    Ramorasata, J A C; Raveloson, N E; Randriamahavonjy, R; Tohaina, D; Keita, H

    2011-10-01

    Epidural analgesia is the most effective method for pain relief during labor. This 10-year exploratory descriptive study on factors underlying women's decisions to request or refuse labor epidural analgesia (LEA) was carried out at a level III maternity hospital in Antananarivo, Madagascar. All patients underwent a pre-anesthesia check-up (PAC) between 32 and 34 weeks of amenorrhea. During the PAC, a questionnaire was administered to determine socio-economic aspects, level of education, and knowledge about labor pain and LEA. In addition, LEA was proposed and patients were asked to explain their reasons for accepting or refusing the procedure. The purpose of this report was to describe the factors underlying acceptance or refusal of EA by nulliparous women. A total of 41 nulliparous women were included. Fourteen (34.14%) accepted LEA and 27 (63.86%) refused. Mean age was 27 years in the acceptance group and 25 years in the refusal group. No patient had good knowledge about LEA. Nulliparous women that accepted EA had a higher socio-economic level, expected stronger labor pain, were better informed about EA, and expressed greater confidence in medical care. In addition to economic aspects, the main reasons for refusing EA involved fear and family background.

  15. Postoperative pulmonary function after open abdominal aortic aneurysm repair in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: epidural versus intravenous analgesia.

    PubMed

    Panaretou, Venetiana; Toufektzian, Levon; Siafaka, Ioanna; Kouroukli, Irene; Sigala, Fragiska; Vlachopoulos, Charalambos; Katsaragakis, Stilianos; Zografos, George; Filis, Konstantinos

    2012-02-01

    We reviewed our experience to determine the effect of epidural versus intravenous analgesia on postoperative pulmonary function and pain control in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) undergoing open surgery for abdominal aortic aneurysm. A retrospective study with prospective collection of data of 30 COPD patients undergoing open abdominal aortic aneurysm repair, during a 5-year period. Group I (n = 16) was operated under combined general and epidural anesthesia and epidural analgesia; group II (n = 14), under general anesthesia and intravenous analgesia. All patients performed pulmonary function tests (PFTs) preoperatively and during postoperative days 1 and 4. Pain assessment was performed on all patients during rest and activity on postoperative days 1, 2, and 4 by using the visual analog scale. Data were recorded for PFTs, postoperative pain, length of hospital stay, length of ICU stay, and postoperative pulmonary morbidity, including atelectasis and pulmonary infections. There was no in-hospital mortality. Hospital stay was similar between the two groups (group I: 7.1 ± 1.0, group II: 7.5 ± 1.1). Group I patients showed significantly increased postoperative PFT values compared with group II patients at all time points (postoperative day 1: FEV(1)(%): 32.3 ± 4.4 vs. 27.1 ± 1.6, p = 0.007, FVC(%): 35.4 ± 8,5 vs. 28.3 ± 2.3, p = 0.035; postoperative day 4: FEV(1)(%): 50.4 ± 6.8 vs. 41.9 ± 6.8, p = 0.017, FVC(%): 51.3 ± 8.3 vs. 43.0 ± 7.9, p = 0.046). However, postoperative clinical pulmonary morbidity was not different between groups. Group I patients showed significantly reduced postoperative pain at all time points compared with group II patients. These differences were more pronounced during postoperative days 1 and 2, both at rest (visual analog score: 1.1 ± 0.9 vs. 2.6 ± 1.6, p = 0.02 and 0.7 ± 0.8 vs. 1.9 ± 1.1, p = 0.021, respectively) and during activity (2.3 ± 0.8 vs. 4.0 ± 1.7, p = 0.013 and 1.6 ± 0.7 vs. 2.8

  16. Epidural dexamethasone for post-operative analgesia in patients undergoing abdominal hysterectomy: A dose ranging and safety evaluation study

    PubMed Central

    Hefni, Amira Fathy; Mahmoud, Mohamed Sidky; Al Alim, Azza Atef Abd

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Number of studies revealed that epidural bupivacaine-dexamethasone has the same analgesic potency as bupivacaine-fentanyl with opioid sparing and antiemetic effects. Different doses of dexamethasone were used in different studies. This study was designed to evaluate the optimum dose of epidural dexamethasone for post-operative analgesia. Materials and Methods: In this double-blinded randomized controlled study, we evaluated the efficiency and safety of different doses of epidural dexamethasone for post-operative analgesia in 160 patients aged 45-60 years scheduled for total abdominal hysterectomy. Patient were randomly allocated into four groups to receive a total volume of 10 ml epidural plain bupivacaine 0.25% in the control group (Group D0) with either 4 mg dexamethasone in (Group D4) or 6 mg dexamethasone in (Group D6) or 8 mg dexamethasone in (Group D8). Patients then received general anesthesia. Sedation, satisfaction and visual analog pain scores (VAS) at rest and with effort were measured post-operatively. Meperidine was administered when VAS > or = 4. Intra-operative fentanyl dose, post-operative meperidine consumption and the time to first analgesic requirement were recorded by a blinded observer. Blood glucose was measured pre-operatively and at 4 h and 8 h after study drug administration. Wound healing and infection were assessed after 1 week. Results: Intraoperative fentanyl requirements were comparable among groups. The time to first analgesic requirement was significantly prolonged 5.5 times in D8 Group but only 1.5 times in D6 and D4 Groups more than the analgesic duration in the control Group D0, with a P < 0.01. There was a significant reduction in post-operative meperidine consumption during the first 24 h in the D8 (75%) in comparison with D6 and D4 Groups (50%), respectively, (P < 0.01) and the control Group D0 (0%) (P < 0.01). VAS scores were significantly lower and patient satisfaction score was significantly higher in the D8 and

  17. Pulmonary function and stress response after laparoscopic cholecystectomy: comparison with subcostal incision and influence of thoracic epidural analgesia.

    PubMed

    Rademaker, B M; Ringers, J; Odoom, J A; de Wit, L T; Kalkman, C J; Oosting, J

    1992-09-01

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LPC) is increasingly used to treat symptomatic cholelithiasis. We compared the effects of cholecystectomy by subcostal incision to those of LPC on lung function and endocrine metabolic response. The effects of thoracic epidural analgesia for LPC were studied as well. Thirty patients undergoing elective cholecystectomy under general anesthesia were allocated to three study groups: group I, cholecystectomy by subcostal incision; group II, LPC; group III, LPC and epidural analgesia with 0.5% bupivacaine with epinephrine, followed by continuous epidural infusion of 6 mL of 0.5% bupivacaine. Forced vital capacity (FVC), peak expiratory flow, and forced expiratory volume in 1 s were measured with the patients in a half-sitting position. In all groups, sustained decreases in FVC, forced expiratory volume in 1 s, and peak expiratory flow were observed up to 24 h after surgery. Reduction of FVC was significantly more in group I compared with groups II and III (P less than 0.05). The FVC in group I decreased from 3.8 +/- 0.42 (SD) to 1.1 +/- 0.27 L (P less than 0.01), in group II from 3.6 +/- 1.46 to 2.1 +/- 0.94 L (P less than 0.05), and in group III from 3.8 +/- 0.92 to 2.8 +/- 0.90 L (P less than 0.05). In all groups, plasma glucose and cortisol increased after surgery compared with baseline levels (P less than 0.05). At 240 min after surgery, a small but significant decrease of cortisol was measured in group III (P less than 0.05).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Anaphylactoid reaction after injection of ketorolac in a loading dose for patient-controlled analgesia -A case report-.

    PubMed

    Chung, Hyun Sik; Kim, Eun Sung; You, Young June; Park, Chul Soo

    2010-06-01

    Anaphylaxis is a severe and life-threatening systemic hypersensitivity reaction. Ketorolac is a popular drug used for patient-controlled analgesia. Although anaphylactic reaction to ketorolac has not been frequently reported, it can develop by way of several mechanisms. A 41-year-old male patient was scheduled for laparoscopic correction of a perforated gastric ulcer. Emergency surgery was performed under general anesthesia with no complications. Near the end of anesthesia administration, ketorolac in a loading dose was administered intravenously in order to launch patient-controlled analgesia. Following injection, urticaria-like skin lesions, including rashes and wheels appeared systemically; tachycardia and breathing difficulty with oxygen desaturation also developed. Through additional inquiry into the patient's drug history, past experience with ibuprofen allergy was identified. Antihistamine, steroid, and aminophylline were administered, and continuous positive airway pressure by full facial mask was applied to relieve bronchospastic symptoms. The patient recovered without further complications.

  19. Development of the fentanyl iontophoretic transdermal system (ITS) for patient-controlled analgesia of postoperative pain management.

    PubMed

    Minkowitz, Harold S; Danesi, Hassan; Ding, Li; Jones, James B

    2015-09-01

    The fentanyl iontophoretic transdermal system (ITS) is a needle-free, patient-activated drug delivery system used for patient-controlled analgesia in adult hospitalized patients with postoperative pain. The system design has been updated to a separated system consisting of a Controller and a Drug Unit, and has had regulatory submissions in USA and Europe in 2014. Fentanyl ITS has been shown to be therapeutically equivalent to morphine intravenous (iv.) patient-controlled analgesia. One of the advantages of fentanyl ITS is that patients have better mobility as there is no need for an iv. pump, iv. lines and pole. The introduction of the updated fentanyl ITS will add a versatile tool to the postoperative pain management armamentarium.

  20. Differences in the Frequency of Use of Epidural Analgesia between Immigrant Women of Turkish Origin and Non-Immigrant Women in Germany – Explanatory Approaches and Conclusions of a Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Petruschke, I.; Ramsauer, B.; Borde, T.; David, M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The starting point of this study was the considerably lower rate of epidural analgesia use among women of Turkish origin in Germany compared to non-immigrant women in the German Research Foundation (DFG)-funded study entitled “Perinatal Health and Migration Berlin”. The study aimed to identify possible differences in the womenʼs attitudes towards epidural analgesia. Methods: Exploratory study with semi-structured interviews, interviews lasting 17 minutes on average were conducted with 19 women of Turkish origin and 11 non-immigrant women at a Berlin hospital. The interviews were subjected to a qualitative content analysis. Results: Immigrant women of Turkish origin in Germany more frequently ascribe meaning to the pain associated with vaginal delivery. They more frequently categorically reject the use of epidural analgesia, 1) for fear of long-term complications such as paralysis and back pain and 2) based on the view that vaginal delivery with epidural analgesia is not natural. Information on epidural analgesia is frequently obtained from a variety of sources from their social setting, in particular, by word of mouth. The women in both groups stated that they would take the decision to use epidural analgesia independent of their partnerʼs opinion. Discussion: The differences in epidural analgesia use rates observed correspond to the womenʼs attitudes. For the immigrant women of Turkish origin in Germany, the attitude towards using epidural analgesia is based in part on misinformation. In order to enable the women to make an informed decision, epidural analgesia could receive a stronger focus during childbirth courses. PMID:27681522

  1. Bupivacaine in combination with fentanyl or sufentanil in epidural/intrathecal analgesia for labor: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Bo; Wang, Huixia; Gao, Chengjie

    2015-05-01

    This study is to compare the effectiveness of combinational use of bupivacaine with fentanyl (BUPI-FEN) and sufentanil (BUPI-SUF) in epidural/intrathecal analgesia for labor. Electronic databases were searched for relevant research papers published between 1985 and 2014. Meta-analyses of mean differences or odds ratios were performed and statistical heterogeneity between the studies tested by I(2) index. Ten studies recruiting a total of 728 women in labor were selected. Concentrations of the anesthetics used as mean ± sd were bupivacaine 0.115 ± 0.056%, fentanyl 0.0007 ± 0.001%, and sufentanil 0.00017 ± 0.00022%. Duration of analgesia was not significantly different between BUPI-SUF and BUPI-FEN administered mothers (mean difference [95%CI] of -33.55 [-74.94, 7.83] minutes; P = .11) under random effects. The onset of analgesia was also not significantly different between both groups (mean difference [95%CI] of -0.61 [-1.38, 0.16] minutes; P = .12). The number of neonates with Apgar score < 7 was significantly lower in BUPI-FEN group (odd ratio [95%CI] of 0.31 [0.10, 0.95]; P < .05). Pruritus incidence was similar. In conclusion, BUPI-FEN combination exhibits significantly better tolerability at an approximate ratio of 6 FEN:1 SUF, albeit, both fentanyl and sufentanil in combination with bupivacaine provide similar analgesic properties via the epidural or intrathecal routes for labor pain relief.

  2. Effects of Epidural Fentanyl on Speed and Quality of Block for Emergency Cesarean Section in Extending Continuous Epidural Labor Analgesia Using Ropivacaine and Fentanyl

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jeong-Yeon; Jee, Young Seok; Jeong, Hyeong Jun; Song, Young

    2010-01-01

    We performed a prospective, randomized, and double-blind study comparing the top-up effects of 2% lidocaine/100 µg fentanyl/epinephrine (n=31) and 2% lidocaine/saline/epinephrine (n=30) when extending an epidural labor analgesia using low-dose ropivacaine and fentanyl. Survival analysis for the sensory blocks to the T4 level showed no statistically significant differences in onset time to T4 between the 2 groups. Onset times (min) to T4-sensory blocks for cold and pinprick were not different between the two groups. However, median maximum sensory level in the lidocaine-fentanyl group (T1 for cold and T2 for pinprick) was significantly higher than that in the lidocaine-saline group (T3 and T4, respectively). The lidocaine-fentanyl group exhibited less visceral pain (6.5% vs. 36.7%), less supplementation of lidocaine (6.5% vs. 43.3%), and less nausea (6.5% vs. 26.7%) compared with the lidocaine-saline group during the intraoperative period. It is concluded that adding fentanyl to 2% lidocaine does not speed up the onset of the block when the onset is tested with cold or sharp pinprick but improves the quality of analgesia with fewer side effects in emergency top-up for cesarean section. PMID:20119585

  3. A state-wide assessment of the association between epidural analgesia, maternal fever and neonatal antibiotics in Colorado, 2007-2012.

    PubMed

    White, Alice; Olson, Daniel; Messacar, Kevin

    2017-03-01

    To determine if an association exists between epidural analgesia, maternal fever and neonatal antibiotic exposure in a state-wide birth cohort. We performed a retrospective cohort study of the population-based Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment birth certificate database. Data included all reported births in the state of Colorado between 2007 and 2012. Live, non-preterm, vaginal, singleton, in-hospital births were included in analysis. Maternal epidural analgesia and maternal fever. Neonatal antibiotic treatment for suspected sepsis. A stratified analysis was conducted to evaluate whether epidural use was an effect modifier of the association between maternal fever and neonatal antibiotic treatment. The final cohort included 261 457 births. 2.2% of women who received an epidural had a fever, as compared with 0.4% of women who did not receive an epidural (OR: 5.4; 95% CI 4.9 to 6.0), and neonates born to women who received an epidural had 1.26 times increased odds of antibiotic treatment (95% CI 1.1 to 1.4). Stratification by epidural use did not alter the association between maternal fever and neonatal antibiotic treatment. Colorado providers treat neonates born to mothers with maternal fever without respect to whether the mother had an epidural. Further research into improved criteria for neonatal sepsis evaluation that accounts for the contribution of maternal epidural fever should be developed to decrease unnecessary neonatal antibiotic exposure. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  4. Nalbuphine for obstetric analgesia. A comparison of nalbuphine with pethidine for pain relief in labour when administered by patient-controlled analgesia (PCA).

    PubMed

    Frank, M; McAteer, E J; Cattermole, R; Loughnan, B; Stafford, L B; Hitchcock, A M

    1987-07-01

    A double-blind, randomised study of 60 patients who received intravenous increments of nalbuphine 3 mg or pethidine 15 mg by patient-controlled analgesia during the first stage of labour, was carried out. Pain intensity, sedation, uterine contractions, maternal cardioventilatory variables and fetal heart rate were recorded as well as any side effects. Apgar scores, time to sustained respiration and resuscitative measures required for the neonate were noted at delivery. Modified neonatal neurobehavioural studies and a retrospective assessment of maternal analgesia, satisfaction and tolerance were also carried out. Group mean values of pain scores of nalbuphine-medicated primiparous women were statistically significantly lower than those of pethidine-medicated patients (p less than 0.01). Other assessments did not demonstrate a statistical significance between the two groups.

  5. Decision tree-based learning to predict patient controlled analgesia consumption and readjustment.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yuh-Jyh; Ku, Tien-Hsiung; Jan, Rong-Hong; Wang, Kuochen; Tseng, Yu-Chee; Yang, Shu-Fen

    2012-11-14

    Appropriate postoperative pain management contributes to earlier mobilization, shorter hospitalization, and reduced cost. The under treatment of pain may impede short-term recovery and have a detrimental long-term effect on health. This study focuses on Patient Controlled Analgesia (PCA), which is a delivery system for pain medication. This study proposes and demonstrates how to use machine learning and data mining techniques to predict analgesic requirements and PCA readjustment. The sample in this study included 1099 patients. Every patient was described by 280 attributes, including the class attribute. In addition to commonly studied demographic and physiological factors, this study emphasizes attributes related to PCA. We used decision tree-based learning algorithms to predict analgesic consumption and PCA control readjustment based on the first few hours of PCA medications. We also developed a nearest neighbor-based data cleaning method to alleviate the class-imbalance problem in PCA setting readjustment prediction. The prediction accuracies of total analgesic consumption (continuous dose and PCA dose) and PCA analgesic requirement (PCA dose only) by an ensemble of decision trees were 80.9% and 73.1%, respectively. Decision tree-based learning outperformed Artificial Neural Network, Support Vector Machine, Random Forest, Rotation Forest, and Naïve Bayesian classifiers in analgesic consumption prediction. The proposed data cleaning method improved the performance of every learning method in this study of PCA setting readjustment prediction. Comparative analysis identified the informative attributes from the data mining models and compared them with the correlates of analgesic requirement reported in previous works. This study presents a real-world application of data mining to anesthesiology. Unlike previous research, this study considers a wider variety of predictive factors, including PCA demands over time. We analyzed PCA patient data and conducted several

  6. Decision tree-based learning to predict patient controlled analgesia consumption and readjustment

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Appropriate postoperative pain management contributes to earlier mobilization, shorter hospitalization, and reduced cost. The under treatment of pain may impede short-term recovery and have a detrimental long-term effect on health. This study focuses on Patient Controlled Analgesia (PCA), which is a delivery system for pain medication. This study proposes and demonstrates how to use machine learning and data mining techniques to predict analgesic requirements and PCA readjustment. Methods The sample in this study included 1099 patients. Every patient was described by 280 attributes, including the class attribute. In addition to commonly studied demographic and physiological factors, this study emphasizes attributes related to PCA. We used decision tree-based learning algorithms to predict analgesic consumption and PCA control readjustment based on the first few hours of PCA medications. We also developed a nearest neighbor-based data cleaning method to alleviate the class-imbalance problem in PCA setting readjustment prediction. Results The prediction accuracies of total analgesic consumption (continuous dose and PCA dose) and PCA analgesic requirement (PCA dose only) by an ensemble of decision trees were 80.9% and 73.1%, respectively. Decision tree-based learning outperformed Artificial Neural Network, Support Vector Machine, Random Forest, Rotation Forest, and Naïve Bayesian classifiers in analgesic consumption prediction. The proposed data cleaning method improved the performance of every learning method in this study of PCA setting readjustment prediction. Comparative analysis identified the informative attributes from the data mining models and compared them with the correlates of analgesic requirement reported in previous works. Conclusion This study presents a real-world application of data mining to anesthesiology. Unlike previous research, this study considers a wider variety of predictive factors, including PCA demands over time. We analyzed

  7. Serial Analgesic Consumptions and Predictors of Intravenous Patient-controlled Analgesia with Cluster Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Shih-Pin; Chang, Kuang-Yi; Tsou, Mei-Yung

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To elucidate the dynamics of analgesic consumption regarding intravenous patient controlled analgesia (IVPCA) during postoperative period is rather complex partly due to between-patient variation and partly due to within-patient variation. A statistical method was proposed to classify serial analgesic consumption into different classifications that were further taken as the multiple outcomes on which to explore the associated predictors. Methods: We retrospectively included 3284 patients administrated by IVPCA for 3 days after surgery. A repeated measurement design corresponding to serial analgesic consumption variables defined as six-hour total analgesic consumptions was adopted. After determining the numbers of clusters, serial analgesic consumptions were classified into several homogeneous subgroups. Factors associated with new classifications were identified and quantified with a multinominal logistic regression model. Results: Three distinct analgesic classifications were aggregated, including “high”, ”middle” and “low” level of analgesic consumption of IVPCA. The mean analgesic consumptions on 12 successive analgesic consumptions at 6-hour interval of each classification consistently revealed a decreasing trend. As the trends were almost parallel with time, this suggests the time-invariant proportionality of analgesic consumption between the levels of analgesic consumption of IVPCA. Patient’s characteristics, like age, gender, weight, height, and cancer status, were significant factors associated with analgesic classifications. Surgical sites had great impacts on analgesic classifications. Discussion: The serial analgesic consumptions were simplified into 3 analgesic consumptions classifications. The identified predictors are useful to recognize patient’s analgesic classifications before using IVPCA. This study explored a new approach to analysing dynamic changes of postoperative analgesic consumptions. PMID:26710218

  8. The willingness of patients to pay for intravenous patient-controlled analgesia in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Hyungsun; Lee, Duck-Hyoung; Lee, Jeongwoo; Han, Young Jin; Choe, Huhn

    2012-01-01

    Background The use of intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (IV-PCA) has been increasing because it has advantages such as improved pain relief, greater patient satisfaction, and fewer postoperative complications. However, current research has not considered the patients' thoughts about IV-PCA's cost-effectiveness. The purpose of this study was to investigate the willingness to pay (WTP) for IV-PCA and the relationship between patients' characteristics and WTP in Korea. Methods We enrolled 400 adult patients who were scheduled for elective surgery. The patient was requested to indicate a series of predefined amounts of money (Korean won; 30,000/50,000/100,000/150,000/200,000/300,000/500,000). We also recorded patient characteristics, such as age, sex, type of surgery, IV-PCA history, education level, the person responsible for medical expenses, type of insurance, net annual income, and residential area. Three days after surgery, we asked about the degree of satisfaction and the WTP for IV-PCA. Results For IV-PCA, the median WTP was 100,000 won (25-75%; 50,000-200,000 won: US$1 = W1078.04; July 19, 2011) before surgery. All patients' characteristics were not related to preoperative WTP for IV-PCA, whereas the increase in WTP after surgery showed a tendency correlated to higher IV-PCA satisfaction. Conclusions The median WTP was 100,000 won. The satisfaction of IV-PCA increased patients' WTP after surgery, but the WTP may be independent of patient characteristics in Korea. PMID:22778891

  9. The Effects of Ketorolac Injected via Patient Controlled Analgesia Postoperatively on Spinal Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Park, Si-Young; Moon, Seong-Hwan; Park, Moon-Soo; Oh, Kyung-Soo

    2005-01-01

    Lumbar spinal fusions have been performed for spinal stability, pain relief and improved function in spinal stenosis, scoliosis, spinal fractures, infectious conditions and other lumbar spinal problems. The success of lumbar spinal fusion depends on multifactors, such as types of bone graft materials, levels and numbers of fusion, spinal instrumentation, electrical stimulation, smoking and some drugs such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). From January 2000 to December 2001, 88 consecutive patients, who were diagnosed with spinal stenosis or spondylolisthesis, were retrospectively enrolled in this study. One surgeon performed all 88 posterolateral spinal fusions with instrumentation and autoiliac bone graft. The patients were divided into two groups. The first group (n=30) was infused with ketorolac and fentanyl intravenously via patient controlled analgesia (PCA) postoperatively and the second group (n=58) was infused only with fentanyl. The spinal fusion rates and clinical outcomes of the two groups were compared. The incidence of incomplete union or nonunion was much higher in the ketorolac group, and the relative risk was approximately 6 times higher than control group (odds ratio: 5.64). The clinical outcomes, which were checked at least 1 year after surgery, showed strong correlations with the spinal fusion status. The control group (93.1%) showed significantly better clinical results than the ketorolac group (77.6%). Smoking had no effect on the spinal fusion outcome in this study. Even though the use of ketorolac after spinal fusion can reduce the need for morphine, thereby decreasing morphine related complications, ketorolac used via PCA at the immediate postoperative state inhibits spinal fusion resulting in a poorer clinical outcome. Therefore, NSAIDs such as ketorolac, should be avoided after posterolateral spinal fusion. PMID:15861498

  10. Patient-controlled Analgesia with Target-controlled Infusion of Hydromorphone in Postoperative Pain Therapy.

    PubMed

    Jeleazcov, Christian; Ihmsen, Harald; Saari, Teijo I; Rohde, Doris; Mell, Jan; Fröhlich, Katharina; Krajinovic, Ljubica; Fechner, Jörg; Schwilden, Helmut; Schüttler, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) is a common method for postoperative pain therapy, but it is characterized by large variation of plasma concentrations. PCA with target-controlled infusion (TCI-PCA) may be an alternative. In a previous analysis, the authors developed a pharmacokinetic model for hydromorphone. In this secondary analysis, the authors investigated the feasibility and efficacy of TCI-PCA for postoperative pain therapy with hydromorphone. Fifty adult patients undergoing cardiac surgery were enrolled in this study. Postoperatively, hydromorphone was applied intravenously during three sequential periods: (1) as TCI with plasma target concentrations of 1 to 2 ng/ml until extubation; (2) as TCI-PCA with plasma target concentrations between 0.8 and 10 ng/ml during the following 6 to 8 h; and (3) thereafter as PCA with a bolus dose of 0.2 mg until the next morning. During TCI-PCA, pain was regularly assessed using the 11-point numerical rating scale (NRS). A pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model was developed using ordinal logistic regression based on measured plasma concentrations. Data of 43 patients aged 40 to 81 yr were analyzed. The hydromorphone dose during TCI-PCA was 0.26 mg/h (0.07 to 0.93 mg/h). The maximum plasma target concentration during TCI-PCA was 2.3 ng/ml (0.9 to 7.0 ng/ml). The NRS score under deep inspiration was less than 5 in 83% of the ratings. Nausea was present in 30%, vomiting in 9%, and respiratory insufficiency in 5% of the patients. The EC50 of hydromorphone for NRS of 4 or less was 4.1 ng/ml (0.6 to 12.8 ng/ml). TCI-PCA with hydromorphone offered satisfactory postoperative pain therapy with moderate side effects.

  11. Hydromorphone patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) after coronary artery bypass surgery.

    PubMed

    Searle, N R; Roy, M; Bergeron, G; Perrault, J; Roof, J; Heermans, C; Courtemanche, M; Demers, C; Cartier, R

    1994-03-01

    We conducted a study to compare the effectiveness of patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) technique to conventional analgesic therapy (CAT) after coronary artery bypass graft (CABG). The PCA group received hydromorphone 0.1 mg.hr-1 basal infusion and bolus doses of 0.2 mg Q 5 min (maximum 1.2 mg.hr-1) while the CAT group received morphine 2.5 mg iv Q 30 min prn until extubation followed by prn meperidine 1 mg.kg-1 im Q 4 hr or acetaminophen 325 mg with codeine 30 mg po (1 or 2 tablets) when oral intake was possible. The degree of pain was assessed using a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) starting after extubation and every 6-8 hr for the next 60 hr. Holter monitoring was initiated one hour after patient arrival in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) and continued for 72 hr. Other measured variables were pulmonary function, sedation, side effects and total opioid requirements. Results show that the day-to-day VAS pain score decreased in the PCA group (P < 0.001) while it remained unchanged in CAT patients. The PCA patients had lower VAS pain scores at extubation (P < 0.05). During the third postoperative day, the PCA group had a lower VAS pain score, a lower incidence of severe pain defined as a score > 5 on the VAS scale, and a reduced incidence of myocardial ischaemia (P < 0.01). However, there was no difference in the duration, severity, area under the curve (AUC), or heart rate during ischaemic events. Postoperative pulmonary function was abnormal in both groups (NS) with minimal recovery by the fourth day.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Nurses' Perceptions and Attitudes Toward Use of Oral Patient-Controlled Analgesia.

    PubMed

    Riemondy, Susan; Gonzalez, Lorie; Gosik, Kirk; Ricords, Amy; Schirm, Victoria

    2016-04-01

    Patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) administered intravenously is a generally well-accepted therapy by nurses and patients. PCA devices are now available for oral medications, allowing patients to self-administer pain pills without requesting them from the nurse. Successful introduction of new pain medication delivery devices can depend on nurses' knowledge and attitudes. The aim of this institutional review board approved project was to evaluate nurses' perceptions and attitudes toward using an oral PCA device for patients' pain. A 4-week study was designed and conducted at an academic medical center on an orthopedic unit and a women's health unit. Nurse participants received education on using the oral PCA device and were invited to complete a pre- and poststudy knowledge and attitude survey regarding pain management. Nurses and patients also completed a questionnaire about perceptions related to using the oral PCA device. Findings showed that nurses' attitudes toward using the oral PCA device were less favorable than those of patients, suggesting that nurses may require additional education for acceptance of this device. Results from 37 nurses showed improvement in overall knowledge and attitudes, from 70.8% pretest to 74.2% post-test. Although improvement was not statistically significant (p = .1637), two items showed significant improvement. Knowledge about the effectiveness of NSAIDS was 27.5% pretest compared with 60.0% post-test (p = .0028); and understanding about use of opioids in patients with a history of substance abuse was 50% pretest compared with 70% post-test (p = .0531). Helping nurses overcome the perceived barriers to use of an oral PCA device has potential implications for better pain management as well as enhanced patient satisfaction. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Does epidural analgesia affect the rate of spontaneous obstetric lacerations in normal births?

    PubMed

    Albers, Leah L; Migliaccio, Laura; Bedrick, Edward J; Teaf, Dusty; Peralta, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    The precise relationship between epidural use and genital tract lacerations in normal childbirth is unclear. Data from a clinical trial on measures to lower genital tract trauma in vaginal birth were used for a secondary analysis. The goal was to assess whether epidurals affect the rate of spontaneous obstetric lacerations in normal vaginal births. Maternal characteristics and intrapartum variables were compared in women who did and did not use an epidural in labor, and also in those with and without any sutured lacerations following vaginal birth. Variables that were statistically different in both cases were entered into regression equations for simultaneous adjustment. Epidural use was not an independent predictor of sutured lacerations. Predictors of sutured lacerations included nulliparity, a prolonged second stage, being non-Hispanic white, and an infant birthweight greater than 4000 grams. Elements of midwifery management need further research.

  14. Comparative analgesic and sedative effects of tramadol, tramadol-lidocaine and lidocaine for caudal epidural analgesia in donkeys (Equus asinus).

    PubMed

    Marzok, Mohamed A; El-khodery, Sabry A

    2015-03-01

    To compare anti-nociceptive and sedative effects of tramadol, a combination of tramadol-lidocaine, and lidocaine alone for perineal analgesia in donkeys. Experimental 'blinded' randomized cross-over study. Six healthy adult donkeys. Treatments were tramadol (TR) (1.0 mg kg(-1) ), tramadol-lidocaine (TRLD) (0.5 and 0.2 mg kg(-1) respectively) and lidocaine (LD) (0.4 mg kg(-1) ) given into the epidural space. The volume of all treatments was 0.02 mL kg(-1) . Nociception was tested at the perineal region by pin prick, followed, if no reaction, by pressure from a haemostat clamp. Times to onset, degree and duration of anti-nociception of the perineal region were recorded. Response was tested immediately after drug administration and at: 2, 5, 10, 15, 30, 45, and 60 minutes post-administration and then at 30 minute intervals thereafter until a response re-occurred. Physiologic data and degree of sedation and ataxia were recorded pre-administration and at intervals for 240 minutes post-administration. Results were analyzed using anova, Kruskal-Wallis tests, and Wilks' Lambda test as relevant. Significance was taken as p < 0.05. Times (minutes, mean ± SD) to onset and duration of anti-nociception, respectively were; TR 13 ± 1.6 and 220 ± 4.6; TRLD 6 ± 0.8 and 180 ± 8.5; LD 4 ± 1.4 and 75 ± 4. Onset and duration times were significantly longer with TR than the other two treatments. TR never produced complete anti-nociception, whereas the TRLD and LD induced complete anti-nociceptive effects. Duration was significantly longer with TRLD than with LD alone. Epidural injections of TR and TRLD induced mild sedation. Epidural combination of TRLD produced an anti-nociceptive effect in the perineum, which was rapid in onset and had a longer duration of action than LD alone. An epidural single dose of TRLD combination would appear to provide an acceptable analgesic effect in the perineal region of donkeys. © 2014 Association of Veterinary

  15. Comparison of Perioperative Thoracic Epidural Fentanyl with Bupivacaine and Intravenous Fentanyl for Analgesia in Patients Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Sen, Amitabh Chanchal; Rajan, Sunil; Balachandran, Rakhi; Kumar, Lakshmi; Nair, Suresh Gangadharan

    2017-01-01

    Context: Two-thirds of patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery report moderate to severe pain, particularly with ambulatory or respiratory effort. Aims: The aim of this study is to compare the analgesic effect of perioperative thoracic epidural fentanyl with bupivacaine and intravenous fentanyl in patients undergoing CABG surgery. Settings and Design: The study was a prospective, randomized, nonblinded comparative study. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 patients coming under the American Society of Anesthesiologists Class III who were posted for CABG surgery were recruited in this study. The patients were randomized into one of two groups, higher thoracic epidural analgesia (HTEA) group receiving general anesthesia with thoracic epidural analgesia (TEA) in the postoperative period, and intravenous fentanyl analgesia group receiving general anesthesia with fentanyl infusion in the postoperative period. The pain was assessed at 4 h after extubation when the patient was fully awake, then at 8, 12, 18, and 24 h. Both groups received intravenous tramadol 100 mg as rescue analgesia whenever visual analog scale score was 5 and above. Heart rate, mean arterial pressure (MAP), sedation scores, and physiotherapy cooperation were also assessed. Statistical Analysis Used: The numerical data were analyzed using an independent t-test, repeated-measures ANOVA, and Mann–Whitney U-test. Results: Pain at rest and on cough was significantly lower in HTEA patients as compared to control group. Patients HTEA group got less frequent rescue analgesia than the control group. Physiotherapy cooperation was significantly better in HTEA patients at 4, 12, and 24 h postextubation. They also had significantly lower heart rate, MAP, and sedation scores. Conclusion: Perioperative TEA using fentanyl with bupivacaine provided optimal postoperative analgesia at rest and during coughing in patients following CABG surgery as compared to postoperative analgesia with

  16. Comparative Efficacy of Minimal Concentration of Racemic Bupivacaine (0.0625%) with Fentanyl and Ropivacaine (0.1%) with Fentanyl for Epidural Labor Analgesia

    PubMed Central

    Chethanananda, T. N.; Shashank, M. R.; Madhu, N.; Achyutha, J.; Siva Kumar, Karna Venkata

    2017-01-01

    Background and Aims: This study aims to compare the minimum effective concentration of local anesthetic (LA) bupivacaine and ropivacaine with highly lipid soluble opioids fentanyl for providing optimal labor epidural analgesia. Settings and Design: The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of racemic bupivacaine 0.0625% and 0.1% of ropivacaine both mixed with 2 μg/ml of fentanyl for epidural labor analgesia in parturients with spontaneous labor and normal fetal heart rate tracing. Methodology: Sixty parturients requesting for labor analgesia were divided into two groups. Group B (n = 30) received racemic bupivacaine (0.0625%) and fentanyl 2 μg/ml of 10 ml and Group R (n = 30) received ropivacaine (0.1%) and fentanyl 2 μg/ml. In both groups, the drug was given in 5 ml fractionated doses at 5 min interval. Parturients not experiencing analgesia within 15 min of initial bolus were supplemented with additional 5 ml of the same concentration of the solution. Epidural analgesia was maintained by timed top ups at the end of 90 min with the dosage equal to the initial dose of the drug. Duration of labor analgesia, motor block, visual analog scale, maternal hemodynamic parameters, mode of delivery, and maternal satisfaction was assessed. Statistical Analysis: Data were analyzed with odds variance, unpaired t-test, and Chi-square tests. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: In our study, results indicate that both drugs were equally effective clinically. Maternal demographic characteristics were comparable. There were no statistically significant differences in visual analog pain score, highest sensory block, maternal satisfaction, mode of delivery, total dose of LAs during labor and motor block at delivery between the groups. Conclusions: In our study, both the drugs produced equivalent analgesia for labor at low concentration when used with highly lipid soluble opioid such as fentanyl. PMID:28928552

  17. Electronically monitored single-use patient-controlled analgesia pumps in postoperative pain control.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Michael; Friedrich, Karin; Kirchner, Rolf

    2005-01-01

    The present study was performed to establish whether analgesic consumption in the first four postoperative hours is a suitable basis for selecting the demand dose and predicting the likely analgesic requirement over the next 20 hours with single-use patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) pumps, and to establish whether this method provides effective pain control. Forty-two patients who had undergone a laparotic gynecological procedure (hysterectomy) were given an electronic PCA pump (Abbott Lifecare, Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, IL) for four hours (phase I) with a demand dose of 1 mg piritramide and a lockout period of five minutes for dose titration. Piritramide's potency is comparable with that of morphine. The patients then received single-use PCA pumps (Baxter Infusor/Watch, Baxter, Deerfield, IL) for the next 20 hours (phase II) with a demand dose of 0.75 mg in Group A and 1.5 mg in Group B, depending on whether more or less than 10 mg pritramide had been consumed in phase I. A specially designed electronic recorder was used to measure the exact amount consumed and number of demands. Patients experiencing pain were free to receive additional piritramide at any time as rescue medication; however, these patients were withdrawn from the study. Ninety percent of the patients in group A said they were satisfied with or undecided as to the level of analgesia. The corresponding figure in group B was 95 percent. Piritramide consumption was significantly higher in group B than in group A. There were no significant differences between the groups regarding demographic data or duration of surgery, nor did either of these two parameters affect postoperative piritramide consumption. Significant alleviation of pain and improvement in visual analog scale scores from phase I [group A, 4.7 (range, 2.0 to 6.8); group B, 4.6 (range, 3.0 to 8.3)] to phase II [group A, 3.1 (range, 0.4 to 5.2); group B, 3.2 (range, 0.4 to 6.0)] was achieved in both groups. A significant difference

  18. Effect of continuous psoas compartment block and intravenous patient controlled analgesia on postoperative pain control after total knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae Jin; Lee, Mi Kyoung; Lim, Byung Gun; Hur, Wonseok

    2012-01-01

    Background Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) generates severe postoperative pain in 60% of patients and moderate pain in 30% of patients. Because inadequate postoperative pain control can hinder early physiotherapy and rehabilitation, it is the most influential factor dictating a good outcome. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of continuous psoas compartment block (PCB) in comparison to intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (IVPCA) in TKA patients. Methods 40 TKA patients were randomly divided into 2 groups. Group IVPCA (n = 20) received intravenous patient controlled analgesia (IVPCA) for 48 hours. Group PCB (n = 20) received continuous PCB for 48 hours at the fourth intertransverse process of the lumbar using the C-arm. Pain scores, side effects, satisfaction, the length of hospital stay, rescue antiemetics, and analgesics were recorded. Results Pain scores (VNRS 0-100) were higher in Group IVPCA than in Group PCB. Nausea and sedation occurred more frequently in Group IVPCA than in Group PCB. There were no differences between the groups in the length of the hospital stay, satisfaction scores, and the use of rescue antiemetics and analgesics. Conclusions Continuous PCB seemed to be an appropriate and reliable technique for TKA patients, because it provided better analgesia and fewer side effects such as nausea and sedation when compared to IVPCA. PMID:22323954

  19. Simultaneous appearance of cerebral venous thrombosis and subdural hematomas as rare cause of headache in puerperium following epidural analgesia: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Župan, Željko; Sotošek Tokmadžić, Vlatka; Matanić-Manestar, Marinka; Šustić, Alan; Antončić, Igor; Dunatov, Siniša; Pavlović, Ivan; Antulov, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to report the first case of simultaneous appearance of cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) and bilateral subdural hematomas (SDHs) following epidural analgesia for labor and delivery and to point out the difficulty of establishing such a diagnosis in the presence of postpartum headache. A 26-year old primigravida with a history of epilepsy received epidural analgesia for delivery. Three days after the uneventful spontaneous vaginal delivery she complained about the headache. Patient responded very well to the pain medication and oral hydration, and the headache was relieved. Ten days after the delivery, the headache reoccurred, and an epidural blood patch was performed that successfully relieved her symptom. Stronger progressive headache with nausea reappeared two days later and the parturient was readmitted to hospital. Urgent neuroimaging examinations detected CVT of right the transverse sinus, ipsilateral cortical veins, and partially occluded superior sagittal sinus, as well as bilateral subacute/chronic SDHs. The treatment of the patient with low molecular weight heparin and antiaggregation therapy was effective. In this case, the diagnosis was delayed because of atypical clinical presentation and potentially confounding events (epidural analgesia and assumption that it was a case of PDPH). It is important to carefully observe patients in such conditions and promptly conduct suitable diagnostic tests. Otherwise, unrecognized intracranial complications and delay of appropriate therapy could be life-threatening. PMID:22911532

  20. Intercostal nerve cryoablation versus thoracic epidural catheters for postoperative analgesia following pectus excavatum repair: Preliminary outcomes in twenty-six cryoablation patients.

    PubMed

    Keller, Benjamin A; Kabagambe, Sandra K; Becker, James C; Chen, Y Julia; Goodman, Laura F; Clark-Wronski, Julianna M; Furukawa, Kenneth; Stark, Rebecca A; Rahm, Amy L; Hirose, Shinjiro; Raff, Gary W

    2016-12-01

    Multimodal pain management strategies are used for analgesia following pectus excavatum repair. However, the optimal regimen has not been identified. We describe our early experience with intercostal cryoablation for pain management in children undergoing the Nuss procedure and compare early cryoablation outcomes to our prior outcomes using thoracic epidural analgesia. A multi-institutional, retrospective review of fifty-two patients undergoing Nuss bar placement with either intercostal cryoablation (n=26) or thoracic epidural analgesia (n=26) from March 2013 to January 2016 was conducted. The primary outcome was hospital length of stay. Secondary outcomes included telemetry unit monitoring time, total intravenous narcotic use, duration of intravenous narcotic use, and postoperative complications. Patients who underwent intercostal cryoablation had a significant reduction in the mean hospital length of stay, time in a monitored telemetry bed, total use of intravenous narcotics, and the duration of intravenous narcotic administration when compared to thoracic epidural patients. Cryoablation patients had a slightly higher rate of postoperative complications. Intercostal cryoablation is a promising technique for postoperative pain management in children undergoing repair of pectus excavatum. This therapy results in reduced time to hospital discharge, decreased intravenous narcotic utilization, and has eliminated epidurals from our practice. Retrospective study - level III. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Does adding ketamine to morphine patient-controlled analgesia safely improve post-thoracotomy pain?

    PubMed

    Mathews, Timothy J; Churchhouse, Antonia M D; Housden, Tessa; Dunning, Joel

    2012-02-01

    A best evidence topic in thoracic surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was 'is the addition of ketamine to morphine patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) following thoracic surgery superior to morphine alone'. Altogether 201 papers were found using the reported search, of which nine represented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The authors, journal, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes and results of these papers are tabulated. This consisted of one systematic review of PCA morphine with ketamine (PCA-MK) trials, one meta-analysis of PCA-MK trials, four randomized controlled trials of PCA-MK, one meta-analysis of trials using a variety of peri-operative ketamine regimes and two cohort studies of PCA-MK. Main outcomes measured included pain score rated on visual analogue scale, morphine consumption and incidence of psychotomimetic side effects/hallucination. Two papers reported the measurements of respiratory function. This evidence shows that adding ketamine to morphine PCA is safe, with a reported incidence of hallucination requiring intervention of 2.9%, and a meta-analysis finding an incidence of all central nervous system side effects of 18% compared with 15% with morphine alone, P = 0.31, RR 1.27 with 95% CI (0.8-2.01). All randomized controlled trials of its use following thoracic surgery found no hallucination or psychological side effect. All five studies in thoracic surgery (n = 243) found reduced morphine requirements with PCA-MK. Pain scores were significantly lower in PCA-MK patients in thoracic surgery papers, with one paper additionally reporting increased patient satisfaction. However, no significant improvement was found in a meta-analysis of five papers studying PCA-MK in a variety of surgical settings. Both papers reporting respiratory outcomes found improved oxygen saturations and PaCO(2) levels in PCA-MK patients following thoracic surgery

  2. Efficacy of epidural local anesthetic and dexamethasone in providing postoperative analgesia: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Jebaraj, B; Khanna, P; Baidya, DK; Maitra, S

    2016-01-01

    Background: Dexamethasone is a potent anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antiemetic drug. Individual randomized controlled trials found a possible benefit of epidural dexamethasone. The purpose of this meta-analysis is to estimate the benefit of epidural dexamethasone on postoperative pain and opioid consumption and to formulate a recommendation for evidence-based practice. Materials and Methods: Prospective, randomized controlled trials comparing the analgesic efficacy of epidural local anesthetic and dexamethasone combination, with local anesthetic alone for postoperative pain management after abdominal surgery, were planned to be included in this meta-analysis. PubMed, PubMed Central, Scopus, and Central Register of Clinical Trials of the Cochrane Collaboration (CENTRAL) databases were searched for eligible controlled trials using the following search words: “Epidural”, “dexamethasone”, and “postoperative pain”, until February 20, 2015. Results: Data from five randomized control trials have been included in this meta-analysis. Epidural dexamethasone significantly decreased postoperative morphine consumption (mean difference −7.89 mg; 95% confidence interval [CI]: −11.66 to −3.71) and number of patients required postoperative rescue analgesic boluses (risk ratio: 0.51; 95% CI: 0.41-0.63). Conclusion: The present data shows that the addition of dexamethasone to local anesthetic in epidural is beneficial for postoperative pain management. PMID:27375389

  3. [Low oxygen saturation during early postoperative period in adult patients receiving opioids by intravenous patient-controlled analgesia].

    PubMed

    Sato, Chiyo; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Kawamoto, Masashi; Yuge, Osafumi; Ogawa, Ryo

    2004-06-01

    Patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) provides effective postoperative analgesia. However, there are few reports concerning the adverse outcome of respiratory depression. We measured arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2) continuously during early postoperative period in 38 adult patients receiving opioids by intravenous PCA. We assessed the severity and incidence of desaturation, defined as SpO2 below 90% for more than 10 seconds. Nine patients showed desaturation and were studied after the surgery of the extremities, body surfaces, thorax or abdomen. Two patients showed desaturation with combination of surgery of long duration and obesity. Six patients, all of whom with liver cirrhosis, underwent thoracic and abdominal procedures, and showed desaturation because of respiratory dysfunction and hypoxemia caused by the surgery itself. One patient showed respiratory depression due to the opioids. We conclude that careful monitoring with a pulse oximeter and giving oxygen are essential to prevent desaturation during early postoperative period.

  4. [Peri- and postoperative pain therapy with mechanical patient-controlled disposable analgesia pumps in general surgery. Report of initial trial].

    PubMed

    Fieseler, H G; Vogt, B; Menges, H W

    1996-01-01

    The patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) or "ondemand analgesia" is a pain-relieving therapy, which is regulated and monitored by the patient himself. Postoperative pain therapy is the main approach for PCA, which facilitates a long-term, individually controlled pain relief. In certain situations we use mechanical PCA-pumps filled with piritramid (Dipidolor) as an opioid-analgetic for reducing postoperative pain. This kind of therapy needs the acceptance and understanding of the patient as a main condition for the success. Beside an increase of patients' comfort and patients' independence of analgetic demand from the medical staff a reduction in postoperative complications can be expected, the time of hospitalisation might be decreased.

  5. Regional anesthesia or patient-controlled analgesia and compartment syndrome in orthopedic surgical procedures: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Driscoll, Elizabeth BS; Maleki, Ana Hosseinzadeh; Jahromi, Leila; Hermecz, Brittany Nelson; Nelson, Lauren E; Vetter, Imelda L; Evenhuis, Spencer; Riesenberg, Lee Ann

    2016-01-01

    A systematic review of the literature on the use of regional anesthesia (RA) and patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) was conducted in patients who require orthopedic extremity procedures to determine whether either analgesic technique contributes to a delayed diagnosis of compartment syndrome (CS). A total of 34 relevant articles (28 case reports and six research articles) were identified. Of all case report articles published after 2009, the majority (75%) concluded that RA does not put the patient at an increased risk of a delayed diagnosis of CS. Of these, only two relevant prospective research studies focusing on RA or PCA and their relationship to CS were identified. Neither study resulted in any cases of CS. However, both had relatively small sample sizes. Given the lack of evidence identified in this systematic review, prospective studies or large-scale retrospective data reviews are needed to more strongly advocate the use of one modality of analgesia over the other in this patient population. PMID:27785097

  6. [Administration of paracetamol versus dipyrone by intravenous patient-controlled analgesia for postoperative pain relief in children after tonsillectomy].

    PubMed

    Sener, Mesut; Kocum, Aysu; Caliskan, Esra; Yilmaz, Ismail; Caylakli, Fatma; Aribogan, Anis

    2015-01-01

    We compared the efficacy of intravenous (IV) paracetamol versus dipyrone via patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) for postoperative pain relief in children. The study was composed of 120 children who had undergone elective tonsillectomy after receiving general anesthesia. Patients were divided into 3 groups according to the dosage of postoperative intravenous-patient-controlled analgesia: paracetamol, dipyrone, or placebo. Pain was evaluated using a 0- to 100-mm visual analog scale and 1- to 4-pain relief score at 30min, 1, 2, 4, 6, 12, and 24h postoperatively. Pethidine (0.25mgkg(-1)) was administered intravenously to patients requiring rescue analgesia. Pethidine requirements were recorded during the first 24h postoperatively, and treatment related adverse effects were noted. Postoperative visual analog scale scores were significantly lower with paracetamol group compared with placebo group at 6h (p<0.05), dipyrone group compared with placebo group at 30min and 6h (p<0.05). No significant differences regarding visual analog scale values at 1, 2, 4, 12, and 24h were found. No significant differences were found between groups with respect to pain relief score (p>0.05). Postoperative pethidine requirements were significantly lower with paracetamol and dipyrone groups compared with placebo group (62.5%, 68.4% vs 90%, p<0.05). No significant differences were found between groups with respect to nausea, vomiting and the any other adverse effects of the drugs (p>0.05). Paracetamol and dipyrone have well tolerability profile and effective analgesic properties when administered IV-PCA for postoperative analgesia in children after tonsillectomy. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  7. Administration of paracetamol versus dipyrone by intravenous patient-controlled analgesia for postoperative pain relief in children after tonsillectomy.

    PubMed

    Sener, Mesut; Kocum, Aysu; Caliskan, Esra; Yilmaz, Ismail; Caylakli, Fatma; Aribogan, Anis

    2015-01-01

    We compared the efficacy of intravenous (IV) paracetamol versus dipyrone via patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) for postoperative pain relief in children. The study was composed of 120 children who had undergone elective tonsillectomy after receiving general anesthesia. Patients were divided into 3 groups according to the dosage of postoperative intravenous-patient-controlled analgesia: paracetamol, dipyrone, or placebo. Pain was evaluated using a 0- to 100-mm visual analog scale and 1- to 4-pain relief score at 30 min, 1, 2, 4, 6, 12, and 24h postoperatively. Pethidine (0.25 mg kg(-1)) was administered intravenously to patients requiring rescue analgesia. Pethidine requirements were recorded during the first 24h postoperatively, and treatment related adverse effects were noted. Postoperative visual analog scale scores were significantly lower with paracetamol group compared with placebo group at 6h (p<0.05), dipyrone group compared with placebo group at 30 min and 6h (p<0.05). No significant differences regarding visual analog scale values at 1, 2, 4, 12, and 24h were found. No significant differences were found between groups with respect to pain relief score (p>0.05). Postoperative pethidine requirements were significantly lower with paracetamol and dipyrone groups compared with placebo group (62.5%, 68.4% vs 90%, p<0.05). No significant differences were found between groups with respect to nausea, vomiting and the any other adverse effects of the drugs (p>0.05). Paracetamol and dipyrone have well tolerability profile and effective analgesic properties when administered IV-PCA for postoperative analgesia in children after tonsillectomy. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  8. Is epidural analgesia a risk factor for occiput posterior or transverse positions during labour?

    PubMed

    Le Ray, Camille; Carayol, Marion; Jaquemin, Sébastien; Mignon, Alexandre; Cabrol, Dominique; Goffinet, François

    2005-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether the station of the fetal head at epidural placement is associated with the risk of malposition during labour. Retrospective study (covering a 3-month period) of patients in labour with singleton cephalic term fetuses and epidural placement before 5 cm of dilatation. We studied the following risk factors for malposition: station and cervical dilatation at epidural placement, induction of labour, parity and macrosomia. Malposition, defined as all occiput posterior and occiput transverse positions, was assessed at 5 cm of dilatation because of our policy of systematic manual rotation for malpositions. The study included 398 patients, 200 of whom had malpositions diagnosed at 5 cm of dilatation. In both the univariate and multivariate analyses, station at epidural placement was the only risk factor significantly associated with this malposition (adjusted OR: 2.49, 95% CI 1.47-4.24). None of the other factors studied was significantly associated with malposition: nulliparity (OR 1.45, 95% CI 0.96-2.20), macrosomia (OR 0.75, 95% CI 0.37-1.50), induction of labour (OR 0.84, 95% CI 0.49-1.45), or dilatation less than 3 cm at epidural administration (OR 1.16, 95% CI 0.59-2.30). Only three infants of the 365 delivered vaginally (0.8%) were born in occiput posterior positions. Epidural placement when the fetal head is still "high" is associated with an increased rate of occiput posterior and transverse malpositions during labour.

  9. Factors affecting fetal bradycardia following combined spinal epidural for labor analgesia: a matched case-control study.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Su Lin Maureen; Bautista, Dianne; Leo, Serene; Sia, Tiong Heng Alex

    2013-04-01

    The combined spinal epidural (CSE) technique for labor analgesia has become increasingly popular owing to its rapid onset of analgesia. However, incidences of fetal bradycardia following CSE have been reported. This study aimed to identify predictors of fetal bradycardia post CSE, such as a decrease in pain scores, the block height, Prostin (dinoprostone; Pfizer) use, and dosage of oxytocin. From May 2008 to October 2008, 29 patients were identified to have had an episode of fetal bradycardia. Each case was then matched to three controls, according to age and American Society of Anesthesiology status, selected from 2345 parturients who received a CSE during this period. A unit improvement in the pain score was associated with an increase in the odds of fetal bradycardia by 1.28 (95 % confidence interval [CI]: 1.02-1.60). In a second logistic regression model including sensory level higher than T9, the effect size remained consistent with an odds ratio of 1.22 (95 % CI: 0.97-1.53), supporting the theory that a higher level of sympathetic block (with a higher sensory block taken as a surrogate marker) results in an increased risk of fetal bradycardia. The dosage of oxytocin and the quantity of Prostin used were not found to be risk factors. The difference between pre- and post-CSE pain scores, and a higher sensory block height, which are surrogates for a greater degree of sympatholysis, were found to be risk factors for fetal bradycardia post CSE.

  10. Effect of combined spinal-epidural analgesia in labor on frequency of emergency cesarean delivery among nulliparous Chinese women.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fen; Cao, Yun-Xia; Ke, Shan-Gao; Zhu, Tao-Hua; Zhang, Miao

    2016-12-01

    To determine whether combined spinal-epidural analgesia (CSEA) during labor increases the frequency of emergency cesarean delivery among Chinese nulliparous women. In a retrospective study, the medical records of nulliparous women with a singleton fetus in cephalic presentation who delivered at term at Tongling Maternity Hospital, China, between January 2012 and December 2014 were reviewed. Information about CSEA, mode of delivery, labor duration, oxytocin augmentation, and neonatal outcome was obtained. Logistic regression was used to examine independent associations between CSEA and emergency cesarean after controlling for confounding variables. Among 3456 women included, 1786 (51.7%) received CSEA and 1670 (48.3%) received no labor analgesia. Emergency cesarean was more frequent among CSEA users (219/1786 [12.3%]) than non-users (119/1670 [7.1%]; P<0.001). Among the maternal-fetal variables included in multivariate regression, maternal age, maternal height, cervical dilatation at admission, birth weight, and CSEA use were significantly associated with emergency cesarean. After adjustment, women with CSEA maintained a slightly increased risk for cesarean (adjusted odds ratio 1.54, 95% confidence interval 1.20-2.00). Among Chinese nulliparous women, use of CSEA for labor pain was associated with an increased risk of emergency cesarean delivery; moreover, this effect was maintained after adjustment for other potential obstetric risk factors. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Cardiovascular parameters and liver blood flow after infusion of a colloid solution and epidural administration of ropivacaine 0.75%: the influence of age and level of analgesia.

    PubMed

    Simon, Mischa J G; Reekers, Marije; Veering, Bernadette T; Boer, Fred; Burm, Anton G L; van Kleef, Jack W; Vuyk, Jaap

    2009-02-01

    Lumbar epidural anaesthesia induces cardiovascular changes and decreases liver blood flow (Qh). We studied the effects of age on haemodynamics, blood volumes and Qh before and after epidural anaesthesia. Thirty-six patients were enrolled as follows: group 1, 20-44 years; group 2, 45-70 years; group 3, >70 years. Using pulse dye densitometry, in addition to heart rate and arterial blood pressure (arterial BP), cardiac output, total blood volume, central blood volume and Qh were measured, before and after colloid infusion (500 ml hydroxyethyl starch, 6%) and after epidural administration of 15 ml of 0.75% ropivacaine. With age the level of analgesia [median (range)] increased from T7 (L2-T4) in group 1 to T4 (T10-C7) in group 3 (P = 0.04). After colloid infusion, heart rate (mean difference +/- SE; 2.1 +/- 0.7 beats min(-1)), systolic BP (4.1 +/- 2.2 mmHg) and Qh 162 ml min(-1) (ratio 0.90, 95% confidence interval 0.81-0.99) increased slightly but significantly, and were unaffected by age. Epidural anaesthesia induced a significant decrease in Qh (265 ml min(-1); ratio 1.20, 95% confidence interval 1.07-1.35) and arterial pressure (for systolic BP: P = 1 x 10(-7)). A significantly larger decrease in systolic BP occurred in the older, compared with the middle, age group (P = 0.04). Age did not affect epidural-induced changes in cardiac output, total and central blood volumes, and Qh. Age increases the level of analgesia after epidural ropivacaine and is associated with a more pronounced decrease in arterial pressure. A colloid preload mildly increases haemodynamics, but this insufficiently prevents younger and elderly patients from a decrease in Qh after lumbar epidural anaesthesia.

  12. Safety of mixture of morphine with ketamine for postoperative patient-controlled analgesia: an audit with 1026 patients.

    PubMed

    Sveticic, G; Eichenberger, U; Curatolo, M

    2005-07-01

    Adding ketamine to morphine for patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) may be useful. However, data on this drug combination have been collected on small sample sizes. In order to evaluate the safety of the combination morphine- ketamine, we conducted a prospective study on a large patient population. Patient-controlled analgesia was performed with 1026 patients using morphine and ketamine in a dose ratio of 1:1. All patients were treated in the ward. Prospectively collected data included incidence of complications and side-effects, verbal pain scores at rest and during mobilization (0 = no pain to 4 = very strong pain), consumption of morphine and ketamine and patient satisfaction (0 = very un-satisfied to 3 = very satisfied). The study included 462 women and 564 men who underwent, on average, 71.8 h (+/-56.1) of PCA. There were 698 orthopaedic, 160 abdominal, 96 thoracic, 20 vascular, 16 plastic, 15 neurosurgical, 11 urologic and 10 other surgical procedures. No complication was observed. Incidence of side-effects was: 1.2% respiratory depression, 23.5% nausea, 6.2% vivid dreams and/or hallucinations, 21.4% sedation and 10.3% pruritus. Reasons for discontinuing the PCA were side-effects (7.0%) and other (0.5%). Mean pain scores over the whole period were 0.44 (+/-0.54) at rest and 1.36 (+/-0.62) during mobilization. Mean satisfaction score was 2.52 (+/-0.69). Patient-controlled analgesia with morphine and ketamine is safe. It produces side-effects which, however, are infrequently a reason for discontinuing the regimen. It is also associated with low pain scores and high patient satisfaction.

  13. Lumbar dural sac dimensions determined by ultrasound helps predict sensory block extent during combined spinal-epidural analgesia for labor.

    PubMed

    Fanning, Niall; Arzola, Cristian; Balki, Mrinalini; Carvalho, Jose C A

    2012-01-01

    The lumbosacral cerebrospinal fluid volume is a major determinant of the intrathecal spread of local anesthetics. Ultrasound imaging of the lumbar spine allows measurement of dural sac dimensions, which may potentially be used as a surrogate of cerebrospinal fluid volume. The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation between lumbar dural sac diameter, dural sac length (DSL), and dural sac volume (DSV), measured by ultrasound, and the intrathecal spread of isobaric bupivacaine during combined spinal-epidural (CSE) analgesia for labor. We examined 41 women with singleton pregnancies requesting neuraxial analgesia for labor. Using a 5-2-MHz curved-array ultrasound probe in the paramedian sagittal plane, we measured the dural sac width at each lumbar interspace and the DSL from L1-2 to L5-S1 interspace and calculated the dural sac volume (DSV). Following CSE block with 0.25% isobaric bupivacaine 1.75 mg and fentanyl 15 μg, peak sensory levels (PSLs) were recorded using ice, cotton, and pinprick. Statistical correlation coefficients between dural sac dimensions and PSLs were assessed by Spearman rank correlation. In addition, multiple linear regression models were used to select important predictors of PSLs. There was a moderate correlation between DSL and PSL to ice (ρ = -0.62; P < 0.0005) and to pinprick (ρ = -0.52; P = 0.017). Similarly, there was a moderate correlation between DSV and PSL to ice (ρ = -0.56; P = 0.004) and to pinprick (ρ = -0.61; P < 0.0008). Neither the DSL nor DSV correlated with PSL to cotton. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that DSL, weight, and body mass index contributed to PSLs. The length of the lumbar spine determined by ultrasound, rather than the lumbar spine volume, combined with the weight or body mass index of the subject, is of particular value in predicting the intrathecal spread of isobaric bupivacaine during CSE analgesia for labor.

  14. Thoracic epidural analgesia for off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Yatin; Vats, Mayank; Sharma, Munish; Arora, Reetesh; Trehan, Naresh

    2010-01-01

    The benefits of thoracic epidural analgesia in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting are well documented. However, the literature available on the role of high thoracic epidural analgesia (HTEA) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease undergoing off-pump coronary artery bypass graft (OPCAB) surgery is scarce. We conducted a randomized clinical trial to establish whether HTEA is beneficial in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease undergoing elective OPCAB surgery. After institutional ethics board approval and informed consent, 62 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients undergoing elective OPCAB were randomly grouped into two (n = 31 each). Both groups received general anesthesia (GA), but in the HTEA group patients, TEA was also administered. Standardized surgical and anesthetic techniques were used for both the groups. Pulmonary function tests were performed pre-operatively, 6 h and 24 h post-extubation and on days 2, 3, 4 and 5 along with arterial blood gas analysis (ABG) analysis. Time for extubation (h) and time for oxygen withdrawal (h) were recorded. Pain score was assessed by the 10-cm visual analogue scale. All hemodynamic/oxygenation parameters were noted. Any complications related to the TEA were also recorded. Patients in the HTEA group were extubated earlier (10.8 h vs. 13.5 h, P < 0.01) and their oxygen withdrawal time was also significantly lower (26.26 h vs. 29.87 h, P < 0.01). The VAS score, both at rest and on coughing, was significantly lower in the HTEA group at all times, post-operatively (P < 0.01). The forced vital capacity improved significantly at 6 h post-operatively in the HTEA group (P = 0.026) and remained significantly higher thereafter. A similar trend was observed in forced expiratory volume in the first second on day 2 in the HTEA group (P = 0.024). We did not observe any significant side-effects/mortality in either group. In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients undergoing

  15. Comparison of Pain Scores in Postoperative Patients: Intravenous Morphine Patient-Controlled Analgesia vs Iontophoretic Transdermal Fentanyl

    PubMed Central

    Caram, Anthony M; Patel, Nirav; Sandler, Hayden M

    2016-01-01

    Postoperative management of pain has traditionally utilized intravenous (IV) morphine for pain control. An alternative approach to the invasive patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) system is the administration of transdermal analgesics, such as fentanyl. In 2006 the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the fentanyl hydrochloride (fentanyl HCl) iontophoretic transdermal system (ITS), which utilizes iontophoretic technology to produce a controlled electrical current that propels ionized fentanyl molecules into the systemic vasculature. Transdermal fentanyl has been shown to be equivalent or superior to IV morphine PCA in a variety of postoperative settings with patients experiencing decreased pain scores and a favorable side effect profile. PMID:27688989

  16. A comparison of the effects of epidural analgesia versus traditional pain management on outcomes after gastric cancer resection: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Cummings, Kenneth C; Patel, Meatal; Htoo, Phyo Than; Bakaki, Paul M; Cummings, Linda C; Koroukian, Siran

    2014-01-01

    Epidural analgesia may increase survival after cancer surgery by reducing recurrence. This population-based study compared survival and treated recurrence after gastric cancer resection between patients receiving epidurals and those who did not. We used the linked federal Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program/Medicare database to identify patients aged 66 years or older with nonmetastatic gastric carcinoma diagnosed 1996 to 2005 who underwent resection. Exclusions included diagnosis at autopsy, no Medicare Part B, familial cancer syndrome, emergency surgery, and laparoscopic procedures. Epidurals were identified by Current Procedural Terminology codes. Treated recurrence was defined as chemotherapy greater than or equal to 16 months and/or radiation greater than or equal to 12 months after surgery. Recurrence was compared by conditional logistic regression. Survival was compared via marginal Cox proportional hazards regression model. We identified 2745 patients, 766 of whom had epidural codes. Patients receiving epidurals were more likely to have regional disease, be white, and live in areas with relatively high socioeconomic status. Overall treated recurrence was 25.6% (27.5% epidural and 24.9% nonepidural). In the adjusted logistic regression, there was no difference in recurrence (odds ratio, 1.40; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.96-2.05). Median survival did not differ: 28.1 months (95% CI, 24.8-32.3) in the epidural versus 27.4 months (95% CI, 24.8-30.0) in the nonepidural groups. The marginal Cox models showed no association between epidural use and mortality (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.84-1.03). There was no difference between groups regarding treated recurrence or survival. Whether this is true or simply a result of insufficient power is unclear. Prospective studies are needed to provide stronger evidence.

  17. The effect of epidurally administered dexamethasone with lignocaine for post-operative analgesia in dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy. A dose-response study.

    PubMed

    Hermeto, Larissa Correa; Rossi, Rafael de; Bicudo, Natalia de Andrade; Assis, Klebs Tavares; Escobar, Lucas Latta; Camargo, Pedro Santana de

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate the postoperative analgesic and adverse effects of three doses of dexamethasone, administered epidurally in combination with lignocaine, in dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy (OVH). Twenty-four female dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy were pre-medicated with acepromazine and general anaesthesia was induced and maintained with propofol. Animals were randomly allocated into four groups of six. The control group was given lignocaine 2% (LI) and the treatment groups were given lignocaine with either 2 mg dexamethasone (LIDEX2), 4 mg dexamethasone (LIDEX4) or 8 mg dexamethasone (LIDEX8) administered at the lumbosacral epidural space. Duration of postoperative analgesia, first analgesic rescue, motor blockade, heart rate, blood pressure, respiratory rate, and rectal temperature were evaluated. The duration of postoperative analgesia was 19.5 (SD 6) hours for LIDEX8 (p=0.001), 10 (SD 2) hours for LIDEX4 (p=0.002), 4 (SD 2) hours for LIDEX2 (p=0.074) treatments compared with values for the LI control treatment 2.2 (SD 1.6) hours. All treatments had significant cardiovascular and respiratory alterations but they were within acceptable range in these clinically healthy female dogs. Dexamethasone added to epidural lignocaine significantly extends the postoperative analgesia after ovariohysterectomy in female dogs.

  18. Responses to dural puncture during institution of combined spinal-epidural analgesia: a comparison of 27 gauge pencil-point and 27 gauge cutting-edge needles.

    PubMed

    van den Berg, A A; Ghatge, S; Armendariz, G; Cornelius, D; Wang, S

    2011-03-01

    Pencil-point spinal needles are popular for combined spinal-epidural analgesia because they cause less dural puncture headache than cutting-edge spinal needles. However many parturients move, grimace, vocalise or experience paraesthesia or dysaesthesia during dural puncture when performing 'needle through needle' combined spinal-epidural analgesia. We compared dural puncture responses induced by pencil-point and cutting-edge needles (both 27 gauge). With institutional approval, 115 parturients presenting for elective caesarean section or labour analgesia were audited. After lignocaine infiltration, a Tuohy-type needle was inserted to loss of resistance to saline at a mid-lumbar interspace, and either a 27 gauge cutting-edge or 27 gauge pencil-point needle was inserted 'needle through needle' through the dura. During dural penetration, the occurrence of patient movement, grimacing or vocalisation was noted by a blinded observer, as was the patient's response to the question "Did you feel that?" asked by the anaesthetist. The audit comprised two similar groups of patients (caesarean section, n=30; labour analgesia, n=85). In both groups, grimacing and movement during thecal penetration occurred more frequently with pencil-point needles (P < 0.05 and P < 0.025, respectively). Pooled data analysis revealed that pencil-point and cutting-edge needles induced grimacing and movement in 17 (22%) and 2 (5%), spontaneous vocalisation in 4 (5%) and 1 (3%) and was perceived by 13 (17%) and 3 (8%) parturients (P < 0.025, P=NS, P=NS), respectively. Overall, 34 and 6 objective and subjective patient responses (P < 0.005) occurred when inserting these needles, respectively. Dural puncture by a 27 gauge pencil-point needle inserted 'needle through needle' when instituting combined spinal-epidural analgesia induces more iatrogenic responses than a 27 gauge cutting-edge needle.

  19. Epidural analgesia during labor: a retrospective cohort study on its effects on labour, delivery and neonatal outcome.

    PubMed

    Hincz, Piotr; Podciechowskil, Lech; Grzesiak, Mariusz; Horzelski, Wojciech; Wilczyflski, Jan

    2014-12-01

    to evaluate the impact of epidural analgesia (EA) on labor delivery and neonatal status. retrospective, observational, cohort study comprising 5593 pregnant women who met the inclusion criteria (singleton pregnancy cephalic presentation, 37-42 weeks of gestation). Out of them, 2496 had EA and 3097 constituted the control group. incidence of labor complications and operativd deliveries in women who received EA, neonatal status assessed by Apgar score in 1- and 5-minute, and cord pH values. Labor complications were more frequently observed in the epidural group, with an almost 1.5-fold higher incidence in nulliparous (16.32% vs. 11.29%) and 1.4-fold in multiparous women (9.86% vs. 7.08%). Stepwise logistic regression confirmed that EA is a significant risk factor for labor complications in nulliparous women (OR 1.27, 95% CI 1.03-1.58) and for forceps delivery in multiparous women (5.20, 95% CI 3.31-8.177). Also, EA is an important risk factor for both, low cord arterial pH <7.10 (OR 1.98, 95% CI 1.28-3.09, p=0.0023) and low Apgar score at 7 minute (OR=4.55, 95% CI 2.35-8.80, p<0.0001). Crucially there was no difference in the incidence of a low Apgar score at 5 minutes. EA constitutes an independent risk factor for operative vaginal delivery in multiparous women, but has no effect on the incidence of cesarean sections, either in nulliparous or multiparous women. EA also increases the risk of labor complications, low 1-minute Apgar score and low umbilical cord pH, but is not associated with low 5-minute Apgar score.

  20. No morphine sparing effect of ketamine added to morphine for patient-controlled intravenous analgesia after uterine artery embolization.

    PubMed

    Jensen, L L; Handberg, G; Helbo-Hansen, H S; Skaarup, I; Lohse, T; Munk, T; Lund, N

    2008-04-01

    Pain following embolization of the uterine arteries (UAEs) is variable and may be very severe requiring large doses of parenteral opioids for relief. The present study tested the hypothesis that the addition of ketamine to i.v. patient-controlled morphine reduces the amount of morphine required for pain-control during the first 24 h after UAE embolization. Fifty-six patients undergoing UAE embolization for treatment of symptomatic uterine leiomyomata were randomized to receive either 2 mg/ml of morphine (Control group, n=30) or 2 mg/ml of both morphine and ketamine (Ketamine group, n=26) by i.v. patient-controlled analgesia (IV-PCA). Pump settings were bolus dose 1 ml, lockout 10 min, no background infusion. In addition, all patients received diclofenac and acetaminophen for pain relief. Pain scores, morphine consumption and adverse events like nausea, vomiting, itching, visual disturbances, anxiety, dreaming and hallucinations, if any, were recorded for 24 h after embolization. The mean +/- SD 24-h consumption of patient-controlled morphine was 38.3 +/- 21.0 mg in the Ketamine group vs. 33.3 +/- 18.3 mg in the Control group (NS). The difference between the means was 5.0 mg (95% confidence interval: -5.7; 15.6). One patient in the Ketamine group vs. none in the Control group experienced auditory hallucinations. Studying an unselected group of patients undergoing embolization of the UAEs for treatment of symptomatic uterine leiomyomata under conditions of basal analgesia with acetaminophen and diclofenac, we failed to demonstrate any morphine-sparing effect of IV-PCA ketamine and morphine compared with IV-PCA morphine alone.

  1. Short and Long-Term Outcomes of Epidural or Intravenous Analgesia after Esophagectomy: A Propensity-Matched Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Shengquan; Rong, Tiehua

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives As a well-established technique for postoperative pain relief, the benefits of epidural analgesia (EDA) have been under debate recently. This study aimed to determine whether EDA could improve perioperative outcomes and survival in patients undergoing esophagectomy. Methods From January 2010 to December 2012, 587 consecutive cases undergoing McKeown-type esohpageactomy were retrospectively identified from a prospectively maintained database. Results After propensity-matching, incorporating baseline characteristics, 178 cases were included in each group, and patients characteristics distributions were well-balanced between two groups. Compared with intravenous analgesia, the use of EDA significantly decreased the incidence of pneumonia from 32% to 19.7% (P = 0.008), and anastomotic leakage from 23.0% to 14.0% (P = 0.029). The change in CRP level of EDA group was significantly decreased (preoperative, 6.2 vs. 6.2; POD 1, 108.1 vs. 121.3; POD 3, 131.5 vs. 137.8; POD 7, 69.3 vs. 82.1 mg/L; P = 0.044). EDA patients had a significantly longer duration of indwelling urinary catheter (P<0.001), and lower levels in both systolic (P = 0.001) and diastolic blood pressure (P<0.001). There weren't significant differences in overall survival (log-rank P = 0.47) and recurrence (Gray-test P = 0.46) between two groups. Conclusions These findings revealed that EDA could attenuate inflammatory response and reduce the incidence of pneumonia and anastomotic leakage after esophagectomy, at the price of delayed urinary catheter removal and lower blood pressure. EDA remains an important component of multimodal perioperative management after esophagectomy. PMID:27110939

  2. A Comparison of Intrathecal and Epidural Analgesia and Its Effect on Length of Labor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-10-16

    meperidine > codeine. Their experiments indicated that the analgesic effects of systemically administered narcotics is in part mediated by the...explanation is that subjects who experience prolonged, painful labor may be more likely to ask for pain control with regional analgesia. Thus creating...reference to the use of different local anesthetic agents. Acta Anaesthesiology Scandinavia. 23, 519-529. Wood, C, Huig-Ng, K., & Hounslow, D. (1973). The

  3. Evaluation of topical epidural morphine for postoperative analgesia following hemilaminectomy in dogs.

    PubMed

    Wehrenberg, Aaron; Freeman, Lynetta; Ko, Jeff; Payton, Mark; Spivack, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    A randomized prospective study was conducted in dogs undergoing hemi-laminectomy procedures for Hansen type I disk protrusion to compare postoperative analgesia achieved with topical spinal application of morphine versus saline. An absorbable gelatin sponge was placed in the defect next to the dura and soaked with either preservative-free morphine (0.1 mg/kg) or saline (0.1 ml/kg) just before wound closure. For 48 hours after surgery, dogs were monitored for pain using visual analog and numeric descriptive scales and given rescue analgesia according to study guidelines. A Kaplan-Meier survival analysis revealed that dogs in the morphine group had a longer (13.3 +/- 3.6 hours) duration of postoperative analgesia than those in the control saline group (5.3 +/- 1.8 hours), and dogs in the morphine group also required fewer doses of additional pain medication. Preservative-free morphine administered topically via an absorbable gelatin sponge appears to be a promising method to alleviate postoperative pain in dogs undergoing hemilaminectomy procedures.

  4. Butyl-p-aminobenzoate. Preparation, characterization and quality control of a suspension injection for epidural analgesia.

    PubMed

    Grouls, R J; Ackerman, E W; Machielsen, E J; Korsten, H H

    1991-02-22

    The conditions for the preparation of a 10% butyl-p-aminobenzoate suspension for epidural administration were investigated. Pharmaceutically acceptable suspensions are composed of butyl-p-aminobenzoate particles dispersed in a solvent consisting of the surfactant polysorbate 80 added to normal saline in a concentration of 0.25 mg/ml. pH Correction is not necessary. The suspensions are sterilized at 120 degrees C followed by special milling procedures to accomplish acceptable particle size. Butyl-p-aminobenzoate suspensions are stable at 4 degrees C during a period of at least four weeks.

  5. Progress in analgesia for labor: focus on neuraxial blocks

    PubMed Central

    Ranasinghe, J Sudharma; Birnbach, David J

    2010-01-01

    Neuraxial analgesia is widely accepted as the most effective and the least depressant method of providing pain relief in labor. Over the last several decades neuraxial labor analgesia techniques and medications have progressed to the point now where they provide high quality pain relief with minimal side effects to both the mother and the fetus while maximizing the maternal autonomy possible for the parturient receiving neuraxial analgesia. The introduction of the combined spinal epidural technique for labor has allowed for the rapid onset of analgesia with minimal motor blockade, therefore allowing the comfortable parturient to ambulate. Patient-controlled epidural analgesia techniques have evolved to allow for more flexible analgesia that is tailored to the individual needs of the parturient and effective throughout the different phases of labor. Computer integrated systems have been studied to provide seamless analgesia from induction of neuraxial block to delivery. New adjuvant drugs that improve the effectiveness of neuraxial labor analgesia while decreasing the side effects that may occur due to high dose of a single drug are likely to be added to future labor analgesia practice. Bupivacaine still remains a popular choice of local anesthetic for labor analgesia. New local anesthetics with less cardiotoxicity have been introduced, but their cost effectiveness in the current labor analgesia practice has been questioned. PMID:21072273

  6. A comparison of continuous infusion and intermittent bolus administration of 0.1% ropivacaine with 0.0002% fentanyl for epidural labor analgesia

    PubMed Central

    Patkar, Chinmayi Surendra; Vora, Kalpana; Patel, Harshal; Shah, Veena; Modi, Manisha Pranjal; Parikh, Geeta

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims: Minimal consumption of local anesthetic and opioid for epidural labor analgesia has been advocated for safe obstetric outcome and superior maternal satisfaction. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate and compare the analgesic efficacy of mode of administration of epidural 0.1% ropivacaine with 0.0002% fentanyl via continuous infusion or intermittent boluses during labor. Material and Methods: Sixty term primi or second gravida healthy parturients in labor requesting epidural analgesia were recruited in this study. Lumbar epidural catheter was inserted, and analgesia initiated with 0.2% ropivacaine. Patients were randomized to receive ropivacaine 0.1% with fentanyl 0.0002% via either continuous infusion (Group A) or intermittent boluses (Group B) on an hourly basis. If the parturient complained of pain and visual analog scale (VAS) score was >3, an additional bolus of the study drug was given. VAS score, motor blockade, maternal hemodynamics and fetal heart sounds were frequently monitored. Side effects, mode of delivery and neonatal outcome were noted. Results: To achieve similar VAS, the mean total dose of ropivacaine was 18.78 ± 3.88 mg in Group A and 16.86 ± 4.3 mg in Group B, the difference being statistically significant (P = 0.04). Seventeen out of 30 patients in Group A that is, 56.6% and nine patients in Group B that is, 30% required additional top-ups, and this was significantly higher (P = 0.037). Side effects, mode of delivery and neonatal outcome were comparable in both groups. Conclusion: Intermittent bolus administration provides a more efficacious route of drug delivery when compared to continuous infusion by significantly decreasing the total amount of local anesthetic plus opioid without adversely affecting patient safety or maternal satisfaction. PMID:25948908

  7. Comparison of 2% lignocaine with adrenaline and fentanyl, 0.75% ropivacaine and 0.5% levobupivacaine for extension of epidural analgesia for urgent caesarean section after low dose epidural infusion during labour.

    PubMed

    Sng, B L; Pay, L L; Sia, A T H

    2008-09-01

    Low dose local anaesthetic and fentanyl epidural solutions are commonly 'topped-up' for urgent caesarean section. However, the block characteristics associated with newer local anaesthetics such as ropivacaine 0.75% and levobupivacaine 0.5% have not been fully determined. In a randomised double-blinded controlled clinical trial, we compared 2% lignocaine with adrenaline and fentanyl (LAF), 0.75% ropivacaine and 0.5% levobupivacaine for extension of low dose epidural analgesia for urgent caesarean section in 90 Asian parturients. There was no significant difference in the median, interquartile range, time to T4 loss of sensation to cold between LAF (9.5, 7.0 to 13.3 minutes), 0.75% ropivacaine (10.0, 7.0 to 15.0 minutes) and 0.5% levobupivacaine (10.0, 7.0 to 15.0 minutes). No woman required conversion to general anaesthesia. The supplementation rate did not differ between groups. Levobupivacaine provided a longer duration of sensory block compared to LAF but a similar duration to 0.75% ropivacaine. Under the conditions of this study there was no significant difference in time to surgical readiness (defined as loss of sensation to cold to T4) between LAF, 0.75% ropivacaine and 0.5% levobupivacaine groups. Ropivacaine and levobupivacaine are suitable alternatives for extending epidural analgesia for urgent caesarean section.

  8. Epidural analgesia combined with a comprehensive physiotherapy program after Cytoreductive Surgery and HIPEC is associated with enhanced post-operative recovery and reduces intensive care unit stay: A retrospective study of 124 patients.

    PubMed

    Osseis, M; Weyrech, J; Gayat, E; Dagois, S; Lo Dico, R; Pocard, M; Eveno, C

    2016-12-01

    Although Cytoreductive Surgery (CRS) and Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy (HIPEC) confers health benefits in peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC) treatment, it is associated with significant postoperative morbidity and mortality rate with increased length of hospital stay. The goal of this study is to determine whether a new comprehensive physiotherapy program including epidural loco-regional analgesia can improve the quality of care and patients recovery. Between 2009 and 2013, 124 patients with PC were operated for CRS and HIPEC procedures. These patients were analyzed and divided in 2 groups by means of time. No Physio group included patients operated from 2009 to 2011 (n = 57) having a thoracic patient controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA) but no preoperative physiotherapy program. The Physio group included patients operated from 2012 to 2013 (n = 67) having both a PCEA with a preoperative physiotherapy program. The mortality rate was 1.6% (n = 2). The median length of stay in the intensive care unit (ICU) was lower in the Physio group, 2 days vs. 0 for No Physio group (p < 0.0001). The first time of mobilization after surgery was shorter in the Physio group (day 3 vs. 2, p = 0.0043). The overall satisfaction in the Physio group was achieved in 93% of patients, helping in decreasing fear of surgery and mobilization in 70% and 84% of cases respectively. Our study demonstrates that a clear pre-operative information and education by a physiotherapist, associated with a PCEA-pain management significantly benefits the patient's post-operative recovery and reduces the length of stay in the ICU. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd, BASO ~ the Association for Cancer Surgery, and the European Society of Surgical Oncology. All rights reserved.

  9. Programmed Intermittent Epidural Bolus for Labor Analgesia During First Stage of Labor: A Biased-Coin Up-and-Down Sequential Allocation Trial to Determine the Optimum Interval Time Between Boluses of a Fixed Volume of 10 mL of Bupivacaine 0.0625% With Fentanyl 2 μg/mL.

    PubMed

    Epsztein Kanczuk, Marcelo; Barrett, Nicholas Martin; Arzola, Cristian; Downey, Kristi; Ye, Xiang Y; Carvalho, Jose C A

    2017-02-01

    Most studies that have compared programmed intermittent epidural bolus (PIEB) with continuous epidural infusion regimens have included patient-controlled epidural analgesia and/or manual bolus as rescue analgesia for breakthrough pain. Consequently, the optimal time interval between PIEB is yet to be determined. We designed a study to establish the optimal time interval between PIEB of 10 mL of bupivacaine 0.0625% with fentanyl 2 μg/mL to produce effective analgesia in 90% of women during first stage of labor without breakthrough pain. We conducted a double-blind sequential allocation trial with a biased-coin up-down design to obtain the effective interval 90% for the PIEB regimen. We included American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status 2-3 nulliparous women at term undergoing spontaneous or induced labor requesting epidural analgesia. An ultrasound-assisted epidural catheter placement was performed at L2/3 or L3/4. A test dose of 3 mL of bupivacaine 0.125% plus fentanyl 3.3 μg/mL was followed by a loading dose of 12 mL of the same solution. PIEB was then started in women whose pain scores achieved Verbal Numerical Rating Score ≤1/10 within 20 minutes after the end of the loading dose. In all subjects, the programmed bolus dose was fixed at 10 mL of bupivacaine 0.0625% with fentanyl 2 μg/mL. The first bolus was delivered 1 hour after the loading dose. The PIEB interval was set at 60 minutes for the first patient and at varying time intervals (60, 50, 40, and 30 minutes; groups 60, 50, 40 and 30, respectively) for the subsequent patients, according to a biased-coin design. The primary outcome was effective analgesia, defined as no requirement for a patient-controlled epidural analgesia or a manual bolus for 6 hours after the initiation of the epidural analgesia or until the patient presented with full cervical dilatation, whichever event occurred first. Pain scores, sensory block levels to ice, degree of motor block, and blood pressure were assessed

  10. [Analysis of patients control analgesia with trimeperidine and ketoprofen for postoperative pain management in patients who underwent cardiac surgery].

    PubMed

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study is to discover adequate method of early postoperative period pain management in patients after cardiac surgery. In prospective randomized competitive study were analyzed three algorithms of analgesia: first patients controlled analgesia (PCA) with trimeperidine and (NSAID) ketoprofen, second PCA with only trimeperidine and third is ketoprofen combined with intramuscular injection of trimeperidine. There were 75 pations studied at the age of 40 to 65. The pain level was assessed according to verbal 5 points scale, inspiration lung capacity which was measured by incentive spirometry. It was shown that NSAID were safe to use in early postoperative period in patients after cardiac surgery. Combination of ketoprofen and trimeperiden showed best results in pain management. Consumption dose of trimeperidine was smaller in first group but larger than in third group where this drug was introduced fractional. All side effects were associated with trimeperedine and were depended on a dose. Patients of second group had nausea, vomiting, dizziness, weakness, enteroparesis considerably often comparing to patients of other groups, moreover rate of enteroparesis was minimal in the third group.

  11. Thoracic paravertebral block versus intravenous patient-controlled analgesia for pain treatment in patients with multiple rib fractures.

    PubMed

    Yeying, Ge; Liyong, Yuan; Yuebo, Chen; Yu, Zhang; Guangao, Ye; Weihu, Ma; Liujun, Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To assess the effect of thoracic paravertebral block (PVB) on pain management and preservation of pulmonary function compared with intravenous, patient-controlled analgesia (IVPCA) in patients with multiple rib fractures (MRFs). Methods Ninety patients with unilateral MRFs were included in this prospective study and randomly assigned to the TPVB or IVPCA group. The visual analogue scale (VAS) pain score, blood gas analysis, and bedside spirometry were measured and recorded at different time points after analgesia. Results TPVB and IVPCA provided good pain relief. VAS scores were significantly lower in the TPVB group than in the IVPCA group at rest and during coughing ( P < 0.05). Patients in the TPVB group had a higher PaO2 and PaO2/FiO2 and lower P(A-a)O2 compared with the IVPCA group ( P < 0.05). Moreover, patients in the TPVB group showed higher FVC, FEV1/FVC, and PEFR, and fewer complications than did the IVPCA group ( P < 0.05). Conclusion TPVB is superior to IVPCA in pain relief and preservation of pulmonary function in patients with MRFs.

  12. A Patient-Controlled Analgesia Adaptor to Mitigate Postsurgical Pain for Combat Casualties With Multiple Limb Amputation: A Case Series.

    PubMed

    Pasquina, Paul F; Isaacson, Brad M; Johnson, Elizabeth; Rhoades, Daniel S; Lindholm, Mark P; Grindle, Garrett G; Cooper, Rory A

    2016-08-01

    The use of explosive armaments during Operation Iraqi Freedom, Operation Enduring Freedom, and Operation New Dawn has resulted in a significant number of injured U.S. service members. These weapons often generate substantial extremity trauma requiring multiple surgical procedures to preserve life, limb, and restore function. For those individuals who require multiple surgeries, the use of patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) devices can be an effective way to achieve adequate pain management and promote successful rehabilitation and recovery during inpatient treatment. A subpopulation of patients are unable to independently control a PCA device because of severe multiple limb dysfunction and/or loss. In response to the needs of these patients, our team designed and developed a custom adaptor to assist service members who would otherwise not be able to use a PCA. Patient feedback of the device indicated a positive response, improved independence, and overall satisfaction during inpatient hospitalization.

  13. Factors that Affect Intravenous Patient-Controlled Analgesia for Postoperative Pain Following Orthognathic Surgery for Mandibular Prognathism

    PubMed Central

    Aoki, Yoshinori; Yoshida, Kaori; Nishizawa, Daisuke; Kasai, Shinya; Ichinohe, Tatsuya; Ikeda, Kazutaka; Fukuda, Ken-ichi

    2014-01-01

    The predictors of postoperative pain and analgesic consumption were previously found to include preoperative pain, anxiety, age, type of surgery, and genotype, but remaining unclear was whether intraoperative factors could predict postoperative pain. In the present study, we investigated the time-course of fentanyl consumption using intravenous patient-controlled analgesia records from patients who underwent orthognathic surgery for mandibular prognathism and analyzed the influence of anesthesia methods and surgical methods together with sex on the time course. A significant difference in the time course of fentanyl administration was found (P<0.001). No significant difference in the time course of fentanyl administration was found between males and females (P = 0.653), with no interaction between time course and sex (P = 0.567). No significant difference in the time course of fentanyl administration was found among anesthesia methods, such as fentanyl induction followed by fentanyl maintenance, fentanyl induction followed by remifentanil maintenance, and remifentanil induction followed by remifentanil maintenance (P = 0.512), but an interaction between time course and anesthesia method was observed (P = 0.004). A significant difference in the time course of fentanyl administration was found between surgical methods, such as bilateral mandibular sagittal split ramus osteotomy (BSSRO) and BSSRO combined with Le Fort I osteotomy (bimaxillary; P = 0.008), with no interaction between time course and surgical method (P = 0.535). Total postoperative 24 h consumption associated with the bimaxillary procedure was significantly higher than with BSSRO (P = 0.008). The present results indicate that administration patterns and total 24 h consumption were different among the three groups of anesthesia methods and between the two groups of surgical methods, respectively. Although more research on patient-controlled analgesia patterns and consumption

  14. Comparison of local infiltration and epidural analgesia for postoperative pain control in total knee arthroplasty and total hip arthroplasty: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Yan, Huan; Cang, Jing; Xue, Zhanggang; Lu, Jianfeng; Wang, Hao

    2016-11-10

    Pain management after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and total hip arthroplasty should permit early mobilization with minimal pain. Local infiltration analgesia (LIA) is a new popular method for decreasing postoperative pain. The goal of this meta-analysis is to evaluate the efficacy of LIA in comparison with epidural analgesia. A literature search was performed in PubMed, EMBASE, the OVID database, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library databases. The risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane collaboration tool. Outcomes of interest included visual analog scale score, range of flexion, length of stay, and complications. Nine trials involving 537 patients met the inclusion criteria. LIA provides better pain relief and larger range of motion in TKA patients compared to epidural analgesia at the late postoperative period. No significant difference was observed in regard to the length of stay and complications. The current evidence shows that the use of local infiltration is effective for postoperative pain management in TKA patients. More high-quality randomized controlled trials with long-term follow-up are required for examining the long-term efficacy and safety of local infiltration.

  15. Effects of Intravenous Patient-Controlled Sufentanil Analgesia and Music Therapy on Pain and Hemodynamics After Surgery for Lung Cancer: A Randomized Parallel Study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yichun; Tang, Haoke; Guo, Qulian; Liu, Jingshi; Liu, Xiaohong; Luo, Junming; Yang, Wenqian

    2015-11-01

    Postoperative pain is caused by surgical injury and trauma; is stressful to patients; and includes a series of physiologic, psychological, and behavioral reactions. Effective postoperative analgesia helps improve postoperative pain, perioperative safety, and hospital discharge rates. This study aimed to observe the influence of postoperative intravenous sufentanil patient-controlled analgesia combined with music therapy versus sufentanil alone on hemodynamics and analgesia in patients with lung cancer. This was a randomized parallel study performed in 60 patients in American Society of Anesthesiologists class I or II undergoing lung cancer resection at the Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Xiangya School of Medicine, Central South University. Patients were randomly assigned to a music therapy (MT) group and a control (C) group. The MT group underwent preoperative and postoperative music intervention while the C group did not. Both groups received intravenous patient-controlled sufentanil analgesia. The primary outcome was the visual analogue scale (VAS) score at 24 hours after surgery. The secondary outcomes included hemodynamic changes (systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, heart rate), changes on the Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), total consumption of sufentanil, number of uses, sedation, and adverse effects. The postoperative sufentanil dose and analgesia frequency were recorded. Compared with the C group, the MT group had significantly lower VAS score, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, and SAS score within 24 hours after surgery (p < 0.01). In addition, postoperative analgesia frequency and sufentanil dose were reduced in the MT group (p < 0.01). Combined music therapy and sufentanil improves intravenous patient-controlled analgesia effects compared with sufentanil alone after lung cancer surgery. Lower doses of sufentanil could be administered to more effectively improve patients' cardiovascular parameters.

  16. Transitional Study of Patient-Controlled Analgesia Morphine With Ketorolac to Patient-Controlled Analgesia Morphine With Parecoxib Among Donors in Adult Living Donor Liver Transplantation: A Single-Center Experience.

    PubMed

    Lim, K-I; Liu, C-K; Chen, C-L; Wang, C-H; Huang, C-J; Cheng, K-W; Wu, S-C; Shih, T-H; Yang, S-C; Lee, Y-E; Jawan, B; Juang, S-E

    2016-05-01

    In this study, as our center transitions from using patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) morphine with intravenous (IV) ketorolac to PCA morphine with IV parecoxib, the two regimens are compared in terms of quality of pain control. Post-operative pain management sheets were collected retrospectively among the living donors of liver transplantation during this transitional period. Group parecoxib was given plain PCA morphine. A single dose of IV parecoxib 40 mg was given 30 minutes before the end of surgery. Group ketorolac was given PCA morphine pre-mixed ketorolac with a concentration of 1.87 mg/mL. Daily and total morphine consumption, Visual Analog Score (VAS), and number of rescue attempts made up to 3 post-operative days, together with satisfaction score and incidence of side effects of PCA usage, were analyzed and compared by means of the Mann-Whitney U test; a value of P < .05 was regarded as significant, and data are given as mean ± SD. Fifty patients were analyzed; group 1 comprised 21 patients and group 2 comprised 29 patients. There was no difference between group 1 and group 2 in terms of daily VAS. PCA morphine requirements were significantly lower at day 2 and day 3 in group 1. However, the total overall morphine usage and satisfactory score was not statistically different (P = .863, P = .052). A single dose of IV parecoxib 40 mg can provide satisfactory pain control when paired with PCA morphine for donors undergoing living donor liver transplantation. The use of parecoxib in the multimodal analgesia regimen has similar efficacy, with possibly less morphine consumption, when compared with ketorolac. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The influence of epidural analgesia on platelet function and correlation with plasma bupivacaine concentrations.

    PubMed

    Odoom, J A; Dokter, P W; Sturk, A; Ten Cate, J W; Sih, I L; Bovill, J G

    1988-09-01

    The effect of epidural anaesthesia with bupivacaine 0.5% on platelet aggregation was studied in seven patients undergoing transurethral resection of the prostate. Peak plasma concentrations of bupivacaine 470 +/- 270 ng ml-1 occurred at 30 min after administration. At that time there were no significant changes in platelet aggregation. However, the maximum rate of the primary- and secondary-aggregation velocities induced by 1.0 microM ADP were significantly decreased at 1 h and 3 h after bupivacaine administration. The maximum percentage ADP-induced platelet aggregation was also decreased significantly at 1 h and 3 h. The minimum concentration of ADP required to induce secondary-phase platelet aggregation was significantly increased at 1 h but not at 3 h. There was a significant correlation between bupivacaine concentrations and all platelet aggregation parameters except the maximum ADP-induced aggregation. Platelet inhibition occurred at plasma bupivacaine concentrations that were considerably lower than those needed to produce similar inhibition in vitro.

  18. The physiological effects of thoracic epidural anesthesia and analgesia on the cardiovascular, respiratory and gastrointestinal systems.

    PubMed

    Clemente, A; Carli, F

    2008-10-01

    Studies of regional anesthesia are increasing in popularity not only for the purpose of technical advancement, but also to better understand the effects of neural deafferentation on the function of various organs. Thoracic epidural anesthesia (TEA) is one of the most versatile and widely utilized neural deafferentation techniques. The aim of this article is to critically review published data regarding the most relevant effects of TEA on the cardiovascular, respiratory and gastrointestinal systems. In the cardiovascular system, TEA modifies the electrical activity of the heart in addition to ventricular function and wall motion. Improvements in regional blood flow and a reduction of the major determinants of cardiac oxygen consumption lead to less severity of the ischemic injury. Although TEA negatively affects the performance of intercostal muscles, it spares diaphragmatic function and, when it is limited to the first five thoracic segments, affects pulmonary volumes to a lesser extent. TEA can be safely used in patients with compromised respiration. Splanchnic sympathetic block is achieved when thoracic fibers from T5 to T12 are affected in a dose-dependent manner. Improved gastrointestinal blood flow and motility are clear in animals, and in clinical studies, TEA has been shown to improve recovery after major abdominal surgery. TEA thus presents a powerful tool available to anesthesiologists for perioperative intervention, but its use alone cannot prevent postoperative morbidity and mortality. It is therefore necessary to address its use in the context of multimodal intervention.

  19. [Critical infusion incident caused by incorrect use of a patient-controlled analgesia pump].

    PubMed

    Steffen, M; von Hintzenstern, U; Obermayer, A

    2002-01-01

    We report on the case of a 17-year-old male patient who received a PCA pump after nephrectomy for postoperative analgesia. The syringe of the PCA pump was filled with 50 mg morphine and positioned about 25 cm above the heart. Since the piston of the syringe was not bolted while the pump was switched off, an unnoticed accidental evacuation of the whole content of the syringe into the intravenous line of the patient occurred because of gravity. This problem exists not only with PCA pumps, but can happen with syringe pumps in general. The incident, which can only be explained by strongly reduced venous pressure, was detected by chance. No harm resulted for the patient, but under different conditions it could have been lethal. This critical incident was caused by various factors: incorrect application in combination with insufficient experience or training, stress, inadequate handing-over of the patient and a lack of arrangements and instructions for procedures in routine situations. Suggestions for preventing such dangerous critical incidents are made and discussed. In particular, an algorithm for the correct procedure when inserting or changing the syringe of a syringe pump is presented.

  20. Cervical epidural analgesia in current anaesthesia practice: systematic review of its clinical utility and rationale, and technical considerations.

    PubMed

    Shanthanna, H; Mendis, N; Goel, A

    2016-02-01

    Cervical epidural analgesia (CEA) is an analgesic technique, potentially useful for surgeries involving the upper body. Despite the inherent technical risks and systemic changes, it has been used for various surgeries. There have been no previously published systematic reviews aimed at assessing its clinical utility. This systematic review was performed to explore the perioperative benefits of CEA. The review was also aimed at identifying the rationale of its use, reported surgical indications and the method of use. We performed a literature search involving PubMed and Embase databases, to identify studies using CEA for surgical indications. Out of 467 potentially relevant articles, 73 articles were selected. Two independent investigators extracted data involving 5 randomized controlled trials, 17 observational comparative trials, and 51 case reports (series). The outcomes studied in most comparative studies were on effects of local anaesthetics and other agents, systemic effects, and feasibility of CEA. In one randomized controlled study, CEA was observed to decrease the resting pain scores after pharyngo-laryngeal surgeries. In a retrospective study, CEA was shown to decrease the cancer recurrence after pharyngeal-hypopharyngeal surgeries. The limited evidence, small studies, and the chosen outcomes do not allow for any specific recommendations based on the relative benefit or harm of CEA. Considering the potential for significant harm, in the face of better alternatives, its use must have a strong rationale mostly supported by unique patient and surgical demands. Future studies must aim to assess analgesic comparator effectiveness for clinically relevant outcomes. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. The Effect of Epidural Analgesia Alone and in Association With Other Variables on the Risk of Cesarean Section.

    PubMed

    Herrera-Gómez, Antonio; Luna-Bertos, Elvira De; Ramos-Torrecillas, Javier; Ocaña-Peinado, Francisco Manuel; García-Martínez, Olga; Ruiz, Concepción

    2017-07-01

    Epidural analgesia (EA) is the most widespread pharmacologic method of labor pain relief. There remains disagreement, however, regarding its adverse effects. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of EA administration on the risk of cesarean delivery and its causes (e.g., stalled labor, risk of loss of fetal well-being, among others) and the degree to which this effect may be modulated by mother-, newborn-, and labor-related variables. A retrospective cohort observational study was conducted including all deliveries in a Spanish public hospital between March 2010 and March 2013 ( N = 2,450; EA = 562, non-EA = 1,888). Risk of a cesarean section was significantly increased by EA administration (odds ratio [ OR] = 2.673; p < .0001). The percentage of cesarean deliveries due to the risk of loss of fetal well-being was significantly higher in the EA (47.8%) versus non-EA group (27.5%; OR = 1.739; p = 0.0012,). The EA-associated risk of cesarean section was not significantly modified as a function of maternal age or parity, fetal position, newborn weight, weeks of gestation, or sedation administration alone. However, these variables in combination may increase the risk. We present multivariate models for each group that account for these variables, allowing for estimation of the risk of a cesarean delivery if EA is administered. EA is associated with an increased risk of cesarean delivery. Other variables in combination (maternal age or parity, fetal position, newborn weight, weeks of gestation, or sedation administration) may increase this risk.

  2. A comparison of epidural analgesia provided by bupivacaine alone, bupivacaine + morphine, or bupivacaine + dexmedetomidine for pelvic orthopedic surgery in dogs.

    PubMed

    O, Odette; Smith, Lesley J

    2013-09-01

    To compare the analgesic efficacy of bupivacaine, bupivacaine + morphine, or bupivacaine + dexmedetomidine administered epidurally in dogs undergoing pelvic limb orthopedic surgery. Prospective, randomized, double blinded clinical trial. Sixty dogs weighing (mean ± SD) 35 ± 15.7 kg, aged 5 ± 3 years. Dogs were assigned to receive a lumbosacral epidural containing bupivacaine (B) 0.5%, 1 mg kg(-1) ; B, bupivacaine 0.5%, 1 mg kg(-1)  + morphine 1%, 0.1 mg kg(-1) ; B + M, or bupivacaine 0.5%, 1 mg kg(-1)  + dexmedetomidine 0.05%, 4 μg kg(-1) ; B + D. The anesthetic protocol was standardized. The median expired isoflurane concentration (E'Iso) and requirement for additional induction agent preventing purposeful movement were recorded. Pain was scored using visual analog (VAS) and modified University of Melbourne (UMPS) pain scales. Sedation was assessed using a 0-4 scale. All parameters were recorded preoperatively, and at extubation (t = 0), then at 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 16, and 20-24 hours. Hydromorphone was administered postoperatively to patients with a VAS ≥ 35 and/or UMPS ≥ 9. Time to first voluntary urination and first motor activity were recorded. Postoperatively, B + D had a lower UMPS pain score than B at t = 1 hour (p = 0.013), but not compared to B + M. The B + D group had a shorter time to urination (p = 0.0131) and a longer time for return of motor function (p = 0.0068). There were no other differences between the treatments. Epidurally administered B, B + M, or B + D in dogs all provided acceptable analgesia to manage post-operative orthopedic pelvic limb pain. Epidural administration of B + D is an effective alternative to the analgesia provided by B or B + M, but is associated with increased time to return of motor function. The direct neurotoxic effects of epidural dexmedetomidine have not been fully tested. © 2013 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of

  3. A Randomized Clinical Trial of Nefopam versus Ketorolac Combined With Oxycodone in Patient-Controlled Analgesia after Gynecologic Surgery.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Boo-Young; Kwon, Jae-Young; Lee, Do-Won; Kim, Eunsoo; Kim, Tae-Kyun; Kim, Hae-Kyu

    2015-01-01

    Nefopam is a centrally-acting non-opioid analgesic, which has no effect on bleeding time and platelet aggregation. There has been no study about nefopam and oxycodone combination for postoperative analgesia. In this study, we present efficacy and side effects of nefopam/oxycodone compared with ketorolac/oxycodone in patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) after gynecologic surgery. 120 patients undergoing gynecologic surgery were divided randomly into two groups: Nefopam group treated with oxycodone 1 mg and nefopam 1 mg bolus; and Ketorolac group treated with oxycodone 1 mg and ketorolac 1.5 mg bolus. After the operation, a blinded observer assessed the pain with a numeric rating scale (NRS), infused PCA dose and sedation score at 1, 4, 24, and 48 h, nausea, vomiting, headache, shivering, pruritus and delirium at 6, 24 and 48 h, and satisfaction at 48 h after the operation. Nefopam group showed less nausea than Ketorolac group within 6 h after the operation. There were no significant differences in demographic data and other complications between both groups. At 48 h after operation, satisfaction and the infused PCA volumes of Nefopam group (34.0± 19.7 ml) showed no significant differences compared to Ketorolac group (30.7± 18.4 ml, P-value= 0.46). Nefopam showed a similar efficacy and lower incidence of nausea within 6 h after the operation to that of ketorolac in PCA. Nefopam may be a useful analgesic drug for the opioid-based PCA after gynecologic surgery. Further evaluation of accurate equivalent dose of nefopam as well as pharmacokinetics of bolus administration is required.

  4. A Randomized Clinical Trial of Nefopam versus Ketorolac Combined With Oxycodone in Patient-Controlled Analgesia after Gynecologic Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Boo-Young; Kwon, Jae-Young; Lee, Do-Won; Kim, Eunsoo; Kim, Tae-Kyun; Kim, Hae-Kyu

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Nefopam is a centrally-acting non-opioid analgesic, which has no effect on bleeding time and platelet aggregation. There has been no study about nefopam and oxycodone combination for postoperative analgesia. In this study, we present efficacy and side effects of nefopam/oxycodone compared with ketorolac/oxycodone in patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) after gynecologic surgery. Methods: 120 patients undergoing gynecologic surgery were divided randomly into two groups: Nefopam group treated with oxycodone 1 mg and nefopam 1 mg bolus; and Ketorolac group treated with oxycodone 1 mg and ketorolac 1.5 mg bolus. After the operation, a blinded observer assessed the pain with a numeric rating scale (NRS), infused PCA dose and sedation score at 1, 4, 24, and 48 h, nausea, vomiting, headache, shivering, pruritus and delirium at 6, 24 and 48 h, and satisfaction at 48 h after the operation. Results: Nefopam group showed less nausea than Ketorolac group within 6 h after the operation. There were no significant differences in demographic data and other complications between both groups. At 48 h after operation, satisfaction and the infused PCA volumes of Nefopam group (34.0± 19.7 ml) showed no significant differences compared to Ketorolac group (30.7± 18.4 ml, P-value= 0.46). Conclusion: Nefopam showed a similar efficacy and lower incidence of nausea within 6 h after the operation to that of ketorolac in PCA. Nefopam may be a useful analgesic drug for the opioid-based PCA after gynecologic surgery. Further evaluation of accurate equivalent dose of nefopam as well as pharmacokinetics of bolus administration is required. PMID:26283884

  5. Functional results of conservative therapy accompanied by interscalane brachial plexus block and patient-controlled analgesia in cases with frozen shoulder.

    PubMed

    Yilmazlar, Aysun; Türker, Gürkan; Atici, Teoman; Bilgen, Sadik; Bilgen, Omer Faruk

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated the efficacy of simultaneous interscalene block and catheter analgesia applied as an aid to conservative treatment in improving shoulder functions in patients with frozen shoulder. Three patients (2 women, 1 man; mean age 47 years) with frozen shoulder underwent conservative treatment including manipulation under interscalene brachial plexus block and subsequent rehabilitation under catheter analgesia to improve shoulder range of motion and function. Following manipulation under interscalene block, the patients were hospitalized for 15 to 28 days (mean 21 days) for an exercise program performed by a physiotherapist and orthopedist at least twice a day under interscalene catheter analgesia. Thirty minutes before each rehabilitation session, patient-controlled analgesia was administered via a pain relief pump. Active and passive range of motion (ROM) were measured and the severity of pain was rated using a visual analog scale (VAS) prior to and following interscalene block, during the exercise program, and at the end of the treatment. Functional assessments were made before and after treatment using the University of California in Los Angeles (UCLA) Shoulder Scale. The exercise program under interscalene analgesia was performed until pain-free and sufficient active movements were obtained, with at least 80% improvement in active and passive motion, a VAS score of 0-2, and an UCLA score of >27. Compared to pretreatment values, the ROM values showed remarkable increases at the end of the treatment. Active ROM reached at least 30 degrees external rotation, 40 degrees internal rotation, 150 degrees flexion, 45 degrees extension, and 100 degrees abduction in all cases. On presentation, the VAS scores of all cases were 10 for both active and passive movements, whereas they ranged from 0 to 2 on discharge. The mean UCLA score increased from 12.3 to 30.3 after treatment. Immediately after the interscalene block, two patients exhibited signs of Horner's syndrome

  6. Cost comparison of intrathecal morphine to intravenous patient-controlled analgesia for the first 24 h post cesarean delivery: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Patel, Nitesh; Bryant, Ayesha; Duncan, Kensi; Kukreja, Promil; Powell, Mark F

    2017-02-01

    Intrathecal morphine provides superior pain control for patients undergoing cesarean delivery when compared to intravenous opioid patient-controlled analgesia. However, no study has assessed the overall cost associated with each modality as a primary outcome. The aim of this study is to determine the overall cost of each modality for the first 24 h post cesarean delivery. Charts of patients undergoing cesarean delivery at our institution from January 1, 2014 to December 31, 2014 were reviewed. Patients receiving intrathecal morphine were compared to patients undergoing general anesthesia and receiving intravenous opioid patient-controlled analgesia for post-procedure analgesia. The primary outcome measured was total cost of each modality for the first 24 h after delivery. Secondary outcomes included post-procedure pain scores, time to removal of the Foley catheter, need for rescue medications, and adverse events. There was a significant difference in total cost of intrathecal morphine when compared to intravenous opioid patient-controlled analgesia ($51.14 vs. $80.16, p < 0.001). Average pain scores between 0-1 h (0 vs. 5, p < 0.001) and 1-6 h (2.5 vs. 3.25, p < 0.001) were less in the intrathecal morphine group. The intrathecal morphine group received more ketorolac (p < 0.001) and required more rescue opioids (p = 0.042). There were no significant differences in documented adverse events. The use of intrathecal morphine for post-cesarean pain control leads to a significant cost savings for the first 24 h when compared to intravenous opioid patient-controlled analgesia. Patients also experienced less pain and were not at increased risk for adverse events.

  7. Stability of morphine sulfate in polypropylene infusion bags for use in patient-controlled analgesia pumps for postoperative pain management.

    PubMed

    Nguyen-Xuan, Tho; Griffiths, William; Kern, Christian; Gessel, Elisabeth Van; Bonnabry, Pascal

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a stable intravenous solution of 1-mg/mL morphine sulfate in polypropylene bags for use in patient-controlled analgesia pumps for postoperative pain management. Three large-scale batches of 1-mg/mL morphine sulfate solution filled into polypropylene bags and terminally sterilized at 120 deg C for 20 minutes were used in this study. The stability of the drug was monitored at 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, and 36 months after preparation in a long-term study (25 deg C) and after 3 and 6 months in accelerated studies (30 and 40 deg C) using a stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography assay. The levels of degradation products (morphine-N-oxide and pseudomorphine) were determined. Measures of physical stability included pH values, presence of subvisible particles, and weight loss. Microbiological stability was tested by performing sterility test. There was practically no loss of morphine, and impurity contents were very low. Subvisible particles were below pharmacopeial specifications. No significant change in pH was observed and water losses were minimal. The sterility of the bags was demonstrated throughout the study. In conclusion, terminally sterilized 1-mg/mL morphine sulfate solution packed in polypropylene bags is stable for at least 3 years when stored at 25 deg C.

  8. Physicochemical stability of ternary admixtures of butorphanol, ketamine, and droperidol in polyolefin bags for patient-controlled analgesia use

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Baoxia; Wang, Linhai; Gu, Junfeng; Chen, Fuchao; Shi, Xiao-ya

    2016-01-01

    Background Delivery of drug admixtures by intravenous patient-controlled analgesia is a common practice for the management of postoperative pain; however, analytical confirmation of the compatibility and stability of butorphanol tartrate, ketamine hydrochloride, and droperidol combined in ternary admixtures is not available. Methods Butorphanol tartrate, ketamine hydrochloride, and droperidol have been examined for compatibility and stability when combined with 0.9% sodium chloride injection stored at 4°C and 25°C with light protection for a total of 14 days. Concentrations were 0.067 mg/mL, 1.33 mg/mL, and 0.033 mg/mL for butorphanol tartrate, ketamine hydrochloride, and droperidol, respectively. Drug concentrations were determined using high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis. Results All three drugs were very stable (>97%) at 4°C and 25°C for 14 days. The ternary admixtures were initially clear and colorless throughout the observation period, and the pH value did not change significantly. Conclusion The results confirm that the ternary admixture of butorphanol tartrate 0.067 mg/mL, ketamine hydrochloride 1.33 mg/mL, and droperidol 0.033 mg/mL in 0.9% sodium chloride injection were stable for 14 days when stored in polyolefin bags at 4°C and 25°C and protected from light. PMID:27920502

  9. The antiemetic effect of midazolam or/and ondansetron added to intravenous patient controlled analgesia in patients of pelviscopic surgery

    PubMed Central