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Sample records for epiphytic lichen species

  1. Epiphytes in wooded pastures: Isolation matters for lichen but not for bryophyte species richness

    PubMed Central

    Keller, Christine; Scheidegger, Christoph; Bergamini, Ariel

    2017-01-01

    Sylvo-pastoral systems are species-rich man-made landscapes that are currently often severely threatened by abandonment or management intensification. At low tree densities, single trees in these systems represent habitat islands for epiphytic cryptogams. Here, we focused on sycamore maple (Acer pseudoplatanus) wooded pastures in the northern European Alps. We assessed per tree species richness of bryophytes and lichens on 90 sycamore maple trees distributed across six study sites. We analysed the effects of a range of explanatory variables (tree characteristics, environmental variables and isolation measures) on the richness of epiphytic bryophytes and lichens and various functional subgroups (based on diaspore size, habitat preference and red list status). Furthermore, we estimated the effect of these variables on the occurrence of two specific bryophyte species (Tayloria rudolphiana, Orthotrichum rogeri) and one lichen species (Lobaria pulmonaria) of major conservation concern. Bryophytes and lichens, as well as their subgroups, were differently and sometimes contrastingly affected by the variables considered: tree diameter at breast height had no significant effect on bryophytes but negatively affected many lichen groups; tree phenological age positively affected red-listed lichens but not red-listed bryophytes; increasing isolation from neighbouring trees negatively affected lichens but not bryophytes. However, the high-priority bryophyte species T. rudolphiana was also negatively affected by increased isolation at small spatial scales. Orthotrichum rogeri was more frequent on young trees and L. pulmonaria was more frequent on trees with thin stems and large crowns. The results indicate that local dispersal is important for lichens, whereas long distance dispersal seems to be more important for colonisation by bryophytes. Furthermore, our study highlights that different conservation measures need to be taken depending on the taxonomic and functional species

  2. Epiphytes in wooded pastures: Isolation matters for lichen but not for bryophyte species richness.

    PubMed

    Kiebacher, Thomas; Keller, Christine; Scheidegger, Christoph; Bergamini, Ariel

    2017-01-01

    Sylvo-pastoral systems are species-rich man-made landscapes that are currently often severely threatened by abandonment or management intensification. At low tree densities, single trees in these systems represent habitat islands for epiphytic cryptogams. Here, we focused on sycamore maple (Acer pseudoplatanus) wooded pastures in the northern European Alps. We assessed per tree species richness of bryophytes and lichens on 90 sycamore maple trees distributed across six study sites. We analysed the effects of a range of explanatory variables (tree characteristics, environmental variables and isolation measures) on the richness of epiphytic bryophytes and lichens and various functional subgroups (based on diaspore size, habitat preference and red list status). Furthermore, we estimated the effect of these variables on the occurrence of two specific bryophyte species (Tayloria rudolphiana, Orthotrichum rogeri) and one lichen species (Lobaria pulmonaria) of major conservation concern. Bryophytes and lichens, as well as their subgroups, were differently and sometimes contrastingly affected by the variables considered: tree diameter at breast height had no significant effect on bryophytes but negatively affected many lichen groups; tree phenological age positively affected red-listed lichens but not red-listed bryophytes; increasing isolation from neighbouring trees negatively affected lichens but not bryophytes. However, the high-priority bryophyte species T. rudolphiana was also negatively affected by increased isolation at small spatial scales. Orthotrichum rogeri was more frequent on young trees and L. pulmonaria was more frequent on trees with thin stems and large crowns. The results indicate that local dispersal is important for lichens, whereas long distance dispersal seems to be more important for colonisation by bryophytes. Furthermore, our study highlights that different conservation measures need to be taken depending on the taxonomic and functional species

  3. Impacts of nitrogen deposition on herbaceous ground flora and epiphytic foliose lichen species in southern Ontario hardwood forests.

    PubMed

    McDonough, Andrew M; Watmough, Shaun A

    2015-01-01

    In this study 70 sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) dominated plots in Ontario, Canada were sampled in the spring of 2009 and 2010 and herbaceous plant and epiphytic foliose lichen species data were compared against modeled N and S deposition data, climate parameters and measured soil and plant/lichen S and N concentration. Herbaceous plant species richness was positively correlated with temperature and indices of diversity (Shannon Weiner and Simpson's Index) were positively correlated with soil pH but not N or S deposition or standardized foliar N scores. Herbaceous community composition was strongly controlled by traditional factors, but there was a small and significant influence of atmospheric S and N deposition. Epiphytic lichen species richness exhibited a strong negative relationship with standardized foliar N score and only one lichen species (Phaeophyscia rubropulchra) was observed at sites with a standardized foliar N score of 0.76. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Large-scale patterns of epiphytic lichen species richness: photobiont-dependent response to climate and forest structure.

    PubMed

    Marini, Lorenzo; Nascimbene, Juri; Nimis, Pier Luigi

    2011-09-15

    Lichens are composite organisms consisting of a symbiotic association of a fungus with a photosynthetic partner. Although the photobiont type is a key life-history trait, tests of the potential differential role of the main photobiont types in shaping large-scale patterns of lichen species richness are still absent. The aim of the study was to test the influences of forest structure and climate on epiphytic lichen species richness across Italy and to see whether these relationships change for groups of species sharing different photobiont types. Regional species richness of epiphytic lichens divided into three main photobiont types (i.e. chlorococcoid green algae, cyanobacteria, and Trentepohlia algae) was retrieved for each of the 20 administrative regions. Multiple linear regression was used to quantify the effect of climate and forest structure, and their potential interaction, on the regional species richness for the three photobiont types, accounting also for the effect of regional area. Regional species richness was associated with both climate and forest structure variables but the relationships with both factors were largely photobiont dependent. Regional area and precipitation were the only predictors included in all the models, confirming the strong dependence of lichens on atmospheric water supply, irrespective of the photobiont type. Number of species with chlorococcoid green algae were further positively associated with cover of high forest, whilst lichens with Trentepohlia were further enhanced by warm temperatures. Cyanolichen species richness was only related to area and precipitation. Our study shed light on the relative importance of climate and forest structure on lichen species richness patterns at the macroscale, showing a differential response of the photobiont types to various environmental determinants. This differential response suggested that the current and future impacts of global change on lichens cannot be generalized and that species

  5. Citizen science identifies the effects of nitrogen deposition, climate and tree species on epiphytic lichens across the UK.

    PubMed

    Welden, N A; Wolseley, P A; Ashmore, M R

    2017-09-26

    A national citizen survey quantified the abundance of epiphytic lichens that are known to be either sensitive or tolerant to nitrogen (N) deposition. Records were collected across the UK from over 10,000 individual trees of 22 deciduous species. Mean abundance of tolerant and sensitive lichens was related to mean N deposition rates and climatic variables at a 5 km scale, and the response of lichens was compared on the three most common trees (Quercus, Fraxinus and Acer) and by assigning all 22 tree species to three bark pH groups. The abundance of N-sensitive lichens on trunks decreased with increasing total N deposition, while that of N-tolerant lichens increased. The abundance of N-sensitive lichens on trunks was reduced close to a busy road, while the abundance of N-tolerant lichens increased. The abundance of N-tolerant lichen species on trunks was lower on Quercus and other low bark pH species, but the abundance of N-sensitive lichens was similar on different tree species. Lichen abundance relationships with total N deposition did not differ between tree species or bark pH groups. The response of N-sensitive lichens to reduced nitrogen was greater than to oxidised N, and the response of N-tolerant lichens was greater to oxidised N than to reduced N. There were differences in the response of N-sensitive and N-tolerant lichens to rainfall, humidity and temperature. Relationships with N deposition and climatic variables were similar for lichen presence on twigs as for lichen abundance on trunks, but N-sensitive lichens increased, rather than decreased, on twigs of Quercus/low bark pH species. The results demonstrate the unique power of citizen science to detect and quantify the air pollution impacts over a wide geographical range, and specifically to contribute to understanding of lichen responses to different chemical forms of N deposition, local pollution sources and bark chemistry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Post-fire recolonization of dominant epiphytic lichen species on Quercus hypoleucoides (Fagaceae).

    PubMed

    Romagni, J G; Gries, C

    2000-12-01

    Following a forest fire (27 500 ha) in 1994, post-fire recolonization of Quercus hypoeleucoides by epiphytic lichens was documented as changes in lichen cover, number of small thalli, specific factors that affected reestablishment of lichens, and modes of dispersal. Three sites in the Chiricahua Mountains (Arizona, USA) were chosen according to the severity of fire damage-unburned, moderately burned, and severely burned. From 1994 through 1997, the amount of dead lichen cover significantly increased at the moderately burned site. For the same time period, the amount of live lichen cover significantly increased at the severely burned site. Numbers of new thalli increased significantly at the severely burned site each year but only in the last year (1996-1997) for the moderately burned site. Bark texture and proximity to trees with lichens were among the most important physical factors for recolonization. The most important means of dispersal for Flavopunctelia praesignis was fragmentation. For Punctelia hypoleucites, the primary means of dispersal was spores. Increases in live lichen cover and numbers of new thalli occur faster in severely burned areas probably due to the loss of lichens on tree trunks, which provides space and a lack of competition.

  7. A Pine Is a Pine and a Spruce Is a Spruce--The Effect of Tree Species and Stand Age on Epiphytic Lichen Communities.

    PubMed

    Bäcklund, Sofia; Jönsson, Mari; Strengbom, Joachim; Frisch, Andreas; Thor, Göran

    2016-01-01

    With an increasing demand for forest-based products, there is a growing interest in introducing fast-growing non-native tree species in forest management. Such introductions often have unknown consequences for native forest biodiversity. In this study, we examine epiphytic lichen species richness and species composition on the trunks of non-native Pinus contorta and compare these to the native Pinus sylvestris and Picea abies in managed boreal forests in northern Sweden across a chronosequence of age classes. Overall, we recorded a total of 66,209 lichen occurrences belonging to 57 species in the 96 studied forest stands. We found no difference in species richness of lichens between stands of P. contorta and P. sylvestris, but stands of P. abies had higher total species richness. However, species richness of lichens in stands of P. abies decreased with increasing stand age, while no such age effect was detected for P. contorta and P. sylvestris. Lichen species composition progressively diverged with increasing stand age, and in 30-year-old stands all three tree species showed species-specific assemblages. Epiphytic lichen assemblages in stands of 30-year-old P. contorta were influenced by greater basal area, canopy closure, and average diameter at breast height, P. abies stands by higher branch density and canopy closure, and stands of P. sylvestris by greater bark crevice depth. Differences in lichen species richness and composition were mainly explained by canopy closure and habitat availability, and the greater canopy closure in mature P. abies stands promoted the colonization and growth of calicioid lichen species. Our results indicate that the non-native P. contorta have similar species richness as the native P. sylvestris. The main difference in lichen species richness and composition is between P. abies and Pinus spp. in managed forests of boreal Sweden.

  8. A Pine Is a Pine and a Spruce Is a Spruce – The Effect of Tree Species and Stand Age on Epiphytic Lichen Communities

    PubMed Central

    Bäcklund, Sofia; Jönsson, Mari; Strengbom, Joachim; Frisch, Andreas; Thor, Göran

    2016-01-01

    With an increasing demand for forest-based products, there is a growing interest in introducing fast-growing non-native tree species in forest management. Such introductions often have unknown consequences for native forest biodiversity. In this study, we examine epiphytic lichen species richness and species composition on the trunks of non-native Pinus contorta and compare these to the native Pinus sylvestris and Picea abies in managed boreal forests in northern Sweden across a chronosequence of age classes. Overall, we recorded a total of 66,209 lichen occurrences belonging to 57 species in the 96 studied forest stands. We found no difference in species richness of lichens between stands of P. contorta and P. sylvestris, but stands of P. abies had higher total species richness. However, species richness of lichens in stands of P. abies decreased with increasing stand age, while no such age effect was detected for P. contorta and P. sylvestris. Lichen species composition progressively diverged with increasing stand age, and in 30-year-old stands all three tree species showed species-specific assemblages. Epiphytic lichen assemblages in stands of 30-year-old P. contorta were influenced by greater basal area, canopy closure, and average diameter at breast height, P. abies stands by higher branch density and canopy closure, and stands of P. sylvestris by greater bark crevice depth. Differences in lichen species richness and composition were mainly explained by canopy closure and habitat availability, and the greater canopy closure in mature P. abies stands promoted the colonization and growth of calicioid lichen species. Our results indicate that the non-native P. contorta have similar species richness as the native P. sylvestris. The main difference in lichen species richness and composition is between P. abies and Pinus spp. in managed forests of boreal Sweden. PMID:26799558

  9. Community assembly in epiphytic lichens in early stages of colonization.

    PubMed

    Gjerde, Ivar; Blom, Hans H; Lindblom, Louise; Saetersdal, Magne; Schei, Fride Høstad

    2012-04-01

    Colonization studies may function as natural experiments and have the potential of addressing important questions about community assembly. We studied colonization for a guild of epiphytic lichens in a former treeless heathland area of 170 km2 in southwest Norway. We investigated if epiphytic lichen species richness and composition on aspen (Populus tremula) trees corresponded to a random draw of lichen individuals from the regional species pool. We compared lichen communities of isolated young (55-120 yr) and old (140-200 yr) forest patches in the heathland area to those of aspen forest in an adjacent reference area that has been forested for a long time. All thalli (lichen bodies) of 32 selected lichen species on trunks of aspen were recorded in 35 aspen sites. When data for each site category (young, old, and reference) were pooled, we found the species richness by rarefaction to be similar for reference sites and old sites, but significantly lower for young sites. The depauperated species richness of young sites was accompanied by a skew in species composition and absence of several species that were common in the reference sites. In contrast, genetic variation screened with neutral microsatellite markers in the lichen species Lobaria pulmonaria showed no significant differences between site categories. Our null hypothesis of a neutral species assembly in young sites corresponding to a random draw from the regional species pool was rejected, whereas an alternative hypothesis based on differences in colonization capacity among species was supported. The results indicate that for the habitat configuration in the heathland area (isolated patches constituting < 0.4% of the area) lichen communities may need a colonization time of 100-150 yr for species richness to level off, but given enough time, isolation will not affect species richness. We suggest that this contradiction to expectations from classical island equilibrium theory results from low extinction rates.

  10. Effects of Mediterranean dehesa management on epiphytic lichens.

    PubMed

    Aragón, Gregorio; López, Rubén; Martínez, Isabel

    2010-12-01

    Spanish holm oak (Quercus ilex subsp. ballota) open woodlands (dehesas) maintain a high diversity of plants and animals compared to other forested Mediterranean habits, but little is known about the responses of epiphytic lichens to different management regimes that are applied to this woodland type. The present study was carried out in central-southern Spain and included four management regimes: agriculture, grazing of sheep, grassland grazed by wild ungulates (deer), and abandoned dehesas covered by shrubs. Total species richness and cover exhibited considerable variation among management regimes. Both parameters tended to decrease with the intensity of management, abandoned dehesas maintaining a higher number of species than more intensively managed habitats. Lichen composition also significantly differed among the four regimes. Nitrophytic species were clearly associated with more intensive management regimes (farming or livestock management), whereas non-nitrophytic species favored abandoned dehesas. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Epiphytic Macrolichen Community Composition Database—epiphytic lichen synusiae in forested areas of the US

    Treesearch

    Sarah. Jovan

    2012-01-01

    The Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Program's Lichen Communities Indicator is used for tracking epiphytic macrolichen diversity and is applied for monitoring air quality and climate change effects on forest health in the United States. Started in 1994, the Epiphytic Macrolichen Community Composition Database (GIVD ID NA-US-012) now has over 8,000 surveys of...

  12. Receptor Modeling of Epiphytic Lichens to Elucidate the Sources and SpatialDistribution of Inorganic Air Pollution in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region

    EPA Science Inventory

    The contribution of inorganic air pollutant emissions to atmospheric deposition in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region (AOSR) of Alberta, Canada was investigated in the surrounding boreal forests, using a common epiphytic lichen bio-indicator species (Hypogymnia physodes) and applyi...

  13. Receptor Modeling of Epiphytic Lichens to Elucidate the Sources and SpatialDistribution of Inorganic Air Pollution in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region

    EPA Science Inventory

    The contribution of inorganic air pollutant emissions to atmospheric deposition in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region (AOSR) of Alberta, Canada was investigated in the surrounding boreal forests, using a common epiphytic lichen bio-indicator species (Hypogymnia physodes) and applyi...

  14. Development of secondary woodland in oak wood pastures reduces the richness of rare epiphytic lichens.

    PubMed

    Paltto, Heidi; Nordberg, Anna; Nordén, Björn; Snäll, Tord

    2011-01-01

    Wooded pastures with ancient trees were formerly abundant throughout Europe, but during the last century, grazing has largely been abandoned often resulting in dense forests. Ancient trees constitute habitat for many declining and threatened species, but the effects of secondary woodland on the biodiversity associated with these trees are largely unknown. We tested for difference in species richness, occurrence, and abundance of a set of nationally and regionally red-listed epiphytic lichens between ancient oaks located in secondary woodland and ancient oaks located in open conditions. We refined the test of the effect of secondary woodland by also including other explanatory variables. Species occurrence and abundance were modelled jointly using overdispersed zero-inflated Poisson models. The richness of the red-listed lichens on ancient oaks in secondary woodland was half of that compared with oaks growing in open conditions. The species-level analyses revealed that this was mainly the result of lower occupancy of two of the study species. The tree-level abundance of one species was also lower in secondary woodland. Potential explanations for this pattern are that the study lichens are adapted to desiccating conditions enhancing their population persistence by low competition or that open, windy conditions enhance their colonisation rate. This means that the development of secondary woodland is a threat to red-listed epiphytic lichens. We therefore suggest that woody vegetation is cleared and grazing resumed in abandoned oak pastures. Importantly, this will also benefit the vitality of the oaks.

  15. Development of Secondary Woodland in Oak Wood Pastures Reduces the Richness of Rare Epiphytic Lichens

    PubMed Central

    Paltto, Heidi; Nordberg, Anna; Nordén, Björn; Snäll, Tord

    2011-01-01

    Wooded pastures with ancient trees were formerly abundant throughout Europe, but during the last century, grazing has largely been abandoned often resulting in dense forests. Ancient trees constitute habitat for many declining and threatened species, but the effects of secondary woodland on the biodiversity associated with these trees are largely unknown. We tested for difference in species richness, occurrence, and abundance of a set of nationally and regionally red-listed epiphytic lichens between ancient oaks located in secondary woodland and ancient oaks located in open conditions. We refined the test of the effect of secondary woodland by also including other explanatory variables. Species occurrence and abundance were modelled jointly using overdispersed zero-inflated Poisson models. The richness of the red-listed lichens on ancient oaks in secondary woodland was half of that compared with oaks growing in open conditions. The species-level analyses revealed that this was mainly the result of lower occupancy of two of the study species. The tree-level abundance of one species was also lower in secondary woodland. Potential explanations for this pattern are that the study lichens are adapted to desiccating conditions enhancing their population persistence by low competition or that open, windy conditions enhance their colonisation rate. This means that the development of secondary woodland is a threat to red-listed epiphytic lichens. We therefore suggest that woody vegetation is cleared and grazing resumed in abandoned oak pastures. Importantly, this will also benefit the vitality of the oaks. PMID:21961041

  16. Mistletoes and epiphytic lichens contribute to litter input in Nothofagus antarctica forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soler, Rosina; Pastur, Guillermo Martínez; Lencinas, María Vanessa; Peri, Pablo Luis

    2015-10-01

    Litter input is one of the key components that define nutrient cycling in forests and the majority of studies only consider the tree components of litterfall. However, epiphytic species can play a crucial role in litter input throughout the growing season. This work evaluates changes in litter production by mistletoe (Misodendrum sp.) and epiphytic lichen (Usnea sp.), related to crown cover in mature unmanaged, second-growth and managed (thinned for silvopastoral use) forests in Tierra del Fuego (Argentina). We used plastic traps to collect litterfall biomass from trees, lichens and mistletoes on a monthly basis over three consecutive years. Tree litter was considerable during autumn (March to May), which is typical of Nothofagus deciduous species in the Southern hemisphere. In contrast, peak litterfall from mistletoes and lichens occurred during spring and summer seasons. Tree litter (1954-3398 kg dry matter ha-1 year-1) was correlated with crown cover gradient being highest in second-growth forests and lowest in thinned sites. While litter input from mistletoes did not vary among forest types (307-333 kg dry matter ha-1 year-1), lichen litter (11-40 kg dry matter ha-1 year-1) was higher in unmanaged and thinned mature forests despite differences in tree crown cover. Contrary to what we expected, the management practices investigated here did not affect the biomass of canopy communities compared to unmanaged mature forests. Mistletoes and lichens significantly increased the spatial (forest type) and temporal complexity (extended period of falling) of litterfall in Nothofagus antarctica forests. This study provides a starting point to understand the ecological relevance of canopy communities in the Patagonian forests of southern Argentina.

  17. High cyanobiont selectivity of epiphytic lichens in old growth boreal forest of Finland.

    PubMed

    Myllys, Leena; Stenroos, Soili; Thell, Arne; Kuusinen, Mikko

    2007-01-01

    Here, cyanobiont selectivity of epiphytic lichen species was examined in an old growth forest area in Finland. Samples of the eight lichen species were collected from the same aspen (Populus tremula) and adjacent aspens in the same stand. The cyanobionts of these samples were compared with free and symbiotic Nostoc obtained from other habitats and geographic regions. Our results, based on the phylogenetic analysis of a partial small subunit of the ribosomal DNA (16S rDNA) and the rbcLX gene complex did not show any correlation with the geographic origin of the samples at any spatial scale. Instead, there was a correlation between the cyanobionts and the alleged taxonomy of their mycobionts. The results indicate that the lichen species examined are highly selective towards their cyanobiont partners. Only Lobaria pulmonaria proved to be more flexible, being able to associate with a wide range of Nostoc. A same Nostoc strain was found to form associations with taxonomically unrelated lichens indicating that the cyanobiont-mycobiont associations as a whole were not highly specific in the examined species.

  18. Spatial pattern of occurrence of epiphytic lichens on oaks in a heterogeneous landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westerberg, Lars M.; Muhammadi, Usman Haider; Bergman, Karl-Olof; Milberg, Per

    2017-10-01

    Quercus robur (oaks) provides an important substrate for many epiphytic lichens, and with increasing age the bark becomes suitable for some rare species. These species may respond to environmental and landscape factors differently, and at different spatial scales. We tested the effect of factors related to the individual tree and the surrounding landscape on the occurrence and richness patterns of lichens species. The study system consisted of 213 oaks selected in a grid system within a 400 km2 heterogeneous oak-rich area in south-eastern Sweden. Oaks had been selected to be relatively uniform in size (circumference 3.1-4.1 m), and as uniformly distributed as possible in the study area. Landscape factors were calculated for various spatial scales (circles with radius ranging from 28 to 1225 m from a studied oak). One of the landscape factors stands out as of general importance - oak density in the surrounding - while the others (amount of forest, water, houses and arable field) had no effects, or weak effects on only some species. Among the tree specific variables, circumference was consistently important (despite ranging from only 3.1-4.1 m) while inconsistent effects were seen by sun exposure of oak trunk (Chaenotheca phaeocephala, Ramalina baltica) and density of shrubs and trees near the tree (Ch. phaeocephala). The occurrence patterns of Cliostomum corrugatum, Ch. phaeocephala, R. baltica and richness (number of eleven target lichens) were best explained by the density of oaks within radii of 401, 199, 199 and 303 m, respectively. In conclusion, our study highlighted the importance of spatial scale for understanding the occurrence of epiphytic lichens and suggests spatial scales and oak densities that could be targeted for landscape and conservation planning.

  19. The Influence of Epiphytic Lichens on the Nutrient Cycling of a Blue Oak Woodland

    Treesearch

    Johannes M. Knops; Thomas H. H. Nash III; William H. Schlesinger

    1997-01-01

    We evaluated the importance of epiphytic lichens in the nutrient cycling of a blue oak (Quercus douglasii) woodland in California. Each oak tree contained an average of 3.8 kg lichen biomass, totaling 590 kg per ha. For comparison, oak leaf biomass was 958 kg per ha. We compared tree growth, volume and composition of throughfall (rainfall falling...

  20. Epiphytic lichens as indicators of environmental quality around a municipal solid waste landfill (C Italy).

    PubMed

    Paoli, Luca; Grassi, Alice; Vannini, Andrea; Maslaňáková, Ivana; Bil'ová, Ivana; Bačkor, Martin; Corsini, Adelmo; Loppi, Stefano

    2015-08-01

    Epiphytic lichens have been used as indicators of environmental quality around a municipal solid waste landfill in C Italy. An integrated approach, using the diversity of epiphytic lichens, as well as element bioaccumulation and physiological parameters in the lichen Flavoparmelia caperata (L.) Hale was applied along a transect from the facility. The results highlighted the biological effects of air pollution around the landfill. The Index of Lichen Diversity (ILD) increased and the content of heavy metals (Cr, Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni and Zn) decreased with distance from the landfill. Clear stress signals were observed in lichens growing in front of the facility, i.e. discoloration, necrosis, membrane lipid peroxidation, lower ergosterol content, higher dehydrogenase activity. Decreased photosynthetic efficiency, altered chlorophyll integrity and production of secondary metabolites were also found. The results suggested that lichens can be profitably used as bioindicators of environmental quality around landfills.

  1. Production of phenolics by immobilized cells of the lichen Pseudevernia furfuracea: the role of epiphytic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Blanch, M; Blanco, Y; Fontaniella, B; Legaz, M E; Vicente, C

    2001-06-01

    Immobilized lichen cells from the thalli of the lichen Pseudevernia furfuracea, supplied with acetate as the only source of carbon, continuously produced phenolic substances, atranorin and physodic acid, over 23 days. Epiphytic bacteria associated with the lichen thallus grew actively, probably using both acetate and reduced compounds supplied by lichen cells, since their active growth was avoided by including 10 microM 3,3'-dichlorophenyl-1,1'dimethylurea in the bath solution. Penicillin largely impeded the growth of epiphytic bacteria and decreased phenolic production, which was recovered only at the end of the experimental period, just when the bacteria started a slow, but active growth. We suggest the cooperation of epiphytic bacteria in the biosynthesis of both atranotrin and physodic acid.

  2. Impact of neighbourhood land-cover in epiphytic lichen diversity: analysis of multiple factors working at different spatial scales.

    PubMed

    Pinho, P; Augusto, S; Máguas, C; Pereira, M J; Soares, A; Branquinho, C

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this work was to determine the impact of neighbourhood land-cover in epiphytic lichen diversity. We used geostatistics to analyse the spatial structure of lichen-indicators (number of lichen species and Lichen Diversity Value) and correlate them to land-cover considering different distances from the observed data. The results showed that lichen diversity was influenced by different environmental factors that act in the same territory but impact lichens at different distances from the source. The differences in the distance of influence of the several land-cover types seem to be related to the size of pollutants/particles that predominantly are dispersed by each land-cover type. We also showed that a local scale of analysis gives a deeper insight into the understanding of lichen richness and abundance in the region. This work highlighted the importance of a multiple spatial scale of analysis to deeply interpret the relation between lichen diversity and the underling environmental factors.

  3. Epiphytic lichen diversity on dead and dying conifers under different levels of atmospheric pollution.

    PubMed

    Hauck, Markus

    2005-05-01

    Based on literature data, epiphytic lichen abundance was comparably studied in montane woodlands on healthy versus dead or dying conifers of Europe and North America in areas with different levels of atmospheric pollution. Study sites comprised Picea abies forests in the Harz Mountains and in the northern Alps, Germany, Picea rubens-Abies balsamea forests on Whiteface Mountain, Adirondacks, New York, U.S.A. and Picea engelmannii-Abies lasiocarpa forests in the Salish Mountains, Montana, U.S.A. Detrended correspondence analysis showed that epiphytic lichen vegetation differed more between healthy and dead or dying trees at high- versus low-polluted sites. This is attributed to greater differences in chemical habitat conditions between trees of different vitality in highly polluted areas. Based on these results, a hypothetical model of relative importance of site factors for small-scale variation of epiphytic lichen abundance versus atmospheric pollutant load is discussed.

  4. Epiphytic fruticose lichens as biomonitors for retrospective evaluation of the (134)Cs/(137)Cs ratio in Fukushima fallout.

    PubMed

    Ramzaev, V; Barkovsky, A; Gromov, A; Ivanov, S; Kaduka, M

    2014-12-01

    In 2011-2013, sampling of epiphytic fruticose lichens of the genera Usnea, Bryoria and Alectoria was carried out on Sakhalin and Kuril Islands (the Sakhalin region, Russia) to investigate contamination of these organisms with the Fukushima-derived (134)Cs and (137)Cs. Activities of the radionuclides were determined in all 56 samples of lichens taken for the analysis. After correction for radioactive decay (on 15 March 2011), the activity concentrations ranged from 2.1 Bq kg(-1) (d.w.) to 52 Bq kg(-1) for (134)Cs and from 2.3 Bq kg(-1) to 52 Bq kg(-1) for (137)Cs. Cesium-134 and (137)Cs activities for the whole set of lichens (n = 56) were strongly positively correlated; Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was calculated as 0.991 (P < 0.01). The activity concentrations of (134)Cs and (137)Cs in Usnea lichens from the Sakhalin and Kunashir islands declined with a factor of three in the period from 2011 to 2013. The average biological half-time for both cesium radionuclides in lichens of the genus Usnea is estimated as 1.3 y. The mean of 0.99 ± 0.10 and median of 0.99 were calculated for the decay corrected (134)Cs/(137)Cs activities ratios in the lichens (n = 56). The radionuclides ratio in the lichens did not depend on location of sampling site, species and the time that had passed after the Fukushima accident. The regression analysis has shown the background pre-Fukushima level of (137)Cs of 0.4 ± 0.3 Bq kg(-1), whereas the ratio between the Fukushima-borne (134)Cs and (137)Cs in the lichens was estimated as 1.04. The (134)Cs/(137)Cs activities ratio in lichens from the Sakhalin region is consistent with the ratios reported by others for the heavy contaminated areas on Honshu Island in Japan following the Fukushima accident. The activity concentrations of natural (7)Be in lichens from the Sakhalin region varied between 100 Bq kg(-1) and 600 Bq kg(-1); the activity concentrations did not exhibit temporal variations during a 2y

  5. Biomonitoring with epiphytic lichens as a complementary method for the study of mercury contamination near a cement plant.

    PubMed

    Ljubič Mlakar, Tanja; Horvat, Milena; Kotnik, Jože; Jeran, Zvonka; Vuk, Tomaž; Mrak, Tanja; Fajon, Vesna

    2011-10-01

    The study was focused on understanding the mercury contamination caused by a cement plant. Active and passive biomonitoring with epiphytic lichens was combined with other instrumental measurements of mercury emissions, mercury concentrations in raw materials, elemental mercury concentrations in air, quantities of dust deposits, temperatures, precipitation and other measurements from the cement plant's regular monitoring programme. Active biomonitoring with transplanted lichens Pseudevernia furfuracea (L.) Zopf was performed at seven of the most representative sites around the cement plant and one distant reference site for periods of 3, 6 and 12 months. In situ lichens of different species were collected at the beginning of the monitoring period at the same sites. Mercury speciation of the plant exhaust gas showed that the main form of emitted mercury is reactive gaseous mercury Hg²⁺, which is specific for cement plants. Elemental mercury in air was measured in different meteorological conditions using a portable mercury detector. Concentrations in air were relatively low (on average below 10 ng m⁻³). In situ lichens showed Hg concentrations comparable to lichens taken from the background area for transplantation, indicating that the local pollution is not severe. Transplanted lichens showed an increase of mercury, especially at one site near the cement plant. A correlation between precipitation and Hg uptake was not found probably due to a rather uniform rainfall in individual periods. Dust deposits did not influence Hg uptake significantly. Lichens vitality was affected over longer biomonitoring periods, probably due to some elements in dust particles, their alkalinity and the influence of other emissions. Mercury uptake measured in vital transplanted lichens was in a good correlation with the working hours (i.e. emitted Hg quantity) of the kiln. The study showed that selected lichens could be used to detect low to moderate Hg emissions from a cement plant

  6. Comparative demography of an epiphytic lichen: support for general life history patterns and solutions to common problems in demographic parameter estimation.

    PubMed

    Shriver, Robert K; Cutler, Kerry; Doak, Daniel F

    2012-09-01

    Lichens are major components in many terrestrial ecosystems, yet their population ecology is at best only poorly understood. Few studies have fully quantified the life history or demographic patterns of any lichen, with particularly little attention to epiphytic species. We conducted a 6-year demographic study of Vulpicida pinastri, an epiphytic foliose lichen, in south-central Alaska. After testing multiple size-structured functions to describe patterns in each V. pinastri demographic rate, we used the resulting estimates to construct a stochastic demographic model for the species. This model development led us to propose solutions to two general problems in construction of demographic models for many taxa: how to simply but accurately characterize highly skewed growth rates, and how to estimate recruitment rates that are exceptionally difficult to directly observe. Our results show that V. pinastri has rapid and variable growth and, for small individuals, low and variable survival, but that these traits are coupled with considerable longevity (e.g., >50 years mean future life span for a 4-cm(2) thallus) and little deviation of the stochastic population growth rate from the deterministic expectation. Comparisons of the demographic patterns we found with those of other lichen studies suggest that their relatively simple architecture may allow clearer generalities about growth patterns for lichens than for other taxa, and that the expected pattern of faster growth rates for epiphytic species is substantiated.

  7. Physiological response of the epiphytic lichen Evernia prunastri (L.) Ach. to ecologically relevant nitrogen concentrations.

    PubMed

    Munzi, S; Paoli, L; Fiorini, E; Loppi, S

    2012-12-01

    This study investigated the physiological response of the epiphytic lichen Evernia prunastri to ecologically relevant concentrations of nitrogen compounds. Lichen samples were sprayed for 4 weeks either with water or 50, 150 and 500 μM NH(4)Cl. The integrity of cell membranes and chlorophyll a fluorescence emission (F(V)/F(M) and PI(ABS)) were analyzed. No membrane damage occurred after the exposure period. F(V)/F(M), a classical fluorescence indicator, decreased during the second week of treatment with 500 μM NH(4)Cl and the third week with 50 and 150 μM NH(4)Cl. PI(ABS), an overall index of the photosynthetic performance, was more sensitive and decreased already during the first week with 500 μM NH(4)Cl and the second week with 150 μM NH(4)Cl. Since E. prunastri has been exposed to ammonium loads corresponding to real environmental conditions, these findings open the way to an effective use of this species as early indicators of environmental nitrogen excess. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Epiphytic lichen mycota of the virgin forest reserve Rajhenavski Rog (Slovenia)

    PubMed Central

    Bilovitz, Peter O.; Batič, Franc; Mayrhofer, Helmut

    2012-01-01

    A list of 128 taxa (127 species) of lichens, 6 species of lichenicolous fungi and 2 non-lichenized fungi traditionally included in lichenological literature from the virgin forest Rajhenavski Rog and its surroundings in the southeastern part of Slovenia is presented. The lichen Gyalecta derivata, the lichenicolous fungus Homostegia piggotii, and the non-lichenized fungus Mycomicrothelia pachnea are new to Slovenia. The lichenized fungi Chaenotheca trichialis, C. xyloxena, Lecanactis abietina, Lecanora thysanophora, Pertusaria ophthalmiza, the lichenicolous fungi Monodictys epilepraria, Tremella hypogymniae, Taeniolella friesii, and the non-lichenized fungus Chaenothecopsis pusilla are new to the Dinaric phytogeographical region of Slovenia. PMID:22942459

  9. Lichen species co-occurrence patterns along an edge-interior Mediterranean forest gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belinchón, Rocío; Martínez, Isabel; Aragón, Gregorio; Escudero, Adrián

    2012-08-01

    The co-occurrence pattern of epiphytic lichen communities was evaluated relative to micro-environmental heterogeneity along an edge-interior forest gradient. We collected data on the occurrence of 57 epiphytic lichen species from 452 plots in a Mediterranean forest remnant. We used two realistic null models to test for non-randomness in the structure of epiphytic lichen communities and generalized linear models to test the influence of micro-environmental variables on co-occurrence indices along the edge-interior gradient. We found that epiphytic lichen communities co-occurred less often than expected by chance, although the segregation pattern was not highly structured or recurrent. Less species co-occurrence was detected in the assemblage structure in the forest interior and with a southerly exposure. However, there were no significant relationships between co-occurrence and the number of coexisting species, the dominant species coverage or bryophyte coverage. In summary, our co-occurrence analyses suggested that epiphytic lichens were competitively structured, while we found no evidence of facilitation in more stressful conditions, as predicted by the stress-gradient hypothesis. Nevertheless, these results should be treated with caution because co-occurrence patterns may involve specific unknown modes of facilitation and competition, which relate to the life history of these organisms.

  10. Extracellular polysaccharidases synthesized by the epiphytic lichen Evernia prunastri (L.) Ach.

    PubMed

    Yagüe, E; Orus, M I; Estevez, M P

    1984-03-01

    Evernia prunastri Ach., an epiphytic lichen growing on Quercus rotundifolia Lam., produces a β-1,4-glucanase (EC 3.2.1.4) and a polygalacturonase (EC 3.2.1.15). The activity of these polysaccharidases increases as a response to incubation of the lichen with carboxymethylcellulose or sodium polygalacturonate, respectively. This increase in activity is thought to be the result of enzyme induction because it is inhibited by both cycloheximide and 8-azaguanine. Both polysaccharide-degrading enzymes are partially secreted into the incubation media.

  11. Evaluation of urban environment pollution based on the accumulation of macro- and trace elements in epiphytic lichens.

    PubMed

    Parzych, Agnieszka; Astel, Aleksander; Zduńczyk, Anna; Surowiec, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, zinc, nickel, copper, manganese, iron and lead accumulation properties of three epiphytic lichen species (Hypogymnia physodes (L.) Nyl., Parmelia sulcata Taylor and Xanthoria parietina (L.) Th. Fr.) were compared. An assessment of pollution of the municipal environment in Słupsk (Poland) according to macro- and trace elements was also done. Lichen samples were taken in Autumn 2013 from Betula pendula, Fraxinus excelsior, Acer platanoides, A. pseudoplatanus and Populus sp. trees. Sampling stations comprised of house development areas, green urban parks, vicinity of streets with heavy traffic and industrial enterprises. It was found that lichens represent diverse accumulation properties to pollutants according to the species. X. parietina indicated the highest bioaccumulation in relation to N, K, Mg, Zn and Fe, the thalli of H. physodes accumulated the largest amounts of Ni and Pb, while P. sulcata P and Cu. Manganese was accumulated in similar quantities by all species. Evidences acquired by the use of factor analysis proved that pollution in Słupsk municipal environment is a serious issue with three major sources domination: street dust, marine factor and residual oil combustion. The high-risk areas were detected and visualized using surface maps based on Kriging algorithm. It was seen that the highest pollution occurs in the town centre, while the smallest happened on its outskirts and in urban parks.

  12. Effects of NO2 and NH3 from road traffic on epiphytic lichens.

    PubMed

    Frati, L; Caprasecca, E; Santoni, S; Gaggi, C; Guttova, A; Gaudino, S; Pati, A; Rosamilia, S; Pirintsos, S A; Loppi, S

    2006-07-01

    The results of a survey aimed at investigating whether NO2 and NH3 emitted by road traffic can influence lichen diversity, lichen vitality and the accumulation of nitrogen in lichen thalli are reported. For this purpose, distance from a highway in a rural environment of central Italy was regarded as the main parameter to check this hypothesis. The results of the present survey indicated that road traffic is not a relevant source of NH3. On the other hand, NO2 concentrations, although rather low, were negatively correlated with distance from the highway according to a typical logarithmic function. No association between NO2 concentrations and the diversity of epiphytic lichens was found, probably because of the low NO2 values measured. Also bark properties were not influenced by distance from the highway. Accumulation of nitrogen, reduction in the content of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and total carotenoids were found in transplanted thalli of Evernia prunastri, but NO2 was not responsible for these changes, which were probably caused by applications of N-based fertilizers.

  13. Source attribution of agriculture-related deposition by using total nitrogen and δ¹⁵N in epiphytic lichen tissue, bark and deposition water samples in Germany.

    PubMed

    Boltersdorf, Stefanie; Werner, Willy

    2013-06-01

    Compared with physico-chemical deposition measurement methods, lichens are able to identify the long-term overall effects of high N pollution concentrations in the air. In addition, the natural abundances of the stable isotope of N, (15)N, are being widely used in research on N cycling in ecosystems. They can also be used as instruments for source attribution. In this study, epiphytic lichens were tested to determine whether their respective N content and δ(15)N ratios can be used to estimate N deposition rates and to locate various sources of N compounds. Epiphytic lichen and bark samples were collected from around various deposition measurement field stations at different sites in the western part of Germany. The N content of epiphytic lichens reflects the species-specific, agriculture-related circumstances of N deposition at various sites in Germany. At the same time, δ(15)N signatures of the different investigated epiphytic lichen species and bark samples are highly depleted in (15)N under high ammonium deposition. The different surface types of lichens and barks exhibit different concentrations of N and δ(15)N ratios, despite being exposed to similar N deposition rates. The verification of highly negative δ(15)N ratios at sites with local and regional emitters shows that source attribution is possible by comparing different δ(15)N signatures in areas with a wide range of different N deposition types and the corresponding differences in δ(15)N among various source N pools. Especially nitrophytic lichens can support the on-site instrumentation measuring N deposition by qualification and quantification.

  14. Epiphytic lichens and lichenicolous fungi from the northern part of Montenegro

    PubMed Central

    Bilovitz, Peter O.; Stešević, Danijela; Mayrhofer, Helmut

    2011-01-01

    A list of 120 taxa of lichens (117 species) and three species of lichenicolous fungi from the northern part of Montenegro is presented. The lichens Biatora chrysantha, Caloplaca monacensis, Candelariella efflorescens, Loxospora elatina, Micarea adnata, Ochrolechia arborea, O. microstictoides, Phaeophyscia nigricans, Physconia enteroxantha, Ph. grisea, Rinodina capensis, R. polysporoides, R. pyrina, Scoliciosporum umbrinum var. corticolum, Xanthoria candelaria, X. ulophyllodes and the lichenicolous fungi Lichenodiplis lecanorae, Telogalla olivieri, and Xanthoriicola physciae are new to Montenegro. PMID:22318890

  15. Determination of trace elements in epiphytic lichens from Bandar Baru Bangi, Selangor using INAA method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khairudin, Nurshafiq Ezam; Siong, Khoo Kok; Siong, Wee Boon

    2014-02-01

    Lichens have been used as effective biomonitors of atmospheric pollutants as they can take up nutrients and pollutants directly from the atmosphere. In this study, trace element contents in epiphytic lichens were determined using INAA method. Samples were collected from 7 sampling locations around Bandar Baru Bangi, Selangor. The elements detected were As (1.73+0.85 mg/kg), Ce (3.65+1.91 mg/kg), Co (0.29+0.12 mg/kg), Cr (5.92+3.54 mg/kg), Cs (0.92+0.25 mg/kg), Eu (0.03+0.02 mg/kg), Fe (1280+760 mg/kg), Hf (0.37+0.18 mg/kg), La (1.52+0.89 mg/kg), Rb (27.7+4.8 mg/kg), Sc (0.33+0.19 mg/kg), Sm (0.28+0.16 mg/kg), Th (1.21+0.62 mg/kg) and Zn (116+27 mg/kg). Comparisons were then made between the elemental concentrations obtained and the baseline data from literature. Results showed that most of the elements were within the concentration range of the baseline data. Enrichment factors (EF) of the trace element in lichens showed that most of the elements were within the range of the baseline data except for As which was found to be slightly enriched (EF: 13.2 - 28.5). Regression analysis indicated significant correlation (p<0.05) with Sc for most of the elements which signifies crustal input except for Cs and Rb. The poor correlations of Cs and Rb with Sc may be due to the mobility of these elements. In summary, trace element data obtained using INAA were very useful and demonstrated that lichens were suitable biomonitors for identifying potential trace element pollutants in ambient air around the sampling area.

  16. [Factors limiting distribution of the rare lichen species Lobaria pulmonaria (in forests of the Kologriv Forest Nature Reserve)].

    PubMed

    Ivanova, N V

    2015-01-01

    The distribution patterns and coenotic confines ofthe epiphytic lichen Lobaria pulmonaria have been studied. The factors limiting the habitat of this rare lichen species in the Kologriv Forest Nature Reserve (southern taiga subzone) have been revealed. It has been shown that L. pulmonaria is attracted to forest areas, which are less affected by humans and characterized by better light conditions than other communities. It has been found that L. pulmonaria is able to colonize trees at various ontogenetic states, beginning from virginal ones.

  17. Hitchhiking with forests: population genetics of the epiphytic lichen Lobaria pulmonaria in primeval and managed forests in southeastern Europe

    PubMed Central

    Scheidegger, Christoph; Bilovitz, Peter O; Werth, Silke; Widmer, Ivo; Mayrhofer, Helmut

    2012-01-01

    Availability of suitable trees is a primary determinant of range contractions and expansions of epiphytic species. However, switches between carrier tree species may blur co-phylogeographic patterns. We identified glacial refugia in southeastern Europe for the tree-colonizing lichen Lobaria pulmonaria, studied the importance of primeval forest reserves for the conservation of genetically diverse populations and analyzed differences in spatial genetic structure between primeval and managed forests with fungus-specific microsatellite markers. Populations belonged to either of two genepools or were admixed. Gene diversity was higher in primeval than in managed forests. At small distances up to 170 m, genotype diversity was lower in managed compared with primeval forests. We found significant associations between groups of tree species and two L. pulmonaria genepools, which may indicate “hitchhiking” of L. pulmonaria on forest communities during postglacial migration. Genepool B of L. pulmonaria was associated with European Beech (Fagus sylvatica) and we can hypothesize that genepool B survived the last glaciation associated within the refuge of European Beech on the Coastal and Central Dinarides. The allelic richness of genepool A was highest in the Alps, which is the evidence for a northern refuge of L. pulmonaria. Vicariant altitudinal distributions of the two genepools suggest intraspecific ecological differentiation. PMID:23139881

  18. Long-term consequences of disturbances on reproductive strategies of the rare epiphytic lichen Lobaria pulmonaria: clonality a gift and a curse.

    PubMed

    Singh, Garima; Dal Grande, Francesco; Werth, Silke; Scheidegger, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    The effect of disturbance on symbiotic organisms such as lichens is particularly severe. In case of heterothallic lichen-forming fungi, disturbances may lead to unbalanced gene frequency and patchy distribution of mating types, thus inhibiting sexual reproduction and imposing clonality. The impact of disturbance on reproductive strategies and genetic diversity of clonal systems has so far received little attention. To infer the effects of disturbances on mating-type allele frequencies and population structure, we selected three populations in the Parc Jurassien Vaudois (Switzerland), which were affected by uneven-aged forestry, intensive logging and fire, respectively. We used microsatellite markers to infer genetic diversity, allelic richness and clonal diversity of the epiphytic lichen Lobaria pulmonaria and used L. pulmonaria-specific MAT1-1 and MAT1-2 markers to analyse the frequency and distribution of mating types of 889 individuals. Our study shows that stand-replacing disturbances affect the mating-type frequency and distribution, thus compromising the potential for sexual reproduction. The fire-disturbed area had a significantly lower genetic and genotypic diversity and a higher clonality. Furthermore, the majority of compatible mating pairs in this area were beyond the effective vegetative dispersal range of the species. We conclude that stand-replacing disturbances lead to lower chances of sex and symbiont reshuffling and thus have long-lasting negative consequences on the reproductive strategies and adaptive potential of epiphytic lichen symbioses. © FEMS 2014. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Is the diversity of epiphytic lichens a reliable indicator of air pollution? A case study from Italy.

    PubMed

    Giordani, Paolo

    2007-03-01

    This work provided additional information for a better interpretation of lichen diversity values in biomonitoring studies of air pollution. The effects of 12 predictive variables were estimated for the Genova province (NW Italy) by means of a non-parametric model. The diversity of epiphytic lichens was strictly correlated with mean annual rainfall and mean annual temperature. Different variables were found to affect the lichen diversity in urban vs. forested areas. In urban areas, air pollutants, mainly SO2, are still the main limiting factor, even if under ameliorating conditions this relationship becomes less significant. In forested areas, harvesting and forest fires showed a predominant effect, suggesting the need to develop a more defined sampling protocol to estimate atmospheric pollution in such ecosystems.

  20. Isotopic composition of epiphytic lichens as a tracer of the sources of atmospheric lead emissions in southern Quebec, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Carignan, J.; Gariepy, C.

    1995-11-01

    Lead isotopic data are reported for epiphytic lichens, vegetation samples, and lacustrine sediments collected in the boreal forest of Quebec between 47{degrees} and 55{degrees}N, and along the St. Lawrence Valley between 45{degrees} to 48{degrees}N. Lichens located up to 500 km north of Noranda (48{degrees}N) record a significant input is not apparent beyond 53{degrees}N where only the isotopic signal typical of Canadian aerosols is recorded. Lichens along the St. Lawrence Valley show evidences for a dominant input from U.S. sources. The lead isotopic composition of lichens allow quantitative monitoring of the sources of atmospheric Pb. However, their slow metabolism and their unknown age detract from recording the Pb signal on short and precise timescales. Spruce needles have isotopic compositions undistinguishable from that of lichens; this reflects integration of the atmospheric Pb signal over a comparable time span, a result confirmed by the lead isotopic record in lacustrine sediments. Vegetation samples such as spruce bark, spruce wood, and decidous tree leaves are more radiogenic than lichens from the same site. This may reflect mixing of radiogenic Pb metabolized from soil solutions through the root system with atmospheric Pb. 37 refs., 4 figs.

  1. Aspen succession and nitrogen loading: a case for epiphytic lichens as bioindicators in the Rocky Mountains, USA

    Treesearch

    Paul C. Rogers; Kori D. Moore; Ronald J. Ryel

    2009-01-01

    Forty-seven randomly selected mid-elevation aspen stands were sampled for lichens and stand conditions. Plots were characterized according to tree species cover, basal area, stand age, bole scarring, tree damage, and presence of lichen species. We also recorded ammonia emissions with passive sensors at 25 urban and agricultural sites throughout an adjacent populated...

  2. Lichens

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Cynthia M; Bennett, James P

    2012-01-01

    The prion diseases sheep scrapie and cervid chronic wasting disease are transmitted, in part, via an environmental reservoir of infectivity; prions released from infected animals persist in the environment and can cause disease years later. Central to controlling disease transmission is the identification of methods capable of inactivating these agents on the landscape. We have found that certain lichens, common, ubiquitous, symbiotic organisms, possess a serine protease capable of degrading prion protein (PrP) from prion-infected animals. The protease functions against a range of prion strains from various hosts and reduces levels of abnormal PrP by at least two logs. We have now tested more than twenty lichen species from several geographical locations and from various taxa and found that approximately half of these species degrade PrP. Critical next steps include examining the effect of lichens on prion infectivity and cloning the protease responsible for PrP degradation. The impact of lichens on prions in the environment remains unknown. We speculate that lichens could have the potential to degrade prions when they are shed from infected animals onto lichens or into environments where lichens are abundant. In addition, lichens are frequently consumed by cervids and many other animals and the effect of dietary lichens on prion disease transmission should also be considered. PMID:22453171

  3. Effects of Management on Lichen Species Richness, Ecological Traits and Community Structure in the Rodnei Mountains National Park (Romania).

    PubMed

    Ardelean, Ioana Violeta; Keller, Christine; Scheidegger, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Lichens are valuable bio-indicators for evaluating the consequences of human activities that are increasingly changing the earth's ecosystems. Since a major objective of national parks is the preservation of biodiversity, our aim is to analyse how natural resource management, the availability of lichen substrates and environmental parameters influence lichen diversity in Rodnei Mountains National Park situated in the Eastern Carpathians. Three main types of managed vegetation were investigated: the transhumance systems in alpine meadows, timber exploitation in mixed and pure spruce forests, and the corresponding conserved sites. The data were sampled following a replicated design. For the analysis, we considered not only all lichen species, but also species groups from different substrates such as soil, trees and deadwood. The lichen diversity was described according to species richness, red-list status and substrate-specialist species richness. The variation in species composition was related to the environmental variables. Habitat management was found to negatively influence species richness and alter the lichen community composition, particularly for threatened and substrate-specialist species. It reduced the mean level of threatened species richness by 59%, when all lichen species were considered, and by 81%, when only epiphytic lichens were considered. Management-induced disturbance significantly decreased lichen species richness in forest landscapes with long stand continuity. The diversity patterns of the lichens indicate a loss of species richness and change in species composition in areas where natural resources are still exploited inside the borders of the national park. It is thus imperative for protected areas, in particular old-growth forests and alpine meadows, to receive more protection than they have received in the past to ensure populations of the characteristic species remain viable in the future.

  4. Effects of Management on Lichen Species Richness, Ecological Traits and Community Structure in the Rodnei Mountains National Park (Romania)

    PubMed Central

    Ardelean, Ioana Violeta; Keller, Christine; Scheidegger, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Lichens are valuable bio-indicators for evaluating the consequences of human activities that are increasingly changing the earth’s ecosystems. Since a major objective of national parks is the preservation of biodiversity, our aim is to analyse how natural resource management, the availability of lichen substrates and environmental parameters influence lichen diversity in Rodnei Mountains National Park situated in the Eastern Carpathians. Three main types of managed vegetation were investigated: the transhumance systems in alpine meadows, timber exploitation in mixed and pure spruce forests, and the corresponding conserved sites. The data were sampled following a replicated design. For the analysis, we considered not only all lichen species, but also species groups from different substrates such as soil, trees and deadwood. The lichen diversity was described according to species richness, red-list status and substrate-specialist species richness. The variation in species composition was related to the environmental variables. Habitat management was found to negatively influence species richness and alter the lichen community composition, particularly for threatened and substrate-specialist species. It reduced the mean level of threatened species richness by 59%, when all lichen species were considered, and by 81%, when only epiphytic lichens were considered. Management-induced disturbance significantly decreased lichen species richness in forest landscapes with long stand continuity. The diversity patterns of the lichens indicate a loss of species richness and change in species composition in areas where natural resources are still exploited inside the borders of the national park. It is thus imperative for protected areas, in particular old-growth forests and alpine meadows, to receive more protection than they have received in the past to ensure populations of the characteristic species remain viable in the future. PMID:26717517

  5. Epiphytic lichen diversity in central European oak forests: assessment of the effects of natural environmental factors and human influences.

    PubMed

    Svoboda, David; Peksa, Ondrej; Veselá, Jana

    2010-03-01

    We investigated lichen diversity in temperate oak forests using standardized protocols. Forty-eight sites were sampled in the Czech Republic, Slovakia and Hungary. The effects of natural environmental predictors and human influences on lichen diversity (lichen diversity value, species richness) were analysed by means of correlation tests. We found that lichen diversity responded differently to environmental predictors between two regions with different human impact. In the industrial region, air pollution was the strongest factor. In the agricultural to highly forested regions, lichen diversity was strongly influenced by forest age and forest fragmentation. We found that several natural factors can in some cases obscure the effect of human influences. Thus, factors of natural gradient must be considered (both statistically and interpretively) when studying human impact on lichen diversity. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Seasonal acclimation in the epiphytic lichen Parmelia sulcata is influenced by change in photobiont population density.

    PubMed

    Tretiach, Mauro; Bertuzzi, Stefano; Candotto Carniel, Fabio; Virgilio, Damiano

    2013-11-01

    CO2 gas exchange, radial growth, chlorophyll (Chl) content and photobiont density of an epiphytic population of Parmelia sulcata were monitored every 2 months during 1 year in a temperate deciduous forest of Central Italy, to verify possible seasonal variations. Light response curves of south-exposed thalli, built up in the laboratory at 6 and 27°C at optimal thallus hydration, showed that CO2 gas exchange changed significantly during the year, with a maximum for gross photosynthesis in December at both temperatures. Photoinhibition phenomena occurred in early spring, immediately before tree leaves sprouted. The principal component analysis of CO2 gas exchange parameters clearly separated the months with from the months without tree canopy cover. Radial growth, measured on marginal lobes of north- and south-exposed thalli, was the highest in December, and the lowest in April. Photobiont density, measured in lobes of south- and north-exposed thalli with a sedimentation chamber, also changed during the year: the number of photobionts was highest in June and December, and lowest in April, although no significant change in cell size and Chl content per cell was evident throughout the year. South-exposed thalli had slightly, but constantly higher photobiont density both on a weight and an area basis. The acclimation of lichen photosynthesis and Chl content to seasonal temperature and light changes should partially be re-visited on the basis of the significant variation in photobiont population density. This phenomenon still awaits, however, a satisfactory explanation, although it is probably related to the seasonal change in nutrient availability.

  7. Solanum clarum and S. morelliforme as novel model species for studies of epiphytism

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The natural history of epiphytic plant species has been extensively studied. However, little is known about the physiology and genetics of epiphytism. This is due to difficulties associated with growing epiphytic plants and the lack of tools for genomics studies and genetic manipulations. In this st...

  8. [Book review] Epiphytic Lichen Diversity and its Dependence on Chemical Site Factors in Differently Elevated Dieback-affected Spruce Stands of the Harz Mountains, by Volker Hesse

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, J.P.

    2002-01-01

    Review of: Epiphytic lichen diversity and its dependence on chemical site factors in differently elevated dieback-affected spruce stands of the Harz Mountains. (Dissertationes Botanicae, Band 354). Volker Hesse. 2002. 191 pages, 66 figures, 49 tables, 23x14cm, 390 g. ISBN 978-3-443-64266-2.

  9. Epiphytic lichen diversity and biomass in low-elevation forests of the eastern Washington Cascade range, USA.

    Treesearch

    John F. Lehmkuhl

    2004-01-01

    cover types in the eastern Washington Cascade range. Cover types represented a temperature/moisture and stand structural complexity gradient. Lichen litterfall biomass increased with increasing stand complexity and moisture. Lichen litterfall biomass was 3.42 kg/ha in open pine stands, 7.51 kg/ha in young mixed-species stands, 8.55 kg/ha in mature mixed-species stands...

  10. Using Epiphytic Lichens to Elucidate the Sources and Spatial Distribution of Inorganic Air Pollution in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landis, M.; Graney, J. R.; Pancras, P.; Krupa, S.; Edgerton, E.; Puckett, K.; Percy, K.

    2013-12-01

    The Wood Buffalo Environmental Association (WBEA) conducted studies to document the geographic patterns of atmospheric deposition of sulfur (S) and nitrogen (N) in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region (AOSR) using epiphytic lichens as bioindicators of atmospheric pollution. Epiphytic lichen samples (Hypogymnia physodes) were collected from 44 locations in 2002, 359 locations in 2008, and 21 locations in 2011 within the AOSR. A subset of samples from 2002 (15) and 2008 (121); and all the samples from 2011 were microwave extracted and analyzed for a comprehensive suite of trace elements using DRC-ICPMS. In addition, source profiles were developed for samples from a variety of available process stacks, heavy duty diesel fleet vehicles, bulk materials representing the various stages of oil sands processing operations, and forest fires. The lichen monitoring and source profile information were integrated into a receptor modeling framework to elucidate the relative importance of natural and anthropogenic sources to the observed atmospheric deposition of S and N in the AOSR. U.S. EPA implemented statistical receptor models utilized included Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF), Unmix, and Chemical Mass Balance (CMB). The sources uniquely identified that significantly contributed to concentrations of elements in the lichen tissue include: fugitive dust from haul roads, tailing sand, and oil sand mining; oil sand processing; combustion processes; and a general urban regional source. The spatial patterns of CMB, PMF, and Unmix receptor model estimated source impacts on the Hypogymnia physodes tissue concentrations from the oil sand processing and fugitive dust sources had a significant association with the distance from the primary oil sands surface mining operations and related production facilities. The spatial extent of the fugitive dust impact was limited to an approximately 20 km radius around the major mining and oil production facilities, indicative of ground level coarse

  11. Infraspecific variability in baseline element composition of the epiphytic lichen Pseudevernia furfuracea in remote areas: implications for biomonitoring of air pollution.

    PubMed

    Incerti, Guido; Cecconi, Elva; Capozzi, Fiore; Adamo, Paola; Bargagli, Roberto; Benesperi, Renato; Carniel, Fabio Candotto; Cristofolini, Fabiana; Giordano, Simonetta; Puntillo, Domenico; Spagnuolo, Valeria; Tretiach, Mauro

    2017-01-29

    The epiphytic lichen Pseudevernia furfuracea is widely used as biomonitor of airborne trace elements and other contaminants and consists of two taxonomic varieties (var. furfuracea and var. ceratea). Here, we assessed the occurrence of inter-varietal differences in the elemental composition of paired samples of var. furfuracea and var. ceratea collected in 20 remote sites of Italian mountains. The concentration of 40 elements was measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy, after digestion with HNO3 and aqua regia. The magnitude of inter-varietal differences compared to the effect of large-scale site-dependent environmental factors (i.e., lithological substrate, host tree species, and altitude) on overall element content was explored by multivariate analysis techniques and tested by generalized linear mixed modeling (GLMM). Further GLMMs were separately fitted for each element testing taxonomic-related variability against uncertainty associated to the analytical procedure. Inter-varietal differences were statistically significant only for Hg and P, with higher content in var. ceratea at most sites, and for Mg and Zn, showing the opposite pattern. Since the elemental composition of P. furfuracea in remote sites was mostly affected by local lithology and climatic conditions, our results confirm that lichen material for active biomonitoring should be collected in a single ecologically homogeneous remote area. We also indicate sites in the Eastern Alps where P. furfuracea showed the minimum content of most elements, which are suggested as locations to collect lichen material for transplants. Besides the context-dependency at large spatial scale, variations of elemental composition apparently related to taxonomy, could possibly be due to unequal incidence of morphological traits of the collected material. Further research is needed to clarify this issue, and how it affects bioaccumulation phenomena.

  12. A review and evaluation of forest canopy epiphyte roles in the partitioning and chemical alteration of precipitation.

    PubMed

    Van Stan, John T; Pypker, Thomas G

    2015-12-01

    Interactions between precipitation and forest canopy elements (bark, leaves, and epiphytes) control the quantity, spatiotemporal patterning, and the chemical concentration, character and constituency of precipitation to soils. Canopy epiphytes exert a range of hydrological and biogeochemical effects due to their diversity of morphological traits and nutrient acquisition mechanisms. We reviewed and evaluated the state of knowledge regarding epiphyte interactions with precipitation partitioning (into interception loss, throughfall, and stemflow) and the chemical alteration of net precipitation fluxes (throughfall and stemflow). As epiphyte species are quite diverse, this review categorized findings by common paraphyletic groups: lichens, bryophytes, and vascular epiphytes. Of these groups, vascular epiphytes have received the least attention and lichens the most. In general, epiphytes decrease throughfall and stemflow and increase interception loss. Epiphytes alter the spatiotemporal pattern of throughfall and increase overall latent heat fluxes from the canopy. Epiphytes alter biogeochemical processes by impacting the transfer of solutes through the canopy; however, the change in solute concentration varies with epiphyte type and chemical species. We discuss several important knowledge gaps across all epiphyte groups. We also explore innovative methods that currently exist to confront these knowledge gaps and past techniques applied to gain our current understanding. Future research addressing the listed deficiencies will improve our knowledge of epiphyte roles in water and biogeochemical processes coupled within forest canopies-processes crucial to supporting microbe, plant, vertebrate and invertebrate communities within individual epiphytes, epiphyte assemblages, host trees, and even the forest ecosystem as a whole.

  13. A Review and Evaluation of Forest Canopy Epiphyte Roles in the Partitioning and Chemical Alteration of Precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Stan, J. T., II; Pypker, T. G.

    2015-12-01

    Interactions between precipitation and forest canopy elements (bark, leaves, and epiphytes) control the quantity, spatiotemporal patterning, and the chemical concentration, character and constituency of precipitation to soils. Canopy epiphytes are an element that exerts a range of storm-related hydrological and biogeochemical effects due to their diversity of morphological traits and nutrient acquisition mechanisms. We reviewed and evaluated the state of knowledge regarding epiphyte interactions with precipitation partitioning (into interception loss, throughfall, and stemflow) and the chemical alteration of net precipitation fluxes (throughfall and stemflow). As epiphyte species are quite diverse, this review categorized findings by common paraphyletic groups: lichens, bryophytes, and vascular epiphytes. Of these groups, vascular epiphytes have received the least attention and lichens the most. In general, epiphytes decrease throughfall and stemflow and increase interception loss. Epiphytes alter the spatiotemporal pattern of throughfall and increase the overall latent heat fluxes from the canopy. Epiphytes alter biogeochemical processes by impacting the transfer of solutes through the canopy; however, the change in solute concentration varies with epiphyte type and chemical species. We discuss several important knowledge gaps across all epiphyte groups. We also explore innovative methods that currently exist to confront these knowledge gaps and past techniques applied to gain our current understanding. Future research addressing the listed deficiencies will improve our knowledge of epiphyte roles in water and biogeochemical processes coupled within forest canopies—processes crucial to supporting microbe, plant, vertebrate and invertebrate communities within individual epiphytes/epiphyte assemblages, host trees, and even the forest ecosystem as a whole.

  14. Can lichen species of BSC acclimate to changing environments?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Laura; Colesie, Claudia; Büdel, Burkhard

    2015-04-01

    The Soil Crust INternational (SCIN) project aims to achieve improved appreciation of the importance and functioning of Biological Soil Crusts (BSC) in Europe. Four sites throughout Europe were identified for having important, yet diverse BSC communities: Gössenheim in Germany, Almeria in Spain, Öland in Sweden and Hochtor in Austria. These sites vary greatly in geographic and environmental conditions; and constitute, along with cyanobacteria, algae, bryophytes and fungi a host of green algal and cyanobacterial lichen species. Many of the lichen species occur in two-four locations, despite the climatic differences, and it has been observed that species are morphologically distinctive between sites. Lichens may be adapted to different environmental conditions by symbiosis with photobionts that are suited to the local conditions. Therefore, we may expect to find that a lichen species that can survive in diverse habitats to be less photobiont specific than species with a narrow range. In recent years it has been discovered that lichens can switch their photobiont throughout the course of their lives. Whether lichens can associate with an available photobiont and switch when a preferred photobiont becomes available is not conclusively known, or whether as habitats are affected by climate change, lichens will be able to switch to a new photobiont to survive changing conditions. A transplantation experiment of lichens between biomes was installed in each of the SCIN sites to investigate the potential of different lichen species to assimilate to a new environment. Where the same lichen species occurred in 2 or more locations samples were transplanted from their natural location to the foreign for a period of 2 years. Controls were also applied; this consisted of samples being transplanted within their own site to assess the effect of the transplantation itself. The photobionts of key species are sequenced to analyse diversity of photobiont interactions within/between the

  15. Differentiation of water-related traits in terrestrial and epiphytic Cymbidium species

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shi-Bao; Dai, Yan; Hao, Guang-You; Li, Jia-Wei; Fu, Xue-Wei; Zhang, Jiao-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Epiphytes that grow in the canopies of tropical and subtropical forests experience different water regimes when compared with terrestrial plants. However, the differences in adaptive strategies between epiphytic and terrestrial plants with respect to plant water relations remain poorly understood. To understand how water-related traits contrast between epiphytic and terrestrial growth forms within the Cymbidium (Orchidaceae), we assessed leaf anatomy, hydraulics, and physiology of seven terrestrial and 13 epiphytic species using a common garden experiment. Compared with terrestrial species, epiphytic species had higher values for leaf mass per unit area (LMA), leaf thickness (LT), epidermal thickness, saturated water content (SWC) and the time required to dry saturated leaves to 70% relative water content (T70). However, vein density (Dvein), stomatal density (SD), and photosynthetic capacity (Amax) did not differ significantly between the two forms. T70 was positively correlated with LT, LMA, and SWC, and negatively correlated with stomatal index (SI). Amax showed positive correlations with SD and SI, but not with Dvein. Vein density was marginally correlated with SD, and significantly correlated with SI. Overall, epiphytic orchids exhibited substantial ecophysiological differentiations from terrestrial species, with the former type showing trait values indicative of greater drought tolerance and increased water storage capacity. The ability to retain water in the leaves plays a key role in maintaining a water balance in those epiphytes. Therefore, the process of transpiration depends less upon the current substrate water supply and enables epiphytic Cymbidium species to adapt more easily to canopy habitats. PMID:25954289

  16. Differentiation of water-related traits in terrestrial and epiphytic Cymbidium species.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shi-Bao; Dai, Yan; Hao, Guang-You; Li, Jia-Wei; Fu, Xue-Wei; Zhang, Jiao-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Epiphytes that grow in the canopies of tropical and subtropical forests experience different water regimes when compared with terrestrial plants. However, the differences in adaptive strategies between epiphytic and terrestrial plants with respect to plant water relations remain poorly understood. To understand how water-related traits contrast between epiphytic and terrestrial growth forms within the Cymbidium (Orchidaceae), we assessed leaf anatomy, hydraulics, and physiology of seven terrestrial and 13 epiphytic species using a common garden experiment. Compared with terrestrial species, epiphytic species had higher values for leaf mass per unit area (LMA), leaf thickness (LT), epidermal thickness, saturated water content (SWC) and the time required to dry saturated leaves to 70% relative water content (T70). However, vein density (Dvein), stomatal density (SD), and photosynthetic capacity (Amax) did not differ significantly between the two forms. T70 was positively correlated with LT, LMA, and SWC, and negatively correlated with stomatal index (SI). Amax showed positive correlations with SD and SI, but not with Dvein. Vein density was marginally correlated with SD, and significantly correlated with SI. Overall, epiphytic orchids exhibited substantial ecophysiological differentiations from terrestrial species, with the former type showing trait values indicative of greater drought tolerance and increased water storage capacity. The ability to retain water in the leaves plays a key role in maintaining a water balance in those epiphytes. Therefore, the process of transpiration depends less upon the current substrate water supply and enables epiphytic Cymbidium species to adapt more easily to canopy habitats.

  17. Epiphyte presence and seagrass species identity influence rates of herbivory in Mediterranean seagrass meadows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marco-Méndez, Candela; Ferrero-Vicente, Luis Miguel; Prado, Patricia; Heck, Kenneth L.; Cebrián, Just; Sánchez-Lizaso, Jose Luis

    2015-03-01

    Herbivory on Mediterranean seagrass species is generally low compared to consumption of some other temperate and tropical species of seagrasses. In this study we: (1) investigate the feeding preference of the two dominant Mediterranean seagrass herbivores, the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus and the fish Sarpa salpa, on Posidonia oceanica and Cymodocea nodosa and (2) elucidate the role of epiphytes in herbivore choices. We assessed consumption rates by tethering seagrass shoots, and preferences by food choice experiments with the following paired combinations: 1) Epiphytized leaves of both C. nodosa vs. P. oceanica (CE vs PE); 2) Non-epiphytized leaves of C. nodosa vs. P. oceanica (CNE vs. PNE); 3) Epiphytized vs non-epiphytized leaves of C. nodosa (CE vs. CNE) and 4) Epiphytized vs non-epiphytized leaves of P. oceanica (PE vs PNE). We found that preference for C. nodosa was weak for S. salpa, but strong for P. lividus, the species responsible for most consumption at our study. Overall both herbivores showed preference for epiphytized leaves. The higher nutritional quality of C. nodosa leaves and epiphytes together with the high coverage and diversity of the epiphyte community found on its leaves help explain the higher levels of herbivory recorded on epiphyted leaves of C. nodosa. Other factors such as seagrass accessibility, herbivore mobility and size, and behavioral responses to predation risks, may also affect the intensity of seagrass herbivory, and studies addressing the interactions with these factors are needed to improve our understanding of the nature, extent and implications of herbivory in coastal ecosystems.

  18. Ocean to Continent Transfer of Atmospheric Se: Emission, Sources and Fate as Revealed by Epiphytic Lichens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, H.; Carignan, J.

    2005-12-01

    Because of the very narrow margin between nutritionally optimal and potentially toxic dietary exposures for animals and humans, selenium sources and fate in the environment is an important question. The major sources of atmospheric Se include diverse anthropogenic activities, natural emission of marine biogenic Se and punctual volcanic contributions. Lichens have been used to document elemental atmospheric deposition, including that of volatile elements such as Se, Hg, Sb, As, and to evaluate the natural and anthropogenic input in the atmosphere. Here we report the Cl and Se contents in lichens and various relationships for estimating atmospheric Se sources. Samples were collected in coastal and inland areas from United States (west coast), Canada (west coast and Hudson Bay) and France (west coast). Se and Cl concentrations in samples from coastal areas are well correlated to each other, suggesting the two elements would originate from the same source. Cl is mainly derived from marine sources as sea salts generated from the sea spray. Se is also naturally emitted to the atmosphere from the seawater as methylated Se compounds such as DMSe, DMDSe and MeSeH. Adsorption of cations on negatively charged organic films will probably not be effective for Se because it mainly occurs as anionic forms in seawater. Rather, volatile methylated Se compounds are directly released at the sea surface and later adsorbed on atmospheric particles, leading to Se enrichment relative to Cl and related to the gas-to-particle partitioning. This emission process would explain the fact that Se/Cl ratio measured in "coastal" lichens is higher than that of the bulk seawater by about 5 orders of magnitude. This ratio also seems geographically dependant. For similar Cl concentrations, lichens from southern Hudson Bay (Canada) have a higher Se/Cl ratio than that measured in lichens from California (USA); the lichens from France being intermediate. We suppose that this difference might be the

  19. Assessing rarity of species with low detectability: Lichens in Pacific Northwest forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edwards, T.C.; Cutler, D.R.; Geiser, L.; Alegria, J.; McKenzie, D.

    2004-01-01

    We show how simple statistical analyses of systematically collected inventory data can be used to provide reliable information about the distribution and habitat associations of rare species. Using an existing design-based sampling grid on which epiphytic macrolichens had been inventoried in the Northwest Forest Plan area of the U.S. Pacific Northwest, we (1) estimate frequencies and standard errors for each of 25 lichen species having special management designation (i.e., Survey and Manage), (2) assess the probability that individual species were associated with specific land allocation and forest stand age classifications, and (3) provide estimates of sample sizes necessary to ensure sufficient detections for these analyses. We conclude with a discussion of management and conservation information needs that extant data can satisfy and identify advantages and limitations of random vs. nonrandom sampling strategies. Combining design-assisted and model-assisted approaches can overcome some of the limitations of either single strategy.

  20. Solanum clarum and S. morelliforme as Novel Model Species for Studies of Epiphytism.

    PubMed

    Jansky, Shelley H; Roble, Jacob; Spooner, David M

    2016-01-01

    The natural history of epiphytic plant species has been extensively studied. However, little is known about the physiology and genetics of epiphytism. This is due to difficulties associated with growing epiphytic plants and the lack of tools for genomics studies and genetic manipulations. In this study, tubers were generated from 223 accessions of 42 wild potato Solanum species, including the epiphytic species S. morelliforme and its sister species S. clarum. Lyophilized samples were analyzed for 12 minerals using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. Mineral levels in tubers of S. morelliforme and S. clarum were among the highest for 10 out of the 12 elements evaluated. These two wild potato relatives are native to southern Mexico and Central America and live as epiphytes or in epiphytic-like conditions. We propose the use of S. morelliforme and S. clarum as model organisms for the study of mineral uptake efficiency. They have a short life cycle, can be propagated vegetatively via tubers or cuttings, and can be easily grown in controlled environments. In addition, genome sequence data are available for potato. Transgenic manipulations and somatic fusions will allow the movement of genes from these epiphytes to cultivated potato.

  1. Solanum clarum and S. morelliforme as Novel Model Species for Studies of Epiphytism

    PubMed Central

    Jansky, Shelley H.; Roble, Jacob; Spooner, David M.

    2016-01-01

    The natural history of epiphytic plant species has been extensively studied. However, little is known about the physiology and genetics of epiphytism. This is due to difficulties associated with growing epiphytic plants and the lack of tools for genomics studies and genetic manipulations. In this study, tubers were generated from 223 accessions of 42 wild potato Solanum species, including the epiphytic species S. morelliforme and its sister species S. clarum. Lyophilized samples were analyzed for 12 minerals using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. Mineral levels in tubers of S. morelliforme and S. clarum were among the highest for 10 out of the 12 elements evaluated. These two wild potato relatives are native to southern Mexico and Central America and live as epiphytes or in epiphytic-like conditions. We propose the use of S. morelliforme and S. clarum as model organisms for the study of mineral uptake efficiency. They have a short life cycle, can be propagated vegetatively via tubers or cuttings, and can be easily grown in controlled environments. In addition, genome sequence data are available for potato. Transgenic manipulations and somatic fusions will allow the movement of genes from these epiphytes to cultivated potato. PMID:26973674

  2. Lichen substances prevent lichens from nutrient deficiency.

    PubMed

    Hauck, Markus; Willenbruch, Karen; Leuschner, Christoph

    2009-01-01

    The dibenzofuran usnic acid, a widespread cortical secondary metabolite produced by lichen-forming fungi, was shown to promote the intracellular uptake of Cu(2+) in two epiphytic lichens, Evernia mesomorpha and Ramalina menziesii, from acidic, nutrient-poor bark. Higher Cu(2+) uptake in the former, which produces the depside divaricatic acid in addition to usnic acid, suggests that this depside promotes Cu(2+) uptake. Since Cu(2+) is one of the rarest micronutrients, promotion of Cu(2+) uptake by lichen substances may be crucial for the studied lichens to survive in their nutrient-poor habitats. In contrast, study of the uptake of other metals in E. mesomorpha revealed that the intracellular uptake of Mn(2+), which regularly exceeds potentially toxic concentrations in leachates of acidic tree bark, was partially inhibited by the lichen substances produced by this species. Inhibition of Mn(2+) uptake by lichen substances previously has been demonstrated in lichens. The uptake of Fe(2+), Fe(3+), Mg(2+), and Zn(2+), which fail to reach toxic concentrations in acidic bark at unpolluted sites, although they are more common than Cu(2+), was not affected by lichen substances of E. mesomorpha.

  3. The Effects of Gaseous Ozone and Nitric Acid Deposition on two Crustose Lichen Species From Joshua Tree National Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hessom, Elizabeth Curie

    Lichens are dependent on atmospheric deposition for much of their water and nutrients, and due to their sensitivity to pollutants, are commonly used as bioindicators for air quality. While studies have focused on epiphytic (tree dwelling) lichens as bioindicators, virtually nothing is known about crustose (rock dwelling) lichens. The atmospheric pollutants ozone (O 3) and nitric acid (HNO3) are two major pollutants found within the Los Angeles Basin. While recent O3 research suggests it does not significantly affect lichen growth, HNO3 appears to be phytotoxic to some lichens. As both of these pollutants are deposited downwind from the L.A. basin into Joshua Tree National Park (JOTR), lichen species located in the park may provide a sensitive indicator of pollution effects. This research studied two lichen species of particular interest from Joshua Tree National Park, Lobothallia praeradiosa (Nyl.) Hafellner, and Acarospora socialis H. Magn., both of which are crustose species with unknown sensitivities to O3, as well as hypothesized and unknown sensitivities to nitrogen compounds, respectively. Little research exists for either species, possibly because of the difficulty in working with crustose lichens. This research attempted to expand the background knowledge of these species by exposing them to varying levels of O3 and HNO3, to ascertain their physiological responses. Physiological measures of chlorophyll fluorescence, dark respiration, microscopic imaging, and lichen washes (as a proxy for membrane leakage), were measured throughout the exposure period. Results indicated that both species had similar sensitivities to O3 and HNO3. Both species registered physical damage during the O3 fumigation, as well as a decrease in respiration. Neither species showed major physical damage to HNO3, but both manifested a decrease in chlorophyll fluorescence, suggesting damage to the photosynthetic systems of the algae symbiont. These results suggest that both of these

  4. Influence of angular exposure and proximity to vehicular traffic on the diversity of epiphytic lichens and the bioaccumulation of traffic-related elements.

    PubMed

    Paoli, Luca; Munzi, Silvana; Fiorini, Elisa; Gaggi, Carlo; Loppi, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of angular exposure and distance from vehicular traffic on the diversity of epiphytic lichens and the bioaccumulation of traffic-related elements in a town of central Italy. An Index of Lichen Diversity (ILD) was calculated on the street-facing and the opposite side of road-lining trees and in a urban park 250 m away, and the content of selected trace elements (Al, Ba, Ce, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, V, and Zn) was determined in samples of the lichen Punctelia borreri (Sm.) Krog growing on tree bark, both on the exposed and opposite sides. ILD increases with distance from traffic emissions. However, at the site with vehicle traffic, non-nitrophilous lichens decreased while nitrophilous ones increased. The concentration of the traffic-related elements Ba, Cr, Cu, Mn, Sb, and Zn accumulated in thalli of P. borreri was higher on roadside trees than in trees from the urban park. ILD was not affected by the angular exposure to the road and the bioaccumulation of traffic-related elements was similar in lichens from the side of the bole exposed to traffic emissions and particulate resuspension and from the opposite side. The angular exposure in respect to the traffic source does not influence trace element accumulation. These results are important when using lichens for biomonitoring purposes, both for planning future studies and for the reliability of the interpretation of past surveys that do not report information about the angular exposure of the collected lichen material.

  5. Antioxidant, Antimicrobial and Antiproliferative Activities of Five Lichen Species

    PubMed Central

    Mitrović, Tatjana; Stamenković, Slaviša; Cvetković, Vladimir; Tošić, Svetlana; Stanković, Milan; Radojević, Ivana; Stefanović, Olgica; Čomić, Ljiljana; Đačić, Dragana; Ćurčić, Milena; Marković, Snežana

    2011-01-01

    The antioxidative, antimicrobial and antiproliferative potentials of the methanol extracts of the lichen species Parmelia sulcata, Flavoparmelia caperata, Evernia prunastri, Hypogymnia physodes and Cladonia foliacea were evaluated. The total phenolic content of the tested extracts varied from 78.12 to 141.59 mg of gallic acid equivalent (GA)/g of extract and the total flavonoid content from 20.14 to 44.43 mg of rutin equivalent (Ru)/g of extract. The antioxidant capacities of the lichen extracts were determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals scavenging. Hypogymnia physodes with the highest phenolic content showed the strongest DPPH radical scavenging effect. Further, the antimicrobial potential of the lichen extracts was determined by a microdilution method on 29 microorganisms, including 15 strains of bacteria, 10 species of filamentous fungi and 4 yeast species. A high antimicrobial activity of all the tested extracts was observed with more potent inhibitory effects on the growth of Gram (+) bacteria. The highest antimicrobial activity among lichens was demonstrated by Hypogymnia physodes and Cladonia foliacea. Finally, the antiproliferative activity of the lichen extracts was explored on the colon cancer adenocarcinoma cell line HCT-116 by MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) viability assay and acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining. The methanol extracts of Hypogymnia physodes and Cladonia foliacea showed a better cytotoxic activity than the other extracts. All lichen species showed the ability to induce apoptosis of HCT-116 cells. PMID:21954369

  6. Antioxidant, antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities of five lichen species.

    PubMed

    Mitrović, Tatjana; Stamenković, Slaviša; Cvetković, Vladimir; Tošić, Svetlana; Stanković, Milan; Radojević, Ivana; Stefanović, Olgica; Comić, Ljiljana; Dačić, Dragana; Curčić, Milena; Marković, Snežana

    2011-01-01

    The antioxidative, antimicrobial and antiproliferative potentials of the methanol extracts of the lichen species Parmelia sulcata, Flavoparmelia caperata, Evernia prunastri, Hypogymnia physodes and Cladonia foliacea were evaluated. The total phenolic content of the tested extracts varied from 78.12 to 141.59 mg of gallic acid equivalent (GA)/g of extract and the total flavonoid content from 20.14 to 44.43 mg of rutin equivalent (Ru)/g of extract. The antioxidant capacities of the lichen extracts were determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals scavenging. Hypogymnia physodes with the highest phenolic content showed the strongest DPPH radical scavenging effect. Further, the antimicrobial potential of the lichen extracts was determined by a microdilution method on 29 microorganisms, including 15 strains of bacteria, 10 species of filamentous fungi and 4 yeast species. A high antimicrobial activity of all the tested extracts was observed with more potent inhibitory effects on the growth of Gram (+) bacteria. The highest antimicrobial activity among lichens was demonstrated by Hypogymnia physodes and Cladonia foliacea. Finally, the antiproliferative activity of the lichen extracts was explored on the colon cancer adenocarcinoma cell line HCT-116 by MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) viability assay and acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining. The methanol extracts of Hypogymnia physodes and Cladonia foliacea showed a better cytotoxic activity than the other extracts. All lichen species showed the ability to induce apoptosis of HCT-116 cells.

  7. Anticancer activities of selected species of North American lichen extracts.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Gajendra; El-Naggar, Atif M; St Clair, Larry L; O'Neill, Kim L

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is the second leading cause of human deaths in the USA. Despite continuous efforts to treat cancer over the past 50 years, human mortality rates have not decreased significantly. Natural products, such as lichens, have been good sources of anticancer drugs. This study reports the cytotoxic activity of crude extracts of 17 lichen species against Burkitt's lymphoma (Raji) cells. Out of the 17 lichen species, extracts from 14 species showed cytotoxicity against Raji cells. On the basis of IC50 values, we selected Xanthoparmelia chlorochroa and Tuckermannopsis ciliaris to study the mechanism of cell death. Viability of normal lymphocytes was not affected by the extracts of X. chlorochroa and T. ciliaris. We found that extracts from both lichens decreased proliferation, accumulated cells at the G0 /G1 stage, and caused apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Both lichen extracts also caused upregulation of p53. The T. ciliaris extract upregulated the expression of TK1 but X. chlorochroa did not. We also found that usnic, salazinic, constictic, and norstictic acids were present in the extract of X. chlorochroa, whereas protolichesterinic acid in T. ciliaris extracts. Our data demonstrate that lichen extracts merit further research as a potential source of anticancer drugs.

  8. 16-year trends in elements of lichens at Theodore Roosevelt National Park, ND

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, J.P.; Wetmore, C.M.

    2000-01-01

    An epiphytic lichen and a soil lichen in two very closely related genera (Parmelia sulcata and Xanthoparmelia chlorochroa, respectively) were sampled 16 years apart at Theodore Roosevelt National Park in North Dakota and measured for their elemental content. Mercury and cadmium decreased approximately 30% over the time period in both species. Sulfur decreased 8% in the epiphytic species, but increased 20% in the soil lichen. Factor analysis revealed that soil elements were higher in the soil lichen, indicating there was some soil contamination in that species. A relationship between iron and titanium was found only in the soil lichen. Sulfur and mercury were highly enriched in both species relative to the soil, which suggests that the atmosphere is a contributing source of these elements. New baseline values were calculated, 22 elements for both species, although it is not recommended that the soil lichen be sampled in the future.

  9. Defense mechanisms of sargassacean species against the epiphytic red alga Neosiphonia harveyi.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Noboru; Ohki, Kaori; Kamiya, Mitsunobu

    2015-08-01

    Flora diversity and abundance of epiphytes are specific to their basiphyte species and may relate to variations in the defensive abilities of basiphytes. Thus, investigating the interactions between epiphytes and basiphytes is useful for a better understanding of the biological impact of epiphytism and the survival strategies of basiphytes. We examined the epiphyte density on five sargassacean species at six locations between two study sites, which showed that the epiphytic red alga Neosiphonia harveyi was remarkably less abundant on Sargassum siliquastrum at all locations. To assess its defense mechanism against N. harveyi, we performed bioassays of phlorotannins, which are considered effective in deterring fouling, by culturing sargassacean blades with N. harveyi carpospores and observed the process by which sargassacean blades remove epiphytes. When the carpospores were incubated with various concentrations of dissolved phlorotannins, settlement and germination were inhibited only at the highest concentrations (>0.1 g · L(-1) ), and this effect did not significantly differ among the five sargassacean species. When the carpospores were combined with blades from the five species, many of the spores attached and germinated on every blade. Because N. harveyi penetrated rhizoids into basiphyte tissues, cuticle peeling observed in all five sargassacean species could not remove this epiphyte after germination. However, in S. siliquastrum, the blade tissues around the germlings became swollen and disintegrative, and were removed together with the germlings. The spores normally grew on the dead blades, suggesting that the tissue degradation of S. siliquastrum is triggered by the infection of N. harveyi. © 2015 Phycological Society of America.

  10. Extremotolerance and Resistance of Lichens: Comparative Studies on Five Species Used in Astrobiological Research II. Secondary Lichen Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meeßen, J.; Sánchez, F. J.; Sadowsky, A.; de la Torre, R.; Ott, S.; de Vera, J.-P.

    2013-12-01

    Lichens, which are symbioses of a fungus and one or two photoautotrophs, frequently tolerate extreme environmental conditions. This makes them valuable model systems in astrobiological research to fathom the limits and limitations of eukaryotic symbioses. Various studies demonstrated the high resistance of selected extremotolerant lichens towards extreme, non-terrestrial abiotic factors including space exposure, hypervelocity impact simulations as well as space and Martian parameter simulations. This study focusses on the diverse set of secondary lichen compounds (SLCs) that act as photo- and UVR-protective substances. Five lichen species used in present-day astrobiological research were compared: Buellia frigida, Circinaria gyrosa, Rhizocarpon geographicum, Xanthoria elegans, and Pleopsidium chlorophanum. Detailed investigation of secondary substances including photosynthetic pigments was performed for whole lichen thalli but also for axenically cultivated mycobionts and photobionts by methods of UV/VIS-spectrophotometry and two types of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Additionally, a set of chemical tests is presented to confirm the formation of melanic compounds in lichen and mycobiont samples. All investigated lichens reveal various sets of SLCs, except C. gyrosa where only melanin was putatively identified. Such studies will help to assess the contribution of SLCs on lichen extremotolerance, to understand the adaptation of lichens to prevalent abiotic stressors of the respective habitat, and to form a basis for interpreting recent and future astrobiological experiments. As most of the identified SLCs demonstrated a high capacity in absorbing UVR, they may also explain the high resistance of lichens towards non-terrestrial UVR.

  11. Extremotolerance and resistance of lichens: comparative studies on five species used in astrobiological research II. Secondary lichen compounds.

    PubMed

    Meessen, J; Sánchez, F J; Sadowsky, A; de la Torre, R; Ott, S; de Vera, J-P

    2013-12-01

    Lichens, which are symbioses of a fungus and one or two photoautotrophs, frequently tolerate extreme environmental conditions. This makes them valuable model systems in astrobiological research to fathom the limits and limitations of eukaryotic symbioses. Various studies demonstrated the high resistance of selected extremotolerant lichens towards extreme, non-terrestrial abiotic factors including space exposure, hypervelocity impact simulations as well as space and Martian parameter simulations. This study focusses on the diverse set of secondary lichen compounds (SLCs) that act as photo- and UVR-protective substances. Five lichen species used in present-day astrobiological research were compared: Buellia frigida, Circinaria gyrosa, Rhizocarpon geographicum, Xanthoria elegans, and Pleopsidium chlorophanum. Detailed investigation of secondary substances including photosynthetic pigments was performed for whole lichen thalli but also for axenically cultivated mycobionts and photobionts by methods of UV/VIS-spectrophotometry and two types of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Additionally, a set of chemical tests is presented to confirm the formation of melanic compounds in lichen and mycobiont samples. All investigated lichens reveal various sets of SLCs, except C. gyrosa where only melanin was putatively identified. Such studies will help to assess the contribution of SLCs on lichen extremotolerance, to understand the adaptation of lichens to prevalent abiotic stressors of the respective habitat, and to form a basis for interpreting recent and future astrobiological experiments. As most of the identified SLCs demonstrated a high capacity in absorbing UVR, they may also explain the high resistance of lichens towards non-terrestrial UVR.

  12. Lichens as bioindicators of aerial fallout of heavy metals in Zaria, Nigeria

    SciTech Connect

    Kapu, M.M. Ahmadu Bello Univ., Zaria ); Ipaye, M.M.; Ega, R.A.I.; Balarabe, M.L. ); Akanya, H.O. ); Schaeffer, D.J. )

    1991-09-01

    Lichens and other epiphytic cryptogams possess efficient ion-exchange mechanisms which enable many species to accumulate airborne metals and which probably contribute to their tolerating metals at concentrations high enough to cause death to other plant species. A direct relationship between the distribution pattern of lichens and the trace metal content of the surrounding air has been demonstrated. The present study used lichens to assess the aerial fallout of heavy metals from traffic in Zaria, northern Nigeria.

  13. Assessment of atmospheric heavy metal deposition in the Tarkwa gold mining area of Ghana using epiphytic lichens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boamponsem, L. K.; Adam, J. I.; Dampare, S. B.; Nyarko, B. J. B.; Essumang, D. K.

    2010-05-01

    In situ lichens ( Parmelia sulcata) have been used to assess atmospheric heavy metal deposition in the Tarkwa gold mining area of Ghana. Total heavy metal concentrations obtained by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) were processed by positive matrix factorization (PMF), principal component (PCA) and cluster (CA) analyses. The pollution index factor (PIF) and pollution load index (PLI) criteria revealed elevated levels of Sb, Mn, Cu, V, Al, Co, Hg, Cd and As in excess of the background values. The PCA and CA classified the examined elements into anthropogenic and natural sources, and PMF resolved three primary sources/factors: agricultural activities and other non-point anthropogenic origins, natural soil dust, and gold mining activities. Gold mining activities, which are characterized by dominant species of Sb, Th, As, Hg, Cd and Co, and significant contributions of Cu, Al, Mn and V, are the main contributors of heavy metals in the atmosphere of the study area.

  14. Evolution of Epiphytism and Fruit Traits Act Unevenly on the Diversification of the Species-Rich Genus Peperomia (Piperaceae).

    PubMed

    Frenzke, Lena; Goetghebeur, Paul; Neinhuis, Christoph; Samain, Marie-Stéphanie; Wanke, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    The species-rich genus Peperomia (Black Pepper relatives) is the only genus among early diverging angiosperms where epiphytism evolved. The majority of fruits of Peperomia release sticky secretions or exhibit hook-shaped appendages indicative of epizoochorous dispersal, which is in contrast to other flowering plants, where epiphytes are generally characterized by fruit morphological adaptations for anemochory or endozoochory. We investigate fruit characters using Cryo-SEM. Comparative phylogenetic analyses are applied for the first time to include life form and fruit character information to study diversification in Peperomia. Likelihood ratio tests uncover correlated character evolution. We demonstrate that diversification within Peperomia is not homogenous across its phylogeny, and that net diversification rates increase by twofold within the most species-rich subgenus. In contrast to former land plant studies that provide general evidence for increased diversification in epiphytic lineages, we demonstrate that the evolution of epiphytism within Peperomia predates the diversification shift. An epiphytic-dependent diversification is only observed for the background phylogeny. An elevated frequency of life form transitions between epiphytes and terrestrials and thus evolutionary flexibility of life forms is uncovered to coincide with the diversification shift. The evolution of fruits showing dispersal related structures is key to diversification in the foreground region of the phylogeny and postdates the evolution of epiphytism. We conclude that the success of Peperomia, measured in species numbers, is likely the result of enhanced vertical and horizontal dispersal ability and life form flexibility but not the evolution of epiphytism itself.

  15. Evolution of Epiphytism and Fruit Traits Act Unevenly on the Diversification of the Species-Rich Genus Peperomia (Piperaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Frenzke, Lena; Goetghebeur, Paul; Neinhuis, Christoph; Samain, Marie-Stéphanie; Wanke, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    The species-rich genus Peperomia (Black Pepper relatives) is the only genus among early diverging angiosperms where epiphytism evolved. The majority of fruits of Peperomia release sticky secretions or exhibit hook-shaped appendages indicative of epizoochorous dispersal, which is in contrast to other flowering plants, where epiphytes are generally characterized by fruit morphological adaptations for anemochory or endozoochory. We investigate fruit characters using Cryo-SEM. Comparative phylogenetic analyses are applied for the first time to include life form and fruit character information to study diversification in Peperomia. Likelihood ratio tests uncover correlated character evolution. We demonstrate that diversification within Peperomia is not homogenous across its phylogeny, and that net diversification rates increase by twofold within the most species-rich subgenus. In contrast to former land plant studies that provide general evidence for increased diversification in epiphytic lineages, we demonstrate that the evolution of epiphytism within Peperomia predates the diversification shift. An epiphytic-dependent diversification is only observed for the background phylogeny. An elevated frequency of life form transitions between epiphytes and terrestrials and thus evolutionary flexibility of life forms is uncovered to coincide with the diversification shift. The evolution of fruits showing dispersal related structures is key to diversification in the foreground region of the phylogeny and postdates the evolution of epiphytism. We conclude that the success of Peperomia, measured in species numbers, is likely the result of enhanced vertical and horizontal dispersal ability and life form flexibility but not the evolution of epiphytism itself. PMID:27555851

  16. Epiphytic survival of Pseudomonas viridiflava on tomato and selected weed species.

    PubMed

    Mariano, R L; McCarter, S M

    1993-07-01

    A rifampicin-nalidixic acid mutant of Pseudomonas viridiflava (PV) was studied in the field and greenhouse with respect to its epiphytic survival on the roots and foliage of a susceptible (FM 6203) and resistant (Ontario 7710) tomato cultivar and 16 weed species. In the field, populations varied between years, which was attributed to differences in environmental conditions. Hot, dry conditions caused rapid decline or elimination of populations. Some hosts were more conducive than others in promoting epiphytic growth, and generally, roots were better survival sites than foliage. Some hosts such as johnsongrass, lambsquarters, pigweed, prickly sida, and red sorrel had no detectable populations of PV on foliage 2 weeks after inoculation. (Plants had been misted with a 10(8) cfu/ml suspension until run off occurred.) PV was recovered at week 4 on the foliage of the two tomato cultivars, beggarweed, jimsonweed, morning glory, smooth vetch, and wild mustard, and was recovered until week 16 on roots of buckhorn plantain in the field and for the same period on the ground cherry in the field and greenhouse. In scanning electron microscopy studies, PV was observed to survive as microcolonies in depressions between epidermal cells, around trichomes, along veins, and sometimes around stomates of tomato and beggarweed. Bacterial cells sometimes were held together and to the leaf surface by fibril-like strands. These studies show that PV does have an epiphytic stage on both tomato and certain weed species. However, the epidemiological significance of the epiphytic stage is probably dependent on environmental conditions.

  17. Measurement of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in epiphytic lichens and from PM 2.5 filters for receptor modeling in the Alberta Oil Sands Region (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Studabaker, W. B.; Jayanty, J.; Raymer, J. H.; Krupa, S.

    2013-12-01

    As mining and refinery operations in the Alberta Oil Sands Region (AOSR) have expanded, there has been increasing concern for the impacts of air pollution generated by those operations on both human and ecosystem health. The inaccessibility of much of the AOSR makes it difficult to establish conventional air quality monitoring stations to the extent needed to model long-range impacts of emissions from the AOSR operations. Epiphytic lichens are important markers of ecosystem health, are well-established bioaccumulators of trace metals, and are potentially useful biomonitors of air pollution. However, their ability to take up organic pollutants has not been extensively explored, and only recently have they been used for biomonitoring of pollution by PAHs. Here we describe the determination of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in lichens, collected from sites throughout the AOSR, for modeling emissions associated with mining and oil extraction operations. We also describe preliminary results of the determination of PAHs in PM 2.5 filters from dichotomous samplers stationed in the AOSR, in the context of the biological sample data. Lichens (Hypogymnia physodes) were collected on two separate occasions. During the summer of 2009, single samples were taken from 200 sites in the AOSR; a subset of 20 of these was selected for determination of PAHs. During the summer of 2011, triplicate samples (from separate trees within a site) were collected from 20 sites representing similar locations to the 2008 sites. Lichens were milled in a cryogenic impactor, then were extracted with cyclohexane. Extracts were purified on silica gel using automated solid phase extraction and analyzed by gas chromatography with mass selective detection. Method detection limits for individual PAHs were 2-4 ng/g. Total PAHs in the samples from both collection events ranged from 50 ng/g to 350 ng/g, and declined with increasing distance from the mining and refinery operations. The relative

  18. Discrimination of lichen genera and species using element concentrations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, J.P.

    2008-01-01

    The importance of organic chemistry in the classification of lichens is well established, but inorganic chemistry has been largely overlooked. Six lichen species were studied over a period of 23 years that were growing in 11 protected areas of the northern Great Lakes ecoregion, which were not greatly influenced by anthropogenic particulates or gaseous air pollutants. The elemental data from these studies were aggregated in order to test the hypothesis that differences among species in tissue element concentrations were large enough to discriminate between taxa faithfully. Concentrations of 16 chemical elements that were found in tissue samples from Cladonia rangiferina, Evernia mesomorpha, Flavopunctelia flaventior, Hypogymnia physodes, Parmelia sulcata, and Punctelia rudecta were analyzed statistically using multivariate discriminant functions and CART analyses, as well as t-tests. Genera and species were clearly separated in element space, and elemental discriminant functions were able to classify 91-100 of the samples correctly into species. At the broadest level, a Zn concentration of 51 ppm in tissues of four of the lichen species effectively discriminated foliose from fruticose species. Similarly, a S concentration of 680 ppm discriminated C. rangiferina and E. mesomorpha, and a Ca concentration of 10 436 ppm discriminated H. physodes from P. sulcata. For the three parmelioid species, a Ca concentration >32 837 ppm discriminated Punctelia rudecta from the other two species, while a Zn concentration of 56 ppm discriminated Parmelia sulcata from F. flaventior. Foliose species also had higher concentrations than did fruticose species of all elements except Na. Elemental signatures for each of the six species were developed using standardized means. Twenty-four mechanisms explaining the differences among species are summarized. Finally, the relationships of four species based on element concentrations, using additive-trees clustering of a Euclidean

  19. Loss of epiphytic diversity along a latitudinal gradient in southern Europe.

    PubMed

    Aragón, Gregorio; Martínez, Isabel; García, Aroa

    2012-06-01

    Latitudinal gradients that involve macroclimatic changes can affect the diversity of several groups of plants and animals. Here we examined the effect of a latitudinal gradient on epiphytic communities on a single host species (Fagus sylvatica) to test the core-periphery theory. The latitudinal span considered, covering two biogeographic regions, is associated with major changes in rainfall during the dry season. Because bryophytes and lichens are poikilohydric, we hypothesized that their species richness and composition might vary at different latitudes. We also speculated how epiphytic communities may respond to future climate change. The present study was carried out in Spain, and three latitudes that cover the distributional range of F. sylvatica were selected. The presence/absence and coverage of epiphytic lichens and bryophytes were identified on 540 trees (180 in each zone). We found consistent south to north change in the total richness and in the richness of bryophytes and of lichens separately, all of which tend to increase at higher latitudes due to the presence of several hygrophytic species. Epiphytic composition also differed significantly among the three latitudes, and the similarity decreased when the latitudinal span was greater. In addition, high species turnover was driven by the increased rainfall at higher latitudes. We conclude that epiphytic communities have a similar pattern to the predictors of the core-periphery theory from populations, and they suffer a great impoverishment in species richness at lower latitudes, coincident with the southern boundary of the F. sylvatica distribution.

  20. Spatial Distribution of Lead Isotope Ratios and Inorganic Element Concentrations in Epiphytic Lichens from the Athabasca Oil Sands Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graney, J. R.; Landis, M. S.; Puckett, K.; Edgerton, E.; Krupa, S.; Percy, K.

    2013-12-01

    Coupled studies of inorganic element concentrations and lead (Pb) isotope ratios have been conducted on Hypogymnia physodes samples collected in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region (AOSR) in Alberta, Canada in 2002, 2008, and 2011. To investigate the spatial extent of air emissions, the lichens were collected from sites as far as 160 km from the mining and processing operations. 30 milligram sub-samples of the lichens were microwave digested, and the extracts were analyzed using DRC-ICPMS to determine elemental concentrations, and sector field ICPMS to measure Pb isotope ratios. Concentrations of elements in the lichens were found to reflect proximity to mining and oil processing sites as well as topography, ecosystem differences, and the metabolic biogeochemistry of the lichens. An exponential decrease in concentration of metals associated with fugitive dust (aluminum and others) versus distance from the mining sites, suggests elevated coarse particle emissions associated with mining operations. Near source concentrations of metals with an oil signature (vanadium and others) are less enhanced and more homogeneous than the metals in the fugitive dust, reflecting emission and deposition of smaller diameter particles at greater distances from oil processing sources. The mining and oil processing signatures are superimposed over elemental concentrations that reflect the nutrient needs of the lichens. These findings are being confirmed through ongoing studies using dichot samplers to collect coarse and fine particulate aerosol samples. The lichen samples collected beyond 50 km from the mining and processing sites cluster into a Pb isotope grouping with a 207Pb / 206Pb ratio of 0.8650 and a 208Pb / 206Pb ratio near 2.095. This grouping likely reflects the regional background Pb isotope ratio signature. 207Pb / 206Pb and 208Pb / 206Pb ratios decrease as one nears the mining and processing operations. This indicates that other Pb source(s), (e.g. Pb in the bitumen from the oil

  1. Cyanobacterial gardens: the liverwort Frullania asagrayana acts as a reservoir of lichen photobionts.

    PubMed

    Cornejo, Carolina; Scheidegger, Christoph

    2016-06-01

    Cyanobacteria are important mediators of unrelated lichen species, which form epiphytic communities that share the same cyanobiont. No study to date, however, has considered the role of cyanobacteria as mediator between lichens and bryophytes. In the present study, DNA barcoding (16S rDNA, rbcLX) was used to identify filamentous cyanobacteria living in close association with members of an epiphytic liverwort-lichen community on balsam fir in Newfoundland. This study is the first to confirm the presence of Rhizonema strains in boreal forests where they are associated with the liverwort Frullania asagrayana and several lichen species. The majority of cyanobacterial haplotypes can associate with the liverwort, however, some lichen species appear to be more selective for single or closely related haplotypes. Some Rhizonema strains were found exclusively in association with boreal lichens, while others seem to be globally distributed and involved in different lichen symbioses of unrelated fungal lineages and of varying ecological traits. Complex biological interactions in a cyanobacteria-mediated guild are proposed here, which explains composition and dynamics in bryophyte and lichen-dominated epiphytic communities.

  2. Using epiphytic lichens to monitor nitrogen deposition near natural gas drilling operations in the Wind River Range, WY, USA

    Treesearch

    Jill A. McMurray; Dave W. Roberts; Mark E. Fenn; Linda H. Geiser; Sarah Jovan

    2013-01-01

    Rapid expansion of natural gas drilling in Sublette County, WY (1999-present), has raised concerns about the potential ecological effects of enhanced atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition to the Wind River Range (WRR) including the Class I BridgerWilderness. We sampled annual throughfall (TF) N deposition and lichen thalli N concentrations under forest canopies in four...

  3. Elemental levels in tree-bark and epiphytic-lichen transplants at a mixed environment in mainland Portugal, and comparisons with an in situ lichen.

    PubMed

    Pacheco, A M G; Freitas, M C; Baptista, M S; Vasconcelos, M T S D; Cabral, J P

    2008-01-01

    Samples of Platanus hybrida Brot. bark and Flavoparmelia caperata (L.) Hale thalli, from a clean area in northern Portugal (Baião), were transplanted into an exposure location at the south-western Atlantic coast, impacted by urban-industrial emissions (Sines), for a 10-month long experiment. Bark pieces were confined into nylon bags (2-mm mesh), and lichen thalli kept with their bark substrate (Pinus pinaster (Ait.) Sol.). Every two months, a double set of transplants (one for bark, one for lichens) was brought back into the laboratory, together with native samples of Evernia prunastri (L.) Ach. Following suitable cleansing and preparation procedures, field samples were put through INAA for elemental assessment. The results indicate that, regardless of signal magnitude, (1) concentrations in bark and lichen transplants are significantly correlated with atmospheric deposition for an appreciable number of elements; (2) there are a number of significant correlations between transplanted and native samples, and again between the latter and the deposition; and (3) the elements with biological patterns that follow the deposition in either transplanted or native samples (Co, V) are the very ones whose bioaccumulation seems to benefit from an alternation of wet-dry periods, which fits the precipitation record of the test site during the exposure term.

  4. Transfer of atmospheric boron from the oceans to the continents: An investigation using precipitation waters and epiphytic lichens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, E. F.; Carignan, J.; Chaussidon, M.

    2000-11-01

    The variation of B concentration in atmospheric deposition was studied from the analysis of 35 individual rain events, 17 snow packs, and 17 lichens sampled over NE North America (south from Hudson Bay) and Asia (from the coast of Bangladesh to the high Himalayas of Nepal). Rain samples show a range of B concentration between 0.3 and 9.4 μg/L (average of 1.8 ± 1.7 μg/L), excluding two rains with higher B contents of 17 and 37.5 μg/L, most likely reflecting anthropic contamination. Snowpacks and lichens which average atmospheric deposition over periods of a few months to a few years show a smaller range of variation, from 0.1 to 2.3 μg/L (average 1.1 ± 0.8 μg/L) for snowpacks and from 1 to 25.9 ppm for lichens. The lichens have elemental ratios (such as B/Cl) similar to the average of rains, showing that they are good monitors of atmospheric B deposition without significant biofractionation of elements. This is also demonstrated by their halogen contents, which follow the systematics of the atmospheric distribution of these elements previously derived from the study of rains and atmospheric particles. Though individual rains do not show systematic decrease in B concentration with distance to the sea, this behavior is clearly shown by samples having longer integration times, snowpacks, and lichens. The snow and lichen data show that seawater is a major source of atmospheric B. Using the lichen data, the enrichment factor (normalized to Na) of marine air masses relative to seawater is estimated to be ˜13 (average B/Na of 5.6 × 10-3). This implies that the fractionation factor of atmospheric suspended marine particles relative to seawater (FX = (X/Na)particle/(X/Na)seawater) is 0.177. Thus B transfer from seawater to the atmosphere occurs mostly via degassing of sea salts, the residence time of gaseous B being estimated at 15.9-fold that of particulate B. The distribution of B in the atmosphere between gaseous B and degassed sea salts can be used to model the

  5. Discrimination of lichen genera and species using element concentrations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, James P.

    2008-01-01

    The importance of organic chemistry in the classification of lichens is well established, but inorganic chemistry has been largely overlooked. Six lichen species were studied over a period of 23 years that were growing in 11 protected areas of the northern Great Lakes ecoregion, which were not greatly influenced by anthropogenic particulates or gaseous air pollutants. The elemental data from these studies were aggregated in order to test the hypothesis that differences among species in tissue element concentrations were large enough to discriminate between taxa faithfully. Concentrations of 16 chemical elements that were found in tissue samples from Cladonia rangiferina, Evernia mesomorpha, Flavopunctelia flaventior, Hypogymnia physodes, Parmelia sulcata, and Punctelia rudecta were analyzed statistically using multivariate discriminant functions and CART analyses, as well as t-tests. Genera and species were clearly separated in element space, and elemental discriminant functions were able to classify 91-100 of the samples correctly into species. At the broadest level, a Zn concentration of 51 ppm in tissues of four of the lichen species effectively discriminated foliose from fruticose species. Similarly, a S concentration of 680 ppm discriminated C. rangiferina and E. mesomorpha, and a Ca concentration of 10 436 ppm discriminated H. physodes from P. sulcata. For the three parmelioid species, a Ca concentration >32 837 ppm discriminated Punctelia rudecta from the other two species, while a Zn concentration of 56 ppm discriminated Parmelia sulcata from F. flaventior. Foliose species also had higher concentrations than did fruticose species of all elements except Na. Elemental signatures for each of the six species were developed using standardized means. Twenty-four mechanisms explaining the differences among species are summarized. Finally, the relationships of four species based on element concentrations, using additive-trees clustering of a Euclidean

  6. Richness of Lichen Species, Especially of Threatened Ones, Is Promoted by Management Methods Furthering Stand Continuity

    PubMed Central

    Boch, Steffen; Prati, Daniel; Hessenmöller, Dominik; Schulze, Ernst-Detlef; Fischer, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Lichens are a key component of forest biodiversity. However, a comprehensive study analyzing lichen species richness in relation to several management types, extending over different regions and forest stages and including information on site conditions is missing for temperate European forests. In three German regions (Schwäbische Alb, Hainich-Dün, Schorfheide-Chorin), the so-called Biodiversity Exploratories, we studied lichen species richness in 631 forest plots of 400 m2 comprising different management types (unmanaged, selection cutting, deciduous and coniferous age-class forests resulting from clear cutting or shelterwood logging), various stand ages, and site conditions, typical for large parts of temperate Europe. We analyzed how lichen species richness responds to management and habitat variables (standing biomass, cover of deadwood, cover of rocks). We found strong regional differences with highest lichen species richness in the Schwäbische Alb, probably driven by regional differences in former air pollution, and in precipitation and habitat variables. Overall, unmanaged forests harbored 22% more threatened lichen species than managed age-class forests. In general, total, corticolous, and threatened lichen species richness did not differ among management types of deciduous forests. However, in the Schwäbische-Alb region, deciduous forests had 61% more lichen species than coniferous forests and they had 279% more threatened and 76% more corticolous lichen species. Old deciduous age classes were richer in corticolous lichen species than young ones, while old coniferous age-classes were poorer than young ones. Overall, our findings highlight the importance of stand continuity for conservation. To increase total and threatened lichen species richness we suggest (1) conserving unmanaged forests, (2) promoting silvicultural methods assuring stand continuity, (3) conserving old trees in managed forests, (4) promoting stands of native deciduous tree species

  7. Richness of lichen species, especially of threatened ones, is promoted by management methods furthering stand continuity.

    PubMed

    Boch, Steffen; Prati, Daniel; Hessenmöller, Dominik; Schulze, Ernst-Detlef; Fischer, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Lichens are a key component of forest biodiversity. However, a comprehensive study analyzing lichen species richness in relation to several management types, extending over different regions and forest stages and including information on site conditions is missing for temperate European forests. In three German regions (Schwäbische Alb, Hainich-Dün, Schorfheide-Chorin), the so-called Biodiversity Exploratories, we studied lichen species richness in 631 forest plots of 400 m(2) comprising different management types (unmanaged, selection cutting, deciduous and coniferous age-class forests resulting from clear cutting or shelterwood logging), various stand ages, and site conditions, typical for large parts of temperate Europe. We analyzed how lichen species richness responds to management and habitat variables (standing biomass, cover of deadwood, cover of rocks). We found strong regional differences with highest lichen species richness in the Schwäbische Alb, probably driven by regional differences in former air pollution, and in precipitation and habitat variables. Overall, unmanaged forests harbored 22% more threatened lichen species than managed age-class forests. In general, total, corticolous, and threatened lichen species richness did not differ among management types of deciduous forests. However, in the Schwäbische-Alb region, deciduous forests had 61% more lichen species than coniferous forests and they had 279% more threatened and 76% more corticolous lichen species. Old deciduous age classes were richer in corticolous lichen species than young ones, while old coniferous age-classes were poorer than young ones. Overall, our findings highlight the importance of stand continuity for conservation. To increase total and threatened lichen species richness we suggest (1) conserving unmanaged forests, (2) promoting silvicultural methods assuring stand continuity, (3) conserving old trees in managed forests, (4) promoting stands of native deciduous tree species

  8. Up in the tree--the overlooked richness of bryophytes and lichens in tree crowns.

    PubMed

    Boch, Steffen; Müller, Jörg; Prati, Daniel; Blaser, Stefan; Fischer, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Assessing diversity is among the major tasks in ecology and conservation science. In ecological and conservation studies, epiphytic cryptogams are usually sampled up to accessible heights in forests. Thus, their diversity, especially of canopy specialists, likely is underestimated. If the proportion of those species differs among forest types, plot-based diversity assessments are biased and may result in misleading conservation recommendations. We sampled bryophytes and lichens in 30 forest plots of 20 m × 20 m in three German regions, considering all substrates, and including epiphytic litter fall. First, the sampling of epiphytic species was restricted to the lower 2 m of trees and shrubs. Then, on one representative tree per plot, we additionally recorded epiphytic species in the crown, using tree climbing techniques. Per tree, on average 54% of lichen and 20% of bryophyte species were overlooked if the crown was not been included. After sampling all substrates per plot, including the bark of all shrubs and trees, still 38% of the lichen and 4% of the bryophyte species were overlooked if the tree crown of the sampled tree was not included. The number of overlooked lichen species varied strongly among regions. Furthermore, the number of overlooked bryophyte and lichen species per plot was higher in European beech than in coniferous stands and increased with increasing diameter at breast height of the sampled tree. Thus, our results indicate a bias of comparative studies which might have led to misleading conservation recommendations of plot-based diversity assessments.

  9. Up in the Tree – The Overlooked Richness of Bryophytes and Lichens in Tree Crowns

    PubMed Central

    Boch, Steffen; Müller, Jörg; Prati, Daniel; Blaser, Stefan; Fischer, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Assessing diversity is among the major tasks in ecology and conservation science. In ecological and conservation studies, epiphytic cryptogams are usually sampled up to accessible heights in forests. Thus, their diversity, especially of canopy specialists, likely is underestimated. If the proportion of those species differs among forest types, plot-based diversity assessments are biased and may result in misleading conservation recommendations. We sampled bryophytes and lichens in 30 forest plots of 20 m × 20 m in three German regions, considering all substrates, and including epiphytic litter fall. First, the sampling of epiphytic species was restricted to the lower 2 m of trees and shrubs. Then, on one representative tree per plot, we additionally recorded epiphytic species in the crown, using tree climbing techniques. Per tree, on average 54% of lichen and 20% of bryophyte species were overlooked if the crown was not been included. After sampling all substrates per plot, including the bark of all shrubs and trees, still 38% of the lichen and 4% of the bryophyte species were overlooked if the tree crown of the sampled tree was not included. The number of overlooked lichen species varied strongly among regions. Furthermore, the number of overlooked bryophyte and lichen species per plot was higher in European beech than in coniferous stands and increased with increasing diameter at breast height of the sampled tree. Thus, our results indicate a bias of comparative studies which might have led to misleading conservation recommendations of plot-based diversity assessments. PMID:24358373

  10. Species diversity, distribution, and genetic structure of endophytic and epiphytic Trichoderma associated with banana roots.

    PubMed

    Xia, Xiaomin; Lie, Timothy K; Qian, Xiaoming; Zheng, Zhonghui; Huang, Yaojian; Shen, Yuemao

    2011-04-01

    Selective isolation, molecular identification and AFLP were used to investigate the distribution of the various species of endophytic and epiphytic Trichoderma associated with banana roots and to compare and contrast their genetic structure. Three specific groups of Trichoderma were observed in the roots of banana. Group one, which made up the largest population, comprised T. asperellum, T. virens, and Hypocrea lixii, which were isolated from both inside and on the surface of the banana roots, while group two, made up of T. atroviride and T. koningiopsis, existed on the surface only. Group three, comprising only T. brevicompactum was isolated from the inside of the roots. The AFLP analysis revealed Nei's diversity indices of 0.15 and 0.26 for epiphytic T. asperellum and T. virens, respectively. The index values of 0.11 and 0.11 were obtained for endophytic T. asperellum and T. virens, respectively. The genetic diversity within endophytic T. asperellum and T. virens was lower than that within the epiphytes. This suggests that endophytic Trichoderma has a higher genetic conservation and is compatible with the relatively stable microenvironments inside roots.

  11. Phytase activity in lichens.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Niall F; Crittenden, Peter D

    2015-10-01

    Phytase activity was investigated in 13 lichen species using a novel assay method. The work tested the hypothesis that phytase is a component of the suite of surface-bound lichen enzymes that hydrolyse simple organic forms of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) deposited onto the thallus surface. Hydrolysis of inositol hexaphosphate (InsP6 , the substrate for phytase) and appearance of lower-order inositol phosphates (InsP5 -InsP1 ), the hydrolysis products, were measured by ion chromatography. Phytase activity in Evernia prunastri was compared among locations with contrasting rates of N deposition. Phytase activity was readily measurable in epiphytic lichens (e.g. 11.3 μmol InsP6 hydrolysed g(-1)  h(-1) in Bryoria fuscescens) but low in two terricolous species tested (Cladonia portentosa and Peltigera membranacea). Phytase and phosphomonoesterase activities were positively correlated amongst species. In E. prunastri both enzyme activities were promoted by N enrichment and phytase activity was readily released into thallus washings. InsP6 was not detected in tree canopy throughfall but was present in pollen leachate. Capacity to hydrolyse InsP6 appears widespread amongst lichens potentially promoting P capture from atmospheric deposits and plant leachates, and P cycling in forest canopies. The enzyme assay used here might find wider application in studies on plant root-fungal-soil systems. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  12. Diversity and sensitivity of epiphytes to oxides of nitrogen in London.

    PubMed

    Davies, L; Bates, J W; Bell, J N B; James, P W; Purvis, O W

    2007-03-01

    This study investigated the distribution and diversity of epiphytes in London in relation to NO(x) using fine-scale atmospheric dispersion modelling. The survey recorded over 3000 epiphytes from 334 trees (Fraxinus excelsior) representing 74 lichen, 14 moss, 7 fungal and 3 algal species. There was a significant inverse relationship between diversity and NO(x). Diversity declined where NO(x) exceeded 70 microg m(-3) and NO2 exceeded 40 microg m(-3), suggesting a phytotoxic effect. However, there was a significant positive relationship between NO(x) and lichen abundance due to the ubiquitous distribution of pollution tolerant species, mainly associated with eutrophication. A scale of lichen sensitivity to NO(x) has been derived.

  13. Archaeobotanical evidence for a massive loss of epiphyte species richness during industrialization in southern England

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Christopher J.; Yahr, Rebecca; Coppins, Brian J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a novel archaeological resource—preserved epiphytes on the timber structure of vernacular buildings—used, to our knowledge, for the first time to quantify a loss of biodiversity between pre-industrial and post-industrial landscapes. By matching the confirmed occurrence of epiphyte species for the pre-industrial period, with a statistical likelihood for their absence in the present-day landscape (post-1960), we robustly identified species that have been extirpated across three contrasting regions in southern England. First, the scale of biodiversity loss observed—up to 80 per cent of epiphytes—severely challenges biodiversity targets and environmental baselines that have been developed using reference points in the post-industrial period. Second, we examined sensitivity in the present-day distribution of extirpated species, explained by three environmental drivers: (i) pollution regime, (ii) extent of ancient woodland, and (iii) climatic setting. Results point to an interacting effect between the pollution regime (sulphur dioxide) and changed woodland structure, leading to distinctive regional signatures in biodiversity loss. PMID:21471114

  14. Lichen and bryophyte distribution on oak in London in relation to air pollution and bark acidity.

    PubMed

    Larsen, R S; Bell, J N B; James, P W; Chimonides, P J; Rumsey, F J; Tremper, A; Purvis, O W

    2007-03-01

    Epiphytic lichen and bryophyte distribution and frequency were investigated on the trunks of 145 young oak trees throughout London and surrounding counties, and compared with pollution levels and bark pH. Sixty-four lichen and four bryophyte species were recorded. Three major zones were identified: (i) two central regions with a few lichens, bryophytes absent; (ii) a surrounding region with a more diverse flora including a high cover of nitrophyte lichens; and (iii) an outer region, characterised by species absent from central London, including acidophytes. Nineteen species were correlated with nitrogen oxides and 16 with bark pH, suggesting that transport-related pollution and bark acidity influence lichen and bryophyte distribution in London today. Lichens and bryophytes are responding to factors that influence human and environmental health in London. Biomonitoring therefore has a practical role to assess the effects of measures to improve London's air quality.

  15. Lichen ecology and diversity of a sagebrush steppe in Oregon: 1977 to the present

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A lichen checklist is presented of 141 species from the Lawrence Memorial Grassland Preserve and nearby lands in Wasco County, Oregon, based on collections made in the 1970s and 1990s. Collections include epiphytic, lignicolous, saxicolous, muscicolous and terricolous species. To evaluate differenc...

  16. Further evidence of the effects of global warming on lichens, particularly those with Trentepohlia phycobionts.

    PubMed

    Aptroot, A; van Herk, C M

    2007-03-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that lichens are responding to climate change in Western Europe. More epiphytic species appear to be increasing, rather than declining, as a result of global warming. Many terricolous species, in contrast, are declining. Changes to epiphytic floras are markedly more rapid in formerly heavily polluted, generally built-up or open rural areas, as compared to forested regions. Both the distribution (southern) and ecology (warmth-loving) of the newly established or increasing species seem to be determined by global warming. Epiphytic temperate to boreo-montane species appear to be relatively unaffected. Vacant niches caused by other environmental changes are showing the most pronounced effects of global warming. Species most rapidly increasing in forests, although taxonomically unrelated, all contain Trentepohlia as phycobiont in addition to having a southern distribution. This suggests that in this habitat, Trentepohlia algae, rather than the different lichen symbioses, are affected by global warming.

  17. Epiphytes and nutrient contents influence Sarpa salpa herbivory on Caulerpa spp vs. seagrass species in Mediterranean meadows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marco-Méndez, Candela; Ferrero-Vicente, Luis Miguel; Prado, Patricia; Sánchez-Lizaso, Jose Luis

    2017-01-01

    Mediterranean seagrass ecosystems are endangered by increased colonization of Caulerpa species, which may replace them, affecting key ecosystem processes. The fish Sarpa salpa (L.) is one of the main macroherbivores in the western Mediterranean seagrass meadows which is known to feed on a wide range of macroalgae such as Caulerpa species. In order to elucidate if this consumption could minimize the spread of invasive species, during summer-autumn 2012, we investigate the importance of S. salpa herbivory pressure on C. prolifera and C. cylindracea compared to Posidonia oceanica and Cymodocea nodosa in a mixed meadow. A combination of field experiments and dietary analyses were used to investigate consumption rates, dietary contributions, and feeding preferences for the different macrophytes, including the role of epiphytes and nutrient contents in mediating fish herbivory. In summer, C. nodosa was the most consumed macrophyte (12.75 ± 3.43 mg WW·d-1), probably influenced by higher fish densities, higher nutritional quality of leaves and epiphytes, and by differences in epiphyte composition. Feeding observations suggest that fish may have a variable diet, although with a consistent selection of mixed patches with C. nodosa and C. prolifera. Indeed, food choice experiments suggest that when seagrass leaves are not epiphytized, fish prefer feeding on C. prolifera. Gut content and stable isotopic analyses supported the dietary importance of epiphytes and C. prolifera but also suggested that C. cylindracea could occasionally be an important food item for S. salpa. Our results highlight the role of epiphytes in S. salpa feeding decisions but also suggest that C. nodosa and C. prolifera may have an important contribution to fish diet. The variability in S. salpa diet confirm the need to carry out multiple approach studies for a better understanding of its potential influence over different macrophytes species.

  18. [The phorophyte occupation patterns by vascular epiphyte species in the High Orinoco tropical humid forest, Amazonas State, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Hernández-Rosas, J

    2001-01-01

    By international agreement (Austria-Venezuela), an experimental area was selected for canopy ecology studies. A tower crane was installed that allows direct access to the canopy of 1.5 ha area of the forest. This is a quantitative study of the phorophyte occupation patterns by vascular epiphyte species in an Amazon tropical humid forest. The forest of Surumoni consists roughly of four arboreal strata, i.e., emergent (conspicuous), superior, middle and lower. The largest proportion of trees occurs in the lower diametric classes (smaller DBH), and the total distribution approaches an "inverted J" curve. The most abundant tree species in the three strata is Goupia glabra (Celastraceae); making this forest a case where a single arboreal species dominants. Mean of epiphyte individuals per occupied phorophyte is too variable, depending on phorophyte species and showing no correlation with occupied tree percentage. The species Eschweleira parviflora (Lecythidaceae) represented in the study area by a single individual of the superior stratum with high density of vascular epiphytes, indicates that this support species is particularly favorable for the establishment epiphytic flora.

  19. [Diversity of Bacillus species inhabiting on the surface and endophyte of lichens collected from Wuyi Mountain].

    PubMed

    Ge, Cibin; Liu, Bo; Che, Jianmei; Chen, Meichun; Liu, Guohong; Wei, Jiangchun

    2015-05-04

    The present work reported the isolation, identification and diversity of Bacillus species colonizing on the surface and endophyte in lichens collected from Wuyi Mountain. Nine lichen samples of Evernia, Stereocaulon, Menegazzia and other 6 genera belonging to 7 families were collected from Wuyi mountain nature reserve. The bacillus-like species colonizing on the surface and endophyte in these lichens were isolated and identified by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. There was no bacillus-like species isolated from Evernia, Ramalina and Lecarona. A total of 34 bacillus-like bacteria were isolated from another 6 lichen samples. These bacteria were identified as 24 species and were classified into Bacillus, Paenibacillus, Brevibacillus, Lysinibacillus and Viridiibacillus. Paenibacillus and Bacillus are the dominant genera, and accounting for 41. 2% and 35. 3% of all isolated bacteria respectively. Brevibacillus, Lysinibacillus and Viridiibacillu were first reported being isolated from lichens. There were different species and quantity of bacillus colonizing on the surface and endophyte in different lichens. The quantity of bacillus colonizing on the surface of Physcia was more than 3.85 x 10(6) cfu/g and was the largest in the isolated bacteria, while the species of bacillus colonizing on the surface and endophyte in Stereocaulon was the most abundant. Most of the isolated bacteria were colonizing on (in) one lichen genera, but Paenibacillus taichungensis, Paenibacillus odorifer, Brevibacillus agri, Lysinibacillus xylanilyticus was respectively colonizing on (in) 2-3 lichen genera and Bacillus mycoides was colonizing on (in) Menegazzia, Cladonia Physcia, and Stereocaulon. There are species and quantity diversity of bacillus colonizing on (in) lichens.

  20. Complex patterns of speciation in cosmopolitan "rock posy" lichens--discovering and delimiting cryptic fungal species in the lichen-forming Rhizoplaca melanophthalma species-complex (Lecanoraceae, Ascomycota).

    PubMed

    Leavitt, Steven D; Fankhauser, Johnathon D; Leavitt, Dean H; Porter, Lyndon D; Johnson, Leigh A; St Clair, Larry L

    2011-06-01

    A growing body of evidence indicates that in some cases morphology-based species circumscription of lichenized fungi misrepresents the number of existing species. The cosmopolitan "rock posy" lichen (Rhizoplaca melanophthalma) species-complex includes a number of morphologically distinct species that are both geographically and ecologically widespread, providing a model system to evaluate speciation in lichen-forming ascomycetes. In this study, we assembled multiple lines of evidence from nuclear DNA sequence data, morphology, and biochemistry for species delimitation in the R. melanophthalma species-complex. We identify a total of ten candidate species in this study, four of which were previously recognized as distinct taxa and six previously unrecognized lineages found within what has been thus far considered a single species. Candidate species are supported using inferences from multiple empirical operational criteria. Multiple instances of sympatry support the view that these lineages merit recognition as distinct taxa. Generally, we found little corroboration between morphological and chemical characters, and previously unidentified lineages were morphologically polymorphic. However, secondary metabolite data supported one cryptic saxicolous lineage, characterized by orsellinic-derived gyrophoric and lecanoric acids, which we consider to be taxonomically significant. Our study of the R. melanophthalma species-complex indicates that the genus Rhizoplaca, as presently circumscribed, is more diverse in western North American than originally perceived, and we present our analyses as a working example of species delimitation in morphologically cryptic and recently diverged lichenized fungi.

  1. Complex patterns of speciation in cosmopolitan "rock posy" lichens - an integrative approach to discovering and delimiting fungal species in the lichen-forming rhizoplaca melanophthalma speciescomplex

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A growing body of evidence indicates that morphology-based species circumspection of lichenized ascomycetes greatly misrepresents the number of existing species. Recently it has been demonstrated that population-level processes operating within diverging populations can facilitate the identification...

  2. Monitoring H2S air pollution caused by the industrial exploitation of geothermal energy: the pitfall of using lichens as bioindicators.

    PubMed

    Loppi, Stefano; Nascimbene, Juri

    2010-08-01

    This study showed that NH(3) emitted from geothermal power plants affects the surrounding epiphytic lichen vegetation and diversity, confounding the interpretation of lichen diversity counts in terms of air pollution by H(2)S. The presence of nitrophytic lichen species around geothermal installations, determined by NH(3), caused relatively high diversity values that were not related with the levels of air pollution by H(2)S. It is recommended that in the presence of NH(3) emission, nitrophytic species are excluded from the calculation of lichen diversity values. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Caribou-induced changes in species dominance of lichen woodlands: an analysis ofplant remains.

    PubMed

    Boudreau, Stéphane; Payette, Serge

    2004-03-01

    Plant communities in northern Quebec-Labrador, Canada have been severely grazed and trampled since the early 1980s by the increasingly large George River caribou herd (GRCH). To evaluate changes in species dominance associated with caribou disturbance, we compared past and present ground vegetation from 14 lichen woodlands. Plant remains from superficial organic horizons indicate that ground vegetation was largely dominated by lichens (especially Cladina) before the onset of caribou disturbance. In enlargments of aerial photos taken before 1975 (i.e., prior to maximum size of the GRCH), all sites were free of caribou trails and were dominated by a continuous lichen (Cladina) carpet. Principal components analysis showed that partial or complete destruction of the Cladina-dominated lichen carpet was the most striking change in ground vegetation. Severe trampling degraded superficial organic horizons, subsequently exposing mineral soil in heavily used sites. With reduced caribou activity in the 1990s, exposed ground was colonized by crustose lichens and Cladonia. Sites that faced severe grazing but light trampling were recolonized mainly by small podetia of Cladina stellaris sprouting from the lichen litter. However, patterns of post-caribou disturbance lichen succession differed from those of post-fire succession, because species from different successional stages are present at the same time in a stand and also because caribou can modify the successional trajectory at any time.

  4. Barcoding lichen-forming fungi using 454 pyrosequencing is challenged by artifactual and biological sequence variation.

    PubMed

    Mark, Kristiina; Cornejo, Carolina; Keller, Christine; Flück, Daniela; Scheidegger, Christoph

    2016-09-01

    Although lichens (lichen-forming fungi) play an important role in the ecological integrity of many vulnerable landscapes, only a minority of lichen-forming fungi have been barcoded out of the currently accepted ∼18 000 species. Regular Sanger sequencing can be problematic when analyzing lichens since saprophytic, endophytic, and parasitic fungi live intimately admixed, resulting in low-quality sequencing reads. Here, high-throughput, long-read 454 pyrosequencing in a GS FLX+ System was tested to barcode the fungal partner of 100 epiphytic lichen species from Switzerland using fungal-specific primers when amplifying the full internal transcribed spacer region (ITS). The present study shows the potential of DNA barcoding using pyrosequencing, in that the expected lichen fungus was successfully sequenced for all samples except one. Alignment solutions such as BLAST were found to be largely adequate for the generated long reads. In addition, the NCBI nucleotide database-currently the most complete database for lichen-forming fungi-can be used as a reference database when identifying common species, since the majority of analyzed lichens were identified correctly to the species or at least to the genus level. However, several issues were encountered, including a high sequencing error rate, multiple ITS versions in a genome (incomplete concerted evolution), and in some samples the presence of mixed lichen-forming fungi (possible lichen chimeras).

  5. Species richness of vascular plants, bryophytes, and lichens along an altitudinal gradient in western Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grytnes, John Arvid; Heegaard, Einar; Ihlen, Per G.

    2006-05-01

    Species richness patterns of ground-dwelling vascular plants, bryophytes, and lichens were compared along an altitudinal gradient (310-1135 m a.s.l.), in western Norway. Total species richness peaked at intermediate altitudes, vascular plant species richness peaked immediately above the forest limit (at 600-700 m a.s.l.), bryophyte species richness had no statistically significant trend, whereas lichen richness increased from the lowest point and up to the forest limit, with no trend above. It is proposed that the pattern in vascular plant species richness is enhanced by an ecotone effect. Bryophyte species richness responds to local scale factors whereas the lichen species richness may be responding to the shading from the forest trees.

  6. Hidden diversity before our eyes: Delimiting and describing cryptic lichen-forming fungal species in camouflage lichens (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota).

    PubMed

    Leavitt, Steven D; Esslinger, Theodore L; Divakar, Pradeep K; Crespo, Ana; Lumbsch, H Thorsten

    2016-11-01

    Molecular data provide unprecedented insight into diversity of lichenized fungi, although morphologically cryptic species-level lineages circumscribed from sequence data often remain undescribed even in well-studies groups. Using diagnostic characters from DNA sequence data and support from the multispecies coalescent model, we formally describe a total of eleven new species and resurrect two others in the hyperdiverse lichen-forming fungal family Parmeliaceae. These include: four in the genus Melanelixia - M. ahtii sp. nov., M. epilosa comb. nov., M. hawksworthii sp. nov., and M. robertsoniorum sp. nov.; six in Melanohalea - M. austroamericana sp. nov., M. beringiana sp. nov., M. clari sp. nov., M. columbiana sp. nov., M. davidii sp. nov., and M. tahltan sp. nov.; and three species in Montanelia - M. occultipanniformis sp. nov., M. saximontana comb. nov., and M. secwepemc sp. nov. Morphological, ecological and geographical features were revised to corroborate species descriptions. These species can consistently be distinguished by differences in nucleotide position characters in the fungal barcoding marker (ITS) and high speciation probabilities. This study helps close the "taxonomic gap" between molecular species delimitation studies and formal taxonomy by incorporating statistical evaluation of lineage independence, diagnostic differences in DNA data, and additional consideration of differences in morphology and species distributions.

  7. Species complexes within epiphytic diatoms and their relevance for the bioindication of trophic status.

    PubMed

    Poulíčková, Aloisie; Letáková, Markéta; Hašler, Petr; Cox, Eileen; Duchoslav, Martin

    2017-12-01

    The popularity of aquatic bioassessments has increased in Europe and worldwide, with a considerable number of methods being based on benthic diatoms. Recent evidence from molecular data and mating experiments has shown that some traditional diatom morphospecies represent species complexes, containing several to many cryptic species. This case study is based on epiphytic diatom and environmental data from shallow fishponds, investigating whether the recognition and use of fine taxonomic resolution (cryptic species) can improve assessment of community response to environmental drivers and increase sharpness of classification, compared to coarse taxonomic resolution (genus level and species level with unresolved species complexes). Secondly, trophy bioindication based on a species matrix divided into two compartments (species complexes and remaining species) was evaluated against the expectation that species complexes would be poor trophy indicators, due to their expected wide ecological amplitude. Finally, the response of species complexes and their members (cryptic species) to a trophic gradient (phosphorus) were compared. Multivariate analyses showed similar efficiency of all three taxonomic resolutions in depicting community patterns and their environmental correlates, suggesting that even genus level resolution is sufficient for routine bioassessment of shallow fishponds with a wide trophic range. However, after controlling for coarse taxonomic matrices, fine taxonomic resolution (with resolved cryptic species) still showed sufficient variance related to the environmental variable (habitat groups), and increased the sharpness of classification, number of indicator species for habitat categories, and gave better separation of habitat categories in the ordination space. Regression analysis of trophic bioindication and phosphorus concentration showed a weak relationship for species complexes but a close relationship for the remaining taxa. GLM models also showed

  8. In vitro evaluation of the antibacterial activity of extracts from 34 species of North American lichens.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Gajendra; Raphael, Jocelyn; Leavitt, Steven D; St Clair, Larry L

    2014-10-01

    The emergence of antibiotic resistant pathogens is a serious global health threat. Hence, the search for new antibiotic drugs from various natural sources should be given high priority. Lichens produce a variety of low molecular weight metabolic compounds and many cultures have utilized these compounds in traditional medicine for centuries. Report the antibiotic properties of extracts from 34 North American lichens screened against four pathogenic bacteria. The micro-well dilution method was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of acetone and methanol extracts of 34 lichen species against four bacterial strains. Major chemical compounds in each species were identified using thin layer chromatography (TLC). Most of the lichen extracts demonstrated inhibitory effects against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) with MIC values ranging from 3.9 to 500 µg/ml. In addition, extracts from three species, Letharia columbiana (Nutt.) J. W. Thomson (Parmeliaceae), Letharia vulpina (L.) Hue (Parmeliaceae), and Vulpicida canadensis (Räsänen) J.-E. Mattsson & M. J. Lai (Parmeliaceae) (MIC = 125-500 µg/ml) were also effective against Escherichia coli. Generally, acetone extractions were found to be more effective than methanol extractions. Results of this study show that lichen extracts provide significant antimicrobial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. These results suggest that lichens may be an important potential source of antibacterial drugs.

  9. Factors influencing epiphytic lichen communities in aspen-associated forests of the Bear River Range, Idaho and Utah

    Treesearch

    Paul C. Rogers

    2007-01-01

    In western North America, quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) is the most common hardwood in montane landscapes. Fire suppression, grazing, wildlife management practices, and climate patterns of the past century are some of the threats to aspen coverage in this region. Researchers are concerned that aspen-dependent species may be losing...

  10. Lichen indicator [Section 4

    Treesearch

    Paul L. Patterson; Susan Will-Wolf; Marie T. Trest

    2009-01-01

    Lichens are very responsive to environmental stressors in forests, including changes in forest structure, air quality, and climate. Each lichen species on a plot is an indicator of how lichen communities respond to ecological conditions. Individual lichen species occur erratically and even common species are often absent from plots with suitable habitat. The combined...

  11. Loline alkaloid production by fungal endophytes of Fescue species select for particular epiphytic bacterial microflora

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Elizabeth; Lindow, Steven

    2014-01-01

    The leaves of fescue grasses are protected from herbivores by the production of loline alkaloids by the mutualist fungal endophytes Neotyphodium sp. or Epichloë sp. Most bacteria that reside on the leaf surface of such grasses can consume these defensive chemicals. Loline-consuming bacteria are rare on the leaves of other plant species. Several bacterial species including Burkholderia ambifaria recovered from tall fescue could use N-formyl loline as a sole carbon and nitrogen source in culture and achieved population sizes that were about eightfold higher when inoculated onto plants harboring loline-producing fungal endophytes than on plants lacking such endophytes or which were colonized by fungal variants incapable of loline production. In contrast, mutants of B. ambifaria and other bacterial species incapable of loline catabolism achieved similarly low population sizes on tall fescue colonized by loline-producing Neotyphodium sp. and on plants lacking this endophytic fungus. Lolines that are released onto the surface of plants benefiting from a fungal mutualism thus appear to be a major resource that can be exploited by epiphytic bacteria, thereby driving the establishment of a characteristic bacterial community on such plants. PMID:24108329

  12. Comparative study of the suitability of three lichen species to trace-element air monitoring.

    PubMed

    Cercasov, V; Pantelică, A; Sălăgean, M; Caniglia, G; Scarlat, A

    2002-01-01

    To investigate the suitability of three lichen species (Cetraria islandica, Evernia prunastri, and Ramalina farinacea) as transplants to trace-element air biomonitoring, they were exposed on substratum-free supports, from July 1996 until July 1997, in three European countries with different climates (Germany, Italy, Romania), at six sites with different types of air pollutants (two in each country). After 2, 4, 6, and 12 months of exposure, some portions of thallus were collected, prepared, and measured by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) at the Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering in Bucharest and by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis (EDXRFA) at the University of Hohenheim in Stuttgart. Fifteen environmentally relevant elements: As, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mn, Ni, Pb, S, Sb, V, and Zn were determined. The analytical results were compared statistically. To study the distribution of the trace-elements between the lichens and the lichen throughfall water inside a virtual column, the throughfall water was collected under the lichen transplants during 6 and 12 months. The dried residues were analysed by INAA at Bucharest. The accumulating capacity for all investigated species is evident. For a comparative evaluation, the initial element contents, the "accumulation factors" relative to the bulk deposition, the interspecies "calibration factors", and the "retention efficiencies", defined as ratios of the lichen enrichment to the sum of this enrichment and the content in the lichen throughfall water, were considered. These criteria attest the best suitability for Evernia prunastri, followed by Ramalina farinacea and Cetraria islandica.

  13. Species-specific structural and functional diversity of bacterial communities in lichen symbioses.

    PubMed

    Grube, Martin; Cardinale, Massimiliano; de Castro, João Vieira; Müller, Henry; Berg, Gabriele

    2009-09-01

    Lichens are generally considered as mutualisms between fungi and green algae or cyanobacteria. These partnerships allow light-exposed and long-living joint structures. The unique organization of lichens provides still unexplored environments for microbial communities. To study lichen-associated bacterial communities, we analyze samples, by a polyphasic approach, from three lichen species (Cladonia arbuscula, Lecanora polytropa and Umbilicaria cylindrica) from alpine environments. Our results indicate that bacteria can form highly structured, biofilm-like assemblages on fungal surfaces and reach considerable abundances of up to 10(8) cells per gram fresh weight. Fluorescence in situ hybridization reveals the predominance of Alphaproteobacteria. Microbial fingerprints performed by PCR-single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis using universal and group-specific primers show distinct patterns for each lichen species. Characterization of cultivable strains and presence of functional genes in the total fraction suggest the involvement of associated bacteria in nutrient cycling. Ubiquitous nifH genes, which encode the nitrogenase reductase, show a high diversity and are assigned to Alphaproteobacteria and Firmicutes, for example, Paenibacillus. Cultivable strains mainly belonging to the genera Acinetobacter, Bacillus, Burkholderia, Methylobacterium and Paenibacillus show lytic (chitinolytic, glucanolytic, and proteolytic) activities, hormone production (indole-3-acetic acid) as well as phosphate mobilization and antagonistic activity toward other microorganisms. The traditional concept of lichens has to be expanded to consider multiple bacterial partners.

  14. Integrating coalescent and phylogenetic approaches to delimit species in the lichen photobiont Trebouxia.

    PubMed

    Sadowska-Deś, Anna D; Dal Grande, Francesco; Lumbsch, H Thorsten; Beck, Andreas; Otte, Jürgen; Hur, Jae-Seoun; Kim, Jung A; Schmitt, Imke

    2014-07-01

    The accurate assessment of species boundaries in symbiotic systems is a prerequisite for the study of speciation, co-evolution and selectivity. Many studies have shown the high genetic diversity of green algae from the genus Trebouxia, the most common photobiont of lichen-forming fungi. However, the phylogenetic relationships, and the amount of cryptic diversity of these algae are still poorly understood, and an adequate species concept for trebouxiophycean algae is still missing. In this study we used a multifaceted approach based on coalescence (GMYC, STEM) and phylogenetic relationships to assess species boundaries in the trebouxioid photobionts of the lichen-forming fungus Lasallia pustulata. We further investigated whether putative species of Trebouxia found in L. pustulata are shared with other lichen-forming fungi. We found that L. pustulata is associated with at least five species of Trebouxia and most of them are shared with other lichen-forming fungi, showing different patterns of species-to-species and species-to-community interactions. We also show that one of the putative Trebouxia species is found exclusively in association with L. pustulata and is restricted to thalli from localities with Mediterranean microclimate. We suggest that the species delimitation method presented in this study is a promising tool to address species boundaries within the heterogeneous genus Trebouxia.

  15. Behaviour of different lichen species as biomonitors of air pollution by PAHs in natural ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Blasco, María; Domeño, Celia; López, Patricia; Nerín, Cristina

    2011-09-01

    Six different species of lichens (Parmelia sulcata Tayl., Evernia prunastri (L.) Ach., Ramalina farinacea, Pseudevernia furfuracea (L.) Zopf., Usnea sp. and Lobaria pulmonaria (Schreb.) Hoffm.) were collected in two mountain valleys in Central Pyrenees: the Aspe and Aragon valleys. Two multivariate techniques have been applied with different purposes, ANOVA and Discriminant Analysis (DA), to evaluate the data. The PAHs spatial distribution was studied in the three more abundant and widespread species in the area: P. sulcata, E. prunastri (L.) Ach. and R. farinacea in terms of total PAHs, PAHs related to the combustion processes and toxicity. Different behaviour of each lichen species to trap PAHs was found, being P. sulcata the best one to monitor the most persistent PAHs of pyrogenic origin and E. prunastri the most appropriate to provide information about pyrogenic and petrogenic PAHs. Traffic was the most relevant influence in PAHs bioaccumulation in lichen species.

  16. Carbon based secondary compounds do not provide protection against heavy metal road pollutants in epiphytic macrolichens.

    PubMed

    Gauslaa, Yngvar; Yemets, Olena A; Asplund, Johan; Solhaug, Knut Asbjørn

    2016-01-15

    Lichens are useful monitoring organisms for heavy metal pollution. They are high in carbon based secondary compounds (CBSCs) among which some may chelate heavy metals and thus increase metal accumulation. This study quantifies CBSCs in four epiphytic lichens transplanted for 6months on stands along transects from a highway in southern Norway to search for relationships between concentrations of heavy metals and CBSCs along a gradient in heavy metal pollutants. Viability parameters and concentrations of 21 elements including nutrients and heavy metals in these lichen samples were reported in a separate paper. Medullary CBSCs in fruticose lichens (Ramalina farinacea, Usnea dasypoga) were reduced in the most polluted sites, but not in foliose ones (Parmelia sulcata, Lobaria pulmonaria), whereas cortical CBSC did not change with distance from the road in any species. Strong positive correlations only occurred between the major medullary compound stictic acid present in L. pulmonaria and most heavy metals, consistent with a chelating role of stictic acid, but not of other studied CBSCs or in other species. However, heavy metal chelating did not protect L. pulmonaria against damage because this species experienced the strongest reduction in viability in the polluted sites. CBSCs with an accumulation potential for heavy metals should be quantified in lichen biomonitoring studies of heavy metals because they, like stictic acid, could overshadow pollutant inputs in some species rendering biomonitoring data less useful. In the two fruticose lichen species, CBSCs decreased with increasing heavy metal concentration, probably because heavy metal exposure impaired secondary metabolism. Thus, we found no support for a heavy metal protection role of any CBSCs in studied epiphytic lichens. No intraspecific relationships occurred between CBSCs versus N or C/N-ratio. Interspecifically, medullary CBSCs decreased and cortical CBSCs increased with increasing C/N-ratio. Copyright © 2015

  17. Biophoton emission of a lichen species Parmelia tinctorum.

    PubMed

    Bajpai, R P

    2003-05-01

    The properties of biophoton signals emitted by samples of lichen species P. tinctorum are investigated. The shape of a light induced signal is determined from 5 ms onwards using successively the bin resolution of 1, 10 and 100 ms; 1000 measurements in successive bins are made at each resolution. The measurement of the shape is repeated at various temperatures in the range (1 degree-40 degrees C) in steps of 1 degree C. It is found that a biophoton signal is very sensitive to temperature and different portions of the signal show different sensitivity. The temperature dependence of the decaying part is even qualitatively different from that of the non-decaying part. The signal responds to temperature changes of 0.1 degrees C in less than 1 ms. The effect of monochromatic stimulation on the strengths of the signal and its red, blue and green spectral components are determined in the wavelength range (400-700) nm in steps of 10 nm. The signal and its broad spectral components have similar excitation curves. The relative strength of spectral component appears independent of the stimulating wavelength. The shape of the decaying portion of the signal and its red, blue and green components is also determined. The character of decay in all four cases is non-exponential. The measurements with various interference filters spanning the entire visible region are made with the bin size of 20 s. These measurements are qualitative because of large fluctuations but suggest that the spectral components of a biophoton signal are distributed in the entire visible region. The probabilities of detecting different number of photons in the non-decaying portion are determined by making 30,000 measurements in each set with the bin size of 50, 100, 200, 300, 400, 500 and 700 ms. The probabilities determine the parameters of a squeezed state of light--the magnitude of its displacement parameter is different but the phase of its displacement parameter and its squeezing parameter are same for

  18. Species of Lissothrips and Williamsiella from mosses and lichens in Australia and New Zealand (Thysanoptera, Phlaeothripinae).

    PubMed

    Mound, Laurence A; Tree, Desley J

    2015-04-10

    Species of Lissothrips and Williamsiella live in association with mosses and lichens. Their gut contents are commonly blue-green, suggesting that they possibly feed on blue-green algae. Three species of Lissothrips are known from New Zealand, of which two are here recorded from Australia together with six new species. Williamsiella is recorded from Australia for the first time, with one new species.

  19. A new genus and species of myrmecophilous brentid beetle (Coleoptera: Brentidae) inhabiting the myrmecophytic epiphytes in the Bornean rainforest canopy.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Munetoshi; Bartolozzi, Luca; Inui, Yoko; Tanaka, Hiroshi O; Hyodo, Fujio; Shimizu-Kaya, Usun; Takematsu, Yoko; Hishi, Takuo; Itioka, Takao

    2014-04-08

    Pycnotarsobrentus inuiae Maruyama & Bartolozzi, gen. nov. and sp. nov. (Brentinae: Eremoxenini) is described from the Lambir Hills National Park, Borneo (Sarawak, Malaysia) based on specimens collected from Crematogaster difformis F. Smith, 1857 ant nests in the myrmecophytic epiphytic ferns Platycerium crustacea Copel. and Lecanopteris ridleyi H. Christ. A second species of Pycnotarsobrentus is known from Malaysia but is represented by only one female and consequently not yet described pending discovery of a male. Pycnotarsobrentus belongs to the tribe Eremoxenini and shares some character states with the African genus Pericordus Kolbe, 1883. No species of Eremoxenini with similar morphological modifications are known from the Oriental region.

  20. Application of molecular markers to detect DNA damage caused by environmental pollutants in lichen species.

    PubMed

    Cansaran-Duman, D; Altunkaynak, E; Aslan, A; Büyük, I; Aras, S

    2015-05-04

    Pseudevernia furfuracea L. (Zopf), Peltigera praetextata (Flörke ex Sommerf.) Zopf, Lobaria pulmonaria (L.) Hoffm., and Usnea longissima Ach. lichen species were used as bioindicators to assess the genotoxicity of air pollutants. In the present study, we examined significant environmetal pollutants and investigate how changes may lead to damage in DNA structure using RAPD markers. In the study area (Erzurum, Turkey), poor-quality lignite, which generates a large amount of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and particle matter, is used for domestic heating, and vehicles also contribute to air pollution. Control lichen samples were collected far from large urban and industrial settlements and transplanted to four polluted sites for 4, 8, or 12 months. The total soluble protein content of the examined four lichen species did not significantly change with exposure time (P < 0.05). The four lichen samples exposed to the pollutants for 8 months had the highest ratio of DNA changes. The ratio of band differences in P. praetextata was higher than that in the other three lichen species, possibly because it has broad leaves that accumulated more pollutants. The average incidences of polymorphism were 64.14, 54.58, 65.76, and 43.06% for P. furfuracea, P. praetextata, L. pulmonaria, and U. longissima, respectively. The genomic template stability (GTS) significantly decreased following exposure to pollutants. GTS ratios revealed that the highest value (98.36%) belonged to U. longissima samples from Site 1 (10 m) after 4 months of exposure, and the lowest values belonged to P. praetextata (73.58%) from Site 3 (100 m) after 8 months of exposure. Based on our findings, we recommend the use of P. praetextata as an indicator of genotoxicity.

  1. Coupling lead isotopes and element concentrations in epiphytic lichens to track sources of air emissions in the Alberta Oil Sands Region

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study was conducted that coupled use of element concentrations and lead (Pb) isotope ratios in the lichen Hypogymnia physodes collected during 2002 and 2008, to assess the impacts of air emissions from the Alberta Oil Sands Region (AOSR, Canada) mining and processing operations...

  2. Coupling lead isotopes and element concentrations in epiphytic lichens to track sources of air emissions in the Alberta Oil Sands Region

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study was conducted that coupled use of element concentrations and lead (Pb) isotope ratios in the lichen Hypogymnia physodes collected during 2002 and 2008, to assess the impacts of air emissions from the Alberta Oil Sands Region (AOSR, Canada) mining and processing operations...

  3. [Book review] Lichens of the north woods: a field guide to 111 northern species, by Joe Walewski

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, J.

    2007-01-01

    Review of: LICHENS OF THE NORTH WOODS, A FIELD GUIDE TO 111 NORTHERN SPECIES. Joe Walewski. 2007. North Woods Naturalist Series, Kollath & Stensaas Publishing, Duluth, Minnesota. 152 pp, softcover. ISBN: 0-9673793-50. $18.95.

  4. Species-specific activation time-lags can explain habitat restrictions in hydrophilic lichens.

    PubMed

    Lidén, Marlene; Jonsson Cabrajić, Anna V; Ottosson-Löfvenius, Mikaell; Palmqvist, Kristin; Lundmark, Tomas

    2010-05-01

    Photosystem II (PSII) activation after hydration with water or humid air was measured in four hydrophilic and a generalist lichen to test the hypothesis that slow activation might explain habitat restriction in the former group. For the hydrophilic species, activation was after 4 h nearly completed in Lobaria amplissima and Platismatia norvegica, while only c. 50% for Bryoria bicolor and Usnea longissima. The generalist Platismatia glauca was activated instantaneously. The effect of this on lichen field performance was investigated using a dynamic model separating the two water sources rain and humid air. Model simulations were made using the species-specific characteristics and climate data from 12 stream microhabitats. For U. longissima, slow PSII activation could reduce realized photosynthesis by a factor of five. Bryoria bicolor was almost as severely affected, while P. norvegica displayed moderate reductions. Lobaria amplissima displayed longer realized activity periods even in unfavourable microclimates, possibly because of a higher water loss resistance. Both close proximity to streams and presence of turbulent water had a positive impact on realized activity among the slowly activated species, coinciding with observed distribution patterns of hydrophilic species. The results presented here may thus partly explain observed habitat restrictions of rare hydrophilic lichens.

  5. Elemental chemistry of four lichen species from the Apostle Islands, Wisconsin 1987, 1995, and 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, J.P.; Wetmore, C.M.

    2003-01-01

    Four lichen species sampled three times over a 15-year time span at four of the Apostle Islands, Wisconsin were analyzed for 16 chemical elements in order to determine time trends and spatial patterns. Factor analyses of the data revealed that elements associated with soils (Al, Cr, Fe, Na, Ni and S) have increased over the study period, while nutrient and pollutant elements (Cu, K, P, Pb and Zn) have decreased. Four other elements (Ca, Cd, Mg and Mn) were unchanged over time. Cladina rangiferina, a terricolous species, contained the lowest concentrations of all elements, while the corticolous species Evernia mesomorpha was highest in soil elements, Hypogymnia physodes was highest in Ca, Cd, Mg and Mn, and Parmelia sulcata was highest in the nutritional elements. Lichens on islands within 3a??4 km of the mainland were highest in soil elements, which decreased with distance from the mainland. Elements that were 18a??43% greater on the nearest islands were significantly different between near and far islands. Eight elements (Al, Ca, Cd, K, Mg, Mn, P and S) exceeded enrichment levels for Hypogymnia physodes, suggesting possible contamination problems for this species. Although Pb has decreased significantly over the time period, other elements have increased in the lichens while decreasing in the atmosphere, suggesting that accumulation in the environment is continuing.

  6. Approach to spatialize local to long-range atmospheric metal input (Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb) in epiphytic lichens over a meso-scale area (Pyrénées-Atlantiques, southwestern France).

    PubMed

    Barre, Julien P G; Deletraz, Gaëlle; Frayret, Jérôme; Pinaly, Hervé; Donard, Olivier F X; Amouroux, David

    2015-06-01

    Geographically based investigations into atmospheric bio-monitoring usually provide information on concentration or occurrence data and spatial trends of specific contaminants over a specified study area. In this work, an original approach based on geographic information system (GIS) was used to establish metal contents (Hg, Cu, Pb, and Cd) in epiphytic lichens from 90 locations as atmospheric bio-monitors over a meso-scale area (Pyrénées-Atlantiques, southwestern France). This approach allows the integration of the heterogeneity of the territory and optimization of the sampling sites based on both socioeconomical and geophysical parameters (hereafter defined as urban, industrial, agricultural, and forested areas). The sampling strategy was first evaluated in several sites (n = 15) over different seasons and years in order to follow the temporal variability of the atmospheric metal input in lichens. The results demonstrate that concentration ranges remain constant over different sampling periods in "rural" areas (agricultural and forested). Higher variability is observed in the "anthropized" urban and industrial areas in relation to local atmospheric inputs. In this context, metal concentrations in lichens over the whole study show that (1) Hg and Cd are homogeneous over the whole territory (0.14 ± 0.04 and 0.38 ± 0.26 mg/kg, respectively), whereas (2) Cu and Pb are more concentrated in "anthropized" areas (9.3 and 11.9 mg/kg, respectively) than in "rural" ones (6.8 and 6.0 mg/kg, respectively) (Kruskall-Wallis, K(Cu) = 13.7 and K(Pb) = 9.7, p < 0.00001). They also showed a significant local enrichment for all metals in many locations in the Pays Basque (West) mainly due to metal and steel industrial activities. This confirms the local contribution of this contamination source over a wider geographic scale. A multiple linear regression model was applied to give an integrated spatialization of the data. This showed significant

  7. A Process-based Model of Global Lichen Productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porada, P.; Kleidon, A.

    2012-04-01

    Lichens and biotic crusts are abundant in most ecosystems of the world. They are the main autotrophic organisms in many deserts and at high altitudes and they can also be found in large amounts as epiphytes in some forests, especially in the boreal zone. They are characterised by a great variety of physiological properties, such as growth form, productivity or color. Due to the vast land surface areas covered by lichens, they may contribute significantly to the global terrestrial net carbon uptake. Furthermore, they potentially play an important role with respect to nutrient cycles in some ecosystems and they have the ability to enhance weathering at the surface on which they grow. A possible way to quantify these processes at the global scale is presented here in form of a process-based lichen model. This approach is based on the concepts used in many dynamical vegetation models and extends these methods to account for the specific properties of lichens. Hence, processes such as photosynthesis, respiration and water exchange are implemented as well as important trade-offs like photosynthetic capacity versus respiratory load and water content versus CO2 conductivity. The great physiological variability of lichens is incorporated directly into the model through ranges of possible parameter values, which are randomly sampled. In this way, many artificial lichen "species" are created and climate then acts as a filter to determine the species which are able to survive permanently. By averaging over the surviving "species", the model predicts lichen productivity as a function of climate input data such as temperature, radiation and precipitation at the global scale. Consequently, the contribution of lichens to the global carbon balance can be quantified. Moreover, global patterns of lichen biodiversity and other properties can be illustrated. The model can be extended to account for the nutrient dynamics of lichens, such as nitrogen fixation and the acquisition and

  8. Molecular evidence for the diversification of extant lichens in the late cretaceous and tertiary.

    PubMed

    Printzen, C; Lumbsch, H T

    2000-12-01

    A molecular clock based on ITS sequence data from the lichen genera Biatora and Phyllopsora is calibrated with the help of paleoclimatic data and evidence of forest history. The clock indicates that diversification within Biatora started as early as in the Late Cretaceous and took place during periods of climatic cooling, when new types of forest evolved and spread in the Northern Hemisphere. Arctic-alpine species of the genus appear to be of considerable age, dating back to the Late Eocene-Oligocene climatic cooling. By using calibrated phylogenies of epiphytic lichens it may become possible to date many paleoenvironmental events, for which little fossil evidence exists.

  9. Eutrophic lichens respond to multiple forms of N: implications for critical levels and critical loads research

    Treesearch

    Sarah Jovan; Jennifer Riddell; Pamela E Padgett; Thomas Nash

    2012-01-01

    Epiphytic lichen communities are highly sensitive to excess nitrogen (N), which causes the replacement of native floras by N-tolerant, ‘‘weedy’’ eutrophic species. This shift is commonly used as the indicator of ecosystem ‘‘harm’’ in studies developing empirical critical levels (CLE) for ammonia (NH3) and critical loads (CLO) for N. To be most...

  10. FT-Raman spectroscopy of the Candelaria and Pyxine lichen species: A new molecular structural study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, Rafaella F.; Ferreira, Gilson R.; Spielmann, Adriano A.; Edwards, Howell G. M.; de Oliveira, Luiz Fernando C.

    2015-12-01

    In this work the chemistry of the lichens Candelaria fibrosa and Pyxine coccifera have been investigated for the first time using FT-Raman spectroscopy with the help of quantum mechanical DFT calculations to support spectral band assignments. The non-destructive spectral vibrational analysis provided evidence for the presence of pulvinic acid derivatives and conjugated polyenes, which probably belong to a carotenoid with characteristic signatures at ca. 1003, 1158 and 1525 cm-1 assigned respectively to δ(C-CH3), ν(C-C) and ν(Cdbnd C) modes. The identification of features arising from chiodectonic acid in the Pyxine species and calycin and pulvinic dilactone pigments in C. fibrosa were assisted by the quantum mechanical DFT calculations. Raman spectroscopy can provide important spectroscopic data for the identification of the biomarker spectral signatures nondestructively for these lichen pigments without the need for chemical extraction processes.

  11. Inventory of the mosses, liverworts, and lichens of Olympic National Park, Washington- Species list

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hutten, M.; Woodward, Andrea; Hutten, K.

    2005-01-01

    The identification of non-vascular cryptogam species (lichens, mosses, liverworts, and hornworts) is especially challenging because of their small size, their often microscopic or chemical distinguishing features, and their enormous diversity. Consequently, they are a poorly known component of Olympic National Park, despite their ecological and aesthetic importance. This project is the first attempt at a systematic, comprehensive survey of non-vascular cryptogams in the Park and presents the current species list with descriptions of the substrate and vascular vegetation type where they were observed. The authors strove to collect from as many park environments as feasible, and distributed collections along important environmental gradients in different regions of the park using vascular vegetation as an environmental indicator. They also collected opportunistically when interesting habitats or microhabitats were encountered. Finally, the authors updated the nomenclature in the Park’s previous collection of nonvascular plants. This study identified approximately 13,200 bryophyte and lichen species, adding approximately 425 new species to the Olympic National Park Herbarium. These data, combined with select literature reports and personal data from Martin and Karen Hutten, added more than 350 species to the previously documented Olympic Peninsula lichen and bryophyte list. The authors discuss the list in a local, regional, and global context of rarity, as well as cryptogam conservation and further work needed in Olympic National Park. The improved inventory of Olympic National Park cryptogams represented by this project enables Olympic National Park to protect populations of rare and sensitive species, assess the damage caused by illegal harvest, and contribute information to the Bureau of Land Management and U.S. Forest Service Sensitive Species Programs.

  12. Extremotolerance and resistance of lichens: comparative studies on five species used in astrobiological research I. Morphological and anatomical characteristics.

    PubMed

    Meeßen, J; Sánchez, F J; Brandt, A; Balzer, E-M; de la Torre, R; Sancho, L G; de Vera, J-P; Ott, S

    2013-06-01

    Lichens are symbioses of two organisms, a fungal mycobiont and a photoautotrophic photobiont. In nature, many lichens tolerate extreme environmental conditions and thus became valuable models in astrobiological research to fathom biological resistance towards non-terrestrial conditions; including space exposure, hypervelocity impact simulations as well as space and Martian parameter simulations. All studies demonstrated the high resistance towards non-terrestrial abiotic factors of selected extremotolerant lichens. Besides other adaptations, this study focuses on the morphological and anatomical traits by comparing five lichen species-Circinaria gyrosa, Rhizocarpon geographicum, Xanthoria elegans, Buellia frigida, Pleopsidium chlorophanum-used in present-day astrobiological research. Detailed investigation of thallus organization by microscopy methods allows to study the effect of morphology on lichen resistance and forms a basis for interpreting data of recent and future experiments. All investigated lichens reveal a common heteromerous thallus structure but diverging sets of morphological-anatomical traits, as intra-/extra-thalline mucilage matrices, cortices, algal arrangements, and hyphal strands. In B. frigida, R. geographicum, and X. elegans the combination of pigmented cortex, algal arrangement, and mucilage seems to enhance resistance, while subcortex and algal clustering seem to be crucial in C. gyrosa, as well as pigmented cortices and basal thallus protrusions in P. chlorophanum. Thus, generalizations on morphologically conferred resistance have to be avoided. Such differences might reflect the diverging evolutionary histories and are advantageous by adapting lichens to prevalent abiotic stressors. The peculiar lichen morphology demonstrates its remarkable stake in resisting extreme terrestrial conditions and may explain the high resistance of lichens found in astrobiological research.

  13. Lichen endozoochory by snails.

    PubMed

    Boch, Steffen; Prati, Daniel; Werth, Silke; Rüetschi, Jörg; Fischer, Markus

    2011-04-13

    Endozoochory plays a prominent role for the dispersal of seed plants. However, for most other plant taxa it is not known whether this mode of dispersal occurs at all. Among those other taxa, lichens as symbiotic associations of algae and fungi are peculiar as their successful dispersal requires movement of propagules that leaves the symbiosis functional. However, the potential for endozoochorous dispersal of lichen fragments has been completely overlooked. We fed sterile thalli of two foliose lichen species (Lobaria pulmonaria and Physcia adscendens) differing in habitat and air-quality requirements to nine snail species common in temperate Europe. We demonstrated morphologically that L. pulmonaria regenerated from 29.0% of all 379 fecal pellets, whereas P. adscendens regenerated from 40.9% of all 433 fecal pellets, showing that lichen fragments survived gut passage of all snail species. Moreover, molecular analysis of regenerated lichens confirmed the species identity for a subset of samples. Regeneration rates were higher for the generalist lichen species P. adscendens than for the specialist lichen species L. pulmonaria. Furthermore, lichen regeneration rates varied among snail species with higher rates after gut passage of heavier snail species. We suggest that gastropods generally grazing on lichen communities are important, but so far completely overlooked, as vectors for lichen dispersal. This opens new ecological perspectives and questions the traditional view of an entirely antagonistic relationship between gastropods and lichens.

  14. The foliicolous lichen flora of Mexico IV: a new, foliicolous species of Pyrenothrix (Chaetothyriales: Pyrenothrichaceae).

    PubMed

    Herrera-Campos, María de los Angeles; Huhndorf, Sabine; Lücking, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Pyrenothrix mexicana Herrera-Campos, Huhndorf & Lücking spec. nova is described from leaves in the upper montane rainforest of Oaxaca State, Mexico. It is the second species in the genus Pyrenothrix Riddle, established at the beginning of the twentieth century for the single species, P. nigra Riddle, a corticolous lichen restricted to southeastern United States. Both taxa have the same thallus and perithecial morphology and anatomy, but P. mexicana differs by its longer, transversally septate ascospores. The perithecial anatomy of Pyrenothrix is documented and its systematic affinities are discussed, and we conclude that the family Pyrenothrichaceae Zahlbr. should be placed in the order Chaetothyriales.

  15. Use of moss and lichen species to identify (210)Po-contaminated regions.

    PubMed

    Długosz-Lisiecka, Magdalena; Wróbel, Justyna

    2014-12-01

    (210)Po concentration in urban air fluctuates as a result of natural (222)Rn radionuclide exhalation and technical activity that is especially linked with high-temperature processes. Each year, an average 11 GBq of (210)Po is released from local power plants into urban air. Over two months, about 180 samples in central Poland were collected. To detect the concentration of (210)Po activity, two common species of biomonitors were chosen: the moss Pleurozium schreberi and the lichen Hypogymnia physodes. For the same locale, (210)Po in lichen shows an average of twice the amount of activity concentration than the moss. In moss, (210)Po concentrations in Lodz ranged from 41.5 Bq kg(-1) to 258.0 Bq kg(-1), while in lichen it ranges from 74.2 Bq kg(-1) to 670.9 Bq kg(-1). On the basis of the measured activity of (210)Po maps, radionuclide distribution has been prepared. For areas identified with higher concentrations of (210)Po, Quantum Gis has been applied.

  16. Southern leaf blight disease severity is correlated with decreased maize leaf epiphytic bacterial species richness and the phyllosphere bacterial diversity decline is enhanced by nitrogen fertilization.

    PubMed

    Manching, Heather C; Balint-Kurti, Peter J; Stapleton, Ann E

    2014-01-01

    Plant leaves are inhabited by a diverse group of microorganisms that are important contributors to optimal growth. Biotic and abiotic effects on plant growth are usually studied in controlled settings examining response to variation in single factors and in field settings with large numbers of variables. Multi-factor experiments with combinations of stresses bridge this gap, increasing our understanding of the genotype-environment-phenotype functional map for the host plant and the affiliated epiphytic community. The maize inbred B73 was exposed to single and combination abiotic and the biotic stress treatments: low nitrogen fertilizer and high levels of infection with southern leaf blight (causal agent Cochliobolus heterostrophus). Microbial epiphyte samples were collected at the vegetative early-season phase and species composition was determined using 16S ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis. Plant traits and level of southern leaf blight disease were measured late-season. Bacterial diversity was different among stress treatment groups (P < 0.001). Lower species richness-alpha diversity-was correlated with increased severity of southern leaf blight disease when disease pressure was high. Nitrogen fertilization intensified the decline in bacterial alpha diversity. While no single bacterial ribotype was consistently associated with disease severity, small sets of ribotypes were good predictors of disease levels. Difference in leaf bacterial-epiphyte diversity early in the season were correlated with plant disease severity, supporting further tests of microbial epiphyte-disease correlations for use in predicting disease progression.

  17. Southern leaf blight disease severity is correlated with decreased maize leaf epiphytic bacterial species richness and the phyllosphere bacterial diversity decline is enhanced by nitrogen fertilization

    PubMed Central

    Manching, Heather C.; Balint-Kurti, Peter J.; Stapleton, Ann E.

    2014-01-01

    Plant leaves are inhabited by a diverse group of microorganisms that are important contributors to optimal growth. Biotic and abiotic effects on plant growth are usually studied in controlled settings examining response to variation in single factors and in field settings with large numbers of variables. Multi-factor experiments with combinations of stresses bridge this gap, increasing our understanding of the genotype-environment-phenotype functional map for the host plant and the affiliated epiphytic community. The maize inbred B73 was exposed to single and combination abiotic and the biotic stress treatments: low nitrogen fertilizer and high levels of infection with southern leaf blight (causal agent Cochliobolus heterostrophus). Microbial epiphyte samples were collected at the vegetative early-season phase and species composition was determined using 16S ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis. Plant traits and level of southern leaf blight disease were measured late-season. Bacterial diversity was different among stress treatment groups (P < 0.001). Lower species richness—alpha diversity—was correlated with increased severity of southern leaf blight disease when disease pressure was high. Nitrogen fertilization intensified the decline in bacterial alpha diversity. While no single bacterial ribotype was consistently associated with disease severity, small sets of ribotypes were good predictors of disease levels. Difference in leaf bacterial-epiphyte diversity early in the season were correlated with plant disease severity, supporting further tests of microbial epiphyte-disease correlations for use in predicting disease progression. PMID:25177328

  18. [Fog water absorption by the leaves of epiphytes and non - epiphytes in Xishuangbanna].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yulong; Feng, Yulong

    2006-06-01

    Xishuangbanna is located at the northern margin of tropics. Its climate is different from that of typical tropics, but the rainforest there is not very different from that of the typical tropics in Southeast Asia. The main problems in Xishuangbanna are seasonal drought and low temperature. Fog may contribute to the development of rainforest here, but related studies are few. This study is aimed to know whether the leaves of epiphytes and non - epiphytes in Xishuangbanna can directly absorb fog water and contribute to their water status recovery, and whether epiphytes are more competent than non - epiphytes in their leaf fog water absorption. The study was conducted in dry season, and four species of epiphytes and six species of non - epiphytes were investigated. The effect of fog was imitated by spraying leaves with distilled water. For epiphytes and non - epiphytes, their leaf water potential (phi), relative water content (RWC), and amount of absorbed water increased gradually with the time of spraying, but the phi of epiphytes increased more quickly than that of non - epiphytes. The leaves of epiphytes Bolbitis scandens and Rhaphidophora decursiva could absorb fog water more quickly, and increase their RWC more greatly than those of non - epiphytes, indicating that these epiphytes were more competent than non - epiphytes in their leaf fog water absorption. The fog water absorption capacity of the leaves in epiphytic orchid Coelogyne occultata and Staurochilus dawsonianus was lower than that in Amischotolype hispida and Mananthus patentflora, but higher than that in other four non - epiphytes. The phi of epiphytes at early evening when no fog was formed was significantly lower than that at early morning, suggesting that fog water was absorbed by epiphytes at night to improve their leaf water status. Non - epiphytes did not need to absorb fog water directly through leaves, and they could recover their leaf water status through absorbing soil water by root system

  19. Cesium-137 monitoring using lichens from W. Macedonia, N. Greece.

    PubMed

    Sawidis, Thomas; Tsigaridas, Konstantinos; Tsikritzis, Lazaros

    2010-10-01

    (137)Cs content in lichens and substrate (soil, bark) collected from W. Macedonia, Greece was measured 20 years after the Chernobyl reactor accident. Archive material from previous collections was also used for comparison and a diachronic estimation of the radio-contamination status. A gradual decrease was detected which depended on various factors such as the collected species, location, growth rate and substrate. Maximum accumulation capacity of (137)Cs was observed in epilithic lichens in comparison to epigeic or epiphytic ones. Furthermore, foliose or crustose lichens such as Parmelia sulcata, Xanthoria parietina, Xanthoria calcicola, Xanthoparmelia somloensis were more contaminated than filamentose at the same biotope. Among filamentose or fruticose species those with large surface area to biomass ratio e.g. Usnea sp. showed also greater accumulation capacity. Autoradiography revealed an amount of (137)Cs distributed more or less uniformly in lichen thalli. The high (137)Cs activities found in lichens 20 years after Chernobyl suggest that these primitive plants are effective, suitable and inexpensive biological detectors of the distribution and burden of fallout radionuclide fallout pattern.

  20. Oribatid communities and heavy metal bioaccumulation in selected species associated with lichens in a heavily contaminated habitat.

    PubMed

    Skubała, Piotr; Rola, Kaja; Osyczka, Piotr

    2016-05-01

    The study examines oribatid communities and heavy metal bioaccumulation in selected species associated with different microhabitats of a post-smelting dump, i.e. three lichen species of Cladonia with various growth forms and the slag substrate. The abundance of oribatids collected from the substrate was significantly lower than observed in lichen thalli. The morphology and chemical properties of lichens, and to some extent varying concentrations of heavy metals in thalli, are probably responsible for significant differences in oribatid communities inhabiting different Cladonia species. Some oribatids demonstrate the ability to accumulate zinc and cadmium with unusual efficiency, whereas lead is the most effectively regulated element by all species. A positive correlation was found between Zn content in all studied oribatids and their microhabitats. Oribatids exploring different food resources, i.e. fungivorous and non-fungivorous grazers, show considerable differences in bioconcentrations of certain elements.

  1. Evaluation of the Antioxidant Capacities and Cytotoxic Effects of Ten Parmeliaceae Lichen Species

    PubMed Central

    González-Burgos, E.; Divakar, P. K.; Crespo, A.

    2016-01-01

    Parmeliaceae represents the largest and widespread family of lichens and includes species that attract much interest regarding pharmacological activities, due to their production of unique secondary metabolites. The current work aimed to investigate the in vitro antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of the methanol extracts of ten Parmeliaceae species, collected in different continents. Methanol extraction afforded high phenolic content in the extracts. The antioxidant activity displayed by lichens was evaluated through chemical assays, such as the ORAC (Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activities and the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). A moderately positive correlation was found between the phenolic content and the antioxidant properties for all the species: R: 0.7430 versus ORAC values, R: 0.7457 versus DPPH scavenging capacity, and R: 0.7056 versus FRAP reducing power. The methanol extract of Flavoparmelia euplecta exhibited the highest ORAC value, the extract of Myelochroa irrugans showed the maximum DPPH scavenging capacity, and Hypotrachyna cirrhata methanol extract demonstrated the highest reducing power. Further, the cytotoxic activity of the ten species was investigated on the human cancer cell lines HepG2 and MCF-7; Myelochroa irrugans exhibited the highest anticancer potential. The pharmacological activities shown here could be attributed to their phytochemical constituents. PMID:28074101

  2. Estimating atmospheric mercury concentrations with lichens.

    PubMed

    Vannini, Andrea; Nicolardi, Valentina; Bargagli, Roberto; Loppi, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    The uptake kinetics of elemental gaseous Hg (Hg(0)) in three species of epiphytic lichens (Pseudevernia furfuracea, Evernia prunastri, and Xanthoria parietina) were investigated under four different Hg concentrations (10, 15, 30, and 45 μg/m(3)) and three different temperatures (10, 20, and 30 °C) with the aim of evaluating the lichen efficiency for Hg(0) accumulation and their potential use in the estimate of atmospheric concentrations of this metal in the field. The results showed that under our experimental conditions the lichens accumulated Hg according to exposure time and that the metal is not released back to the atmosphere after Hg(0) was removed from the air (clearance). Pseudevernia furfuracea showed the highest Hg accumulation capacity and Evernia prunastri showed the lowest, but in these species the metal uptake kinetics was affected by temperature. Xanthoria parietina showed an intermediate metal accumulation capacity and a Hg accumulation rate independent of temperature (in the range 10-30 °C). The use of first-order kinetics equations for Hg uptake in X. parietina and available field data on Hg bioaccumulation in this species allowed reliable estimates of atmospheric Hg concentrations in the environment.

  3. Introduce lichen Lepraria incana as biomonitor of Cesium-137 from Ramsar, northern Iran.

    PubMed

    Dalvand, Amin; Jahangiri, Ahmad; Iranmanesh, Jalil

    2016-08-01

    Lichens have been used as biomonitors of airborne radionuclides released in conjunction with nuclear bomb testing as well as nuclear power plant accidents. The potential of lichens for monitoringof radionuclides has been well documented. However, there are no studies that determine natural and artificial radionuclide monitoring by lichens, in Iran. Thus, as a first step, we have conducted a comparison of (137)Csactivity concentration capacity of three epiphytic lichen species including Lepraria incana, Xanthoria parietina and Ramalina farinacea from Ramsar Northern Iran. In this work, accumulation capacity of (137)Cs was determined in 36 lichen samples using a gamma spectrometer equipped with a high purity germanium (HPGe) detector. The results showed that highest accumulation capacity of (137)Cs in the lichen species was found in Lepraria incana and Xanthoria parietina, 30.2, 9.8 Bq/kg respectively, and lowest average accumulation capacity were found in Ramalina farinacea 2.7 Bq/kg (dry weight). This study showed that activity concentration (137)Cs is in crustose > foliose > fruticose lichens in the same biotope. Thus, crustose lichens are capable to accumulate higher (137)Cs than foliose and fruticose species because of different factors such as special morphological characteristics in these species and large surface/volume ratio or longer biological half-life of (137)Cs in lichen Lepraria incana. Therefore, Lepraria incana due to high concentration capability of (137)Cs (approximately 3 and 11 time higher than Xanthoria parietina and Ramalina farinacea, respectively), is introduced as biomonitor of Cesium-137 from Ramsar, North of Iran. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The multi-element content of the lichen Parmelia sulcata, soil, and oak bark in relation to acidification and climate.

    PubMed

    Purvis, O W; Dubbin, W; Chimonides, P D J; Jones, G C; Read, H

    2008-02-15

    Understanding how biodiversity is influenced by changing atmospheric conditions is important for conservation, public policy and environmental health. In a recent study, an impact on two of the most abundant lichens in Europe (Parmelia sulcata and Hypogymnia physodes) was recorded at Burnham Beeches lying 40 km west of London (UK) during unusual atmospheric conditions whilst other species remained unaffected. Bark and soil chemistry also influence lichen vitality and community composition. Correlations between element concentrations and element ratios in different samples help understand element cycling. To study this further, the multi-element content of the lichen P. sulcata and bark sampled in 2000 from 16 oak (Quercus robur) trees at Burnham Beeches was compared with the same elements determined in 24 surface soils sampled in 2005 from beneath the same trees. Soil pH ranged from 4.1 to 6.7. Highly significant correlations (p<0.001) for Mn/Ca ratios in lichen versus bark, soil versus bark and soil versus lichen samples confirmed cycling via the soil-tree-lichen system. Similar Mn/Ca ratios were reported in coniferous forests where high Mn concentrations were shown to limit epiphytic lichen abundance. Soil acidification influences element bioavailability and bark chemistry in Burnham Beeches with implications for lichen diversity and health. Recovery was recorded in P. sulcata, including regeneration within monitoring quadrats. Biological systems are well known to be influenced by pollution episodes.

  5. A New Species of Graphis and New Lichen Records from Vietnam, Including a Second Worldwide Report of Sarcographina cyclospora

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Santosh; Jayalal, Udeni; Oh, Soon-Ok; Nguyen, Thi Thuy; Dzung, Nguyen Anh

    2014-01-01

    Graphis upretii is a new lichen species discovered in Vietnam. The species is characterized by a loosely corticate, rough, whitish grey to greyish green thallus, elongate and irregularly branched lirellae with an apically thin complete thalline margin (negrosina morph), laterally carbonized, entire proper exciple, clear hymenium, hyaline, 16~20 transversely locular ascospores, and about 50~95 × 10~15 µm in size. In addition, members of the taxon produce norstictic and stictic acids. Currently, the lichen flora of Vietnam include Arthonia radiata, Brigantiaea tricolor, Coenogonium implexum, Dirina paradoxa, Herpothallon sipmanii, Pertusaria pertusa, and Sarcographina cyclospora. PMID:24808729

  6. Lichen communities and species indicate climate thresholds in southeast and south-central Alaska, USA

    Treesearch

    Heather T. Root; Bruce. McCune; Sarah. Jovan

    2014-01-01

    Because of their unique physiology, lichen communities are highly sensitive to climatic conditions,making them ideal bioindicators for climate change. Southeast and south-central Alaska host diverse and abundant lichen communities and are faced with a more rapidly changing climate than many more southerly latitudes. We develop sensitive lichen-based indicators for...

  7. Lichen elemental composition distinguishes anthropogenic emissions from dust storm inputs and differs among species: Evidence from Xilinhot, Inner Mongolia, China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hua-Jie; Fang, Shi-Bo; Liu, Si-Wa; Zhao, Liang-Cheng; Guo, Xiu-Ping; Jiang, Yun-Jun; Hu, Jian-Sen; Liu, Xiao-Di; Xia, Yu; Wang, Yi-Dan; Wu, Qing-Feng

    2016-01-01

    To test the applicability of lichens in the biomonitoring of atmospheric elemental deposition in a typical steppe zone of Inner Mongolia, China, six foliose lichens (Physcia aipolia, PA; P. tribacia, PT; Xanthoria elegans, XE; X. mandschurica, XM; Xanthoparmelia camtschadalis, XPC; and Xp. tinctina, XPT) were sampled from the Xilin River Basin, Xilinhot, Inner Mongolia, China. Twenty-five elements (Al, Ba, Cd, Ce, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, K, La, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, P, Pb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Tb, Th, Ti, Tl, V and Zn) in the lichens were analysed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The results show that Cd, Pb and Zn were mainly atmospheric in origin, whereas the other elements were predominantly of crustal origin. Compared with other studies, our data were higher in crustal element concentrations and lower in atmospheric element concentrations, matching with the frequent, severe dust storms and road traffic in the area. The elemental concentrations in lichens are both species- and element-specific, highlighting the importance of species selection for biomonitoring air pollution using lichens. We recommend PT, XE, XM and XPT for monitoring atmospheric deposition of crustal elements; XPC and XPT for Cd and Pb; PA for Cd and Zn; and PT for Cd. PMID:27698382

  8. Lichen elemental composition distinguishes anthropogenic emissions from dust storm inputs and differs among species: Evidence from Xilinhot, Inner Mongolia, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hua-Jie; Fang, Shi-Bo; Liu, Si-Wa; Zhao, Liang-Cheng; Guo, Xiu-Ping; Jiang, Yun-Jun; Hu, Jian-Sen; Liu, Xiao-Di; Xia, Yu; Wang, Yi-Dan; Wu, Qing-Feng

    2016-10-01

    To test the applicability of lichens in the biomonitoring of atmospheric elemental deposition in a typical steppe zone of Inner Mongolia, China, six foliose lichens (Physcia aipolia, PA; P. tribacia, PT; Xanthoria elegans, XE; X. mandschurica, XM; Xanthoparmelia camtschadalis, XPC; and Xp. tinctina, XPT) were sampled from the Xilin River Basin, Xilinhot, Inner Mongolia, China. Twenty-five elements (Al, Ba, Cd, Ce, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, K, La, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, P, Pb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Tb, Th, Ti, Tl, V and Zn) in the lichens were analysed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The results show that Cd, Pb and Zn were mainly atmospheric in origin, whereas the other elements were predominantly of crustal origin. Compared with other studies, our data were higher in crustal element concentrations and lower in atmospheric element concentrations, matching with the frequent, severe dust storms and road traffic in the area. The elemental concentrations in lichens are both species- and element-specific, highlighting the importance of species selection for biomonitoring air pollution using lichens. We recommend PT, XE, XM and XPT for monitoring atmospheric deposition of crustal elements; XPC and XPT for Cd and Pb; PA for Cd and Zn; and PT for Cd.

  9. Specific Vicariance of Two Primeval Lowland Forest Lichen Indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubiak, Dariusz; Osyczka, Piotr

    2017-06-01

    To date, the lichens Chrysothrix candelaris and Varicellaria hemisphaerica have been classified as accurate primeval lowland forest indicators. Both inhabit particularly valuable remnants of oak-hornbeam forests in Europe, but tend toward a specific kind of vicariance on a local scale. The present study was undertaken to determine habitat factors responsible for this phenomenon and verify the indicative and conservation value of these lichens. The main spatial and climatic parameters that, along with forest structure, potentially affect their distribution patterns and abundance were analysed in four complexes with typical oak-hornbeam stands in NE Poland. Fifty plots of 400 m2 each were chosen for detailed examination of stand structure and epiphytic lichens directly associated with the indicators. The study showed that the localities of the two species barely overlap within the same forest community in a relatively small geographical area. The occurrence of Chrysothrix candelaris depends basically only on microhabitat space provided by old oaks and its role as an indicator of the ecological continuity of habitat is limited. Varicellaria hemisphaerica is not tree specific but a sufficiently high moisture of habitat is essential for the species and it requires forests with high proportion of deciduous trees in a wide landscape scale. Local landscape-level habitat continuity is more important for this species than the current age of forest stand. Regardless of the indicative value, localities of both lichens within oak-hornbeam forests deserve the special protection status since they form unique assemblages of exclusive epiphytes, including those with high conservation value.

  10. Specific Vicariance of Two Primeval Lowland Forest Lichen Indicators.

    PubMed

    Kubiak, Dariusz; Osyczka, Piotr

    2017-06-01

    To date, the lichens Chrysothrix candelaris and Varicellaria hemisphaerica have been classified as accurate primeval lowland forest indicators. Both inhabit particularly valuable remnants of oak-hornbeam forests in Europe, but tend toward a specific kind of vicariance on a local scale. The present study was undertaken to determine habitat factors responsible for this phenomenon and verify the indicative and conservation value of these lichens. The main spatial and climatic parameters that, along with forest structure, potentially affect their distribution patterns and abundance were analysed in four complexes with typical oak-hornbeam stands in NE Poland. Fifty plots of 400 m(2) each were chosen for detailed examination of stand structure and epiphytic lichens directly associated with the indicators. The study showed that the localities of the two species barely overlap within the same forest community in a relatively small geographical area. The occurrence of Chrysothrix candelaris depends basically only on microhabitat space provided by old oaks and its role as an indicator of the ecological continuity of habitat is limited. Varicellaria hemisphaerica is not tree specific but a sufficiently high moisture of habitat is essential for the species and it requires forests with high proportion of deciduous trees in a wide landscape scale. Local landscape-level habitat continuity is more important for this species than the current age of forest stand. Regardless of the indicative value, localities of both lichens within oak-hornbeam forests deserve the special protection status since they form unique assemblages of exclusive epiphytes, including those with high conservation value.

  11. Lichen recolonisation in an urban-industrial area of southern Poland as a result of air quality improvement.

    PubMed

    Lisowska, Maja

    2011-08-01

    Dynamics of epiphytic lichen distribution and diversity in the town of Skawina, one of the major industrial centres of southern Poland, over the last 30 years, was documented in relation to air quality changes. Fieldwork was conducted in 2006-2007. A total of 34 species were recorded at 202 sites, which is similar to the historical data, however, significant qualitative changes occurred. Nitrogen- and dust-tolerant species have expanded and dominate, while some acidophytes, such as Lecanora conizaeoides, are in decline. Lichens have recolonised the former 'lichen desert' in the town centre. Species richness at study sites has increased; and an improvement in the health of lichen thalli was noted. These trends reflect air quality improvement, mainly SO(2) decline in the last few decades and transport-related compounds, mainly NO(x) and dust that have became the main pollutants. Host tree species and diameter diversity also contribute significantly to lichen species diversity in the study area. The recolonisation process seems far from complete and further changes in the lichen distribution and diversity in the study area are expected.

  12. Influence of lichen species on colonization of Fagus grandifolia by Cryptococcus fagisuga: preliminary observations from certain Nova Scotian forests

    Treesearch

    David R. Houston

    1983-01-01

    Some crustose lichens that colonize the stems of beech trees favor infestation by C. fagisuga, while others do not favor infestation. A predominance of species unsuited for infestation appears to be a reason why trees growing on some sites in Nova Scotia are remarkably free of beech bark disease.

  13. Forests Regenerating after Clear-Cutting Function as Habitat for Bryophyte and Lichen Species of Conservation Concern

    PubMed Central

    Rudolphi, Jörgen; Gustafsson, Lena

    2011-01-01

    The majority of managed forests in Fennoscandia are younger than 70 years old but yet little is known about their potential to host rare and threatened species. In this study, we examined red-listed bryophytes and lichens in 19 young stands originating from clear-cutting (30–70 years old) in the boreal region, finding 19 red-listed species (six bryophytes and 13 lichens). We used adjoining old stands, which most likely never had been clear-cut, as reference. The old stands contained significantly more species, but when taking the amount of biological legacies (i.e., remaining deciduous trees and dead wood) from the previous forest generation into account, bryophyte species number did not differ between old and young stands, and lichen number was even higher in young stands. No dispersal effect could be detected from the old to the young stands. The amount of wetlands in the surroundings was important for bryophytes, as was the area of old forest for both lichens and bryophytes. A cardinal position of young stands to the north of old stands was beneficial to red-listed bryophytes as well as lichens. We conclude that young forest plantations may function as habitat for red-listed species, but that this depends on presence of structures from the previous forest generation, and also on qualities in the surrounding landscape. Nevertheless, at repeated clear-cuttings, a successive decrease in species populations in young production stands is likely, due to increased fragmentation and reduced substrate amounts. Retention of dead wood and deciduous trees might be efficient conservation measures. Although priority needs to be given to preservation of remnant old-growth forests, we argue that young forests rich in biological legacies and located in landscapes with high amounts of old forests may have a conservation value. PMID:21490926

  14. Forests regenerating after clear-cutting function as habitat for bryophyte and lichen species of conservation concern.

    PubMed

    Rudolphi, Jörgen; Gustafsson, Lena

    2011-04-07

    The majority of managed forests in Fennoscandia are younger than 70 years old but yet little is known about their potential to host rare and threatened species. In this study, we examined red-listed bryophytes and lichens in 19 young stands originating from clear-cutting (30-70 years old) in the boreal region, finding 19 red-listed species (six bryophytes and 13 lichens). We used adjoining old stands, which most likely never had been clear-cut, as reference. The old stands contained significantly more species, but when taking the amount of biological legacies (i.e., remaining deciduous trees and dead wood) from the previous forest generation into account, bryophyte species number did not differ between old and young stands, and lichen number was even higher in young stands. No dispersal effect could be detected from the old to the young stands. The amount of wetlands in the surroundings was important for bryophytes, as was the area of old forest for both lichens and bryophytes. A cardinal position of young stands to the north of old stands was beneficial to red-listed bryophytes as well as lichens. We conclude that young forest plantations may function as habitat for red-listed species, but that this depends on presence of structures from the previous forest generation, and also on qualities in the surrounding landscape. Nevertheless, at repeated clear-cuttings, a successive decrease in species populations in young production stands is likely, due to increased fragmentation and reduced substrate amounts. Retention of dead wood and deciduous trees might be efficient conservation measures. Although priority needs to be given to preservation of remnant old-growth forests, we argue that young forests rich in biological legacies and located in landscapes with high amounts of old forests may have a conservation value.

  15. Physiological and genetic effects of chromium (+VI) on toxitolerant lichen species, Pyxine cocoes.

    PubMed

    Bajpai, Rajesh; Shukla, Vertika; Singh, Niraj; Rana, T S; Upreti, D K

    2015-03-01

    Chromium is a highly toxic non-essential metal, which causes a variety of metabolic activities in plants. Pyxine cocoes a well known toxitolerant lichen species was considered to evaluate the possible physiological, biochemical, and genetic changes that occur due to chromium Cr (+VI) stress. The physiological (chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll, carotenoid, protein, and Fv/Fm) and genetic (ISSR-PCR and ITS) parameters were used to estimate the changes in P. cocoes. Different concentrations of Cr (+VI) (0, 10, 25, 50, 75, and 100 μM) for 10, 20, 30, and 45 days were employed on transplanted lichen species. The results revealed that the exposure of Cr (+VI) for 10, 20, 30, and 45 days under controlled conditions caused a significant decline in physiological processes with increasing metal stress. Amino acid profile at different concentrations on the 45th day too indicated prevailing stress condition as proline content significantly increased at 100 μM concentration. Inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) techniques were used to evaluate the genotoxicity induced by chromium stress. ISSR profiles showed a consistent increase in appearance and disappearance of bands with increasing concentration of the chromium. ISSR technique, therefore, is more sensitive and reproducible to study polymorphism induced by environmental stress. The present study revealed that the physiological and genetic changes induced by the Cr (+VI) can be used as a tool to study environmental stress and polymorphisms due to genotoxicity. To the best of our knowledge, application of ISSR-PCR and ITS sequences in toxitolerant species (P. cocoes) appears to be the maiden attempt to evaluate the genotoxicity.

  16. Diversity and community ecology of forest epiphyte testate amoebae from European Russia.

    PubMed

    Payne, Richard J; Belyakova, Olga; Mazei, Yuri

    2015-10-01

    Testate amoebae are an abundant group of microorganisms which make a significant contribution to the diversity of protist life. Most of the world's potential habitats for testate amoebae have been barely studied and when such places are investigated they frequently reveal novel communities and species. Here we consider the testate amoeba communities associated with boreal forest epiphytes (mosses and lichens); an environment which we argue has been under-researched. We present a dataset of 165 samples from four regions of western Russia and analyse these data in relation to micro-habitat position and selected environmental data. The testate amoebae of epiphytes are abundant but dominated by ubiquitous species. We show that there are trends toward a lower species richness and test concentration with greater elevation on the trunk and in lichens compared to mosses. There are considerable differences in community composition between sampling regions. Of all measured environmental variables only moisture content showed a significant relationship with testate amoeba community structure. Our data highlight how little is known about testate amoeba communities of this habitat and call for greater research efforts, particularly in less-studied regions and biomes.

  17. Chapter 7 - Climate effects on lichen indicators for nitrogen

    Treesearch

    Sarah Jovan

    2014-01-01

    The Lichen Communities Indicator is a sensitive indicator of forest health changes caused by air quality, climate change, and other stressors. To date, more than 8,000 epiphytic lichen surveys have been collected across the Nation by the Forest Inventory Analysis (FIA) and Forest Health Monitoring (FHM) Programs and their partners (table 7.1; Phelan and others 2012)....

  18. Lichen communities indicator results from Idaho: baseline sampling

    Treesearch

    Peter Neitlich; Paul Rogers; Roger Rosentreter

    2003-01-01

    Epiphytic lichen communities are included in the national Forest Health Monitoring (FHM) program because they help us assess resource contamination, biodiversity, and sustainability in the context of forest health. In 1996, field crews collected lichen samples on 141 field plots systematically located across all forest ownership groups in Idaho. Results presented here...

  19. Lichen habitat may be enhanced by thinning treatments

    Treesearch

    Heather T. Root; Bruce. McCune

    2013-01-01

    Epiphytic lichen communities have become a focus for ecologists concerned with forest health because lichens are particularly responsive to forest management and air quality. Furthermore, they can contribute substantially to the diversity and nitrogen fi xation of a stand, and play a valuable role in the food web of many forest-dwelling organisms. Can strategic...

  20. Biological effects of ammonia released from a composting plant assessed with lichens.

    PubMed

    Paoli, L; Benesperi, R; Proietti Pannunzi, D; Corsini, A; Loppi, Stefano

    2014-05-01

    In this study, we investigated whether ammonia emissions from industrial composting of organic waste may influence the surrounding environment, using lichens as bioindicators. To this purpose, samples of N-tolerant and N-sensitive lichens, namely Xanthoria parietina and Evernia prunastri, were transplanted for 1-3 months along transects at increasing distance (0-400 m) from a composting facility in Tuscany, Italy. Atmospheric concentrations of ammonia were measured using passive samplers. The physiological response of lichen transplants was investigated by means of the photosynthetic efficiency (measured as chlorophyll a fluorescence emission), the integrity of cell membranes (measured as electrolyte leakage), and sample viability (measured as enzymatic activity of dehydrogenase). Epiphytic lichen communities were investigated using biodiversity indices. The results showed decreasing concentrations of ammonia, from 48.7 μg/m(3) at the composting facility to 2.7 μg/m(3) at 400 m. The N-tolerant X. parietina was not affected and some physiological parameters even showed a higher performance, while the N-sensitive E. prunastri showed a reduced performance with increasing atmospheric concentrations approaching the source. A shift from lichen communities composed by meso-acidophilous species (actual condition) to more nitrophilous communities in the near future, approaching the composting facility is suggested. It is concluded that lichens can provide useful data for decision-makers to establish correct science-based environmentally sustainable waste management policies.

  1. Evaluation of lichen diversity as an indicator of environmental quality in the North Adriatic submediterranean region.

    PubMed

    Castello, Miris; Skert, Nicola

    2005-01-05

    In 2000, a standardized sampling protocol was developed by a group of European researchers to provide a repeatable and objective strategy for mapping lichen diversity as an indicator of environmental changes; this protocol is nowadays adopted in the guidelines to air quality bioindication in Italy. The present paper shows the results of a study of epiphytic lichen diversity performed according to both the new protocol and the standard methodology previously used in Italy; diversity values are based on frequency counts of all lichen species within particular sampling grids positioned on the trunks and divided in subunits. The survey was carried out in 61 sampling sites of two areas of the Friuli Venezia Giulia region (Italy) and Slovenia, characterized by similar climatic conditions and a wide range of anthropic pressure. Biodiversity values obtained following the two sampling methods are highly statistically correlated; this suggests an interpretative continuity of lichen diversity data for biomonitoring purposes. Lichen communities and diversity values occurring in natural areas, far from heavy human influences, are investigated by means of multivariate analysis of floristic releves of 11 sites. Diversity values scored in natural areas are rather variable, and are mainly influenced by the different vegetation types, Parmelion communities having lower diversity values than communities with Xanthorion elements. Evaluation scales of environmental alteration based on lichen diversity in the North Adriatic submediterranean bioclimatic area are provided. Some critical aspects of the sampling strategies are discussed.

  2. Changes in bryophyte and lichen communities on Scots pines along an alkaline dust pollution gradient.

    PubMed

    Degtjarenko, Polina; Marmor, Liis; Randlane, Tiina

    2016-09-01

    Dust pollution can cause a significant damage of environment and endanger human health. Our study aimed to investigate epiphytic lichens and bryophytes in relation to long-term alkaline dust pollution and provide new insights into the bioindicators of dust pollution. We measured the bark pH of Scots pines and the species richness and cover of two cryptogam groups in 32 sample plots in the vicinity of limestone quarries (up to ca. 3 km) in northern Estonia. The bark pH decreased gradually with increasing distance from quarries. We recorded the changes in natural epiphytic communities, resulting in diversified artificial communities on pines near the pollution source; the distance over 2 km from the quarries was sufficient to re-establish the normal acidity of the bark and natural communities of both lichens and bryophytes. The cover of lichens and the number of bryophytes are a more promising indicator of environmental conditions than individual species occurrence. We confirmed previously proposed and suggested new bioindicator species of dust pollution (e.g., Lecidella elaeochroma, Opegrapha varia, Schistidium apocarpum). Limestone quarrying activity revealed a "parapositive" impact on cryptogamic communities, meaning that quarrying might, besides disturbances of natural communities, temporarily contribute to the distribution of locally rare species.

  3. Lichens as bioindicators of air quality

    Treesearch

    K. Stolte; D. Mangis; R. Doty; K. Tonnessen; Laurie S.  Huckaby

    1993-01-01

    This report is the result of a workshop held in Denver, Colorado on April 9-11, 1991. It summarizes the current literature and techniques for using lichens to monitor air quality. Experts in lichenology and ecology contributed information on lichen floristics, characterization of monitoring sites, lichen species and communities, identifying lichen species...

  4. From one to six: unrecognized species diversity in the genus Acantholichen (lichenized Basidiomycota: Hygrophoraceae).

    PubMed

    Dal-Forno, Manuela; Lücking, Robert; Bungartz, Frank; Yánez-Ayabaca, Alba; Marcelli, Marcelo P; Spielmann, Adriano A; Coca, Luis Fernando; Chaves, José Luis; Aptroot, Andre; Sipman, Harrie J M; Sikaroodi, Masoumeh; Gillevet, Patrick; Lawrey, James D

    2016-01-01

    We present a taxonomic revision of the lichenized basidiomycete genus Acantholichen, species of which produce a characteristic blue-gray, microsquamulose thallus with spiny apical hyphal cells known as acanthohyphidia. Since its discovery, the genus was thought to be monospecific, only including the generic type, A. pannarioides. However, a detailed morphological and anatomical study of recently collected specimens from the Galápagos, Costa Rica, Brazil and Colombia, combined with a molecular phylogenetic analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2) region and 28S of the nuc rDNA and RPB2 sequences, revealed a much more diverse and widespread species assemblage. Based on the results of these analyses, we describe five new species in the genus: A. albomarginatus, A. campestris, A. galapagoensis, A. sorediatus and A. variabilis. We also provide an identification key to all species, anatomical and morphological descriptions, photographs and a table comparing main characters of each species. © 2016 by The Mycological Society of America.

  5. Origin and distribution of rare earth elements in various lichen and moss species over the last century in France.

    PubMed

    Agnan, Y; Séjalon-Delmas, N; Probst, A

    2014-07-15

    Rare earth elements (REE) are known to be powerful environmental tracers in natural biogeochemical compartments. In this study, the atmospheric deposition of REE was investigated using various lichens and mosses as well as herbarium samples from 1870 to 1998 from six major forested areas in France. The comparison between the REE distribution patterns in organisms and bedrocks showed a regional uniformity influence from dust particles originating from the bedrock and/or soil weathering that were entrapped by lichens and mosses. These lithological signatures were consistent over the last century. The REE patterns of different organism species allowed minor influence of the species to be highlighted compared to the regional lithology. This was even true where the morphological features played a role in the bioaccumulation levels, which were related to the variable efficiency in trapping atmospheric dust particles. A comparison between REE profiles in the organisms and bark indicated a lack of influence of the substrate on lichen REE content. Lichens and mosses appear to be robust passive monitors of REE atmospheric deposition over decades because the mineral data was preserved in herbarium samples despite organic degradation being shown by carbon isotopes and SEM observations. To overcome the bias of REE concentration that resulted from organic degradation, the use of a normalized method is recommended to interpret the historical samples.

  6. Genotype variation in bark texture drives lichen community assembly across multiple environments.

    PubMed

    Lamit, L J; Lau, M K; Naesborg, R Reese; Wojtowicz, T; Whitham, T G; Gehring, C A

    2015-04-01

    A major goal of community genetics is to understand the influence of genetic variation within a species on ecological communities. Although well-documented for some organisms, additional research is necessary to understand the relative and interactive effects of genotype and environment on biodiversity, identify mechanisms through which tree genotype influences communities, and connect this emerging field with existing themes in ecology. We employ an underutilized but ecologically significant group of organisms, epiphytic bark lichens, to understand the relative importance of Populus angustifolia (narrowleaf cottonwood) genotype and environment on associated organisms within the context of community assembly and host ontogeny. Several key findings emerged. (1) In a single common garden, tree genotype explained 18-33% and 51% of the variation in lichen community variables and rough bark cover, respectively. (2) Across replicated common gardens, tree genotype affected lichen species richness, total lichen cover, lichen species composition, and rough bark cover, whereas environment only influenced composition and there were no genotype by environment interactions. (3) Rough bark cover was positively correlated with total lichen cover and richness, and was associated with a shift in species composition; these patterns occurred with variation in rough bark cover among tree genotypes of the same age in common gardens and with increasing rough bark cover along a -40 year tree age gradient in a natural riparian stand. (4) In a common garden, 20-year-old parent trees with smooth bark had poorly developed lichen communities, similar to their 10-year-old ramets (root suckers) growing in close proximity, while parent trees with high rough bark cover had more developed communities than their ramets. These findings indicate that epiphytic lichens are influenced by host genotype, an effect that is robust across divergent environments. Furthermore, the response to tree genotype is

  7. Functional Diversity of Photosynthetic Light Use of 16 Vascular Epiphyte Species Under Fluctuating Irradiance in the Canopy of a Giant Virola michelii (Myristicaceae) Tree in the Tropical Lowland Forest of French Guyana

    PubMed Central

    Rascher, Uwe; Freiberg, Martin; Lüttge, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    Here we present the first study, in which a large number of different vascular epiphyte species were measured for their photosynthetic performance in the natural environment of their phorophyte in the lowland rainforest of French Guyana. More than 70 epiphyte species covered the host tree in a dense cover. Of these, the photosynthesis of 16 abundant species was analyzed intensely over several months. Moreover, the light environment was characterized with newly developed light sensors that recorded continuously and with high temporal resolution light intensity next to the epiphytes. Light intensity was highly fluctuating and showed great site specific spatio-temporal variations of photosynthetic photon flux. Using a novel computer routine we quantified the integrated light intensity the epiphytes were exposed to in a 3 h window and we related this light intensity to measurements of the actual photosynthetic status. It could be shown that the photosynthetic apparatus of the epiphytes was well adapted to the quickly changing light conditions. Some of the epiphytes were chronically photoinhibited at predawn and significant acute photoinhibition, expressed by a reduction of potential quantum efficiency (Fv/Fm)30′, was observed during the day. By correlating (Fv/Fm)30′ to the integrated and weighted light intensity perceived during the previous 3 h, it became clear that acute photoinhibition was related to light environment prior to the measurements. Additionally photosynthetic performance was not determined by rain events, with the exception of an Aechmea species. This holds true for all the other 15 species of this study and we thus conclude that actual photosynthesis of these tropical epiphytes was determined by the specific and fluctuating light conditions of their microhabitat and cannot be simply attributed to light-adapted ancestors. PMID:22629271

  8. Functional Diversity of Photosynthetic Light Use of 16 Vascular Epiphyte Species Under Fluctuating Irradiance in the Canopy of a Giant Virola michelii (Myristicaceae) Tree in the Tropical Lowland Forest of French Guyana.

    PubMed

    Rascher, Uwe; Freiberg, Martin; Lüttge, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    Here we present the first study, in which a large number of different vascular epiphyte species were measured for their photosynthetic performance in the natural environment of their phorophyte in the lowland rainforest of French Guyana. More than 70 epiphyte species covered the host tree in a dense cover. Of these, the photosynthesis of 16 abundant species was analyzed intensely over several months. Moreover, the light environment was characterized with newly developed light sensors that recorded continuously and with high temporal resolution light intensity next to the epiphytes. Light intensity was highly fluctuating and showed great site specific spatio-temporal variations of photosynthetic photon flux. Using a novel computer routine we quantified the integrated light intensity the epiphytes were exposed to in a 3 h window and we related this light intensity to measurements of the actual photosynthetic status. It could be shown that the photosynthetic apparatus of the epiphytes was well adapted to the quickly changing light conditions. Some of the epiphytes were chronically photoinhibited at predawn and significant acute photoinhibition, expressed by a reduction of potential quantum efficiency (F(v)/F(m))(30'), was observed during the day. By correlating (F(v)/F(m))(30') to the integrated and weighted light intensity perceived during the previous 3 h, it became clear that acute photoinhibition was related to light environment prior to the measurements. Additionally photosynthetic performance was not determined by rain events, with the exception of an Aechmea species. This holds true for all the other 15 species of this study and we thus conclude that actual photosynthesis of these tropical epiphytes was determined by the specific and fluctuating light conditions of their microhabitat and cannot be simply attributed to light-adapted ancestors.

  9. Lichen planus

    MedlinePlus

    ... May develop blisters or ulcers Other symptoms of lichen planus are: Dry mouth Hair loss Metallic taste in the mouth Ridges ... on the arm Lichen planus on the hands Lichen planus on the oral mucosa Lichen striatus - close-up Lichen striatus on ...

  10. Lichen Specific Thallus Mass and Secondary Compounds Change across a Retrogressive Fire-Driven Chronosequence

    PubMed Central

    Asplund, Johan; Sandling, Aron; Wardle, David A.

    2012-01-01

    In the long-term absence of major disturbances ecosystems enter a state of retrogression, which involves declining soil fertility and consequently a reduction in decomposition rates. Recent studies have looked at how plant traits such as specific leaf mass and amounts of secondary compounds respond to declining soil fertility during retrogression, but there are no comparable studies for lichen traits despite increasing recognition of the role that lichens can play in ecosystem processes. We studied a group of 30 forested islands in northern Sweden differing greatly in fire history, and collectively representing a retrogressive chronosequence, spanning 5000 years. We used this system to explore how specific thallus mass (STM) and carbon based secondary compounds (CBSCs) change in three common epiphytic lichen species (Hypogymnia phsyodes, Melanohalea olivacea and Parmelia sulcata) as soil fertility declines during this retrogression. We found that STMs of lichens increased sharply during retrogression, and for all species soil N to P ratio (which increased during retrogression) was a strong predictor of STM. When expressed per unit area, medullary CBSCs in all species and cortical CBSCs in P. sulcata increased during retrogression. Meanwhile, when expressed per unit mass, only cortical CBSCs in H. physodes responded to retrogression, and in the opposite direction. Given that lichen functional traits are likely to be important in driving ecological processes that drive nutrient and carbon cycling in the way that plant functional traits are, the changes that they undergo during retrogression could potentially be significant for the functioning of the ecosystem. PMID:23145078

  11. Lichen specific thallus mass and secondary compounds change across a retrogressive fire-driven chronosequence.

    PubMed

    Asplund, Johan; Sandling, Aron; Wardle, David A

    2012-01-01

    In the long-term absence of major disturbances ecosystems enter a state of retrogression, which involves declining soil fertility and consequently a reduction in decomposition rates. Recent studies have looked at how plant traits such as specific leaf mass and amounts of secondary compounds respond to declining soil fertility during retrogression, but there are no comparable studies for lichen traits despite increasing recognition of the role that lichens can play in ecosystem processes. We studied a group of 30 forested islands in northern Sweden differing greatly in fire history, and collectively representing a retrogressive chronosequence, spanning 5000 years. We used this system to explore how specific thallus mass (STM) and carbon based secondary compounds (CBSCs) change in three common epiphytic lichen species (Hypogymnia phsyodes, Melanohalea olivacea and Parmelia sulcata) as soil fertility declines during this retrogression. We found that STMs of lichens increased sharply during retrogression, and for all species soil N to P ratio (which increased during retrogression) was a strong predictor of STM. When expressed per unit area, medullary CBSCs in all species and cortical CBSCs in P. sulcata increased during retrogression. Meanwhile, when expressed per unit mass, only cortical CBSCs in H. physodes responded to retrogression, and in the opposite direction. Given that lichen functional traits are likely to be important in driving ecological processes that drive nutrient and carbon cycling in the way that plant functional traits are, the changes that they undergo during retrogression could potentially be significant for the functioning of the ecosystem.

  12. Bacterial diversity across individual lichens.

    PubMed

    Mushegian, Alexandra A; Peterson, Celeste N; Baker, Christopher C M; Pringle, Anne

    2011-06-01

    Symbioses are unique habitats for bacteria. We surveyed the spatial diversity of bacterial communities across multiple individuals of closely related lichens using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and pyrosequencing. Centers of lichens house richer, more consistent assemblages than species-poor and compositionally disparate lichen edges, suggesting that ecological succession plays a role in structuring these communities.

  13. Development of threshold values for a seagrass epiphyte ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Epiphytes on seagrasses have been studied for more than 50 years, and proposed as an indicator of anthropogenic nutrient enrichment for over 30 years. Epiphytes have been correlated with seagrass declines, causally related to nutrient additions in both field and mesocosm experiments, and have quantifiable impacts on light available to host plants. An extensive review of seagrass epiphyte literature was conducted to determine whether seagrass epiphyte metrics can be used as a biological indicator for nutrient impacts. While a wide variety of epiphyte metrics have been used by authors, epiphyte biomass as biomass per unit seagrass biomass may be the most effective epiphyte indicator. Regression analyses of epiphyte versus seagrass response metrics were used to estimate values representing potential thresholds for environmental concern. Median epiphyte loads associated with 25 and 50% reduction in seagrass biomass, density and productivity are proposed as potential thresholds. Location-specific modifying factors (grazing pressure, seagrass species) that cause variation in response patterns are the greatest challenge to regional scale applicability of threshold values. An extensive review of seagrass epiphyte literature was conducted to determine whether, and under what conditions, seagrass epiphyte metrics could be used as a potential indicator for nutrient impacts in estuarine ecosystems. Location-specific modifying factors (grazing pressure, seagrass speci

  14. Development of threshold values for a seagrass epiphyte ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Epiphytes on seagrasses have been studied for more than 50 years, and proposed as an indicator of anthropogenic nutrient enrichment for over 30 years. Epiphytes have been correlated with seagrass declines, causally related to nutrient additions in both field and mesocosm experiments, and have quantifiable impacts on light available to host plants. An extensive review of seagrass epiphyte literature was conducted to determine whether seagrass epiphyte metrics can be used as a biological indicator for nutrient impacts. While a wide variety of epiphyte metrics have been used by authors, epiphyte biomass as biomass per unit seagrass biomass may be the most effective epiphyte indicator. Regression analyses of epiphyte versus seagrass response metrics were used to estimate values representing potential thresholds for environmental concern. Median epiphyte loads associated with 25 and 50% reduction in seagrass biomass, density and productivity are proposed as potential thresholds. Location-specific modifying factors (grazing pressure, seagrass species) that cause variation in response patterns are the greatest challenge to regional scale applicability of threshold values. An extensive review of seagrass epiphyte literature was conducted to determine whether, and under what conditions, seagrass epiphyte metrics could be used as a potential indicator for nutrient impacts in estuarine ecosystems. Location-specific modifying factors (grazing pressure, seagrass speci

  15. Who's getting around? Assessing species diversity and phylogeography in the widely distributed lichen-forming fungal genus Montanelia (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota).

    PubMed

    Leavitt, Steven D; Divakar, Pradeep K; Ohmura, Yoshihito; Wang, Li-Song; Esslinger, Theodore L; Lumbsch, H Thorsten

    2015-09-01

    Brown parmelioid lichens comprise a number of distinct genera in one of the most species-rich families of lichen-forming fungi, Parmeliaceae (Ascomycota). In spite of their superficial similarity, a number of studies of brown parmelioids have provided important insight into diversification in lichen-forming fungi with cosmopolitan distributions. In this study we assess species diversity, biogeography and diversification of the genus Montanelia, which includes alpine to temperate saxicolous species. We sampled each of the five known species, four of which are known from broad, intercontinental distributions. In order to identify potential biogeographical patterns, each broadly distributed species was represented by individuals collected across their intercontinental distributions. Molecular sequence data were generated for six loci, including three nuclear protein-coding markers (MCM7, RPB1, and RPB2), two nuclear ribosomal markers (ITS and nrLSU), and a fragment of the mitochondrial small subunit. We used three sequence-based species delimitations methods to validate traditional, phenotype-based species and circumscribe previously unrecognized species-level lineages in Montanelia. Relationships among putative lineages and divergence times were estimated within a coalescent-based multi-locus species tree framework. Based on the results of the species delimitation analyses, we propose that the genus Montanelia is likely comprised of six to nine species-level lineages, including previously unrecognized species-level diversity in the nominal taxa M. panniformis and M. tominii. In contrast, molecular sequence data suggest that M. predisjuncta may be conspecific with the widespread taxon M. disjuncta in spite of distinct morphological differences. The rate-based age estimation of the most recent common ancestor of Montanelia (ca. 23.1Ma) was similar to previous estimates based on the fossil record. Furthermore, our data suggest that diversification in Montanelia occurred

  16. Phenotypic variability and therapeutic implications of Candida species in patients with oral lichen planus.

    PubMed

    Arora, S; Verma, M; Gupta, S R; Urs, A B; Dhakad, M S; Kaur, R

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the prevalence and phenotypic variation of Candida species in oral lichen planus (OLP) and the therapeutic implications of our findings. Eighty patients with clinically and histopathologically confirmed cases of OLP (64 non-erosive, 16 erosive) and a control group of 80 healthy individuals with no predisposing factors for oral candidiasis were examined for evidence of Candida infection. Oral swabs and smears were obtained for cytology and culture. Identification, speciation and antifungal susceptibility tests of Candida isolates were performed using an automated microbial identification system. Fifty percent of erosive OLP cases, 28% of non-erosive cases and none of the controls showed evidence of Candida. Candida albicans was found predominantly in non-erosive OLP, while other Candida species were predominate in erosive OLP. Non-Candida albicans isolates (C. glabrata, C. krusei) were resistant to the commonly used antifungals, clotrimazole and fluconazole. Candida infection is common in cases of OLP. We recommend antifungal sensitivity testing prior to antifungal therapy for the erosive form of OLP.

  17. Foliar trichomes, boundary layers, and gas exchange in 12 species of epiphytic Tillandsia (Bromeliaceae).

    PubMed

    Benz, Brett W; Martin, Craig E

    2006-04-01

    We examined the relationships between H2O and CO2 gas exchange parameters and leaf trichome cover in 12 species of Tillandsia that exhibit a wide range in trichome size and trichome cover. Previous investigations have hypothesized that trichomes function to enhance boundary layers around Tillandsioid leaves thereby buffering the evaporative demand of the atmosphere and retarding transpirational water loss. Data presented herein suggest that trichome-enhanced boundary layers have negligible effects on Tillandsia gas exchange, as indicated by the lack of statistically significant relationships in regression analyses of gas exchange parameters and trichome cover. We calculated trichome and leaf boundary layer components, and their associated effects on H2O and CO2 gas exchange. The results further indicate trichome-enhanced boundary layers do not significantly reduce transpirational water loss. We conclude that although the trichomes undoubtedly increase the thickness of the boundary layer, the increase due to Tillandsioid trichomes is inconsequential in terms of whole leaf boundary layers, and any associated reduction in transpirational water loss is also negligible within the whole plant gas exchange pathway.

  18. A species on a tightrope: Establishment limitations of an endangered lichen in a fragmented Mediterranean landscape.

    PubMed

    Cardós, Juan Luis H; Aragón, Gregorio; Martínez, Isabel

    2017-04-01

    Habitat loss and forest fragmentation affect the dispersal and establishment of species. Furthermore, populations growing far from the species' optimal climate might be less viable because good-quality habitat can be scarce and easily altered by smaller changes. The lichen Pectenia plumbea has oceanic climatic requirements, so in the Mediterranean region it needs the humidity provided by well-preserved forests to thrive, but most of this habitat has disappeared and the remnants are fragmented. In central Spain, this species occupies only a small proportion of the existing forests, so we aimed to determine whether this scattered distribution is due to limitations on dispersal or establishment. We selected a Mediterranean fragmented forest surface in central Spain and extracted environmental variables from 371 plots. We modeled the presence and abundance of P. plumbea and developed species distribution models (SDMs) to detect all the suitable habitats inside the Cabañeros National Park area. Pectenia plumbea was present in most of the habitats predicted as good-quality and was generally absent from the poor-quality zones (85.9% overall success). The abundance correlated fairly well with that predicted by the SDM (67%). Both models show that P. plumbea is linked to high temperature and precipitation. Good-quality habitat requirements for P. plumbea that are similar to oceanic conditions are found only in specific forested, stony slopes derived from historical land management. This habitat is scarce, but P. plumbea has successfully tracked all of these scattered areas via its high dispersal capacity. © 2017 Botanical Society of America.

  19. Sunscreening fungal pigments influence the vertical gradient of pendulous lichens in boreal forest canopies.

    PubMed

    Färber, Leonie; Sølhaug, Knut Asbjorn; Esseen, Per-Anders; Bilger, Wolfgang; Gauslaa, Yngvar

    2014-06-01

    Pendulous lichens dominate canopies of boreal forests, with dark Bryoria species in the upper canopy vs. light Alectoria and Usnea species in lower canopy. These genera offer important ecosystem services such as winter forage for reindeer and caribou. The mechanism behind this niche separation is poorly understood. We tested the hypothesis that species-specific sunscreening fungal pigments protect underlying symbiotic algae differently against high light, and thus shape the vertical canopy gradient of epiphytes. Three pale species with the reflecting pigment usnic acid (Alectoria sarmentosa, Usnea dasypoga, U. longissima) and three with dark, absorbing melanins (Bryoria capillaris, B. fremontii, B. fuscescens) were compared. We subjected the lichens to desiccation stress with and without light, and assessed their performance with chlorophyll fluorescence. Desiccation alone only affected U. longissima. By contrast, light in combination with desiccation caused photoinhibitory damage in all species. Usnic lichens were significantly more susceptible to light during desiccation than melanic ones. Thus, melanin is a more efficient light-screening pigment than usnic acid. Thereby, the vertical gradient of pendulous lichens in forest canopies is consistent with a shift in type and functioning of sunscreening pigments, from high-light-tolerant Bryoria in the upper to susceptible Alectoria and Usnea in the lower canopy.

  20. Distribution and community composition of lichens on mature mangroves (Avicennia marina subsp. australasica (Walp.) J.Everett) in New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Christy L.; Er, Orhan A. H.; Winder, Linton

    2017-01-01

    Mangrove forests of a single trees species, Avicennia marina subsp. australasica are widespread in the upper North Island of New Zealand, but there is little available information on the diversity of epiphytes such as lichens within them. A survey of 200 trees from 20 mangrove sites recorded a total of 106 lichen species from 45 genera. Two of these species are considered to be ‘Threatened’, five ‘At Risk’ and 27 ‘Data Deficient’. Multiple regression indicated that tree diameter (DBH) and mean annual rain days positively influenced site species richness. Multidimensional scaling showed that sites from the same geographical region generally formed distinct clusters. Redundancy analysis indicated that mean annual wet days, latitude and DBH measurably influenced species composition. PMID:28666019

  1. Study on accumulation ability of two lichen species Hypogymnia physodes and Usnea hirta at iron-steel factory site, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Cansaran-Duman, Demet

    2011-11-01

    The use of biological responses to contaminant exposure by lichen species has become a useful tool in environmental quality evaluation and risk assesment. Lichen Hypogymnia physodes and Usnea hirta samples were collected in 2006 from 10 sites around iron-steel factory in Karabük, Turkey. H. physodes and U. hirta samples from Yenice forest were used as a control. The aim of present study was to evaluate the bioaccumulation ability and to determine the environmental impact of an iron-steel factory in Karabük. Seven elements (Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe, Pb, Ni, Cr and Cd) were analysed by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). The analytical results were compared statistically by using SPSS. As expected, the study area (Yenice forest, Karabük) chosen as control site (site no 11) showed significantly lower impact in comparison to other site (site no 1-10). Compared with the two lichen species, H. physodes showed highest metal accumulating capacity while U. hirta showed lowest. These criteria attested the best suitability for H. physodes, followed by U. hirta.

  2. [Phorophyte specificity and microenvironmental preferences of corticolous lichens in five phorophyte species from premontane forest of Finca Zíngara, Cali, Colombia)].

    PubMed

    Medina, Edier Soto; Lücking, Robert; Rojas, Ana Bolañios

    2012-06-01

    Lichenized fungi or lichens are organisms that have been little studied in the tropics and which distribution is affected by microenvironmental factors and substrate characteristics. The present study aimed to identify phorophyte specificity and microenvironmental preferences of corticolous lichens in five phorophyte species from premontane forest of the farm Finca Zingara in Cali, Colombia. For this, five individuals were selected from five tree species (phorophytes). Lichen species present in a 0.50x0.20m2 quadrant located in the trunk of each tree at a height of 1.3m were identified. Substrate parameters such as bark pH, Diameter Breast Height (DBH) and bark structure were measured. Also, microenvironmental factors including temperature, humidity and irradiance were determined. In order to detect phorophyte preferences, a non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMS) and indicator species analysis were made. Spearman correlation analysis was used to assert the relationship between environmental variables and groupings found in the NMS. A total of 69 species of lichens were found, of which 37 were identified to species, 18 to genera and 14 were not determined because they were sterile or had no spores. NMS showed that some individuals of the same tree species were grouped alongside the analysis dimensions, and they were related with the factors of light intensity, temperature and DBH. Only three lichens with preference for certain tree species were found (Arthonia microsperma by Meriania sp., Cladonia ceratophylla and sorediado 8 by Clusia sp.), suggesting absence of phorophyte preferences. Thus, it can be concluded that lichens from the study area do not show phorophyte preference, but their distribution is affected by light, temperature and DBH.

  3. Preliminary assessment of terrestrial microalgae isolated from lichens as testing species for environmental monitoring: lichen phycobionts present high sensitivity to environmental micropollutants.

    PubMed

    Domínguez-Morueco, N; Moreno, H; Barreno, E; Catalá, M

    2014-01-01

    Bioassays constitute a tool for pollution analysis providing a holistic approach and high-quality indication of the toxicity. Microbioassays allow evaluating the toxicity of many samples, implying lower costs and enabling routine monitoring and pollution control. But tests conducted so far are limited to the use of a small number of taxa. Lichens are excellent bioindicators of pollution with great ecological significance. Studies show that the phycobiont is more sensitive to pollutants than the mycobiont. Phycobiont have features such as adaptation to anhydrobiosis and relatively rapid growth in vitro, making them suitable for microbioassays. Our aim is to determine the sensitivity of phycobionts to the pharmaceutical micropollutants carbamazepine and diclofenac as a preliminary step for the development of a toxicity microbioassay based on phycobionts. Optical dispersion and chlorophyll autofluorescence were used as endpoints of toxicity on two algal species showing that suspensions present cyclic and taxon specific patterns of aggregation. Trebouxia TR9 suspensions present a very high grade of aggregation while Asterochloris erici cells do not. Both micropollutants alter optical properties of the suspensions of both species. No significant alteration of chlorophyll autofluorescence by carbamazepine is observed. A. erici chlorophyll autofluorescence is extremely sensitive to diclofenac but the effect is not dependent on the drug concentration or on the time of exposure. Differently, TR9 only shows punctual chlorophyll alterations. Fluctuations in optical dispersion may indicate changes in the population structure of the species, including reproductive strategy. A. erici seems more sensitive to micropollutants, is better characterized and is available from commercial collections.

  4. Epiphytism and pollinator specialization: drivers for orchid diversity?

    PubMed Central

    Gravendeel, Barbara; Smithson, Ann; Slik, Ferry J W; Schuiteman, Andre

    2004-01-01

    Epiphytes are a characteristic component of tropical rainforests. Out of the 25,000 orchid species currently known to science, more than 70% live in tree canopies. Understanding when and how these orchids diversified is vital to understanding the history of epiphytic biomes. We investigated whether orchids managed to radiate so explosively owing to their predominantly epiphytic habit and/or their specialized pollinator systems by testing these hypotheses from a statistical and phylogenetic standpoint. For the first approach, species numbers of 100 randomly chosen epiphytic and terrestrial genera were compared. Furthermore, the mean number of pollinators per orchid species within the five subfamilies was calculated and correlated with their time of diversification and species richness. In the second approach, molecular epiphytic orchid phylogenies were screened for clades with specific suites of epiphytic adaptations. Epiphytic genera were found to be significantly richer in species than terrestrial genera both for orchids and non-orchids. No evidence was found for a positive association between pollinator specialization and orchid species richness. Repeated associations between a small body size, short life cycle and specialized clinging roots of twig epiphytes in Bulbophyllinae and Oncidiinae were discovered. The development of twig epiphytism in the first group seems repeatedly correlated with speciation bursts. PMID:15519970

  5. Effects of tropical montane forest disturbance on epiphytic macrolichens.

    PubMed

    Benítez, Angel; Prieto, María; González, Yadira; Aragón, Gregorio

    2012-12-15

    The high diversity of epiphytes typical of undisturbed montane tropical forests has been negatively affected by continuous deforestation and forest conversion to secondary vegetation. Macrolichens are an important component of these epiphytes. Because their physiology is strongly coupled to humidity and solar radiation, we hypothesized that microclimatic changes derived from forest clearing and logging can affect the diversity of these poikilohydric organisms. In southern Ecuador, we examined three types of forests according to a disturbance gradient (primary forests, secondary forests, and monospecific forests of Alnus acuminata) for the presence/absence and coverage of epiphytic macrolichens that we identified on 240 trees. We found that total richness tended to decrease when the range of the disturbance increased. The impoverishment was particularly drastic for "shade-adapted lichens", while the richness of "heliophytic lichens" increased in the drier conditions of secondary growth. Epiphytic composition also differed significantly among the three types of forests, and the similarity decreased when the range of the disturbance was greater. We concluded that a span of 40 years of recovery by secondary vegetation was not enough to regenerate the diversity of epiphytic macrolichens that was lost due to forest disturbances. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Chemical element concentrations in four lichens on a transect entering Voyageurs National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, J.; Wetmore, C.M.

    1997-01-01

    A three factor transect study was conducted to test the hypothesis that chemical elements from air emissions in the vicinity of International Falls, Minnesota could not be detected in lichens along a 24 km transect reaching into Voyageurs National Park. It was hypothesized that element concentrations in lichens would decline exponentially downwind and would reach background values at a distance before the park boundary. Four species (Cladina rangiferina, Evernia mesomorpha, Hypogymnia physodes, and Parmelia sulcata) were sampled at ten sites for 3 years and 17 chemical elements were measured. The most notable result was a curvilinear geographic trend for many elements, which decreased from International Falls and then increased towards the park. This trend was significant for many anthropogenic elements, including S, Hg, Cd, and Cr, and for all four species. This type of distribution pattern has been observed in Hypogymnia physodes in other studies downwind of a steel mill and an oil refinery. Cladina, a ground-dwelling lichen, generally had lower tissue concentrations of the elements than the three epiphytic species. Tissue concentrations over the 3 years of sampling declined an average of 12%. Sufficient evidence exists to conclude that lichen tissue element concentrations in the vicinity of International Falls may be related to local air emissions, and that an exponential decline of element concentrations downwind of the sources does not apply to this situation.

  7. Estimating coextinction risks from epidemic tree death: affiliate lichen communities among diseased host tree populations of Fraxinus excelsior.

    PubMed

    Jönsson, Mari T; Thor, Göran

    2012-01-01

    At least 10% of the world's tree species are threatened with extinction and pathogens are increasingly implicated in tree threats. Coextinction and threats to affiliates as a consequence of the loss or decline of their host trees is a poorly understood phenomenon. Ash dieback is an emerging infectious disease causing severe dieback of common ash Fraxinus excelsior throughout Europe. We utilized available empirical data on affiliate epiphytic lichen diversity (174 species and 17,800 observations) among 20 ash dieback infected host tree populations of F. excelsior on the island Gotland in the Baltic Sea, Sweden. From this, we used structured scenario projections scaled with empirical data of ash dieback disease to generate probabilistic models for estimating local and regional lichen coextinction risks. Average coextinction probabilities (Ā) were 0.38 (95% CI ± 0.09) for lichens occurring on F. excelsior and 0.14 (95% CI ± 0.03) when considering lichen persistence on all tree species. Ā was strongly linked to local disease incidence levels and generally increasing with lichen host specificity to F. excelsior and decreasing population size. Coextinctions reduced affiliate community viability, with significant local reductions in species richness and shifts in lichen species composition. Affiliates were projected to become locally extirpated before their hosts, illuminating the need to also consider host tree declines. Traditionally managed open wooded meadows had the highest incidence of ash dieback disease and significantly higher proportions of affiliate species projected to go extinct, compared with unmanaged closed forests and semi-open grazed sites. Most cothreatened species were not previously red-listed, which suggest that tree epidemics cause many unforeseen threats to species. Our analysis shows that epidemic tree deaths represent an insidious, mostly overlooked, threat to sessile affiliate communities in forested environments. Current conservation and

  8. Geothermal chemical elements in lichens of Yellowstone National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, J.P.; Wetmore, C.M.

    1999-01-01

    Geothermal features (e.g. geysers, fumaroles, vents, and springs) emit gaseous mercury, sulfur and heavy metals and therefore, are natural sources of these elements in the atmosphere. Field studies of heavy metals in lichens in Italy have detected elevated concentrations near geothermal power plants, and have determined that the origin of mercury is from soil degassing, not soil particles. We studied this phenomenon in a geothermal area without power plants to determine the natural levels of mercury and other elements. Two common and abundant species of epiphytic Lichens, Bryoria fremontii and Letharia vulpina, were collected at six localities in Yellowstone National Park, USA in 1998 and analyzed for 22 chemical elements. Thirteen elements differed significantly between species. Some elements were significantly higher in the southern part of the park, while others were higher in the north. Levels of most elements were comparable with those in other national parks and wilderness areas in the region, except Hg, which was unusually high. The most likely sources of this element are the geothermal features, which are known emitters of Hg. Multivariate analyses revealed strong positive associations of Hg with S, and negative associations with soil elements, providing strong evidence that the Hg in the lichens is the result of soil degassing of elemental Hg rather than particulate Hg directly from soils. Average Hg levels in the lichens were 140 p.p.b. in Bryoria and 110 p.p.b. in Letharia, but maxima were 291 and 243 p.p.b., respectively. In spite of this, both species were healthy and abundant throughout the park.

  9. MASS LOSS AND NITROGEN DYNAMICS DURING THE DECOMPOSITION OF A N-LABELED N2-FIXING EPOPHYTIC LICHEN, LOBARIA OREGANA (TUCK.) MULL. ARG.

    EPA Science Inventory

    We studied mass loss and nitrogen dynamics during fall and spring initiated decomposition of an N2-fixing epiphytic lichen, Lobaria oregana (Tuck.) Mull. Arg. using 15N. We developed a method of labeling lichens with 15N that involved spraying lichen material with a nutrient sol...

  10. MASS LOSS AND NITROGEN DYNAMICS DURING THE DECOMPOSITION OF A N-LABELED N2-FIXING EPOPHYTIC LICHEN, LOBARIA OREGANA (TUCK.) MULL. ARG.

    EPA Science Inventory

    We studied mass loss and nitrogen dynamics during fall and spring initiated decomposition of an N2-fixing epiphytic lichen, Lobaria oregana (Tuck.) Mull. Arg. using 15N. We developed a method of labeling lichens with 15N that involved spraying lichen material with a nutrient sol...

  11. Causes of change in nitrophytic and oligotrophic lichen species in a Mediterranean climate: impact of land cover and atmospheric pollutants.

    PubMed

    Pinho, P; Augusto, S; Martins-Loução, M A; Pereira, M J; Soares, A; Máguas, C; Branquinho, C

    2008-08-01

    With the aim of determining the main drivers of changes in nitrophytic and oligotrophic macro-lichen communities in an industrial region with a Mediterranean climate, we considered both land-cover types and atmospheric pollutants. We determined the relation between the abundance of nitrophytic and oligotrophic species with environmental factors considering the distance of influence of land-cover types. The results showed that oligotrophic species decreased in the proximity of artificial areas, barren land and agricultural areas, associated with higher concentrations of NO2 and Zn, and Ti, probably dust of industrial and agricultural origin. Nitrophytic species were positively related to all the mentioned land-cover types, and with higher concentrations of Fe and N. Magnesium, probably from ocean aerosols, was negatively related to oligotrophic species and positively to nitrophytic.

  12. Species-specific detection of Lobaria pulmonaria (lichenized ascomycete) diaspores in litter samples trapped in snow cover.

    PubMed

    Walser, J C; Zoller, S; Büchler, U; Scheidegger, C

    2001-09-01

    The foliose lichen Lobaria pulmonaria has suffered a substantial decline in central and northern Europe during the twentieth century and is now considered to be critically endangered in many European lowland regions. Based on demographic studies, it has been proposed that under the present environmental conditions and forest management regimes, dispersal of diaspores and subsequent establishment of new thalli are insufficient to maintain the remnant small lowland populations. Chances of long-term survival may therefore be reduced. The data and analytical power of these demographic studies are limited. Since lichen diaspores show very few species-specific morphological characteristics, and are therefore almost indistinguishable, the accurate assessment of diaspore flux would be a fundamental first step in better understanding the life cycle of L. pulmonaria. Here we present a new molecular approach to investigate the dispersal of L. pulmonaria diaspores in its natural environment by specifically identifying small amounts of DNA in snow litter samples at varying distances from known sources. We used a species-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primer pair to amplify the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region (ITS rDNA) and a sensitive automated PCR product detection system using fluorescent labelled primers. We detected considerable amounts of naturally dispersed diaspores, deposited as far as 50 m away from the closest potential source. Diaspores were only found in the direction of the prevailing wind. Diaspore deposition varied from 1.2 diaspores per m(2) per day at 50 m distance from the source to 15 diaspores per m(2) per day at 1 m distance. The method described in this paper opens up perspectives for studies of population dynamics and dispersal ecology mainly in lichenized ascomycetes but also in other organisms with small, wind-dispersed diaspores.

  13. [Vertical stratification and host preference by vascular epiphytes in a Chiapas, Mexico, cloud forest].

    PubMed

    Martínez-Meéndez, Nayely; Pérez-Farrera, Miguel A; Flores-Palacios, Alejandro

    2008-12-01

    The high diversity of vascular epiphytes in neotropical montane forest has been explained as the result of vertical stratification of the forest and specific relationships between epiphytes and their hosts trees at local scales. In a lower montane cloud forest, we studied the vertical stratification and host preferences of vascular epiphytes in a 0.0625 ha plot where 41 trees > or = of 10 cm DBH were sampled during 12 months in 2001 and 2002. We found 43 epiphyte species growing on 15 tree genera. We tested for vertical strata and host preferences using 19 epiphyte taxa. We found strong evidence that epiphytes divided the canopy, but those epiphyte species dispersed by animals were generalists with respect to hosts and vertical strata. Wind dispersed epiphytes were vertically stratified, with a higher richness in the lowest tree strata. On average the epiphytes preferred 3.5 host species, suggesting low host preference. Two host species, Ardisia and Quercus, were avoided by the majority of the epiphyte species. Our results show that epiphytes divided the canopy horizontally and were stratified vertically, suggesting that host identity could be important determining the abundance of colonizing sites for epiphytes.

  14. Lichen Sclerosus

    MedlinePlus

    Diseases and Conditions Lichen sclerosus By Mayo Clinic Staff Lichen sclerosus (LIE-kun skluh-ROW-sus) is an uncommon condition that creates patchy, white skin that's thinner than normal. Lichen sclerosus can affect skin anywhere on your body. But ...

  15. Lichen communities as climate indicators in the U.S. Pacific States.

    Treesearch

    Robert J. Smith; Sarah Jovan; Bruce. McCune

    2017-01-01

    Epiphytic lichens are bioindicators of climate, air quality, and other forest conditions and may reveal how forests will respond to global changes in the U.S. Pacific States of Alaska, Washington, Oregon, and California. We explored climate indication with lichen communities surveyed by using both the USDA Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) and Alaska...

  16. The impact of ten years at -20°C on gas exchange in five lichen species.

    PubMed

    Larson, D W

    1989-01-01

    Rates of net CO2 exchange in five sympatric species of Umbilicaria were measured after 10 years at-20°C. During that time, the lichens had been at either a high (saturated) or a low (air-dry) water content. The results showed an immediate, return to normal rates of gas exchange for air-dried then frozen U.vellea. Rates returned to normal for air-dried U. deusta within four days. The three other species studied, U. mammulata, U. papulosa and U. muhlenbergii showed intermediate responses. Water saturated then frozen thalli of U. vellea were irreparably damaged after 10 years; even fungal respiration was severely impaired. In U. mammulata, U. papulosa and U. muhlenbergii, photosynthesis was eliminated but fungal respiration rates were not influenced. In contrast to this, water saturated then frozen thalli of U. deusta showed a nearly equal photosynthetic capacity to the original rates following 10 years at -20°C. In all cases the magnitude of the effect of the long-term subzero treatment correlated well with the known distribution patterns of the lichens in the field.

  17. Lichens as environmental risk detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caridi, F.; D'Agostino, M.; Messina, M.; Marcianò, G.; Grioli, L.; Belvedere, A.; Marguccio, S.; Belmusto, G.

    2017-04-01

    Several studies carried out after the Chernobyl nuclear accident in 1986 showed that lichens are suitable biomonitors of the fall-out, given their long life expectancy. 137Cs activity concentrations were measured through HPGe gamma spectrometry in different epiphytic lichens ( Usnea SPP, Platismatia glauca, Pseudevernia furfuracea, Ramalina SPP), collected from three sampling sites in the Calabria region, south of Italy. Data on variations in the contents of airborne particulates heavy metals, As, Be, Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb and Zn, measured in the thalli of the investigated lichens through inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), were reported in accordance with a lichen thalli naturalness/alteration scale. Energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis in a scanning electron microscope (SEM-EDX), with an electron beam of 20keV, that interacts with the sample leading to the emission of characteristic X-rays as secondary radiation, was also employed to investigate about the chemistry of the adherent particles to the surface of investigated lichens and about the possible interaction between them and the surrounding environment. Data obtained in this article provide useful information on the environmental risk of the studied area and can be further used for a radiological and chemical mapping.

  18. [Epiphytic algae from Bajo Pepito, Isla Mujeres, Quintana Roo, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Quan-Young, L I; Díaz-Martín, M A; Espinoza-Avalos, J

    2006-06-01

    A total of 96 epiphytic algae species were identified from Bajo Pepito, Quintana Roo, México. 60.4% (58) belonged to the Rhodophyta, 19.79% (19) to the Phaeophyta, 16.6% (16) to the Chlorophyta and 3.1% (3) to the Cyanophyta; 49 species (50.5%) were found only in one month, while Heterosiphonia crispella was found in all of the sampled months. That species provided the largest contribution to the biomass of epiphytes. During January we registered the greater biommass and richness of epiphytes species, coincidently with high values of host species cover and rainfall.

  19. Effects of acute NH3 air pollution on N-sensitive and N-tolerant lichen species.

    PubMed

    Paoli, Luca; Maslaňáková, Ivana; Grassi, Alice; Bačkor, Martin; Loppi, Stefano

    2015-12-01

    Lichens are sensitive to the presence of ammonia (NH3) in the environment. However, in order to use them as reliable indicators in biomonitoring studies, it is necessary to establish unequivocally the occurrence of certain symptoms following the exposure to NH3 in the environment. In this paper, we simulated an episode of acute air pollution due to the release of NH3. The biological effects of acute air pollution by atmospheric NH3 have been investigated using N-sensitive (Flavoparmelia caperata) and N-tolerant (Xanthoria parietina) species. Lichen samples were exposed to ecologically relevant NH3 concentrations for 8 weeks, simulating three areas of impact: a control area (2 μg/m(3)), an area of intermediate impact (2-35 μg/m(3)) and an area of high impact (10-315 μg/m(3)), with a peak of pollution reached between the fourth and fifth week. Ammonia affected both the photobiont and the mycobiont in F. caperata, while in X. parietina only the photosynthetic performance of the photobiont was altered after exposure to the highest concentration. In the photobiont of F. caperata we recorded chlorophyll degradation as indicated by OD435/415 ratio, decrease of the photosynthetic performance (as reflected by the maximum quantum yield of primary photochemistry FV/FM and the performance index PIABS); in the mycobiont, ergosterol reduction, membrane lipid peroxidation (as reflected by the increase of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances), alteration (decrease) of the secondary metabolite usnic acid. No effects were detected on caperatic acid and dehydrogenase activity. In X. parietina, the only signal determined by NH3 was the alteration of FV/FM and the performance index PIABS. The results suggest that physiological parameters in N-sensitive lichens well reflect the effects of NH3 exposure and can be applied as early indicators in monitoring studies.

  20. A new species of Phyllopsora (Lecanorales, lichen-forming Ascomycota) from Dominican amber, with remarks on the fossil history of lichens.

    PubMed

    Rikkinen, Jouko; Poinar, George O

    2008-01-01

    Phyllopsora dominicanus sp. nov. (Bacidiaceae, Lecanorales, lichen-forming Ascomycota) is described and illustrated from Dominican amber. The diagnostic features of the lichen include a minute subfolious thallus of lacinulate, ascending squamules, a well-developed upper cortex, and a net-like pseudocortex on the lower surface. The algal symbionts are unicellular green algae, forming a distinct layer immediately below the upper cortex. The fossil demonstrates that distinguishing features of Phyllopsora have remained unchanged for tens of millions of years. The fossil also provides the first detailed views of mycobiont-photobiont contacts in Tertiary green algal lichens. The mycobiont hyphae formed apical and intercalary appressoria by pressing closely against the photobiont cells. This indicates that a conserved maintenance of structure is also seen in the fine details of the fungal-algal interface.

  1. The Lichen-GIS Project, Teaching Students How to Use Bioindicator Species to Assess Environmental Quality.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Stephen C; McDonald, Darrel; Watson, Trey; Taylor, Josephine; Sowards, Alan B

    2009-01-01

    A content-driven biology course for preservice K-8 teachers has been developed. This course uses the constructivist approach, where instructors engage students by organizing information around concept-based problems. To this end, a semester-long, inquiry-based project was introduced where students studied lichen populations on trees located on their campus to monitor air quality. Data were incorporated into a geographical information systems (GIS) database to demonstrate how it can be used to map communities. Student teams counted the number of each lichen type within a grid placed on each tree trunk sampled and entered this information into a GIS database. The students constructed maps of lichen populations at each sample site and wrote abstracts about their research. Student performance was assessed by the preparation of these abstracts as well as by scores on pre- and posttests of key content measures. Students also completed a survey to determine whether the project aided in their comprehension as well as their interest in incorporating this activity into their own curricula. The students' pre- and posttest results showed an eightfold improvement in the total score after the semester project. Additionally, correct responses to each individual content measure increased by at least 35%. Total scores for the abstract ranged from 12 to 20 points out of 20 total points possible (60% to 100%), with a mean score of 15.8 points (78%). These results indicate that this exercise provided an excellent vehicle to teach students about lichens and their use as bioindicators and the application of geospatial technologies to map environmental data.

  2. The Lichen-GIS Project, Teaching Students How to Use Bioindicator Species to Assess Environmental Quality

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Stephen C.; McDonald, Darrel; Watson, Trey; Taylor, Josephine; Sowards, Alan B.

    2009-01-01

    A content-driven biology course for preservice K-8 teachers has been developed. This course uses the constructivist approach, where instructors engage students by organizing information around concept-based problems. To this end, a semester-long, inquiry-based project was introduced where students studied lichen populations on trees located on their campus to monitor air quality. Data were incorporated into a geographical information systems (GIS) database to demonstrate how it can be used to map communities. Student teams counted the number of each lichen type within a grid placed on each tree trunk sampled and entered this information into a GIS database. The students constructed maps of lichen populations at each sample site and wrote abstracts about their research. Student performance was assessed by the preparation of these abstracts as well as by scores on pre- and posttests of key content measures. Students also completed a survey to determine whether the project aided in their comprehension as well as their interest in incorporating this activity into their own curricula. The students’ pre- and posttest results showed an eightfold improvement in the total score after the semester project. Additionally, correct responses to each individual content measure increased by at least 35%. Total scores for the abstract ranged from 12 to 20 points out of 20 total points possible (60% to 100%), with a mean score of 15.8 points (78%). These results indicate that this exercise provided an excellent vehicle to teach students about lichens and their use as bioindicators and the application of geospatial technologies to map environmental data. PMID:23653685

  3. Does exogenous carbon extend the realized niche of canopy lichens? Evidence from sub-boreal forests in British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Jocelyn; Bengtson, Per; Fredeen, Arthur L; Coxson, Darwyn S; Prescott, Cindy E

    2013-05-01

    Foliose lichens with cyanobacterial bionts (bipartite and tripartite) form a distinct assemblage of epiphytes strongly associated with humid microclimatic conditions in inland British Columbia. Previous research showed that these cyano- and cephalolichen communities are disproportionately abundant and species-rich on conifer saplings beneath Populus compared to beneath other tree species. More revealing, lichens with cyanobacterial bionts were observed beneath Populus even in stands that did not otherwise support them. We experimentally test the hypothesis that this association is due to the interception of glucose-rich nectar that is exuded from Populus extra-floral nectaries (EFN). Using CO2 flux measurements and phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis with experimental applications of 13C6-labeled glucose, we demonstrate that cyano- and cephalolichens have a strong respiratory response to glucose. Lichens treated with glucose had lower net photosynthesis and higher establishment rates than control thalli. Furthermore, lichens with cyanobacterial bionts rapidly incorporate exogenous 13C into lichen fatty acid tissues. A large proportion of the 13C taken up by the lichens was incorporated into fungal biomarkers, suggesting that the mycobiont absorbed and assimilated the majority of applied 13C6 glucose. Our observations suggest that both cyanolichens and cephalolichens may utilize an exogenous source of glucose, made available by poplar EFNs. The exogenous C may enable these lichens to become established by providing a source of C for fungal respiration despite drought-induced inactivity of the cyanobacterial partner. As such, the mycobiont may adopt an alternative nutritional strategy, using available exogenous carbon to extend its realized niche.

  4. Molecular systematics of the wood-inhabiting, lichen-forming genus Xylographa (Baeomycetales, Ostropomycetidae) with eight new species.

    PubMed

    Spribille, Toby; Resl, Philipp; Ahti, Teuvo; Pérez-Ortega, Sergio; Tønsberg, Tor; Mayrhofer, Helmut; Lumbsch, H Thorsten

    The ascomycete genus Xylographa includes some of the most abundant species of wood-inhabiting lichenized fungi in boreal and temperate regions. It has never been monographed and little is known of its species diversity and evolutionary relationships. Based on a morphological and secondary metabolite-based assessment of material from North and South America, Europe and Asia, we generated a three-locus phylogeny based on sequences of the internal transcribed spacer, 28S nuclear rDNA and mitochondrial small subunit rDNA. We analyzed the data within the context of putatively related genera in the order Baeomycetales. Xylographa is a strongly supported monophyletic group closely related to Lithographa and Ptychographa, as well as rock-dwelling and lichenicolous species of Rimularia s.lat. The evolution of linearized ascomata in Xylographa appears to have enabled ascomata to grow laterally, and patterns of lateral growth are diagnostic. We recognize twenty species in Xylographa and provide a thorough revision of nomenclature. The following eight species are new: Xylographa bjoerkii T. Sprib., X. constricta T. Sprib., X. erratica T. Sprib., X. lagoi T. Sprib. & Pérez-Ortega, X. schofieldii T. Sprib., X. septentrionalis T. Sprib., X. stenospora T. Sprib. & Resl and X. vermicularis T. Sprib. The combinations Lambiella insularis (Nyl.) T. Sprib. and Xylographa carneopallida (Räsänen) T. Sprib. are newly proposed. Xylographa constricta from southern South America represents the first known case of secondary de-lichenization in the Baeomycetales. Xylographa parallela s.str. is confirmed as bipolar on the basis of sequenced collections from both southern Chile and the northern Hemisphere.

  5. Molecular systematics of the wood-inhabiting, lichen-forming genus Xylographa (Baeomycetales, Ostropomycetidae) with eight new species

    PubMed Central

    Spribille, Toby; Resl, Philipp; Ahti, Teuvo; Pérez-Ortega, Sergio; Tønsberg, Tor; Mayrhofer, Helmut; Lumbsch, H. Thorsten

    2016-01-01

    The ascomycete genus Xylographa includes some of the most abundant species of wood-inhabiting lichenized fungi in boreal and temperate regions. It has never been monographed and little is known of its species diversity and evolutionary relationships. Based on a morphological and secondary metabolite-based assessment of material from North and South America, Europe and Asia, we generated a three-locus phylogeny based on sequences of the internal transcribed spacer, 28S nuclear rDNA and mitochondrial small subunit rDNA. We analyzed the data within the context of putatively related genera in the order Baeomycetales. Xylographa is a strongly supported monophyletic group closely related to Lithographa and Ptychographa, as well as rock-dwelling and lichenicolous species of Rimularia s.lat. The evolution of linearized ascomata in Xylographa appears to have enabled ascomata to grow laterally, and patterns of lateral growth are diagnostic. We recognize twenty species in Xylographa and provide a thorough revision of nomenclature. The following eight species are new: Xylographa bjoerkii T. Sprib., X. constricta T. Sprib., X. erratica T. Sprib., X. lagoi T. Sprib. & Pérez-Ortega, X. schofieldii T. Sprib., X. septentrionalis T. Sprib., X. stenospora T. Sprib. & Resl and X. vermicularis T. Sprib. The combinations Lambiella insularis (Nyl.) T. Sprib. and Xylographa carneopallida (Räsänen) T. Sprib. are newly proposed. Xylographa constricta from southern South America represents the first known case of secondary de-lichenization in the Baeomycetales. Xylographa parallela s.str. is confirmed as bipolar on the basis of sequenced collections from both southern Chile and the northern Hemisphere. PMID:26953522

  6. Structure of the Epiphyte Community in a Tropical Montane Forest in SW China

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Mingxu; Geekiyanage, Nalaka; Xu, Jianchu; Khin, Myo Myo; Nurdiana, Dian Ridwan; Paudel, Ekananda; Harrison, Rhett Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Vascular epiphytes are an understudied and particularly important component of tropical forest ecosystems. However, owing to the difficulties of access, little is known about the properties of epiphyte-host tree communities and the factors structuring them, especially in Asia. We investigated factors structuring the vascular epiphyte-host community and its network properties in a tropical montane forest in Xishuangbanna, SW China. Vascular epiphytes were surveyed in six plots located in mature forests. Six host and four micro-site environmental factors were investigated. Epiphyte diversity was strongly correlated with host size (DBH, diameter at breast height), while within hosts the highest epiphyte diversity was in the middle canopy and epiphyte diversity was significantly higher in sites with canopy soil or a moss mat than on bare bark. DBH, elevation and stem height explained 22% of the total variation in the epiphyte species assemblage among hosts, and DBH was the most important factor which alone explained 6% of the variation. Within hosts, 51% of the variation in epiphyte assemblage composition was explained by canopy position and substrate, and the most important single factor was substrate which accounted for 16% of the variation. Analysis of network properties indicated that the epiphyte host community was highly nested, with a low level of epiphyte specialization, and an almost even interaction strength between epiphytes and host trees. Together, these results indicate that large trees harbor a substantial proportion of the epiphyte community in this forest. PMID:25856457

  7. Structure of the epiphyte community in a tropical montane forest in SW China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Mingxu; Geekiyanage, Nalaka; Xu, Jianchu; Khin, Myo Myo; Nurdiana, Dian Ridwan; Paudel, Ekananda; Harrison, Rhett Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Vascular epiphytes are an understudied and particularly important component of tropical forest ecosystems. However, owing to the difficulties of access, little is known about the properties of epiphyte-host tree communities and the factors structuring them, especially in Asia. We investigated factors structuring the vascular epiphyte-host community and its network properties in a tropical montane forest in Xishuangbanna, SW China. Vascular epiphytes were surveyed in six plots located in mature forests. Six host and four micro-site environmental factors were investigated. Epiphyte diversity was strongly correlated with host size (DBH, diameter at breast height), while within hosts the highest epiphyte diversity was in the middle canopy and epiphyte diversity was significantly higher in sites with canopy soil or a moss mat than on bare bark. DBH, elevation and stem height explained 22% of the total variation in the epiphyte species assemblage among hosts, and DBH was the most important factor which alone explained 6% of the variation. Within hosts, 51% of the variation in epiphyte assemblage composition was explained by canopy position and substrate, and the most important single factor was substrate which accounted for 16% of the variation. Analysis of network properties indicated that the epiphyte host community was highly nested, with a low level of epiphyte specialization, and an almost even interaction strength between epiphytes and host trees. Together, these results indicate that large trees harbor a substantial proportion of the epiphyte community in this forest.

  8. Accumulation of airborne elements from vehicles in transplanted lichens in urban sites

    SciTech Connect

    Garty, J.; Kauppi, M.; Kauppi, A.

    1996-03-01

    The objective of the current study is to compare the short-term accumulation capacity of two epiphytic lichens characterized by a different type of thallus. The lichens Hypogynmia physodes (L.) Nyl. and Usnea hirta (L.) Weber em. Mot. were transplanted either to the vicinity of streets of low volume and slow traffic or to the vicinity of a highway in the city of Oulu, N. Finland, for a period of 45 d. Eleven elements were analyzed before and after transplantation. The two lichen species were found to possess a similar accumulating capacity for K and Mn. Hypogynmia physodes manifests a higher accumulating capacity than U. hirta for Na, Fe, and Cu. whereas the more sensitive lichen U. hirta exhibits a higher accumulating capacity for Mg, despite a higher primary concentration of these elements in the thallus of H. physodes. Our findings show a relative high concentration of K, Fe, Mg, Zn, Mn, Pb, and Cu in thalli of H. physodes and Mg, Zn, Pb, Cu, and Cd in U. hirta in material transplanted to streets of low volume and slow traffic, over and above the concentration found in thalli retrieved form the vicinity of the highway. This may be explained by the higher rate of abrasion of car engines running idle near traffic lights and by the lesser ventilation near the close-clustered streets of the inner city. 65 refs., 8 tabs.

  9. Optimal defense: snails avoid reproductive parts of the lichen Lobaria scrobiculata due to internal defense allocation.

    PubMed

    Asplund, Johan; Solhaug, Knut Asbjørn; Gauslaa, Yngvar

    2010-10-01

    The optimal defense theory (ODT) deals with defensive compounds improving fitness of a particular organism. It predicts that these compounds are allocated in proportion to the risk for a specific plant tissue being attacked and this tissue's value for plant fitness. As the benefit of defense cannot easily be measured in plants, the empirical evidence for ODT is limited. However, lichens are unique in the sense that their carbon-based secondary compounds can nondestructively be removed or reduced in concentration by acetone rinsing. By using such an extraction protocol, which is lethal to plants, we have tested the ODT by studying lichens instead of plants as photosynthetically active organisms. Prior to acetone rinsing, we found five times higher concentration of meta-scrobiculin in the reproductive parts (soralia) of Lobaria scrobiculata compared to somatic parts of this foliose epiphytic lichen species. At this stage, the lichen-feeding snail Cochlodina laminata avoided the soralia. However, after removal of secondary compounds, the snail instead preferred the soralia. In this way, we have successfully shown that grazing pattern inversely reflects the partitioning of the secondary compounds that have a documented deterring effect. Thus our study provides strong and novel evidence for the ODT.

  10. The lichen-forming ascomycete Evernia mesomorpha associates with multiple genotypes of Trebouxia jamesii.

    PubMed

    Piercey-Normore, Michele D

    2006-01-01

    The epiphyte Evernia mesomorpha forms a lichen association with green algae in the genus Trebouxia. Little is known about the population structure of E. mesomorpha. Here, population structure of the algal and fungal symbionts was examined for 290 lichen thalli on 29 jack pine (Pinus banksiana) trees in Manitoba. Through phylogenetic analysis of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequences, five algal genotypes were detected that were nested within T. jamesii. Two fungal genotypes were detected that formed a clade with two other Evernia species. The genus Evernia was paraphyletic with E. prunastri, sister to Parmelia saxatilis. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of ITS rDNA showed multiple algal genotypes in 45% of the 290 lichen thalli collected, whereas all thalli only contained one fungal genotype. Low population subdivision of algal and fungal genotypes among trees suggested that the algal symbiont was being dispersed in the lichen soredium. Low fungal specificity for multiple algal genotypes and a hypothesized algal switch may be important life history strategies for E. mesomorpha to adapt to changing environmental conditions.

  11. From Alaska to Antarctica: Species boundaries and genetic diversity of Prasiola (Trebouxiophyceae), a foliose chlorophyte associated with the bipolar lichen-forming fungus Mastodia tessellata.

    PubMed

    Garrido-Benavent, Isaac; Pérez-Ortega, Sergio; de Los Ríos, Asunción

    2017-02-01

    Symbiotic associations between green algae (Chlorophyta) and fungi give rise to morphologically and eco-physiologically distinct entities, or so-called, lichens. In one of the most peculiar of these associations, the partners are species of the macroscopic genus Prasiola (Trebouxiophyceae) and the ascomycete Mastodia tessellata (Verrucariaceae). This is the only known case of a lichen symbiosis involving a foliose green alga. Despite intense research targeted at understanding the biology of this particular association, little is known about the genetic variability of its symbionts. This study focuses on the photobiont partner of this lichen and was designed to explore and compare its genetic diversity along a latitudinal axis from Alaska to Antarctica. Molecular sequence data were generated for three loci: two nuclear markers (nrITS, RPL10A) and one plastid-encoded marker (tufA). The usefulness of the Prasiola nrITS and RPL10A data was examined at the species and intraspecific levels. We used the population assignment tests implemented in BAPS and STRUCTURE and two algorithmic species delimitation procedures (ABGD, GMYC) to generate species boundary discovery hypotheses, which were subsequently tested using Bayes factors. Population genetic differentiation and structure were also assessed through fixation indices, polymorphism statistics and haplotype networks. Based on the results of the species validation method, we propose that at least two species of Prasiola associate with the lichen-forming fungus Mastodia tessellata. Of these, P. borealis is broadly distributed in Alaska, Tierra del Fuego and the Antarctic Peninsula, whereas the second, undescribed, species is restricted to the Antarctic Peninsula. We detected significant phylogeographic substructure in P. borealis, including greater haplotype diversity in the Tierra del Fuego populations. Our findings provide new data that will be useful to unravel the cryptic diversity and phylogeographic patterns of the

  12. Secreted arginases from phylogenetically farrelated lichen species act as cross-recognition factors for two different algal cells.

    PubMed

    Legaz, María-Estrella; Fontaniella, Blanca; Millanes, Ana-María; Carlos, Vicente

    2004-08-01

    Purified arginases secreted from Evernia prunastri and Xanthoria parietina thalli hydrolyze arginine in a Mn2+ -dependent reaction. Ca2+ cannot replace Mn2+, but its addition to reaction mixtures in the presence of Mn2+ significantly inhibited arginase activity. Arginases from both lichen species also show lectin function, binding to the cell wall of both homologous and heterologous algae. Such binding is enhanced by both Ca2+ and Mn2+ and results in cytoagglutination, which is counteracted by alpha-D-galactose. A putative ligand for these lectins consists of a glycosylated urease, the polysaccharide moiety of which is uniquely composed of alpha-D-galactose. Binding of lectins inhibits its enzymatic activity, which is recovered after desorption of the lectin with alpha-D-galactose. Urease is also eluted from arginase-agarose columns by using alpha-D-galactose as eluent. Data demonstrate ligand-dependent retention of the fungal lectin on the algal cell surface and this is consistent with a model of recognition of compatible algae, through which algal cells would form a lichen with a lectin-secreting fungus only when these cells contain the specific ligand for the lectin in their cell walls. This is, lectin binding is used as a mechanism for ensuring specificity in the association.

  13. Bacterial communities associated with the lichen symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Bates, Scott T; Cropsey, Garrett W G; Caporaso, J Gregory; Knight, Rob; Fierer, Noah

    2011-02-01

    Lichens are commonly described as a mutualistic symbiosis between fungi and "algae" (Chlorophyta or Cyanobacteria); however, they also have internal bacterial communities. Recent research suggests that lichen-associated microbes are an integral component of lichen thalli and that the classical view of this symbiotic relationship should be expanded to include bacteria. However, we still have a limited understanding of the phylogenetic structure of these communities and their variability across lichen species. To address these knowledge gaps, we used bar-coded pyrosequencing to survey the bacterial communities associated with lichens. Bacterial sequences obtained from four lichen species at multiple locations on rock outcrops suggested that each lichen species harbored a distinct community and that all communities were dominated by Alphaproteobacteria. Across all samples, we recovered numerous bacterial phylotypes that were closely related to sequences isolated from lichens in prior investigations, including those from a lichen-associated Rhizobiales lineage (LAR1; putative N(2) fixers). LAR1-related phylotypes were relatively abundant and were found in all four lichen species, and many sequences closely related to other known N(2) fixers (e.g., Azospirillum, Bradyrhizobium, and Frankia) were recovered. Our findings confirm the presence of highly structured bacterial communities within lichens and provide additional evidence that these bacteria may serve distinct functional roles within lichen symbioses.

  14. Multilocus phylogeny of the lichen-forming fungal genus Melanohalea (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota): insights on diversity, distributions, and a comparison of species tree and concatenated topologies.

    PubMed

    Leavitt, Steven D; Esslinger, Theodore L; Spribille, Toby; Divakar, Pradeep K; Thorsten Lumbsch, H

    2013-01-01

    Accurate species circumscriptions are central for many biological disciplines and have critical implications for ecological and conservation studies. An increasing body of evidence suggests that in some cases traditional morphology-based taxonomy have underestimated diversity in lichen-forming fungi. Therefore, genetic data play an increasing role for recognizing distinct lineages of lichenized fungi that it would otherwise be improbable to recognize using classical phenotypic characters. Melanohalea (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota) is one of the most widespread and common lichen-forming genera in the northern Hemisphere. In this study, we assess traditional phenotype-based species boundaries, identify previously unrecognized species-level lineages and discuss biogeographic patterns in Melanohalea. We sampled 487 individuals worldwide, representing 18 of the 22 described Melanohalea species, and generated DNA sequence data from mitochondrial, nuclear ribosomal, and protein-coding markers. Diversity previously hidden within traditional species was identified using a genealogical concordance approach. We inferred relationships among sampled species-level lineages within Melanohalea using both concatenated phylogenetic methods and a coalescent-based multilocus species tree approach. Although lineages identified from genetic data are largely congruent with traditional taxonomy, we found strong evidence supporting the presence of previously unrecognized species in six of the 18 sampled taxa. Strong nodal support and overall congruence among independent loci suggest long-term reproductive isolation among most species-level lineages. While some Melanohalea taxa are truly widespread, a limited number of clades appear to have much more restricted distributional ranges. In most instances the concatenated gene tree and multilocus species tree approaches provided similar estimates of relationships. However, nodal support was generally higher in the phylogeny estimated from

  15. A phylogenetic analysis of the boreal lichen Mycoblastus sanguinarius (Mycoblastaceae, lichenized Ascomycota) reveals cryptic clades correlated with fatty acid profiles.

    PubMed

    Spribille, Toby; Klug, Barbara; Mayrhofer, Helmut

    2011-06-01

    Lichens are a prominent feature of northern conifer forests and a large number of species are thought to be circumboreal. Whether or not circumboreal lichen species really constitute monophyletic groups has seldom been tested. We investigated molecular phylogenetic patterns in the mycobiont of Mycoblastus sanguinarius, a well known epiphytic lichen species of the boreal forest, based on material collected from across the high latitude northern hemisphere. A three-locus dataset of internal transcribed spacer rDNA, translation elongation factor 1-α and replication licensing factor Mcm7 DNA sequences revealed that material treated until now as belonging to M. sanguinarius does indeed form a monophyletic group within the genus and is distinct from a strongly supported Mycoblastus affinis. The M. sanguinarius complex appears closely related to the rare Mycoblastus glabrescens, which is currently known only from the Pacific Northwest and was rediscovered during the present study. However, within M. sanguinarius s.lat. in the northern hemisphere, two deeply divergent and morphologically coherent species can be recovered, one of which matches the southern hemisphere species Mycoblastus sanguinarioides and turns out to be widespread in North America and Asia, and one of which corresponds to M. sanguinarius s.str. Both M. sanguinarius and M. sanguinarioides exhibit additional low-level genetic differentiation into geographically structured clades, the most prominent of which are distributed in East Asia/eastern North America and western North America/Europe, respectively. Individuals from these lowest-level clades are morphologically indistinguishable but chemical analyses by thin layer chromatography revealed that each clade possesses its own fatty acid profile, suggesting that chemical differentiation precedes morphological differentiation and may be a precursor to speciation.

  16. A phylogenetic analysis of the boreal lichen Mycoblastus sanguinarius (Mycoblastaceae, lichenized Ascomycota) reveals cryptic clades correlated with fatty acid profiles

    PubMed Central

    Spribille, Toby; Klug, Barbara; Mayrhofer, Helmut

    2011-01-01

    Lichens are a prominent feature of northern conifer forests and a large number of species are thought to be circumboreal. Whether or not circumboreal lichen species really constitute monophyletic groups has seldom been tested. We investigated molecular phylogenetic patterns in the mycobiont of Mycoblastus sanguinarius, a well known epiphytic lichen species of the boreal forest, based on material collected from across the high latitude northern hemisphere. A three-locus dataset of internal transcribed spacer rDNA, translation elongation factor 1-α and replication licensing factor Mcm7 DNA sequences revealed that material treated until now as belonging to M. sanguinarius does indeed form a monophyletic group within the genus and is distinct from a strongly supported Mycoblastus affinis. The M. sanguinarius complex appears closely related to the rare Mycoblastus glabrescens, which is currently known only from the Pacific Northwest and was rediscovered during the present study. However, within M. sanguinarius s.lat. in the northern hemisphere, two deeply divergent and morphologically coherent species can be recovered, one of which matches the southern hemisphere species Mycoblastus sanguinarioides and turns out to be widespread in North America and Asia, and one of which corresponds to M. sanguinarius s.str. Both M. sanguinarius and M. sanguinarioides exhibit additional low-level genetic differentiation into geographically structured clades, the most prominent of which are distributed in East Asia/eastern North America and western North America/Europe, respectively. Individuals from these lowest-level clades are morphologically indistinguishable but chemical analyses by thin layer chromatography revealed that each clade possesses its own fatty acid profile, suggesting that chemical differentiation precedes morphological differentiation and may be a precursor to speciation. PMID:21443957

  17. Evidence for isolation-by-habitat among populations of an epiphytic orchid species on a small oceanic island.

    PubMed

    Mallet, Bertrand; Martos, Florent; Blambert, Laury; Pailler, Thierry; Humeau, Laurence

    2014-01-01

    Identifying factors that promote population differentiation is of interest for understanding the early stages of speciation. Gene flow among populations inhabiting different environments can be reduced by geographical distance (isolation-by-distance) or by divergent selection resulting from local adaptation (isolation-by-ecology). Few studies have investigated the influence of these factors in small oceanic islands where the influence of geographic distance is expected to be null but where habitat diversity could have a strong effect on population differentiation. In this study, we tested for the spatial divergence of phenotypes (floral morphology and floral scent) and genotypes (microsatellites) among ten populations of Jumellea rossii, an epiphytic orchid endemic to Réunion growing in three different habitats. We found a significant genetic differentiation between populations that is structured by habitat heterogeneity rather than by geographic distance between populations. These results suggest that ecological factors might reduce gene flow among populations located in different habitats. This pattern of isolation-by-habitat may be the result of both isolation-by-ecology by habitat filtering and asynchrony in flowering phenology. Furthermore, data on floral morphology match these findings, with multivariate analysis grouping populations by habitat type but could be only due to phenotypic plasticity. Indeed floral scent compounds were not significantly different between populations indicating that specific plant-pollinator mutualism does not seem to play a major role in the population differentiation of J. rossii. In conclusion, the results from our study emphasize the importance of habitat diversity of small oceanic islands as a factor of population differentiation.

  18. Evidence for Isolation-by-Habitat among Populations of an Epiphytic Orchid Species on a Small Oceanic Island

    PubMed Central

    Mallet, Bertrand; Martos, Florent; Blambert, Laury; Pailler, Thierry; Humeau, Laurence

    2014-01-01

    Identifying factors that promote population differentiation is of interest for understanding the early stages of speciation. Gene flow among populations inhabiting different environments can be reduced by geographical distance (isolation-by-distance) or by divergent selection resulting from local adaptation (isolation-by-ecology). Few studies have investigated the influence of these factors in small oceanic islands where the influence of geographic distance is expected to be null but where habitat diversity could have a strong effect on population differentiation. In this study, we tested for the spatial divergence of phenotypes (floral morphology and floral scent) and genotypes (microsatellites) among ten populations of Jumellea rossii, an epiphytic orchid endemic to Réunion growing in three different habitats. We found a significant genetic differentiation between populations that is structured by habitat heterogeneity rather than by geographic distance between populations. These results suggest that ecological factors might reduce gene flow among populations located in different habitats. This pattern of isolation-by-habitat may be the result of both isolation-by-ecology by habitat filtering and asynchrony in flowering phenology. Furthermore, data on floral morphology match these findings, with multivariate analysis grouping populations by habitat type but could be only due to phenotypic plasticity. Indeed floral scent compounds were not significantly different between populations indicating that specific plant-pollinator mutualism does not seem to play a major role in the population differentiation of J. rossii. In conclusion, the results from our study emphasize the importance of habitat diversity of small oceanic islands as a factor of population differentiation. PMID:24498329

  19. Urbanization Impacts on Tree Canopies: The Unexplored Link Between Canopy Epiphytes and Pacific Northwest Forest Biogeochemical Cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prather, H.; Rosenstiel, T. N.

    2014-12-01

    Canopy-dwelling cryptogamic plants (i.e. lichens and mosses) serve important roles in biogeochemical cycles worldwide and are of particular importance to biogeochemical cycling in Pacific Northwest forests. Epiphytic lichens and mosses respond sensitively to both direct and indirect effects of global change, as evidenced by distinct changes in epiphyte community structure. Yet, few studies have explored how shifting epiphytic communities, resulting from changing climate and increasing air pollutant exposure, may greatly impact biogeochemical cycles of the forests they inhabit. We present the first study investigating how urbanization, as a proxy for global change, impacts epiphytic community structure and functional biodiversity and address the impending effects on Pacific Northwest forest biogeochemical cycles. We discuss the results of paired ground and arboreal epiphyte surveys across an urban to rural gradient in Portland, Oregon. Three research sites with varying distance (0km, 74km, and 109km) from urban center were surveyed and epiphytic biodiversity was described. Pronounced shifts in epiphyte community structure were observed downwind of the Portland metro region. These results suggest that the impacts of urbanization may have significant and surprisingly far-reaching impacts on forested ecosystems in the Pacific Northwest. The impacts of an altered ground and arboreal epiphytic community on Pacific Northwest forest biogeochemical processes will be discussed.

  20. Epiphyte biodiversity in the coffee agricultural matrix: canopy stratification and distance from forest fragments.

    PubMed

    Moorhead, Leigh C; Philpott, Stacy M; Bichier, Peter

    2010-06-01

    Quality of the agricultural matrix profoundly affects biodiversity and dispersal in agricultural areas. Vegetatively complex coffee agroecosystems maintain species richness at larger distances from the forest. Epiphytes colonize canopy trees and provide resources for birds and insects and thus effects of agricultural production on epiphytes may affect other species. We compared diversity, composition, and vertical stratification of epiphytes in a forest fragment and in two coffee farms differing in management intensity in southern Mexico. We also examined spatial distribution of epiphytes with respect to the forest fragment to examine quality of the two agricultural matrix types for epiphyte conservation. We sampled vascular epiphytes in a forest fragment, a shade polyculture farm, and a shade monoculture farm at 100 m, 200 m, and 400 m from the forest. Epiphyte and orchid richness was greater in the forest than in the monoculture but richness was similar in the forest and polyculture farm. Epiphyte species composition differed with habitat type, but not with distance from the forest. In the forest, epiphytes were distributed throughout tree canopies, but in the farms, epiphytes were primarily found on trunks and larger branches. Epiphyte richness and species similarity to forest species declined with distance from the forest fragment in the monoculture, but richness and similarity to forest species did not decline with distance from forest in the polyculture. This suggests polyculture coffee has greater conservation value. In contrast, monoculture coffee is likely a sink habitat for epiphytes dispersing from forests into coffee. Coffee farms differ from forests in terms of the habitat they provide and species composition, thus protecting forest fragments is essential for epiphyte conservation. Nonetheless, in agricultural landscapes, vegetatively complex coffee farms may contribute to conservation of epiphytes more than other agricultural land uses.

  1. Lichen compounds restrain lichen feeding by bank voles (Myodes glareolus).

    PubMed

    Nybakken, Line; Helmersen, Anne-Marit; Gauslaa, Yngvar; Selås, Vidar

    2010-03-01

    Some lichen compounds are known to deter feeding by invertebrate herbivores. We attempted to quantify the deterring efficiency of lichen compounds against a generalist vertebrate, the bank vole (Myodes glareolus). In two separate experiments, caged bank voles had the choice to feed on lichens with natural or reduced concentrations of secondary compounds. We rinsed air-dry intact lichens in 100% acetone to remove extracellular compounds non-destructively. In the first experiment, pairs of control and rinsed lichen thalli were hydrated and offered to the bank voles. Because the lichens desiccated fast, we ran a second experiment with pairs of ground control and compound-deficient thalli, each mixed with water to porridge. Eight and six lichen species were tested in the first and second experiment, respectively. In the first, bank voles preferred compound-deficient thalli of Cladonia stellaris and Lobaria pulmonaria, but did not discriminate between the other thallus pairs. This was likely a result of deterring levels of usnic and stictic acid in the control thalli. When lichens were served as porridge, significant preference was found for acetone-rinsed pieces of Cladonia arbuscula, C. rangiferina, Platismatia glauca, and Evernia prunastri. The increased preference was caused mainly by lower consumption of control thalli. Grinding and mixing of thallus structures prevented bank voles from selecting thallus parts with lower concentration of secondary compounds and/or strengthened their deterring capacity. We conclude that some lichen secondary compounds deter feeding by bank voles.

  2. Glacial refugia and the prediction of future habitat coverage of the South American lichen species Ochrolechia austroamericana

    PubMed Central

    Kukwa, Martin; Kolanowska, Marta

    2016-01-01

    The biogeographic history of lichenized fungi remains unrevealed because those organisms rarely fossilize due to their delicate, often tiny and quickly rotting thalli. Also the ecology and factors limiting occurrence of numerous taxa, especially those restricted in their distribution to tropical areas are poorly recognized. The aim of this study was to determine localization of glacial refugia of South American Ochrolechia austroamericana and to estimate the future changes in the coverage of its habitats using ecological niche modeling tools. The general glacial potential range of the studied species was wider than it is nowadays and its niches coverage decreased by almost 25% since last glacial maximum. The refugial areas were covered by cool and dry grasslands and scrubs and suitable niches in South America were located near the glacier limit. According to our analyses the further climate changes will not significantly influence the distribution of the suitable niches of O. austroamericana. PMID:27929090

  3. Using epiphytic macrolichen communities for biomonitoring ammonia in forests of the greater Sierra Nevada, California

    Treesearch

    Sarah Jovan; Bruce. Mccune

    2006-01-01

    Chronic, excessive nitrogen deposition is potentially an important ecological threat to forests of the greater Sierra Nevada in California. We developed a model for ammonia bioindication, a major nitrogen pollutant in the region, using epiphytic macrolichens. We used non-metric multidimensional scaling to extract gradients in lichen community composition from surveys...

  4. Regional variation in epiphytic macrolichen communities in northern and central California forests

    Treesearch

    Sarah Jovan; Bruce. McCune

    2004-01-01

    We studied epiphytic macrolichen communities in northern and central California to 1) describe how gradients in community composition relate to climate, topography, and stand structure and 2) define subregions of relatively homogeneous lichen communities and environmental conditions. Non-metric multidimensional scaling was used to characterize landscape-level trends in...

  5. FHM lichen community results from Wyoming, 1997: a preliminary summary

    Treesearch

    Peter Neitlich; Linda Hasselback; Susan Szewczak; Paul Rogers

    1999-01-01

    The Forest Health Monitoring (FHM) program seeks to assess the condition and trend of the forests of the United States (Riiters et al. 1992; NAPAP 1993). FHM is linked with the national sampling grid established by the Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) of the Environmental Protection Agency. Epiphytic lichen communities were included in FHM because...

  6. Decrease in air pollution load in urban environment of Bratislava (Slovakia) inferred from accumulation of metal elements in lichens.

    PubMed

    Guttová, Anna; Lackovičová, Anna; Pišút, Ivan; Pišút, Peter

    2011-11-01

    The study illustrates the response of epiphytic lichens to changing atmospheric conditions in Central Europe, where the emission of air pollutants has significantly decreased from 1990, in the area in and around Bratislava City. Variation in concentrations of seven metal elements (Cu, Cd, Cr, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) in the thalli of Evernia prunastri, Hypogymnia physodes and Parmelia sulcata is assessed. Samples of these species were exposed in lichen bags in 39 sites throughout the territory of the city (more than 300 km(2)) during the period December 2006-February 2007. The samples were analyzed by AAS for metal element contents prior to and after exposure. The decrease in air pollution (for all studied elements by more than 90%) corresponded to a decrease in the accumulation of elements in lichen thalli, e.g. the contents of Pb decreased by 69% and of Cd by 34% on average. The results show also variations in accumulation between with different lichen species. The background values of metal element contents in thalli of H. physodes growing in situ were measured in semi-natural sites in Slovakia. It is suggested that these can be used as a reference in large-scale monitoring studies in Central Europe. Analysis of compatible data from the current study, and the study performed at the end of 1990s shows a significant decrease of metal elements in the air pollution load.

  7. Pleistocene speciation in North American lichenized fungi and the impact of alternative species circumscriptions and rates of molecular evolution on divergence estimates.

    PubMed

    Leavitt, Steven D; Lumbsch, H Thorsten; Stenroos, Soili; St Clair, Larry L

    2013-01-01

    Pleistocene climatic fluctuations influenced patterns of genetic variation and promoted speciation across a wide range of species groups. Lichens are commonly found in habitats that were directly impacted by glacial cycles; however, the role of Pleistocene climate in driving speciation in most lichen symbionts remains unclear. This uncertainty is due in part to limitations in our ability to accurately recognize independently evolving lichen-forming fungal lineages and a lack of relevant fossil calibrations. Using a coalescent-based species tree approach, we estimated divergence times for two sister clades in the genus Xanthoparmelia (Parmeliaceae) restricted to western North America. We assessed the influence of two different species circumscription scenarios and various locus-specific rates of molecular evolution on divergence estimates. Species circumscriptions were validated using the program BP&P. although speciation was generally supported in both scenarios, divergence times differed between traditional species circumscriptions and those based on genetic data, with more recent estimates resulting from the former. Similarly, rates of evolution for different loci resulted in variable divergence time estimates. However, our results unambiguously indicate that diversification in the sampled Xanthoparmelia clades occurred during the Pleistocene. Our study highlights the potential impact of ambiguous species circumscriptions and uncertain rates of molecular evolution on estimating divergence times within a multilocus species tree framework.

  8. Pleistocene Speciation in North American Lichenized Fungi and the Impact of Alternative Species Circumscriptions and Rates of Molecular Evolution on Divergence Estimates

    PubMed Central

    Leavitt, Steven D.; Lumbsch, H. Thorsten; Stenroos, Soili; Clair, Larry L. St.

    2013-01-01

    Pleistocene climatic fluctuations influenced patterns of genetic variation and promoted speciation across a wide range of species groups. Lichens are commonly found in habitats that were directly impacted by glacial cycles; however, the role of Pleistocene climate in driving speciation in most lichen symbionts remains unclear. This uncertainty is due in part to limitations in our ability to accurately recognize independently evolving lichen-forming fungal lineages and a lack of relevant fossil calibrations. Using a coalescent-based species tree approach, we estimated divergence times for two sister clades in the genus Xanthoparmelia (Parmeliaceae) restricted to western North America. We assessed the influence of two different species circumscription scenarios and various locus-specific rates of molecular evolution on divergence estimates. Species circumscriptions were validated using the program BP&P. although speciation was generally supported in both scenarios, divergence times differed between traditional species circumscriptions and those based on genetic data, with more recent estimates resulting from the former. Similarly, rates of evolution for different loci resulted in variable divergence time estimates. However, our results unambiguously indicate that diversification in the sampled Xanthoparmelia clades occurred during the Pleistocene. Our study highlights the potential impact of ambiguous species circumscriptions and uncertain rates of molecular evolution on estimating divergence times within a multilocus species tree framework. PMID:24386465

  9. Chapter 6 - Links between land cover and lichen species richness at large scales in forested ecosystems across the United States.

    Treesearch

    Susan Will-Wolf; Randall S. Morin; Mark J. Ambrose; Kurt Riitters; Sarah Jovan

    2014-01-01

    Lichen community composition is well known for exhibiting response to air pollution, and to macroenvironmental and microenvironmental variables. Lichens are useful indicators of air quality impact, forest health, and forest ecosystem integrity across the United States (McCune 2000, reviews in Nimis and others 2002, USDA Forest Service 2007).

  10. Structural Impacts on Thallus and Algal Cell Components of Two Lichen Species in Response to Low-Level Air Pollution in Pacific Northwest Forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ra, Hyung-Shim Y.; Rubin, Laura; Crang, Richard F. E.

    2004-04-01

    Lichens have long been regarded as bioindicators of air pollution, and structural studies typically have indicated negative impacts in highly polluted areas. In this research, Parmelia sulcata and Platismatia glauca were collected from one clean and two polluted sites in the Pacific Northwest forests of the United States to investigate the anatomical and ultrastructural responses of relatively resistant lichens to moderate air pollution. Light microscopy of polluted materials revealed only slight increases in the algal cell proportions of the thallus, and a decrease in the fungal cells of the medulla. Using transmission electron microscopy, increased lipid droplets in the cytoplasm and an increase in the cell wall thickness of the photobionts were found in the polluted lichens. These results were compared with physiological data in which the net carbon uptake did not show any significant differences; however, the total chlorophyll content was heightened in the polluted samples. The increased total chlorophyll content and the absence of any changes in the algal cell proportions of the polluted samples suggest that the photobionts possessed a higher chlorophyll content per unit volume of the photobiont at polluted sites. The results also indicate that lichens have altered their storage allocation in different cellular compartments. This may be a result of symbiotic readjustment(s) between the photobiont and the mycobiont. In comparison with the physiological results from these two species, these changes do not represent damaging effects by low-level air pollution.

  11. The importance of old deciduous trees and wooden fences for lichen diversity - an example from the Teichalm area (Eastern Alps).

    PubMed

    Bilovitz, Peter Othmar

    2014-07-01

    BILOVITZ, P. O. 2014. The importance of old deciduous trees and wooden fences for lichen diversity - an example from the Teichalm area (Eastern Alps). - Herzogia 27: 199 -204. The investigation of the epiphytic lichen diversity on four neighbouring old, isolated deciduous trees and a wooden fence in the Teichalm area yielded 74 lichen taxa and 4 lichenicolous fungi. Anaptychia ciliaris, Cyphelium notarisii, Ramalina fastigiata and R. fraxinea are remarkable records. The usually sterile lichen Thelomma ocellatum was rich in fertile thalli. The known lichen diversity of the Teichalm-Sommeralm region increases from 87 to 122 taxa.

  12. The Magnetic Properties of Lichens Exposed Around a Cement Plant in Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkler, Aldo; Paoli, Luca; Guttová, Anna; Loppi, Stefano; Sagnotti, Leonardo

    2015-04-01

    A cement industry is a source of dust pollution, from quarrying and grinding of the raw material to kiln operations. Airborne pollutants related to combustion processes are also emitted, especially during kiln operations and power generation. The use of biomonitors can provide valuable information about the impact of airborne pollutants released during cement production and lichens are suitable bioindicators of air pollution, providing reliable information on the quality of the environment. We investigated the magnetic hysteresis properties and the elemental concentrations of epiphytic lichens from selected sites (a cement mill, two quarries, agricultural areas, and villages) in SW Slovakia; in particular, both transplanted and in situ lichens, bark, soil and rock samples from the sampling sites, as well as pre-transplant samples have been characterized. Evernia prunastri transplants, exposed up to 180 days, showed excellent correlations between the saturation magnetization (Ms) and saturation remanent magnetization (Mrs) values and the Fe concentrations; the analyzed samples were magnetically homogeneous, with marked differences only for the sample from a basalt quarry. Xanthoria parietina autochthonous samples have also a similar magnetic mineralogy; anyway their Ms and Mrs values were two orders of magnitude higher with respect to those from the transplants, implying increased concentration of magnetic particles according to the different lichen species and to the prolonged exposure. Magnetic methods can be valuable for discriminating various natural and anthropogenic sources of dust. In this study, we point out that the magnetic properties may also reflect the influence of the basalt quarry activity, of the soil and of the bedrock. For a proper evaluation of the pollution related to human activities, it is thus essential to verify the nature of the substrate and to select suitable and homogeneous pre/post lichen transplant sites.

  13. Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, dibenzothiophene, and alkylated homologs in the lichen Hypogymnia physodes by gas chromatography using single quadrupole mass spectrometry and time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Studabaker, William B; Puckett, Keith J; Percy, Kevin E; Landis, Matthew S

    2017-04-07

    Development of the Athabasca Oil Sands Region in northeastern Alberta, Canada has contributed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs), which include alkyl PAHs and dibenzothiophenes, to the regional environment. A new analytical method was developed for quantification of PAHs and PACs in the epiphytic lichen bioindicator species Hypogymnia physodes for use in the development of receptor models for attribution of PAH and PAC concentrations to anthropogenic and natural emission sources. Milled lichens were extracted with cyclohexane, and extracts were cleaned on silica gel using automated solid phase extraction techniques. Quantitative analysis was performed by gas chromatography with selected ion monitoring (GC-SIM-MS) for PAHs, and by GC with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF-MS) for PACs. PACs were quantitated in groups using representative reference compounds as calibration standards. Analytical detection limits were ≤2.5ngg(-1) for all individual compounds. Precision as measured by laboratory duplicates was variable; for individual analytes above 5ngg(-1) the mean absolute difference between duplicates was typically <20%. Selection of single-analyte markers for source attribution should include consideration of data quality indicators. Use of TOF-MS to spectrally characterize PAC group constituents identified significant challenges for the accurate quantitation of PACs with more than two carbons in their side chain(s). Total PAH concentrations in lichen samples ranged from 12 to 482ngg(-1). Total PACs in each sample varied from a fraction of total PAHs to more than four times total PAHs. Results of our analyses of H. physodes are compared with other studies using other species of lichens as PAH receptors and with passive monitoring data using polyurethane foam (PUF) samplers in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region (AOSR). This study presents the first analytical methodology developed for the determination of PACs in an

  14. Major fungal lineages are derived from lichen symbiotic ancestors.

    PubMed

    Lutzoni, F; Pagel, M; Reeb, V

    2001-06-21

    About one-fifth of all known extant fungal species form obligate symbiotic associations with green algae, cyanobacteria or with both photobionts. These symbioses, known as lichens, are one way for fungi to meet their requirement for carbohydrates. Lichens are widely believed to have arisen independently on several occasions, accounting for the high diversity and mixed occurrence of lichenized and non-lichenized (42 and 58%, respectively) fungal species within the Ascomycota. Depending on the taxonomic classification chosen, 15-18 orders of the Ascomycota include lichen-forming taxa, and 8-11 of these orders (representing about 60% of the Ascomycota species) contain both lichenized and non-lichenized species. Here we report a phylogenetic comparative analysis of the Ascomycota, a phylum that includes greater than 98% of known lichenized fungal species. Using a Bayesian phylogenetic tree sampling methodology combined with a statistical model of trait evolution, we take into account uncertainty about the phylogenetic tree and ancestral state reconstructions. Our results show that lichens evolved earlier than believed, and that gains of lichenization have been infrequent during Ascomycota evolution, but have been followed by multiple independent losses of the lichen symbiosis. As a consequence, major Ascomycota lineages of exclusively non-lichen-forming species are derived from lichen-forming ancestors. These species include taxa with important benefits and detriments to humans, such as Penicillium and Aspergillus.

  15. Extremotolerance and Resistance of Lichens: Comparative Studies on Five Species Used in Astrobiological Research I. Morphological and Anatomical Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meeßen, J.; Sánchez, F. J.; Brandt, A.; Balzer, E.-M.; de la Torre, R.; Sancho, L. G.; de Vera, J.-P.; Ott, S.

    2013-06-01

    Lichens are symbioses of two organisms, a fungal mycobiont and a photoautotrophic photobiont. In nature, many lichens tolerate extreme environmental conditions and thus became valuable models in astrobiological research to fathom biological resistance towards non-terrestrial conditions; including space exposure, hypervelocity impact simulations as well as space and Martian parameter simulations. All studies demonstrated the high resistance towards non-terrestrial abiotic factors of selected extremotolerant lichens. Besides other adaptations, this study focuses on the morphological and anatomical traits by comparing five lichen species— Circinaria gyrosa, Rhizocarpon geographicum, Xanthoria elegans, Buellia frigida, Pleopsidium chlorophanum—used in present-day astrobiological research. Detailed investigation of thallus organization by microscopy methods allows to study the effect of morphology on lichen resistance and forms a basis for interpreting data of recent and future experiments. All investigated lichens reveal a common heteromerous thallus structure but diverging sets of morphological-anatomical traits, as intra-/extra-thalline mucilage matrices, cortices, algal arrangements, and hyphal strands. In B. frigida, R. geographicum, and X. elegans the combination of pigmented cortex, algal arrangement, and mucilage seems to enhance resistance, while subcortex and algal clustering seem to be crucial in C. gyrosa, as well as pigmented cortices and basal thallus protrusions in P. chlorophanum. Thus, generalizations on morphologically conferred resistance have to be avoided. Such differences might reflect the diverging evolutionary histories and are advantageous by adapting lichens to prevalent abiotic stressors. The peculiar lichen morphology demonstrates its remarkable stake in resisting extreme terrestrial conditions and may explain the high resistance of lichens found in astrobiological research.

  16. Epiphytic algae on mosses in the Altindere Valley National Park (Maçka-Trabzon/Turkey).

    PubMed

    Sahin, B; Ozdemir, T

    2008-09-15

    Species composition and abundance of epiphytic algae on mosses growing in the Altindere Valley National Park were investigated in March 2008. The epiphytic algae identified in these samples were 27 species in total, 15 of the Bacillariophyta, 7 of the Cyanophyta, 4 of the Chlorophyta and a single of the Euglenophyta species. The members of the Bacillariophyta were more frequently found among these epiphytic algae on mosses. Netrium digitus (Ehrenb.) Itzigs and Rothe var. curtum (Borge) Willi Krieg. was recorded for the first time in the desmids flora of Turkey. The epiphytic algal flora on mosses at the submerged habitat was the richest of the three habitats.

  17. Lichenized and lichenicolous fungi from the Albanian Alps (Kosovo, Montenegro)

    PubMed Central

    Strasser, Eva A.; Hafellner, Josef; Stešević, Danijela; Geci, Fehmi; Mayrhofer, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    396 taxa (381 species) of lichenized and 45 species of lichenicolous fungi from the upper montane, subalpine and alpine belts of the Albanian Alps (= Prokletije Mountain Range, Bjeshkët e Nemuna) are presented. 92 lichenized and 26 lichenicolous fungi are new to Montenegro, 165 lichenized and 24 lichenicolous fungi are new to Kosovo, and 25 lichenized fungi (23 species) are new for the Balkan Peninsula. PMID:26869727

  18. Lichen Nitidus

    MedlinePlus

    ... References Chu J, et al. Lichen nitidus. CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal. 2014;186:E688. Tilly JJ, ... org," "Mayo Clinic Healthy Living," and the triple-shield Mayo Clinic logo are trademarks of Mayo Foundation ...

  19. Fallout Radioactivity and Epiphytes.

    Treesearch

    H. T. Odum; George Ann Briscoe; C. B. Briscoe

    1970-01-01

    After relatively high levels of fallout retention were dicovered in the epiphytic mossy forest of the Luquillo Mountains durin 1962, a survey of the distribution of radioactivity in the rain forest system was made with beta counting of 1500 samples supplemented with gamma spectra. High levels, up to 4138 counts per minute per gram, were found mainly in or on green...

  20. Species delimitation in taxonomically difficult lichen-forming fungi: an example from morphologically and chemically diverse Xanthoparmelia (Parmeliaceae) in North America.

    PubMed

    Leavitt, Steven D; Johnson, Leigh A; Goward, Trevor; St Clair, Larry L

    2011-09-01

    Mounting evidence suggests many morphology-based species circumscriptions in lichenized ascomycetes misrepresent fungal diversity. The lichenized ascomycete genus Xanthoparmelia includes over 800 described species displaying a considerable range of morphological and chemical variation. Species circumscriptions in this genus have traditionally been based on thallus morphology, medullary chemistry, and the presence or absence of sexual or asexual reproductive structures. Notwithstanding concerted effort on the part of taxonomists to arrive at a natural classification, modern taxonomic concepts for the most part remain unclear. Here we assess the evolution of characters traditionally regarded as taxonomically important by reconstructing a phylogenetic hypothesis based on sequence data from four nuclear ribosomal markers as well as fragments from two protein-coding nuclear loci. A total of 414 individuals were tested, representing 19 currently accepted species. Most sampled species, as currently circumscribed, were recovered as polyphyletic, suggesting that major diagnostic characters have evolved in a homoplasious manner. The vagrant growth form, distinct medullary chemistries, and production of vegetative diaspores appear to have evolved independently multiple times. Application of a population assignment test resulted in the recognition of 21 species-level genetic clusters, each of which was supported by a comparison of genetic distances as well as a Bayesian species delimitation method calculating probabilities associated with speciation events. Inferred clusters are largely incongruent with traditionally circumscribed species due to the prevalence of cryptic diversity and, in some cases, high levels of intraspecific morphological and chemical variation. These results call for a major taxonomic revision of Xanthoparmelia species in western North America.

  1. Monitoring temporal trends of air pollution in an urban area using mosses and lichens as biomonitors.

    PubMed

    Gerdol, Renato; Marchesini, Roberta; Iacumin, Paola; Brancaleoni, Lisa

    2014-08-01

    Monitoring air quality by using living organisms as biomonitors has received increasing attention in recent years. However, rather few studies were based on the concomitant use of passive biomonitoring (based on the different sensitivity of living organisms to air pollution) and active biomonitoring (based on their capacity to accumulate pollutants in the tissues). We carried out a repeated survey of an urban area in Northern Italy, with the objective of comparing temporal trends of different kinds of air pollutants with bioindication (passive biomonitoring) and bioaccumulation (active biomonitoring) techniques. During a five-year interval, temporal patterns of moss metal concentrations underwent significant changes probably due to intercurring variations in the importance of different pollution sources. Nitrogen (N) concentration in moss tissues also decreased and was paralleled by increasing diversity of epiphytic lichens. Increasing δ(15)N in moss tissues suggested a higher contribution of oxidized N species compared with reduced N species. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Rainforest air-conditioning: the moderating influence of epiphytes on the microclimate in tropical tree crowns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuntz, Sabine; Simon, Ulrich; Zotz, Gerhard

    2002-05-01

    Epiphytes are often assumed to influence the microclimatic conditions of the tree crowns that they inhabit. In order to quantify this notion, we measured the parameters "temperature" (of the substrate surface and the boundary layer of air above it), "evaporative drying rate" and "evapotranspiration" at various locations within tree crowns with differing epiphyte assemblages. The host tree species was Annona glabra, which was either populated by one of three epiphyte species ( Dimerandra emarginata, Tillandsia fasciculata, or Vriesea sanguinolenta) or was epiphyte-free. We found that during the hottest and driest time of day, microsites in the immediate proximity of epiphytes had significantly lower temperatures than epiphyte-bare locations within the same tree crown, even though the latter were also shaded by host tree foliage or branches. Moreover, water loss through evaporative drying at microsites adjacent to epiphytes was almost 20% lower than at exposed microsites. We also found that, over the course of several weeks, the evapotranspiration in tree crowns bearing epiphytes was significantly lower than in trees without epiphytes. Although the influence of epiphytes on temperature extremes and evaporation rates is relatively subtle, their mitigating effect could be of importance for small animals like arthropods inhabiting an environment as harsh and extreme as the tropical forest canopy.

  3. Rainforest air-conditioning: the moderating influence of epiphytes on the microclimate in tropical tree crowns.

    PubMed

    Stuntz, Sabine; Simon, Ulrich; Zotz, Gerhard

    2002-05-01

    Epiphytes are often assumed to influence the microclimatic conditions of the tree crowns that they inhabit. In order to quantify this notion, we measured the parameters "temperature" (of the substrate surface and the boundary layer of air above it), "evaporative drying rate" and "evapotranspiration" at various locations within tree crowns with differing epiphyte assemblages. The host tree species was Annona glabra, which was either populated by one of three epiphyte species (Dimerandra emarginata, Tillandsia fasciculata, or Vriesea sanguinolenta) or was epiphyte-free. We found that during the hottest and driest time of day, microsites in the immediate proximity of epiphytes had significantly lower temperatures than epiphyte-bare locations within the same tree crown, even though the latter were also shaded by host tree foliage or branches. Moreover, water loss through evaporative drying at microsites adjacent to epiphytes was almost 20% lower than at exposed microsites. We also found that, over the course of several weeks, the evapotranspiration in tree crowns bearing epiphytes was significantly lower than in trees without epiphytes. Although the influence of epiphytes on temperature extremes and evaporation rates is relatively subtle, their mitigating effect could be of importance for small animals like arthropods inhabiting an environment as harsh and extreme as the tropical forest canopy.

  4. Catalogue of the Lichenized and Lichenicolous Fungi of Montenegro

    PubMed Central

    Knežević, Branka; Mayrhofer, Helmut

    2011-01-01

    Summary The catalogue is based on a comprehensive evaluation of 169 published sources. The lichen mycota as currently known from Montenegro includes 681 species (with eight subspecies, nine varieties and one form) of lichenized fungi, 12 species of lichenicolous fungi, and nine non-lichenized fungi traditionally included in lichenological literature. PMID:21423858

  5. Catalogue of the Lichenized and Lichenicolous Fungi of Montenegro.

    PubMed

    Knežević, Branka; Mayrhofer, Helmut

    2009-02-09

    The catalogue is based on a comprehensive evaluation of 169 published sources. The lichen mycota as currently known from Montenegro includes 681 species (with eight subspecies, nine varieties and one form) of lichenized fungi, 12 species of lichenicolous fungi, and nine non-lichenized fungi traditionally included in lichenological literature.

  6. Physiological and chemical response of lichens transplanted in and around an industrial area of south Italy: relationship with the lichen diversity.

    PubMed

    Paoli, Luca; Pisani, Tommaso; Guttová, Anna; Sardella, Giovanni; Loppi, Stefano

    2011-05-01

    The lichen Evernia prunastri (L.) Ach. has been exposed for 3 months in and around an industrial area of Mediterranean Italy for monitoring physiological (photosynthetic efficiency, membrane lipids peroxidation and cell membrane integrity) and chemical (bioaccumulation of the heavy metals Cr, Ni, Pb, V and Zn) effects and investigate the consistency with the environmental quality status depicted by the diversity of epiphytic lichens (index of lichen diversity (ILD)). The results showed that thalli transplanted close to the industrial area exhibited early stress symptoms, as revealed by the increase in electrical conductivity indicating a damage endured by lichen cell membranes. The electrical conductivity was inversely correlated with the diversity of epiphytic lichens recorded at the same sites. The ILD negatively correlated also with membrane lipid peroxidation and the rate of accumulation of Pb, V and Zn. Reciprocal correlations found among trace elements pinpointed vehicular traffic and metal processing in the industrial area as main sources. The damage endured by cell membranes was the best physiological indicator consistent with the air quality status depicted by the diversity of epiphytic lichens. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Lichens from Simeonof Wilderness, Shumagin Island, Southwestern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Talbot, Stephen S.; Talbot, Sandra L.; Thomson, J.W.; Daniels, F.J.A.; Schofield, W.B.

    2002-01-01

    One hundred eighty-eight taxa of lichens are reported from Simeonof Island in the Shumagin Islands of southwestern Alaska. Wide-ranging arctic-alpine and boreal species dominate the lichens; a coastal element is moderately represented, while amphi-Beringian species form a minor element. The lichen component of Empetrum nigrum dwarf shrub heath, the dominant vegetation type, was analyzed to identify the most frequently occurring lichens within this community.

  8. Distribution of vascular epiphytes along a tropical elevational gradient: disentangling abiotic and biotic determinants.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yi; Liu, Guangfu; Zang, Runguo; Zhang, Jian; Lu, Xinghui; Huang, Jihong

    2016-01-22

    Epiphytic vascular plants are common species in humid tropical forests. Epiphytes are influenced by abiotic and biotic variables, but little is known about the relative importance of direct and indirect effects on epiphyte distribution. We surveyed 70 transects (10 m × 50 m) along an elevation gradient (180 m-1521 m) and sampled all vascular epiphytes and trees in a typical tropical forest on Hainan Island, south China. The direct and indirect effects of abiotic factors (climatic and edaphic) and tree community characteristics on epiphytes species diversity were examined. The abundance and richness of vascular epiphytes generally showed a unimodal curve with elevation and reached maximum value at ca. 1300 m. The species composition in transects from high elevation (above 1200 m) showed a more similar assemblage. Climate explained the most variation in epiphytes species diversity followed by tree community characteristics and soil features. Overall, climate (relative humidity) and tree community characteristics (tree size represented by basal area) had the strongest direct effects on epiphyte diversity while soil variables (soil water content and available phosphorus) mainly had indirect effects. Our study suggests that air humidity is the most important abiotic while stand basal area is the most important biotic determinants of epiphyte diversity along the tropical elevational gradient.

  9. Distribution of vascular epiphytes along a tropical elevational gradient: disentangling abiotic and biotic determinants

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Yi; Liu, Guangfu; Zang, Runguo; Zhang, Jian; Lu, Xinghui; Huang, Jihong

    2016-01-01

    Epiphytic vascular plants are common species in humid tropical forests. Epiphytes are influenced by abiotic and biotic variables, but little is known about the relative importance of direct and indirect effects on epiphyte distribution. We surveyed 70 transects (10 m × 50 m) along an elevation gradient (180 m–1521 m) and sampled all vascular epiphytes and trees in a typical tropical forest on Hainan Island, south China. The direct and indirect effects of abiotic factors (climatic and edaphic) and tree community characteristics on epiphytes species diversity were examined. The abundance and richness of vascular epiphytes generally showed a unimodal curve with elevation and reached maximum value at ca. 1300 m. The species composition in transects from high elevation (above 1200 m) showed a more similar assemblage. Climate explained the most variation in epiphytes species diversity followed by tree community characteristics and soil features. Overall, climate (relative humidity) and tree community characteristics (tree size represented by basal area) had the strongest direct effects on epiphyte diversity while soil variables (soil water content and available phosphorus) mainly had indirect effects. Our study suggests that air humidity is the most important abiotic while stand basal area is the most important biotic determinants of epiphyte diversity along the tropical elevational gradient. PMID:26796667

  10. Lignin phenols derivatives in lichens.

    PubMed

    Zavarzina, A G; Romankevich, E A; Peresypkin, V I; Ulyantzev, A S; Belyaev, N A; Zavarzin, A A

    2015-01-01

    Lignin monophenols have been measured in the cupric oxide oxidation products from lichens of different systematic groups. It is shown for the first time that syringyl structures in most lichens strongly dominate over vanillyl and p-hydroxyl ones (S/V 7-583, S/P 3-30). This distinguishes lichens from algae and mosses (p-hydroxyl phenols are dominant) and from higher plants (S/V ratios are from 0 in gymnosperms to 1.1-5.2 in angiosperms). Molecular ratios of phenols as well as the ratios of acids to aldehydes in lichens were different from lignin of higher plants, suggesting contribution of non-lignin phenols in CuO oxidation products. The contents of syringyl and vanillyl phenols in some lichen species were comparable to non-woody tissues of higher plants. Results of the study suggest that lichens can be important source of aromatic structures in soils and hydrosphere, particularly in the regions were lichens are abundant.

  11. Epiphyte response to drought and experimental warming in an Andean cloud forest

    PubMed Central

    Rapp, Joshua M.; Silman, Miles R.

    2014-01-01

    The high diversity and abundance of vascular epiphytes in tropical montane cloud forest is associated with frequent cloud immersion, which is thought to protect plants from drought stress. Increasing temperature and rising cloud bases associated with climate change may increase epiphyte drought stress, leading to species and biomass loss. We tested the hypothesis that warmer and drier conditions associated with a lifting cloud base will lead to increased mortality and/or decreased recruitment of epiphyte ramets, altering species composition in epiphyte mats. By using a reciprocal transplant design, where epiphyte mats were transplanted across an altitudinal gradient of increasing cloud immersion, we differentiated between the effects of warmer and drier conditions from the more general prediction of niche theory that transplanting epiphytes in any direction away from their home elevation should result in reduced performance. Effects differed among species, but effects were generally stronger and more negative for epiphytes in mats transplanted down slope from the highest elevation, into warmer and drier conditions, than for epiphyte mats transplanted from other elevations. In contrast, epiphytes from lower elevations showed greater resistance to drought in all treatments. Epiphyte community composition changed with elevation, but over the timescale of the experiment there were no consistent changes in species composition. Our results suggest some epiphytes may show resistance to climate change depending on the environmental and evolutionary context. In particular, sites where high rainfall makes cloud immersion less important for epiphyte water-balance, or where occasional drought has previously selected for drought-resistant taxa, may be less adversely affected by predicted climate changes. PMID:25165534

  12. Epiphyte response to drought and experimental warming in an Andean cloud forest.

    PubMed

    Rapp, Joshua M; Silman, Miles R

    2014-01-01

    The high diversity and abundance of vascular epiphytes in tropical montane cloud forest is associated with frequent cloud immersion, which is thought to protect plants from drought stress. Increasing temperature and rising cloud bases associated with climate change may increase epiphyte drought stress, leading to species and biomass loss. We tested the hypothesis that warmer and drier conditions associated with a lifting cloud base will lead to increased mortality and/or decreased recruitment of epiphyte ramets, altering species composition in epiphyte mats. By using a reciprocal transplant design, where epiphyte mats were transplanted across an altitudinal gradient of increasing cloud immersion, we differentiated between the effects of warmer and drier conditions from the more general prediction of niche theory that transplanting epiphytes in any direction away from their home elevation should result in reduced performance. Effects differed among species, but effects were generally stronger and more negative for epiphytes in mats transplanted down slope from the highest elevation, into warmer and drier conditions, than for epiphyte mats transplanted from other elevations. In contrast, epiphytes from lower elevations showed greater resistance to drought in all treatments. Epiphyte community composition changed with elevation, but over the timescale of the experiment there were no consistent changes in species composition. Our results suggest some epiphytes may show resistance to climate change depending on the environmental and evolutionary context. In particular, sites where high rainfall makes cloud immersion less important for epiphyte water-balance, or where occasional drought has previously selected for drought-resistant taxa, may be less adversely affected by predicted climate changes.

  13. Mollusc grazing may constrain the ecological niche of the old forest lichen Pseudocyphellaria crocata.

    PubMed

    Gauslaa, Y

    2008-11-01

    This study reports on mollusc grazing of two epiphytic cyanobacterial lichens (Pseudocyphellaria crocata and Lobaria pulmonaria) transplanted within three Picea abies-dominated boreal rain forest stands (clear-cut, young and old forests) in west central Norway. Grazing was particularly high in transplants located in the old forest and was almost absent in clear-cut transplants. Grazing marks were absent on natural thalli on nearby spruce twigs (required creeping distance for mollusc from the ground >4 m). Transplantation of lichens from twigs to artificial transplantation frames reduced the creeping distance to 1.2 m, and caused a significant increase in grazing damage in P. crocata. Given a paired choice under transplantation, molluscs consistently preferred P. crocata and avoided L. pulmonaria, implying species-specific differences in herbivore defence. Pseudocyphellaria crocata has a much lower content of the medullary depsidones stictic and constictic acid than L. pulmonaria. Heavy grazing occurred in the P. crocata thalli lowest in these two depsidones. The upper part of the medulla hosting the photobiont was the preferred fodder for grazing molluscs. Molluscs avoided the yellow soralia in P. crocata (localised pulvinic acid), suggesting a role for pulvinic acid in preventing grazing of detached soredia and early establishment stages. The preference of P. crocata for thin spruce twigs is probably a result of a lower grazing pressure on twigs compared to e.g. deciduous stems that frequently support the better defended L. pulmonaria. Ongoing climate changes with increased annual rainfall and milder winters have presumably increased mollusc grazing, particularly in SW parts of Norway which have more species of lichen-feeding molluscs than the boreal sites studied. These temperate areas lacking natural spruce populations have recently experienced reported extinctions of the poorly defended P. crocata from rocks and deciduous stems prone to mollusc grazing. Lichen

  14. Two Species of Bryoria (Lichenized Ascomycota, Parmeliaceae) from the Sino-Himalayas

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Li-song; Harada, Hiroshi; Koh, Young Jin

    2005-01-01

    We performed a taxonomic study on two species of the genus Bryoria from the Sino-Himalayas, SW-China. B. nadvornikiana is new to China and B. furcellata is new to Yunnan and Sichuan provinces in the Sino-Himalayas. Morphology, habitat, distributions and chemistry of the two species are discussed. PMID:24049496

  15. Occurrence Patterns of Lichens on Stumps in Young Managed Forests

    PubMed Central

    Svensson, Måns; Dahlberg, Anders; Ranius, Thomas; Thor, Göran

    2013-01-01

    The increasing demand for forest-derived bio-fuel may decrease the amount of dead wood and hence also the amount of available substrate for saproxylic ( = dead-wood dependent) organisms. Cut stumps constitute a large portion of dead wood in managed boreal forests. The lichen flora of such stumps has received little interest. Therefore, we investigated which lichens that occur on stumps in young (4–19 years), managed forests and analyzed how species richness and occurrence of individual species were related to stump and stand characteristics. We performed lichen inventories of 576 Norway spruce stumps in 48 forest stands in two study areas in Central Sweden, recording in total 77 lichen species. Of these, 14 were obligately lignicolous, while the remaining were generalists that also grow on bark, soil or rocks. We tested the effect of characteristics reflecting successional stage, microclimate, substrate patch size, and the species pool in the surrounding area on (1) total lichen species richness, (2) species richness of obligately lignicolous lichens and (3) the occurrence of four obligately lignicolous lichen species. The most important variables were stump age, with more species on old stumps, and study area, with similar total species richness but differences in occupancy for individual species. Responses for total lichen species richness and species richness of obligately lignicolous lichens were overall similar, indicating similar ecological requirements of these two groups. Our results indicate that species richness measurements serve as poor proxies for the responses of individual, obligately lignicolous lichen species. PMID:23638150

  16. Occurrence patterns of lichens on stumps in young managed forests.

    PubMed

    Svensson, Måns; Dahlberg, Anders; Ranius, Thomas; Thor, Göran

    2013-01-01

    The increasing demand for forest-derived bio-fuel may decrease the amount of dead wood and hence also the amount of available substrate for saproxylic ( = dead-wood dependent) organisms. Cut stumps constitute a large portion of dead wood in managed boreal forests. The lichen flora of such stumps has received little interest. Therefore, we investigated which lichens that occur on stumps in young (4-19 years), managed forests and analyzed how species richness and occurrence of individual species were related to stump and stand characteristics. We performed lichen inventories of 576 Norway spruce stumps in 48 forest stands in two study areas in Central Sweden, recording in total 77 lichen species. Of these, 14 were obligately lignicolous, while the remaining were generalists that also grow on bark, soil or rocks. We tested the effect of characteristics reflecting successional stage, microclimate, substrate patch size, and the species pool in the surrounding area on (1) total lichen species richness, (2) species richness of obligately lignicolous lichens and (3) the occurrence of four obligately lignicolous lichen species. The most important variables were stump age, with more species on old stumps, and study area, with similar total species richness but differences in occupancy for individual species. Responses for total lichen species richness and species richness of obligately lignicolous lichens were overall similar, indicating similar ecological requirements of these two groups. Our results indicate that species richness measurements serve as poor proxies for the responses of individual, obligately lignicolous lichen species.

  17. Development of an epiphyte indicator of nutrient enrichment ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Metrics of epiphyte load on macrophytes were evaluated for use as quantitative biological indicators for nutrient impacts in estuarine waters, based on review and analysis of the literature on epiphytes and macrophytes, primarily seagrasses, but including some brackish and freshwater rooted macrophyte species. An approach is presented that empirically derives threshold epiphyte loads which are likely to cause specified levels of decrease in macrophyte response metrics such as biomass, shoot density, percent cover, production and growth. Data from 36 studies of 10 macrophyte species were pooled to derive relationships between epiphyte load and -25 and -50% seagrass response levels, which are proposed as the primary basis for establishment of critical threshold values. Given multiple sources of variability in the response data, threshold ranges based on the range of values falling between the median and the 75th quantiles of observations at a given seagrass response level are proposed rather than single, critical point values. Four epiphyte load threshold categories - low, moderate, high, very high, are proposed. Comparison of values of epiphyte loads associated with 25 and 50% reductions in light to macrophytes suggest that the threshold ranges are realistic both in terms of the principle mechanism of impact to macrophytes and in terms of the magnitude of resultant impacts expressed by the macrophytes. Some variability in response levels was observed among

  18. Development of an epiphyte indicator of nutrient enrichment ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Metrics of epiphyte load on macrophytes were evaluated for use as quantitative biological indicators for nutrient impacts in estuarine waters, based on review and analysis of the literature on epiphytes and macrophytes, primarily seagrasses, but including some brackish and freshwater rooted macrophyte species. An approach is presented that empirically derives threshold epiphyte loads which are likely to cause specified levels of decrease in macrophyte response metrics such as biomass, shoot density, percent cover, production and growth. Data from 36 studies of 10 macrophyte species were pooled to derive relationships between epiphyte load and -25 and -50% seagrass response levels, which are proposed as the primary basis for establishment of critical threshold values. Given multiple sources of variability in the response data, threshold ranges based on the range of values falling between the median and the 75th quantiles of observations at a given seagrass response level are proposed rather than single, critical point values. Four epiphyte load threshold categories - low, moderate, high, very high, are proposed. Comparison of values of epiphyte loads associated with 25 and 50% reductions in light to macrophytes suggest that the threshold ranges are realistic both in terms of the principle mechanism of impact to macrophytes and in terms of the magnitude of resultant impacts expressed by the macrophytes. Some variability in response levels was observed among

  19. The importance of old deciduous trees and wooden fences for lichen diversity – an example from the Teichalm area (Eastern Alps)

    PubMed Central

    Bilovitz, Peter Othmar

    2016-01-01

    BILOVITZ, P. O. 2014. The importance of old deciduous trees and wooden fences for lichen diversity – an example from the Teichalm area (Eastern Alps). – Herzogia 27: 199 –204. The investigation of the epiphytic lichen diversity on four neighbouring old, isolated deciduous trees and a wooden fence in the Teichalm area yielded 74 lichen taxa and 4 lichenicolous fungi. Anaptychia ciliaris, Cyphelium notarisii, Ramalina fastigiata and R. fraxinea are remarkable records. The usually sterile lichen Thelomma ocellatum was rich in fertile thalli. The known lichen diversity of the Teichalm-Sommeralm region increases from 87 to 122 taxa. PMID:27284208

  20. Exploring symbiont management in lichens.

    PubMed

    Grube, Martin; Spribille, Toby

    2012-07-01

    Lichens are unique among fungal symbioses in that their mycelial structures are compact and exposed to the light as thallus structures. The myriad intersections of unique fungal species with photosynthetic partner organisms (green algae in 90% of lichens) produce a wide variety of diverse shapes and colours of the fully synthesized lichen thallus when growing in nature. This characteristic complex morphology is, however, not achieved in the fungal axenic state. Even under ideal environmental conditions, the lichen life cycle faces considerable odds: first, meiotic spores are only produced on well-established thalli and often only after achieving considerable age in a stable environment, and second, even then in vivo resynthesis requires the presence of compatible algal strains where fungal spores germinate. Many lichen species have evolved a way around the resynthesis bottleneck by producing asexual propagules for joint propagation of symbionts. These different dispersal strategies ostensibly shape the population genetic structure of lichen symbioses, but the relative contributions of vertical (joint) and horizontal (independent) symbiont transmission have long eluded lichen evolutionary biologists. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Dal Grande et al. (2012) close in on this question with the lung lichen, Lobaria pulmonaria, a flagship species in the conservation of old growth forests. By capitalizing on available microsatellite markers for both fungal and algal symbionts, they show that while vertical transmission is the predominant mode of reproduction, horizontal transmission is demonstrable and actively shapes population genetic structure. The resulting mixed propagation system is a highly successful balance of safe recruitment of symbiotic clones and endless possibilities for fungal recombination and symbiont shuffling.

  1. Epiphytes as an Indicator of Climate Change in Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kettwich, S. K.

    2013-12-01

    Although climate change threatens many ecosystems, current research in this field suggests tropical vegetation lags in response. Epiphytes, or arboreal vegetation, occupy tight, climate-defined niches compared with co-occurring life forms such as trees, yet there have been few studies of Hawaii's epiphyte communities. Because of Hawaii Island's natural climatic diversity, it is an ideal location to understand how these intrinsically climate sensitive plants interact with the atmosphere and evaluate how they may serve as a near-term indicator of climate change. Here we establish a baseline from which changes in corticolous epiphyte communities can be monitored as a leading indicator of likely forest changes by 1) investigating patterns of epiphyte abundance and species composition across elevation and precipitation gradients on windward Hawaii Island, and 2) using physiological measurements to investigate the relative importance of rain vs. fog in epiphyte-atmosphere interactions. The precipitation gradient keeps elevation constant at 1000m, while varying precipitation between 2,400 and 6,400 mm/year. The elevation gradient keeps rainfall constant at 3000mm/year, and varies elevation between 200 and 1750 m. Forest sites are dominated by Ohia Lehua (Metrosideros polymorpha) across broad geographic and climatological ranges thus allowing examination of epiphytes on this single host. We quantified bryophytes and vascular plants growing on Ohia trunks with standardized diameter and branching characteristics. Overall, epiphyte communities showed much finer scale responses to climate variation when compared with structurally dominant vegetation (which was broadly similar at all sites). The precipitation gradient exhibits a clear increase in abundance of all epiphyte groups and a definable increase in diversity with increasing rainfall. Results across the elevation gradient show a higher abundance of filmy ferns and bryophytes above the lifting condensation level (about

  2. Aspen indicator species in lichen communities in the Bear River range of Idaho and Utah

    Treesearch

    Paul C. Rogers; Roger Rosentreter; Ronald J. Ryel

    2007-01-01

    Aspen are thought to be declining in this region due to a combination of fire suppression, grazing and wildlife management practices, and potentially cool/wet climates of the past century which favor advancing conifer succession. Many scientists are concerned that aspen's related species may also be losing habitat, thereby threatening the long-term local and...

  3. [Striated lichen].

    PubMed

    Méndez-Santillán, E

    1991-02-01

    Striated lichen is a rare disease seen primarily in pediatric ages. Of more of less quick appearance, generally persisting for a year, and later spontaneously involuting. Its etiology and pathogenia are unkown. It is a disease essentially clinically diagnosed and should be differentiated from other entities of linear distribution.

  4. Lichen simplex chronicus

    MedlinePlus

    ... lichen simplex chronicus; Atopic dermatitis - lichen simplex chronicus; Psoriasis - lichen simplex chronicus ... people who have: Skin allergies Eczema (atopic dermatitis) Psoriasis Nervousness, anxiety, depression, and other emotional problems The ...

  5. Oral Lichen Planus

    MedlinePlus

    Oral lichen planus Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Oral lichen planus (LIE-kun PLAY-nus) is an ongoing (chronic) ... that affects mucous membranes inside your mouth. Oral lichen planus may appear as white, lacy patches; red, ...

  6. Not rare. But, endangered Elemental profiles of three corticolous lichen species on red spruce in Maine. [Usnea subfloridana; Platismatia glauca; Hypogymnia physodes

    SciTech Connect

    Stubbs, C.S.; Homola, R.H. )

    1990-01-01

    Usnea subfloridana Stirton, Platismatia glauca (L.) Club. and Club., and Hypogymnia physodes (L.) Nyl. are lichen species moderately to highly sensitive to air pollutants, including acid deposition and ozone. Some researchers have attributed depauperate populations and local extinctions of these species to poor air quality. Since 1985, areas of Maine annually experienced mean summer rain and fog events of pH 4.5 or lower and ozone levels above national standards. Given this possible threat to these and other pollution sensitive species, baseline elemental analyses for Ca, K, P, Mg, Al, B, Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn, N, S, Na, and Pb were performed in 1986 on coastal and inland populations on Picea rubens L. Elemental analyses were again performed on nontransplanted and transplanted lichens from the same populations in 1988. There were statistically significant differences in elemental profiles between nontransplanted 1986 and 1988 samples for all three species, such as significant decreases in Ca and Mg concentrations, and increases in Al, Cu, Fe, and Zn for U. subfloridana. Elemental concentrations between nontransplanted and transplanted material differed significantly, but no consistent pattern emerged. These results, coupled with other evidence (such as luxuriance and density ratings), suggest that both inland and coastal populations of U. subfloridana on red spruce are experiencing ecophysiological stress.

  7. Vertical and horizontal photobiont transmission within populations of a lichen symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Dal Grande, F; Widmer, I; Wagner, H H; Scheidegger, C

    2012-07-01

    Lichens are widespread symbioses and play important roles in many terrestrial ecosystems. The genetic structure of lichens is the result of the association between fungal and algal populations constituting the lichen thallus. Using eight fungus- and seven alga-specific highly variable microsatellite markers on within-population spatial genetic data from 62 replicate populations across Europe, North America, Asia and Africa, we investigated the contributions of vertical and horizontal transmission of the photobiont to the genetic structure of the epiphytic lichen Lobaria pulmonaria. Based on pairwise comparisons of multilocus genotypes defined separately for the mycobiont and for the photobiont, we inferred the transmission mode of the photobiont and the relative contribution of somatic mutation and recombination. After constraining the analysis of one symbiont to pairs of individuals with genetically identical symbiotic partners, we found that 77% of fungal and 70% of algal pairs were represented by clones. Thus, the predominant dispersal mode was by means of symbiotic vegetative propagules (vertical transmission), which dispersed fungal and algal clones co-dependently over a short distance, thus shaping the spatial genetic structure up to distances of 20m. Evidence for somatic mutation generating genetic diversity was found in both symbionts, accounting for 30% of pairwise comparisons in the alga and 15% in the fungus. While the alga did not show statistically significant evidence of recombination, recombination accounted for 7.7% of fungal pairs with identical algae. This implies that, even in a mostly vegetatively reproducing species, horizontal transmission plays a role in shaping the symbiotic association, as shown in many coral and other symbioses in nature.

  8. Lichens: unexpected anti-prion agents?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodriguez, Cynthia M.; Bennett, James P.; Johnson, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    The prion diseases sheep scrapie and cervid chronic wasting disease are transmitted, in part, via an environmental reservoir of infectivity; prions released from infected animals persist in the environment and can cause disease years later. Central to controlling disease transmission is the identification of methods capable of inactivating these agents on the landscape. We have found that certain lichens, common, ubiquitous, symbiotic organisms, possess a serine protease capable of degrading prion protein (PrP) from prion-infected animals. The protease functions against a range of prion strains from various hosts and reduces levels of abnormal PrP by at least two logs. We have now tested more than 20 lichen species from several geographical locations and from various taxa and found that approximately half of these species degrade PrP. Critical next steps include examining the effect of lichens on prion infectivity and cloning the protease responsible for PrP degradation. The impact of lichens on prions in the environment remains unknown. We speculate that lichens could have the potential to degrade prions when they are shed from infected animals onto lichens or into environments where lichens are abundant. In addition, lichens are frequently consumed by cervids and many other animals and the effect of dietary lichens on prion disease transmission should also be considered.

  9. Lichens: unexpected anti-prion agents?

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Cynthia M; Bennett, James P; Johnson, Christopher J

    2012-01-01

    The prion diseases sheep scrapie and cervid chronic wasting disease are transmitted, in part, via an environmental reservoir of infectivity; prions released from infected animals persist in the environment and can cause disease years later. Central to controlling disease transmission is the identification of methods capable of inactivating these agents on the landscape. We have found that certain lichens, common, ubiquitous, symbiotic organisms, possess a serine protease capable of degrading prion protein (PrP) from prion-infected animals. The protease functions against a range of prion strains from various hosts and reduces levels of abnormal PrP by at least two logs. We have now tested more than twenty lichen species from several geographical locations and from various taxa and found that approximately half of these species degrade PrP. Critical next steps include examining the effect of lichens on prion infectivity and cloning the protease responsible for PrP degradation. The impact of lichens on prions in the environment remains unknown. We speculate that lichens could have the potential to degrade prions when they are shed from infected animals onto lichens or into environments where lichens are abundant. In addition, lichens are frequently consumed by cervids and many other animals and the effect of dietary lichens on prion disease transmission should also be considered.

  10. Lichen diversity and lichen transplants as monitors of air pollution in a rural area of central Italy.

    PubMed

    Loppi, Stefano; Frati, Luisa

    2006-03-01

    The results of a biomonitoring study carried out in the Municipality of Colle di Val d'Elsa (central Italy), using the diversity of epiphytic lichens and the accumulation of selected elements in thalli of the lichen Evernia prunastri transplanted in two urban sites are reported. The results indicate that the survey area suffers from different types of pollution. The main air pollutants are NO( X ) and Pb. Vehicular traffic and domestic heating are the main sources of the former, and traffic and a crystal factory of the latter. Furthermore, most study area is eutrophicated due to diffuse agricultural activities and the presence of pig and sheep stockfarms.

  11. Long chain n-alkanes and their carbon isotopes in lichen species from western Hubei Province: implication for geological records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xianyu; Xue, Jiantao; Guo, Shouyu

    2012-03-01

    Five coticolous lichen samples were collected from western Hubei Province of China to analyze the long chain n-alkanes and their carbon isotope compositions. The n-alkanes range in carbon number from C17 to C33 with strong odd-over-even predominance between C21 and C33. Lichens are dominated by n-C29 in the samples of Dajiuhu, Shennongjia Mountain, but by both n-C23 and n-C29 at Qizimei Mountain. This difference may result from the different environmental conditions in these two sites. The δ 13C values of long chain n-alkanes in lichen samples show the signature of C3 plants. Based on compoundspecific carbon isotopic values and previous results, we state that alkane homologs >C23 mainly originate from the symbiotic fungi, while symbiotic algae only contribute trace amount of long chain alkanes. Of great interesting is the occurrence of long chain 3-methylalkanes in the Qizimei samples. These anteiso compounds range from C24 to C32, displaying obvious even-over-odd predominance. This study reveals that the association of long chain 3-methylalkanes with n-C23 alkane might be used as proxies to reconstruct the paleoecological implications of lichens in Earth history.

  12. Assessment of lichen diversity by index of atmospheric purity (IAP), index of human impact (IHI) and other environmental factors in an urban area (Grenoble, southeast France).

    PubMed

    Gombert, S; Asta, J; Seaward, M R D

    2004-05-25

    An assessment of air quality in the Grenoble area was made using the index of atmospheric purity (IAP). The survey area was divided into 198 units (0.7 x 1 km), in which 345 average lichen relevés were analyzed according to the Braun-Blanquet method. Each relevé station was characterized in the field by a subjective index of human impact (IHI) calculated according to four local environmental parameters influencing the epiphytic lichen flora: urbanization (urban, suburban or rural area), road traffic (low or high), local developments (stations located within crop fields, green areas, housing sites or car parks), and exposure (trees isolated, in rows or grouped). Eighty-three epiphytic lichen species and two algae were recorded and grouped into three ecological categories defined according to bark type and nutrient needs: nitrophytic, neutrophytic and acidophytic species. IAP values, varying from 5.9 to 71.7, were clustered into five categories in order to produce an air-quality map. The geographical pattern of the IAP map showed no clear connection with local sources of pollution, such as the vicinity of a road or an industrial plant, and was not correlated with annual mean values of SO(2), NO(2) and NO for the years 1994-1997. IAP appeared to be influenced by environmental artificiality as shown by a polynomial trend observed between IAP and IHI, even if IAP values were broadly scattered. Multivariate analysis (canonical correspondence) showed that high IAP values could be observed in stations of "natural" environments at high elevations and in stations of "artificial" environments at low elevations. It was also shown that IAP varied in relation to the relative proportion of ecological groups of lichen relevés: although a majority of neutrophytic species (>50%) with a much lower percentage of nitrophytic species generally characterized high IAP, a predominance of acidophytic or nitrophytic species led to a decrease in the IAP. A correlation between nitrophytic

  13. Community structure of epiphytic algae on three different macrophytes at Acarlar floodplain forest (northern Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tunca, Hatice; Ongun Sevindik, Tuğba; Bal, Dilek Nur; Arabaci, Sevil

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the species composition, biodiversity and, relative abundance of epiphytic algae and their relationship with environmental variables on three different macrophytes ( Nymphaea alba, Ceratophyllum demersum, Typha latifolia ) at Acarlar Floodplain Forest (AFF). Epiphytic algae were gathered monthly by collecting aquatic plants between November 2011 and October 2012, except in winter when there were no plants. In this study, 67 taxa on N. alba, 66 taxa on C. demersum and 66 taxa on T. latifolia were identified as epiphytic algae. The mean value of species richness was 17, that of diversity was 1.5 and that of evenness was 0.54 for epiphytic algae on N. alba, 17, 1.1, and 0.39 on C. demersum, and 18, 1.64, and 0.56 on T. latifolia, respectively. Oscillatoria sp. and Komvophoron crassum (Vozzen) Anagnostidis and Komárek were the most abundant and consistent epiphytic algal species, occurring in high abundance on all macrophytes. Results show that species composition of epiphytic algae was different, but diversity values were similar on all the macrophytes. The hydrological pulse is one of the most important factors determining the physical and chemical environment of the epiphytic algal community. However, substrate type also affected the colonization by F. capucina, O. sancta, P. catenata, and L. truncicola more than the epiphytic algal seasonality.

  14. Lichens of Izembek National Wildlife Refuge, westernmost Alaska Peninsula

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Talbot, S. S.; Talbot, S.L.; Thomson, J.W.; Schofield, W.B.

    2000-01-01

    One hundred eighty-two taxa of lichens including two lichen parasites are reported from Izembek National Wildlife Refuge on the tip of the Alaska Peninsula. Metasphaeria tartarina is new to North America; Scoliciosporum umbrinum is new to Alaska. Wide-ranging, arctic-alpine, and boreal species dominate the lichen flora; a coastal element is moderately represented, while amphi-Beringian species form a minor element. Epigeic lichen abundance is described along a lowland to alpine mesotopographic gradient selected to represent major landscape variation in the refuge. Of six major community types identified, three had significant lichen components.

  15. Vascular Epiphyte Diversity Differs with Host Crown Zone and Diameter, but Not Orientation in a Tropical Cloud Forest.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xixi; Long, Wenxing; Schamp, Brandon S; Yang, Xiaobo; Kang, Yong; Xie, Zhixu; Xiong, Menghui

    2016-01-01

    Vascular epiphytes are important components of biological diversity in tropical forests. We measured the species richness and abundance of vascular epiphytes along four vertical crown zones and five horizontal orientations on 376 trees, as well as the diameter at breast height (DBH) of host trees in tropical cloud forests in Bawangling, Hainan, China. The relationship between vascular epiphyte species richness and host tree DBH was assessed using a generalized linear model. There were 1,453 vascular individual epiphytes attributed to 9 families, 24 genera and 35 species, with orchids and pteridophytes dominating. Both the species richness and abundance of epiphytes significantly differed among the four crown zones for all collections and each host tree, suggesting that vertical microhabitats contribute to the distribution of epiphytes on host trees. Neither epiphyte abundance nor species richness differed among the eastern, southern, western, and northern orientations for all host trees; however, both richness and abundance were significantly higher for epiphytes that encircled host tree trunks. This suggests that morphological and physiological characteristics of the tree, but not microclimates probably contribute to the distribution of epiphytes on host trees. Epiphyte species richness was positively correlated with tree DBH across the six host tree species studied, with increases in DBH among smaller trees resulting in larger increases in richness, while increases in DBH among larger host trees resulting in more modest increases in ephiphyte richness. Our findings contribute support for a positive relationship between epiphyte species richness and host tree DBH and provide important guidance for future surveys of epiphyte community development.

  16. Vascular Epiphyte Diversity Differs with Host Crown Zone and Diameter, but Not Orientation in a Tropical Cloud Forest

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xixi; Long, Wenxing; Schamp, Brandon S.; Yang, Xiaobo; Kang, Yong; Xie, Zhixu; Xiong, Menghui

    2016-01-01

    Vascular epiphytes are important components of biological diversity in tropical forests. We measured the species richness and abundance of vascular epiphytes along four vertical crown zones and five horizontal orientations on 376 trees, as well as the diameter at breast height (DBH) of host trees in tropical cloud forests in Bawangling, Hainan, China. The relationship between vascular epiphyte species richness and host tree DBH was assessed using a generalized linear model. There were 1,453 vascular individual epiphytes attributed to 9 families, 24 genera and 35 species, with orchids and pteridophytes dominating. Both the species richness and abundance of epiphytes significantly differed among the four crown zones for all collections and each host tree, suggesting that vertical microhabitats contribute to the distribution of epiphytes on host trees. Neither epiphyte abundance nor species richness differed among the eastern, southern, western, and northern orientations for all host trees; however, both richness and abundance were significantly higher for epiphytes that encircled host tree trunks. This suggests that morphological and physiological characteristics of the tree, but not microclimates probably contribute to the distribution of epiphytes on host trees. Epiphyte species richness was positively correlated with tree DBH across the six host tree species studied, with increases in DBH among smaller trees resulting in larger increases in richness, while increases in DBH among larger host trees resulting in more modest increases in ephiphyte richness. Our findings contribute support for a positive relationship between epiphyte species richness and host tree DBH and provide important guidance for future surveys of epiphyte community development. PMID:27391217

  17. Air quality in California forests: current efforts to initiate biomonitoring with lichens.

    Treesearch

    Sarah. Jovan

    2002-01-01

    The primary objective of the Forest Health Monitoring indicator project is to develop models that use the composition of epiphytic lichen communities to detect and monitor air quality in forests. The designs of existing air quality monitoring networks in California do not provide adequate representation of rural areas to assess impacts to forests. This article is...

  18. Lichen communities for forest health monitoring in Colorado, USA: A report to the USDA Forest Service

    Treesearch

    Bruce McCune; Paul Rogers; Andrea Ruchty; Bruce Ryan

    1998-01-01

    Lichen communities were included in the Forest Health Monitoring program because they help to answer several key assessment questions. These questions concern the contamination of natural resources, biodiversity, forest health, and sustainability of timber production. Field crews collected data on epiphytic macrolichens from throughout forested areas of Colorado from...

  19. Biomechanical consequences of epiphytism in intertidal macroalgae.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Laura M; Martone, Patrick T

    2014-04-01

    Epiphytic algae grow on other algae rather than hard substrata, perhaps circumventing competition for space in marine ecosystems. Aquatic epiphytes are widely thought to negatively affect host fitness; it is also possible that epiphytes benefit from associating with hosts. This study explored the biomechanical costs and benefits of the epiphytic association between the intertidal brown algal epiphyte Soranthera ulvoidea and its red algal host Odonthalia floccosa. Drag on epiphytized and unepiphytized hosts was measured in a recirculating water flume. A typical epiphyte load increased drag on hosts by ~50%, increasing dislodgment risk of epiphytized hosts compared with hosts that did not have epiphytes. However, epiphytes were more likely to dislodge from hosts than hosts were to dislodge from the substratum, suggesting that drag added by epiphytes may not be mechanically harmful to hosts if epiphytes break first. Concomitantly, epiphytes experienced reduced flow when attached to hosts, perhaps allowing them to grow larger or live in more wave-exposed areas. Biomechanical interactions between algal epiphytes and hosts are complex and not necessarily negative, which may partially explain the evolution and persistence of epiphytic relationships.

  20. [Lichen sclerosus].

    PubMed

    Monsálvez, V; Rivera, R; Vanaclocha, F

    2010-01-01

    Lichen sclerosus is a chronic inflammatory mucocutaneous disease that is highly bothersome for men and women of all ages. The exact etiology is unknown, although genetic and autoimmune factors, as well as infections, have been implicated in its pathogenesis. First-line treatment is highly potent topical corticosteroid therapy for short periods. Surgery is reserved for cases of phimosis, urethral stenosis, synechiae, and squamous cell carcinoma.

  1. Coalescent-based species delimitation approach uncovers high cryptic diversity in the cosmopolitan lichen-forming fungal genus Protoparmelia (Lecanorales, Ascomycota).

    PubMed

    Singh, Garima; Dal Grande, Francesco; Divakar, Pradeep K; Otte, Jürgen; Leavitt, Steven D; Szczepanska, Katarzyna; Crespo, Ana; Rico, Víctor J; Aptroot, André; Cáceres, Marcela Eugenia da Silva; Lumbsch, H Thorsten; Schmitt, Imke

    2015-01-01

    Species recognition in lichen-forming fungi has been a challenge because of unsettled species concepts, few taxonomically relevant traits, and limitations of traditionally used morphological and chemical characters for identifying closely related species. Here we analyze species diversity in the cosmopolitan genus Protoparmelia s.l. The ~25 described species in this group occur across diverse habitats from the boreal-arctic/alpine to the tropics, but their relationship to each other remains unexplored. In this study, we inferred the phylogeny of 18 species currently assigned to this genus based on 160 specimens and six markers: mtSSU, nuLSU, ITS, RPB1, MCM7, and TSR1. We assessed the circumscription of species-level lineages in Protoparmelia s. str. using two coalescent-based species delimitation methods--BP&P and spedeSTEM. Our results suggest the presence of a tropical and an extra-tropical lineage, and eleven previously unrecognized distinct species-level lineages in Protoparmelia s. str. Several cryptic lineages were discovered as compared to phenotype-based species delimitation. Many of the putative species are supported by geographic evidence.

  2. Coalescent-Based Species Delimitation Approach Uncovers High Cryptic Diversity in the Cosmopolitan Lichen-Forming Fungal Genus Protoparmelia (Lecanorales, Ascomycota)

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Garima; Dal Grande, Francesco; Divakar, Pradeep K.; Otte, Jürgen; Leavitt, Steven D.; Szczepanska, Katarzyna; Crespo, Ana; Rico, Víctor J.; Aptroot, André; Cáceres, Marcela Eugenia da Silva; Lumbsch, H. Thorsten; Schmitt, Imke

    2015-01-01

    Species recognition in lichen-forming fungi has been a challenge because of unsettled species concepts, few taxonomically relevant traits, and limitations of traditionally used morphological and chemical characters for identifying closely related species. Here we analyze species diversity in the cosmopolitan genus Protoparmelia s.l. The ~25 described species in this group occur across diverse habitats from the boreal -arctic/alpine to the tropics, but their relationship to each other remains unexplored. In this study, we inferred the phylogeny of 18 species currently assigned to this genus based on 160 specimens and six markers: mtSSU, nuLSU, ITS, RPB1, MCM7, and TSR1. We assessed the circumscription of species-level lineages in Protoparmelia s. str. using two coalescent-based species delimitation methods – BP&P and spedeSTEM. Our results suggest the presence of a tropical and an extra-tropical lineage, and eleven previously unrecognized distinct species-level lineages in Protoparmelia s. str. Several cryptic lineages were discovered as compared to phenotype-based species delimitation. Many of the putative species are supported by geographic evidence. PMID:25932996

  3. UV-C tolerance of symbiotic Trebouxia sp. in the space-tested lichen species Rhizocarpon geographicum and Circinaria gyrosa: role of the hydration state and cortex/screening substances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, Francisco Javier; Meeßen, Joachim; del Carmen Ruiz, M.; Sancho, Leopoldo G.; Ott, Sieglinde; Vílchez, Carlos; Horneck, Gerda; Sadowsky, Andres; de la Torre, Rosa

    2014-01-01

    Many experiments were carried out in order to evaluate the survival capacity of extremotolerant lichens when facing harsh conditions, including those of outer space or of simulated Martian environment. For further progress, a deeper study on the physiological mechanisms is needed that confer the unexpected levels of resistance detected on these symbiotic organisms. In this work, the response of the lichenized green algae Trebouxia sp. (a predominant lichen photobiont) to increasing doses of UV-C radiation is studied. UV-C (one of the most lethal factors to be found in space together with vacuum and cosmic-ionizing radiation with high atomic number and energy (HZE) particles) has been applied in the present experiments up to a maximum dose analogue to 67 days in Low Earth Orbit (LEO). For that purpose we selected two extremotolerant and space-tested lichen species in which Trebouxia sp. is the photosynthetic partner: the crustose lichen Rhizocarpon geographicum and the fruticose lichen Circinaria gyrosa. In order to evaluate the effect of the physiological state of the lichen thallus (active when wet and dormant when dry) and of protective structures (cortex and photoprotective pigments) on the resistance of the photobiont to UV-C, four different experimental conditions were tested: (1) dry intact samples, (2) wet intact samples, (3) dry samples without cortex/acetone-rinsed and (4) wet samples without cortex/acetone-rinsed. After irradiation and a 72 hours period of recovery, the influence of UV-C on the two lichen's photobiont under each experimental approach was assessed by two complimentary methods: (1) By determining the photosystem II (PSII) activity in three successive 24 hours intervals (Mini-PAM fluorometer) to investigate the overall state of the photosynthetic process and the resilience of Trebouxia sp. (2) By performing high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-quantification of four essential photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b,

  4. Secondary metabolites of the lichen Hypogymnia physodes (L.) Nyl. and their presence in spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) bark.

    PubMed

    Latkowska, Ewa; Bober, Beata; Chrapusta, Ewelina; Adamski, Michal; Kaminski, Ariel; Bialczyk, Jan

    2015-10-01

    Lichen species typically have a characteristic profile of secondary metabolites. Dense populations of Hypogymnia physodes growing frequently as epiphytes on tree branches have harmful effects on the host, likely due to their secondary compounds, which were undetected in tree tissues until now. The aim of the present study was to re-characterise the suite of secondary metabolites of H. physodes thalli and to estimate their translocation into spruce (Picea abies) bark. Thallus and bark extracts were compared using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The compounds were identified based on their UV, MS and MS/MS spectra as well as retention factors of their TLC analysis. In addition to the previously described secondary metabolites (protocetraric, physodalic, 3-hydroxyphysodic, physodic, and 2'-O-methylphysodic acids, atranorin and chloroatranorin) of H. physodes, further three were identified in its thalli: conphysodalic, 4-O-methylphysodic and α-alectoronic acids. Fragmentation patterns from the negative ionisation of each compound were proposed, some of which were described for the first time. Among all of the detected lichen substances, a few, e.g., physodalic, 3-hydroxyphysodic, physodic acids and atranorin, were present in the bark of spruce branches that were abundantly colonised by lichen. The newly identified compounds of H. physodes thalli may belong to its constant or accessory secondary metabolites. These compounds may be useful in the chemotaxonomic classification of this species. The presence of some lichen substances in spruce bark confirmed their ability to penetrate host tissues. These data suggest that H. physodes compounds may cause long-term effects on spruces in nature. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Long-term biological monitoring of environmental quality around a solid waste landfill assessed with lichens.

    PubMed

    Paoli, L; Corsini, A; Bigagli, V; Vannini, J; Bruscoli, C; Loppi, S

    2012-02-01

    The diversity of epiphytic lichens and the accumulation of selected trace elements in the lichen Flavoparmelia caperata L. (Hale) were used as indicators of pollution around a landfill in central Italy along 14 years of waste management. Lichens revealed an increased deposition for some elements (i.e., Cd, Cr, Fe and Ni) and a decrease of the lichen diversity at sites facing the landfill after an enlargement of the dumping area. However, the results allowed to exclude a significant increase in heavy metal depositions in the surrounding area and suggested that successful waste management may be associated with environmental quality. It is concluded that lichen monitoring might provide essential information to enhance the implementation of ecological impact assessment, supporting industrial regulatory procedures, also when waste management is concerned. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Testing the use of ITS rDNA and protein-coding genes in the generic and species delimitation of the lichen genus Usnea (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota).

    PubMed

    Truong, Camille; Divakar, Pradeep K; Yahr, Rebecca; Crespo, Ana; Clerc, Philippe

    2013-08-01

    In lichen-forming fungi, traditional taxonomical concepts are frequently in conflict with molecular data, and identifying appropriate taxonomic characters to describe phylogenetic clades remains challenging in many groups. The selection of suitable markers for the reconstruction of solid phylogenetic hypotheses is therefore fundamental. The lichen genus Usnea is highly diverse, with more than 350 estimated species, distributed in polar, temperate and tropical regions. The phylogeny and classification of Usnea have been a matter of debate, given the lack of phenotypic characters to describe phylogenetic clades and the low degree of resolution of phylogenetic trees. In this study, we investigated the phylogenetic relationships of 52 Usnea species from across the genus, based on ITS rDNA, nuLSU, and two protein-coding genes RPB1 and MCM7. ITS comprised several highly variable regions, containing substantial genetic signal, but also susceptible to causing bias in the generation of the alignment. We compared several methods of alignment of ITS and found that a simultaneous optimization of alignment and phylogeny (using BAli-phy) improved significantly both the topology and the resolution of the phylogenetic tree. However the resolution was even better when using protein-coding genes, especially RPB1 although it is less variable. The phylogeny based on the concatenated dataset revealed that the genus Usnea is subdivided into four highly-supported clades, corresponding to the traditionally circumscribed subgenera Eumitria, Dolichousnea, Neuropogon and Usnea. However, characters that have been used to describe these clades are often homoplasious within the phylogeny and their parallel evolution is suggested. On the other hand, most of the species were reconstructed as monophyletic, indicating that combinations of phenotypic characters are suitable discriminators for delimitating species, but are inadequate to describe generic subdivisions.

  7. Lichens as indicators of the atmosphere state in the oil exploration district of Tomsk Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolshunova, Tatiana; Ivan, Podkozlin

    2013-04-01

    Lichens are widespread in the vegetative cover of West Siberia, particularly in the north. They play an important role in the migration and transformation of chemical pollutants. Lichens lack waxy cuticles and are largely dependent on the atmosphere for their water and nutrient uptake. Lichens are not only studied and used as indicators, but also as accumulators, e.g. for trace and heavy metals. In fact, lichens are known for their ability to accumulate airborne substances to concentrations far greater those in the atmosphere, and the element contents of lichen thalli proved to be directly correlated with environmental levels. Monitoring of the atmosphere pollution using lichens is more efficient than that using snow cover. Because of the long lichen life it is possible to obtain persistent mean characteristics of the ecosystems state. Epiphytic lichens, growing on tree stems are more appropriate to use than that which grow on soil. Epiphytic lichens are more sensitive to changes of the chemical composition of the atmosphere. Pollutants penetrate in the lichen thalli from the atmosphere together with precipitations and dust. Moreover the precipitations are saturated with pollutants when going through crowns of trees and trickling down the steams and branches. Lichen studies are especially important in territories subjected to excessive human activity. Because a great part of Tomsk region (West Siberia, Russia) is the territory of the oil-field exploration, there the atmosphere monitoring is a necessary part of the whole environmental monitoring. The aim of this investigation is the estimation of the influence of oil exploration industry in Tomsk region on the atmosphere by means of the study of epiphytic lichens. Lichen samples were collected in August and September 2010-2011. Sampling net included seven areas distributed inside the oil-exploration districts of Tomsk region. In total 27 samples were collected. In these samples 53 chemical elements were detected by

  8. Prolonging the hydration and active metabolism from light periods into nights substantially enhances lichen growth.

    PubMed

    Bidussi, Massimo; Gauslaa, Yngvar; Solhaug, Knut Asbjørn

    2013-05-01

    This study investigates how hydration during light and dark periods influences growth in two epiphytic old forest lichens, the green algal Lobaria pulmonaria and the cyanobacterial L. scrobiculata. The lichens were cultivated in growth chambers for 14 days (200 μmol m(-1) s(-2); 12 h photoperiod) at four temperature regimes (25/20 °C, 21/16 °C, 13/8 °C, and 6/1 °C; day/night temperatures) and two hydration regimes (12 h day-time hydration; 12 h day-time + 12 h night-time hydration). Growth was highly dynamic, showing that short-term growth experiments in growth cabinets have a high, but largely unexplored potential in functional lichen studies. The highest measured growth rates were not far from the maximal dry matter gain estimated from published net photosynthetic CO2 uptake data. For the entire data set, photobiont type, temperature, hydration regime and specific thallus mass accounted for 46.6 % of the variation in relative growth rate (RGR). Both species showed substantially higher relative growth rates based on both biomass (RGR) and thallus area (RTAGR) when they were hydrated day and night compared to hydration in light only. Chronic photoinhibition was substantial in thalli hydrated only during the day time and kept at the highest and lowest temperature regimes, resulting in exponential increases in RGR with increasing maximal PSII efficiency (F v/F m) in both species. However, the depression in F v/F m was stronger for the cyanolichen than for the cephalolichen at extreme temperatures. The growth-stimulating effect of night-time hydration suggests that nocturnal metabolic activity improves recovery of photoinhibition and/or enhances the conversion rate of photosynthates into thallus extension.

  9. Microbiome change by symbiotic invasion in lichens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maier, Stefanie; Wedin, Mats; Fernandez-Brime, Samantha; Cronholm, Bodil; Westberg, Martin; Weber, Bettina; Grube, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Biological soil crusts (BSC) seal the soil surface from erosive forces in many habitats where plants cannot compete. Lichens symbioses of fungi and algae often form significant fraction of these microbial assemblages. In addition to the fungal symbiont, many species of other fungi can inhabit the lichenic structures and interact with their hosts in different ways, ranging from commensalism to parasitism. More than 1800 species of lichenicolous (lichen-inhabiting) fungi are known to science. One example is Diploschistes muscorum, a common species in lichen-dominated BSC that infects lichens of the genus Cladonia. D. muscorum starts as a lichenicolous fungus, invading the lichen Cladonia symphycarpa and gradually develops an independent Diploschistes lichen thallus. Furthermore, bacterial groups, such as Alphaproteobacteria and Acidobacteria, have been consistently recovered from lichen thalli and evidence is rapidly accumulating that these microbes may generally play integral roles in the lichen symbiosis. Here we describe lichen microbiome dynamics as the parasitic lichen D. muscorum takes over C. symphycarpa. We used high-throughput 16S rRNA gene and photobiont-specific ITS rDNA sequencing to track bacterial and algal transitions during the infection process, and employed fluorescence in situ hybridization to localize bacteria in the Cladonia and Diploschistes lichen thalli. We sampled four transitional stages, at sites in Sweden and Germany: A) Cladonia with no visible infection, B) early infection stage defined by the first visible Diploschistes thallus, C) late-stage infection with parts of the Cladonia thallus still identifiable, and D) final stage with a fully developed Diploschistes thallus, A gradual microbiome shift occurred during the transition, but fractions of Cladonia-associated bacteria were retained during the process of symbiotic reorganization. Consistent changes observed across sites included a notable decrease in the relative abundance of

  10. Lichens Lite?” chemical analysis of lichens for tracking 26 pollutants

    Treesearch

    Sarah Jovan; Susan Will-Wolf; Michael. Amacher

    2015-01-01

    Lichen chemistry can be used to estimate concentrations of environmental contaminants, ranging from heavy metals and fertilizers to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, dioxins, pesticides, herbicides, and flame retardants. We conducted a pilot looking at 26 metals and nutrient anions in 5 widespread lichen species across the upper Midwest, including: As, Al, Ba, Ca, Cd,...

  11. The spatial and seasonal variation of nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide in Cape Breton Highlands National Park, Canada, and the association with lichen abundance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, Mark D.; Heal, Mathew R.; Li, Zhengyan; Kuchta, James; King, Gavin H.; Hayes, Alex; Lambert, Sheldon

    2013-01-01

    Over 200,000 tourists per year visit Cape Breton Highlands National Park, Nova Scotia, Canada. The forests within the park are home to many rare epiphytic lichens, the species diversity of which has declined in some areas. The primary motivation for this study was to gain insight into the concentrations and potential local and long-range sources of air pollution, but its association with lichen species diversity was also examined. Ogawa passive diffusion samplers were used to measure nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) in the park at 19 sites in the winter and 20 sites in the summer of 2011. An improvement in the sensitivity of the sampler analytical protocol was developed. The mean concentrations in the park of winter and summer NO2 (0.81 and 0.16 ppb) and SO2 (0.24 and 0.21 ppb) are not at levels known to be phytotoxic to lichen. The NO2 concentrations in winter were significantly (p = 0.001) higher than those in summer whilst the SO2 concentrations did not differ significantly between winter and summer (p = 0.429). Highest NO2 concentrations in both seasons were observed in the Grand Anse Valley, presumably due to the steep road, emissions from the Pleasant Bay community at the foot of the valley and the enclosed topography of this area reducing dispersion of primary emissions. The SO2 concentrations in the park tended to be greater at elevated sites than valley sites, consistent with dispersion from long-range, rather than local, sources for this pollutant. Significant predictors in a multilinear regression for an index of air purity (lichen based measure of air quality) were lichen species number (p = 0.009), forest old growth index (p = 0.001) and distance from roads (p < 0.001) (model R2 = 0.8, model p = 0.004). The study suggests that local sources of pollution (roads emissions) are adversely associated with lichen species diversity in this National Park, compared with long-range transport, and that monitoring programs such as a lichen

  12. Mollusc grazing limits growth and early development of the old forest lichen Lobaria pulmonaria in broadleaved deciduous forests.

    PubMed

    Asplund, Johan; Gauslaa, Yngvar

    2008-02-01

    THIS STUDY AIMS: (1) to quantify mollusc grazing on juvenile and mature thalli of the foliose epiphytic lichen Lobaria pulmonaria, and (2) to test the hypothesis inferring a herbivore defensive role of lichen depsidones in forests with indigenous populations of lichen-feeding molluscs. Lichens were transplanted in shaded and less shaded positions in each of two calcareous broadleaved deciduous forests, one poor in lichens, one with a rich Lobarion community. Preventing the access of molluscs significantly reduced the loss of juvenile L. pulmonaria, particularly in the naturally lichen-poor forest. Molluscs also severely grazed mature thalli in the lichen-poor forest, especially thalli placed under the more shading canopies. Furthermore, reducing the natural concentration of depsidones by pre-rinsing with acetone increased subsequent grazing significantly, showing that lichen depsidones function as herbivore defence in natural habitats. Our results suggest that mollusc grazing may play important roles in shaping the epiphytic vegetation in calcareous deciduous forests, and that recently established juvenile L. pulmonaria thalli seem to be particularly vulnerable.

  13. [How lichen was translated as Chii].

    PubMed

    Kubo, Teruyuki

    2009-01-01

    Chii, the Japanese term for 'lichen', is widely used in contemporary East Asia. However, precisely when and by whom this term was first used to refer to lichen is not known. In addition, Japanese botanists from the 1880s to the 1950s had doubts regarding whether Chii was an accurate translation of lichen, given that Chii originally referred to moss that grows on the ground, whereas most species of lichens grow on barks of trees or on rocks. In this paper, the author shows that Li Shanlan and A. Williamson et al., in the late Qing dynasty of China, first used the term Chii to refer to lichen in Zhiwuxue, published in 1858. In Japan, Tanaka Yoshio, who was influenced by Zhiwuxue, first used the term Chii in 1872. However, further investigations led to the discovery that ITO Keisuke translated lichen as Risen in 1829. In 1836, UDAGAWA Yoan also translated lichen as Risen by using a different kanji (Chinese character) to represent sen. In 1888, in his article, MIYOSHI Manabu suggested a new equivalent term, Kisoukin, to refer to lichen (algae-parasitized fungi). In the article, he proposed the term Kyosei as the Japanese translation of symbiosis. Ever since the late 1880s, Kyosei has been used as the Japanese biological term for symbiosis.

  14. Lichens survive in space: results from the 2005 LICHENS experiment.

    PubMed

    Sancho, Leopoldo G; de la Torre, Rosa; Horneck, Gerda; Ascaso, Carmen; de Los Rios, Asunción; Pintado, Ana; Wierzchos, J; Schuster, M

    2007-06-01

    This experiment was aimed at establishing, for the first time, the survival capability of lichens exposed to space conditions. In particular, the damaging effect of various wavelengths of extraterrestrial solar UV radiation was studied. The lichens used were the bipolar species Rhizocarpon geographicum and Xanthoria elegans, which were collected above 2000 m in the mountains of central Spain and as endolithic communities inhabiting granites in the Antarctic Dry Valleys. Lichens were exposed to space in the BIOPAN-5 facility of the European Space Agency; BIOPAN-5 is located on the outer shell of the Earth-orbiting FOTON-M2 Russian satellite. The lichen samples were launched from Baikonur by a Soyuz rocket on May 31, 2005, and were returned to Earth after 16 days in space, at which time they were tested for survival. Chlorophyll fluorescence was used for the measurement of photosynthetic parameters. Scanning electron microscopy in back-scattered mode, low temperature scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy were used to study the organization and composition of both symbionts. Confocal laser scanning microscopy, in combination with the use of specific fluorescent probes, allowed for the assessment of the physiological state of the cells. All exposed lichens, regardless of the optical filters used, showed nearly the same photosynthetic activity after the flight as measured before the flight. Likewise, the multimicroscopy approach revealed no detectable ultrastructural changes in most of the algal and fungal cells of the lichen thalli, though a greater proportion of cells in the flight samples had compromised membranes, as revealed by the LIVE/DEAD BacLight Bacterial Viability Kit. These findings indicate that most lichenized fungal and algal cells can survive in space after full exposure to massive UV and cosmic radiation, conditions proven to be lethal to bacteria and other microorganisms. The lichen upper cortex seems to provide adequate

  15. Invertebrate response to nutrient-driven epiphytic load increase in Posidonia oceanica meadows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castejón-Silvo, Inés; Domínguez, Marta; Terrados, Jorge; Tomas, Fiona; Morales-Nin, Beatriz

    2012-10-01

    Nutrient increases in coastal systems are becoming a world-wide concern since they promote strong structural and functional changes in shallow ecosystems. Increased nutrient availability in the water column may strongly enhance the leaf epiphytic communities of key habitat-forming species such as seagrasses through a bottom-up mechanism, competing for light and nutrients with the leaves. Epiphytes support an abundant and diverse community of resident invertebrates which fuel higher trophic levels in Posidonia oceanica food webs. We evaluated the response of seagrass, epiphytes and the invertebrate community to an experimental increase of water column nutrient availability. Nutrient increase was followed by a rise of epiphyte biomass. The increase in epiphytic biomass promoted invertebrate abundance, but appeared to have negative effects on P. oceanica shoot size. On the other hand, the increase in invertebrate abundance did not seem to control epiphytic biomass, which was not reversed to pre-nutrient enrichment levels. This work suggests that the abundance of invertebrate populations is limited by epiphyte biomass, through food or habitat provision, in P. oceanica systems and points to nutrients as the main driver of epiphyte biomass during summer. The results illustrate the control mechanisms at community level in P. oceanica meadows and the possible responses of a threatened ecosystem to human impact such as eutrophication.

  16. Causes and consequences of high osmotic potentials in epiphytic higher plants.

    PubMed

    Martin, Craig E; Lin, T C; Lin, K C; Hsu, C C; Chiou, W L

    2004-10-01

    Past reports of the water relations of epiphytes, particularly bromeliads, indicate that tissue osmotic potentials in these tropical and subtropical plants are very high (close to zero) and are similar to values for aquatic plants. This is puzzling because several ecophysiological studies have revealed a high degree of drought stress tolerance in some of these epiphytes. The goal of this study was two-fold: (1) to increase the number of epiphytic taxa sampled for tissue osmotic potentials; and (2) to explain the apparent discrepancy in the significance of the tissue water relations and tolerance of drought stress in epiphytes. Tissue osmotic potentials of 30 species of epiphytic ferns, lycophytes, and orchids were measured in a subtropical rain forest in northeastern Taiwan. Nearly all values were less negative than -1.0 MPa, in line with all previous data for epiphytes. It is argued that such high osmotic potentials, indicative of low solute concentrations, are the result of environmental constraints of the epiphytic habitat on productivity of these plants, and that low rates of photosynthesis and transpiration delay the onset of turgor loss in the tissues of epiphytes such that they appear to be very drought-stress tolerant. Maintenance of photosynthetic activity long into drought periods is ascribed to low rates of transpiration and, hence, delayed tissue desiccation, and hydration of the photosynthetic tissue at the expense of water from the water-storage parenchyma.

  17. Multi-element including rare earth content of lichens, bark, soils, and waste following industrial closure.

    PubMed

    Rusu, Ana-Maria; Chimonides, P D James; Jones, Gary C; Garcia-Sanchez, Raquel; Purvis, O William

    2006-08-01

    The fate of rare earth and other rare elements entering the environment is largely unknown. The lichen Hypogymnia physodes was transplanted over a 40 km long transect centered on a major metallurgical waste dump close to the Zlatna town center two weeks after smelter closure. Lichens, bark, soil, and waste dump materials were analyzed for 56 elements (including REE). Lichen and bark multi-element compositions were alike, reflecting fixation of elements of environmental concern and the ability for tree canopies to concentrate substances leading to enhanced deposition to both lichens and bark. Higher REE enrichment in lichens than in soil confirm efficient fixation in lichens. The negative europium anomaly in lichens and soil, similar to that in upper crust, confirm a strong crustal influence on lichen signatures across the transect area. Multi-element analysis supports the view that epiphytic lichens, unlike trees, are not influenced by lower groundwater, and they are excellent indicators for REE and other rare elements entering the surface environment, difficult to detect by conventional means.

  18. Innovative Approaches Using Lichen Enriched Media to Improve Isolation and Culturability of Lichen Associated Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Biosca, Elena G; Flores, Raquel; Santander, Ricardo D; Díez-Gil, José Luis; Barreno, Eva

    2016-01-01

    and other lichen species.

  19. Innovative Approaches Using Lichen Enriched Media to Improve Isolation and Culturability of Lichen Associated Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Biosca, Elena G.; Flores, Raquel; Santander, Ricardo D.; Díez-Gil, José Luis; Barreno, Eva

    2016-01-01

    and other lichen species. PMID:27494030

  20. [Superimposed lichen planus pigmentosus].

    PubMed

    Monteagudo, Benigno; Suarez-Amor, Óscar; Cabanillas, Miguel; de Las Heras, Cristina; Álvarez, Juan Carlos

    2014-05-16

    Lichen planus pigmentosus is an uncommon variant of lichen planus that is characterized by the insidious onset of dark brown macules in sun-exposed areas and flexural folds. Superimposed linear lichen planus is an exceedingly rare disorder, but it has been found in both lichen planopilaris and lichen planus types. A 39-year-old woman is presented showing a segmental and linear lichen planus associated with non-segmental lesions meeting all criteria for the diagnosis of superimposed linear planus pigmentosus. The segmental lesions were always more pronounced.

  1. Host tree phenology affects vascular epiphytes at the physiological, demographic and community level

    PubMed Central

    Einzmann, Helena J. R.; Beyschlag, Joachim; Hofhansl, Florian; Wanek, Wolfgang; Zotz, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    The processes that govern diverse tropical plant communities have rarely been studied in life forms other than trees. Structurally dependent vascular epiphytes, a major part of tropical biodiversity, grow in a three-dimensional matrix defined by their hosts, but trees differ in their architecture, bark structure/chemistry and leaf phenology. We hypothesized that the resulting seasonal differences in microclimatic conditions in evergreen vs. deciduous trees would affect epiphytes at different levels, from organ physiology to community structure. We studied the influence of tree leaf phenology on vascular epiphytes on the Island of Barro Colorado, Panama. Five tree species were selected, which were deciduous, semi-deciduous or evergreen. The crowns of drought-deciduous trees, characterized by sunnier and drier microclimates, hosted fewer individuals and less diverse epiphyte assemblages. Differences were also observed at a functional level, e.g. epiphyte assemblages in deciduous trees had larger proportions of Crassulacean acid metabolism species and individuals. At the population level a drier microclimate was associated with lower individual growth and survival in a xerophytic fern. Some species also showed, as expected, lower specific leaf area and higher δ13C values when growing in deciduous trees compared with evergreen trees. As hypothesized, host tree leaf phenology influences vascular epiphytes at different levels. Our results suggest a cascading effect of tree composition and associated differences in tree phenology on the diversity and functioning of epiphyte communities in tropical lowland forests. PMID:25392188

  2. Host tree phenology affects vascular epiphytes at the physiological, demographic and community level.

    PubMed

    Einzmann, Helena J R; Beyschlag, Joachim; Hofhansl, Florian; Wanek, Wolfgang; Zotz, Gerhard

    2014-11-11

    The processes that govern diverse tropical plant communities have rarely been studied in life forms other than trees. Structurally dependent vascular epiphytes, a major part of tropical biodiversity, grow in a three-dimensional matrix defined by their hosts, but trees differ in their architecture, bark structure/chemistry and leaf phenology. We hypothesized that the resulting seasonal differences in microclimatic conditions in evergreen vs. deciduous trees would affect epiphytes at different levels, from organ physiology to community structure. We studied the influence of tree leaf phenology on vascular epiphytes on the Island of Barro Colorado, Panama. Five tree species were selected, which were deciduous, semi-deciduous or evergreen. The crowns of drought-deciduous trees, characterized by sunnier and drier microclimates, hosted fewer individuals and less diverse epiphyte assemblages. Differences were also observed at a functional level, e.g. epiphyte assemblages in deciduous trees had larger proportions of Crassulacean acid metabolism species and individuals. At the population level a drier microclimate was associated with lower individual growth and survival in a xerophytic fern. Some species also showed, as expected, lower specific leaf area and higher δ(13)C values when growing in deciduous trees compared with evergreen trees. As hypothesized, host tree leaf phenology influences vascular epiphytes at different levels. Our results suggest a cascading effect of tree composition and associated differences in tree phenology on the diversity and functioning of epiphyte communities in tropical lowland forests.

  3. Lichen planus pigmentosus and lichen planopilaris.

    PubMed

    Cobos, Gabriela; Kim, Randie H; Meehan, Shane; Elbuluk, Nada

    2016-12-15

    Lichen planus is an inflammatory skin conditionwith characteristic histopathological findings thathas many clinical variants. Recently, there have been25 cases reported in the literature of lichen planuspigmentosus (LPPi) that preceded the developmentof frontal fibrosing alopecia (FFA), which is a variantof lichen planopilaris (LPP). We review the literatureregarding LPPi, LPP, and FFA and present a case of a40-year-old African American woman with LPPi andLPP.

  4. Plant epiphytism in semiarid conditions revealed the influence of habitat and climate variables on AM fungi communities distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torrecillas, Emma; Torres, Pilar; Díaz, Gisela; del Mar Alguacil, Maria; Querejeta, Jose Ignacio; García, Fuensanta; Roldán, Antonio

    2014-05-01

    In semiarid Mediterranean ecosystems epiphytic plant species are practically absent and only some species of palm-trees can support epiphytes growing in their lower crown area, such as Phoenix dactylifera L. (date palm). In this study we focused in Sonchus tenerrimus L. plants growing as facultative epiphytes in P. dactylifera and its terrestrial forms growing in adjacent soils, Our aim was to determine the possible presence of AMF in these peculiar habitats and to relate AMF communities with climatic variations. We investigated the AMF community composition of epiphytic and terrestrial S. tenerrimus plants along a temperature and precipitation gradient across 12 localities. Epiphytic roots were colonized by AM fungi as determined by microscopic observation, all epiphytic and terrestrial samples analysed showed AMF sequences from taxa belonging to the phylum Glomeromycota, which were grouped in 30 AMF OTUs. The AMF community composition was clearly different between epiphytic and terrestrial root samples and this could be attributable to dispersal constraints and/or the contrasting environmental and ecophysiological conditions prevailing in each habitat. Across sites, the richness and diversity of terrestrial AMF communities was positively correlated with rainfall amount during the most recent growing season. In contrast, there was no significant correlation between climate variables and AMF richness and diversity for epiphytic AMF communities, which suggests that the composition of AMF communities in epiphytic habitats appears to be largely determined by the availability and dispersion of fungal propagules from adjacent terrestrial habitats.

  5. Covariance of lichen and vascular plant floras

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, J.P.; Wetmore, C.M.

    1999-01-01

    The geographic relationships among taxonomic groups are important to study to determine patterns of biodiversity and whether or not associations occur between large groups, e.g., birds and vascular plants. This study was undertaken to determine relationships between higher plants and lower plants, specifically vascular plant and lichen floras in nine national parks of the Great Lakes region. No significant relationship was found between vascular plant floras and lichen floras in this area, which spans 1200 km longitudinally, or between an additional 19 areas from North America that were less than 1000 km(2) in area. For areas larger than 1000 km(2), however, a significant positive relationship existed for 33 areas that span one to approximately 150 million km(2). The ratio of numbers of vascular plants to lichens appeared to average just over 6 across the 33 areas. In the Great Lakes parks, between 28-30% of either the vascular plant or lichen species were singletons (occurring in only one park), but the parks that contained the most singletons were not congruent: Isle Royale had the most singleton lichens, while Indiana Dunes had the most vascular plant singletons. Fewer lichen species (2%) than vascular plants (4%) occurred in all nine parks. Latitude appeared to explain some of the variation between the two groups: vascular plants decreased with increasing latitude, while lichens increased.

  6. Microbiome change by symbiotic invasion in lichens.

    PubMed

    Wedin, Mats; Maier, Stefanie; Fernandez-Brime, Samantha; Cronholm, Bodil; Westberg, Martin; Grube, Martin

    2016-05-01

    Lichens are obligate symbioses between fungi and green algae or cyanobacteria. Most lichens resynthesize their symbiotic thalli from propagules, but some develop within the structures of already existing lichen symbioses. Diploschistes muscorum starts as a parasite infecting the lichen Cladonia symphycarpa and gradually develops an independent Diploschistes lichen thallus. Here we studied how this process influences lichen-associated microbiomes and photobionts by sampling four transitional stages, at sites in Sweden and Germany, and characterizing their microbial communities using high-throughput 16S rRNA gene and photobiont-specific ITS rDNA sequencing, and fluorescence in situ hybridization. A gradual microbiome shift occurred during the transition, but fractions of Cladonia-associated bacteria were retained during the process of symbiotic reorganization. Consistent changes observed across sites included a notable decrease in the relative abundance of Alphaproteobacteria with a concomitant increase in Betaproteobacteria. Armatimonadia, Spartobacteria and Acidobacteria also decreased during the infection of Cladonia by Diploschistes. The lichens differed in photobiont specificity. Cladonia symphycarpa was associated with the same algal species at all sites, but Diploschistes muscorum had a flexible strategy with different photobiont combinations at each site. This symbiotic invasion system suggests that partners can be reorganized and selected for maintaining potential roles rather than depending on particular species. © 2015 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Lichen physiology and cell biology

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D.H.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents information on topics relating to mineral element accumulation in bog lichens, nitrogen losses from diazotrophic lichens, influence of automobile exhaust and lead on the oxygen exchange of lichens, temporal variation in lichen element levels, and lead and uranium uptake by lichens. Other topics include the architecture of the concentric bodies in the mycobiont of Peltigera praetextata; multiple enzyme forms in lichens, photosynthesis, water relations multiple enzyme forms in lichens, photosynthesis, water relations and thallus structure of strictaceae lichens; and aspects of carbohydrate metabolism in lichens. The distribution of uranium and companion elements in lichen heath associated with undisturbed uranium deposits in the Canadian Arctic is also discussed.

  8. Survival and Growth of Epiphytic Ferns Depend on Resource Sharing.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hua-Zheng; Song, Liang; Liu, Wen-Yao; Xu, Xing-Liang; Hu, Yue-Hua; Shi, Xian-Meng; Li, Su; Ma, Wen-Zhang; Chang, Yan-Fen; Fan, Ze-Xin; Lu, Shu-Gang; Wu, Yi; Yu, Fei-Hai

    2016-01-01

    Locally available resources can be shared within clonal plant systems through physiological integration, thus enhancing their survival and growth. Most epiphytes exhibit clonal growth habit, but few studies have tested effects of physiological integration (resource sharing) on survival and growth of epiphytes and whether such effects vary with species. We conducted two experiments, one on individuals (single ramets) and another on groups (several ramets within a plot), with severed and intact rhizome treatments (without and with physiological integration) on two dominant epiphytic ferns (Polypodiodes subamoena and Lepisorus scolopendrium) in a subtropical montane moist forest in Southwest China. Rhizome severing (preventing integration) significantly reduced ramet survival in the individual experiment and number of surviving ramets in the group experiment, and it also decreased biomass of both species in both experiments. However, the magnitude of such integration effects did not vary significantly between the two species. We conclude that resource sharing may be a general strategy for clonal epiphytes to adapt to forest canopies where resources are limited and heterogeneously distributed in space and time.

  9. Survival and Growth of Epiphytic Ferns Depend on Resource Sharing

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Hua-Zheng; Song, Liang; Liu, Wen-Yao; Xu, Xing-Liang; Hu, Yue-Hua; Shi, Xian-Meng; Li, Su; Ma, Wen-Zhang; Chang, Yan-Fen; Fan, Ze-Xin; Lu, Shu-Gang; Wu, Yi; Yu, Fei-Hai

    2016-01-01

    Locally available resources can be shared within clonal plant systems through physiological integration, thus enhancing their survival and growth. Most epiphytes exhibit clonal growth habit, but few studies have tested effects of physiological integration (resource sharing) on survival and growth of epiphytes and whether such effects vary with species. We conducted two experiments, one on individuals (single ramets) and another on groups (several ramets within a plot), with severed and intact rhizome treatments (without and with physiological integration) on two dominant epiphytic ferns (Polypodiodes subamoena and Lepisorus scolopendrium) in a subtropical montane moist forest in Southwest China. Rhizome severing (preventing integration) significantly reduced ramet survival in the individual experiment and number of surviving ramets in the group experiment, and it also decreased biomass of both species in both experiments. However, the magnitude of such integration effects did not vary significantly between the two species. We conclude that resource sharing may be a general strategy for clonal epiphytes to adapt to forest canopies where resources are limited and heterogeneously distributed in space and time. PMID:27066052

  10. What Is Lichen Sclerosus?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sclerosus PDF Version Size: 57 KB Audio Version Time: 09:12 Size: 8.6 MB November 2014 What Is Lichen Sclerosus? Fast Facts: An Easy-to-Read Series of Publications for the Public What Is Lichen ...

  11. Lichens and lepidopterons

    SciTech Connect

    Sigal, L.L.

    1984-01-01

    The newly found association of Usnea strigosa (Ach.) A. Eat. and the lichenophagous larva of the moth Zanclognatha theralis (Walker) is described. The possible biological role of lichen acids in the lichen-moth relationship is discussed.

  12. Spatio-temporal variations in biomass and mercury concentrations of epiphytic biofilms and their host in a large river wetland (Lake St. Pierre, Qc, Canada).

    PubMed

    Hamelin, Stéphanie; Planas, Dolors; Amyot, Marc

    2015-02-01

    Within wetlands, epiphytes and macrophytes play an important role in storage and transfer of metals, through the food web. However, there is a lack of information about spatial and temporal changes in their metal levels, including those of mercury (Hg), a key priority contaminant of aquatic systems. We assessed total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations of epiphyte/macrophyte complexes in Lake St. Pierre, a large fluvial lake of the St. Lawrence River (Québec, Canada). THg and MeHg concentrations were ten fold higher in epiphytes than in macrophytes. THg concentrations in epiphytes linearly decreased as a function of the autotrophic index, suggesting a role of algae in epiphyte Hg accumulation, and % of MeHg in epiphytes reached values as high as 74%. Spatio-temporal variability in THg and MeHg concentrations in epiphytes and macrophytes were influenced by water temperature, available light, host species, water level, dissolved organic carbon and dissolved oxygen.

  13. Terricolous lichens in the glacier forefield of the Matscherferner (Eastern Alps, South Tyrol, Italy)

    PubMed Central

    Bilovitz, Peter O.; Tutzer, Veronika; Wallner, Anja; Nascimbene, Juri; Mayrhofer, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    Two sampling sites were established at increasing distance from the glacier to investigate lichen communities on soil, plant debris and terricolous mosses in the glacier forefield of the Matscherferner. The survey yielded 34 lichen species and one lichenicolous fungus. In addition, 19 lichen species and one lichenicolous fungus were found by collecting at random, outside the two sampling sites. PMID:27042696

  14. Terricolous lichens in the glacier forefield of the Matscherferner (Eastern Alps, South Tyrol, Italy).

    PubMed

    Bilovitz, Peter O; Tutzer, Veronika; Wallner, Anja; Nascimbene, Juri; Mayrhofer, Helmut

    Two sampling sites were established at increasing distance from the glacier to investigate lichen communities on soil, plant debris and terricolous mosses in the glacier forefield of the Matscherferner. The survey yielded 34 lichen species and one lichenicolous fungus. In addition, 19 lichen species and one lichenicolous fungus were found by collecting at random, outside the two sampling sites.

  15. Deriving nitrogen critical levels and loads based on the responses of acidophytic lichen communities on boreal urban Pinus sylvestris trunks.

    PubMed

    Manninen, Sirkku

    2017-09-19

    The deposition of reactive nitrogen (N) compounds currently predominates over sulphur (S) deposition in most of the cities in Europe and North America. Acidophytic lichens growing on tree trunks are known to be sensitive to both N and S deposition. Given that tree species and climatic factors affect the composition of epiphytic lichen communities and modify lichen responses to air pollution, this study focused on the impact of urban air pollution on acidophytes growing on boreal conifer trunks. The study was performed in the Helsinki metropolitan area, southern Finland, where annual mean nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations range from 4-5μgm(-3) to >50μgm(-3). In addition, background forest sites in southern and northern Finland were included. The results demonstrated elevated N contents (≥0.7%) in Hypogymnia physodes and Platismatia glauca at all the sites where the species occurred. In the Helsinki metropolitan area, a higher frequency of green algae+Scoliociosporum chlorococcum and reduced numerical frequencies of other indicator lichen species (e.g. Pseudevernia furfuracea, Bryoria spp., Usnea spp.) were associated with elevated atmospheric concentrations of NO2 and particulate matter containing N, as well as elevated concentrations of inorganic N in bark. The N isotope values (δ(15)N) of lichens supported the uptake of oxidized N mainly originating from road traffic. Sulphur dioxide (SO2) also negatively affected the most sensitive species, despite the current low levels (1-4μgm(-3)yr(-1)). Critical levels of 5μgNO2m(-3)yr(-1) and 0.5μgNH3m(-3)yr(-1), and a critical load of 2-3kgNha(-1)yr(-1) are proposed for protecting the diversity of boreal acidophytes. This study calls for measurements of the throughfall of various N fractions in urban forest ecosystems along precipitation and temperature gradients to verify the proposed critical levels and loads. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Algal and fungal diversity in Antarctic lichens.

    PubMed

    Park, Chae Haeng; Kim, Kyung Mo; Elvebakk, Arve; Kim, Ok-Sun; Jeong, Gajin; Hong, Soon Gyu

    2015-01-01

    The composition of lichen ecosystems except mycobiont and photobiont has not been evaluated intensively. In addition, recent studies to identify algal genotypes have raised questions about the specific relationship between mycobiont and photobiont. In the current study, we analyzed algal and fungal community structures in lichen species from King George Island, Antarctica, by pyrosequencing of eukaryotic large subunit (LSU) and algal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) domains of the nuclear rRNA gene. The sequencing results of LSU and ITS regions indicated that each lichen thallus contained diverse algal species. The major algal operational taxonomic unit (OTU) defined at a 99% similarity cutoff of LSU sequences accounted for 78.7-100% of the total algal community in each sample. In several cases, the major OTUs defined by LSU sequences were represented by two closely related OTUs defined by 98% sequence similarity of ITS domain. The results of LSU sequences indicated that lichen-associated fungi belonged to the Arthoniomycetes, Eurotiomycetes, Lecanoromycetes, Leotiomycetes, and Sordariomycetes of the Ascomycota, and Tremellomycetes and Cystobasidiomycetes of the Basidiomycota. The composition of major photobiont species and lichen-associated fungal community were mostly related to the mycobiont species. The contribution of growth forms or substrates on composition of photobiont and lichen-associated fungi was not evident.

  17. Epiphytism in ferns: diversity and history.

    PubMed

    Dubuisson, Jean-Yves; Schneider, Harald; Hennequin, Sabine

    2009-01-01

    As for other vascular plants, numerous adaptive strategies have been selected in epiphytic ferns in order to survive in a constraining and desiccating environment and thus to prevent dehydration and/or to access to water and nutrients. Here we present some of the specializations that allow ferns to survive in this particular habitat. Some of the most spectacular epiphytic specializations are observed in the Polypodiaceae family, involving humus-collectors which entrap humus in specialized organs, and ant-plant mutualism strategies. We then address the question of epiphytism in an evolutionary context. There is little fossil evidence of vascular epiphytes. Inferring the evolution of epiphytism in extant ferns shows that diversification of major living epiphytic groups mostly occurred in the Tertiary. Finally, we focus on the Hymenophyllaceae family which provides an original example of hygrophilous epiphytic strategy that is unique in vascular plants.

  18. Genetic diversity of algal and fungal partners in four species of Umbilicaria (Lichenized Ascomycetes) along a transect of the Antarctic peninsula.

    PubMed

    Romeike, J; Friedl, T; Helms, G; Ott, S

    2002-08-01

    Lichens from the genus Umbilicaria were collected across a 5,000-km transect through Antarctica and investigated for DNA sequence polymorphism in a region of 480-660 bp of the nuclear internal transcribed spacer region of ribosomal DNA. Sequences from both fungal (16 ascomycetes) and photosynthetic partners (22 chlorophytes from the genus Trebouxia) were determined and compared with homologs from lichens inhabiting more temperate, continental climates. The phylogenetic analyses reveal that Antarctic lichens have colonized their current habitats both through multiple independent colonization events from temperate embarkation zones and through recent long-range dispersal in the Antarctic of successful preexisting colonizers. Furthermore, the results suggest that relichenization-de novo establishment of the fungus-photosynthesizer symbiosis from nonlichenized algal and fungal cells-has occurred during the process of Antarctic lichen dispersal. Independent dispersal of algal and fungal cultures therefore can lead to a successful establishment of the lichen symbiosis even under harsh Antarctic conditions.

  19. Distribution of lichen flora on South Korea.

    PubMed

    Hur, Jae-Seoun; Harada, Hiroshi; Oh, Soon-Ok; Lim, Kwang-Mi; Kang, Eui-Sung; Lee, Seung Mi; Kahng, Hyung-Yeel; Kim, Hyun-Woo; Jung, Jae-Sung; Koh, Young Jin

    2004-06-01

    After an overview on the temporary situation of the lichenology in South Korea, localities of 95 macrolichen taxa are reported for South Korea. In this revised lichen flora of South Korea, 16 species are apparently new to the territory. Voucher specimens have been deposited in the Korean Lichen Research Institute (KoLRI) at Sunchon National University in Korea, and duplicates have also been donated to the National History Museum and Institute, in Chiba, (CBM) Japan.

  20. Surface Hydrophobicity Causes SO2 Tolerance in Lichens

    PubMed Central

    Hauck, Markus; Jürgens, Sascha-René; Brinkmann, Martin; Herminghaus, Stephan

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims The superhydrophobicity of the thallus surface in one of the most SO2-tolerant lichen species, Lecanora conizaeoides, suggests that surface hydrophobicity could be a general feature of lichen symbioses controlling their tolerance to SO2. The study described here tests this hypothesis. Methods Water droplets of the size of a raindrop were placed on the surface of air-dry thalli in 50 lichen species of known SO2 tolerance and contact angles were measured to quantify hydrophobicity. Key Results The wettability of lichen thalli ranges from strongly hydrophobic to strongly hydrophilic. SO2 tolerance of the studied lichen species increased with increasing hydrophobicity of the thallus surface. Extraction of extracellular lichen secondary metabolites with acetone reduced, but did not abolish the hydrophobicity of lichen thalli. Conclusions Surface hydrophobicity is the main factor controlling SO2 tolerance in lichens. It presumably originally evolved as an adaptation to wet habitats preventing the depression of net photosynthesis due to supersaturation of the thallus with water. Hydrophilicity of lichen thalli is an adaptation to dry or humid, but not directly rain-exposed habitats. The crucial role of surface hydrophobicity in SO2 also explains why many markedly SO2-tolerant species are additionally tolerant to other (chemically unrelated) toxic substances including heavy metals. PMID:18077467

  1. How lichens impact on terrestrial community and ecosystem properties.

    PubMed

    Asplund, Johan; Wardle, David A

    2016-10-11

    understanding how the high intraspecific trait variation that characterizes many lichens impacts on community assembly processes and ecosystem functioning, how multiple species mixtures of lichens affect the key community- and ecosystem-level processes that they drive, the extent to which lichens in early succession influence vascular plant succession and ecosystem development in the longer term, and how global change drivers may impact on ecosystem functioning through altering the functional composition of lichen communities.

  2. Metabolic Profiling of Alpine and Ecuadorian Lichens.

    PubMed

    Mittermeier, Verena K; Schmitt, Nicola; Volk, Lukas P M; Suárez, Juan Pablo; Beck, Andreas; Eisenreich, Wolfgang

    2015-10-01

    Non-targeted ¹H-NMR methods were used to determine metabolite profiles from crude extracts of Alpine and Ecuadorian lichens collected from their natural habitats. In control experiments, the robustness of metabolite detection and quantification was estimated using replicate measurements of Stereocaulon alpinum extracts. The deviations in the overall metabolite fingerprints were low when analyzing S. alpinum collections from different locations or during different annual and seasonal periods. In contrast, metabolite profiles observed from extracts of different Alpine and Ecuadorian lichens clearly revealed genus- and species-specific profiles. The discriminating functions determining cluster formation in principle component analysis (PCA) were due to differences in the amounts of genus-specific compounds such as sticticin from the Sticta species, but also in the amounts of ubiquitous metabolites, such as sugar alcohols or trehalose. However, varying concentrations of these metabolites from the same lichen species e.g., due to different environmental conditions appeared of minor relevance for the overall cluster formation in PCA. The metabolic clusters matched phylogenetic analyses using nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA) internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences of lichen mycobionts, as exemplified for the genus Sticta. It can be concluded that NMR-based non-targeted metabolic profiling is a useful tool in the chemo-taxonomy of lichens. The same approach could also facilitate the discovery of novel lichen metabolites on a rapid and systematical basis.

  3. Spatial scales of variation in lichens: implications for sampling design in biomonitoring surveys.

    PubMed

    Giordani, Paolo; Brunialti, Giorgio; Frati, Luisa; Incerti, Guido; Ianesch, Luca; Vallone, Emanuele; Bacaro, Giovanni; Maccherini, Simona

    2013-02-01

    The variability of biological data is a main constraint affecting the quality and reliability of lichen biomonitoring surveys for estimation of the effects of atmospheric pollution. Although most epiphytic lichen bioindication surveys focus on between-site differences at the landscape level, associated with the large scale effects of atmospheric pollution, current protocols are based on multilevel sampling, thus adding further sources of variation and affecting the error budget. We test the hypothesis that assemblages of lichen communities vary at each spatial scale examined, in order to determine what scales should be included in future monitoring studies. We compared four sites in Italy, along gradients of atmospheric pollution and climate, to test the partitioning of the variance components of lichen diversity across spatial scales (from trunks to landscapes). Despite environmental heterogeneity, we observed comparable spatial variance. However, residuals often overcame between-plot variability, leading to biased estimation of atmospheric pollution effects.

  4. Biopharmaceutical potential of lichens.

    PubMed

    Zambare, Vasudeo P; Christopher, Lew P

    2012-06-01

    Lichens are composite organisms consisting of a symbiotic association of a fungus (the mycobiont) with a photosynthetic partner (the phytobiont), usually either a green alga or cyanobacterium. The morphology, physiology and biochemistry of lichens are very different from those of the isolated fungus and alga in culture. Lichens occur in some of the most extreme environments on the Earth and may be useful to scientists in many commercial applications. Over the past 2 decades, there has been a renewed and growing interest in lichens as a source of novel, pharmacologically active biomolecules. This review summarizes the past and current research and development trends in the characterization and use of lichens and their bioactive compounds in traditional medicine and other biopharmaceutical applications of commercial interest. The present review contains 10 illustrations and 188 references compiled from major databases including Science Direct, Chemical Abstracts, PubMed and Directory of Open Access Journals. Lichen morphology, symbiosis, diversity and bioactivities including enzyme inhibitory, antimicrobial, antifungal, antiviral, anticancer, anti-insecticidal and antioxidant actions were reviewed and summarized. Recent progress in lichens and lichen-forming fungi was discussed with emphasis on their potential to accelerate commercialization of lichen-based products. Lichens are an untapped source of biological activities of industrial importance and their potential is yet to be fully explored and utilized. Lichen-derived bioactive compounds hold great promise for biopharmaceutical applications as antimicrobial, antioxidant and cytotoxic agents and in the development of new formulations or technologies for the benefit of human life.

  5. Crassulacean Acid Metabolism and Epiphytism Linked to Adaptive Radiations in the Orchidaceae1[OA

    PubMed Central

    Silvera, Katia; Santiago, Louis S.; Cushman, John C.; Winter, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    Species of the large family Orchidaceae display a spectacular array of adaptations and rapid speciations that are linked to several innovative features, including specialized pollination syndromes, colonization of epiphytic habitats, and the presence of Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM), a water-conserving photosynthetic pathway. To better understand the role of CAM and epiphytism in the evolutionary expansion of tropical orchids, we sampled leaf carbon isotopic composition of 1,103 species native to Panama and Costa Rica, performed character state reconstruction and phylogenetic trait analysis of CAM and epiphytism, and related strong CAM, present in 10% of species surveyed, to climatic variables and the evolution of epiphytism in tropical regions. Altitude was the most important predictor of photosynthetic pathway when all environmental variables were taken into account, with CAM being most prevalent at low altitudes. By creating integrated orchid trees to reconstruct ancestral character states, we found that C3 photosynthesis is the ancestral state and that CAM has evolved at least 10 independent times with several reversals. A large CAM radiation event within the Epidendroideae, the most species-rich epiphytic clade of any known plant group, is linked to a Tertiary species radiation that originated 65 million years ago. Our study shows that parallel evolution of CAM is present among subfamilies of orchids, and correlated divergence between photosynthetic pathways and epiphytism can be explained by the prevalence of CAM in low-elevation epiphytes and rapid speciation of high-elevation epiphytes in the Neotropics, contributing to the astounding diversity in the Orchidaceae. PMID:19182098

  6. Species delimitation and phylogeography of the Pectenia species-complex: A misunderstood case of species-pairs in lichenized fungi, where reproduction mode does not delimit lineages.

    PubMed

    Otálora, Mónica A G; Martínez, Isabel; Aragón, Gregorio; Wedin, Mats

    2017-03-01

    The main goal of this work was to study species boundaries in the genus Pectenia and elucidate the biogeographic history of the four currently accepted species. To accomplish this, we included 92 specimens across the range of Pectenia in Europe and northern Africa. We used three nuclear loci and assessed species circumscription using two Bayesian coalescent-based methods and the Bayes Factor approach. We reviewed the value of reproductive mode and other morphological features as predictors of monophyletic groups. Our results suggest that the production of asexual propagules and sexual structures are not characterizing monophyletic groups. The genus includes two morphologically well-characterized main lineages, where one lineage is composed by two sub-lineages that are with a case of cryptic speciation explained by a biogeographic pattern. We suggest treating the two lineages as two species, which are characterized by lobe structure: Pectenia plumbea and P. atlantica. Both of these species include samples with asexual propagules and apothecia, and thus do not correspond to any of the earlier morphologically defined species. The results of the biogeographic analysis indicate that the Mediterranean basin is the most likely ancestral distribution area of P. plumbea, whereas P. atlantica probably originated in Macaronesia.

  7. Vascular epiphytes and host trees of ant-gardens in an anthropic landscape in southeastern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Morales-Linares, Jonas; García-Franco, José G; Flores-Palacios, Alejandro; Valenzuela-González, Jorge E; Mata-Rosas, Martín; Díaz-Castelazo, Cecilia

    2016-12-01

    Ant-gardens (AGs) are considered one of the most complex mutualist systems between ants and plants, since interactions involving dispersal, protection, and nutrition occur simultaneously in them; however, little is known about the effects of the transformation of ecosystems on their diversity and interactions. In five environments with different land use within an anthropic landscape in southeastern Mexico, we investigated the diversity and composition of epiphytes and host trees of AGs built by Azteca gnava. A total of 10,871 individuals of 26 epiphytic species, associating with 859 AGs located in 161 host trees, were recorded. The diversity and composition of epiphytes tended to be different between environments; however, Aechmea tillandsioides and Codonanthe uleana were the most important species and considered true AG epiphytes, because they were the most frequent, abundant, and occurred exclusively in AGs. Other important species were the orchids Epidendrum flexuosum, Coryanthes picturata, and Epidendrum pachyrachis, and should also be considered true AG epiphytes, because they occurred almost exclusively in the AGs. The AG abundance in agroforestry plantations was similar or even greater than in riparian vegetation (natural habitat). The AGs were registered in 37 host species but were more frequent in Mangifera indica and Citrus sinensis. We conclude that true epiphytes of A. gnava AGs persist in different environments and host trees, and even these AGs could proliferate in agroforestry plantations of anthropic landscapes.

  8. Vascular epiphytes and host trees of ant-gardens in an anthropic landscape in southeastern Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales-Linares, Jonas; García-Franco, José G.; Flores-Palacios, Alejandro; Valenzuela-González, Jorge E.; Mata-Rosas, Martín; Díaz-Castelazo, Cecilia

    2016-12-01

    Ant-gardens (AGs) are considered one of the most complex mutualist systems between ants and plants, since interactions involving dispersal, protection, and nutrition occur simultaneously in them; however, little is known about the effects of the transformation of ecosystems on their diversity and interactions. In five environments with different land use within an anthropic landscape in southeastern Mexico, we investigated the diversity and composition of epiphytes and host trees of AGs built by Azteca gnava. A total of 10,871 individuals of 26 epiphytic species, associating with 859 AGs located in 161 host trees, were recorded. The diversity and composition of epiphytes tended to be different between environments; however, Aechmea tillandsioides and Codonanthe uleana were the most important species and considered true AG epiphytes, because they were the most frequent, abundant, and occurred exclusively in AGs. Other important species were the orchids Epidendrum flexuosum, Coryanthes picturata, and Epidendrum pachyrachis, and should also be considered true AG epiphytes, because they occurred almost exclusively in the AGs. The AG abundance in agroforestry plantations was similar or even greater than in riparian vegetation (natural habitat). The AGs were registered in 37 host species but were more frequent in Mangifera indica and Citrus sinensis. We conclude that true epiphytes of A. gnava AGs persist in different environments and host trees, and even these AGs could proliferate in agroforestry plantations of anthropic landscapes.

  9. [Secondary fungal metabolites (mycotoxins) in lichens of different taxonomic groups].

    PubMed

    Burkin, A A; Kononenko, G P

    2014-01-01

    Secondary fungal metabolites (mycotoxins) in 22 lichen species of the families Parmeliaceae, Nephromataceae, Umbilicariaceae, Ramalinaceae, Cladoniaceae, Peltigeraceae, and Teloschistaceae were identified determined by enzyme immunoassay enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The following mycotoxins were identified found in these lichens in a broad concentration range with a frequency of 70-100%: sterigmatocystin (7-2090 ng/g), alternariol (20-6460 ng/g), and emodin (45-94500 ng/g). Mycophenolic acid frequently occurred in 19 lichen species; citrinin, in 17 species; diacetoxyscirpenol, in 11 species; cyclopiazonic acid, in 10 species; and zearalenone, in 9 species. PR toxin was regularly detected in three lichen species; deoxynivalenol, fumonisins, and ochratoxin A, in two species; and T-2 toxin and ergot alkaloids, in one species. Aflatoxin B1 was detected in only six species with a frequency of 2-42%, whereas roridin A was identified present in 10% of Hypogymnia physodes samples.

  10. How do you solve a problem like Letharia? A new look at cryptic species in lichen-forming fungi using Bayesian clustering and SNPs from multilocus sequence data.

    PubMed

    Altermann, Susanne; Leavitt, Steven D; Goward, Trevor; Nelsen, Matthew P; Lumbsch, H Thorsten

    2014-01-01

    The inclusion of molecular data is increasingly an integral part of studies assessing species boundaries. Analyses based on predefined groups may obscure patterns of differentiation, and population assignment tests provide an alternative for identifying population structure and barriers to gene flow. In this study, we apply population assignment tests implemented in the programs STRUCTURE and BAPS to single nucleotide polymorphisms from DNA sequence data generated for three previous studies of the lichenized fungal genus Letharia. Previous molecular work employing a gene genealogical approach circumscribed six species-level lineages within the genus, four putative lineages within the nominal taxon L. columbiana (Nutt.) J.W. Thomson and two sorediate lineages. We show that Bayesian clustering implemented in the program STRUCTURE was generally able to recover the same six putative Letharia lineages. Population assignments were largely consistent across a range of scenarios, including: extensive amounts of missing data, the exclusion of SNPs from variable markers, and inferences based on SNPs from as few as three gene regions. While our study provided additional evidence corroborating the six candidate Letharia species, the equivalence of these genetic clusters with species-level lineages is uncertain due, in part, to limited phylogenetic signal. Furthermore, both the BAPS analysis and the ad hoc ΔK statistic from results of the STRUCTURE analysis suggest that population structure can possibly be captured with fewer genetic groups. Our findings also suggest that uneven sampling across taxa may be responsible for the contrasting inferences of population substructure. Our results consistently supported two distinct sorediate groups, 'L. lupina' and L. vulpina, and subtle morphological differences support this distinction. Similarly, the putative apotheciate species 'L. lucida' was also consistently supported as a distinct genetic cluster. However, additional studies

  11. Water relations of epiphytic and terrestrially-rooted strangler figs in a Venezuelan palm savanna.

    PubMed

    Holbrook, N Michele; Putz, Francis E

    1996-06-01

    Water use patterns of two species of strangler fig, Ficus pertusa and F. trigonata, growing in a Venezuelan palm savanna were contrasted in terms of growth phase (epiphyte and tree) and season (dry and wet). The study was motivated by the question of how C3 hemiepiphytes accommodate the marked change in rooting environment associated with a life history of epiphytic establishment followed by substantial root development in the soil. During the dry season, stomatal opening in epiphytic plants occurred only during the early morning, maximum stomatal conductances were 5 to 10-fold lower, and midday leaf water potentials were 0.5-0.8 MPa higher (less negative) than in conspecific trees. Watering epiphytes of F. pertusa during the dry season led to stomatal conductances comparable to those exhibited by conspecific trees, but midday leaf water potentials were unchanged. During the rainy season, epiphytes had lower stomatal conductances than conspecific trees, but leaf water potentials were similar between the two growth phases. There were no differences in ∂(13)C between the two growth phases for leaves produced in either season. Substrate water availability differed between growth phases; tree roots extended down to the permanent water table, while roots of epiphytic plants were restricted to material accumulated behind the persistent leaf bases of their host palm tree, Copernicia tectorum. Epiphytic substrate moisture contents were variable during both seasons, indicating both the availability of some moisture during the dry season and the possibility of intermittent depletion during the rainy season. Epiphytic strangler figs appear to rely on a combination of strong stomatal control, maintenance of high leaf water potentials, and perhaps some degree of stem water storage to cope with the fluctuating water regime of the epiphytic environment.

  12. Development of an epiphyte indicator of nutrient enrichment: Threshold values for seagrass epiphyte load

    EPA Science Inventory

    Metrics of epiphyte load on macrophytes were evaluated for use as quantitative biological indicators for nutrient impacts in estuarine waters, based on review and analysis of the literature on epiphytes and macrophytes, primarily seagrasses, but including some brackish and freshw...

  13. Development of an epiphyte indicator of nutrient enrichment: Threshold values for seagrass epiphyte load

    EPA Science Inventory

    Metrics of epiphyte load on macrophytes were evaluated for use as quantitative biological indicators for nutrient impacts in estuarine waters, based on review and analysis of the literature on epiphytes and macrophytes, primarily seagrasses, but including some brackish and freshw...

  14. Feeding electivity of two epiphytic chironomids in a subtropical lake.

    PubMed

    Botts, P S; Cowell, B C

    1992-03-01

    Feeding electivity of two epiphytic orthoclad chironomid species, Psectrocladius sp. and Thienemanniella cf. fusca, was investigated using gut content analysis of larvae collected from Typha stems in Lake Padgett, Florida. Electivity values, computed using Strauss's Food Selection Index, were strongly positive for Cosmarium and negative for Oedogonium and Bulbochaete. Diatoms either were avoided or grazed in proportion to their abundance in the environment. Patterns of electivity were similar for both chrionomid species during all seasons studied. Pairwise food preference experiments were conducted in the laboratory using the algal species, Cosmarium impressulum, Navicula pelliculosa, Selenastrum capricornuatum, Oedogonium cardiacum, and Synedra sp. Preferences were hierarchical and consistent for both larval genera. Preference ranking for the algae offered were Cosmarium≥Synedra>Navicula>Oedogonium>Selenastrum. Larvae seemed to be feeding electively based upon algal genus, size, position in the epiphytic community, and possibly extracellular chemistry.

  15. Oral lichen planus preceding concomitant lichen planopilaris.

    PubMed

    Stoopler, Eric T; Alfaris, Sausan; Alomar, Dalal; Alawi, Faizan

    2016-09-01

    Lichen planus (LP) is an immune-mediated mucocutaneous disorder with a wide array of clinical presentations. Oral lichen planus (OLP) is characterized clinically by striae, desquamation, and/or ulceration. Lichen planopilaris (LPP), a variant of LP, affects the scalp, resulting in perifollicular erythema and scarring of cutaneous surfaces accompanied by hair loss. The association between OLP and LPP has been reported previously with scant information on concomitant or sequential disease presentation. We describe a patient with concomitant OLP and LPP, and to the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on OLP preceding the onset of LPP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Measurements of plutonium, 237Np, and 137Cs in the BCR 482 lichen reference material

    DOE PAGES

    Lavelle, Kevin B.; Miller, Jeffrey L.; Hanson, Susan K.; ...

    2015-10-01

    Select anthropogenic radionuclides were measured in lichen reference material, BCR 482. This material was originally collected in Axalp, Switzerland in 1991 and is composed of the epiphytic lichen Pseudevernia furfuracea. Samples from three separate bottles of BCR 482 were analyzed for uranium, neptunium, and plutonium isotopes by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and analyzed for cesium-137 by gamma-ray spectrometry. The isotopic composition of the radionuclides measured in BCR 482 suggests contributions from both global fallout resulting from historical nuclear weapons testing and more volatile materials released following the Chernobyl accident.

  17. Canaries in a coal mine: using lichens to measure nitrogen pollution

    Treesearch

    Marie Oliver; Linda Geiser; Sarah Jovan

    2011-01-01

    In Pacific Northwest forests, lichens provide essential winter forage for deer and elk and also nesting materials and habitat for rodents, birds, and invertebrates. Although lichens are often the first organisms to populate a landscape and many species can survive in the most barren environments, lichens with the greatest ecological value tend to be the most sensitive...

  18. Antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of some lichens and their constituents.

    PubMed

    Kosanić, Marijana; Ranković, Branislav

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the acetone, methanol, and aqueous extracts of the lichens Cladonia furcata (many-forked Cladonia), Hypogymnia physodes (puffed lichen), and Umbilicaria polyphylla (manyleaf navel lichen) and the antimicrobial activity of fumarprotocetraric acid, gyrophoric acid, and physodic acid isolated from the respective lichen species. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by five different methods: free radical scavenging, superoxide anion radical scavenging, reducing power, determination of total phenolic compounds, and determination of total flavonoid content. U. polyphyla exhibited more powerful antioxidant activities than the other lichen species examined: methanol extracts of U. polyphyla showed 90.08% free radical scavenging activities (the ratio was greater than those of standard antioxidants). Moreover, the extracts tested had effective reducing power and superoxide anion radical scavenging. Total contents of phenol and flavonoid in extracts were determined as pyrocatechol equivalents and as rutin equivalents, respectively. A significant strong relationship between total phenolic and flavonoid contents and their antioxidative activities was observed. The antimicrobial activity was estimated by determination of the minimal inhibitory concentration by the broth microdilution method against six species of bacteria and 10 species of fungi. In general, the lichen extracts tested and their respective acids had relatively strong antimicrobial activity against the microorganisms tested. The present study shows that the lichen species tested demonstrated strong antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. The results suggest that lichens may be used as good sources of natural antioxidants and for pharmaceutical purposes in treating various diseases.

  19. Ecology and conservation of a rare, old-growth-associated canopy lichen in a silvicultural landscape

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosso, A.L.; McCune, B.; Rambo, T.

    2000-01-01

    Nephroma occultum Wetm. is a rare, epiphytic lichen associated with old-growth forests of northwestern North America. We describe its distribution, abundance, and habitat within the managed landscape of a southwestern Oregon watershed. Because this species is found mainly in the canopy, we used direct canopy access (tree climbing) in combination with ground (litter) searches for our surveys. We recommend this dual approach when confident determination of presence or absence of a canopy species is needed. Our surveys confirm that N. occultum is a rare old-growth associate within the area of this study, the southernmost extension of its known range. It was both rare across the landscape and uncommon in our primary study site, a 500 yr old stand. It was most often found growing close to the trunk on branches of large Pseudotsuga menziesii, but its distribution was sporadic even within an old-growth stand. The scarcity of very old stands, in combination with the limited ability of this species to disperse within and between stands, has likely contributed to its rarity within the watershed. Management for N. occultum should focus on populations and habitat needs rather than on individuals. Our calculations show that cutting with retention of individual trees surrounded by small buffers could result in the eventual loss of N. occultum from the study area.

  20. Diversity and distribution of vascular epiphytes in an insular Brazilian coastal forest.

    PubMed

    Kersten, Rodrigo de Andrade; Borgo, Marília; Silva, Sandro Menezes

    2009-09-01

    The study was carried out in a 3,000 m2 area of coastal Atlantic rain forest at Ilha do Mel island (25 degrees 30"S 48 degrees 23'W), on 100 assorted trees separated into 2 meter-high strata starting from the ground. In each stratum all of the occurring epiphytic species were recorded. The sampled species were grouped into three categories: exclusive, preferential, and indifferent, according to their abundance in each strata, and selective, preferential and indifferent, according to abundance on the forophytes. Intermediate strata registered the highest diversity. Six species were considered exclusive to one or two strata, 15 were restricted to some strata and 5 presented a broad distribution. No epiphytic species showed uniform horizontal distribution on the area. The epiphyte richness in a host tree varied from zero to 30. Regarding to fidelity on host tree species, few selective or preferential, and mainly indifferent epiphyte species, were found. A total of 82 epiphyte species were sampled in the surveyed tree, and the Wittaker plot indicate a highly dominant assemblage.

  1. Pollination Ecology of Four Epiphytic Orchids of New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    LEHNEBACH, CARLOS A.; ROBERTSON, ALASTAIR W

    2004-01-01

    • Background and Aims In New Zealand epiphytic orchids are represented by four genera and eight species. The genera Earina (three species) and Winika (one species) are the most conspicuous and widespread. These are likely to be some of the southernmost distributed genera of epiphytic orchids in the world. • Methods To identify the pollination strategies that have evolved in these orchids, hand‐pollination treatments were done and floral visitors were observed in several wild populations at two areas of southern North Island (approx. 40°S). Pollen : ovule ratio and osmophores were also studied and the total carbohydrate content of the nectar produced by each species was measured. • Key results Earina autumnalis and Earina mucronata are self‐compatible, whereas Earina aestivalis and Winika cunninghamii appear to be partially self‐incompatible. All four orchids are incapable of autonomous selfing and therefore completely dependent on pollinators to set fruits. Floral visitors observed in the genus Earina belong to Diptera, Coleoptera and Hymenoptera and to Diptera and Hymenoptera in W. cunninghamii. • Conclusions Contrary to many epiphytic orchids in the tropics, the orchid–pollinator relationship in these orchids is unspecialized and flowers are visited by a wide range of insects. Putative pollinators are flies of the families Bibionidae, Calliphoridae, Syrphidae and Tachinidae. All four orchids display anthecological adaptations to a myophilous pollination system such as simple flowers, well‐exposed reproductive structures, easily accessed nectar and high pollen : ovule ratios. PMID:15113741

  2. How prevalent is crassulacean acid metabolism among vascular epiphytes?

    PubMed

    Zotz, Gerhard

    2004-01-01

    The occurrence of crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) in the epiphyte community of a lowland forest of the Atlantic slope of Panama was investigated. I hypothesized that CAM is mostly found in orchids, of which many species are relatively small and/or rare. Thus, the relative proportion of species with CAM should not be a good indicator for the prevalence of this photosynthetic pathway in a community when expressed on an individual or a biomass basis. In 0.4 ha of forest, 103 species of vascular epiphytes with 13,099 individuals were found. As judged from the C isotope ratios and the absence of Kranz anatomy, CAM was detected in 20 species (19.4% of the total), which were members of the families Orchidaceae, Bromeliaceae, and Cactaceae. As predicted, the contribution of CAM epiphytes to the total number of individuals and to total biomass (69.6 kg ha(-1)) was considerably lower (3.6% or 466 individuals and, respectively, 3.0% or 2.1 kg ha(-1)).

  3. Lichen-based biosensor for the determination of benzene and 2-chlorophenol: microcalorimetric and amperometric investigations.

    PubMed

    Antonelli, Marta Letizia; Campanella, Luigi; Ercole, Patrizia

    2005-03-01

    Preliminary microcalorimetric studies have been performed to analyse the response of a whole epiphytic lichen tissue (Evernia prunastri) to 2-chlorophenol (2Cl-phi), a pollutant of oil mill waste-water, in order to evaluate whether the tissue might be used to assess the toxic characteristics of polluted waters. The obtained results (lichen viability expressed in hours, enthalpy variations for the 2Cl-phi/lichen interactions) were used to create a lichen-based biosensor that uses an amperometric oxygen electrode (a Clark electrode) as a transducer. The lichen catalyses aromatic ring cleavage (via pyrocatechase enzymes present in the lichen), and transforms aromatic substances like 2Cl-phi into muconic acid (C6H6O4). Following a full electroanalytical characterisation, the performance of the proposed lichen biosensor was compared to that of a biosensor based on Pseudomonas putida cells, which was originally constructed to monitor benzene in different matrices (water, air, petrol and oil) and was tested in our laboratory previously.

  4. Evaluation of a combined macrophyte–epiphyte bioassay for assessing nutrient enrichment in the Portneuf River, Idaho, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ray, Andrew M.; Mebane, Christopher A.; Raben, Flint; Irvine, Kathryn M.; Marcarelli, Amy M.

    2014-01-01

    We describe and evaluate a laboratory bioassay that uses Lemna minor L. and attached epiphytes to characterize the status of ambient and nutrient-enriched water from the Portneuf River, Idaho. Specifically, we measured morphological (number of fronds, longest surface axis, and root length) and population-level (number of plants and dry mass) responses of L. minor and community-level (ash-free dry mass [AFDM] and chlorophyll a [Chl a]) responses of epiphytes to nutrient enrichment. Overall, measures of macrophyte biomass and abundance increased with increasing concentrations of dissolved phosphorus (P) and responded more predictably to nutrient enrichment than morphological measures. Epiphyte AFDM and Chl a were also greatest in P-enriched water; enrichments of N alone produced no measurable epiphytic response. The epiphyte biomass response did not directly mirror macrophyte biomass responses, illustrating the value of a combined macrophyte–epiphyte assay to more fully evaluate nutrient management strategies. Finally, the most P-enriched waters not only supported greater standing stocks of macrophyte and epiphytes but also had significantly higher water column dissolved oxygen and dissolved organic carbon concentrations and a lower pH. Advantages of this macrophyte–epiphyte bioassay over more traditional single-species assays include the use of a more realistic level of biological organization, a relatively short assay schedule (~10 days), and the inclusion of multiple biological response and water-quality measures.

  5. Evaluation of a combined macrophyte-epiphyte bioassay for assessing nutrient enrichment in the Portneuf River, Idaho, USA.

    PubMed

    Ray, Andrew M; Mebane, Christopher A; Raben, Flint; Irvine, Kathryn M; Marcarelli, Amy M

    2014-07-01

    We describe and evaluate a laboratory bioassay that uses Lemna minor L. and attached epiphytes to characterize the status of ambient and nutrient-enriched water from the Portneuf River, Idaho. Specifically, we measured morphological (number of fronds, longest surface axis, and root length) and population-level (number of plants and dry mass) responses of L. minor and community-level (ash-free dry mass [AFDM] and chlorophyll a [Chl a]) responses of epiphytes to nutrient enrichment. Overall, measures of macrophyte biomass and abundance increased with increasing concentrations of dissolved phosphorus (P) and responded more predictably to nutrient enrichment than morphological measures. Epiphyte AFDM and Chl a were also greatest in P-enriched water; enrichments of N alone produced no measurable epiphytic response. The epiphyte biomass response did not directly mirror macrophyte biomass responses, illustrating the value of a combined macrophyte-epiphyte assay to more fully evaluate nutrient management strategies. Finally, the most P-enriched waters not only supported greater standing stocks of macrophyte and epiphytes but also had significantly higher water column dissolved oxygen and dissolved organic carbon concentrations and a lower pH. Advantages of this macrophyte-epiphyte bioassay over more traditional single-species assays include the use of a more realistic level of biological organization, a relatively short assay schedule (~10 days), and the inclusion of multiple biological response and water-quality measures.

  6. Evaluating factors that predict the structure of a commensalistic epiphyte-phorophyte network.

    PubMed

    Sáyago, Roberto; Lopezaraiza-Mikel, Martha; Quesada, Mauricio; Álvarez-Añorve, Mariana Yolotl; Cascante-Marín, Alfredo; Bastida, Jesus Ma

    2013-04-07

    A central issue in ecology is the understanding of the establishment of biotic interactions. We studied the factors that affect the assembly of the commensalistic interactions between vascular epiphytes and their host plants. We used an analytical approach that considers all individuals and species of epiphytic bromeliads and woody hosts and non-hosts at study plots. We built models of interaction probabilities among species to assess if host traits and abundance and spatial overlap of species predict the quantitative epiphyte-host network. Species abundance, species spatial overlap and host size largely predicted pairwise interactions and several network metrics. Wood density and bark texture of hosts also contributed to explain network structure. Epiphytes were more common on large hosts, on abundant woody species, with denser wood and/or rougher bark. The network had a low level of specialization, although several interactions were more frequent than expected by the models. We did not detect a phylogenetic signal on the network structure. The effect of host size on the establishment of epiphytes indicates that mature forests are necessary to preserve diverse bromeliad communities.

  7. The Lichen Genus Parmotrema in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Jayalal, Udeni; Divakar, Pradeep K.; Joshi, Santosh; Oh, Soon-Ok; Koh, Young Jin

    2013-01-01

    Parmotrema A. Massal. is a common lichen genus scattered throughout the Korean Peninsula; however, no detailed taxonomic or revisionary study of this genus has been conducted for nearly two decades. Therefore, this study revised the taxonomy of this genus based on specimens deposited in the lichen herbarium at the Korean Lichen Research Institute and samples wereidentified using recent literature. In this revisionary study, a total of eighteen species of Parmotrema including eight new records [Parmotrema cetratum (Ach.) Hale, Parmotrema cristiferum (Taylor) Hale, Parmotrema grayanum (Hue) Hale, Parmotrema defectum (Hale) Hale, Parmotrema dilatatum (Vain.) Hale, Parmotrema margaritatum (Hue) Hale, Parmotrema pseudocrinitum (Abbayes) Hale, and Parmotrema subsumptum (Nyl.) Hale] are documented. Detailed descriptions of each species with their morphological, anatomical and chemical characteristics are also given and a key to the known Parmotrema species of the Korean Peninsula is presented. PMID:23610536

  8. Ice encapsulation protects rather than disturbs the freezing lichen.

    PubMed

    Bjerke, J W

    2009-03-01

    Arctic and alpine terricolous lichens are adapted to harsh environments and are tolerant to extremely low temperatures when metabolically inactive. However, there are reports indicating that freezing can be lethal to metabolically active lichens. With a projected warmer and more unstable climate, winter precipitation at high latitudes will fall more frequently as rain, causing snowmelt and encapsulating terricolous lichens in ice or exposing them to large temperature fluctuations. Lichens are a major winter food source for reindeer in most parts of the circumpolar region. A laboratory experiment tested how three hydrated reindeer forage lichen species covered by snow, encapsulated in ice, or uncovered responded to storage at freezing temperatures and subsequent warming. Photosynthetic performance (maximal fluorescence of dark-adapted samples and net photosynthetic rates) was significantly lower in lichens not insulated by snow or ice, whereas there were few differences between the snow and ice treatments. It is suggested that snow and ice provide sufficiently moist environments to improve extracellular and reduce intracellular ice nucleation activity. Ice encapsulation, which is often lethal to vascular plants, did not have any negative effects on the studied lichens. The results indicate that complete snow and ice melt followed by refreezing can be detrimental to terricolous lichen ecosystems. Reduced lichen biomass will have a negative effect both on reindeer winter survival and the indigenous peoples who herd reindeer.

  9. Lead Isotopes and Temporal Records of Atmospheric Aerosol and Pollutants in Lichens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Getty, S. R.; Nash, T.; Asmerom, Y.

    2001-05-01

    , and not local effects of wind or rock substrate. There, the 206Pb/207Pb of 1.18 is identical among epiphytic lichens suspended from trees (Usnea sp.) and a thallus profile for a radial epilithic lichens (Xanthoparmelia sp.). Each lichen contrasts strongly with the 206Pb/207Pb of 1.138 for the basalt substrate. These results show that temporal records of airborne PM in radial lichens can help to reconstruct rates of recycling of aeolian soils and aerosol dispersal in desert ecosystems.

  10. Interaction network of vascular epiphytes and trees in a subtropical forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceballos, Sergio Javier; Chacoff, Natacha Paola; Malizia, Agustina

    2016-11-01

    The commensalistic interaction between vascular epiphytes and host trees is a type of biotic interaction that has been recently analysed with a network approach. This approach is useful to describe the network structure with metrics such as nestedness, specialization and interaction evenness, which can be compared with other vascular epiphyte-host tree networks from different forests of the world. However, in several cases these comparisons showed different and inconsistent patterns between these networks, and their possible ecological and evolutionary determinants have been scarcely studied. In this study, the interactions between vascular epiphytes and host trees of a subtropical forest of sierra de San Javier (Tucuman, Argentina) were analysed with a network approach. We calculated metrics to characterize the network and we analysed factors such as the abundance of species, tree size, tree bark texture, and tree wood density in order to predict interaction frequencies and network structure. The interaction network analysed exhibited a nested structure, an even distribution of interactions, and low specialization, properties shared with other obligated vascular epiphyte-host tree networks with a different assemblage structure. Interaction frequencies were predicted by the abundance of species, tree size and tree bark texture. Species abundance and tree size also predicted nestedness. Abundance indicated that abundant species interact more frequently; and tree size was an important predictor, since larger-diameter trees hosted more vascular epiphyte species than small-diameter trees. This is one of the first studies analyzing interactions between vascular epiphytes and host trees using a network approach in a subtropical forest, and taking the whole vascular epiphyte assemblage of the sampled community into account.

  11. Are there keystone mycorrhizal fungi associated to tropical epiphytic orchids?

    PubMed

    Cevallos, Stefania; Sánchez-Rodríguez, Aminael; Decock, Cony; Declerck, Stéphane; Suárez, Juan Pablo

    2016-11-23

    In epiphytic orchids, distinctive groups of fungi are involved in the symbiotic association. However, little is known about the factors that determine the mycorrhizal community structure. Here, we analyzed the orchid mycorrhizal fungi communities associated with three sympatric Cymbidieae epiphytic tropical orchids (Cyrtochilum flexuosum, Cyrtochilum myanthum, and Maxillaria calantha) at two sites located within the mountain rainforest of southern Ecuador. To characterize these communities at each orchid population, the ITS2 region was analyzed by Illumina MiSeq technology. Fifty-five mycorrhizal fungi operational taxonomic units (OTUs) putatively attributed to members of Serendipitaceae, Ceratobasidiaceae and Tulasnellaceae were identified. Significant differences in mycorrhizal communities were detected between the three sympatric orchid species as well as among sites/populations. Interestingly, some mycorrhizal OTUs overlapped among orchid populations. Our results suggested that populations of studied epiphytic orchids have site-adjusted mycorrhizal communities structured around keystone fungal species. Interaction with multiple mycorrhizal fungi could favor orchid site occurrence and co-existence among several orchid species.

  12. Epiphyte communities on Thalassia testudinum from Grand Cayman, British West Indies: Their composition, structure, and contribution to lagoonal sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corlett, Hilary; Jones, Brian

    2007-02-01

    Thalassia testudinum, the most common seagrass found in lagoons around Grand Cayman, influences sedimentation by baffling currents, binding sediment on the seafloor, and providing substrates for a diverse epiphytic biota. About 85% of the epiphytic biota is formed of at least 3 species of coralline algae, 72 species of foraminifera, and 61 species of diatoms. The rest of the biota is formed of sponges, gastropods, ostracods, coccoliths, dinoflagellates, brown algae, and worms. The epiphytes are organized in three communities that are part of an organized tripartite community succession. The basal diatom community is overlain by the coralline algae community, which is then overlain by a community composed of a variety of taxa. The coralline algae community, which is the most extensive, typically covers ˜ 75% of the leaf's surface. Potentially, the skeletons of these epiphytes can make a significant contribution to the fine-grained sediment budget of these lagoons. Surprisingly, only a few of the epiphytes were found in the lagoonal sediment. It appears, therefore, that the epiphytes are lost through skeletal dissolution or transported out of the lagoon following storms. Irrespective of the cause, the epiphytes do not form a significant part of the lagoon sediment in Grand Cayman.

  13. Ozone reactivity and free radical scavenging behavior of phenolic secondary metabolites in lichens exposed to chronic oxidant air pollution from Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Valencia-Islas, N; Zambrano, A; Rojas, J L

    2007-08-01

    Lichen secondary metabolites putatively protect lichens from a variety of environmental stress factors, but it is unknown whether these substances respond to air pollution. To assess such a possibility, the three major phenolics of two epiphytic lichen species with contrasting tolerance to chronic air pollution from Mexico City were studied by combining experimental reactivity data and measured field contents. The antioxidant activity and antiradical power of boninic (BO), 2-O-methylsekikaic (MA), and usnic (US) acids, isolated from the tolerant Ramalina asahinae and salazinic acid (SA), atranorin (AT), and chloroatranorin (CA), from the sensitive Parmotrema stuppeum, were determined in vitro by kinetic experiments with ozone and the free radical diphenyl picryl hidrazyl (DPPH*), respectively. In addition, the field contents of these phenolics in the lichens, and the potential antioxidant capacity (PAC) they provide, were compared among three forested sites exposed to urban emissions and a similar, relatively clean site. The six phenolics had antioxidant activity and antiradical power according to these trends: CA > AT > US > SA > or = BO > or = MA for O(3); and CA > AT > US > MA > SA = BO for DPPH*. The three most reactive phenolics are cortical compounds, located in the lichen portion most exposed to the surrounding environment. In contrast, the less reactive SA, BO, and MA are medullary. Such reactivity patterns indicate that some phenolics may provide antioxidative protection at the air-lichen interface. The higher antioxidant power of CA and AT may be due to the reactive hydroxyl groups at positions 2 and 4 of ring A, instead of the less reactive methoxyl at the same positions in both BO and MA. In the field comparisons, total quantified phenolics were significantly higher near Mexico City for both lichens, except for the tolerant R. asahinae at one site. Nevertheless, only the latter species had significantly increased PAC values at all sites near the city

  14. Influence of Habitat and Climate Variables on Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus Community Distribution, as Revealed by a Case Study of Facultative Plant Epiphytism under Semiarid Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Torrecillas, E.; Torres, P.; Querejeta, J. I.; Roldán, A.

    2013-01-01

    In semiarid Mediterranean ecosystems, epiphytic plant species are practically absent, and only some species of palm trees can support epiphytes growing in their lower crown area, such as Phoenix dactylifera L. (date palm). In this study, we focused on Sonchus tenerrimus L. plants growing as facultative epiphytes in P. dactylifera and its terrestrial forms growing in adjacent soils. Our aim was to determine the possible presence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in these peculiar habitats and to relate AMF communities with climatic variations. We investigated the AMF community composition of epiphytic and terrestrial S. tenerrimus plants along a temperature and precipitation gradient across 12 localities. Epiphytic roots were colonized by AMF, as determined by microscopic observation; all of the epiphytic and terrestrial samples analyzed showed AMF sequences from taxa belonging to the phylum Glomeromycota, which were grouped in 30 AMF operational taxonomic units. The AMF community composition was clearly different between epiphytic and terrestrial root samples, and this could be attributable to dispersal constraints and/or the contrasting environmental and ecophysiological conditions prevailing in each habitat. Across sites, the richness and diversity of terrestrial AMF communities was positively correlated with rainfall amount during the most recent growing season. In contrast, there was no significant correlation between climate variables and AMF richness and diversity for epiphytic AMF communities, which suggests that the composition of AMF communities in epiphytic habitats appears to be largely determined by the availability and dispersion of fungal propagules from adjacent terrestrial habitats. PMID:24038687

  15. Influence of habitat and climate variables on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus community distribution, as revealed by a case study of facultative plant epiphytism under semiarid conditions.

    PubMed

    Torrecillas, E; Torres, P; Alguacil, M M; Querejeta, J I; Roldán, A

    2013-12-01

    In semiarid Mediterranean ecosystems, epiphytic plant species are practically absent, and only some species of palm trees can support epiphytes growing in their lower crown area, such as Phoenix dactylifera L. (date palm). In this study, we focused on Sonchus tenerrimus L. plants growing as facultative epiphytes in P. dactylifera and its terrestrial forms growing in adjacent soils. Our aim was to determine the possible presence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in these peculiar habitats and to relate AMF communities with climatic variations. We investigated the AMF community composition of epiphytic and terrestrial S. tenerrimus plants along a temperature and precipitation gradient across 12 localities. Epiphytic roots were colonized by AMF, as determined by microscopic observation; all of the epiphytic and terrestrial samples analyzed showed AMF sequences from taxa belonging to the phylum Glomeromycota, which were grouped in 30 AMF operational taxonomic units. The AMF community composition was clearly different between epiphytic and terrestrial root samples, and this could be attributable to dispersal constraints and/or the contrasting environmental and ecophysiological conditions prevailing in each habitat. Across sites, the richness and diversity of terrestrial AMF communities was positively correlated with rainfall amount during the most recent growing season. In contrast, there was no significant correlation between climate variables and AMF richness and diversity for epiphytic AMF communities, which suggests that the composition of AMF communities in epiphytic habitats appears to be largely determined by the availability and dispersion of fungal propagules from adjacent terrestrial habitats.

  16. Host specificity in vascular epiphytes: a review of methodology, empirical evidence and potential mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Katrin; Mendieta-Leiva, Glenda; Zotz, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    Information on the degree of host specificity is fundamental for an understanding of the ecology of structurally dependent plants such as vascular epiphytes. Starting with the seminal paper of A.F.W. Schimper on epiphyte ecology in the late 19th century over 200 publications have dealt with the issue of host specificity in vascular epiphytes. We review and critically discuss this extensive literature. The available evidence indicates that host ranges of vascular epiphytes are largely unrestricted while a certain host bias is ubiquitous. However, tree size and age and spatial autocorrelation of tree and epiphyte species have not been adequately considered in most statistical analyses. More refined null expectations and adequate replication are needed to allow more rigorous conclusions. Host specificity could be caused by a large number of tree traits (e.g. bark characteristics and architectural traits), which influence epiphyte performance. After reviewing the empirical evidence for their relevance, we conclude that future research should use a more comprehensive approach by determining the relative importance of various potential mechanisms acting locally and by testing several proposed hypotheses regarding the relative strength of host specificity in different habitats and among different groups of structurally dependent flora. PMID:25564514

  17. Host specificity in vascular epiphytes: a review of methodology, empirical evidence and potential mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Katrin; Mendieta-Leiva, Glenda; Zotz, Gerhard

    2015-01-06

    Information on the degree of host specificity is fundamental for an understanding of the ecology of structurally dependent plants such as vascular epiphytes. Starting with the seminal paper of A.F.W. Schimper on epiphyte ecology in the late 19th century over 200 publications have dealt with the issue of host specificity in vascular epiphytes. We review and critically discuss this extensive literature. The available evidence indicates that host ranges of vascular epiphytes are largely unrestricted while a certain host bias is ubiquitous. However, tree size and age and spatial autocorrelation of tree and epiphyte species have not been adequately considered in most statistical analyses. More refined null expectations and adequate replication are needed to allow more rigorous conclusions. Host specificity could be caused by a large number of tree traits (e.g. bark characteristics and architectural traits), which influence epiphyte performance. After reviewing the empirical evidence for their relevance, we conclude that future research should use a more comprehensive approach by determining the relative importance of various potential mechanisms acting locally and by testing several proposed hypotheses regarding the relative strength of host specificity in different habitats and among different groups of structurally dependent flora.

  18. Abundance of epiphytic dinoflagellates from coastal waters off Jeju Island, Korea During Autumn 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyung Seop; Yih, Wonho; Kim, Jong Hyeok; Myung, Geumog; Jeong, Hae Jin

    2011-09-01

    The occurrence of harmful epiphytic dinoflagellates is of concern to scientists, the aquaculture industry, and government due to their toxicity not only to marine organisms but also to humans. There have been no studies on the abundance of the epiphytic dinoflagellates in Korean waters. We explored the presence of epiphytic dinoflagellates in the coastal waters off Jeju Island, southwestern Korea. Furthermore, we measured the abundance of epiphytic dinoflagellates on the thalli of 24 different macroalgae, collected from five different locations in October 2009. Five epiphytic dinoflagellate genera Amphidinium, Coolia, Gambierdiscus, Ostreopsis, and Prorocentrum were found. These five genera were observed on the thalli of the macroalgae Chordaria flagelliformis, Martensia sp., Padina arborescens, and Sargassum sp., while none were observed exceptionally on Codium fragile. The abundance of Ostreopsis spp. was highest on Derbesia sp. (8,660 cells/g wet weight), while that of Gambierdiscus spp. was highest on Martensia sp. (4,870 cells/g-ww). The maximum abundances of Amphidinium spp., Coolia spp., and Prorocentrum spp. were 410, 710, and 300 cells/g-ww, respectively. The maximum abundance of Coolia spp., Gambierdiscus spp., and Ostreopsis spp. obtained in the present study was lower than for other locations reported in literature. The results of the present study suggest that the presence and abundance of epiphytic dinoflagellates may be related to the macroalgal species of the coastal waters of Jeju Island.

  19. Lichen planus pigmentosus.

    PubMed

    Sehgal, Virendra N; Verma, Prashant; Bhattacharya, Sambit N; Sharma, Sonal; Rasool, Farhan

    2013-01-01

    Lichen planus pigmentosus, a variant of lichen planus, is a disorder with conflicting taxonomy. Its worldwide recognition is still not fully understood because of insufficient contemporary evidence of the disease in the literature. The authors review the historical background, etiopathogenesis, clinical connotation, atypical variants, and histopathology to highlight its diversity.

  20. Lichens in the Churchyard

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oldershaw, Cally; Hilton, Barbara; Rocca, Alis

    2010-01-01

    The late Tom Chester, in his role as the British Lichen Society churchyard coordinator, did a great deal to encourage the use of the churchyard as an educational tool. In his honour, the Society has created an award as part of its "Lichen Project". When the Society approached the Association for Science Education (ASE) for help in…

  1. Lichens as Bioindicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Gregory L.; Baker, Thomas R.

    2003-01-01

    Lichens, small and unobtrusive organisms, are seldom noticed as they cling to rocks, trees, and soil in fragile veils or crusts of splendid color and ornate textures. Their beauty is captivating and fascinating, and their purpose and origins are thought-provoking. Lichens make particularly good "bioindicators". They are bioindicators of sulfur…

  2. Exploiting the Lichen Liaison.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raham, R. Gary

    1978-01-01

    For teachers in search of an easily obtainable, readily dissectable, and unique living specimen to arouse the interest of their students and illustrate important biological principles, lichens are the perfect selection. Background information and experiments on lichen anatomy, physiology, and chemistry are given. An appendix gives culture media.…

  3. Lichens as Bioindicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Gregory L.; Baker, Thomas R.

    2003-01-01

    Lichens, small and unobtrusive organisms, are seldom noticed as they cling to rocks, trees, and soil in fragile veils or crusts of splendid color and ornate textures. Their beauty is captivating and fascinating, and their purpose and origins are thought-provoking. Lichens make particularly good "bioindicators". They are bioindicators of sulfur…

  4. Lichens in the Churchyard

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oldershaw, Cally; Hilton, Barbara; Rocca, Alis

    2010-01-01

    The late Tom Chester, in his role as the British Lichen Society churchyard coordinator, did a great deal to encourage the use of the churchyard as an educational tool. In his honour, the Society has created an award as part of its "Lichen Project". When the Society approached the Association for Science Education (ASE) for help in…

  5. Exploiting the Lichen Liaison.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raham, R. Gary

    1978-01-01

    For teachers in search of an easily obtainable, readily dissectable, and unique living specimen to arouse the interest of their students and illustrate important biological principles, lichens are the perfect selection. Background information and experiments on lichen anatomy, physiology, and chemistry are given. An appendix gives culture media.…

  6. Epiphyte Water Retention and Evaporation in Native and Invaded Tropical Montane Cloud Forests in Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mudd, R. G.; Giambelluca, T. W.

    2006-12-01

    Epiphyte water retention was quantified at two montane cloud forest sites in Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park, one native and the other invaded by an alien tree species. Water storage elements measured included all epiphytic mosses, leafy liverworts, and filmy ferns. Tree surface area was estimated and a careful survey was taken to account for all epiphytes in the sample area of the forest. Samples were collected and analyzed in the lab for epiphyte water retention capacity (WRC). Based on the volume of the different kinds of epiphytes and their corresponding WRC, forest stand water retention capacity for each survey area was estimated. Evaporation from the epiphyte mass was quantified using artificial reference samples attached to trees that were weighed at intervals to determine changes in stored water on days without significant rain or fog. In addition, a soil moisture sensor was wrapped in an epiphyte sample and left in the forest for a 6-day period. Epiphyte biomass at the Native Site and Invaded Site were estimated to be 2.89 t ha-1 and 1.05 t ha-1, respectively. Average WRC at the Native Site and Invaded Site were estimated at 1.45 mm and 0.68 mm, respectively. The difference is likely due to the presence of the invasive Psidium cattleianum at the Invaded Site because its smooth stem surface is unable to support a significant epiphytic layer. The evaporation rate from the epiphyte mass near WSC for the forest stand at the Native Site was measured at 0.38 mm day-1, which represented 10.6 % of the total ET from the forest canopy at the Native Site during the period. The above research has been recently complemented by a thorough investigation of the WSC of all water storage elements (tree stems, tree leaves, shrubs, grasses, litter, fallen branches, and epiphytes) at six forested sites at different elevations within, above, and below the zone of frequent cloud-cover. The goal of this study was to create an inexpensive and efficient methodology for acquiring

  7. Lichenized fungi of a chestnut grove in Livari (Rumija, Montenegro)

    PubMed Central

    Mayrhofer, Helmut; Drescher, Anton; Stešević, Danijela; Bilovitz, Peter O.

    2016-01-01

    Sixty taxa (59 species and 1 variety) of lichenized fungi are reported from a chestnut grove in Livari. The majority of them (55 species and 1 variety) occurred on Castanea sativa. The recently described Xylographa soralifera is new to the Balkan Peninsula. The lichenicolous fungus Monodictys epilepraria growing on Lepraria rigidula is new to Montenegro. The lichen mycota is compared with similar localities in Italy and Switzerland. The species composition in Livari is most similar to the Montieri site in Tuscany. PMID:26869743

  8. Lichenized fungi of a chestnut grove in Livari (Rumija, Montenegro).

    PubMed

    Mayrhofer, Helmut; Drescher, Anton; Stešević, Danijela; Bilovitz, Peter O

    2013-10-08

    Sixty taxa (59 species and 1 variety) of lichenized fungi are reported from a chestnut grove in Livari. The majority of them (55 species and 1 variety) occurred on Castanea sativa. The recently described Xylographa soralifera is new to the Balkan Peninsula. The lichenicolous fungus Monodictys epilepraria growing on Lepraria rigidula is new to Montenegro. The lichen mycota is compared with similar localities in Italy and Switzerland. The species composition in Livari is most similar to the Montieri site in Tuscany.

  9. A review of epiphyte community development: surface interactions and settlement on seagrass.

    PubMed

    Michael, Teena S; Shin, Hyun Woung; Hanna, Richard; Spafford, David C

    2008-07-01

    A focus of community ecology is the spatial distribution of species assemblages and the interactions among species and abiotic features of the environment. While the ubiquity of species associations is apparent, it is less clear if interactions within a community impart an organizational structure to the community. Do settlement processes in early stages of community development contribute to later community structure? What are the interfacial forces that lead to recruitment and colonization of diverse substrata? This review examines seagrasses as living substrates for epiphyte colonization and the surface interactions which may determine settlement success. These epiphytes include primary producers which contribute to biodiversity and are bioindicators of pollution/nutrient enrichment.

  10. Cryptic diversity and symbiont interactions in rock-posy lichens.

    PubMed

    Leavitt, Steven D; Kraichak, Ekaphan; Vondrak, Jan; Nelsen, Matthew P; Sohrabi, Mohammad; Perez-Ortega, Sergio; St Clair, Larry L; Lumbsch, H Thorsten

    2016-06-01

    Identifying factors that influence species interactions is central to research in symbiotic systems. While lichens represent iconic models of symbiosis and play important roles in understanding the biology of symbiotic interactions, patterns of interactions in lichen symbionts and mechanisms governing these relationships are not well characterized. This is due, in part to the fact that current taxonomic approaches for recognizing diversity in lichen symbionts commonly fail to accurately reflect actual species diversity. In this study, we employed DNA-based approaches to circumscribed candidate species-level lineages in rock-posy lichen symbionts (mycobiont=Rhizoplaca s. lat. species; photobiont=Trebouxia species). Our results revealed a high degree of cryptic diversity in both the myco- and photobionts in these lichens. Using the candidate species circumscribed here, we investigated the specificity of the symbionts toward their partners and inferred the relative importance of various factors influencing symbiont interactions. Distinct mycobiont species complexes, ecozones, and biomes are significantly correlated with the occurrence of photobiont OTUs, indicating that complex interactions among mycobiont lineages, ecogeography, and microhabitat determine interactions between photobionts and their mycobionts in lichen symbiosis. One-to-one specificity between mycobiont and photobiont species was not found, with the exception of R. maheui that associated with a single Trebouxia OTU that was not found with other Rhizoplaca s. lat. species. We estimated the most recent common ancestor of the core Rhizoplaca group at c. 62.5Ma, similar in age to the diverse parmelioid core group in the well-studied family Parmeliaceae. However, in contrast to Parmeliaceae, species in Rhizoplaca were found to associate with a narrow range of photobionts. Our study provides important perspectives into species diversity and interactions in iconic lichen symbiotic systems and establishes a

  11. A comprehensive checklist of vascular epiphytes of the Atlantic Forest reveals outstanding endemic rates

    PubMed Central

    Freitas, Leandro; Salino, Alexandre; Neto, Luiz Menini; Elias Almeida, Thaís; Mortara, Sara Ribeiro; Stehmann, João Renato; Amorim, André Marcio; Guimarães, Elsie Franklin; Coelho, Marcus Nadruz; Zanin, Ana; Forzza, Rafaela Campostrini

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Knowledge of the geographic distribution of plants is essential to underpin the understanding of global biodiversity patterns. Vascular epiphytes are important components of diversity and functionality of Neotropical forests but, unlike their terrestrial counterparts, they are under-represented in large-scale diversity and biogeographic analyses. This is the case for the Atlantic Forest - one of the most diverse and threatened biomes worldwide. We provide the first comprehensive species list of Atlantic Forest vascular epiphytes; their endemism patterns and threatened species occurrence have also been analyzed. A list with 2,256 species of (hemi-)epiphytes - distributed in 240 genera and 33 families - is presented based on the updated Brazilian Flora Checklist. This represents more than 15% of the total vascular plant richness in the Atlantic Forest. Moreover, 256 species are included on the Brazilian Red List. More than 93% of the overall richness is concentrated in ten families, with 73% represented by Orchidaceae and Bromeliaceae species alone. A total of 78% of epiphytic species are endemic to the Atlantic Forest, in contrast to overall vascular plant endemism in this biome estimated at 57%. Among the non-endemics, 13% of epiphytic species also occur either in the Amazon or in the Cerrado - the other two largest biomes of Brazil – and only 8% are found in two or more Brazilian biomes. This pattern of endemism, in addition to available dated phylogenies of some genera, indicate the dominance of recent radiations of epiphytic groups in the Atlantic Forest, showing that the majority of divergences dating from the Pliocene onwards are similar to those that were recently reported for other Neotropical plants. PMID:26884706

  12. A comprehensive checklist of vascular epiphytes of the Atlantic Forest reveals outstanding endemic rates.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Leandro; Salino, Alexandre; Neto, Luiz Menini; Elias Almeida, Thaís; Mortara, Sara Ribeiro; Stehmann, João Renato; Amorim, André Marcio; Guimarães, Elsie Franklin; Coelho, Marcus Nadruz; Zanin, Ana; Forzza, Rafaela Campostrini

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of the geographic distribution of plants is essential to underpin the understanding of global biodiversity patterns. Vascular epiphytes are important components of diversity and functionality of Neotropical forests but, unlike their terrestrial counterparts, they are under-represented in large-scale diversity and biogeographic analyses. This is the case for the Atlantic Forest - one of the most diverse and threatened biomes worldwide. We provide the first comprehensive species list of Atlantic Forest vascular epiphytes; their endemism patterns and threatened species occurrence have also been analyzed. A list with 2,256 species of (hemi-)epiphytes - distributed in 240 genera and 33 families - is presented based on the updated Brazilian Flora Checklist. This represents more than 15% of the total vascular plant richness in the Atlantic Forest. Moreover, 256 species are included on the Brazilian Red List. More than 93% of the overall richness is concentrated in ten families, with 73% represented by Orchidaceae and Bromeliaceae species alone. A total of 78% of epiphytic species are endemic to the Atlantic Forest, in contrast to overall vascular plant endemism in this biome estimated at 57%. Among the non-endemics, 13% of epiphytic species also occur either in the Amazon or in the Cerrado - the other two largest biomes of Brazil - and only 8% are found in two or more Brazilian biomes. This pattern of endemism, in addition to available dated phylogenies of some genera, indicate the dominance of recent radiations of epiphytic groups in the Atlantic Forest, showing that the majority of divergences dating from the Pliocene onwards are similar to those that were recently reported for other Neotropical plants.

  13. Euphorbia milii-native bacteria interactions under airborne formaldehyde stress: Effect of epiphyte and endophyte inoculation in relation to IAA, ethylene and ROS levels.

    PubMed

    Khaksar, Gholamreza; Treesubsuntorn, Chairat; Thiravetyan, Paitip

    2017-02-01

    Better understanding of plant-bacteria interactions under stress is of the prime importance for enhancing airborne pollutant phytoremediation. No studies have investigated plant-epiphyte interactions compared to plant-endophyte interactions under airborne formaldehyde stress in terms of plant Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), ethylene, reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and pollutant removal efficiency. Euphorbia milii was inoculated with native plant growth-promoting (PGP) endophytic and epiphytic isolates individually to investigate plant-endophyte compared to plant-epiphyte interactions under continuous formaldehyde fumigation. Under airborne formaldehyde stress, endophyte interacts with its host plant closely and provides higher levels of IAA which protected the plant against formaldehyde phytotoxicity by lowering intracellular ROS, ethylene levels and maintaining shoot epiphytic community; hence, higher pollutant removal. However, plant-epiphyte interactions could not provide enough IAA to confer protection against formaldehyde stress; thus, increased ROS and ethylene levels, large decrease in shoot epiphytic population and lower pollutant removal although epiphyte contacts with airborne pollutant directly (has greater access to gaseous formaldehyde). Endophyte-inoculated plant synthesized more tryptophan as a signaling molecule for its associated bacteria to produce IAA compared to the epiphyte-inoculated one. Under stress, PGP endophyte interacts with its host closely; thus, better protection against stress and higher pollutant removal compared to epiphyte which has limited interactions with the host plant; hence, lower pollutant removal. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Highly variable microsatellite markers for the fungal and algal symbionts of the lichen Lobaria pulmonaria and challenges in developing biont-specific molecular markers for fungal associations.

    PubMed

    Widmer, Ivo; Dal Grande, Francesco; Cornejo, Carolina; Scheidegger, Christoph

    2010-07-01

    The availability of highly variable markers for the partners of a fungal symbiosis enables the integrated investigation of ecological and evolutionary processes at the symbiotic level. In this article we analyze the specificity of the first and to date only microsatellite markers that had been developed for an epiphytic lichen (Lobaria pulmonaria). We used DNA extracts from cultures of the fungal and of the green algal symbionts of L. pulmonaria as well as total DNA extracts from related Lobaria species associated with the same algal partner, and got evidence that five of the previously described microsatellite markers, proposed to be fungus-specific, are indeed alga-specific. Hence, highly variable microsatellite primer sets available for both, the algal and the fungal symbionts of L. pulmonaria are now at our hands, which allow us to investigate so far unexplored biological processes of lichen symbionts, such as codispersal and coevolution. In a broader sense, our work evaluates and discusses the challenges in developing biont-specific molecular markers for fungi forming close associations with other organisms.

  15. Midday dew--an overlooked factor enhancing photosynthetic activity of corticolous epiphytes in a wet tropical rain forest.

    PubMed

    Lakatos, Michael; Obregón, André; Büdel, Burkhard; Bendix, Jörg

    2012-04-01

    • Additional water supplied by dew formation is an important resource for microbes, plants and animals in precipitation-limited habitats, but has received little attention in tropical forests until now. • We evaluated the micro-environmental conditions of tree stem surfaces and their epiphytic organisms in a neotropical forest, and present evidence for a novel mechanism of diurnal dew formation on these surfaces until midday that has physiological implications for corticolous epiphytes such as lichens. • In the understorey of a lowland forest in French Guiana, heat storage of stems during the day and delayed radiative loss during the night decreased stem surface temperatures by 6°C in comparison to the dew-point temperature of ambient air. This measured phenomenon induced modelled totals of diurnal dew formation between 0.29 and 0.69 mm d⁻¹ on the surface of the bark and the lichens until early afternoon. • Crustose lichens substantially benefit from this dew formation, because it prolongs photosynthetic activity. This previously unrecognized mechanism of midday dew formation contributes to the water supply of most corticolous organisms, and may be a general feature in forest habitats world-wide. © 2012 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.

  16. Investigation of antioxidant, antimicrobial and toxicity activities of lichens from high altitude regions of Nepal.

    PubMed

    Jha, Baidya Nath; Shrestha, Mitesh; Pandey, Durga Prasad; Bhattarai, Tribikram; Bhattarai, Hari Datta; Paudel, Babita

    2017-05-25

    Several lichen species are reported to be used tradiationally in many theraupatic practices. Many lichen species are reported as sources of several bioactive natural compounds. Several lichen species of Nepal are so far chemically unexplored. The morphological, anatomical and phytochemical characteristics of lichens were compared for the taxonomic identification of the species. Methanol- water extract of lichens were sub fractionated into hexane, dichloromethane and methanol fractions for bioactivity assays. Antimicrobial activities of extracts were evaluated agaisnt pathogenic bacteria and fungal species. DPPH test was used for antioxidant potential evaluation. Brineshrimp test was perfermed to evaluate toxicity of the extracts. A total of 84 lichen specimens were collected and identified from Annapurna Conservation Area (ACA) Nepal. The specimens were identified as belonging to 19 genera and 47 species. Methanol fractions of 16 specimens and dichloromethane (DCM) fractions of 21 lichens specimens showed antioxidant activities comparable with commercial standards (BHA, Butylated hydroxyanisole, IC50=4.9±0.9 μg/mL) even at crude extract level. Similarly, the DCM fraction of 17 lichens showed potential antimicrobial activity against a Gram-positive bacterium (Staphylococcus aureus KCTC3881) and DCM fractions of 45 lichens showed antimicrobial activity against a Gram-negative bacterium (Klebsiella pneumoniae KCTC2242). DCM fractions of three lichens showed antifungal activity against the yeast, Candida albicans KCTC 7965. Likewise, methanol fractions of 39 lichens and DCM fractions of 74 lichens showed strong toxicity against brine shrimp nauplii with more than 80% mortality. Such biological activity-rich lichen specimens warrant further research on exploration of natural products with antioxidant, antimicrobial and anti cancer (toxic) potential.

  17. Differential responses of certain lichen species to sulfur-containing solutions under acidic conditions as expressed by the production of stress-ethylene.

    PubMed

    Garty, J; Kauppi, M; Kauppi, A

    1995-05-01

    To determine whether fluctuations in the concentration of ethylene produced by lichens exposed to sulfur-containing solutions at a low pH correlate with the tolerance/sensitivity of these lichens to air pollution, we measured the amount of ethylene produced by thalli soaked in H2SO4 and NaHSO3. The exposure of Hypogymnia physodes, Cladina stellaris, and Bryoria fuscescens to H2SO4 at a pH ranging between 4.0 and 2.0 did not produce changes in the concentration of ethylene in comparison with samples wetted with H2O at pH 6.8. The exposure of two pendulous lichens, Usnea hirta and Alectoria sarmentosa, to 1.0 and 5.0 mM H2SO4 at pH 2.7 and 2.0, respectively, stimulated only a slight increase of ethylene production, whereas another pendulous lichen, Bryoria fremontii, exposed to H2SO4 at pH 4.0-2.0 decreased its production of ethylene. The soaking of H. physodes, U. hirta, C. stellaris, and A. sarmentosa thalli in NaHSO3 at pH 4.0 gradually increased the production of ethylene. The exposure of B. fremontii and B. fuscescens to low NaHSO3 concentrations depressed the production of ethylene in these lichens. The indifference of H. physodes to H2SO4 under strong acidic conditions correlated with its resistance to SO2 in the air. In accordance with a model by D.M. Reid (In "Effects of Atmospheric Pollutants on Forests, Wetlands and Agricultural Ecosystems" (T.C. Hutchinson and K.M. Meema, Eds.), Vol G 16, pp. 241-245. NATO ASI Series, Springer-Verlag, Berlin and Heidelberg, 1987) referring to higher plants, it is suggested that sulfur-containing solutions under acidic conditions increase the solubility of particles containing heavy metals entrapped among the mycobiont hyphae in lichens. This may lead to an increase of the production of endogenous ethylene in lichens as they are exposed to sulfur-containing chemicals, to acidic rain, or to heavy metal-polluted air.

  18. Local epiphyte establishment and future metapopulation dynamics in landscapes with different spatiotemporal properties.

    PubMed

    Belinchón, Rocío; Harrison, Philip J; Mair, Louise; Várkonyi, Gergely; Snäll, Tord

    2017-03-01

    Understanding the relative importance of different ecological processes on the metapopulation dynamics of species is the basis for accurately forecasting metapopulation size in fragmented landscapes. Successful local colonization depends on both species dispersal range and how local habitat conditions affect establishment success. Moreover, there is limited understanding of the effects of different spatiotemporal landscape properties on future metapopulation size. We investigate which factors drive the future metapopulation size of the epiphytic model lichen species Lobaria pulmonaria in a managed forest landscape. First, we test the importance of dispersal and local conditions on the colonization-extinction dynamics of the species using Bayesian state-space modelling of a large-scale data set collected over a 10-yr period. Second, we test the importance of dispersal and establishment limitation in explaining establishment probability and subsequent local population growth, based on a 10-yr propagule sowing experiment. Third, we test how future metapopulation size is affected by different metapopulation and spatiotemporal landscape dynamics, using simulations with the metapopulation models fitted to the empirical data. The colonization probability increased with tree inclination and connectivity, with a mean dispersal distance of 97 m (95% credible intervals, 5-530 m). Local extinctions were mainly deterministic set by tree mortality, but also by tree cutting by forestry. No experimental establishments took place on clearcuts, and in closed forest the establishment probability was higher on trees growing on moist than on dry-mesic soils. The subsequent local population growth rate increased with increasing bark roughness. The simulations showed that the restricted dispersal range estimated (compared to non-restricted dispersal range), and short tree rotation length (65 yr instead of 120) had approximately the same negative effects on future metapopulation size

  19. Biomonitoring air pollution with the desert lichen Ramalina maciformis.

    PubMed

    Garty, Jacob; Levin, Tal; Cohen, Yehudit; Lehr, Haya

    2002-06-01

    To investigate the environmental impact of anthropogenic activity in the Negev Desert, we monitored the following in order to determine the physiological integrity of the epilithic fruticose lichen Ramalina maciformis: (1) production of ethylene; (2) potential quantum yield of photosystem II expressed as chlorophyll fluorescence ratio Fv/Fm; and (3) electrolyte leakage of cell membranes in terms of electric conductivity. The degree of pollution was assessed by measuring the amounts of B, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P, Pb, Sr and Zn in the lichen thallus. Some of the lichen-carrying stones collected in the relatively unpolluted control site were relocated on the same hill, to test the possible impact of relocation. An additional amount of lichen-carrying stones was marked as controls. The greater part of the lichen-carrying stones was transferred to 10 biomonitoring sites in and around Ramat Hovav, an industrial area in the Negev Desert, Israel. Transplanted lichen in polluted sites contained higher amounts of mineral elements than lichens in the control site after an exposure period of 7 months. Statistical analysis revealed positive correlation of ethylene production and Ni content, negative correlation of Fv/Fm ratios and B, Cu, Mn, Na, Ni, Sr and Zn, and positive correlation of electric conductivity and B, Mn, Ni and Sr. Both elemental content and physiological alterations in transferred samples of R. maciformis point to a high degree of contamination in Ramat Hovav. The present study suggests that the lichen R. maciformis should be classified as a sensitive species endangered by anthropogenic activity in the desert. Furthermore, this lichen species is likely to be suitable as a bioindicator of pollution in other parts of the Negev Desert. Ethylene production and electric conductivity as parameters of lichen-vitality, indicated stress in 5 of the 12 biomonitoring sites (42%) and may therefore be considered as more sensitive than the Fv/Fm ratio, which

  20. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF EXTRACTS FROM ECUADORIAN LICHENS.

    PubMed

    Matvieieva, N A; Pasichnyk, L A; Zhytkevych, N V; Jacinto, Pabón Garcés Galo; Pidgorskyi, V S

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial activity of the ethanolic, isopropanolic, acetone, DMSO and aqueous extracts of the two lichen species from Ecuadorian highland, Usnea sp. and Stereocaulon sp. were explored in vitro against bacteria Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus by the disc-diffusion method. Also the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined. The strongest antimicrobial activity was found in DMSO extract of Usnea sp. compared to antibacterial activity of ciprfloxacin and cefazolin antibiotics. The inhibition zone was 28 mm, 30 mm, 31mm (DMSO extract, ciprfloxacin and cefazolin respectively) in case of B. subtilis usage as the test bacteria. MIC value for Usnea sp. and Stereocaulon sp. DMSO extracts was 0.4 mg/ml. E. coli was resistant to all kinds of extracts. The S. aureus sensitivity to lichen DMSO extracts was comparable to sensitivity of these microorganisms to tetracycline and vancomycin. Thereby, most kinds of extracts (ethanol, isopropanol, hexane, DMSO and acetone solvents) from Ecuadorian lichens Usnea sp. and Stereocaulon sp. with the exception of aqueous Stereocaulon sp. extracts possessed antibacterial activity against B. subtilis. DMSO lichen extracts had also antimicrobial activity against S. aureus. At the same time the extracts studied didn't demonstrate antibacterial activity against the representatives of the most common and harmful phytopathogenic bacteria tested. Further investigations of Ecuadorian lichens especially study of plants collected from extremal highland biotops can be very important in study of possibility of treatment of numerous diseases caused by pathogenic microorganisms.

  1. [Enzyme immunoassay of usnic acid in lichens].

    PubMed

    Burkin, A A; Kononenko, G P; Tolpysheva, T Iu

    2013-01-01

    An enzyme immunoassay for usnic acid in lichens was developed, the sensitivity of which was 0.1 microg/g of air-dried material (0.00001%). Polyclonal rabbit antibodies against bovine serum albumin conjugated to (+)-usnic acid under the conditions of formaldehyde condensation made it possible to determine the analyzed substance in solutions at concentrations from 1 ng/mL when it interacts with an immobilized gelatin conjugate homologous in the binding mode. Usnic acid in 2-26600 microg/g (0.0002-2.6%) amounts was found in all 236 studied samples of lichens belonging to 53 species and 8 families.

  2. Prion protein degradation by lichens of the genus Cladonia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, James P.; Rodriguez, Cynthia M.; Johnson, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    It has recently been discovered that lichens contain a serine protease capable of degrading the pathogenic prion protein, the etiological agent of prion diseases such as sheep scrapie and cervid chronic wasting disease. Limited methods are available to degrade or inactivate prion disease agents, especially in the environment, and lichens or their serine protease could prove important for management of these diseases. Scant information is available regarding the presence or absence of the protease responsible for degrading prion protein (PrP) in lichen species and, in this study, we tested the hypothesis that PrP degradation activity in lichens is phylogenetically-based by testing 44 species of Cladonia lichens, a genus for which a significant portion of the phylogeny is well established. We categorized PrP degradation activity among the 44 species (high, moderate, low or none) and found that activity in Cladonia species did not correspond with phylogenetic position of the species. Degradation of PrP did correspond, however, with three classical taxonomic characters within the genus: species with brown apothecia, no usnic acid, and the presence of a cortex. Of the 44 species studied, 18 (41%) had either high or moderate PrP degradation activity, suggesting the protease may be frequent in this genus of lichens.

  3. Biodiversity and spatial distribution of epiphytic ferns on Alsophila setosa Kaulf. (Cyatheaceae) caudices in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, J L; Windisch, P G

    2010-08-01

    The extractive exploitation of the tree fern Alsophila setosa Kaulf. alters forest formations and diminishes the availability of micro-habitat for epiphytes. A survey of epiphytic fern communities on A. setosa at 16 study sites in different forest formations in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, documented the occurrence of 31 species representing 16 genera and six families. The greatest richness of species occurred in Polypodiaceae (39%) and in the genus Asplenium L. (22%). Habitual holoepiphyte was the predominant ecological category, representing 61% of the species. Similarity analysis demonstrated heterogeneity in the composition of the epiphytic ferns at the study sites and indicated that the vegetation type is not the main factor for floristic difference. The lowest total specific richness (5) was recorded for the seasonal deciduous forest site. The majority of the sites presented similar averages of phorophyte height and epiphyte richness per caudex. In 25% of the sites the height of the host plants presented significant correlation with specific richness. Considering that the majority of the epiphytes are habitual and that some of them occur exclusively or preferentially on tree ferns, the maintenance of these host plants in the vegetation is essential for the conservation of epiphytic species.

  4. Learning about Lichens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Danny

    1982-01-01

    Provides background information and teaching suggestions for collecting and using lichens in the classroom and for conducting field investigations. Focuses on structure, reproduction, photosynthesis, and effects of air pollution. (DC)

  5. Learning about Lichens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Danny

    1982-01-01

    Provides background information and teaching suggestions for collecting and using lichens in the classroom and for conducting field investigations. Focuses on structure, reproduction, photosynthesis, and effects of air pollution. (DC)

  6. Biodiversity and molecular evolution of microalgae on different epiphytes and substrates.

    PubMed

    MubarakAli, D; Ershath, M I Mohammed; Thajuddin, N

    2012-09-01

    An exploration of the microalgal biodiversity from different epiphytes and substrates of pool water in temple at Tiruchirappalli District was studied. Totally ten epiphytic forms were selected for this investigation. In that, totally 44 species of 30 genera belonging to 3 families of the Chlorophyceae, Cyanophyceae (heterocystous and non-heterocystous) and Bacillariophyceae were identified and recorded. The dominant species in this environment were Cyanobacteria (Chroococcus sp. and Oscillatoria sp., Phormidium sp.), Green algae (Tetradron sp. and Scenedesmus sp.) and Diatom (Fragilaria sp. and Navicula sp.) were documented. The molecular taxonomy of cyanobacteria were also analyzed, in this regards, DNA was extracted; 16S rDNA gene was amplified and sequenced. The evolutionary relationship was found in the epiphytic microalgae by Neighbour-Joining method by construction of phylogenetic tree.

  7. Extragenital bullous lichen sclerosus.

    PubMed

    Sauder, Maxwell B; Linzon-Smith, Jaclyn; Beecker, Jennifer

    2014-11-01

    Lichen sclerosus is an inflammatory skin condition characterized by inflammation of the papillary dermis that leads to white scarlike plaques. It occurs classically in the genitals but also has extragenital manifestations with a variety of clinical presentations including a bullous variant. The purpose of this review is to characterize extragenital bullous lichen sclerosus, suggest that it may be more common than dermatologists realize, and discuss treatment of both routine and recalcitrant cases.

  8. Roles of epiphytes associated with macroalgae in benthic food web of a eutrophic coastal lagoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Xinqing; Huang, Lingfeng; Lin, Rongcheng; Du, Jianguo

    2015-11-01

    Macroalgae perform a significant function in the trophic dynamics in many coastal lagoons, and conventionally, they are the key trophic base that fuels the overall aquatic food web. However, few studies have considered the trophic contribution of epiphytes that attach to macroalgae in the diet of benthic primary consumers or their contribution to the trophic base of the aquatic food web. In this study, macrobenthic invertebrate biomass was combined with multiple-isotope-mixing models to distinguish the trophic importance of macroalgae and their associated epiphytic assemblages in the benthic food web during Ulva lactuca bloom in the Yundang Lagoon, a eutrophic coastal lagoon in Xiamen, China. Amphipods primarily dominated the zoobenthos, with the biomass varied from 40.9 g/m2 in January to 283.9 g/m2 in March. They mainly fed on U. lactuca and its associated epiphytes, which jointly contributed more than 60% to amphipod diets, but species-specific feeding habits were exhibited among amphipods. Using the zoobenthos biomass as a weighting factor, the contribution of U. lactuca and its epiphytes to total benthic communities during U. lactuca bloom exceeded 65%.The epiphytes were clearly utilized more than U. lactuca, with a median contribution ranging from 48.5% in January to 66.6% in March. Our findings demonstrate the trophic importance of the epiphytes in macroalgae-based coastal habitats, as found in many seagrass beds. Therefore, we propose that further food web studies of macroalgae-based ecosystems should pay greater attention to the role of epiphytes.

  9. [Genital lichen sclerosus].

    PubMed

    Héla, Zakraoui; Samy, Fenniche; Rym, Benmously; Hajlaoui, Khaoula; Hayet, Marrak; Mohamed, Ben Ayed; Inçaf, Mokhtar

    2005-03-01

    Lichen sclerosus is a chronic inflammatory mucocutaneous disease which origin remains unknown. Its prevalence ranges from one in 300 to one in 1000 of all patients referred to a dermatology clinic in the seventeenth. Through the analysis of a hospital survey, we outline the epidemio-clinical aspects of this dermatosis. Over a 19-year period (1984-2002), we have conducted a retrospective and monocentric study of all patients with genital lichen sclerosus were examined at the dermatology department of Habib Thameur hospital. Thirty-four patients suffered from lichen sclerosus. There were 33 female and only one male (sex-ratio: 0.03). All patients underwent topical corticosteroid therapy (level I, II or IV). The recovery rate of lichen sclerosus was about 20% (7/34). An epidermoid carcinoma occurred in three patients. The frequency of lichen sclerosus in our study is estimated at 1,8 new cases per year. This frequency is probably under-estimated because of some patients' reluctance to seek help. A relatively low recovery rate of genital lichen sclerosus was found in our study. This may be related to an inadequate follow up added to an insufficient treatment adherence.

  10. Traffic represents the main source of pollution in small Mediterranean urban areas as seen by lichen functional groups.

    PubMed

    Llop, Esteve; Pinho, Pedro; Ribeiro, Manuel C; Pereira, Maria João; Branquinho, Cristina

    2017-05-01

    The land-use type (residential, green areas, and traffic) within relatively small Mediterranean urban areas determines significant changes on lichen diversity, considering species richness and functional groups related to different ecological factors. Those areas with larger volume of traffic hold lower species diversity, in terms of species richness and lichen diversity value (LDV). Traffic areas also affect the composition of the lichen community, which is evidenced by sensitive species. The abundance of species of lichens tolerant to low levels of eutrophication diminishes in traffic areas; oppositely, those areas show a higher abundance of species of lichens tolerating high levels of eutrophication. On the other hand, residential and green areas have an opposite pattern, mainly with species highly tolerant to eutrophication being less abundant than low or moderate ones. The characteristics of tree bark do not seem to affect excessively on lichen composition; however, tree species shows some effect that should be considered in further studies.

  11. Changes in epiphyte communities as the shrub, Acer circinatum, develops and ages

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruchty, A.M.; Rosso, A.L.

    2001-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest tall shrub Acer circinatum (vine maple) can host diverse and abundant epiphyte communities. A chronosequence approach revealed that these communities gradually shift in composition as the shrub progresses through its life cycle. Different epiphytic life forms occupy different spatial and temporal niches on shrub stems. These life forms generally shift upwards along the shrub stem as the stem ages and develops, in accordance with the similar gradient hypothesis. We postulate the following sequence of events. An initial wave of colonization occurs as new substrate is laid down. Over time, superior competitors gradually engulf and overgrow competitively inferior primary colonizers. Concurrently, shrub stem microclimate changes as shrub stems grow, age, and layer, causing the processes of competition and colonization to shift in favor of different epiphytic life forms during different life stages of the shrub stem. We define four separate shrub stem life stages: life classes 1a??4 describe, respectively, young upright a??whipsa??; vigorous, upright, mature stems; declining stems beginning to bend towards the forest floor; and horizontal, decadent stems. As space on the shrub stem is filled through growth and colonization, interspecific competition intensifies. Successful competitors persist and spread, while poor competitors are increasingly restricted to the stem tips, where interspecific competition is less intense. In these forests, Usnea, green-algal foliose lichens, and moss tufts excel as the primary colonizers and become common on the outer portions of shrub stems over time, as long as the overstory is not too dense. Moss mats are also good primary colonizers, but excel as secondary colonizers, often coming to dominate decadent shrub stems. Although all life forms can be primary colonizers, the remaining forms (cyanolichens, liverworts, and Antitrichia curtipendula) are effective secondary colonizers. Liverworts are also effective

  12. Alphaproteobacterial communities in geographically distant populations of the lichen Cetraria aculeata.

    PubMed

    Printzen, Christian; Fernández-Mendoza, Fernando; Muggia, Lucia; Berg, Gabriele; Grube, Martin

    2012-11-01

    Lichen symbioses were recently shown to include diverse bacterial communities. Although the biogeography of lichen species is fairly well known, the patterns of their bacterial associates are relatively poorly understood. Here we analyse the composition of Alphaproteobacteria in Cetraria aculeata, a common lichen species that occurs at high latitudes and various habitats. Using clone libraries we show that most of the associated Alphaproteobacteria belong to Acetobacteraceae, which have also been found previously in other lichen species of acidic soils and rocks in alpine habitats. The majority of alphaproteobacterial sequences from C. aculeata are very similar to each other and form a single clade. Data from C. aculeata reveal that alphaproteobacterial communities of high latitudes are depauperate and more closely related to each other than to those of extrapolar habitats. This agrees with previous findings for the fungal and algal symbiont in this lichen. Similar to the algal partner, the composition of lichen alphaproteobacterial communities is affected by environmental parameters.

  13. Intrinsic factors of Peltigera lichens influence the structure of the associated soil bacterial microbiota.

    PubMed

    Leiva, Diego; Clavero-León, Claudia; Carú, Margarita; Orlando, Julieta

    2016-11-01

    Definition of lichens has evolved from bi(tri)partite associations to multi-species symbioses, where bacteria would play essential roles. Besides, although soil bacterial communities are known to be affected by edaphic factors, when lichens grow upon them these could become less preponderant. We hypothesized that the structure of both the lichen microbiota and the microbiota in the soil underneath lichens is shaped by lichen intrinsic and extrinsic factors. In this work, intrinsic factors corresponded to mycobiont and cyanobiont identities of Peltigera lichens, metabolite diversity and phenoloxidase activity and extrinsic factors involved the site of the forest where lichens grow. Likewise, the genetic and metabolic structure of the lichen and soil bacterial communities were analyzed by fingerprinting. Among the results, metabolite diversity was inversely related to the genetic structure of bacterial communities of lichens and soils, highlighting the far-reaching effect of these substances; while phenoloxidase activity was inversely related to the metabolic structure only of the lichen bacterial microbiota, presuming a more limited effect of the products of these enzymes. Soil bacterial microbiota was different depending on the site and, strikingly, according to the cyanobiont present in the lichen over them, which could indicate an influence of the photobiont metabolism on the availability of soil nutrients. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Tropical epiphytes in a CO 2-rich atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monteiro, José Alberto Fernandez; Zotz, Gerhard; Körner, Christian

    2009-01-01

    We tested the effect on epiphyte growth of a doubling of pre-industrial CO 2 concentration (280 vs. 560 ppm) combined with two light (three fold) and two nutrition (ten fold) treatments under close to natural humid conditions in daylight growth cabinets over 6 months. Across co-treatments and six species, elevated CO 2 increased relative growth rates by only 6% ( p = 0.03). Although the three C3 species, on average, grew 60% faster than the three CAM species, the two groups did not significantly differ in their CO 2 response. The two Orchidaceae, Bulbophyllum (CAM) and Oncidium (C3) showed no CO 2 response, and three out of four Bromeliaceae showed a positive one: Aechmea (CAM, +32% p = 0.08), Catopsis (C3, +11% p = 0.01) and Vriesea (C3, +4% p = 0.02). In contrast, the representative of the species-rich genus Tillandsia (CAM), which grew very well under experimental conditions, showed no stimulation. On average, high light increased growth by 21% and high nutrients by 10%. Interactions between CO 2, light and nutrient treatments (low vs. high) were inconsistent across species. CO 2 responsive taxa such as Catopsis, could accelerate tropical forest dynamics and increase branch breakage, but overall, the responses to doubling CO 2 of these epiphytes was relatively small and the responses were taxa specific.

  15. Dissociation and metal-binding characteristics of yellow lichen substances suggest a relationship with site preferences of lichens

    PubMed Central

    Hauck, Markus; Jürgens, Sascha-René; Willenbruch, Karen; Huneck, Siegfried; Leuschner, Christoph

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Many species of lichen-forming fungi contain yellow or orange extracellular pigments belonging to the dibenzofurans (usnic acid), anthraquinones (e.g. parietin) or pulvinic acid group. These pigments are all equally efficient light screens, leading us to question the potential ecological and evolutionary significance of diversity in yellow and orange lichen substances. Here the hypothesis is tested that the different pigments differ in metal-binding characteristics, which suggest that they may contribute to adaptation to sites differing in pH and metal availability. Methods UV spectroscopy was used to study the dissociation and the pH dependence of the metal-binding behaviour of seven isolated lichen substances in methanol. Metals applied were selected macro- and micro-nutrients (Cu2+, Fe2+, Fe3+, Mg2+, Mn2+ and Zn2+). Key Results All the pigments studied are strong to moderate acids with pKa1 values between 2·8 and 4·5. Metal complexation is common in the lichen substances studied. Complexation takes place under acidic conditions with usnic acid, but under alkaline conditions with parietin and most compounds of the pulvinic acid group. The pulvinic acid derivative rhizocarpic acid forms metal complexes both in the acidic and the alkaline range. Conclusions Metal complexation by lichen substances could be a prerequisite for lichen substance-mediated control of metal uptake. Assuming such an effect at pH values where the affinity of the metal for the lichen substance is intermediate would explain the strong preference of lichens with usnic or rhizocarpic acids to acidic substrata. Moreover, it would explain the preference of lichens with parietin and some lichens with compounds of the pulvinic acid group either for nutrient-rich substrata at low pH or for calcareous substrata. PMID:18977765

  16. Retaining biodiversity in intensive farmland: epiphyte removal in oil palm plantations does not affect yield

    PubMed Central

    Prescott, Graham W; Edwards, David P; Foster, William A

    2015-01-01

    The expansion of agriculture into tropical forest frontiers is one of the primary drivers of the global extinction crisis, resulting in calls to intensify tropical agriculture to reduce demand for more forest land and thus spare land for nature. Intensification is likely to reduce habitat complexity, with profound consequences for biodiversity within agricultural landscapes. Understanding which features of habitat complexity are essential for maintaining biodiversity and associated ecosystem services within agricultural landscapes without compromising productivity is therefore key to limiting the environmental damage associated with producing food intensively. Here, we focus on oil palm, a rapidly expanding crop in the tropics and subject to frequent calls for increased intensification. One promoted strategy is to remove epiphytes that cover the trunks of oil palms, and we ask whether this treatment affects either biodiversity or yield. We experimentally tested this by removing epiphytes from four-hectare plots and seeing if the biodiversity and production of fruit bunches 2 months and 16 months later differed from equivalent control plots where epiphytes were left uncut. We found a species-rich and taxonomically diverse epiphyte community of 58 species from 31 families. Epiphyte removal did not affect the production of fresh fruit bunches, or the species richness and community composition of birds and ants, although the impact on other components of biodiversity remains unknown. We conclude that as they do not adversely affect palm oil production, the diverse epiphyte flora should be left uncut. Our results underscore the importance of experimentally determining the effects of habitat complexity on yield before introducing intensive methods with no discernible benefits. PMID:26045947

  17. Retaining biodiversity in intensive farmland: epiphyte removal in oil palm plantations does not affect yield.

    PubMed

    Prescott, Graham W; Edwards, David P; Foster, William A

    2015-05-01

    The expansion of agriculture into tropical forest frontiers is one of the primary drivers of the global extinction crisis, resulting in calls to intensify tropical agriculture to reduce demand for more forest land and thus spare land for nature. Intensification is likely to reduce habitat complexity, with profound consequences for biodiversity within agricultural landscapes. Understanding which features of habitat complexity are essential for maintaining biodiversity and associated ecosystem services within agricultural landscapes without compromising productivity is therefore key to limiting the environmental damage associated with producing food intensively. Here, we focus on oil palm, a rapidly expanding crop in the tropics and subject to frequent calls for increased intensification. One promoted strategy is to remove epiphytes that cover the trunks of oil palms, and we ask whether this treatment affects either biodiversity or yield. We experimentally tested this by removing epiphytes from four-hectare plots and seeing if the biodiversity and production of fruit bunches 2 months and 16 months later differed from equivalent control plots where epiphytes were left uncut. We found a species-rich and taxonomically diverse epiphyte community of 58 species from 31 families. Epiphyte removal did not affect the production of fresh fruit bunches, or the species richness and community composition of birds and ants, although the impact on other components of biodiversity remains unknown. We conclude that as they do not adversely affect palm oil production, the diverse epiphyte flora should be left uncut. Our results underscore the importance of experimentally determining the effects of habitat complexity on yield before introducing intensive methods with no discernible benefits.

  18. [Vertical stratification of epiphytic bryophytes found on Quercus humboldtii (Fagaceae) from boyacá, Colombia].

    PubMed

    Gil Novoa, Jorge Enrique; Morales Puentes, María Eugenia

    2014-06-01

    Oak forest represents an ecologically important plant formation in Colombia, partly due to the large amount of epiphyte flora that harbors, especially non-vascular plants which have been poorly studied in Colombia. One of the biggest oak forests in the country is the one found in the Parque Natural Municipal "Robledales de Tipacoque" (PNMRT), in Boyacá, municipality of Tipacoque. The epiphyte bryoflora was evaluated in Q. humboldtii, using canopy climbing techniques and dividing the trees (25 individuals sampled) each into five layers (base, trunk, inner canopy, middle and outer canopy). A total of 365 samples were collected: 29% liveworts and 71% mosses. Hepatics represented 10 families, 16 genera and 26 species; mosses 11 families, 26 genera and 49 species. Considering the tree layers, the most diverse one was the base with 51 species, followed by the trunk with 43; in the canopy, the inner canopy was found the most diverse with 28 species, and was followed by the middle canopy with 18, and the outer canopy with 15. A species similarity index shows that the trunk and the middle canopy were the most closely related (0.42) in terms of species composition. The results showed that non-vascular plants were mostly found in lower layers (base and trunk), where the diversity was greater, richer (species number), and this might be caused by the microclimatic conditions in these places, such as higher humidity, lower light intensity and shade. Thus, some species are considered shade epiphytes (ombrophiles) because they are unique to these areas, like Bazzania gracilis and Taxilejeunea pterigonia, among others. Likewise, Jungermannia sp. is considered a sun epiphyte (heliophilous) because it is found only in the outer canopy. We concluded that Q. humboldtii could be considered as a potential host for the conservation of non-vascular epiphytes in Colombian forests.

  19. Antarctic epilithic lichens as niches for black meristematic fungi.

    PubMed

    Selbmann, Laura; Grube, Martin; Onofri, Silvano; Isola, Daniela; Zucconi, Laura

    2013-05-17

    Sixteen epilithic lichen samples (13 species), collected from seven locations in Northern and Southern Victoria Land in Antarctica, were investigated for the presence of black fungi. Thirteen fungal strains isolated were studied by both morphological and molecular methods. Nuclear ribosomal 18S gene sequences were used together with the most similar published and unpublished sequences of fungi from other sources, to reconstruct an ML tree. Most of the studied fungi could be grouped together with described or still unnamed rock-inhabiting species in lichen dominated Antarctic cryptoendolithic communities. At the edge of life, epilithic lichens withdraw inside the airspaces of rocks to find conditions still compatible with life; this study provides evidence, for the first time, that the same microbes associated to epilithic thalli also have the same fate and chose endolithic life. These results support the concept of lichens being complex symbiotic systems, which offer attractive and sheltered habitats for other microbes.

  20. Antarctic Epilithic Lichens as Niches for Black Meristematic Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Selbmann, Laura; Grube, Martin; Onofri, Silvano; Isola, Daniela; Zucconi, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Sixteen epilithic lichen samples (13 species), collected from seven locations in Northern and Southern Victoria Land in Antarctica, were investigated for the presence of black fungi. Thirteen fungal strains isolated were studied by both morphological and molecular methods. Nuclear ribosomal 18S gene sequences were used together with the most similar published and unpublished sequences of fungi from other sources, to reconstruct an ML tree. Most of the studied fungi could be grouped together with described or still unnamed rock-inhabiting species in lichen dominated Antarctic cryptoendolithic communities. At the edge of life, epilithic lichens withdraw inside the airspaces of rocks to find conditions still compatible with life; this study provides evidence, for the first time, that the same microbes associated to epilithic thalli also have the same fate and chose endolithic life. These results support the concept of lichens being complex symbiotic systems, which offer attractive and sheltered habitats for other microbes. PMID:24832808

  1. Lichens and mosses on shrub-steppe soils in Southeastern Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Link, Steven O.; Ryan, Bruce D.; Downs, Janelle L. ); Cadwell, Larry L. ); Soll, Jonathan A.; Hawke, Mary Ann; Ponzetti, Jeanne

    2001-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the lichens and mosses found on soils of the shrub-steppe at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington. Thirteen sites primarily at low elevation were intensively sampled. Twenty nine lichens and six moss species were identified. Three lichens were considered undescribed species. Based on comparison with other studies and herbarium records, we conclude the soil lichen flora of the Hanford Site is substantially different than that of the Great Basin or of the shrub-steppe in Idaho.

  2. Mapping lichen color-groups in western Arctic Alaska using seasonal Landsat composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, P.; Macander, M. J.; Swingley, C. S.

    2016-12-01

    Mapping lichens at a landscape scale has received increased recent interest due to fears that terricolous lichen mats, primary winter caribou forage, may be decreasing across the arctic and boreal zones. However, previous efforts have produced taxonomically coarse, total lichen cover maps or have covered relatively small spatial extents. Here we attempt to map lichens of differing colors as species proxies across northwestern Alaska to produce the finest taxonomic and spatial- grained lichen maps covering the largest spatial extent to date. Lichen community sampling in five western Alaskan National Parks and Preserves from 2007-2012 generated 328 FIA-style 34.7 m radius plots on which species-level macrolichen community structure and abundance was estimated. Species were coded by color and plot lichen cover was aggregated by plot as the sum of the cover of each species in a color group. Ten different lichen color groupings were used for modeling to deduce which colors were most detectable. Reflectance signatures of each plot were extracted from a series of Landsat composites (circa 2000-2010) partitioned into two-week intervals from June 1 to Sept. 15. Median reflectance values for each band in each pixel were selected based on filtering criteria to reduce likelihood of snow cover. Lichen color group cover was regressed against plot reflectance plus additional abiotic predictors in two different data mining algorithms. Brown and grey lichens had the best models explaining approximately 40% of lichen cover in those color groups. Both data mining techniques produced similarly good fitting models. Spatial patterns of lichen color-group cover show distinctly different ecological patterns of these color-group species proxies.

  3. Mycorrhizal fungal diversity and community composition in a lithophytic and epiphytic orchid.

    PubMed

    Xing, Xiaoke; Gai, Xuege; Liu, Qiang; Hart, Miranda M; Guo, Shunxing

    2015-05-01

    Some orchid species are present as epiphytes and lithophytes in the same habitat, but little is known about the differences of their mycorrhizal fungal communities. We used Coelogyne viscosa, which occurs both as an epiphyte and a lithophyte, as a study system to investigate orchid mycorrhizal fungal communities in lithophytes and epiphytes in Xishuangbanna National Nature Reserve (Yunnan Province, China). Twenty-three fungal operational taxonomic units (OTUs) from 18 sampling sites were identified. Results indicated that mycorrhizal fungal community composition was different between epi- and lithophytes. When we analyzed the Tulasnellaceae and Sebacinales communities separately, we found that the Sebacinales fungal communities were significantly different in the two growth habitats, but the Tulasnellaceae fungal communities were not. Our results provide evidence for distinct orchid mycorrhiza fungal communities depending on the growth habitat of the orchid. Consistent with some recent investigations of mycorrhizal fungus community composition, this study suggests that for one orchid, growth habitat affects mycorrhizal symbioses.

  4. Small plants, large plants: the importance of plant size for the physiological ecology of vascular epiphytes.

    PubMed

    Zotz, G; Hietz, P; Schmidt, G

    2001-10-01

    Recently, a number of publications have reported that many physiological properties of vascular epiphytes are a function of plant size. This short review will summarize what is known to date about this phenomenon, describe the possible mechanism and will discuss the consequences for the present understanding of epiphyte biology. Size-related changes are also known from other plant groups and it is argued that close attention should be paid to the size of the organisms under study in order to understand the performance and survival of a species in the field. In the light of these findings, the results of many earlier studies on epiphyte ecophysiology are now difficult to interpret because essential information on the size of the specimens used is missing.

  5. Terricolous Lichens in the Glacier Forefield of the Rötkees (Eastern Alps, South Tyrol, Italy)

    PubMed Central

    Bilovitz, Peter O.; Nascimbene, Juri; Tutzer, Veronika; Wallner, Anja; Mayrhofer, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    Summary The investigation of lichens on soil, plant debris and terricolous mosses in the glacier forefield of the Rötkees yielded 31 lichen taxa (29 species and 2 varieties) and one lichenicolous fungus. Micarea incrassata Hedl. (Lecanorales) is new to Italy. Three sampling sites were established at increasing distance from the glacier, in order to compare species diversity, abundance and composition. PMID:26869737

  6. Catalogue of the Lichenized and Lichenicolous Fungi of Bosnia and Herzegovina

    PubMed Central

    Bilovitz, Peter O.; Mayrhofer, Helmut

    2011-01-01

    Summary The catalogue is based on a comprehensive evaluation of 152 published sources. It includes 624 species (with 4 subspecies and 13 varieties) of lichenized and 17 species of lichenicolous Ascomycota, as well as 9 non-lichenized Ascomycota traditionally included in lichenological literature. PMID:22121302

  7. Catalogue of the Lichenized and Lichenicolous Fungi of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

    PubMed

    Bilovitz, Peter O; Mayrhofer, Helmut

    2010-06-01

    The catalogue is based on a comprehensive evaluation of 152 published sources. It includes 624 species (with 4 subspecies and 13 varieties) of lichenized and 17 species of lichenicolous Ascomycota, as well as 9 non-lichenized Ascomycota traditionally included in lichenological literature.

  8. Terricolous Lichens in the Glacier Forefield of the Gaisbergferner (Eastern Alps, Tyrol, Austria)

    PubMed Central

    Bilovitz, Peter O.; Wallner, Anja; Tutzer, Veronika; Nascimbene, Juri; Mayrhofer, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    Summary The investigation of lichens on soil, plant debris and terricolous mosses in the glacier forefield of the Gaisbergferner yielded 41 lichen taxa (39 species and 2 varieties) and one lichenicolous fungus. Three sampling sites were established at increasing distance from the glacier, in order to compare species diversity, abundance and composition. PMID:26869736

  9. Terricolous Lichens in the Glacier Forefield of the Pasterze (Eastern Alps, Carinthia, Austria).

    PubMed

    Bilovitz, Peter O; Wallner, Anja; Tutzer, Veronika; Nascimbene, Juri; Mayrhofer, Helmut

    2015-12-17

    The investigation of lichens on soil, plant debris and terricolous mosses in the glacier forefield of the Pasterze yielded 35 lichen species. Placidiopsis oreades Breuss (Verrucariales) is new to Austria. Three sampling sites were established at increasing distance from the glacier, in order to compare species diversity, abundance and composition within the forefield and with four other glacier forefields of the Eastern Alps.

  10. Terricolous Lichens in the Glacier Forefield of the Gaisbergferner (Eastern Alps, Tyrol, Austria).

    PubMed

    Bilovitz, Peter O; Wallner, Anja; Tutzer, Veronika; Nascimbene, Juri; Mayrhofer, Helmut

    The investigation of lichens on soil, plant debris and terricolous mosses in the glacier forefield of the Gaisbergferner yielded 41 lichen taxa (39 species and 2 varieties) and one lichenicolous fungus. Three sampling sites were established at increasing distance from the glacier, in order to compare species diversity, abundance and composition.

  11. Terricolous Lichens in the Glacier Forefield of the Rötkees (Eastern Alps, South Tyrol, Italy).

    PubMed

    Bilovitz, Peter O; Nascimbene, Juri; Tutzer, Veronika; Wallner, Anja; Mayrhofer, Helmut

    2014-11-28

    The investigation of lichens on soil, plant debris and terricolous mosses in the glacier forefield of the Rötkees yielded 31 lichen taxa (29 species and 2 varieties) and one lichenicolous fungus. Micarea incrassata Hedl. (Lecanorales) is new to Italy. Three sampling sites were established at increasing distance from the glacier, in order to compare species diversity, abundance and composition.

  12. Understanding phenotypical character evolution in parmelioid lichenized fungi (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota).

    PubMed

    Divakar, Pradeep K; Kauff, Frank; Crespo, Ana; Leavitt, Steven D; Lumbsch, H Thorsten

    2013-01-01

    Parmelioid lichens form a species-rich group of predominantly foliose and fruticose lichenized fungi encompassing a broad range of morphological and chemical diversity. Using a multilocus approach, we reconstructed a phylogeny including 323 OTUs of parmelioid lichens and employed ancestral character reconstruction methods to understand the phenotypical evolution within this speciose group of lichen-forming fungi. Specifically, we were interested in the evolution of growth form, epicortex structure, and cortical chemistry. Since previous studies have shown that results may differ depending on the reconstruction method used, here we employed both maximum-parsimony and maximum-likelihood approaches to reconstruct ancestral character states. We have also implemented binary and multistate coding of characters and performed parallel analyses with both coding types to assess for potential coding-based biases. We reconstructed the ancestral states for nine well-supported major clades in the parmelioid group, two higher-level sister groups and the ancestral character state for all parmelioid lichens. We found that different methods for coding phenotypical characters and different ancestral character state reconstruction methods mostly resulted in identical reconstructions but yield conflicting inferences of ancestral states, in some cases. However, we found support for the ancestor of parmelioid lichens having been a foliose lichen with a non-pored epicortex and pseudocyphellae. Our data suggest that some traits exhibit patterns of evolution consistent with adaptive radiation.

  13. Understanding Phenotypical Character Evolution in Parmelioid Lichenized Fungi (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota)

    PubMed Central

    Divakar, Pradeep K.; Kauff, Frank; Crespo, Ana; Leavitt, Steven D.; Lumbsch, H. Thorsten

    2013-01-01

    Parmelioid lichens form a species-rich group of predominantly foliose and fruticose lichenized fungi encompassing a broad range of morphological and chemical diversity. Using a multilocus approach, we reconstructed a phylogeny including 323 OTUs of parmelioid lichens and employed ancestral character reconstruction methods to understand the phenotypical evolution within this speciose group of lichen-forming fungi. Specifically, we were interested in the evolution of growth form, epicortex structure, and cortical chemistry. Since previous studies have shown that results may differ depending on the reconstruction method used, here we employed both maximum-parsimony and maximum-likelihood approaches to reconstruct ancestral character states. We have also implemented binary and multistate coding of characters and performed parallel analyses with both coding types to assess for potential coding-based biases. We reconstructed the ancestral states for nine well-supported major clades in the parmelioid group, two higher-level sister groups and the ancestral character state for all parmelioid lichens. We found that different methods for coding phenotypical characters and different ancestral character state reconstruction methods mostly resulted in identical reconstructions but yield conflicting inferences of ancestral states, in some cases. However, we found support for the ancestor of parmelioid lichens having been a foliose lichen with a non-pored epicortex and pseudocyphellae. Our data suggest that some traits exhibit patterns of evolution consistent with adaptive radiation. PMID:24312438

  14. Raman spectra of oxalates in lichen encrustations on Renaissance frescoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, H. G. M.; Farwell, D. W.; Seaward, M. R. D.

    The vibrational Raman spectra of lichen encrustations on biodeteriorated Renaissance frescoes have been recorded using a laser Raman microprobe. The major chemical species identified in the encrustations is calcium oxalate. Other vibrational features in the Raman spectra have been assigned to fragments of the substratum incorporated from the biodeterioration process and to organic by-products of lichen metabolism such as erythrin, lecanoric acid and meso-erythritol.

  15. Lichens as biomonitors around a coal-fired power station in Israel.

    PubMed

    Garty, Jacob; Tomer, Sharon; Levin, Tal; Lehr, Haya

    2003-03-01

    In the present study epiphytic lichens were applied as biomonitors of air pollution to determine the environmental impact of a coal-fired power station. Thalli of the lichen Ramalina lacera (With.) J.R. Laund. growing on carob twigs (Ceratonia siliqua L.) were collected with their substrate in July 2000 in a relatively unpolluted forest near HaZorea, Ramoth Menashe, Northeast Israel, and transplanted to 10 biomonitoring sites in the vicinity of the coal-fired power station Oroth Rabin near the town of Hadera. The lichens were retrieved in January 2001. We examined the following parameters of lichen vitality: (a) potential quantum yield of photosynthesis expressed as fluorescence ratio F(v)/F(m), (b) stress-ethylene production, and (c) electric conductivity expressing integrity of cell membranes. Following an exposure of 7 months, the lichens were retrieved and physiological parameters and data of elemental content were analyzed comparatively. Electric conductivity values correlated positively with B, Fe, Mg, Mn, Na, Pb, S, Sn, and Ti content. Concentrations of stress-ethylene correlated positively with Al, Ba, Pb, S, and V content and negatively with Cu and Sn. F(v)/F(m) ratios correlated negatively with S content. Some of the heavy metals reached lower levels than those reported in the relevant literature despite a wind regime that should have blown pollutants toward the biomonitoring sites.

  16. Oral lichen planus.

    PubMed

    Olson, Meredith A; Rogers, Roy S; Bruce, Alison J

    2016-01-01

    Lichen planus is an inflammatory mucocutaneous disease that can affect the skin, hair, nails, and mucosal surfaces. Mucosal sites of involvement include oral, genital, ocular, otic, esophageal, and, less commonly, bladder, nasal, laryngeal, and anal surfaces. Oral lichen planus is a mucosal variant of lichen planus, which tends to affect women more often than men, with a typically more chronic course and potential for significant morbidity. Treatment can be challenging, and there is potentially a low risk of malignant transformation; however, therapeutic benefits can be obtained with various topical and systemic medications. Clinical monitoring is recommended to ensure symptomatic control. Increasing awareness and recognition of this entity have continued to fuel advances in therapy and in our understanding of the disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. IMPACTS OF MESOGRAZERS ON EPIPHYTE AND ENDOPHYTE GROWTH ASSOCIATED WITH CHEMICALLY DEFENDED MACROALGE FROM THE WESTERN ANTARCTIC PENINSULA: A MESOCOSM EXPERIMENT(1).

    PubMed

    Aumack, Craig F; Amsler, Charles D; McClintock, James B; Baker, Bill J

    2011-02-01

    It has been hypothesized that the extensive mesograzer community along the western Antarctic Peninsula regulates epiphytic algae as well as emergent filaments from endophytic species. Should grazing limit growth of fouling or potentially pathogenic microphytes, then Antarctic macrophytes may actually benefit from the remarkably high densities of mesograzer amphipods that occur in these waters. Although initially counterintuitive, the negative impacts of epi/endophyte fouling may outweigh stresses caused by limited amphipod grazing on chemically defended macrophytes by reducing stress from endo/epiphyte biomass. If so, then alleviating mesograzing stress should result in significant increases in endo/epiphytic biomass. To test this hypothesis, a mesocosm experiment was conducted. Individuals representing four common species of Antarctic macroalgae were placed in flow-through seawater mesocosms. Amphipods were added to five mesocosms at simulated natural densities, while the other five remained herbivore free. At the end of 7 weeks, endo/epiphytic growth on individual macrophytes was quantified. Most species of macroalgae demonstrated noticeably higher instances of endophyte coverage, epiphytic diversity, and diatom colonization in consumer-free mesocosms than in the presence of amphipods. These data suggest that macroalgae along the western Antarctic Peninsula rely on grazers to control populations of potentially harmful epiphytes. We hypothesize that the chemically defended macroalgal flora lives in mutualism with high densities of mesograzers, providing amphipods with shelter from predation while continually being cleaned of potentially harmful endo/epiphytes.

  18. Growth of epiphytic bromeliads in a changing world: The effects of CO 2, water and nutrient supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zotz, Gerhard; Bogusch, Wiebke; Hietz, Peter; Ketteler, Nadine

    2010-11-01

    Vascular epiphytes, which respond to varying water supply more than any other life form, are thought to be particularly vulnerable to climate change because they are de-coupled from the soil and are thus more directly affected by atmospheric conditions. The few available studies addressing the effect of climate change on epiphytes have either studied plant responses to changes in water supply or to elevated CO 2, but none has looked at possible interactions of these abiotic factors. Here, we present a growth chamber study on the response of individuals of 11 species of epiphytic bromeliads from both tropical lowlands and montane areas to varying CO 2, water and nutrient levels. Water availability had by far the strongest and most consistent impact on plant growth, while the effects of elevated CO 2 and increased nutrient supply were much less consistent across species or habitats. A significant mitigation of reduced water availability by increased CO 2 levels could not be detected. While some species from montane areas were very susceptible to low water availability, lowland species were mostly quite drought-tolerant. These results suggest that global change can pose a real threat to vascular epiphytes through changes in the altitude of cloud formation and altered precipitation patterns, acknowledging substantial differences between species and habitats. Other aspects of global change like the increase of atmospheric CO 2 levels as such seem of limited relevance for the functioning of epiphytic plants.

  19. Lichen planus pigmentosus.

    PubMed

    Rieder, Evan; Kaplan, Jennifer; Kamino, Hideko; Sanchez, Miguel; Pomeranz, Miriam Keltz

    2013-12-16

    Lichen planus pigmentosus (LPP) is an uncommon variant of lichen planus that tends to occur in middle-aged individuals with darker pigmented skin. Clinical findings include hyperpigmented, brown to gray-brown macules and patches in sun-exposed areas, typically on the head and neck. Histopathologic features include epidermal atrophy, vacuolar degeneration of the basal layer of the epidermis, perivascular lymphohistiocystic infiltrate in the upper dermis, and dermal melanophages. We present a unique case of LPP that was characterized by an atypical initial inflammatory phase and subsequent circinate lesions with central clearing.

  20. Lichen planus pigmentosus inversus*

    PubMed Central

    Barros, Hugo Rocha; de Almeida, José Roberto Paes; Dinato, Sandra Lopes Mattos e; Sementilli, Angelo; Romiti, Ney

    2013-01-01

    Twenty-five year old male patient presenting with asymptomatic brown spots, on cervical, axillary, inguinal and popliteal regions, for the last nine months. Pathological examination showed hydropic degeneration of the basal layer, pigmentary incontinence and moderate inflammatory lymphocytic infiltrate in the dermis. Lichen planus pigmentosus inversus is a rare subtype of lichen planus characterized by hyperchromic, asymptomatic or mildly pruritic macules, measuring from millimeters to centimeters in diameter, with defined borders, affecting intertriginous areas, most commonly in the axillae and groin of Caucasian patients. It presents unique lichenoid histology. We report a case with typical clinical features, histology and evolution. PMID:24346904

  1. Lichen planus pigmentosus inversus.

    PubMed

    Barros, Hugo Rocha; Almeida, José Roberto Paes de; Mattos e Dinato, Sandra Lopes; Sementilli, Angelo; Romiti, Ney

    2013-01-01

    Twenty-five year old male patient presenting with asymptomatic brown spots, on cervical, axillary, inguinal and popliteal regions, for the last nine months. Pathological examination showed hydropic degeneration of the basal layer, pigmentary incontinence and moderate inflammatory lymphocytic infiltrate in the dermis. Lichen planus pigmentosus inversus is a rare subtype of lichen planus characterized by hyperchromic, asymptomatic or mildly pruritic macules, measuring from millimeters to centimeters in diameter, with defined borders, affecting intertriginous areas, most commonly in the axillae and groin of Caucasian patients. It presents unique lichenoid histology. We report a case with typical clinical features, histology and evolution.

  2. Substrate preferences of epiphytic bromeliads: an experimental approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zotz, Gerhard; Vollrath, Birgit

    2002-05-01

    Based on the known vertical distributions of three epiphyte species we tested the hypothesis that observed interspecific differences are determined at a very early ontogenetic stage. We attached 1296 first-year seedlings of the three species Guzmania monostachya, Tillandsia fasciculata, and Vriesea sanguinolenta (Bromeliaceae) to substrates differing in orientation and relative position within the crown of the host tree, Annona glabra. Surprisingly, we found no evidence for differential mortality on different substrate types for any of the three species. Hence, differences in vertical distribution cannot be explained by interspecific differences in site-specific survival at this stage. This suggests that spatial distribution patterns are determined even earlier, probably resulting from species differences in seed dispersal or during germination.

  3. Composition of epiphytic leaf community of Posidonia oceanica as a tool for environmental biomonitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Crego, Begoña; Prado, Patricia; Alcoverro, Teresa; Romero, Javier

    2010-06-01

    The demand for sensitive biological tools to assess the environmental quality of coastal waters at broad spatial scales is increasing. Many of the tools used are based on the taxonomic composition of biotic assemblages. They usually require a valuable taxonomic expertise while are unique reflecting the overall ecosystem integrity. Here, we evaluate the potential indicator value of several features of the epiphytic community (overall assemblage composition, species richness, and proportion of the main taxonomic groups) growing on the seagrass Posidonia oceanica leaves. We do so by empirically examining their changes along a disturbance gradient where multiple human activities have interactive and cumulative impacts, sampling at different spatial scales and at two different depths (5 and 15 m). Our results show that the specific composition of the epiphytic assemblages (i.e. species composition) closely reflects, in the deep meadows, the combined effects of different anthropogenic stressors along the gradient, showing an integrative and non-specific response. Similarly, an increase in the proportion of hydrozoans, and a decrease in the proportion of rhodophytes and chlorophytes are observed in deep meadows along the gradient. In shallow meadows, grazing and biotic features of the seagrass seem the main forcing factors determining species composition, and therefore masking the response of epiphytes to the deterioration gradient. After address the effect of natural sources of variability (water depth, within- and between-meadow heterogeneity), changes in epiphyte assemblages and in the proportion of hydrozoans, rhodophytes and chlorophytes in relatively deep meadows seem promising monitoring tools for detecting coastal environmental deterioration.

  4. Multiple origins of crassulacean acid metabolism and the epiphytic habit in the Neotropical family Bromeliaceae

    PubMed Central

    Crayn, Darren M.; Winter, Klaus; Smith, J. Andrew C.

    2004-01-01

    The large Neotropical family Bromeliaceae presents an outstanding example of adaptive radiation in plants, containing a wide range of terrestrial and epiphytic life-forms occupying many distinct habitats. Diversification in bromeliads has been linked to several key innovations, including water- and nutrient-impounding phytotelmata, absorptive epidermal trichomes, and the water-conserving mode of photosynthesis known as crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM). To clarify the origins of CAM and the epiphytic habit, we conducted a phylogenetic analysis of nucleotide sequences for 51 bromeliad taxa by using the plastid loci matK and the rps16 intron, combined with a survey of photosynthetic pathway determined by carbon-isotope ratios for 1,873 species representing 65% of the family. Optimization of character-states onto the strict consensus tree indicated that the last common ancestor of Bromeliaceae was a terrestrial C3 mesophyte, probably adapted to moist, exposed, nutrient-poor habitats. Both CAM photosynthesis and the epiphytic habit evolved a minimum of three times in the family, most likely in response to geological and climatic changes in the late Tertiary. The great majority of epiphytic forms are now found in two lineages: in subfamily Tillandsioideae, in which C3 photosynthesis was the ancestral state and CAM developed later in the most extreme epiphytes, and in subfamily Bromelioideae, in which CAM photosynthesis predated the appearance of epiphytism. Subsequent radiation of the bromelioid line into less xeric habitats has led to reversion to C3 photosynthesis in some taxa, showing that both gain and loss of CAM have occurred in the complex evolutionary history of this family. PMID:14982989

  5. Multiple origins of crassulacean acid metabolism and the epiphytic habit in the Neotropical family Bromeliaceae.

    PubMed

    Crayn, Darren M; Winter, Klaus; Smith, J Andrew C

    2004-03-09

    The large Neotropical family Bromeliaceae presents an outstanding example of adaptive radiation in plants, containing a wide range of terrestrial and epiphytic life-forms occupying many distinct habitats. Diversification in bromeliads has been linked to several key innovations, including water- and nutrient-impounding phytotelmata, absorptive epidermal trichomes, and the water-conserving mode of photosynthesis known as crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM). To clarify the origins of CAM and the epiphytic habit, we conducted a phylogenetic analysis of nucleotide sequences for 51 bromeliad taxa by using the plastid loci matK and the rps16 intron, combined with a survey of photosynthetic pathway determined by carbon-isotope ratios for 1,873 species representing 65% of the family. Optimization of character-states onto the strict consensus tree indicated that the last common ancestor of Bromeliaceae was a terrestrial C(3) mesophyte, probably adapted to moist, exposed, nutrient-poor habitats. Both CAM photosynthesis and the epiphytic habit evolved a minimum of three times in the family, most likely in response to geological and climatic changes in the late Tertiary. The great majority of epiphytic forms are now found in two lineages: in subfamily Tillandsioideae, in which C(3) photosynthesis was the ancestral state and CAM developed later in the most extreme epiphytes, and in subfamily Bromelioideae, in which CAM photosynthesis predated the appearance of epiphytism. Subsequent radiation of the bromelioid line into less xeric habitats has led to reversion to C(3) photosynthesis in some taxa, showing that both gain and loss of CAM have occurred in the complex evolutionary history of this family.

  6. Are lichens active under snow in continental Antarctica?

    PubMed

    Pannewitz, Stefan; Schlensog, Mark; Green, T G Allan; Sancho, Leopoldo G; Schroeter, Burkhard

    2003-03-01

    Photosynthetic activity, detected as chlorophyll a fluorescence, was measured for lichens under undisturbed snow in continental Antarctica using fibre optics. The fibre optics had been buried by winter snowfall after being put in place the previous year under snow-free conditions. The fibre optics were fixed in place using specially designed holding devices so that the fibre ends were in close proximity to selected lichens. Several temperature and PPFD (photosynthetic photon flux density) sensors were also installed in or close to the lichens. By attaching a chlorophyll a fluorometer to the previously placed fibre optics it proved possible to measure in vivo potential photosynthetic activity of continental Antarctic lichens under undisturbed snow. The snow cover proved to be a very good insulator for the mosses and lichens but, in contrast to the situation reported for the maritime Antarctic, it retained the severe cold of the winter and prevented early warming. Therefore, the lichens and mosses under snow were kept inactive at subzero temperatures for a prolonged time, even though the external ambient air temperatures would have allowed metabolic activity. The results suggest that the major activity period of the lichens was at the time of final disappearance of the snow and lasted about 10-14 days. The activation of lichens under snow by high air humidity appeared to be very variable and species specific. Xanthoria mawsonii was activated at temperatures below -10 degrees C through absorption of water from high air humidity. Physcia dubia showed some activation at temperatures around -5 degrees C but only became fully activated at thallus temperatures of 0 degrees C through liquid water. Candelariella flava stayed inactive until thallus temperatures close to zero indicated that liquid water had become available. Although the snow cover represented the major water supply for the lichens, lichens only became active for a brief time at or close to the time the snow

  7. Lichen planus pigmentosus.

    PubMed

    Orme, Charisse M; Kim, Randie H; Brinster, Nooshin; Elbuluk, Nada; Franks, Andrew G

    2016-12-15

    Lichen planus pigmentosus (LPP) is a type oflichenoid dermatitis with superficial dermalmelanophages that presents as symmetrical,hyperpigmented macules and patches that aredistributed over the forehead, temples, cheeks, andneck. The condition most often occurs in darkerskinned individuals and is frequently resistant totreatment. Here we present a patient of Egyptiandecent with a lacy reticulated LPP eruption on theface.

  8. Measurements of plutonium, 237Np, and 137Cs in the BCR 482 lichen reference material

    SciTech Connect

    Lavelle, Kevin B.; Miller, Jeffrey L.; Hanson, Susan K.; Connick, William B.; Spitz, Henry B.; Glover, Samuel E.; Oldham, Warren J.

    2015-10-01

    Select anthropogenic radionuclides were measured in lichen reference material, BCR 482. This material was originally collected in Axalp, Switzerland in 1991 and is composed of the epiphytic lichen Pseudevernia furfuracea. Samples from three separate bottles of BCR 482 were analyzed for uranium, neptunium, and plutonium isotopes by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and analyzed for cesium-137 by gamma-ray spectrometry. The isotopic composition of the radionuclides measured in BCR 482 suggests contributions from both global fallout resulting from historical nuclear weapons testing and more volatile materials released following the Chernobyl accident.

  9. Coexistence of nail lichen planus and lichen planus pigmentosus*

    PubMed Central

    Lemes, Luciana Rodino; Verde, Renata Brandão Villa; Durães, Sandra Maria Barbosa; Araripe Junior, Adolpho de Alencar; Pantaleão, Luciana

    2016-01-01

    We describe a fifty-six-year old, Afro-descendent female patient showing dystrophy of her twenty nails and hyperchromic, asymptomatic macule on her face. Histopathological examination of the macule showed vacuolization of the basal layer, melanophages in the superficial dermis and lymphoplasmocytic inflammatory infiltrate. Nail biopsy revealed orthokeratotic hyperkeratosis and lichenoid inflammatory infiltrate. Lichen planus pigmentosus is an uncommon variety of lichen planus. It is characterized by typical hyperpigmented macules on the face and neck. Nail changes might be present in 10% of lichen planus cases, but no associations with lichen planus pigmentosus have been described. We report a case of lichen planus in twenty nails associated with lichen planus pigmentosus on the patient's face. PMID:28300883

  10. Coexistence of nail lichen planus and lichen planus pigmentosus.

    PubMed

    Lemes, Luciana Rodino; Verde, Renata Brandão Villa; Durães, Sandra Maria Barbosa; Araripe, Adolpho de Alencar; Pantaleão, Luciana

    2016-01-01

    We describe a fifty-six-year old, Afro-descendent female patient showing dystrophy of her twenty nails and hyperchromic, asymptomatic macule on her face. Histopathological examination of the macule showed vacuolization of the basal layer, melanophages in the superficial dermis and lymphoplasmocytic inflammatory infiltrate. Nail biopsy revealed orthokeratotic hyperkeratosis and lichenoid inflammatory infiltrate. Lichen planus pigmentosus is an uncommon variety of lichen planus. It is characterized by typical hyperpigmented macules on the face and neck. Nail changes might be present in 10% of lichen planus cases, but no associations with lichen planus pigmentosus have been described. We report a case of lichen planus in twenty nails associated with lichen planus pigmentosus on the patient's face.

  11. Responses of lichen communities to 18 years of natural and experimental warming.

    PubMed

    Alatalo, Juha M; Jägerbrand, Annika K; Chen, Shengbin; Molau, Ulf

    2017-07-01

    Climate change is expected to have major impacts on high alpine and arctic ecosystems in the future, but empirical data on the impact of long-term warming on lichen diversity and richness are sparse. This study report the effects of 18 years of ambient and experimental warming on lichens and vascular plant cover in two alpine plant communities, a dry heath with sparse canopy cover (54 %) and a mesic meadow with a more developed (67 %) canopy cover, in sub-arctic Sweden. The effects of long-term passive experimental warming using open top chambers (OTCs) on lichens and total vascular plant cover, and the impact of plant cover on lichen community parameters, were analysed. Between 1993 and 2013, mean annual temperature increased about 2 °C. Both site and experimental warming had a significant effect on cover, species richness, effective number of species evenness of lichens, and total plant canopy cover. Lichen cover increased in the heath under ambient conditions, and remained more stable under experimental warming. The negative effect on species richness and effective number of species was driven by a decrease in lichens under experimental warming in the meadow. Lichen cover, species richness, effective number of species evenness were negatively correlated with plant canopy cover. There was a significant negative impact on one species and a non-significant tendency of lower abundance of the most common species in response to experimental warming. The results from the long-term warming study imply that arctic and high alpine lichen communities are likely to be negatively affected by climate change and an increase in plant canopy cover. Both biotic and abiotic factors are thus important for future impacts of climate change on lichens.

  12. Physical contact and carbon transfer between a lichen-forming Trebouxia alga and a novel Alphaproteobacterium.

    PubMed

    Kono, Mieko; Tanabe, Hideyuki; Ohmura, Yoshihito; Satta, Yoko; Terai, Yohey

    2017-05-01

    Recent progress in molecular techniques has begun to alter traditional recognition of lichens as symbiotic organisms comprised of a fungus and photosynthetic partners (green algae and/or cyanobacteria). Diverse organisms, especially various non-photosynthetic bacteria, are now indicated to be integral components of lichen symbiosis. Although lichen-associated bacteria are inferred to have functions that could support the symbiosis, little is known about their physical and nutritional interaction with fungi and algae. In the present study, we identified specific interaction between a lichen-forming alga and a novel bacterium. Trebouxia alga was isolated from a lichen, Usnea hakonensis, and kept as a strain for 8 years. Although no visible bacterial colonies were observed in this culture, high-throughput sequencing of DNA isolated from the culture revealed that the strain is composed of a Trebouxia alga and an Alphaproteobacterium species. In situ hybridization showed that bacterial cells were localized on the surface of the algal cells. Physiological assays revealed that the bacterium was able to use ribitol, glucose and mannitol, all of which are known to exist abundantly in lichens. It was resistant to three antibiotics. Bacteria closely related to this species were also identified in lichen specimens, indicating that U. hakonensis may commonly associate with this group of bacteria. These features of the novel bacterium suggest that it may be involved in carbon cycling of U. hakonensis as a member of lichen symbiosis and less likely to have become associated with the alga after isolation from a lichen.

  13. Effects of enhanced loads of nutrients on epiphytes on leaves and rhizomes of Posidonia oceanica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balata, David; Piazzi, Luigi; Nesti, Ugo; Bulleri, Fabio; Bertocci, Iacopo

    2010-04-01

    The increase of anthropogenic activities has severely altered both terrestrial and aquatic systems. Urbanisation, excessive use of agricultural fertilisers, organic runoff and climate change have caused an increase of nutrients in coastal waters, altering the diversity and food-web structure of benthic assemblages. The aims of the present paper were to text if an experimentally increased availability of nutrients, primarily nitrogen and phosphorous, in an oligotrophic basin, would affect epiphytic assemblages on leaves and rhizomes of P. oceanica and whether this could change rates of consumption of the plant by herbivores. In particular, we tested the hypothesis i) that changes to species composition and abundance of epiphytic assemblages generated by nutrients enrichment would vary between leaves and rhizomes and that ii) alterations to epiphytic assemblages on leaves might, in turn, modify feeding rates of herbivorous fish. After two years, the structure of both leaf and rhizome epiphytic assemblages responded to changes in nutrient concentrations before the occurrence of drastic alterations to the host plant, but only the former showed significant changes in terms of species composition. Moreover, a larger intensity of grazing on P. oceanica leaves was documented in experimentally enriched areas than in controls. The present findings and conclusions are applicable to other systems where patterns of biodiversity depend on changes in the availability of nutrients due to natural or anthropogenic events, likely interacting with biological processes, such as competition and grazing.

  14. Highly efficient uptake of phosphorus in epiphytic bromeliads

    PubMed Central

    Winkler, Uwe; Zotz, Gerhard

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Vascular epiphytes which can be abundant in tree crowns of tropical forests have to cope with low and highly intermittent water and nutrient supply from rainwater, throughfall and stem flow. Phosphorus rather than nitrogen has been suggested as the most limiting nutrient element, but, unlike nitrogen, this element has received little attention in physiological studies. This motivated the present report, in which phosphate uptake kinetics by leaves and roots, the subsequent distribution within plants and the metabolic fate of phosphate were studied as a step towards an improved understanding of physiological adaptations to the conditions of tree canopies. Methods Radioactively labelled [32P]phosphate was used to study uptake kinetics and plant distribution of phosphorus absorbed from bromeliad tanks. The metabolism of low molecular phosphorus metabolites was analysed by thin-layer chromatography followed by autoradiography. Key Results Uptake of phosphate from tanks is an ATP-dependent process. The kinetics of phosphorus uptake suggest that epiphytes possess effective phosphate transporters. The Km value of 1·05 µm determined for leaves of the bromeliad Aechmea fasciata is comparable with values obtained for the high affinity phosphate transporters in roots of terrestrial plants. In this species, young leaves are the main sink for phosphate absorbed from tank water. Within these leaves, phosphate is then allocated from the basal uptake zone into distal sections of the leaves. More than 80 % of the phosphate incorporated into leaves is not used in metabolism but stored as phytin. Conclusions Tank epiphytes are adapted to low and intermittent nutrient supply by different mechanisms. They possess an effective mechanism to take up phosphate, minimizing dilution and loss of phosphorus captured in the tank. Available phosphorus is taken up from the tank solution almost quantitatively, and the surplus not needed for current metabolism is accumulated

  15. Lichen physiological traits and growth forms affect communities of associated invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Bokhorst, Stef; Asplund, Johan; Kardol, Paul; Wardle, David A

    2015-09-01

    While there has been much interest in the relationships between traits of primary producers and composition of associated invertebrate consumer communities, our knowledge is largely based on studies from vascular plants, while other types of functionally important producers, such as lichens, have rarely been considered. To address how physiological traits of lichens drive community composition of invertebrates, we collected thalli from 27 lichen species from southern Norway and quantified the communities of associated springtails, mites, and nematodes. For each lichen species, we measured key physiological thallus traits and determined whether invertebrate communities were correlated with these traits. We also explored whether invertebrate communities differed among lichen groups, categorized according to nitrogen-fixing ability, growth form, and substratum. Lichen traits explained up to 39% of the variation in abundances of major invertebrate groups. For many invertebrate groups, abundance was positively correlated with lichen N and P concentrations, N:P ratio, and the percentage of water content on saturation (WC), but had few relationships with concentrations of carbon-based secondary compounds. Diversity and taxonomic richness of invertebrate groups were sometimes also correlated with lichen N and N:P ratios. Nitrogen-fixing lichens showed higher abundance and diversity of some invertebrate groups than did non-N-fixing lichens. However, this emerged in part because most N-fixing lichens have a foliose growth form that benefits invertebrates, through, improving the microclimate, independently of N concentration. Furthermore, invertebrate communities associated with terricolous lichens were determined more by their close proximity to the soil invertebrate pool than by lichen traits. Overall, our results reveal that differences between lichen species have a large impact on the invertebrate communities that live among the thalli. Different invertebrate groups show

  16. New or otherwise interesting lichenized and lichenicolous fungi from Montenegro

    PubMed Central

    Bilovitz, Peter O.; Knežević, Branka; Stešević, Danijela; Vitikainen, Orvo; Dragićević, Snežana; Mayrhofer, Helmut

    2011-01-01

    A list of 256 taxa of lichens (252 species) and 2 species of lichenicolous fungi from Montenegro is presented, including 58 taxa (57 species) new to Montenegro. The list is based on specimens kept in the lichen collections of the herbaria GZU, H, Podgorica, and in the private herbarium of Klaus Kalb, and on recent field work in various parts of the country. The genera Biatoridium, Carbonea, Cercidospora, Heppia, Hyperphyscia, Hypocenomyce, Leprocaulon, Lethariella, Megalospora, Orphniospora, Psorinia and Vahliella are reported from Montenegro for the first time. PMID:22102779

  17. The Use of Lichens as Indicators of Ambient Air Quality in Southern Ontario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tulumello, Patricia M.

    The inverse relationship between arboreal lichen species richness and sulphur dioxide in ambient air has been thoroughly documented in the literature. Previous work in southern Ontario has shown that lichen bioindication can identify areas of potential concern regarding air quality. The EMAN suite of lichens was applied in the City of Sarnia by surveying 458 Sugar Maple trees, in order to test the applicability of lichen bioindication under conditions of high mean SO2 levels and high species richness values. The results of the survey were explored using Geographic Information Systems. A spatial relationship between lichen community variables, the Bluewater Bridge and the highway was identified. Lichen species richness, lichen percent cover and Index of Atmospheric Purity values were higher along the bridge and highway. No strong gradients were found between other known pollution sources and no lichen deserts were identified. The most common community grouping consisted of Physcia millegrana Degel, Candelaria concolor (Dicks) B. Stein, Physcia aipolia (Ehrh ex Humb.) Furnrohr; all of which are known nitrophytes. The relationship between substrate pH and lichen species richness was examined. Sites with a known source of anthropogenic chemical contamination were found to have a correlation of r2=o.8 between lichen species richness and pH. The inverse was found for sites with no known source of contamination with a correlation of r2=-0.72. The findings suggest that species richness may be influenced by altering substrate pH which promotes the growth of nitrophytic species capable of tolerating high SO2 levels.

  18. Dispersal and life history strategies in epiphyte metacommunities: alternative solutions to survival in patchy, dynamic landscapes.

    PubMed

    Löbel, Swantje; Rydin, Håkan

    2009-09-01

    Host trees for obligate epiphytes are dynamic patches that emerge, grow and fall, and metacommunity diversity critically depends on efficient dispersal. Even though species that disperse by large asexual diaspores are strongly dispersal limited, asexual dispersal is common. The stronger dispersal limitation of asexually reproducing species compared to species reproducing sexually via small spores may be compensated by higher growth rates, lower sensitivity to habitat conditions, higher competitive ability or younger reproductive age. We compared growth and reproduction of different groups of epiphytic bryophytes with contrasting dispersal (asexual vs. sexual) and life history strategies (colonists, short- and long-lived shuttle species, perennial stayers) in an old-growth forest stand in the boreo-nemoral region in eastern Sweden. No differences were seen in relative growth rates between asexual and sexual species. Long-lived shuttles had lower growth rates than colonists and perennial stayers. Most groups grew best at intermediate bark pH. Interactions with other epiphytes had a small, often positive effect on growth. Neither differences in sensitivity of growth to habitat conditions nor differences in competitive abilities among species groups were found. Habitat conditions, however, influenced the production of sporophytes, but not of asexual diaspores. Presence of sporophytes negatively affected growth, whereas presence of asexual diaspores did not. Sexual species had to reach a certain colony size before starting to reproduce, whereas no such threshold existed for asexual reproduction. The results indicate that the epiphyte metacommunity is structured by two main trade-offs: dispersal distance vs. reproductive age, and dispersal distance vs. sensitivity to habitat quality. There seems to be a trade-off between growth and sexual reproduction, but not asexual. Trade-offs in species traits may be shaped by conflicting selection pressures imposed by habitat

  19. Lichen-Associated Fungal Community in Hypogymnia hypotrypa (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota) Affected by Geographic Distribution and Altitude

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yanyan; Zheng, Yong; Wang, Xinyu; Wei, Xinli; Wei, Jiangchun

    2016-01-01

    Lichen-associated fungal species have already been investigated in almost all the main growth forms of lichens, however, whether or not they are homogeneous and constant within each lichen species are still inconclusive. Moreover, the related ecological factors to affect and structure the fungal composition have been poorly studied. In order to answer these questions, we took Hypogymnia hypotrypa as a model to study the relationship between the lichen-associated fungal composition and two ecological factors, i.e., site and altitude, using the method of IlluminaMiSeq sequencing. Four different sites and two levels of altitude were included in this study, and the effects of site and altitude on fungal community composition were assessed at three levels, i.e., operational taxonomic unit (OTU), class and phylum. The results showed that a total of 50 OTUs were identified and distributed in 4 phyla, 13 classes, and 20 orders. The lichen-associated fungal composition within H. hypotrypa were significantly affected by both site and altitude at OTU and class levels, while at the phylum level, it was only affected by altitude. While the lichen associated fungal communities were reported to be similar with endophytic fungi of the moss, our results indicated the opposite results in some degree. But whether there exist specific OTUs within this lichen species corresponding to different sites and altitudes is still open. More lichen species and ecological factors would be taken into the integrated analyses to address these knowledge gaps in the near future. PMID:27547204

  20. Lichen elements as pollution indicators: evaluation of methods for large monitoring programmes

    Treesearch

    Susan Will-Wolf; Sarah Jovan; Michael C. Amacher

    2017-01-01

    Lichen element content is a reliable indicator for relative air pollution load in research and monitoring programmes requiring both efficiency and representation of many sites. We tested the value of costly rigorous field and handling protocols for sample element analysis using five lichen species. No relaxation of rigour was supported; four relaxed protocols generated...

  1. Biogeochemical signatures in the lichen Hypogymnia physodes in the mid Urals.

    PubMed

    Purvis, O W; Longden, J; Shaw, G; Chimonides, P D J; Jeffries, T E; Jones, G C; Mikhailova, I N; Williamson, B J

    2006-01-01

    Multi-element content and uranium (U) isotopes were investigated in the lichen Hypogymnia physodes (native and transplants) sampled across a 60-km transect, centred on Karabash smelter town, from Turgoyak Lake (SW) to Kyshtym (NE) to investigate the origin of U. Kyshtym was the site of a major nuclear accident in 1957. (234)U/(238)U activity ratios in native thalli sampled during July 2001 were within the natural isotopic ratio in minerals. Uranium/thorium (U/Th) ratios were higher in native thalli towards the NE (average 0.73) than those in the SW (average 0.57). Element signatures in native thalli and transplants suggest U was derived from fossil fuel combustion from Karabash and sources lying further to the east. Systematic and significant U enrichment indicative of a nuclear fuel cycle source was not detected in any sample. Element signatures in epiphytic lichen transplants and native thalli provide a powerful method to evaluate U deposition.

  2. Epiphytes and the National Wetland Plant List

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-07

    del Castillo, and M. del Castillo Mayda. 1992. The Orchids of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Editorial UPR, San Juan, Puerto Rico. Albert...Moreira, A.S.F.P. and R.M. dos Santos Isaias. 2008. Comparative anatomy of the absorption roots of terrestrial and epiphytic orchids . Brazil

  3. Lichen substances affect metal adsorption in Hypogymnia physodes.

    PubMed

    Hauck, Markus; Huneck, Siegfried

    2007-01-01

    Lichen substances are known to function as chelators of cations. We tested the hypothesis that lichen substances can control the uptake of toxic metals by adsorbing metal ions at cation exchange sites on cell walls. If true, this hypothesis would help to provide a mechanistic explanation for results of a recent study showing increased production of physodalic acid by thalli of the lichen Hypogymnia physodes transplanted to sites with heavy metal pollution. We treated cellulose filters known to mimic the cation exchange abilities of lichen thalli with four lichen substances produced by H. physodes (physodic acid, physodalic acid, protocetraric acid, and atranorin). Treated filters were exposed to solutions containing seven cations (Ca(2+), Cu(2+), Fe(2+), Fe(3+), Mg(2+), Mn(2+), and Na(+)), and changes to the solution concentrations were measured. Physodalic acid was most effective at influencing metal adsorption, as it increased the adsorption of Fe(3+), but reduced the adsorption of Cu(2+), Mn(2+), and Na(+), and to a lesser extent, that of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+). Reduced Na(+) adsorption matches with the known tolerance of this species to NaCl. The results may indicate a possible general role of lichen substances in metal homeostasis and pollution tolerance.

  4. Littoral lichens as a novel source of potentially bioactive Actinobacteria.

    PubMed

    Parrot, Delphine; Antony-Babu, Sanjay; Intertaglia, Laurent; Grube, Martin; Tomasi, Sophie; Suzuki, Marcelino T

    2015-10-30

    Cultivable Actinobacteria are the largest source of microbially derived bioactive molecules. The high demand for novel antibiotics highlights the need for exploring novel sources of these bacteria. Microbial symbioses with sessile macro-organisms, known to contain bioactive compounds likely of bacterial origin, represent an interesting and underexplored source of Actinobacteria. We studied the diversity and potential for bioactive-metabolite production of Actinobacteria associated with two marine lichens (Lichina confinis and L. pygmaea; from intertidal and subtidal zones) and one littoral lichen (Roccella fuciformis; from supratidal zone) from the Brittany coast (France), as well as the terrestrial lichen Collema auriforme (from a riparian zone, Austria). A total of 247 bacterial strains were isolated using two selective media. Isolates were identified and clustered into 101 OTUs (98% identity) including 51 actinobacterial OTUs. The actinobacterial families observed were: Brevibacteriaceae, Cellulomonadaceae, Gordoniaceae, Micrococcaceae, Mycobacteriaceae, Nocardioidaceae, Promicromonosporaceae, Pseudonocardiaceae, Sanguibacteraceae and Streptomycetaceae. Interestingly, the diversity was most influenced by the selective media rather than lichen species or the level of lichen thallus association. The potential for bioactive-metabolite biosynthesis of the isolates was confirmed by screening genes coding for polyketide synthases types I and II. These results show that littoral lichens are a source of diverse potentially bioactive Actinobacteria.

  5. Littoral lichens as a novel source of potentially bioactive Actinobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Parrot, Delphine; Antony-Babu, Sanjay; Intertaglia, Laurent; Grube, Martin; Tomasi, Sophie; Suzuki, Marcelino T.

    2015-01-01

    Cultivable Actinobacteria are the largest source of microbially derived bioactive molecules. The high demand for novel antibiotics highlights the need for exploring novel sources of these bacteria. Microbial symbioses with sessile macro-organisms, known to contain bioactive compounds likely of bacterial origin, represent an interesting and underexplored source of Actinobacteria. We studied the diversity and potential for bioactive-metabolite production of Actinobacteria associated with two marine lichens (Lichina confinis and L. pygmaea; from intertidal and subtidal zones) and one littoral lichen (Roccella fuciformis; from supratidal zone) from the Brittany coast (France), as well as the terrestrial lichen Collema auriforme (from a riparian zone, Austria). A total of 247 bacterial strains were isolated using two selective media. Isolates were identified and clustered into 101 OTUs (98% identity) including 51 actinobacterial OTUs. The actinobacterial families observed were: Brevibacteriaceae, Cellulomonadaceae, Gordoniaceae, Micrococcaceae, Mycobacteriaceae, Nocardioidaceae, Promicromonosporaceae, Pseudonocardiaceae, Sanguibacteraceae and Streptomycetaceae. Interestingly, the diversity was most influenced by the selective media rather than lichen species or the level of lichen thallus association. The potential for bioactive-metabolite biosynthesis of the isolates was confirmed by screening genes coding for polyketide synthases types I and II. These results show that littoral lichens are a source of diverse potentially bioactive Actinobacteria. PMID:26514347

  6. Epiphytic cryptogams as a source of bioaerosols and trace gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruckteschler, Nina; Hrabe de Angelis, Isabella; Zartman, Charles E.; Araùjo, Alessandro; Pöschl, Ulrich; Manzi, Antonio O.; Andreae, Meinrat O.; Pöhlker, Christopher; Weber, Bettina

    2016-04-01

    Cryptogamic covers comprise (cyano-)bacteria, algae, lichens, bryophytes, fungi, and archaea in varying proportions. These organisms do not form flowers, but reproduce by spores or cell cleavage with these reproductive units being dispersed via the atmosphere. As so-called poikilohydric organisms they are unable to regulate their water content, and their physiological activity pattern mainly follows the external water conditions. We hypothesize, that both spore dispersal and the release of trace gases are governed by the moisture patterns of these organisms and thus they could have a greater impact on the atmosphere than previously thought. In order to test this hypothesis, we initiated experiments at the study site Amazonian Tall Tower Observatory (ATTO) in September 2014. We installed microclimate sensors in epiphytic cryptogams at four different heights of a tree to monitor the activity patterns of these organisms. Self-developed moisture probes are used to analyze the water status of the organisms accompanied by light and temperature sensors. The continuously logged data are linked to ongoing measurements of trace gases and particulate bioaerosols to analyze these for the relevance of cryptogams. Here, we are particularly interested in diurnal cycles of coarse mode particles and the atmospheric abundance of fine potassium-rich particles from a currently unknown biogenic source. Based upon the results of this field study we also investigate the bioaerosol and trace gas release patterns of cryptogamic covers under controlled conditions. With this combined approach of field and laboratory experiments we aim to disclose the role of cryptogamic covers in bioaerosol and trace gas release patterns in the Amazonian rainforest.

  7. Are vascular epiphytes nitrogen or phosphorus limited? A study of plant (15) N fractionation and foliar N : P stoichiometry with the tank bromeliad Vriesea sanguinolenta.

    PubMed

    Wanek, Wolfgang; Zotz, Gerhard

    2011-10-01

    Although there is unambiguous evidence for vascular epiphytic plants to be limited by insufficient water and nutrient supply under natural conditions, it is an open debate whether they are primarily phosphorus (P) or nitrogen (N) limited. Plant (15) N fractionation and foliar N : P stoichiometry of a tank epiphyte (Vriesea sanguinolenta), and its response to combined N-P fertilization, were studied under semi-natural conditions over 334 d to clarify the type of nutrient limitation. Plants collected in the field and experimental plants with limited nutrient supply showed significant plant (15) N fractionation (mean 5‰) and plant N : P ratios of c. 13.5. Higher relative growth rates and declines in plant (15) N fractionation (0.5‰) and in foliar N : P ratios to 8.5 in the high N-P treatment indicated that these epiphytes were P limited in situ. The critical foliar N : P ratio was 10.4, as derived from the breakpoint in the relationship between plant (15) N fractionation and foliar N : P. We interpret the widespread (15) N depletion of vascular epiphytes relative to their host trees as deriving from (15) N fractionation of epiphytes as a result of P limitation. High foliar N : P ratios (> 12) corroborate widespread P limitation (or co-limitation by N and P) of epiphytic bromeliads and, possibly, other epiphyte species.

  8. The influence of nitrogen in stemflow and precipitation on epiphytic bryophytes, Isothecium myosuroides Brid., Dicranum scoparium Hewd. and Thuidium tamariscinum (Hewd.) Schimp of Atlantic oakwoods.

    PubMed

    Leith, I D; Mitchell, R J; Truscott, A-M; Cape, J N; van Dijk, N; Smith, R I; Fowler, D; Sutton, M A

    2008-09-01

    The spatial relationship between the concentration and deposition of the major ions in precipitation and stemflow and their influence on the tissue nitrogen concentration of three epiphytic bryophytes on Quercus petraea (Matt) Liebl. and Q. robur L. was investigated at seven UK Atlantic oak woodland sites with a range of total N deposition of 55-250 mmol m(-2). The main driver of change in tissue N concentrations of three epiphytic bryophytes (Isothecium myosuroides Brid. (Eurhynchium myosuroides (Brid.) Schp.), Dicranum scoparium Hewd. and Thuidium tamariscinum (Hewd.) Schimp.) was total N deposition in stemflow, dominated by ammonium deposition. The three epiphytic species also showed strong relationships between tissue N concentration and total N deposition in rainfall but a poor correlation with total N ion concentration in rainfall. This study shows that epiphytic bryophytes utilise stemflow N and thus increase their risk from inputs of total N deposition compared to terricolous species at the same site.

  9. Free-living ciliates from epiphytic tank bromeliads in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Durán-Ramírez, Carlos Alberto; García-Franco, José Guadalupe; Foissner, Wilhelm; Mayén-Estrada, Rosaura

    2015-02-01

    The ciliate diversity of Mexican bromeliads is poorly known. We studied the ciliate community of two species of epiphytic tank bromeliads from 48 individuals of Tillandsia heterophylla and four of T. prodigiosa. The bromeliads occurred on over 22 tree host species. Samples were collected during 2009 and 2010 in a mountain cloud forest and in two coffee plantations and in a pine-oak forest. The ciliates were identified in live and protargol preparations. We recorded 61 ciliate species distributed in 39 genera grouped in eight classes. Ten species were frequent in the 52 samples (20 ± 3.2) and Leptopharynx bromeliophilus was the most frequent recorded in 25 samples. Thirty-three species are new for the fauna of Mexico, 24 species have been recorded for the first time in tank bromeliads. The classes Spirotrichea, Oligohymenophorea and Colpodea presented the highest number of species, 16, 14, and 12, respectively. Colpoda was the most species-rich genus being present with six species. A low similarity between areas and seasons was obtained with Jaccard's index. We conclude that the two bromeliads species host a rich ciliate diversity whose knowledge contributes to the question of ciliate distribution and specifically, in tank bromeliads. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Nutrient scavenging activity and antagonistic factors of non-photobiont lichen-associated bacteria: a review.

    PubMed

    Sigurbjörnsdóttir, M Auður; Andrésson, Ólafur S; Vilhelmsson, Oddur

    2016-04-01

    Lichens are defined as the specific symbiotic structure comprising a fungus and a green alga and/or cyanobacterium. Up until recently, non-photobiont endothallic bacteria, while known to be present in large numbers, have generally been dismissed as functionally irrelevant cohabitants of the lichen thallus, or even environmental contaminants. Recent analyses of lichen metagenomes and innovative co-culture experiments have uncovered a functionally complex community that appears to contribute to a healthy lichen thallus in several ways. Lichen-associated bacteriomes are typically dominated by several lineages of Proteobacteria, some of which may be specific for lichen species. Recent work has implicated members of these lineages in several important ecophysiological roles. These include nutrient scavenging, including mobilization of iron and phosphate, nitrogen fixation, cellulase, xylanase and amylase activities, and oxidation of recalcitrant compounds, e.g. aromatics and aliphatics. Production of volatile organic compounds, conferring antibacterial and antifungal activity, has also been demonstrated for several lichen-associated isolates. In the present paper we review the nature of non-phototrophic endolichenic bacteria associated with lichens, and give insight into the current state of knowledge on their importance the lichen symbiotic association.

  11. Depth-related variation in epiphytic communities growing on the brown alga Lobophora variegata in a Caribbean coral reef

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fricke, A.; Titlyanova, T. V.; Nugues, M. M.; Bischof, K.

    2011-12-01

    Lobophora variegata is a dominant macroalga on coral reefs across the Caribbean. Over the last two decades, it has expanded its vertical distribution to both shallow and deep reefs along the leeward coast of the island of Curaçao, Southern Caribbean. However, the ecological implications of this expansion and the role of L. variegata as a living substratum are poorly known. This study compared epiphytic algal communities on L. variegata blades along two depth transects (6-40 m). The epiphytic community was diverse with a total of 70 species of which 49 were found directly attached to L. variegata. The epiphytic community varied significantly between blade surface, depth and site. The greatest number of genera per blade was found growing on the underside of the blades regardless of site and depth. Filamentous red algae (e.g. Neosiphonia howei) were commonly found on the upperside of the blades over the whole depth gradient, whereas the underside was mainly colonized by calcifying (e.g. Hydrolithon spp., Jania spp., Amphiroa fragillissima), fleshy red algae (e.g. Champia spp., Gelidiopsis spp., Hypnea spinella) and foliose brown alga (e.g. Dictyota spp.). Anotrichum tenue, a red alga capable of overgrowing corals, was a common epiphyte of both blade surfaces. L. variegata plays an important role as a newly available substratum. Thus, its spread may influence other algal species and studies of benthic macroalgae such as L. variegata should also take into consideration their associated epiphytic algal communities.

  12. Response of epiphytic bryophytes to simulated N deposition in a subtropical montane cloud forest in southwestern China.

    PubMed

    Song, Liang; Liu, Wen-Yao; Ma, Wen-Zhang; Qi, Jin-Hua

    2012-11-01

    A field manipulation experiment was conducted in a subtropical montane cloud forest in southwestern China to determine the possible responses of epiphytic bryophytes to increasing nitrogen (N) deposition from community to physiology level, and to find sensitive epiphytic bryophytes that may be used as indicators for assessing the degree of N pollution. N addition had significantly negative effects on species richness and cover of the epiphytic bryophyte community. Harmful effects of high N loads were recorded for chlorophyll, growth, and vitality of the species tested. The decline of some epiphytic bryophytes may result from detrimental effects on degradation to photosynthetic pigments. Bazzania himalayana (Mitt.) Schiffn., Bazzania ovistipula (Steph.) Mizut., and Homaliodendron flabellatum (Sm.) Fleisch. are candidates in atmospheric nitrogen monitoring. Epiphytic bryophytes in the montane cloud forest are very sensitive to increasing N deposition and often difficult to recover once they have been destroyed, providing early detection of enhanced N pollution for trees or even the whole forest ecosystem. The inference that increasing N pollution may lead to loss of biodiversity is a concern to the developing economy in western China, and should alert the government to the adverse impacts caused by increased industrial pollution during the process of China's West Development.

  13. Composition of epiphytic bacterial communities differs on petals and leaves.

    PubMed

    Junker, R R; Loewel, C; Gross, R; Dötterl, S; Keller, A; Blüthgen, N

    2011-11-01

    The epiphytic bacterial communities colonising roots and leaves have been described for many plant species. In contrast, microbiologists have rarely considered flowers of naturally growing plants. We identified bacteria isolated from the surface of petals and leaves of two plant species, Saponaria officinalis (Caryophyllaceae) and Lotus corniculatus (Fabaceae). The bacterial diversity was much lower on petals than on leaves of the same plants. Moreover, the bacterial communities differed strongly in composition: while Pseudomonadaceae and Microbacteriaceae were the most abundant families on leaves, Enterobacteriaceae dominated the floral communities. We hypothesise that antibacterial floral volatiles trigger the low diversity on petals, which is supported by agar diffusion assays using substances emitted by flowers and leaves of S. officinalis. These results suggest that bacteria should be included in the interpretation of floral traits, and possible effects of bacteria on pollination are proposed and discussed.

  14. Ecological implication of variation in the secondary metabolites in Parmelioid lichens with respect to altitude.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Vertika; Patel, D K; Bajpai, Rajesh; Semwal, Manoj; Upreti, D K

    2016-01-01

    Lichens are known to synthesize a variety of secondary metabolites having multifunctional activity in response to external environmental condition. Two common lichen extrolites, atranorin and salazinic acid, are known to afford antioxidant as well as photoprotectant nature depending on the abiotic/biotic stress. The present investigation aims to study the influence of altitudinal gradient on the quantitative profile of atranorin and salazinic acid in three lichen species, Bulbothrix setschwanensis (Zahlbr.) Hale, Everniastrum cirrhatum (Fr.) Hale and Parmotrema reticulatum (Taylor) Choisy, Parmeliaceae using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) technique. Samples were collected from high-altitude area, usually considered as non-polluted sites of Garhwal Himalaya. Characterization and quantification of the lichen substances in samples were carried out comparing with the standards of atranorin and salazinic acid. Results indicated significant variation in the chemical content with the rising altitude. All the three lichen species showed higher quantities of chemical substances with the altitudinal rise, while among the three lichen species, E. cirrhatum showed the highest quantity of total lichen compounds. The higher abundance and frequency of E. cirrhatum with increasing altitude as compared to B. setschwanensis and P. reticulatum may be attributed due to the presence of higher quantity of photoprotecting/antioxidant chemicals especially salazinic acid. Thus, the present study shows the prominent role of secondary metabolite in wider ecological distribution of Parmelioid lichens at higher altitudes.

  15. Bisphenol A Removal by Submerged Macrophytes and the Contribution of Epiphytic Microorganisms to the Removal Process.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guosen; Wang, Yu; Jiang, Jinhui; Yang, Shao

    2017-06-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA), a typical endocrine disruptor, has been found in global aquatic environments, causing great concern. The capabilities of five common submerged macrophytes to remove BPA from water and the contributions of epiphytic microorganisms were investigated. Macrophytes removed 62%-100% of total BPA (5 mg/L) over 12 days; much higher rates than that observed in the control (2%, F = 261.511, p = 0.000). Ceratophyllum demersum was the most efficient species. C. demersum samples from lakes with different water qualities showed no significant differences in BPA removal rates. Moreover, removal, inhibition or re-colonization of epiphytic microorganisms did not significantly change the BPA removal rates of C. demersum. Therefore, the contributions of epiphytic microorganisms to the BPA removal process were negligible. The rate of BPA accumulation in C. demersum was 0.1%, indicating that BPA was mainly biodegraded by the macrophyte. Hence, submerged macrophytes, rather than epiphytic microorganisms, substantially contribute to the biodegradation of BPA in water.

  16. Epilithic lichens in the Beacon sandstone formation, Victoria Land, Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hale, M. E.; Friedmann, E. I. (Principal Investigator)

    1987-01-01

    The epilithic lichen flora on the Beacon sandstone formation in Victoria Land consists of seven species: Acarospora gwynnii Dodge & Rudolph, Buellia grisea Dodge & Baker, B. pallida Dodge & Baker, Carbonea capsulata (Dodge & Baker) Hale comb. nov., Lecanora fuscobrunnea Dodge & Baker, Lecidea cancriformis Dodge & Baker, and L. siplei Dodge & Baker. The typification of the species is given along with descriptions and distribution in Antarctica.

  17. Epilithic lichens in the Beacon sandstone formation, Victoria Land, Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hale, M. E.; Friedmann, E. I. (Principal Investigator)

    1987-01-01

    The epilithic lichen flora on the Beacon sandstone formation in Victoria Land consists of seven species: Acarospora gwynnii Dodge & Rudolph, Buellia grisea Dodge & Baker, B. pallida Dodge & Baker, Carbonea capsulata (Dodge & Baker) Hale comb. nov., Lecanora fuscobrunnea Dodge & Baker, Lecidea cancriformis Dodge & Baker, and L. siplei Dodge & Baker. The typification of the species is given along with descriptions and distribution in Antarctica.

  18. Lichen Persistence and Recovery in Response to Varied Volcanic Disturbances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, P.; Wheeler, T. B.

    2015-12-01

    Volcanic eruptions produce many ecological disturbances that structure vegetation. While lichens are sensitive to disturbances, little is known about their responses to volcanic disturbances, except for colonization of lava. We examined lichen community responses through time to different disturbances produced by the May 1, 2008 eruption of Volcan Chaiten in south-central Chile. Pre-eruption vegetation near the volcano was old-growth Valdivian temperate rainforest dominated by closed-canopy Nothofagus sp... In 2012, we installed thirteen 1-acre plots across volcanic disturbance zones on which a time-constrained search was done for all macrolichen species, each of which was assigned an approximate log10 categorical abundance. We also installed a 0.2 m2 quadrat on two representative trees per plot for repeat photography of lichen cover. We remeasured at least one plot per disturbance zone in 2014 and re-photographed tree quadrats in 2013 and 2014. We then analyzed species composition and abundance differences among disturbance zones. In 2012, the blast (pyroclastic density flow), scorch (standing scorched forest at the edge of the blast) and deep tephra (>10 cm) zones had the lowest lichen species richness (5-13 species), followed by reference (unimpacted) and shallow (<10 cm) tephra (17-20 species). Gravel rain (preexisting rock ejected by eruption initiation), gravel rain + pumice and flooded forests (fluvially reworked volcanic material entrained by heavy rains) were species-rich (25-42 species). In 2014, the blast and deep tephra had regained 2-3 times the number of lichen species since 2012 while the light tephra and reference were essentially unchanged. Gravel rain, gravel rain + pumice and flooded forest plots all had about the same number of species in 2014 as 2012. Lichen colonization and growth in tree quadrats varied widely, from very little colonization in the blast to prolific colonization in the gravel rain + pumice zone. Lichen's varied responses to

  19. The importance of the poikilohydric nature of lichens as natural tracers for delta18O of ambient vapour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartard, Britta; Cuntz, Matthias; Lakatos, Michael; Máguas, Cristina

    2010-05-01

    both constant water supply and stomatal control. Their water status and, consequentially, vapour pressure at the evaporative sites constantly tends to equilibrate with the surrounding air. This specificity signifies the uniqueness of these organisms to be able to isotopically equilibrate with ambient vapour regardless of prevailing relative humidity conditions. These findings are supported by first observations obtained within field studies in a Mediterranean sand-dune habitat in Portugal: Thallus water isotopic composition of exposed growing, epiphytic lichens directly resembled that of ambient vapour throughout a diel course. A model was developed as a proof of concept for that accounts for the specific water relations of these poikilohydric organisms. The approach incorporates firstly their variable thallus water potential and secondly a compartmentation of the thallus water into two isotopically distinct but connected water pools. Moreover, the result represent first steps towards the development of pikilohydric organisms as a recorder of ambient vapour isotopic composition.

  20. Distribution patterns of terricolous and saxicolous lichens in extreme desert conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Temina, M.

    2012-04-01

    The investigation of biodiversity in stressful habitats is of great interest because it elucidates relationships between organisms and their environment, as well as revealing the mechanisms of their survival and adaptation to extreme conditions. Deserts represent such stressful habitats where harsh climate and limited resources greatly influence the formation of biota. In order to understand the link between microscale environmental variability in extreme arid conditions and lichen biodiversity patterns, we conducted the present study. For this purpose, the structure and distribution of lichen communities on soil and cobbles at six stations at "Evolution Canyon" III (EC III), Nahal Shaharut, in the extreme southern Negev, Israel, were examined. The opposite slopes of the canyon represented specific ecological niches characterized by sharply different microclimatic conditions. The following characteristics of lichen communities were studied: species richness, systematic diversity, biogeographical elements, frequencies and distribution of species, their morphological and anatomical characteristics, reproductive strategy, and ecological peculiarities. In the research site three environmental variables were evaluated: soil moisture, and temperatures of soil and cobbles. The Canonical Correspondence Analysis was used to study the influence of these ecological variables on the distribution of lichen species. The lichen diversity of EC III was very poor and comprised 12 species (3 cyanoliches on soil vs. 9 phycolichens on cobbles). Most of them belong to a specific group of arid endemic elements, adapted to survive in extreme arid conditions in the deserts of the Levant. The harsh desert conditions of the canyon negatively influence the reproductive ability of lichens. This influence is expressed in the decreased sizes of fruit bodies in some species, and the frequent occurrence of sterile specimens among lichens found in the canyon. A comparative analysis of structure