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Sample records for epiphytic lichen species

  1. Impacts of nitrogen deposition on herbaceous ground flora and epiphytic foliose lichen species in southern Ontario hardwood forests.

    PubMed

    McDonough, Andrew M; Watmough, Shaun A

    2015-01-01

    In this study 70 sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) dominated plots in Ontario, Canada were sampled in the spring of 2009 and 2010 and herbaceous plant and epiphytic foliose lichen species data were compared against modeled N and S deposition data, climate parameters and measured soil and plant/lichen S and N concentration. Herbaceous plant species richness was positively correlated with temperature and indices of diversity (Shannon Weiner and Simpson's Index) were positively correlated with soil pH but not N or S deposition or standardized foliar N scores. Herbaceous community composition was strongly controlled by traditional factors, but there was a small and significant influence of atmospheric S and N deposition. Epiphytic lichen species richness exhibited a strong negative relationship with standardized foliar N score and only one lichen species (Phaeophyscia rubropulchra) was observed at sites with a standardized foliar N score of 0.76. PMID:25305468

  2. Impacts of nitrogen deposition on herbaceous ground flora and epiphytic foliose lichen species in southern Ontario hardwood forests.

    PubMed

    McDonough, Andrew M; Watmough, Shaun A

    2015-01-01

    In this study 70 sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) dominated plots in Ontario, Canada were sampled in the spring of 2009 and 2010 and herbaceous plant and epiphytic foliose lichen species data were compared against modeled N and S deposition data, climate parameters and measured soil and plant/lichen S and N concentration. Herbaceous plant species richness was positively correlated with temperature and indices of diversity (Shannon Weiner and Simpson's Index) were positively correlated with soil pH but not N or S deposition or standardized foliar N scores. Herbaceous community composition was strongly controlled by traditional factors, but there was a small and significant influence of atmospheric S and N deposition. Epiphytic lichen species richness exhibited a strong negative relationship with standardized foliar N score and only one lichen species (Phaeophyscia rubropulchra) was observed at sites with a standardized foliar N score of 0.76.

  3. Large-scale patterns of epiphytic lichen species richness: photobiont-dependent response to climate and forest structure.

    PubMed

    Marini, Lorenzo; Nascimbene, Juri; Nimis, Pier Luigi

    2011-09-15

    Lichens are composite organisms consisting of a symbiotic association of a fungus with a photosynthetic partner. Although the photobiont type is a key life-history trait, tests of the potential differential role of the main photobiont types in shaping large-scale patterns of lichen species richness are still absent. The aim of the study was to test the influences of forest structure and climate on epiphytic lichen species richness across Italy and to see whether these relationships change for groups of species sharing different photobiont types. Regional species richness of epiphytic lichens divided into three main photobiont types (i.e. chlorococcoid green algae, cyanobacteria, and Trentepohlia algae) was retrieved for each of the 20 administrative regions. Multiple linear regression was used to quantify the effect of climate and forest structure, and their potential interaction, on the regional species richness for the three photobiont types, accounting also for the effect of regional area. Regional species richness was associated with both climate and forest structure variables but the relationships with both factors were largely photobiont dependent. Regional area and precipitation were the only predictors included in all the models, confirming the strong dependence of lichens on atmospheric water supply, irrespective of the photobiont type. Number of species with chlorococcoid green algae were further positively associated with cover of high forest, whilst lichens with Trentepohlia were further enhanced by warm temperatures. Cyanolichen species richness was only related to area and precipitation. Our study shed light on the relative importance of climate and forest structure on lichen species richness patterns at the macroscale, showing a differential response of the photobiont types to various environmental determinants. This differential response suggested that the current and future impacts of global change on lichens cannot be generalized and that species

  4. Large-scale patterns of epiphytic lichen species richness: photobiont-dependent response to climate and forest structure.

    PubMed

    Marini, Lorenzo; Nascimbene, Juri; Nimis, Pier Luigi

    2011-09-15

    Lichens are composite organisms consisting of a symbiotic association of a fungus with a photosynthetic partner. Although the photobiont type is a key life-history trait, tests of the potential differential role of the main photobiont types in shaping large-scale patterns of lichen species richness are still absent. The aim of the study was to test the influences of forest structure and climate on epiphytic lichen species richness across Italy and to see whether these relationships change for groups of species sharing different photobiont types. Regional species richness of epiphytic lichens divided into three main photobiont types (i.e. chlorococcoid green algae, cyanobacteria, and Trentepohlia algae) was retrieved for each of the 20 administrative regions. Multiple linear regression was used to quantify the effect of climate and forest structure, and their potential interaction, on the regional species richness for the three photobiont types, accounting also for the effect of regional area. Regional species richness was associated with both climate and forest structure variables but the relationships with both factors were largely photobiont dependent. Regional area and precipitation were the only predictors included in all the models, confirming the strong dependence of lichens on atmospheric water supply, irrespective of the photobiont type. Number of species with chlorococcoid green algae were further positively associated with cover of high forest, whilst lichens with Trentepohlia were further enhanced by warm temperatures. Cyanolichen species richness was only related to area and precipitation. Our study shed light on the relative importance of climate and forest structure on lichen species richness patterns at the macroscale, showing a differential response of the photobiont types to various environmental determinants. This differential response suggested that the current and future impacts of global change on lichens cannot be generalized and that species

  5. A Pine Is a Pine and a Spruce Is a Spruce--The Effect of Tree Species and Stand Age on Epiphytic Lichen Communities.

    PubMed

    Bäcklund, Sofia; Jönsson, Mari; Strengbom, Joachim; Frisch, Andreas; Thor, Göran

    2016-01-01

    With an increasing demand for forest-based products, there is a growing interest in introducing fast-growing non-native tree species in forest management. Such introductions often have unknown consequences for native forest biodiversity. In this study, we examine epiphytic lichen species richness and species composition on the trunks of non-native Pinus contorta and compare these to the native Pinus sylvestris and Picea abies in managed boreal forests in northern Sweden across a chronosequence of age classes. Overall, we recorded a total of 66,209 lichen occurrences belonging to 57 species in the 96 studied forest stands. We found no difference in species richness of lichens between stands of P. contorta and P. sylvestris, but stands of P. abies had higher total species richness. However, species richness of lichens in stands of P. abies decreased with increasing stand age, while no such age effect was detected for P. contorta and P. sylvestris. Lichen species composition progressively diverged with increasing stand age, and in 30-year-old stands all three tree species showed species-specific assemblages. Epiphytic lichen assemblages in stands of 30-year-old P. contorta were influenced by greater basal area, canopy closure, and average diameter at breast height, P. abies stands by higher branch density and canopy closure, and stands of P. sylvestris by greater bark crevice depth. Differences in lichen species richness and composition were mainly explained by canopy closure and habitat availability, and the greater canopy closure in mature P. abies stands promoted the colonization and growth of calicioid lichen species. Our results indicate that the non-native P. contorta have similar species richness as the native P. sylvestris. The main difference in lichen species richness and composition is between P. abies and Pinus spp. in managed forests of boreal Sweden. PMID:26799558

  6. A Pine Is a Pine and a Spruce Is a Spruce – The Effect of Tree Species and Stand Age on Epiphytic Lichen Communities

    PubMed Central

    Bäcklund, Sofia; Jönsson, Mari; Strengbom, Joachim; Frisch, Andreas; Thor, Göran

    2016-01-01

    With an increasing demand for forest-based products, there is a growing interest in introducing fast-growing non-native tree species in forest management. Such introductions often have unknown consequences for native forest biodiversity. In this study, we examine epiphytic lichen species richness and species composition on the trunks of non-native Pinus contorta and compare these to the native Pinus sylvestris and Picea abies in managed boreal forests in northern Sweden across a chronosequence of age classes. Overall, we recorded a total of 66,209 lichen occurrences belonging to 57 species in the 96 studied forest stands. We found no difference in species richness of lichens between stands of P. contorta and P. sylvestris, but stands of P. abies had higher total species richness. However, species richness of lichens in stands of P. abies decreased with increasing stand age, while no such age effect was detected for P. contorta and P. sylvestris. Lichen species composition progressively diverged with increasing stand age, and in 30-year-old stands all three tree species showed species-specific assemblages. Epiphytic lichen assemblages in stands of 30-year-old P. contorta were influenced by greater basal area, canopy closure, and average diameter at breast height, P. abies stands by higher branch density and canopy closure, and stands of P. sylvestris by greater bark crevice depth. Differences in lichen species richness and composition were mainly explained by canopy closure and habitat availability, and the greater canopy closure in mature P. abies stands promoted the colonization and growth of calicioid lichen species. Our results indicate that the non-native P. contorta have similar species richness as the native P. sylvestris. The main difference in lichen species richness and composition is between P. abies and Pinus spp. in managed forests of boreal Sweden. PMID:26799558

  7. A Pine Is a Pine and a Spruce Is a Spruce--The Effect of Tree Species and Stand Age on Epiphytic Lichen Communities.

    PubMed

    Bäcklund, Sofia; Jönsson, Mari; Strengbom, Joachim; Frisch, Andreas; Thor, Göran

    2016-01-01

    With an increasing demand for forest-based products, there is a growing interest in introducing fast-growing non-native tree species in forest management. Such introductions often have unknown consequences for native forest biodiversity. In this study, we examine epiphytic lichen species richness and species composition on the trunks of non-native Pinus contorta and compare these to the native Pinus sylvestris and Picea abies in managed boreal forests in northern Sweden across a chronosequence of age classes. Overall, we recorded a total of 66,209 lichen occurrences belonging to 57 species in the 96 studied forest stands. We found no difference in species richness of lichens between stands of P. contorta and P. sylvestris, but stands of P. abies had higher total species richness. However, species richness of lichens in stands of P. abies decreased with increasing stand age, while no such age effect was detected for P. contorta and P. sylvestris. Lichen species composition progressively diverged with increasing stand age, and in 30-year-old stands all three tree species showed species-specific assemblages. Epiphytic lichen assemblages in stands of 30-year-old P. contorta were influenced by greater basal area, canopy closure, and average diameter at breast height, P. abies stands by higher branch density and canopy closure, and stands of P. sylvestris by greater bark crevice depth. Differences in lichen species richness and composition were mainly explained by canopy closure and habitat availability, and the greater canopy closure in mature P. abies stands promoted the colonization and growth of calicioid lichen species. Our results indicate that the non-native P. contorta have similar species richness as the native P. sylvestris. The main difference in lichen species richness and composition is between P. abies and Pinus spp. in managed forests of boreal Sweden.

  8. Community assembly in epiphytic lichens in early stages of colonization.

    PubMed

    Gjerde, Ivar; Blom, Hans H; Lindblom, Louise; Saetersdal, Magne; Schei, Fride Høstad

    2012-04-01

    Colonization studies may function as natural experiments and have the potential of addressing important questions about community assembly. We studied colonization for a guild of epiphytic lichens in a former treeless heathland area of 170 km2 in southwest Norway. We investigated if epiphytic lichen species richness and composition on aspen (Populus tremula) trees corresponded to a random draw of lichen individuals from the regional species pool. We compared lichen communities of isolated young (55-120 yr) and old (140-200 yr) forest patches in the heathland area to those of aspen forest in an adjacent reference area that has been forested for a long time. All thalli (lichen bodies) of 32 selected lichen species on trunks of aspen were recorded in 35 aspen sites. When data for each site category (young, old, and reference) were pooled, we found the species richness by rarefaction to be similar for reference sites and old sites, but significantly lower for young sites. The depauperated species richness of young sites was accompanied by a skew in species composition and absence of several species that were common in the reference sites. In contrast, genetic variation screened with neutral microsatellite markers in the lichen species Lobaria pulmonaria showed no significant differences between site categories. Our null hypothesis of a neutral species assembly in young sites corresponding to a random draw from the regional species pool was rejected, whereas an alternative hypothesis based on differences in colonization capacity among species was supported. The results indicate that for the habitat configuration in the heathland area (isolated patches constituting < 0.4% of the area) lichen communities may need a colonization time of 100-150 yr for species richness to level off, but given enough time, isolation will not affect species richness. We suggest that this contradiction to expectations from classical island equilibrium theory results from low extinction rates.

  9. Receptor Modeling of Epiphytic Lichens to Elucidate the Sources and SpatialDistribution of Inorganic Air Pollution in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region

    EPA Science Inventory

    The contribution of inorganic air pollutant emissions to atmospheric deposition in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region (AOSR) of Alberta, Canada was investigated in the surrounding boreal forests, using a common epiphytic lichen bio-indicator species (Hypogymnia physodes) and applyi...

  10. Development of secondary woodland in oak wood pastures reduces the richness of rare epiphytic lichens.

    PubMed

    Paltto, Heidi; Nordberg, Anna; Nordén, Björn; Snäll, Tord

    2011-01-01

    Wooded pastures with ancient trees were formerly abundant throughout Europe, but during the last century, grazing has largely been abandoned often resulting in dense forests. Ancient trees constitute habitat for many declining and threatened species, but the effects of secondary woodland on the biodiversity associated with these trees are largely unknown. We tested for difference in species richness, occurrence, and abundance of a set of nationally and regionally red-listed epiphytic lichens between ancient oaks located in secondary woodland and ancient oaks located in open conditions. We refined the test of the effect of secondary woodland by also including other explanatory variables. Species occurrence and abundance were modelled jointly using overdispersed zero-inflated Poisson models. The richness of the red-listed lichens on ancient oaks in secondary woodland was half of that compared with oaks growing in open conditions. The species-level analyses revealed that this was mainly the result of lower occupancy of two of the study species. The tree-level abundance of one species was also lower in secondary woodland. Potential explanations for this pattern are that the study lichens are adapted to desiccating conditions enhancing their population persistence by low competition or that open, windy conditions enhance their colonisation rate. This means that the development of secondary woodland is a threat to red-listed epiphytic lichens. We therefore suggest that woody vegetation is cleared and grazing resumed in abandoned oak pastures. Importantly, this will also benefit the vitality of the oaks.

  11. Epiphytic lichen community dynamics in deciduous forests around a phosphorus fertiliser factory in Central Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Motiejūnaite, Jurga

    2007-03-01

    The detailed dynamics of epiphytic lichen communities were observed while studying permanent quadrats in the zone of influence of a phosphorus fertiliser factory in central Lithuania. The most significant changes were induced by several factors: changes in macroenvironment (increase of illumination), bark scaling, succession processes, individual growth characteristics of the community members, and influence of fungal infection and invertebrate grazing. None of these changes could be directly linked with air pollution. These observations have shown that in conditions of more or less stable pollution, epiphytic community dynamics should be evaluated with care, the best indicators of the characteristics of the communities being species richness and presence/absence and abundance of indicator (nitrophilous or acidophilous) species.

  12. Epiphytic lichens as indicators of environmental quality around a municipal solid waste landfill (C Italy).

    PubMed

    Paoli, Luca; Grassi, Alice; Vannini, Andrea; Maslaňáková, Ivana; Bil'ová, Ivana; Bačkor, Martin; Corsini, Adelmo; Loppi, Stefano

    2015-08-01

    Epiphytic lichens have been used as indicators of environmental quality around a municipal solid waste landfill in C Italy. An integrated approach, using the diversity of epiphytic lichens, as well as element bioaccumulation and physiological parameters in the lichen Flavoparmelia caperata (L.) Hale was applied along a transect from the facility. The results highlighted the biological effects of air pollution around the landfill. The Index of Lichen Diversity (ILD) increased and the content of heavy metals (Cr, Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni and Zn) decreased with distance from the landfill. Clear stress signals were observed in lichens growing in front of the facility, i.e. discoloration, necrosis, membrane lipid peroxidation, lower ergosterol content, higher dehydrogenase activity. Decreased photosynthetic efficiency, altered chlorophyll integrity and production of secondary metabolites were also found. The results suggested that lichens can be profitably used as bioindicators of environmental quality around landfills. PMID:25987289

  13. Epiphytic lichens as indicators of environmental quality around a municipal solid waste landfill (C Italy).

    PubMed

    Paoli, Luca; Grassi, Alice; Vannini, Andrea; Maslaňáková, Ivana; Bil'ová, Ivana; Bačkor, Martin; Corsini, Adelmo; Loppi, Stefano

    2015-08-01

    Epiphytic lichens have been used as indicators of environmental quality around a municipal solid waste landfill in C Italy. An integrated approach, using the diversity of epiphytic lichens, as well as element bioaccumulation and physiological parameters in the lichen Flavoparmelia caperata (L.) Hale was applied along a transect from the facility. The results highlighted the biological effects of air pollution around the landfill. The Index of Lichen Diversity (ILD) increased and the content of heavy metals (Cr, Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni and Zn) decreased with distance from the landfill. Clear stress signals were observed in lichens growing in front of the facility, i.e. discoloration, necrosis, membrane lipid peroxidation, lower ergosterol content, higher dehydrogenase activity. Decreased photosynthetic efficiency, altered chlorophyll integrity and production of secondary metabolites were also found. The results suggested that lichens can be profitably used as bioindicators of environmental quality around landfills.

  14. Production of phenolics by immobilized cells of the lichen Pseudevernia furfuracea: the role of epiphytic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Blanch, M; Blanco, Y; Fontaniella, B; Legaz, M E; Vicente, C

    2001-06-01

    Immobilized lichen cells from the thalli of the lichen Pseudevernia furfuracea, supplied with acetate as the only source of carbon, continuously produced phenolic substances, atranorin and physodic acid, over 23 days. Epiphytic bacteria associated with the lichen thallus grew actively, probably using both acetate and reduced compounds supplied by lichen cells, since their active growth was avoided by including 10 microM 3,3'-dichlorophenyl-1,1'dimethylurea in the bath solution. Penicillin largely impeded the growth of epiphytic bacteria and decreased phenolic production, which was recovered only at the end of the experimental period, just when the bacteria started a slow, but active growth. We suggest the cooperation of epiphytic bacteria in the biosynthesis of both atranotrin and physodic acid. PMID:11770830

  15. Trace-element enrichment in epiphytic lichens and tree bark at Pico Island, Azores, Portugal.

    PubMed

    Pacheco, Adriano M G; Freitas, Maria do Carmo

    2009-04-01

    The Azores archipelago (nine islands) stretches across a sizable longitude span and sits directly on the pathway of long-range transport for airborne species over the North Atlantic Ocean. These airborne species include dusts from Africa's Sahara and Sahel and non-natural contaminants from the United States' eastern seaboard. Therefore, it is an ideal platform for watching significant deposition episodes in the area and/or simply keeping track of regular downward fluxes at ground level, either through conventional or unconventional (biological) air-monitoring approaches. For this purpose, thalli of the epiphytic lichens Parmotrema bangii (Vain.) Hale, and Parmotrema robustum (Degel) Hale; and outer bark from trunks of Cryptomeria japonica (Thunb. ex L.f.) D. Don--Japanese cedar--were collected in early 2003 at three sampling locations of Pico Island, Azores, Portugal. Lichens' phorophyte was the cedar, and local soils were sampled as well. Following suitable handling and preparation procedures, all field samples were put through instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA; kappa O-variant) for elemental assessment. Reference data on airborne particulates were provided by a seven-wavelength aethalometer that continuously collects aerosols near the summit of Pico Mountain (observatory: 2225 m above mean sea level [AMSL]; peak: 2351 m AMSL) in quartz filter tapes. The overall results indicate that (1) the patterns of significant elemental enrichment (enrichment factor >10, relative to scandium) in lichen and bark samples are quite dissimilar, with lichen data reflecting more of the local inputs from some characteristic human activities, whereas bark appears predominantly enriched with far-ranged elements arriving in Pico's atmosphere after long-distance transport; (2) regardless of prospective elemental sources--local or global, anthropogenic or natural--bark displays a more conservative (consistent) pattern through the sampling locations; and (3) not unlike

  16. European phylogeography of the epiphytic lichen fungus Lobaria pulmonaria and its green algal symbiont.

    PubMed

    Widmer, Ivo; Dal Grande, Francesco; Excoffier, Laurent; Holderegger, Rolf; Keller, Christine; Mikryukov, Vladimir S; Scheidegger, Christoph

    2012-12-01

    In lichen symbiosis, fungal and algal partners form close associations, often codispersed by vegetative propagules. Due to the particular interdependence, processes such as colonization, dispersal or genetic drift are expected to result in congruent patterns of genetic structure in the symbionts. To study the population structure of an obligate symbiotic system in Europe, we genotyped the fungal and algal symbionts of the epiphytic lichen Lobaria pulmonaria at eight and seven microsatellite loci, respectively, and analysed about 4300 L. pulmonaria thalli from 142 populations from the species' European distribution range. Based on a centroid approach, which localizes centres of genetic differentiation with a high frequency of geographically restricted alleles, we identified the South Italy-Balkan region as the primary glacial refugial area of the lichen symbiosis. Procrustean rotation analysis and a distance congruence test between the fungal and algal population graphs indicated general concordance between the phylogeographies of the symbionts. The incongruent patterns found in areas of postglacial recolonization may show the presence of an additional refugial area for the fungal symbiont, and the impact that horizontal photobiont transmission and different mutation rates of the symbionts have on their genotypic associations at a continental scale. PMID:23094600

  17. Epiphytic fruticose lichens as biomonitors for retrospective evaluation of the (134)Cs/(137)Cs ratio in Fukushima fallout.

    PubMed

    Ramzaev, V; Barkovsky, A; Gromov, A; Ivanov, S; Kaduka, M

    2014-12-01

    In 2011-2013, sampling of epiphytic fruticose lichens of the genera Usnea, Bryoria and Alectoria was carried out on Sakhalin and Kuril Islands (the Sakhalin region, Russia) to investigate contamination of these organisms with the Fukushima-derived (134)Cs and (137)Cs. Activities of the radionuclides were determined in all 56 samples of lichens taken for the analysis. After correction for radioactive decay (on 15 March 2011), the activity concentrations ranged from 2.1 Bq kg(-1) (d.w.) to 52 Bq kg(-1) for (134)Cs and from 2.3 Bq kg(-1) to 52 Bq kg(-1) for (137)Cs. Cesium-134 and (137)Cs activities for the whole set of lichens (n = 56) were strongly positively correlated; Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was calculated as 0.991 (P < 0.01). The activity concentrations of (134)Cs and (137)Cs in Usnea lichens from the Sakhalin and Kunashir islands declined with a factor of three in the period from 2011 to 2013. The average biological half-time for both cesium radionuclides in lichens of the genus Usnea is estimated as 1.3 y. The mean of 0.99 ± 0.10 and median of 0.99 were calculated for the decay corrected (134)Cs/(137)Cs activities ratios in the lichens (n = 56). The radionuclides ratio in the lichens did not depend on location of sampling site, species and the time that had passed after the Fukushima accident. The regression analysis has shown the background pre-Fukushima level of (137)Cs of 0.4 ± 0.3 Bq kg(-1), whereas the ratio between the Fukushima-borne (134)Cs and (137)Cs in the lichens was estimated as 1.04. The (134)Cs/(137)Cs activities ratio in lichens from the Sakhalin region is consistent with the ratios reported by others for the heavy contaminated areas on Honshu Island in Japan following the Fukushima accident. The activity concentrations of natural (7)Be in lichens from the Sakhalin region varied between 100 Bq kg(-1) and 600 Bq kg(-1); the activity concentrations did not exhibit temporal variations during a 2y

  18. Biomonitoring with epiphytic lichens as a complementary method for the study of mercury contamination near a cement plant.

    PubMed

    Ljubič Mlakar, Tanja; Horvat, Milena; Kotnik, Jože; Jeran, Zvonka; Vuk, Tomaž; Mrak, Tanja; Fajon, Vesna

    2011-10-01

    The study was focused on understanding the mercury contamination caused by a cement plant. Active and passive biomonitoring with epiphytic lichens was combined with other instrumental measurements of mercury emissions, mercury concentrations in raw materials, elemental mercury concentrations in air, quantities of dust deposits, temperatures, precipitation and other measurements from the cement plant's regular monitoring programme. Active biomonitoring with transplanted lichens Pseudevernia furfuracea (L.) Zopf was performed at seven of the most representative sites around the cement plant and one distant reference site for periods of 3, 6 and 12 months. In situ lichens of different species were collected at the beginning of the monitoring period at the same sites. Mercury speciation of the plant exhaust gas showed that the main form of emitted mercury is reactive gaseous mercury Hg²⁺, which is specific for cement plants. Elemental mercury in air was measured in different meteorological conditions using a portable mercury detector. Concentrations in air were relatively low (on average below 10 ng m⁻³). In situ lichens showed Hg concentrations comparable to lichens taken from the background area for transplantation, indicating that the local pollution is not severe. Transplanted lichens showed an increase of mercury, especially at one site near the cement plant. A correlation between precipitation and Hg uptake was not found probably due to a rather uniform rainfall in individual periods. Dust deposits did not influence Hg uptake significantly. Lichens vitality was affected over longer biomonitoring periods, probably due to some elements in dust particles, their alkalinity and the influence of other emissions. Mercury uptake measured in vital transplanted lichens was in a good correlation with the working hours (i.e. emitted Hg quantity) of the kiln. The study showed that selected lichens could be used to detect low to moderate Hg emissions from a cement plant

  19. Comparative demography of an epiphytic lichen: support for general life history patterns and solutions to common problems in demographic parameter estimation.

    PubMed

    Shriver, Robert K; Cutler, Kerry; Doak, Daniel F

    2012-09-01

    Lichens are major components in many terrestrial ecosystems, yet their population ecology is at best only poorly understood. Few studies have fully quantified the life history or demographic patterns of any lichen, with particularly little attention to epiphytic species. We conducted a 6-year demographic study of Vulpicida pinastri, an epiphytic foliose lichen, in south-central Alaska. After testing multiple size-structured functions to describe patterns in each V. pinastri demographic rate, we used the resulting estimates to construct a stochastic demographic model for the species. This model development led us to propose solutions to two general problems in construction of demographic models for many taxa: how to simply but accurately characterize highly skewed growth rates, and how to estimate recruitment rates that are exceptionally difficult to directly observe. Our results show that V. pinastri has rapid and variable growth and, for small individuals, low and variable survival, but that these traits are coupled with considerable longevity (e.g., >50 years mean future life span for a 4-cm(2) thallus) and little deviation of the stochastic population growth rate from the deterministic expectation. Comparisons of the demographic patterns we found with those of other lichen studies suggest that their relatively simple architecture may allow clearer generalities about growth patterns for lichens than for other taxa, and that the expected pattern of faster growth rates for epiphytic species is substantiated.

  20. Epiphytic lichen mycota of the virgin forest reserve Rajhenavski Rog (Slovenia)

    PubMed Central

    Bilovitz, Peter O.; Batič, Franc; Mayrhofer, Helmut

    2012-01-01

    A list of 128 taxa (127 species) of lichens, 6 species of lichenicolous fungi and 2 non-lichenized fungi traditionally included in lichenological literature from the virgin forest Rajhenavski Rog and its surroundings in the southeastern part of Slovenia is presented. The lichen Gyalecta derivata, the lichenicolous fungus Homostegia piggotii, and the non-lichenized fungus Mycomicrothelia pachnea are new to Slovenia. The lichenized fungi Chaenotheca trichialis, C. xyloxena, Lecanactis abietina, Lecanora thysanophora, Pertusaria ophthalmiza, the lichenicolous fungi Monodictys epilepraria, Tremella hypogymniae, Taeniolella friesii, and the non-lichenized fungus Chaenothecopsis pusilla are new to the Dinaric phytogeographical region of Slovenia. PMID:22942459

  1. Ocean to continent transfer of atmospheric Se as revealed by epiphytic lichens.

    PubMed

    Wen, Hanjie; Carignan, Jean

    2009-10-01

    There is still a long-term debate concerning the relative contributions of naturally emitted and anthropogenic Se at the regional and local scales. Here, Se and heavy metal concentrations are reported for epiphytic lichens collected in coastal and inland areas from the USA, Canada and France for assessing atmospheric Se source. Correlations found between Se and Cl in lichens confirmed the major marine biogenic source for atmospheric Se. Continental samples do not show systematic relationships between Se and other metal (Pb, Cu, In ...) contents, even for lichens collected in the vicinity of smelters or close to urban areas. Our results suggest that, although anthropogenic Se may be present, the marine biogenic Se source is a major contributor to atmospheric Se for our sampling locations. The contribution of naturally emitted atmospheric Se may be significant in urban and industrial areas and should be taken into account for further studies.

  2. Evaluation of urban environment pollution based on the accumulation of macro- and trace elements in epiphytic lichens.

    PubMed

    Parzych, Agnieszka; Astel, Aleksander; Zduńczyk, Anna; Surowiec, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, zinc, nickel, copper, manganese, iron and lead accumulation properties of three epiphytic lichen species (Hypogymnia physodes (L.) Nyl., Parmelia sulcata Taylor and Xanthoria parietina (L.) Th. Fr.) were compared. An assessment of pollution of the municipal environment in Słupsk (Poland) according to macro- and trace elements was also done. Lichen samples were taken in Autumn 2013 from Betula pendula, Fraxinus excelsior, Acer platanoides, A. pseudoplatanus and Populus sp. trees. Sampling stations comprised of house development areas, green urban parks, vicinity of streets with heavy traffic and industrial enterprises. It was found that lichens represent diverse accumulation properties to pollutants according to the species. X. parietina indicated the highest bioaccumulation in relation to N, K, Mg, Zn and Fe, the thalli of H. physodes accumulated the largest amounts of Ni and Pb, while P. sulcata P and Cu. Manganese was accumulated in similar quantities by all species. Evidences acquired by the use of factor analysis proved that pollution in Słupsk municipal environment is a serious issue with three major sources domination: street dust, marine factor and residual oil combustion. The high-risk areas were detected and visualized using surface maps based on Kriging algorithm. It was seen that the highest pollution occurs in the town centre, while the smallest happened on its outskirts and in urban parks.

  3. Evaluation of urban environment pollution based on the accumulation of macro- and trace elements in epiphytic lichens.

    PubMed

    Parzych, Agnieszka; Astel, Aleksander; Zduńczyk, Anna; Surowiec, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, zinc, nickel, copper, manganese, iron and lead accumulation properties of three epiphytic lichen species (Hypogymnia physodes (L.) Nyl., Parmelia sulcata Taylor and Xanthoria parietina (L.) Th. Fr.) were compared. An assessment of pollution of the municipal environment in Słupsk (Poland) according to macro- and trace elements was also done. Lichen samples were taken in Autumn 2013 from Betula pendula, Fraxinus excelsior, Acer platanoides, A. pseudoplatanus and Populus sp. trees. Sampling stations comprised of house development areas, green urban parks, vicinity of streets with heavy traffic and industrial enterprises. It was found that lichens represent diverse accumulation properties to pollutants according to the species. X. parietina indicated the highest bioaccumulation in relation to N, K, Mg, Zn and Fe, the thalli of H. physodes accumulated the largest amounts of Ni and Pb, while P. sulcata P and Cu. Manganese was accumulated in similar quantities by all species. Evidences acquired by the use of factor analysis proved that pollution in Słupsk municipal environment is a serious issue with three major sources domination: street dust, marine factor and residual oil combustion. The high-risk areas were detected and visualized using surface maps based on Kriging algorithm. It was seen that the highest pollution occurs in the town centre, while the smallest happened on its outskirts and in urban parks. PMID:26745547

  4. Determination of trace elements in epiphytic lichens from Bandar Baru Bangi, Selangor using INAA method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khairudin, Nurshafiq Ezam; Siong, Khoo Kok; Siong, Wee Boon

    2014-02-01

    Lichens have been used as effective biomonitors of atmospheric pollutants as they can take up nutrients and pollutants directly from the atmosphere. In this study, trace element contents in epiphytic lichens were determined using INAA method. Samples were collected from 7 sampling locations around Bandar Baru Bangi, Selangor. The elements detected were As (1.73+0.85 mg/kg), Ce (3.65+1.91 mg/kg), Co (0.29+0.12 mg/kg), Cr (5.92+3.54 mg/kg), Cs (0.92+0.25 mg/kg), Eu (0.03+0.02 mg/kg), Fe (1280+760 mg/kg), Hf (0.37+0.18 mg/kg), La (1.52+0.89 mg/kg), Rb (27.7+4.8 mg/kg), Sc (0.33+0.19 mg/kg), Sm (0.28+0.16 mg/kg), Th (1.21+0.62 mg/kg) and Zn (116+27 mg/kg). Comparisons were then made between the elemental concentrations obtained and the baseline data from literature. Results showed that most of the elements were within the concentration range of the baseline data. Enrichment factors (EF) of the trace element in lichens showed that most of the elements were within the range of the baseline data except for As which was found to be slightly enriched (EF: 13.2 - 28.5). Regression analysis indicated significant correlation (p<0.05) with Sc for most of the elements which signifies crustal input except for Cs and Rb. The poor correlations of Cs and Rb with Sc may be due to the mobility of these elements. In summary, trace element data obtained using INAA were very useful and demonstrated that lichens were suitable biomonitors for identifying potential trace element pollutants in ambient air around the sampling area.

  5. Hitchhiking with forests: population genetics of the epiphytic lichen Lobaria pulmonaria in primeval and managed forests in southeastern Europe

    PubMed Central

    Scheidegger, Christoph; Bilovitz, Peter O; Werth, Silke; Widmer, Ivo; Mayrhofer, Helmut

    2012-01-01

    Availability of suitable trees is a primary determinant of range contractions and expansions of epiphytic species. However, switches between carrier tree species may blur co-phylogeographic patterns. We identified glacial refugia in southeastern Europe for the tree-colonizing lichen Lobaria pulmonaria, studied the importance of primeval forest reserves for the conservation of genetically diverse populations and analyzed differences in spatial genetic structure between primeval and managed forests with fungus-specific microsatellite markers. Populations belonged to either of two genepools or were admixed. Gene diversity was higher in primeval than in managed forests. At small distances up to 170 m, genotype diversity was lower in managed compared with primeval forests. We found significant associations between groups of tree species and two L. pulmonaria genepools, which may indicate “hitchhiking” of L. pulmonaria on forest communities during postglacial migration. Genepool B of L. pulmonaria was associated with European Beech (Fagus sylvatica) and we can hypothesize that genepool B survived the last glaciation associated within the refuge of European Beech on the Coastal and Central Dinarides. The allelic richness of genepool A was highest in the Alps, which is the evidence for a northern refuge of L. pulmonaria. Vicariant altitudinal distributions of the two genepools suggest intraspecific ecological differentiation. PMID:23139881

  6. [Factors limiting distribution of the rare lichen species Lobaria pulmonaria (in forests of the Kologriv Forest Nature Reserve)].

    PubMed

    Ivanova, N V

    2015-01-01

    The distribution patterns and coenotic confines ofthe epiphytic lichen Lobaria pulmonaria have been studied. The factors limiting the habitat of this rare lichen species in the Kologriv Forest Nature Reserve (southern taiga subzone) have been revealed. It has been shown that L. pulmonaria is attracted to forest areas, which are less affected by humans and characterized by better light conditions than other communities. It has been found that L. pulmonaria is able to colonize trees at various ontogenetic states, beginning from virginal ones.

  7. Isotopic composition of epiphytic lichens as a tracer of the sources of atmospheric lead emissions in southern Quebec, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Carignan, J.; Gariepy, C.

    1995-11-01

    Lead isotopic data are reported for epiphytic lichens, vegetation samples, and lacustrine sediments collected in the boreal forest of Quebec between 47{degrees} and 55{degrees}N, and along the St. Lawrence Valley between 45{degrees} to 48{degrees}N. Lichens located up to 500 km north of Noranda (48{degrees}N) record a significant input is not apparent beyond 53{degrees}N where only the isotopic signal typical of Canadian aerosols is recorded. Lichens along the St. Lawrence Valley show evidences for a dominant input from U.S. sources. The lead isotopic composition of lichens allow quantitative monitoring of the sources of atmospheric Pb. However, their slow metabolism and their unknown age detract from recording the Pb signal on short and precise timescales. Spruce needles have isotopic compositions undistinguishable from that of lichens; this reflects integration of the atmospheric Pb signal over a comparable time span, a result confirmed by the lead isotopic record in lacustrine sediments. Vegetation samples such as spruce bark, spruce wood, and decidous tree leaves are more radiogenic than lichens from the same site. This may reflect mixing of radiogenic Pb metabolized from soil solutions through the root system with atmospheric Pb. 37 refs., 4 figs.

  8. Seasonal acclimation in the epiphytic lichen Parmelia sulcata is influenced by change in photobiont population density.

    PubMed

    Tretiach, Mauro; Bertuzzi, Stefano; Candotto Carniel, Fabio; Virgilio, Damiano

    2013-11-01

    CO2 gas exchange, radial growth, chlorophyll (Chl) content and photobiont density of an epiphytic population of Parmelia sulcata were monitored every 2 months during 1 year in a temperate deciduous forest of Central Italy, to verify possible seasonal variations. Light response curves of south-exposed thalli, built up in the laboratory at 6 and 27°C at optimal thallus hydration, showed that CO2 gas exchange changed significantly during the year, with a maximum for gross photosynthesis in December at both temperatures. Photoinhibition phenomena occurred in early spring, immediately before tree leaves sprouted. The principal component analysis of CO2 gas exchange parameters clearly separated the months with from the months without tree canopy cover. Radial growth, measured on marginal lobes of north- and south-exposed thalli, was the highest in December, and the lowest in April. Photobiont density, measured in lobes of south- and north-exposed thalli with a sedimentation chamber, also changed during the year: the number of photobionts was highest in June and December, and lowest in April, although no significant change in cell size and Chl content per cell was evident throughout the year. South-exposed thalli had slightly, but constantly higher photobiont density both on a weight and an area basis. The acclimation of lichen photosynthesis and Chl content to seasonal temperature and light changes should partially be re-visited on the basis of the significant variation in photobiont population density. This phenomenon still awaits, however, a satisfactory explanation, although it is probably related to the seasonal change in nutrient availability.

  9. Lichens

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Cynthia M; Bennett, James P

    2012-01-01

    The prion diseases sheep scrapie and cervid chronic wasting disease are transmitted, in part, via an environmental reservoir of infectivity; prions released from infected animals persist in the environment and can cause disease years later. Central to controlling disease transmission is the identification of methods capable of inactivating these agents on the landscape. We have found that certain lichens, common, ubiquitous, symbiotic organisms, possess a serine protease capable of degrading prion protein (PrP) from prion-infected animals. The protease functions against a range of prion strains from various hosts and reduces levels of abnormal PrP by at least two logs. We have now tested more than twenty lichen species from several geographical locations and from various taxa and found that approximately half of these species degrade PrP. Critical next steps include examining the effect of lichens on prion infectivity and cloning the protease responsible for PrP degradation. The impact of lichens on prions in the environment remains unknown. We speculate that lichens could have the potential to degrade prions when they are shed from infected animals onto lichens or into environments where lichens are abundant. In addition, lichens are frequently consumed by cervids and many other animals and the effect of dietary lichens on prion disease transmission should also be considered. PMID:22453171

  10. Effects of Management on Lichen Species Richness, Ecological Traits and Community Structure in the Rodnei Mountains National Park (Romania)

    PubMed Central

    Ardelean, Ioana Violeta; Keller, Christine; Scheidegger, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Lichens are valuable bio-indicators for evaluating the consequences of human activities that are increasingly changing the earth’s ecosystems. Since a major objective of national parks is the preservation of biodiversity, our aim is to analyse how natural resource management, the availability of lichen substrates and environmental parameters influence lichen diversity in Rodnei Mountains National Park situated in the Eastern Carpathians. Three main types of managed vegetation were investigated: the transhumance systems in alpine meadows, timber exploitation in mixed and pure spruce forests, and the corresponding conserved sites. The data were sampled following a replicated design. For the analysis, we considered not only all lichen species, but also species groups from different substrates such as soil, trees and deadwood. The lichen diversity was described according to species richness, red-list status and substrate-specialist species richness. The variation in species composition was related to the environmental variables. Habitat management was found to negatively influence species richness and alter the lichen community composition, particularly for threatened and substrate-specialist species. It reduced the mean level of threatened species richness by 59%, when all lichen species were considered, and by 81%, when only epiphytic lichens were considered. Management-induced disturbance significantly decreased lichen species richness in forest landscapes with long stand continuity. The diversity patterns of the lichens indicate a loss of species richness and change in species composition in areas where natural resources are still exploited inside the borders of the national park. It is thus imperative for protected areas, in particular old-growth forests and alpine meadows, to receive more protection than they have received in the past to ensure populations of the characteristic species remain viable in the future. PMID:26717517

  11. Effects of Management on Lichen Species Richness, Ecological Traits and Community Structure in the Rodnei Mountains National Park (Romania).

    PubMed

    Ardelean, Ioana Violeta; Keller, Christine; Scheidegger, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Lichens are valuable bio-indicators for evaluating the consequences of human activities that are increasingly changing the earth's ecosystems. Since a major objective of national parks is the preservation of biodiversity, our aim is to analyse how natural resource management, the availability of lichen substrates and environmental parameters influence lichen diversity in Rodnei Mountains National Park situated in the Eastern Carpathians. Three main types of managed vegetation were investigated: the transhumance systems in alpine meadows, timber exploitation in mixed and pure spruce forests, and the corresponding conserved sites. The data were sampled following a replicated design. For the analysis, we considered not only all lichen species, but also species groups from different substrates such as soil, trees and deadwood. The lichen diversity was described according to species richness, red-list status and substrate-specialist species richness. The variation in species composition was related to the environmental variables. Habitat management was found to negatively influence species richness and alter the lichen community composition, particularly for threatened and substrate-specialist species. It reduced the mean level of threatened species richness by 59%, when all lichen species were considered, and by 81%, when only epiphytic lichens were considered. Management-induced disturbance significantly decreased lichen species richness in forest landscapes with long stand continuity. The diversity patterns of the lichens indicate a loss of species richness and change in species composition in areas where natural resources are still exploited inside the borders of the national park. It is thus imperative for protected areas, in particular old-growth forests and alpine meadows, to receive more protection than they have received in the past to ensure populations of the characteristic species remain viable in the future. PMID:26717517

  12. Effects of Management on Lichen Species Richness, Ecological Traits and Community Structure in the Rodnei Mountains National Park (Romania).

    PubMed

    Ardelean, Ioana Violeta; Keller, Christine; Scheidegger, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Lichens are valuable bio-indicators for evaluating the consequences of human activities that are increasingly changing the earth's ecosystems. Since a major objective of national parks is the preservation of biodiversity, our aim is to analyse how natural resource management, the availability of lichen substrates and environmental parameters influence lichen diversity in Rodnei Mountains National Park situated in the Eastern Carpathians. Three main types of managed vegetation were investigated: the transhumance systems in alpine meadows, timber exploitation in mixed and pure spruce forests, and the corresponding conserved sites. The data were sampled following a replicated design. For the analysis, we considered not only all lichen species, but also species groups from different substrates such as soil, trees and deadwood. The lichen diversity was described according to species richness, red-list status and substrate-specialist species richness. The variation in species composition was related to the environmental variables. Habitat management was found to negatively influence species richness and alter the lichen community composition, particularly for threatened and substrate-specialist species. It reduced the mean level of threatened species richness by 59%, when all lichen species were considered, and by 81%, when only epiphytic lichens were considered. Management-induced disturbance significantly decreased lichen species richness in forest landscapes with long stand continuity. The diversity patterns of the lichens indicate a loss of species richness and change in species composition in areas where natural resources are still exploited inside the borders of the national park. It is thus imperative for protected areas, in particular old-growth forests and alpine meadows, to receive more protection than they have received in the past to ensure populations of the characteristic species remain viable in the future.

  13. [Book review] Epiphytic Lichen Diversity and its Dependence on Chemical Site Factors in Differently Elevated Dieback-affected Spruce Stands of the Harz Mountains, by Volker Hesse

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, J.P.

    2002-01-01

    Review of: Epiphytic lichen diversity and its dependence on chemical site factors in differently elevated dieback-affected spruce stands of the Harz Mountains. (Dissertationes Botanicae, Band 354). Volker Hesse. 2002. 191 pages, 66 figures, 49 tables, 23x14cm, 390 g. ISBN 978-3-443-64266-2.

  14. [Factors limiting distribution of the rare lichen species Lobaria pulmonaria (in forests of the Kologriv Forest Nature Reserve)].

    PubMed

    Ivanova, N V

    2015-01-01

    The distribution patterns and coenotic confines ofthe epiphytic lichen Lobaria pulmonaria have been studied. The factors limiting the habitat of this rare lichen species in the Kologriv Forest Nature Reserve (southern taiga subzone) have been revealed. It has been shown that L. pulmonaria is attracted to forest areas, which are less affected by humans and characterized by better light conditions than other communities. It has been found that L. pulmonaria is able to colonize trees at various ontogenetic states, beginning from virginal ones. PMID:26021161

  15. A Review and Evaluation of Forest Canopy Epiphyte Roles in the Partitioning and Chemical Alteration of Precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Stan, J. T., II; Pypker, T. G.

    2015-12-01

    Interactions between precipitation and forest canopy elements (bark, leaves, and epiphytes) control the quantity, spatiotemporal patterning, and the chemical concentration, character and constituency of precipitation to soils. Canopy epiphytes are an element that exerts a range of storm-related hydrological and biogeochemical effects due to their diversity of morphological traits and nutrient acquisition mechanisms. We reviewed and evaluated the state of knowledge regarding epiphyte interactions with precipitation partitioning (into interception loss, throughfall, and stemflow) and the chemical alteration of net precipitation fluxes (throughfall and stemflow). As epiphyte species are quite diverse, this review categorized findings by common paraphyletic groups: lichens, bryophytes, and vascular epiphytes. Of these groups, vascular epiphytes have received the least attention and lichens the most. In general, epiphytes decrease throughfall and stemflow and increase interception loss. Epiphytes alter the spatiotemporal pattern of throughfall and increase the overall latent heat fluxes from the canopy. Epiphytes alter biogeochemical processes by impacting the transfer of solutes through the canopy; however, the change in solute concentration varies with epiphyte type and chemical species. We discuss several important knowledge gaps across all epiphyte groups. We also explore innovative methods that currently exist to confront these knowledge gaps and past techniques applied to gain our current understanding. Future research addressing the listed deficiencies will improve our knowledge of epiphyte roles in water and biogeochemical processes coupled within forest canopies—processes crucial to supporting microbe, plant, vertebrate and invertebrate communities within individual epiphytes/epiphyte assemblages, host trees, and even the forest ecosystem as a whole.

  16. A review and evaluation of forest canopy epiphyte roles in the partitioning and chemical alteration of precipitation.

    PubMed

    Van Stan, John T; Pypker, Thomas G

    2015-12-01

    Interactions between precipitation and forest canopy elements (bark, leaves, and epiphytes) control the quantity, spatiotemporal patterning, and the chemical concentration, character and constituency of precipitation to soils. Canopy epiphytes exert a range of hydrological and biogeochemical effects due to their diversity of morphological traits and nutrient acquisition mechanisms. We reviewed and evaluated the state of knowledge regarding epiphyte interactions with precipitation partitioning (into interception loss, throughfall, and stemflow) and the chemical alteration of net precipitation fluxes (throughfall and stemflow). As epiphyte species are quite diverse, this review categorized findings by common paraphyletic groups: lichens, bryophytes, and vascular epiphytes. Of these groups, vascular epiphytes have received the least attention and lichens the most. In general, epiphytes decrease throughfall and stemflow and increase interception loss. Epiphytes alter the spatiotemporal pattern of throughfall and increase overall latent heat fluxes from the canopy. Epiphytes alter biogeochemical processes by impacting the transfer of solutes through the canopy; however, the change in solute concentration varies with epiphyte type and chemical species. We discuss several important knowledge gaps across all epiphyte groups. We also explore innovative methods that currently exist to confront these knowledge gaps and past techniques applied to gain our current understanding. Future research addressing the listed deficiencies will improve our knowledge of epiphyte roles in water and biogeochemical processes coupled within forest canopies-processes crucial to supporting microbe, plant, vertebrate and invertebrate communities within individual epiphytes, epiphyte assemblages, host trees, and even the forest ecosystem as a whole.

  17. A review and evaluation of forest canopy epiphyte roles in the partitioning and chemical alteration of precipitation.

    PubMed

    Van Stan, John T; Pypker, Thomas G

    2015-12-01

    Interactions between precipitation and forest canopy elements (bark, leaves, and epiphytes) control the quantity, spatiotemporal patterning, and the chemical concentration, character and constituency of precipitation to soils. Canopy epiphytes exert a range of hydrological and biogeochemical effects due to their diversity of morphological traits and nutrient acquisition mechanisms. We reviewed and evaluated the state of knowledge regarding epiphyte interactions with precipitation partitioning (into interception loss, throughfall, and stemflow) and the chemical alteration of net precipitation fluxes (throughfall and stemflow). As epiphyte species are quite diverse, this review categorized findings by common paraphyletic groups: lichens, bryophytes, and vascular epiphytes. Of these groups, vascular epiphytes have received the least attention and lichens the most. In general, epiphytes decrease throughfall and stemflow and increase interception loss. Epiphytes alter the spatiotemporal pattern of throughfall and increase overall latent heat fluxes from the canopy. Epiphytes alter biogeochemical processes by impacting the transfer of solutes through the canopy; however, the change in solute concentration varies with epiphyte type and chemical species. We discuss several important knowledge gaps across all epiphyte groups. We also explore innovative methods that currently exist to confront these knowledge gaps and past techniques applied to gain our current understanding. Future research addressing the listed deficiencies will improve our knowledge of epiphyte roles in water and biogeochemical processes coupled within forest canopies-processes crucial to supporting microbe, plant, vertebrate and invertebrate communities within individual epiphytes, epiphyte assemblages, host trees, and even the forest ecosystem as a whole. PMID:26254081

  18. Differentiation of water-related traits in terrestrial and epiphytic Cymbidium species

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shi-Bao; Dai, Yan; Hao, Guang-You; Li, Jia-Wei; Fu, Xue-Wei; Zhang, Jiao-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Epiphytes that grow in the canopies of tropical and subtropical forests experience different water regimes when compared with terrestrial plants. However, the differences in adaptive strategies between epiphytic and terrestrial plants with respect to plant water relations remain poorly understood. To understand how water-related traits contrast between epiphytic and terrestrial growth forms within the Cymbidium (Orchidaceae), we assessed leaf anatomy, hydraulics, and physiology of seven terrestrial and 13 epiphytic species using a common garden experiment. Compared with terrestrial species, epiphytic species had higher values for leaf mass per unit area (LMA), leaf thickness (LT), epidermal thickness, saturated water content (SWC) and the time required to dry saturated leaves to 70% relative water content (T70). However, vein density (Dvein), stomatal density (SD), and photosynthetic capacity (Amax) did not differ significantly between the two forms. T70 was positively correlated with LT, LMA, and SWC, and negatively correlated with stomatal index (SI). Amax showed positive correlations with SD and SI, but not with Dvein. Vein density was marginally correlated with SD, and significantly correlated with SI. Overall, epiphytic orchids exhibited substantial ecophysiological differentiations from terrestrial species, with the former type showing trait values indicative of greater drought tolerance and increased water storage capacity. The ability to retain water in the leaves plays a key role in maintaining a water balance in those epiphytes. Therefore, the process of transpiration depends less upon the current substrate water supply and enables epiphytic Cymbidium species to adapt more easily to canopy habitats. PMID:25954289

  19. Epiphyte presence and seagrass species identity influence rates of herbivory in Mediterranean seagrass meadows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marco-Méndez, Candela; Ferrero-Vicente, Luis Miguel; Prado, Patricia; Heck, Kenneth L.; Cebrián, Just; Sánchez-Lizaso, Jose Luis

    2015-03-01

    Herbivory on Mediterranean seagrass species is generally low compared to consumption of some other temperate and tropical species of seagrasses. In this study we: (1) investigate the feeding preference of the two dominant Mediterranean seagrass herbivores, the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus and the fish Sarpa salpa, on Posidonia oceanica and Cymodocea nodosa and (2) elucidate the role of epiphytes in herbivore choices. We assessed consumption rates by tethering seagrass shoots, and preferences by food choice experiments with the following paired combinations: 1) Epiphytized leaves of both C. nodosa vs. P. oceanica (CE vs PE); 2) Non-epiphytized leaves of C. nodosa vs. P. oceanica (CNE vs. PNE); 3) Epiphytized vs non-epiphytized leaves of C. nodosa (CE vs. CNE) and 4) Epiphytized vs non-epiphytized leaves of P. oceanica (PE vs PNE). We found that preference for C. nodosa was weak for S. salpa, but strong for P. lividus, the species responsible for most consumption at our study. Overall both herbivores showed preference for epiphytized leaves. The higher nutritional quality of C. nodosa leaves and epiphytes together with the high coverage and diversity of the epiphyte community found on its leaves help explain the higher levels of herbivory recorded on epiphyted leaves of C. nodosa. Other factors such as seagrass accessibility, herbivore mobility and size, and behavioral responses to predation risks, may also affect the intensity of seagrass herbivory, and studies addressing the interactions with these factors are needed to improve our understanding of the nature, extent and implications of herbivory in coastal ecosystems.

  20. Seasonal and spatial variation in carbon based secondary compounds in green algal and cyanobacterial members of the epiphytic lichen genus Lobaria.

    PubMed

    Gauslaa, Yngvar; Bidussi, Massimo; Solhaug, Knut Asbjørn; Asplund, Johan; Larsson, Per

    2013-10-01

    Acetone-extractable carbon based secondary compounds (CBSCs) were quantified in two epiphytic lichens to study possible effects of external factors (season and aspect) on secondary chemistry and to relate defense investments to biomass growth and changes in specific thallus mass (STM). At the end of four separate annual cycles starting in each of the four seasons, the cyanolichen Lobaria scrobiculata and the cephalolichen Lobaria pulmonaria (green algae as the primary photobiont and with localized Nostoc in internal cephalodia) were monitored in their natural forest habitats and after being transplanted at three contrasting aspects in open sites. Season strongly influenced most CBSCs. Medullary CBSCs in both species were twice as high in summer as in winter. Aspect hardly affected major CBSCs, whereas transplantation from forest to clear-cut slightly reduced these compounds. No major CBSCs in any species showed a trade-off with growth rate. Dry matter- as well as thallus area-based medullary CBSC contents increased with STM. The cortical usnic acid strongly increased with growth rate and followed spatial, but not seasonal variations in light exposure. Maximal CBSC levels during seasons with most herbivores is consistent with the hypothesis inferring that herbivory is a major selective force for CBSCs. Lack of trade-off between growth and defence investments suggests that these two processes do not compete for photosynthates. PMID:23664176

  1. Can lichen species of BSC acclimate to changing environments?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Laura; Colesie, Claudia; Büdel, Burkhard

    2015-04-01

    The Soil Crust INternational (SCIN) project aims to achieve improved appreciation of the importance and functioning of Biological Soil Crusts (BSC) in Europe. Four sites throughout Europe were identified for having important, yet diverse BSC communities: Gössenheim in Germany, Almeria in Spain, Öland in Sweden and Hochtor in Austria. These sites vary greatly in geographic and environmental conditions; and constitute, along with cyanobacteria, algae, bryophytes and fungi a host of green algal and cyanobacterial lichen species. Many of the lichen species occur in two-four locations, despite the climatic differences, and it has been observed that species are morphologically distinctive between sites. Lichens may be adapted to different environmental conditions by symbiosis with photobionts that are suited to the local conditions. Therefore, we may expect to find that a lichen species that can survive in diverse habitats to be less photobiont specific than species with a narrow range. In recent years it has been discovered that lichens can switch their photobiont throughout the course of their lives. Whether lichens can associate with an available photobiont and switch when a preferred photobiont becomes available is not conclusively known, or whether as habitats are affected by climate change, lichens will be able to switch to a new photobiont to survive changing conditions. A transplantation experiment of lichens between biomes was installed in each of the SCIN sites to investigate the potential of different lichen species to assimilate to a new environment. Where the same lichen species occurred in 2 or more locations samples were transplanted from their natural location to the foreign for a period of 2 years. Controls were also applied; this consisted of samples being transplanted within their own site to assess the effect of the transplantation itself. The photobionts of key species are sequenced to analyse diversity of photobiont interactions within/between the

  2. Solanum clarum and S. morelliforme as Novel Model Species for Studies of Epiphytism.

    PubMed

    Jansky, Shelley H; Roble, Jacob; Spooner, David M

    2016-01-01

    The natural history of epiphytic plant species has been extensively studied. However, little is known about the physiology and genetics of epiphytism. This is due to difficulties associated with growing epiphytic plants and the lack of tools for genomics studies and genetic manipulations. In this study, tubers were generated from 223 accessions of 42 wild potato Solanum species, including the epiphytic species S. morelliforme and its sister species S. clarum. Lyophilized samples were analyzed for 12 minerals using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. Mineral levels in tubers of S. morelliforme and S. clarum were among the highest for 10 out of the 12 elements evaluated. These two wild potato relatives are native to southern Mexico and Central America and live as epiphytes or in epiphytic-like conditions. We propose the use of S. morelliforme and S. clarum as model organisms for the study of mineral uptake efficiency. They have a short life cycle, can be propagated vegetatively via tubers or cuttings, and can be easily grown in controlled environments. In addition, genome sequence data are available for potato. Transgenic manipulations and somatic fusions will allow the movement of genes from these epiphytes to cultivated potato. PMID:26973674

  3. Solanum clarum and S. morelliforme as Novel Model Species for Studies of Epiphytism

    PubMed Central

    Jansky, Shelley H.; Roble, Jacob; Spooner, David M.

    2016-01-01

    The natural history of epiphytic plant species has been extensively studied. However, little is known about the physiology and genetics of epiphytism. This is due to difficulties associated with growing epiphytic plants and the lack of tools for genomics studies and genetic manipulations. In this study, tubers were generated from 223 accessions of 42 wild potato Solanum species, including the epiphytic species S. morelliforme and its sister species S. clarum. Lyophilized samples were analyzed for 12 minerals using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. Mineral levels in tubers of S. morelliforme and S. clarum were among the highest for 10 out of the 12 elements evaluated. These two wild potato relatives are native to southern Mexico and Central America and live as epiphytes or in epiphytic-like conditions. We propose the use of S. morelliforme and S. clarum as model organisms for the study of mineral uptake efficiency. They have a short life cycle, can be propagated vegetatively via tubers or cuttings, and can be easily grown in controlled environments. In addition, genome sequence data are available for potato. Transgenic manipulations and somatic fusions will allow the movement of genes from these epiphytes to cultivated potato. PMID:26973674

  4. Assessing rarity of species with low detectability: Lichens in Pacific Northwest forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edwards, T.C.; Cutler, D.R.; Geiser, L.; Alegria, J.; McKenzie, D.

    2004-01-01

    We show how simple statistical analyses of systematically collected inventory data can be used to provide reliable information about the distribution and habitat associations of rare species. Using an existing design-based sampling grid on which epiphytic macrolichens had been inventoried in the Northwest Forest Plan area of the U.S. Pacific Northwest, we (1) estimate frequencies and standard errors for each of 25 lichen species having special management designation (i.e., Survey and Manage), (2) assess the probability that individual species were associated with specific land allocation and forest stand age classifications, and (3) provide estimates of sample sizes necessary to ensure sufficient detections for these analyses. We conclude with a discussion of management and conservation information needs that extant data can satisfy and identify advantages and limitations of random vs. nonrandom sampling strategies. Combining design-assisted and model-assisted approaches can overcome some of the limitations of either single strategy.

  5. [Trait variability in ontogenesis of epiphytic lichen Hypogymnia physodes (L.) Nyl].

    PubMed

    Suetina, Iu G; Glotov, N V

    2014-01-01

    Ontogenesis of the foliose lichen Hypogymniaphysodes has been described on the basis of the material obtained from natural populations. Ontogenetic dynamics (diameter of thallus and the number of lobes) and the features of reproductive structures (the number and diameter of labelloid and galeated sorales) were studied in ecologically different pine forests. We reasonably rejected the use of the variance analysis and nonparametric criteria for the result processing. It was shown that the median dynamics and trait variance may be either similar or different throughout the ontogenesis. The trait variances in ecologically different ecotopes were shown to be different. PMID:25720279

  6. Influence of angular exposure and proximity to vehicular traffic on the diversity of epiphytic lichens and the bioaccumulation of traffic-related elements.

    PubMed

    Paoli, Luca; Munzi, Silvana; Fiorini, Elisa; Gaggi, Carlo; Loppi, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of angular exposure and distance from vehicular traffic on the diversity of epiphytic lichens and the bioaccumulation of traffic-related elements in a town of central Italy. An Index of Lichen Diversity (ILD) was calculated on the street-facing and the opposite side of road-lining trees and in a urban park 250 m away, and the content of selected trace elements (Al, Ba, Ce, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, V, and Zn) was determined in samples of the lichen Punctelia borreri (Sm.) Krog growing on tree bark, both on the exposed and opposite sides. ILD increases with distance from traffic emissions. However, at the site with vehicle traffic, non-nitrophilous lichens decreased while nitrophilous ones increased. The concentration of the traffic-related elements Ba, Cr, Cu, Mn, Sb, and Zn accumulated in thalli of P. borreri was higher on roadside trees than in trees from the urban park. ILD was not affected by the angular exposure to the road and the bioaccumulation of traffic-related elements was similar in lichens from the side of the bole exposed to traffic emissions and particulate resuspension and from the opposite side. The angular exposure in respect to the traffic source does not influence trace element accumulation. These results are important when using lichens for biomonitoring purposes, both for planning future studies and for the reliability of the interpretation of past surveys that do not report information about the angular exposure of the collected lichen material. PMID:22528998

  7. Influence of angular exposure and proximity to vehicular traffic on the diversity of epiphytic lichens and the bioaccumulation of traffic-related elements.

    PubMed

    Paoli, Luca; Munzi, Silvana; Fiorini, Elisa; Gaggi, Carlo; Loppi, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of angular exposure and distance from vehicular traffic on the diversity of epiphytic lichens and the bioaccumulation of traffic-related elements in a town of central Italy. An Index of Lichen Diversity (ILD) was calculated on the street-facing and the opposite side of road-lining trees and in a urban park 250 m away, and the content of selected trace elements (Al, Ba, Ce, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, V, and Zn) was determined in samples of the lichen Punctelia borreri (Sm.) Krog growing on tree bark, both on the exposed and opposite sides. ILD increases with distance from traffic emissions. However, at the site with vehicle traffic, non-nitrophilous lichens decreased while nitrophilous ones increased. The concentration of the traffic-related elements Ba, Cr, Cu, Mn, Sb, and Zn accumulated in thalli of P. borreri was higher on roadside trees than in trees from the urban park. ILD was not affected by the angular exposure to the road and the bioaccumulation of traffic-related elements was similar in lichens from the side of the bole exposed to traffic emissions and particulate resuspension and from the opposite side. The angular exposure in respect to the traffic source does not influence trace element accumulation. These results are important when using lichens for biomonitoring purposes, both for planning future studies and for the reliability of the interpretation of past surveys that do not report information about the angular exposure of the collected lichen material.

  8. Lichen substances prevent lichens from nutrient deficiency.

    PubMed

    Hauck, Markus; Willenbruch, Karen; Leuschner, Christoph

    2009-01-01

    The dibenzofuran usnic acid, a widespread cortical secondary metabolite produced by lichen-forming fungi, was shown to promote the intracellular uptake of Cu(2+) in two epiphytic lichens, Evernia mesomorpha and Ramalina menziesii, from acidic, nutrient-poor bark. Higher Cu(2+) uptake in the former, which produces the depside divaricatic acid in addition to usnic acid, suggests that this depside promotes Cu(2+) uptake. Since Cu(2+) is one of the rarest micronutrients, promotion of Cu(2+) uptake by lichen substances may be crucial for the studied lichens to survive in their nutrient-poor habitats. In contrast, study of the uptake of other metals in E. mesomorpha revealed that the intracellular uptake of Mn(2+), which regularly exceeds potentially toxic concentrations in leachates of acidic tree bark, was partially inhibited by the lichen substances produced by this species. Inhibition of Mn(2+) uptake by lichen substances previously has been demonstrated in lichens. The uptake of Fe(2+), Fe(3+), Mg(2+), and Zn(2+), which fail to reach toxic concentrations in acidic bark at unpolluted sites, although they are more common than Cu(2+), was not affected by lichen substances of E. mesomorpha.

  9. Sequestration of lichen compounds by three species of terrestrial snails.

    PubMed

    Hesbacher, S; Baur, B; Baur, A; Proksch, P

    1995-02-01

    Three species of lichen-grazing snails,Balea perversa, Chondria clienta, andHelicigona lapicida, all from the Swedish island of Öland, were found to sequester lichen compounds when feeding on the crustous lichen speciesAspicila calcarea, Caloplaca flavovirescens, Lecanora muralis, Physcia adscendens, Tephromela atra, andXanthoria parietina. The lichen compounds detected in the soft bodies of the snail species analyzed included the anthraquinone parietin, the depside atranorin, as well as a presumable degradation product of the latter. Other lichen compounds such as (+)-usnic acid or α-collatolic acid were not found in the soft bodies but were only detected in the feces, suggesting selective uptake of lichen compounds by the snails. In individuals ofC. clienta initially fed on the lichenX. parietina, the amount of sequestered parietin decreased over time on a parietin-free diet but was still detectable in the soft bodies after 28 days. In the ovoviviparous land snail,B. perversa, sequestered parietin was transferred from the mother to the eggs in the reproductive tract. PMID:24234022

  10. The Effects of Gaseous Ozone and Nitric Acid Deposition on two Crustose Lichen Species From Joshua Tree National Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hessom, Elizabeth Curie

    Lichens are dependent on atmospheric deposition for much of their water and nutrients, and due to their sensitivity to pollutants, are commonly used as bioindicators for air quality. While studies have focused on epiphytic (tree dwelling) lichens as bioindicators, virtually nothing is known about crustose (rock dwelling) lichens. The atmospheric pollutants ozone (O 3) and nitric acid (HNO3) are two major pollutants found within the Los Angeles Basin. While recent O3 research suggests it does not significantly affect lichen growth, HNO3 appears to be phytotoxic to some lichens. As both of these pollutants are deposited downwind from the L.A. basin into Joshua Tree National Park (JOTR), lichen species located in the park may provide a sensitive indicator of pollution effects. This research studied two lichen species of particular interest from Joshua Tree National Park, Lobothallia praeradiosa (Nyl.) Hafellner, and Acarospora socialis H. Magn., both of which are crustose species with unknown sensitivities to O3, as well as hypothesized and unknown sensitivities to nitrogen compounds, respectively. Little research exists for either species, possibly because of the difficulty in working with crustose lichens. This research attempted to expand the background knowledge of these species by exposing them to varying levels of O3 and HNO3, to ascertain their physiological responses. Physiological measures of chlorophyll fluorescence, dark respiration, microscopic imaging, and lichen washes (as a proxy for membrane leakage), were measured throughout the exposure period. Results indicated that both species had similar sensitivities to O3 and HNO3. Both species registered physical damage during the O3 fumigation, as well as a decrease in respiration. Neither species showed major physical damage to HNO3, but both manifested a decrease in chlorophyll fluorescence, suggesting damage to the photosynthetic systems of the algae symbiont. These results suggest that both of these

  11. Defense mechanisms of sargassacean species against the epiphytic red alga Neosiphonia harveyi.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Noboru; Ohki, Kaori; Kamiya, Mitsunobu

    2015-08-01

    Flora diversity and abundance of epiphytes are specific to their basiphyte species and may relate to variations in the defensive abilities of basiphytes. Thus, investigating the interactions between epiphytes and basiphytes is useful for a better understanding of the biological impact of epiphytism and the survival strategies of basiphytes. We examined the epiphyte density on five sargassacean species at six locations between two study sites, which showed that the epiphytic red alga Neosiphonia harveyi was remarkably less abundant on Sargassum siliquastrum at all locations. To assess its defense mechanism against N. harveyi, we performed bioassays of phlorotannins, which are considered effective in deterring fouling, by culturing sargassacean blades with N. harveyi carpospores and observed the process by which sargassacean blades remove epiphytes. When the carpospores were incubated with various concentrations of dissolved phlorotannins, settlement and germination were inhibited only at the highest concentrations (>0.1 g · L(-1) ), and this effect did not significantly differ among the five sargassacean species. When the carpospores were combined with blades from the five species, many of the spores attached and germinated on every blade. Because N. harveyi penetrated rhizoids into basiphyte tissues, cuticle peeling observed in all five sargassacean species could not remove this epiphyte after germination. However, in S. siliquastrum, the blade tissues around the germlings became swollen and disintegrative, and were removed together with the germlings. The spores normally grew on the dead blades, suggesting that the tissue degradation of S. siliquastrum is triggered by the infection of N. harveyi. PMID:26986791

  12. Genetic structure in a fragmented Northern Hemisphere rainforest: large effective sizes and high connectivity among populations of the epiphytic lichen Lobaria pulmonaria.

    PubMed

    Hilmo, Olga; Lundemo, Sverre; Holien, Håkon; Stengrundet, Kirsti; Stenøien, Hans K

    2012-07-01

    An extraordinary diversity of epiphytic lichens is found in the boreal rainforest of central Norway, the highest-latitude rainforest in the world. These rainforest relicts are located in ravine systems, and clear cutting has increased the distance between remaining patches. We hypothesized that the relatively small lichen populations in the remaining forest stands have suffered a depletion of genetic diversity through bottlenecks and founder events. To test this hypothesis, we assessed genetic diversity and structure in the populations of the tripartite lichen Lobaria pulmonaria using eight SSR loci. We sampled thalli growing on Picea abies branches and propagules deposited in snow at three localities. Contrary to expectations, we found high genetic diversity in lichen and snow samples, and high effective sizes of the studied populations. Also, limited genetic differentiation between populations, high historical migration rates, and a high proportion of first generation immigrants were estimated, implying high connectivity across distances <30km. Almost all genetic variation was attributed to variation within sites; spatial genetic structures within populations were absent or appeared on small scales (5-10m). The high genetic diversity in the remaining old boreal rainforests shows that even relict forest patches might be suitable for conservation of genetic diversity.

  13. Genetic structure in a fragmented Northern Hemisphere rainforest: large effective sizes and high connectivity among populations of the epiphytic lichen Lobaria pulmonaria.

    PubMed

    Hilmo, Olga; Lundemo, Sverre; Holien, Håkon; Stengrundet, Kirsti; Stenøien, Hans K

    2012-07-01

    An extraordinary diversity of epiphytic lichens is found in the boreal rainforest of central Norway, the highest-latitude rainforest in the world. These rainforest relicts are located in ravine systems, and clear cutting has increased the distance between remaining patches. We hypothesized that the relatively small lichen populations in the remaining forest stands have suffered a depletion of genetic diversity through bottlenecks and founder events. To test this hypothesis, we assessed genetic diversity and structure in the populations of the tripartite lichen Lobaria pulmonaria using eight SSR loci. We sampled thalli growing on Picea abies branches and propagules deposited in snow at three localities. Contrary to expectations, we found high genetic diversity in lichen and snow samples, and high effective sizes of the studied populations. Also, limited genetic differentiation between populations, high historical migration rates, and a high proportion of first generation immigrants were estimated, implying high connectivity across distances <30km. Almost all genetic variation was attributed to variation within sites; spatial genetic structures within populations were absent or appeared on small scales (5-10m). The high genetic diversity in the remaining old boreal rainforests shows that even relict forest patches might be suitable for conservation of genetic diversity. PMID:22571538

  14. Antioxidant, antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities of five lichen species.

    PubMed

    Mitrović, Tatjana; Stamenković, Slaviša; Cvetković, Vladimir; Tošić, Svetlana; Stanković, Milan; Radojević, Ivana; Stefanović, Olgica; Comić, Ljiljana; Dačić, Dragana; Curčić, Milena; Marković, Snežana

    2011-01-01

    The antioxidative, antimicrobial and antiproliferative potentials of the methanol extracts of the lichen species Parmelia sulcata, Flavoparmelia caperata, Evernia prunastri, Hypogymnia physodes and Cladonia foliacea were evaluated. The total phenolic content of the tested extracts varied from 78.12 to 141.59 mg of gallic acid equivalent (GA)/g of extract and the total flavonoid content from 20.14 to 44.43 mg of rutin equivalent (Ru)/g of extract. The antioxidant capacities of the lichen extracts were determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals scavenging. Hypogymnia physodes with the highest phenolic content showed the strongest DPPH radical scavenging effect. Further, the antimicrobial potential of the lichen extracts was determined by a microdilution method on 29 microorganisms, including 15 strains of bacteria, 10 species of filamentous fungi and 4 yeast species. A high antimicrobial activity of all the tested extracts was observed with more potent inhibitory effects on the growth of Gram (+) bacteria. The highest antimicrobial activity among lichens was demonstrated by Hypogymnia physodes and Cladonia foliacea. Finally, the antiproliferative activity of the lichen extracts was explored on the colon cancer adenocarcinoma cell line HCT-116 by MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) viability assay and acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining. The methanol extracts of Hypogymnia physodes and Cladonia foliacea showed a better cytotoxic activity than the other extracts. All lichen species showed the ability to induce apoptosis of HCT-116 cells.

  15. Antioxidant, Antimicrobial and Antiproliferative Activities of Five Lichen Species

    PubMed Central

    Mitrović, Tatjana; Stamenković, Slaviša; Cvetković, Vladimir; Tošić, Svetlana; Stanković, Milan; Radojević, Ivana; Stefanović, Olgica; Čomić, Ljiljana; Đačić, Dragana; Ćurčić, Milena; Marković, Snežana

    2011-01-01

    The antioxidative, antimicrobial and antiproliferative potentials of the methanol extracts of the lichen species Parmelia sulcata, Flavoparmelia caperata, Evernia prunastri, Hypogymnia physodes and Cladonia foliacea were evaluated. The total phenolic content of the tested extracts varied from 78.12 to 141.59 mg of gallic acid equivalent (GA)/g of extract and the total flavonoid content from 20.14 to 44.43 mg of rutin equivalent (Ru)/g of extract. The antioxidant capacities of the lichen extracts were determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals scavenging. Hypogymnia physodes with the highest phenolic content showed the strongest DPPH radical scavenging effect. Further, the antimicrobial potential of the lichen extracts was determined by a microdilution method on 29 microorganisms, including 15 strains of bacteria, 10 species of filamentous fungi and 4 yeast species. A high antimicrobial activity of all the tested extracts was observed with more potent inhibitory effects on the growth of Gram (+) bacteria. The highest antimicrobial activity among lichens was demonstrated by Hypogymnia physodes and Cladonia foliacea. Finally, the antiproliferative activity of the lichen extracts was explored on the colon cancer adenocarcinoma cell line HCT-116 by MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) viability assay and acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining. The methanol extracts of Hypogymnia physodes and Cladonia foliacea showed a better cytotoxic activity than the other extracts. All lichen species showed the ability to induce apoptosis of HCT-116 cells. PMID:21954369

  16. Anticancer activities of selected species of North American lichen extracts.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Gajendra; El-Naggar, Atif M; St Clair, Larry L; O'Neill, Kim L

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is the second leading cause of human deaths in the USA. Despite continuous efforts to treat cancer over the past 50 years, human mortality rates have not decreased significantly. Natural products, such as lichens, have been good sources of anticancer drugs. This study reports the cytotoxic activity of crude extracts of 17 lichen species against Burkitt's lymphoma (Raji) cells. Out of the 17 lichen species, extracts from 14 species showed cytotoxicity against Raji cells. On the basis of IC50 values, we selected Xanthoparmelia chlorochroa and Tuckermannopsis ciliaris to study the mechanism of cell death. Viability of normal lymphocytes was not affected by the extracts of X. chlorochroa and T. ciliaris. We found that extracts from both lichens decreased proliferation, accumulated cells at the G0 /G1 stage, and caused apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Both lichen extracts also caused upregulation of p53. The T. ciliaris extract upregulated the expression of TK1 but X. chlorochroa did not. We also found that usnic, salazinic, constictic, and norstictic acids were present in the extract of X. chlorochroa, whereas protolichesterinic acid in T. ciliaris extracts. Our data demonstrate that lichen extracts merit further research as a potential source of anticancer drugs.

  17. 16-year trends in elements of lichens at Theodore Roosevelt National Park, ND

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, J.P.; Wetmore, C.M.

    2000-01-01

    An epiphytic lichen and a soil lichen in two very closely related genera (Parmelia sulcata and Xanthoparmelia chlorochroa, respectively) were sampled 16 years apart at Theodore Roosevelt National Park in North Dakota and measured for their elemental content. Mercury and cadmium decreased approximately 30% over the time period in both species. Sulfur decreased 8% in the epiphytic species, but increased 20% in the soil lichen. Factor analysis revealed that soil elements were higher in the soil lichen, indicating there was some soil contamination in that species. A relationship between iron and titanium was found only in the soil lichen. Sulfur and mercury were highly enriched in both species relative to the soil, which suggests that the atmosphere is a contributing source of these elements. New baseline values were calculated, 22 elements for both species, although it is not recommended that the soil lichen be sampled in the future.

  18. 16-year trends in elements of lichens at Theodore Roosevelt National Park, North Dakota.

    PubMed

    Bennett, J P; Wetmore, C M

    2000-12-18

    An epiphytic lichen and a soil lichen in two very closely related genera (Parmelia sulcata and Xanthoparmelia chlorochroa, respectively) were sampled 16 years apart at Theodore Roosevelt National Park in North Dakota and measured for their elemental content. Mercury and cadmium decreased approximately 30% over the time period in both species. Sulfur decreased 8% in the epiphytic species, but increased 20% in the soil lichen. Factor analysis revealed that soil elements were higher in the soil lichen, indicating there was some soil contamination in that species. A relationship between iron and titanium was found only in the soil lichen. Sulfur and mercury were highly enriched in both species relative to the soil, which suggests that the atmosphere is a contributing source of these elements. New baseline values were calculated, 22 elements for both species, although it is not recommended that the soil lichen be sampled in the future.

  19. Biomonitoring of metals in the vicinity of Soma coal-fired power plant in western Anatolia, Turkey using the epiphytic lichen, Xanthoria parietina.

    PubMed

    Gür, Filiz; Yaprak, Günseli

    2011-01-01

    In this study, epiphytic lichen Xanthoria parietina was applied as the biomonitor of air pollution to determine the environmental influence in the vicinity of Soma coal-fired power plant. Thalli of lichen Xanthoria parietina growing on olive, oak and poplar trees were collected with their substrate in 2004-2006. They were taken from 44 different stations located in 3×3 km grids within an area of 30 km in diameter around the Soma power plant near the town of Soma. Lichen samples were analyzed by using the ICP-MS for As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Ni, Pb, Se, Th, U, V and Zn elements and their concentrations were mapped. The sample analyses results were evaluated by using the statistical software (SPSS 11). Average element contents of samples were, in descending order, Fe > Zn > V > Pb > Cr > Cu > Ni > As > Co > U > Th > Se > Cd > Hg. Results obtained in the current study were generally found to be higher than the data reported in literature although some lower values exist for Cd, Co, Hg, Ni, Pb elements. The most polluted areas were found to be those in the vicinity of the coal-fired power plant, particularly along the direction of predominant wind and in the corridor which runs from west to southeast direction due to topographic conditions. We believe that this research which is conducted around a coal-fired power plant will shed light on future research on pollution. PMID:21992698

  20. Biomonitoring of metals in the vicinity of Soma coal-fired power plant in western Anatolia, Turkey using the epiphytic lichen, Xanthoria parietina.

    PubMed

    Gür, Filiz; Yaprak, Günseli

    2011-01-01

    In this study, epiphytic lichen Xanthoria parietina was applied as the biomonitor of air pollution to determine the environmental influence in the vicinity of Soma coal-fired power plant. Thalli of lichen Xanthoria parietina growing on olive, oak and poplar trees were collected with their substrate in 2004-2006. They were taken from 44 different stations located in 3×3 km grids within an area of 30 km in diameter around the Soma power plant near the town of Soma. Lichen samples were analyzed by using the ICP-MS for As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Ni, Pb, Se, Th, U, V and Zn elements and their concentrations were mapped. The sample analyses results were evaluated by using the statistical software (SPSS 11). Average element contents of samples were, in descending order, Fe > Zn > V > Pb > Cr > Cu > Ni > As > Co > U > Th > Se > Cd > Hg. Results obtained in the current study were generally found to be higher than the data reported in literature although some lower values exist for Cd, Co, Hg, Ni, Pb elements. The most polluted areas were found to be those in the vicinity of the coal-fired power plant, particularly along the direction of predominant wind and in the corridor which runs from west to southeast direction due to topographic conditions. We believe that this research which is conducted around a coal-fired power plant will shed light on future research on pollution.

  1. Extremotolerance and resistance of lichens: comparative studies on five species used in astrobiological research II. Secondary lichen compounds.

    PubMed

    Meessen, J; Sánchez, F J; Sadowsky, A; de la Torre, R; Ott, S; de Vera, J-P

    2013-12-01

    Lichens, which are symbioses of a fungus and one or two photoautotrophs, frequently tolerate extreme environmental conditions. This makes them valuable model systems in astrobiological research to fathom the limits and limitations of eukaryotic symbioses. Various studies demonstrated the high resistance of selected extremotolerant lichens towards extreme, non-terrestrial abiotic factors including space exposure, hypervelocity impact simulations as well as space and Martian parameter simulations. This study focusses on the diverse set of secondary lichen compounds (SLCs) that act as photo- and UVR-protective substances. Five lichen species used in present-day astrobiological research were compared: Buellia frigida, Circinaria gyrosa, Rhizocarpon geographicum, Xanthoria elegans, and Pleopsidium chlorophanum. Detailed investigation of secondary substances including photosynthetic pigments was performed for whole lichen thalli but also for axenically cultivated mycobionts and photobionts by methods of UV/VIS-spectrophotometry and two types of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Additionally, a set of chemical tests is presented to confirm the formation of melanic compounds in lichen and mycobiont samples. All investigated lichens reveal various sets of SLCs, except C. gyrosa where only melanin was putatively identified. Such studies will help to assess the contribution of SLCs on lichen extremotolerance, to understand the adaptation of lichens to prevalent abiotic stressors of the respective habitat, and to form a basis for interpreting recent and future astrobiological experiments. As most of the identified SLCs demonstrated a high capacity in absorbing UVR, they may also explain the high resistance of lichens towards non-terrestrial UVR.

  2. Lichens as bioindicators of aerial fallout of heavy metals in Zaria, Nigeria

    SciTech Connect

    Kapu, M.M. Ahmadu Bello Univ., Zaria ); Ipaye, M.M.; Ega, R.A.I.; Balarabe, M.L. ); Akanya, H.O. ); Schaeffer, D.J. )

    1991-09-01

    Lichens and other epiphytic cryptogams possess efficient ion-exchange mechanisms which enable many species to accumulate airborne metals and which probably contribute to their tolerating metals at concentrations high enough to cause death to other plant species. A direct relationship between the distribution pattern of lichens and the trace metal content of the surrounding air has been demonstrated. The present study used lichens to assess the aerial fallout of heavy metals from traffic in Zaria, northern Nigeria.

  3. Evolution of Epiphytism and Fruit Traits Act Unevenly on the Diversification of the Species-Rich Genus Peperomia (Piperaceae).

    PubMed

    Frenzke, Lena; Goetghebeur, Paul; Neinhuis, Christoph; Samain, Marie-Stéphanie; Wanke, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    The species-rich genus Peperomia (Black Pepper relatives) is the only genus among early diverging angiosperms where epiphytism evolved. The majority of fruits of Peperomia release sticky secretions or exhibit hook-shaped appendages indicative of epizoochorous dispersal, which is in contrast to other flowering plants, where epiphytes are generally characterized by fruit morphological adaptations for anemochory or endozoochory. We investigate fruit characters using Cryo-SEM. Comparative phylogenetic analyses are applied for the first time to include life form and fruit character information to study diversification in Peperomia. Likelihood ratio tests uncover correlated character evolution. We demonstrate that diversification within Peperomia is not homogenous across its phylogeny, and that net diversification rates increase by twofold within the most species-rich subgenus. In contrast to former land plant studies that provide general evidence for increased diversification in epiphytic lineages, we demonstrate that the evolution of epiphytism within Peperomia predates the diversification shift. An epiphytic-dependent diversification is only observed for the background phylogeny. An elevated frequency of life form transitions between epiphytes and terrestrials and thus evolutionary flexibility of life forms is uncovered to coincide with the diversification shift. The evolution of fruits showing dispersal related structures is key to diversification in the foreground region of the phylogeny and postdates the evolution of epiphytism. We conclude that the success of Peperomia, measured in species numbers, is likely the result of enhanced vertical and horizontal dispersal ability and life form flexibility but not the evolution of epiphytism itself. PMID:27555851

  4. Evolution of Epiphytism and Fruit Traits Act Unevenly on the Diversification of the Species-Rich Genus Peperomia (Piperaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Frenzke, Lena; Goetghebeur, Paul; Neinhuis, Christoph; Samain, Marie-Stéphanie; Wanke, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    The species-rich genus Peperomia (Black Pepper relatives) is the only genus among early diverging angiosperms where epiphytism evolved. The majority of fruits of Peperomia release sticky secretions or exhibit hook-shaped appendages indicative of epizoochorous dispersal, which is in contrast to other flowering plants, where epiphytes are generally characterized by fruit morphological adaptations for anemochory or endozoochory. We investigate fruit characters using Cryo-SEM. Comparative phylogenetic analyses are applied for the first time to include life form and fruit character information to study diversification in Peperomia. Likelihood ratio tests uncover correlated character evolution. We demonstrate that diversification within Peperomia is not homogenous across its phylogeny, and that net diversification rates increase by twofold within the most species-rich subgenus. In contrast to former land plant studies that provide general evidence for increased diversification in epiphytic lineages, we demonstrate that the evolution of epiphytism within Peperomia predates the diversification shift. An epiphytic-dependent diversification is only observed for the background phylogeny. An elevated frequency of life form transitions between epiphytes and terrestrials and thus evolutionary flexibility of life forms is uncovered to coincide with the diversification shift. The evolution of fruits showing dispersal related structures is key to diversification in the foreground region of the phylogeny and postdates the evolution of epiphytism. We conclude that the success of Peperomia, measured in species numbers, is likely the result of enhanced vertical and horizontal dispersal ability and life form flexibility but not the evolution of epiphytism itself. PMID:27555851

  5. Evolution of Epiphytism and Fruit Traits Act Unevenly on the Diversification of the Species-Rich Genus Peperomia (Piperaceae).

    PubMed

    Frenzke, Lena; Goetghebeur, Paul; Neinhuis, Christoph; Samain, Marie-Stéphanie; Wanke, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    The species-rich genus Peperomia (Black Pepper relatives) is the only genus among early diverging angiosperms where epiphytism evolved. The majority of fruits of Peperomia release sticky secretions or exhibit hook-shaped appendages indicative of epizoochorous dispersal, which is in contrast to other flowering plants, where epiphytes are generally characterized by fruit morphological adaptations for anemochory or endozoochory. We investigate fruit characters using Cryo-SEM. Comparative phylogenetic analyses are applied for the first time to include life form and fruit character information to study diversification in Peperomia. Likelihood ratio tests uncover correlated character evolution. We demonstrate that diversification within Peperomia is not homogenous across its phylogeny, and that net diversification rates increase by twofold within the most species-rich subgenus. In contrast to former land plant studies that provide general evidence for increased diversification in epiphytic lineages, we demonstrate that the evolution of epiphytism within Peperomia predates the diversification shift. An epiphytic-dependent diversification is only observed for the background phylogeny. An elevated frequency of life form transitions between epiphytes and terrestrials and thus evolutionary flexibility of life forms is uncovered to coincide with the diversification shift. The evolution of fruits showing dispersal related structures is key to diversification in the foreground region of the phylogeny and postdates the evolution of epiphytism. We conclude that the success of Peperomia, measured in species numbers, is likely the result of enhanced vertical and horizontal dispersal ability and life form flexibility but not the evolution of epiphytism itself.

  6. Measurement of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in epiphytic lichens and from PM 2.5 filters for receptor modeling in the Alberta Oil Sands Region (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Studabaker, W. B.; Jayanty, J.; Raymer, J. H.; Krupa, S.

    2013-12-01

    As mining and refinery operations in the Alberta Oil Sands Region (AOSR) have expanded, there has been increasing concern for the impacts of air pollution generated by those operations on both human and ecosystem health. The inaccessibility of much of the AOSR makes it difficult to establish conventional air quality monitoring stations to the extent needed to model long-range impacts of emissions from the AOSR operations. Epiphytic lichens are important markers of ecosystem health, are well-established bioaccumulators of trace metals, and are potentially useful biomonitors of air pollution. However, their ability to take up organic pollutants has not been extensively explored, and only recently have they been used for biomonitoring of pollution by PAHs. Here we describe the determination of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in lichens, collected from sites throughout the AOSR, for modeling emissions associated with mining and oil extraction operations. We also describe preliminary results of the determination of PAHs in PM 2.5 filters from dichotomous samplers stationed in the AOSR, in the context of the biological sample data. Lichens (Hypogymnia physodes) were collected on two separate occasions. During the summer of 2009, single samples were taken from 200 sites in the AOSR; a subset of 20 of these was selected for determination of PAHs. During the summer of 2011, triplicate samples (from separate trees within a site) were collected from 20 sites representing similar locations to the 2008 sites. Lichens were milled in a cryogenic impactor, then were extracted with cyclohexane. Extracts were purified on silica gel using automated solid phase extraction and analyzed by gas chromatography with mass selective detection. Method detection limits for individual PAHs were 2-4 ng/g. Total PAHs in the samples from both collection events ranged from 50 ng/g to 350 ng/g, and declined with increasing distance from the mining and refinery operations. The relative

  7. Spatial Distribution of Lead Isotope Ratios and Inorganic Element Concentrations in Epiphytic Lichens from the Athabasca Oil Sands Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graney, J. R.; Landis, M. S.; Puckett, K.; Edgerton, E.; Krupa, S.; Percy, K.

    2013-12-01

    Coupled studies of inorganic element concentrations and lead (Pb) isotope ratios have been conducted on Hypogymnia physodes samples collected in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region (AOSR) in Alberta, Canada in 2002, 2008, and 2011. To investigate the spatial extent of air emissions, the lichens were collected from sites as far as 160 km from the mining and processing operations. 30 milligram sub-samples of the lichens were microwave digested, and the extracts were analyzed using DRC-ICPMS to determine elemental concentrations, and sector field ICPMS to measure Pb isotope ratios. Concentrations of elements in the lichens were found to reflect proximity to mining and oil processing sites as well as topography, ecosystem differences, and the metabolic biogeochemistry of the lichens. An exponential decrease in concentration of metals associated with fugitive dust (aluminum and others) versus distance from the mining sites, suggests elevated coarse particle emissions associated with mining operations. Near source concentrations of metals with an oil signature (vanadium and others) are less enhanced and more homogeneous than the metals in the fugitive dust, reflecting emission and deposition of smaller diameter particles at greater distances from oil processing sources. The mining and oil processing signatures are superimposed over elemental concentrations that reflect the nutrient needs of the lichens. These findings are being confirmed through ongoing studies using dichot samplers to collect coarse and fine particulate aerosol samples. The lichen samples collected beyond 50 km from the mining and processing sites cluster into a Pb isotope grouping with a 207Pb / 206Pb ratio of 0.8650 and a 208Pb / 206Pb ratio near 2.095. This grouping likely reflects the regional background Pb isotope ratio signature. 207Pb / 206Pb and 208Pb / 206Pb ratios decrease as one nears the mining and processing operations. This indicates that other Pb source(s), (e.g. Pb in the bitumen from the oil

  8. Discrimination of lichen genera and species using element concentrations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, J.P.

    2008-01-01

    The importance of organic chemistry in the classification of lichens is well established, but inorganic chemistry has been largely overlooked. Six lichen species were studied over a period of 23 years that were growing in 11 protected areas of the northern Great Lakes ecoregion, which were not greatly influenced by anthropogenic particulates or gaseous air pollutants. The elemental data from these studies were aggregated in order to test the hypothesis that differences among species in tissue element concentrations were large enough to discriminate between taxa faithfully. Concentrations of 16 chemical elements that were found in tissue samples from Cladonia rangiferina, Evernia mesomorpha, Flavopunctelia flaventior, Hypogymnia physodes, Parmelia sulcata, and Punctelia rudecta were analyzed statistically using multivariate discriminant functions and CART analyses, as well as t-tests. Genera and species were clearly separated in element space, and elemental discriminant functions were able to classify 91-100 of the samples correctly into species. At the broadest level, a Zn concentration of 51 ppm in tissues of four of the lichen species effectively discriminated foliose from fruticose species. Similarly, a S concentration of 680 ppm discriminated C. rangiferina and E. mesomorpha, and a Ca concentration of 10 436 ppm discriminated H. physodes from P. sulcata. For the three parmelioid species, a Ca concentration >32 837 ppm discriminated Punctelia rudecta from the other two species, while a Zn concentration of 56 ppm discriminated Parmelia sulcata from F. flaventior. Foliose species also had higher concentrations than did fruticose species of all elements except Na. Elemental signatures for each of the six species were developed using standardized means. Twenty-four mechanisms explaining the differences among species are summarized. Finally, the relationships of four species based on element concentrations, using additive-trees clustering of a Euclidean

  9. Species diversity, distribution, and genetic structure of endophytic and epiphytic Trichoderma associated with banana roots.

    PubMed

    Xia, Xiaomin; Lie, Timothy K; Qian, Xiaoming; Zheng, Zhonghui; Huang, Yaojian; Shen, Yuemao

    2011-04-01

    Selective isolation, molecular identification and AFLP were used to investigate the distribution of the various species of endophytic and epiphytic Trichoderma associated with banana roots and to compare and contrast their genetic structure. Three specific groups of Trichoderma were observed in the roots of banana. Group one, which made up the largest population, comprised T. asperellum, T. virens, and Hypocrea lixii, which were isolated from both inside and on the surface of the banana roots, while group two, made up of T. atroviride and T. koningiopsis, existed on the surface only. Group three, comprising only T. brevicompactum was isolated from the inside of the roots. The AFLP analysis revealed Nei's diversity indices of 0.15 and 0.26 for epiphytic T. asperellum and T. virens, respectively. The index values of 0.11 and 0.11 were obtained for endophytic T. asperellum and T. virens, respectively. The genetic diversity within endophytic T. asperellum and T. virens was lower than that within the epiphytes. This suggests that endophytic Trichoderma has a higher genetic conservation and is compatible with the relatively stable microenvironments inside roots.

  10. Cyanobacterial gardens: the liverwort Frullania asagrayana acts as a reservoir of lichen photobionts.

    PubMed

    Cornejo, Carolina; Scheidegger, Christoph

    2016-06-01

    Cyanobacteria are important mediators of unrelated lichen species, which form epiphytic communities that share the same cyanobiont. No study to date, however, has considered the role of cyanobacteria as mediator between lichens and bryophytes. In the present study, DNA barcoding (16S rDNA, rbcLX) was used to identify filamentous cyanobacteria living in close association with members of an epiphytic liverwort-lichen community on balsam fir in Newfoundland. This study is the first to confirm the presence of Rhizonema strains in boreal forests where they are associated with the liverwort Frullania asagrayana and several lichen species. The majority of cyanobacterial haplotypes can associate with the liverwort, however, some lichen species appear to be more selective for single or closely related haplotypes. Some Rhizonema strains were found exclusively in association with boreal lichens, while others seem to be globally distributed and involved in different lichen symbioses of unrelated fungal lineages and of varying ecological traits. Complex biological interactions in a cyanobacteria-mediated guild are proposed here, which explains composition and dynamics in bryophyte and lichen-dominated epiphytic communities. PMID:26929112

  11. Discrimination of lichen genera and species using element concentrations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, James P.

    2008-01-01

    The importance of organic chemistry in the classification of lichens is well established, but inorganic chemistry has been largely overlooked. Six lichen species were studied over a period of 23 years that were growing in 11 protected areas of the northern Great Lakes ecoregion, which were not greatly influenced by anthropogenic particulates or gaseous air pollutants. The elemental data from these studies were aggregated in order to test the hypothesis that differences among species in tissue element concentrations were large enough to discriminate between taxa faithfully. Concentrations of 16 chemical elements that were found in tissue samples from Cladonia rangiferina, Evernia mesomorpha, Flavopunctelia flaventior, Hypogymnia physodes, Parmelia sulcata, and Punctelia rudecta were analyzed statistically using multivariate discriminant functions and CART analyses, as well as t-tests. Genera and species were clearly separated in element space, and elemental discriminant functions were able to classify 91-100 of the samples correctly into species. At the broadest level, a Zn concentration of 51 ppm in tissues of four of the lichen species effectively discriminated foliose from fruticose species. Similarly, a S concentration of 680 ppm discriminated C. rangiferina and E. mesomorpha, and a Ca concentration of 10 436 ppm discriminated H. physodes from P. sulcata. For the three parmelioid species, a Ca concentration >32 837 ppm discriminated Punctelia rudecta from the other two species, while a Zn concentration of 56 ppm discriminated Parmelia sulcata from F. flaventior. Foliose species also had higher concentrations than did fruticose species of all elements except Na. Elemental signatures for each of the six species were developed using standardized means. Twenty-four mechanisms explaining the differences among species are summarized. Finally, the relationships of four species based on element concentrations, using additive-trees clustering of a Euclidean

  12. Monitoring air quality with lichens: a comparison between mapping in forest sites and in open areas.

    PubMed

    Policnik, Helena; Simoncic, Primoz; Batic, Franc

    2008-01-01

    Four different methods of epiphytic lichen mapping were used for the assessment of air quality in the region under the influence of the Sostanj Thermal Power Plant (Salek Valley, Slovenia). Three methods were based on the presence of different lichen species (VDI, EU and ICP-Forest), the fourth on a frequency and coverage assessment of different growth forms of epiphytic lichens, e.g. crustose, foliose and fruticose (SI). A comparison of the results from the assessment of air quality between forest sites (ICP-Forest, SI) and open areas (VDI, EU and SI), obtained by the different methods of epiphytic lichen mapping, is presented in the contribution. Data showed that lichen species richness is worse in forest sites in comparison with open areas. From the data obtained it can be concluded that epiphytic lichen mapping in open areas is a better method for the assessment of air pollution in a given area than mapping in forest sites. The species-based methods in open areas are more powerful and useful for air quality assessment in polluted research areas than the SI and ICP-Forest methods.

  13. Up in the tree--the overlooked richness of bryophytes and lichens in tree crowns.

    PubMed

    Boch, Steffen; Müller, Jörg; Prati, Daniel; Blaser, Stefan; Fischer, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Assessing diversity is among the major tasks in ecology and conservation science. In ecological and conservation studies, epiphytic cryptogams are usually sampled up to accessible heights in forests. Thus, their diversity, especially of canopy specialists, likely is underestimated. If the proportion of those species differs among forest types, plot-based diversity assessments are biased and may result in misleading conservation recommendations. We sampled bryophytes and lichens in 30 forest plots of 20 m × 20 m in three German regions, considering all substrates, and including epiphytic litter fall. First, the sampling of epiphytic species was restricted to the lower 2 m of trees and shrubs. Then, on one representative tree per plot, we additionally recorded epiphytic species in the crown, using tree climbing techniques. Per tree, on average 54% of lichen and 20% of bryophyte species were overlooked if the crown was not been included. After sampling all substrates per plot, including the bark of all shrubs and trees, still 38% of the lichen and 4% of the bryophyte species were overlooked if the tree crown of the sampled tree was not included. The number of overlooked lichen species varied strongly among regions. Furthermore, the number of overlooked bryophyte and lichen species per plot was higher in European beech than in coniferous stands and increased with increasing diameter at breast height of the sampled tree. Thus, our results indicate a bias of comparative studies which might have led to misleading conservation recommendations of plot-based diversity assessments. PMID:24358373

  14. Up in the tree--the overlooked richness of bryophytes and lichens in tree crowns.

    PubMed

    Boch, Steffen; Müller, Jörg; Prati, Daniel; Blaser, Stefan; Fischer, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Assessing diversity is among the major tasks in ecology and conservation science. In ecological and conservation studies, epiphytic cryptogams are usually sampled up to accessible heights in forests. Thus, their diversity, especially of canopy specialists, likely is underestimated. If the proportion of those species differs among forest types, plot-based diversity assessments are biased and may result in misleading conservation recommendations. We sampled bryophytes and lichens in 30 forest plots of 20 m × 20 m in three German regions, considering all substrates, and including epiphytic litter fall. First, the sampling of epiphytic species was restricted to the lower 2 m of trees and shrubs. Then, on one representative tree per plot, we additionally recorded epiphytic species in the crown, using tree climbing techniques. Per tree, on average 54% of lichen and 20% of bryophyte species were overlooked if the crown was not been included. After sampling all substrates per plot, including the bark of all shrubs and trees, still 38% of the lichen and 4% of the bryophyte species were overlooked if the tree crown of the sampled tree was not included. The number of overlooked lichen species varied strongly among regions. Furthermore, the number of overlooked bryophyte and lichen species per plot was higher in European beech than in coniferous stands and increased with increasing diameter at breast height of the sampled tree. Thus, our results indicate a bias of comparative studies which might have led to misleading conservation recommendations of plot-based diversity assessments.

  15. Richness of lichen species, especially of threatened ones, is promoted by management methods furthering stand continuity.

    PubMed

    Boch, Steffen; Prati, Daniel; Hessenmöller, Dominik; Schulze, Ernst-Detlef; Fischer, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Lichens are a key component of forest biodiversity. However, a comprehensive study analyzing lichen species richness in relation to several management types, extending over different regions and forest stages and including information on site conditions is missing for temperate European forests. In three German regions (Schwäbische Alb, Hainich-Dün, Schorfheide-Chorin), the so-called Biodiversity Exploratories, we studied lichen species richness in 631 forest plots of 400 m(2) comprising different management types (unmanaged, selection cutting, deciduous and coniferous age-class forests resulting from clear cutting or shelterwood logging), various stand ages, and site conditions, typical for large parts of temperate Europe. We analyzed how lichen species richness responds to management and habitat variables (standing biomass, cover of deadwood, cover of rocks). We found strong regional differences with highest lichen species richness in the Schwäbische Alb, probably driven by regional differences in former air pollution, and in precipitation and habitat variables. Overall, unmanaged forests harbored 22% more threatened lichen species than managed age-class forests. In general, total, corticolous, and threatened lichen species richness did not differ among management types of deciduous forests. However, in the Schwäbische-Alb region, deciduous forests had 61% more lichen species than coniferous forests and they had 279% more threatened and 76% more corticolous lichen species. Old deciduous age classes were richer in corticolous lichen species than young ones, while old coniferous age-classes were poorer than young ones. Overall, our findings highlight the importance of stand continuity for conservation. To increase total and threatened lichen species richness we suggest (1) conserving unmanaged forests, (2) promoting silvicultural methods assuring stand continuity, (3) conserving old trees in managed forests, (4) promoting stands of native deciduous tree species

  16. Richness of lichen species, especially of threatened ones, is promoted by management methods furthering stand continuity.

    PubMed

    Boch, Steffen; Prati, Daniel; Hessenmöller, Dominik; Schulze, Ernst-Detlef; Fischer, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Lichens are a key component of forest biodiversity. However, a comprehensive study analyzing lichen species richness in relation to several management types, extending over different regions and forest stages and including information on site conditions is missing for temperate European forests. In three German regions (Schwäbische Alb, Hainich-Dün, Schorfheide-Chorin), the so-called Biodiversity Exploratories, we studied lichen species richness in 631 forest plots of 400 m(2) comprising different management types (unmanaged, selection cutting, deciduous and coniferous age-class forests resulting from clear cutting or shelterwood logging), various stand ages, and site conditions, typical for large parts of temperate Europe. We analyzed how lichen species richness responds to management and habitat variables (standing biomass, cover of deadwood, cover of rocks). We found strong regional differences with highest lichen species richness in the Schwäbische Alb, probably driven by regional differences in former air pollution, and in precipitation and habitat variables. Overall, unmanaged forests harbored 22% more threatened lichen species than managed age-class forests. In general, total, corticolous, and threatened lichen species richness did not differ among management types of deciduous forests. However, in the Schwäbische-Alb region, deciduous forests had 61% more lichen species than coniferous forests and they had 279% more threatened and 76% more corticolous lichen species. Old deciduous age classes were richer in corticolous lichen species than young ones, while old coniferous age-classes were poorer than young ones. Overall, our findings highlight the importance of stand continuity for conservation. To increase total and threatened lichen species richness we suggest (1) conserving unmanaged forests, (2) promoting silvicultural methods assuring stand continuity, (3) conserving old trees in managed forests, (4) promoting stands of native deciduous tree species

  17. Archaeobotanical evidence for a massive loss of epiphyte species richness during industrialization in southern England

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Christopher J.; Yahr, Rebecca; Coppins, Brian J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a novel archaeological resource—preserved epiphytes on the timber structure of vernacular buildings—used, to our knowledge, for the first time to quantify a loss of biodiversity between pre-industrial and post-industrial landscapes. By matching the confirmed occurrence of epiphyte species for the pre-industrial period, with a statistical likelihood for their absence in the present-day landscape (post-1960), we robustly identified species that have been extirpated across three contrasting regions in southern England. First, the scale of biodiversity loss observed—up to 80 per cent of epiphytes—severely challenges biodiversity targets and environmental baselines that have been developed using reference points in the post-industrial period. Second, we examined sensitivity in the present-day distribution of extirpated species, explained by three environmental drivers: (i) pollution regime, (ii) extent of ancient woodland, and (iii) climatic setting. Results point to an interacting effect between the pollution regime (sulphur dioxide) and changed woodland structure, leading to distinctive regional signatures in biodiversity loss. PMID:21471114

  18. Phytase activity in lichens.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Niall F; Crittenden, Peter D

    2015-10-01

    Phytase activity was investigated in 13 lichen species using a novel assay method. The work tested the hypothesis that phytase is a component of the suite of surface-bound lichen enzymes that hydrolyse simple organic forms of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) deposited onto the thallus surface. Hydrolysis of inositol hexaphosphate (InsP6 , the substrate for phytase) and appearance of lower-order inositol phosphates (InsP5 -InsP1 ), the hydrolysis products, were measured by ion chromatography. Phytase activity in Evernia prunastri was compared among locations with contrasting rates of N deposition. Phytase activity was readily measurable in epiphytic lichens (e.g. 11.3 μmol InsP6 hydrolysed g(-1)  h(-1) in Bryoria fuscescens) but low in two terricolous species tested (Cladonia portentosa and Peltigera membranacea). Phytase and phosphomonoesterase activities were positively correlated amongst species. In E. prunastri both enzyme activities were promoted by N enrichment and phytase activity was readily released into thallus washings. InsP6 was not detected in tree canopy throughfall but was present in pollen leachate. Capacity to hydrolyse InsP6 appears widespread amongst lichens potentially promoting P capture from atmospheric deposits and plant leachates, and P cycling in forest canopies. The enzyme assay used here might find wider application in studies on plant root-fungal-soil systems.

  19. [The phorophyte occupation patterns by vascular epiphyte species in the High Orinoco tropical humid forest, Amazonas State, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Hernández-Rosas, J

    2001-01-01

    By international agreement (Austria-Venezuela), an experimental area was selected for canopy ecology studies. A tower crane was installed that allows direct access to the canopy of 1.5 ha area of the forest. This is a quantitative study of the phorophyte occupation patterns by vascular epiphyte species in an Amazon tropical humid forest. The forest of Surumoni consists roughly of four arboreal strata, i.e., emergent (conspicuous), superior, middle and lower. The largest proportion of trees occurs in the lower diametric classes (smaller DBH), and the total distribution approaches an "inverted J" curve. The most abundant tree species in the three strata is Goupia glabra (Celastraceae); making this forest a case where a single arboreal species dominants. Mean of epiphyte individuals per occupied phorophyte is too variable, depending on phorophyte species and showing no correlation with occupied tree percentage. The species Eschweleira parviflora (Lecythidaceae) represented in the study area by a single individual of the superior stratum with high density of vascular epiphytes, indicates that this support species is particularly favorable for the establishment epiphytic flora. PMID:11915448

  20. Lichen ecology and diversity of a sagebrush steppe in Oregon: 1977 to the present

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A lichen checklist is presented of 141 species from the Lawrence Memorial Grassland Preserve and nearby lands in Wasco County, Oregon, based on collections made in the 1970s and 1990s. Collections include epiphytic, lignicolous, saxicolous, muscicolous and terricolous species. To evaluate differenc...

  1. Further evidence of the effects of global warming on lichens, particularly those with Trentepohlia phycobionts.

    PubMed

    Aptroot, A; van Herk, C M

    2007-03-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that lichens are responding to climate change in Western Europe. More epiphytic species appear to be increasing, rather than declining, as a result of global warming. Many terricolous species, in contrast, are declining. Changes to epiphytic floras are markedly more rapid in formerly heavily polluted, generally built-up or open rural areas, as compared to forested regions. Both the distribution (southern) and ecology (warmth-loving) of the newly established or increasing species seem to be determined by global warming. Epiphytic temperate to boreo-montane species appear to be relatively unaffected. Vacant niches caused by other environmental changes are showing the most pronounced effects of global warming. Species most rapidly increasing in forests, although taxonomically unrelated, all contain Trentepohlia as phycobiont in addition to having a southern distribution. This suggests that in this habitat, Trentepohlia algae, rather than the different lichen symbioses, are affected by global warming.

  2. Complex patterns of speciation in cosmopolitan "rock posy" lichens--discovering and delimiting cryptic fungal species in the lichen-forming Rhizoplaca melanophthalma species-complex (Lecanoraceae, Ascomycota).

    PubMed

    Leavitt, Steven D; Fankhauser, Johnathon D; Leavitt, Dean H; Porter, Lyndon D; Johnson, Leigh A; St Clair, Larry L

    2011-06-01

    A growing body of evidence indicates that in some cases morphology-based species circumscription of lichenized fungi misrepresents the number of existing species. The cosmopolitan "rock posy" lichen (Rhizoplaca melanophthalma) species-complex includes a number of morphologically distinct species that are both geographically and ecologically widespread, providing a model system to evaluate speciation in lichen-forming ascomycetes. In this study, we assembled multiple lines of evidence from nuclear DNA sequence data, morphology, and biochemistry for species delimitation in the R. melanophthalma species-complex. We identify a total of ten candidate species in this study, four of which were previously recognized as distinct taxa and six previously unrecognized lineages found within what has been thus far considered a single species. Candidate species are supported using inferences from multiple empirical operational criteria. Multiple instances of sympatry support the view that these lineages merit recognition as distinct taxa. Generally, we found little corroboration between morphological and chemical characters, and previously unidentified lineages were morphologically polymorphic. However, secondary metabolite data supported one cryptic saxicolous lineage, characterized by orsellinic-derived gyrophoric and lecanoric acids, which we consider to be taxonomically significant. Our study of the R. melanophthalma species-complex indicates that the genus Rhizoplaca, as presently circumscribed, is more diverse in western North American than originally perceived, and we present our analyses as a working example of species delimitation in morphologically cryptic and recently diverged lichenized fungi. PMID:21443956

  3. Complex patterns of speciation in cosmopolitan "rock posy" lichens--discovering and delimiting cryptic fungal species in the lichen-forming Rhizoplaca melanophthalma species-complex (Lecanoraceae, Ascomycota).

    PubMed

    Leavitt, Steven D; Fankhauser, Johnathon D; Leavitt, Dean H; Porter, Lyndon D; Johnson, Leigh A; St Clair, Larry L

    2011-06-01

    A growing body of evidence indicates that in some cases morphology-based species circumscription of lichenized fungi misrepresents the number of existing species. The cosmopolitan "rock posy" lichen (Rhizoplaca melanophthalma) species-complex includes a number of morphologically distinct species that are both geographically and ecologically widespread, providing a model system to evaluate speciation in lichen-forming ascomycetes. In this study, we assembled multiple lines of evidence from nuclear DNA sequence data, morphology, and biochemistry for species delimitation in the R. melanophthalma species-complex. We identify a total of ten candidate species in this study, four of which were previously recognized as distinct taxa and six previously unrecognized lineages found within what has been thus far considered a single species. Candidate species are supported using inferences from multiple empirical operational criteria. Multiple instances of sympatry support the view that these lineages merit recognition as distinct taxa. Generally, we found little corroboration between morphological and chemical characters, and previously unidentified lineages were morphologically polymorphic. However, secondary metabolite data supported one cryptic saxicolous lineage, characterized by orsellinic-derived gyrophoric and lecanoric acids, which we consider to be taxonomically significant. Our study of the R. melanophthalma species-complex indicates that the genus Rhizoplaca, as presently circumscribed, is more diverse in western North American than originally perceived, and we present our analyses as a working example of species delimitation in morphologically cryptic and recently diverged lichenized fungi.

  4. Complex patterns of speciation in cosmopolitan "rock posy" lichens - an integrative approach to discovering and delimiting fungal species in the lichen-forming rhizoplaca melanophthalma speciescomplex

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A growing body of evidence indicates that morphology-based species circumspection of lichenized ascomycetes greatly misrepresents the number of existing species. Recently it has been demonstrated that population-level processes operating within diverging populations can facilitate the identification...

  5. Genetic variation in a tropical tree species influences the associated epiphytic plant and invertebrate communities in a complex forest ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Zytynska, Sharon E.; Fay, Michael F.; Penney, David; Preziosi, Richard F.

    2011-01-01

    Genetic differences among tree species, their hybrids and within tree species are known to influence associated ecological communities and ecosystem processes in areas of limited species diversity. The extent to which this same phenomenon occurs based on genetic variation within a single tree species, in a diverse complex ecosystem such as a tropical forest, is unknown. The level of biodiversity and complexity of the ecosystem may reduce the impact of a single tree species on associated communities. We assessed the influence of within-species genetic variation in the tree Brosimum alicastrum (Moraceae) on associated epiphytic and invertebrate communities in a neotropical rainforest. We found a significant positive association between genetic distance of trees and community difference of the epiphytic plants growing on the tree, the invertebrates living among the leaf litter around the base of the tree, and the invertebrates found on the tree trunk. This means that the more genetically similar trees are host to more similar epiphyte and invertebrate communities. Our work has implications for whole ecosystem conservation management, since maintaining sufficient genetic diversity at the primary producer level will enhance species diversity of other plants and animals. PMID:21444307

  6. Genetic variation in a tropical tree species influences the associated epiphytic plant and invertebrate communities in a complex forest ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Zytynska, Sharon E; Fay, Michael F; Penney, David; Preziosi, Richard F

    2011-05-12

    Genetic differences among tree species, their hybrids and within tree species are known to influence associated ecological communities and ecosystem processes in areas of limited species diversity. The extent to which this same phenomenon occurs based on genetic variation within a single tree species, in a diverse complex ecosystem such as a tropical forest, is unknown. The level of biodiversity and complexity of the ecosystem may reduce the impact of a single tree species on associated communities. We assessed the influence of within-species genetic variation in the tree Brosimum alicastrum (Moraceae) on associated epiphytic and invertebrate communities in a neotropical rainforest. We found a significant positive association between genetic distance of trees and community difference of the epiphytic plants growing on the tree, the invertebrates living among the leaf litter around the base of the tree, and the invertebrates found on the tree trunk. This means that the more genetically similar trees are host to more similar epiphyte and invertebrate communities. Our work has implications for whole ecosystem conservation management, since maintaining sufficient genetic diversity at the primary producer level will enhance species diversity of other plants and animals.

  7. Monitoring H2S air pollution caused by the industrial exploitation of geothermal energy: the pitfall of using lichens as bioindicators.

    PubMed

    Loppi, Stefano; Nascimbene, Juri

    2010-08-01

    This study showed that NH(3) emitted from geothermal power plants affects the surrounding epiphytic lichen vegetation and diversity, confounding the interpretation of lichen diversity counts in terms of air pollution by H(2)S. The presence of nitrophytic lichen species around geothermal installations, determined by NH(3), caused relatively high diversity values that were not related with the levels of air pollution by H(2)S. It is recommended that in the presence of NH(3) emission, nitrophytic species are excluded from the calculation of lichen diversity values.

  8. Loline alkaloid production by fungal endophytes of Fescue species select for particular epiphytic bacterial microflora

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Elizabeth; Lindow, Steven

    2014-01-01

    The leaves of fescue grasses are protected from herbivores by the production of loline alkaloids by the mutualist fungal endophytes Neotyphodium sp. or Epichloë sp. Most bacteria that reside on the leaf surface of such grasses can consume these defensive chemicals. Loline-consuming bacteria are rare on the leaves of other plant species. Several bacterial species including Burkholderia ambifaria recovered from tall fescue could use N-formyl loline as a sole carbon and nitrogen source in culture and achieved population sizes that were about eightfold higher when inoculated onto plants harboring loline-producing fungal endophytes than on plants lacking such endophytes or which were colonized by fungal variants incapable of loline production. In contrast, mutants of B. ambifaria and other bacterial species incapable of loline catabolism achieved similarly low population sizes on tall fescue colonized by loline-producing Neotyphodium sp. and on plants lacking this endophytic fungus. Lolines that are released onto the surface of plants benefiting from a fungal mutualism thus appear to be a major resource that can be exploited by epiphytic bacteria, thereby driving the establishment of a characteristic bacterial community on such plants. PMID:24108329

  9. Determination of atmospheric heavy metals using two lichen species in Katni and Rewa cities, India.

    PubMed

    Bajpai, Rajesh; Mishra, G K; Mohabe, S; Upreti, Dalip K; Nayaka, S

    2011-03-01

    A biomonitoring study was conducted to assess the levels of atmospheric heavy metal pollution in Katni and Rewa cities of Madhya Pradesh, state in central India. The Pyxine cocoes and Phaeophyscia hispidula, two epiphytic foliose lichen were used as bioindicators in the present study and seven metals (As, Al, Cd, Cr, Fe, Zn, Pb) were analyzed in naturally growing thallus. The concentrations of these metals was observed to be in higher range as maximum values of Al, Cd, Cr and Zn were reported from the lichen samples from Rewa city which was 561.8 +/- 2.4, 6.8 +/- 0.8, 35.2 +/- 1.4, 214.6 +/- 2.0 microg g(-1) dry weight respectively. Whereas As, Fe and Pb were reported maximum in the lichen samples collected from Katni city areas with 33.4 +/- 0.05, 689.4 +/- 2.6, 13.3 +/- 0.5 microg g(-1) dry weight respectively. However the accumulation of Cd and Pb from both the cities are more or less similar in concentration. The selectivity sequence of metals were Fe>Al>Zn>As>Cr>Pb>Cd in Katni city, and Al>Fe>Zn>Cr>As>Pb>Cd in Rewa city. The findings of this study indicates that extent of heavy metal pollution in the atmosphere of the two cities which may lead to adverse health affects. PMID:21882655

  10. Lichens of the Knyszyńska Forest (NE Poland).

    PubMed

    Czeczuga, B; Lengiewicz, I

    2001-01-01

    During the period 1991-1999 the lichen species composition of 26 reserves of the Knyszyńska Forest were examined. 315 taxa, including 271 species were found. Epiphytic lichens were predominant, while epilithic species were the least common. Of the coniferous trees, pine (Pinus sylvestis) was the habitat which supported most species (67), and common larch (Larix decidua) the fewest (5). Only two species were found on juniper (Juniper communis). Of deciduous trees, the largest number of species developed on oak bark (Quercus robur) (102), the fewest on elm bark (Ulmus laevis) (2). In the case of deciduous bushes most lichen taxa were noted on hazel (Corylus avellana) (21) and only one on hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna). The commonest species were Hypogymnia physodes and Lecanora conizaeoides, which were encountered in all 26 reserves.

  11. Epiphytic algae and lichen cover in boreal forests-a long-term study along a N and S deposition gradient in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Grandin, Ulf

    2011-12-01

    The aim was to describe spatiotemporal patterns of colonization of spruce branches by algae and lichens and the relationship with decreasing deposition of N and S. Coverage was estimated annually over 10 years for four Swedish Integrated Monitoring catchments with varying deposition levels. Initial hypotheses were that algal coverage would be positively correlated with deposition and that lichen coverage would be negatively correlated with S and positively with N deposition. Data were analyzed using regression, ANOVA, and partial least square regression. The results showed a temporal decrease in the coverage of algae but an increase in colonization rates, while lichens showed less uniform patterns. Within catchments, algae and lichen coverages were positively correlated with mainly S deposition. Across catchments, coverage of algae increased, while the coverage of lichens decreased with increasing N and S deposition. Colonization rates of both algae and lichens showed weak correlations with both spatial and temporal trends in N and S deposition. Thus, while N and S deposition had an effect on the colonization and coverage of algae and lichens, other factors are also important. PMID:22201001

  12. Carbon based secondary compounds do not provide protection against heavy metal road pollutants in epiphytic macrolichens.

    PubMed

    Gauslaa, Yngvar; Yemets, Olena A; Asplund, Johan; Solhaug, Knut Asbjørn

    2016-01-15

    Lichens are useful monitoring organisms for heavy metal pollution. They are high in carbon based secondary compounds (CBSCs) among which some may chelate heavy metals and thus increase metal accumulation. This study quantifies CBSCs in four epiphytic lichens transplanted for 6months on stands along transects from a highway in southern Norway to search for relationships between concentrations of heavy metals and CBSCs along a gradient in heavy metal pollutants. Viability parameters and concentrations of 21 elements including nutrients and heavy metals in these lichen samples were reported in a separate paper. Medullary CBSCs in fruticose lichens (Ramalina farinacea, Usnea dasypoga) were reduced in the most polluted sites, but not in foliose ones (Parmelia sulcata, Lobaria pulmonaria), whereas cortical CBSC did not change with distance from the road in any species. Strong positive correlations only occurred between the major medullary compound stictic acid present in L. pulmonaria and most heavy metals, consistent with a chelating role of stictic acid, but not of other studied CBSCs or in other species. However, heavy metal chelating did not protect L. pulmonaria against damage because this species experienced the strongest reduction in viability in the polluted sites. CBSCs with an accumulation potential for heavy metals should be quantified in lichen biomonitoring studies of heavy metals because they, like stictic acid, could overshadow pollutant inputs in some species rendering biomonitoring data less useful. In the two fruticose lichen species, CBSCs decreased with increasing heavy metal concentration, probably because heavy metal exposure impaired secondary metabolism. Thus, we found no support for a heavy metal protection role of any CBSCs in studied epiphytic lichens. No intraspecific relationships occurred between CBSCs versus N or C/N-ratio. Interspecifically, medullary CBSCs decreased and cortical CBSCs increased with increasing C/N-ratio.

  13. Integrating coalescent and phylogenetic approaches to delimit species in the lichen photobiont Trebouxia.

    PubMed

    Sadowska-Deś, Anna D; Dal Grande, Francesco; Lumbsch, H Thorsten; Beck, Andreas; Otte, Jürgen; Hur, Jae-Seoun; Kim, Jung A; Schmitt, Imke

    2014-07-01

    The accurate assessment of species boundaries in symbiotic systems is a prerequisite for the study of speciation, co-evolution and selectivity. Many studies have shown the high genetic diversity of green algae from the genus Trebouxia, the most common photobiont of lichen-forming fungi. However, the phylogenetic relationships, and the amount of cryptic diversity of these algae are still poorly understood, and an adequate species concept for trebouxiophycean algae is still missing. In this study we used a multifaceted approach based on coalescence (GMYC, STEM) and phylogenetic relationships to assess species boundaries in the trebouxioid photobionts of the lichen-forming fungus Lasallia pustulata. We further investigated whether putative species of Trebouxia found in L. pustulata are shared with other lichen-forming fungi. We found that L. pustulata is associated with at least five species of Trebouxia and most of them are shared with other lichen-forming fungi, showing different patterns of species-to-species and species-to-community interactions. We also show that one of the putative Trebouxia species is found exclusively in association with L. pustulata and is restricted to thalli from localities with Mediterranean microclimate. We suggest that the species delimitation method presented in this study is a promising tool to address species boundaries within the heterogeneous genus Trebouxia.

  14. Notes on Species of the Lichen Genus Canoparmelia Elix & Hale in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Jayalal, Udeni; Joshi, Santosh; Oh, Soon-Ok; Park, Jung-Shin

    2012-01-01

    Detailed descriptions of five species of the lichen genus Canoparmelia Elix & Hale. are presented. Until now, three species of the genus Canoparmelia, including C. apata (Krempelh.) Elix & Hale, C. owariensis (Asah.) Elix, and C. texana (Tuck.) Elix & Hale have been reported in South Korea. Canoparmelia carneopruinata (Zahlbr.) Elix & Hale, C. crozalsiana (de Lesd.) Elix & Hale, and C. ecaperata (Müll. Arg.) Elix & Hale are new to the South Korean lichen flora. An artificial key is provided for all species of Canoparmelia, including the three new records. PMID:23115507

  15. New Species and New Records of Buellia (Lichenized Ascomycetes) from Jeju Province, South Korea.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin Yu; Liu, Dong; Lőkös, László; Kondratyuk, Sergey Y; Oh, Soon-Ok; Park, Jung Shin; Hur, Jae-Seoun

    2016-03-01

    A new species and 2 new records of lichen genus Buellia were discovered from Chuja-do Island in Jeju Province during a recent floristic survey: B. chujana X. Y. Wang, S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös & J.-S. Hur sp. nov., B. halonia (Ach.) Tuck., and B. mamillana (Tuck.) W. A. Weber. The new species is characterized by a brown, areolate thallus, the presence of perlatolic acid, and a saxicolous habitat. Together with previously recorded species, 10 Buellia species were confirmed from Jeju-do Island. Among these species, 3 growing in the exposed rocky area contained xanthone (yellowish lichen thallus, UV + orange), indicating that production of xanthone in this genus might be a defense strategy against the harm of UV light. Although the genus Buellia has been thoroughly studied in Korea before, novel species have been discovered continuously, and large species diversity has been found in this crustose genus, even from a small rocky island. This study indicates that the coastal area harbors a vast number of crustose lichen species, and there is great potential to discover unknown lichens in the coastal rocky area in Korea.

  16. New Species and New Records of Buellia (Lichenized Ascomycetes) from Jeju Province, South Korea.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin Yu; Liu, Dong; Lőkös, László; Kondratyuk, Sergey Y; Oh, Soon-Ok; Park, Jung Shin; Hur, Jae-Seoun

    2016-03-01

    A new species and 2 new records of lichen genus Buellia were discovered from Chuja-do Island in Jeju Province during a recent floristic survey: B. chujana X. Y. Wang, S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös & J.-S. Hur sp. nov., B. halonia (Ach.) Tuck., and B. mamillana (Tuck.) W. A. Weber. The new species is characterized by a brown, areolate thallus, the presence of perlatolic acid, and a saxicolous habitat. Together with previously recorded species, 10 Buellia species were confirmed from Jeju-do Island. Among these species, 3 growing in the exposed rocky area contained xanthone (yellowish lichen thallus, UV + orange), indicating that production of xanthone in this genus might be a defense strategy against the harm of UV light. Although the genus Buellia has been thoroughly studied in Korea before, novel species have been discovered continuously, and large species diversity has been found in this crustose genus, even from a small rocky island. This study indicates that the coastal area harbors a vast number of crustose lichen species, and there is great potential to discover unknown lichens in the coastal rocky area in Korea. PMID:27103850

  17. New Species and New Records of Buellia (Lichenized Ascomycetes) from Jeju Province, South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xin Yu; Liu, Dong; Lőkös, László; Kondratyuk, Sergey Y.; Oh, Soon-Ok; Park, Jung Shin

    2016-01-01

    A new species and 2 new records of lichen genus Buellia were discovered from Chuja-do Island in Jeju Province during a recent floristic survey: B. chujana X. Y. Wang, S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös & J.-S. Hur sp. nov., B. halonia (Ach.) Tuck., and B. mamillana (Tuck.) W. A. Weber. The new species is characterized by a brown, areolate thallus, the presence of perlatolic acid, and a saxicolous habitat. Together with previously recorded species, 10 Buellia species were confirmed from Jeju-do Island. Among these species, 3 growing in the exposed rocky area contained xanthone (yellowish lichen thallus, UV + orange), indicating that production of xanthone in this genus might be a defense strategy against the harm of UV light. Although the genus Buellia has been thoroughly studied in Korea before, novel species have been discovered continuously, and large species diversity has been found in this crustose genus, even from a small rocky island. This study indicates that the coastal area harbors a vast number of crustose lichen species, and there is great potential to discover unknown lichens in the coastal rocky area in Korea. PMID:27103850

  18. Secondary foundation species as drivers of trophic and functional diversity: evidence from a tree-epiphyte system.

    PubMed

    Angelini, Christine; Silliman, Brian R

    2014-01-01

    Facilitation cascades arise where primary foundation species facilitate secondary (dependent) foundation species, and collectively, they increase habitat complexity and quality to enhance biodiversity. Whether such phenomena occur in nonmarine systems and if secondary foundation species enhance food web structure (e.g., support novel feeding guilds) and ecosystem function (e.g., provide nursery for juveniles) remain unclear. Here we report on field experiments designed to test whether trees improve epiphyte survival and epiphytes secondarily increase the number and diversity of adult and juvenile invertebrates in a potential live oak-Tillandsia usneoides (Spanish moss) facilitation cascade. Our results reveal that trees reduce physical stress to facilitate Tillandsia, which, in turn, reduces desiccation and predation stress to facilitate invertebrates. In experimental removals, invertebrate total density, juvenile density, species richness and H' diversity were 16, 60, 1.7, and 1.5 times higher, and feeding guild richness and H' were 5 and 11 times greater in Tillandsia-colonized relative to Tillandsia-removal limb plots. Tillandsia enhanced communities similarly in a survey across the southeastern United States. These findings reveal that a facilitation cascade organizes this widespread terrestrial assemblage and expand the role of secondary foundation species as drivers of trophic structure and ecosystem function. We conceptualize the relationship between foundation species' structural attributes and associated species abundance and composition in a Foundation Species-Biodiversity (FSB) model. Importantly, the FSB predicts that, where secondary foundation species form expansive and functionally distinct structures that increase habitat availability and complexity within primary foundation species, they generate and maintain hot spots of biodiversity and trophic interactions. PMID:24649658

  19. Coupling lead isotopes and element concentrations in epiphytic lichens to track sources of air emissions in the Alberta Oil Sands Region

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study was conducted that coupled use of element concentrations and lead (Pb) isotope ratios in the lichen Hypogymnia physodes collected during 2002 and 2008, to assess the impacts of air emissions from the Alberta Oil Sands Region (AOSR, Canada) mining and processing operations...

  20. Approach to spatialize local to long-range atmospheric metal input (Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb) in epiphytic lichens over a meso-scale area (Pyrénées-Atlantiques, southwestern France).

    PubMed

    Barre, Julien P G; Deletraz, Gaëlle; Frayret, Jérôme; Pinaly, Hervé; Donard, Olivier F X; Amouroux, David

    2015-06-01

    Geographically based investigations into atmospheric bio-monitoring usually provide information on concentration or occurrence data and spatial trends of specific contaminants over a specified study area. In this work, an original approach based on geographic information system (GIS) was used to establish metal contents (Hg, Cu, Pb, and Cd) in epiphytic lichens from 90 locations as atmospheric bio-monitors over a meso-scale area (Pyrénées-Atlantiques, southwestern France). This approach allows the integration of the heterogeneity of the territory and optimization of the sampling sites based on both socioeconomical and geophysical parameters (hereafter defined as urban, industrial, agricultural, and forested areas). The sampling strategy was first evaluated in several sites (n = 15) over different seasons and years in order to follow the temporal variability of the atmospheric metal input in lichens. The results demonstrate that concentration ranges remain constant over different sampling periods in "rural" areas (agricultural and forested). Higher variability is observed in the "anthropized" urban and industrial areas in relation to local atmospheric inputs. In this context, metal concentrations in lichens over the whole study show that (1) Hg and Cd are homogeneous over the whole territory (0.14 ± 0.04 and 0.38 ± 0.26 mg/kg, respectively), whereas (2) Cu and Pb are more concentrated in "anthropized" areas (9.3 and 11.9 mg/kg, respectively) than in "rural" ones (6.8 and 6.0 mg/kg, respectively) (Kruskall-Wallis, K(Cu) = 13.7 and K(Pb) = 9.7, p < 0.00001). They also showed a significant local enrichment for all metals in many locations in the Pays Basque (West) mainly due to metal and steel industrial activities. This confirms the local contribution of this contamination source over a wider geographic scale. A multiple linear regression model was applied to give an integrated spatialization of the data. This showed significant

  1. Approach to spatialize local to long-range atmospheric metal input (Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb) in epiphytic lichens over a meso-scale area (Pyrénées-Atlantiques, southwestern France).

    PubMed

    Barre, Julien P G; Deletraz, Gaëlle; Frayret, Jérôme; Pinaly, Hervé; Donard, Olivier F X; Amouroux, David

    2015-06-01

    Geographically based investigations into atmospheric bio-monitoring usually provide information on concentration or occurrence data and spatial trends of specific contaminants over a specified study area. In this work, an original approach based on geographic information system (GIS) was used to establish metal contents (Hg, Cu, Pb, and Cd) in epiphytic lichens from 90 locations as atmospheric bio-monitors over a meso-scale area (Pyrénées-Atlantiques, southwestern France). This approach allows the integration of the heterogeneity of the territory and optimization of the sampling sites based on both socioeconomical and geophysical parameters (hereafter defined as urban, industrial, agricultural, and forested areas). The sampling strategy was first evaluated in several sites (n = 15) over different seasons and years in order to follow the temporal variability of the atmospheric metal input in lichens. The results demonstrate that concentration ranges remain constant over different sampling periods in "rural" areas (agricultural and forested). Higher variability is observed in the "anthropized" urban and industrial areas in relation to local atmospheric inputs. In this context, metal concentrations in lichens over the whole study show that (1) Hg and Cd are homogeneous over the whole territory (0.14 ± 0.04 and 0.38 ± 0.26 mg/kg, respectively), whereas (2) Cu and Pb are more concentrated in "anthropized" areas (9.3 and 11.9 mg/kg, respectively) than in "rural" ones (6.8 and 6.0 mg/kg, respectively) (Kruskall-Wallis, K(Cu) = 13.7 and K(Pb) = 9.7, p < 0.00001). They also showed a significant local enrichment for all metals in many locations in the Pays Basque (West) mainly due to metal and steel industrial activities. This confirms the local contribution of this contamination source over a wider geographic scale. A multiple linear regression model was applied to give an integrated spatialization of the data. This showed significant

  2. Small increase in sub-stratum pH causes the dieback of one of Europe's most common lichens, Lecanora conizaeoides

    PubMed Central

    Hauck, Markus; Otto, Philipp I.; Dittrich, Sebastian; Jacob, Mascha; Bade, Claudia; Dörfler, Inken; Leuschner, Christoph

    2011-01-01

    Backgrounds and Aims Lecanora conizaeoides was until recently western and central Europe's most abundant epiphytic lichen species or at least one of the most common epiphytes. The species is adapted to very acidic conditions at pH values around 3 and high concentrations of SO2 and its derivatives formed in aqueous solution, and thus spread with increasing SO2 deposition during the 19th and 20th centuries. With the recent decrease of SO2 emissions to nearly pre-industrial levels within 20 years, L. conizaeoides declined from most of its former range. If still present, the species is no longer the dominant epiphyte, but is occurring in small densities only. The rapid spread of the L. conizaeoides in Europe from an extremely rare species to the probably most frequent epiphytic lichen and the subsequent rapid dieback are unprecedented by any other organism. The present study aimed at identifying the magnitude of deacidification needed to cause the dieback of the lichen. Methods The epiphytic lichen diversity and bark chemistry of montane spruce forests in the Harz Mountains, northern Germany, were studied and the results were compared with data recorded with the same methods 13–15 years ago. Key Results Lecanora conizaeoides, which was the dominant epiphyte of the study area until 15 years ago, is still found on most trees, but only with small cover values of ≤1 %. The bark pH increased by only 0·4 pH units. Conclusions The data suggest that only slight deacidification of the substratum causes the breakdown of the L. conizaeoides populations. Neither competitors nor parasites of L. conizaeoides that may have profited from reduced SO2 concentrations are likely causes of the rapid dieback of the species. PMID:21788378

  3. [Book review] Lichens of the north woods: a field guide to 111 northern species, by Joe Walewski

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, J.

    2007-01-01

    Review of: LICHENS OF THE NORTH WOODS, A FIELD GUIDE TO 111 NORTHERN SPECIES. Joe Walewski. 2007. North Woods Naturalist Series, Kollath & Stensaas Publishing, Duluth, Minnesota. 152 pp, softcover. ISBN: 0-9673793-50. $18.95.

  4. Elemental chemistry of four lichen species from the Apostle Islands, Wisconsin 1987, 1995, and 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, J.P.; Wetmore, C.M.

    2003-01-01

    Four lichen species sampled three times over a 15-year time span at four of the Apostle Islands, Wisconsin were analyzed for 16 chemical elements in order to determine time trends and spatial patterns. Factor analyses of the data revealed that elements associated with soils (Al, Cr, Fe, Na, Ni and S) have increased over the study period, while nutrient and pollutant elements (Cu, K, P, Pb and Zn) have decreased. Four other elements (Ca, Cd, Mg and Mn) were unchanged over time. Cladina rangiferina, a terricolous species, contained the lowest concentrations of all elements, while the corticolous species Evernia mesomorpha was highest in soil elements, Hypogymnia physodes was highest in Ca, Cd, Mg and Mn, and Parmelia sulcata was highest in the nutritional elements. Lichens on islands within 3a??4 km of the mainland were highest in soil elements, which decreased with distance from the mainland. Elements that were 18a??43% greater on the nearest islands were significantly different between near and far islands. Eight elements (Al, Ca, Cd, K, Mg, Mn, P and S) exceeded enrichment levels for Hypogymnia physodes, suggesting possible contamination problems for this species. Although Pb has decreased significantly over the time period, other elements have increased in the lichens while decreasing in the atmosphere, suggesting that accumulation in the environment is continuing.

  5. Southern leaf blight disease severity is correlated with decreased maize leaf epiphytic bacterial species richness and the phyllosphere bacterial diversity decline is enhanced by nitrogen fertilization

    PubMed Central

    Manching, Heather C.; Balint-Kurti, Peter J.; Stapleton, Ann E.

    2014-01-01

    Plant leaves are inhabited by a diverse group of microorganisms that are important contributors to optimal growth. Biotic and abiotic effects on plant growth are usually studied in controlled settings examining response to variation in single factors and in field settings with large numbers of variables. Multi-factor experiments with combinations of stresses bridge this gap, increasing our understanding of the genotype-environment-phenotype functional map for the host plant and the affiliated epiphytic community. The maize inbred B73 was exposed to single and combination abiotic and the biotic stress treatments: low nitrogen fertilizer and high levels of infection with southern leaf blight (causal agent Cochliobolus heterostrophus). Microbial epiphyte samples were collected at the vegetative early-season phase and species composition was determined using 16S ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis. Plant traits and level of southern leaf blight disease were measured late-season. Bacterial diversity was different among stress treatment groups (P < 0.001). Lower species richness—alpha diversity—was correlated with increased severity of southern leaf blight disease when disease pressure was high. Nitrogen fertilization intensified the decline in bacterial alpha diversity. While no single bacterial ribotype was consistently associated with disease severity, small sets of ribotypes were good predictors of disease levels. Difference in leaf bacterial-epiphyte diversity early in the season were correlated with plant disease severity, supporting further tests of microbial epiphyte-disease correlations for use in predicting disease progression. PMID:25177328

  6. Escape from the cryptic species trap: lichen evolution on both sides of a cyanobacterial acquisition event.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Kevin; Resl, Philipp; Spribille, Toby

    2016-07-01

    Large, architecturally complex lichen symbioses arose only a few times in evolution, increasing thallus size by orders of magnitude over those from which they evolved. The innovations that enabled symbiotic assemblages to acquire and maintain large sizes are unknown. We mapped morphometric data against an eight-locus fungal phylogeny across one of the best-sampled thallus size transition events, the origins of the Placopsis lichen symbiosis, and used a phylogenetic comparative framework to explore the role of nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria in size differences. Thallus thickness increased by >150% and fruiting body core volume increased ninefold on average after acquisition of cyanobacteria. Volume of cyanobacteria-containing structures (cephalodia), once acquired, correlates with thallus thickness in both phylogenetic generalized least squares and phylogenetic generalized linear mixed-effects analyses. Our results suggest that the availability of nitrogen is an important factor in the formation of large thalli. Cyanobacterial symbiosis appears to have enabled lichens to overcome size constraints in oligotrophic environments such as acidic, rain-washed rock surfaces. In the case of the Placopsis fungal symbiont, this has led to an adaptive radiation of more than 60 recognized species from related crustose members of the genus Trapelia. Our data suggest that precyanobacterial symbiotic lineages were constrained to forming a narrow range of phenotypes, so-called cryptic species, leading systematists until now to recognize only six of the 13 species clusters we identified in Trapelia. PMID:27037681

  7. A Process-based Model of Global Lichen Productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porada, P.; Kleidon, A.

    2012-04-01

    Lichens and biotic crusts are abundant in most ecosystems of the world. They are the main autotrophic organisms in many deserts and at high altitudes and they can also be found in large amounts as epiphytes in some forests, especially in the boreal zone. They are characterised by a great variety of physiological properties, such as growth form, productivity or color. Due to the vast land surface areas covered by lichens, they may contribute significantly to the global terrestrial net carbon uptake. Furthermore, they potentially play an important role with respect to nutrient cycles in some ecosystems and they have the ability to enhance weathering at the surface on which they grow. A possible way to quantify these processes at the global scale is presented here in form of a process-based lichen model. This approach is based on the concepts used in many dynamical vegetation models and extends these methods to account for the specific properties of lichens. Hence, processes such as photosynthesis, respiration and water exchange are implemented as well as important trade-offs like photosynthetic capacity versus respiratory load and water content versus CO2 conductivity. The great physiological variability of lichens is incorporated directly into the model through ranges of possible parameter values, which are randomly sampled. In this way, many artificial lichen "species" are created and climate then acts as a filter to determine the species which are able to survive permanently. By averaging over the surviving "species", the model predicts lichen productivity as a function of climate input data such as temperature, radiation and precipitation at the global scale. Consequently, the contribution of lichens to the global carbon balance can be quantified. Moreover, global patterns of lichen biodiversity and other properties can be illustrated. The model can be extended to account for the nutrient dynamics of lichens, such as nitrogen fixation and the acquisition and

  8. Assessment of atmospheric pollution in the vicinity of a tin and lead industry using lichen species Canoparmelia texana.

    PubMed

    Leonardo, Lucio; Mazzilli, Barbara Paci; Damatto, Sandra Regina; Saiki, Mitiko; Barros de Oliveira, Sonia Maria

    2011-10-01

    This paper examines the viability of using Canoparmelia texana lichen species as a bioindicator of air pollution by radionuclides and rare earth elements (REEs) in the vicinity of a tin and lead industry. The lichen and soil samples were analyzed for uranium, thorium and REEs by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The radionuclides (226)Ra, (228)Ra and (210)Pb were determined either by Gamma-ray spectrometry (GRS) (soils) or by radiochemical separation followed by gross alpha and beta counting using a gas flow proportional counter (lichens). The lichens samples concentrate radionuclides (on the average 25-fold higher than the background for this species) and REEs (on the average 10-fold higher), therefore they can be used as a fingerprint of contamination by the operation of the tin industry.

  9. FT-Raman spectroscopy of the Candelaria and Pyxine lichen species: A new molecular structural study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, Rafaella F.; Ferreira, Gilson R.; Spielmann, Adriano A.; Edwards, Howell G. M.; de Oliveira, Luiz Fernando C.

    2015-12-01

    In this work the chemistry of the lichens Candelaria fibrosa and Pyxine coccifera have been investigated for the first time using FT-Raman spectroscopy with the help of quantum mechanical DFT calculations to support spectral band assignments. The non-destructive spectral vibrational analysis provided evidence for the presence of pulvinic acid derivatives and conjugated polyenes, which probably belong to a carotenoid with characteristic signatures at ca. 1003, 1158 and 1525 cm-1 assigned respectively to δ(C-CH3), ν(C-C) and ν(Cdbnd C) modes. The identification of features arising from chiodectonic acid in the Pyxine species and calycin and pulvinic dilactone pigments in C. fibrosa were assisted by the quantum mechanical DFT calculations. Raman spectroscopy can provide important spectroscopic data for the identification of the biomarker spectral signatures nondestructively for these lichen pigments without the need for chemical extraction processes.

  10. Extremotolerance and resistance of lichens: comparative studies on five species used in astrobiological research I. Morphological and anatomical characteristics.

    PubMed

    Meeßen, J; Sánchez, F J; Brandt, A; Balzer, E-M; de la Torre, R; Sancho, L G; de Vera, J-P; Ott, S

    2013-06-01

    Lichens are symbioses of two organisms, a fungal mycobiont and a photoautotrophic photobiont. In nature, many lichens tolerate extreme environmental conditions and thus became valuable models in astrobiological research to fathom biological resistance towards non-terrestrial conditions; including space exposure, hypervelocity impact simulations as well as space and Martian parameter simulations. All studies demonstrated the high resistance towards non-terrestrial abiotic factors of selected extremotolerant lichens. Besides other adaptations, this study focuses on the morphological and anatomical traits by comparing five lichen species-Circinaria gyrosa, Rhizocarpon geographicum, Xanthoria elegans, Buellia frigida, Pleopsidium chlorophanum-used in present-day astrobiological research. Detailed investigation of thallus organization by microscopy methods allows to study the effect of morphology on lichen resistance and forms a basis for interpreting data of recent and future experiments. All investigated lichens reveal a common heteromerous thallus structure but diverging sets of morphological-anatomical traits, as intra-/extra-thalline mucilage matrices, cortices, algal arrangements, and hyphal strands. In B. frigida, R. geographicum, and X. elegans the combination of pigmented cortex, algal arrangement, and mucilage seems to enhance resistance, while subcortex and algal clustering seem to be crucial in C. gyrosa, as well as pigmented cortices and basal thallus protrusions in P. chlorophanum. Thus, generalizations on morphologically conferred resistance have to be avoided. Such differences might reflect the diverging evolutionary histories and are advantageous by adapting lichens to prevalent abiotic stressors. The peculiar lichen morphology demonstrates its remarkable stake in resisting extreme terrestrial conditions and may explain the high resistance of lichens found in astrobiological research.

  11. Lichen endozoochory by snails.

    PubMed

    Boch, Steffen; Prati, Daniel; Werth, Silke; Rüetschi, Jörg; Fischer, Markus

    2011-04-13

    Endozoochory plays a prominent role for the dispersal of seed plants. However, for most other plant taxa it is not known whether this mode of dispersal occurs at all. Among those other taxa, lichens as symbiotic associations of algae and fungi are peculiar as their successful dispersal requires movement of propagules that leaves the symbiosis functional. However, the potential for endozoochorous dispersal of lichen fragments has been completely overlooked. We fed sterile thalli of two foliose lichen species (Lobaria pulmonaria and Physcia adscendens) differing in habitat and air-quality requirements to nine snail species common in temperate Europe. We demonstrated morphologically that L. pulmonaria regenerated from 29.0% of all 379 fecal pellets, whereas P. adscendens regenerated from 40.9% of all 433 fecal pellets, showing that lichen fragments survived gut passage of all snail species. Moreover, molecular analysis of regenerated lichens confirmed the species identity for a subset of samples. Regeneration rates were higher for the generalist lichen species P. adscendens than for the specialist lichen species L. pulmonaria. Furthermore, lichen regeneration rates varied among snail species with higher rates after gut passage of heavier snail species. We suggest that gastropods generally grazing on lichen communities are important, but so far completely overlooked, as vectors for lichen dispersal. This opens new ecological perspectives and questions the traditional view of an entirely antagonistic relationship between gastropods and lichens.

  12. Mature non-native black-locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) forest does not regain the lichen diversity of the natural forest.

    PubMed

    Nascimbene, Juri; Nimis, Pier Luigi; Benesperi, Renato

    2012-04-01

    The responses of lichens to habitat changes caused by invasive trees are poorly understood. Invasive forest trees may impact epiphytic lichens by altering both substrate and stand conditions. Previous research has demonstrated that black locust invasion, associated with intensive exploitation of native oak forests, led to dramatic shifts in lichen composition. However, it is not clear if, along with stand aging, black locust formations regain forest species. The main aim of this study was to test whether the succession of black locust stands promotes a lichen succession leading to assemblages in mature black locust stands which are similar to those of native forests. To test the influence of macro-environmental conditions, we performed the study in two bioclimatically different areas of Italy. The epiphytic lichen biota of native oak and chestnut stands was compared with that of black locust stands of different successional stages. In both regions we did not find a lichen succession in black locust stands of different age, and mature black-locust stands did not recover the diversity of epiphytic species, which are lost by the replacement of the native forests by black locust. The absence of this pattern may be caused by factors related to the management of black locust stands, and to bark features. The different bioclimatic conditions between the two study areas may explain differences in the lichen biota of native forests, while that of black locust stands tend to be similar between regions, suggesting that forest habitat changes associated with the spread of black locust could decrease lichen diversity among bioclimatically different regions.

  13. Mature non-native black-locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) forest does not regain the lichen diversity of the natural forest.

    PubMed

    Nascimbene, Juri; Nimis, Pier Luigi; Benesperi, Renato

    2012-04-01

    The responses of lichens to habitat changes caused by invasive trees are poorly understood. Invasive forest trees may impact epiphytic lichens by altering both substrate and stand conditions. Previous research has demonstrated that black locust invasion, associated with intensive exploitation of native oak forests, led to dramatic shifts in lichen composition. However, it is not clear if, along with stand aging, black locust formations regain forest species. The main aim of this study was to test whether the succession of black locust stands promotes a lichen succession leading to assemblages in mature black locust stands which are similar to those of native forests. To test the influence of macro-environmental conditions, we performed the study in two bioclimatically different areas of Italy. The epiphytic lichen biota of native oak and chestnut stands was compared with that of black locust stands of different successional stages. In both regions we did not find a lichen succession in black locust stands of different age, and mature black-locust stands did not recover the diversity of epiphytic species, which are lost by the replacement of the native forests by black locust. The absence of this pattern may be caused by factors related to the management of black locust stands, and to bark features. The different bioclimatic conditions between the two study areas may explain differences in the lichen biota of native forests, while that of black locust stands tend to be similar between regions, suggesting that forest habitat changes associated with the spread of black locust could decrease lichen diversity among bioclimatically different regions. PMID:22341402

  14. Use of moss and lichen species to identify (210)Po-contaminated regions.

    PubMed

    Długosz-Lisiecka, Magdalena; Wróbel, Justyna

    2014-12-01

    (210)Po concentration in urban air fluctuates as a result of natural (222)Rn radionuclide exhalation and technical activity that is especially linked with high-temperature processes. Each year, an average 11 GBq of (210)Po is released from local power plants into urban air. Over two months, about 180 samples in central Poland were collected. To detect the concentration of (210)Po activity, two common species of biomonitors were chosen: the moss Pleurozium schreberi and the lichen Hypogymnia physodes. For the same locale, (210)Po in lichen shows an average of twice the amount of activity concentration than the moss. In moss, (210)Po concentrations in Lodz ranged from 41.5 Bq kg(-1) to 258.0 Bq kg(-1), while in lichen it ranges from 74.2 Bq kg(-1) to 670.9 Bq kg(-1). On the basis of the measured activity of (210)Po maps, radionuclide distribution has been prepared. For areas identified with higher concentrations of (210)Po, Quantum Gis has been applied.

  15. Use of moss and lichen species to identify (210)Po-contaminated regions.

    PubMed

    Długosz-Lisiecka, Magdalena; Wróbel, Justyna

    2014-12-01

    (210)Po concentration in urban air fluctuates as a result of natural (222)Rn radionuclide exhalation and technical activity that is especially linked with high-temperature processes. Each year, an average 11 GBq of (210)Po is released from local power plants into urban air. Over two months, about 180 samples in central Poland were collected. To detect the concentration of (210)Po activity, two common species of biomonitors were chosen: the moss Pleurozium schreberi and the lichen Hypogymnia physodes. For the same locale, (210)Po in lichen shows an average of twice the amount of activity concentration than the moss. In moss, (210)Po concentrations in Lodz ranged from 41.5 Bq kg(-1) to 258.0 Bq kg(-1), while in lichen it ranges from 74.2 Bq kg(-1) to 670.9 Bq kg(-1). On the basis of the measured activity of (210)Po maps, radionuclide distribution has been prepared. For areas identified with higher concentrations of (210)Po, Quantum Gis has been applied. PMID:25301434

  16. Cesium-137 monitoring using lichens from W. Macedonia, N. Greece.

    PubMed

    Sawidis, Thomas; Tsigaridas, Konstantinos; Tsikritzis, Lazaros

    2010-10-01

    (137)Cs content in lichens and substrate (soil, bark) collected from W. Macedonia, Greece was measured 20 years after the Chernobyl reactor accident. Archive material from previous collections was also used for comparison and a diachronic estimation of the radio-contamination status. A gradual decrease was detected which depended on various factors such as the collected species, location, growth rate and substrate. Maximum accumulation capacity of (137)Cs was observed in epilithic lichens in comparison to epigeic or epiphytic ones. Furthermore, foliose or crustose lichens such as Parmelia sulcata, Xanthoria parietina, Xanthoria calcicola, Xanthoparmelia somloensis were more contaminated than filamentose at the same biotope. Among filamentose or fruticose species those with large surface area to biomass ratio e.g. Usnea sp. showed also greater accumulation capacity. Autoradiography revealed an amount of (137)Cs distributed more or less uniformly in lichen thalli. The high (137)Cs activities found in lichens 20 years after Chernobyl suggest that these primitive plants are effective, suitable and inexpensive biological detectors of the distribution and burden of fallout radionuclide fallout pattern.

  17. Diversity and succession of epiphytic macrolichen communities in low-elevation managed conifer forests in western Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, E.B.; McCune, B.

    2001-01-01

    We examined epiphytic macrolichen communities in Pseudotsuga menziesii (Douglas-fir) forests across the western Oregon landscape for relationships to environmental gradients, stand age and structure, and commercial thinning. We used a retrospective, blocked design through the Coast and the western Cascade ranges of Oregon. Each of our 17 blocks consisted of a young, unthinned stand (age 50-110 yr); an adjacent, thinned stand of equivalent age; and an old-growth stand (age > 200 yr). We found 110 epiphytic macrolichen taxa in the stands. Forage-providing alectorioid lichens and the nitrogen-fixing cyanolichen Lobaria oregana associated strongly with old-growth stands and remnant old trees in younger stands (unthinned + thinned). Relative to unthinned stands, thinned stands had a slightly higher abundance of alectorioid lichens and a greater presence of Hypogymnia imshaugii. However, thinned stands hosted a lower landscape-level (I?) diversity, lacking many species that occurred infrequently in the unthinned stands. Patterns in the lichen community composition correlated strongly with climatic gradients; the greatest variation in composition was between the Coast and Cascade ranges. The difference in communities between mountain ranges was greatest among stands 70-110 yr old, suggesting a difference in lichen successional dynamics between the ranges.

  18. Oribatid communities and heavy metal bioaccumulation in selected species associated with lichens in a heavily contaminated habitat.

    PubMed

    Skubała, Piotr; Rola, Kaja; Osyczka, Piotr

    2016-05-01

    The study examines oribatid communities and heavy metal bioaccumulation in selected species associated with different microhabitats of a post-smelting dump, i.e. three lichen species of Cladonia with various growth forms and the slag substrate. The abundance of oribatids collected from the substrate was significantly lower than observed in lichen thalli. The morphology and chemical properties of lichens, and to some extent varying concentrations of heavy metals in thalli, are probably responsible for significant differences in oribatid communities inhabiting different Cladonia species. Some oribatids demonstrate the ability to accumulate zinc and cadmium with unusual efficiency, whereas lead is the most effectively regulated element by all species. A positive correlation was found between Zn content in all studied oribatids and their microhabitats. Oribatids exploring different food resources, i.e. fungivorous and non-fungivorous grazers, show considerable differences in bioconcentrations of certain elements. PMID:26810668

  19. From one to six: unrecognized species diversity in the genus Acantholichen (lichenized Basidiomycota: Hygrophoraceae).

    PubMed

    Dal-Forno, Manuela; Lücking, Robert; Bungartz, Frank; Yánez-Ayabaca, Alba; Marcelli, Marcelo P; Spielmann, Adriano A; Coca, Luis Fernando; Chaves, José Luis; Aptroot, Andre; Sipman, Harrie J M; Sikaroodi, Masoumeh; Gillevet, Patrick; Lawrey, James D

    2016-01-01

    We present a taxonomic revision of the lichenized basidiomycete genus Acantholichen, species of which produce a characteristic blue-gray, microsquamulose thallus with spiny apical hyphal cells known as acanthohyphidia. Since its discovery, the genus was thought to be monospecific, only including the generic type, A. pannarioides. However, a detailed morphological and anatomical study of recently collected specimens from the Galápagos, Costa Rica, Brazil and Colombia, combined with a molecular phylogenetic analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2) region and 28S of the nuc rDNA and RPB2 sequences, revealed a much more diverse and widespread species assemblage. Based on the results of these analyses, we describe five new species in the genus: A. albomarginatus, A. campestris, A. galapagoensis, A. sorediatus and A. variabilis. We also provide an identification key to all species, anatomical and morphological descriptions, photographs and a table comparing main characters of each species.

  20. Estimating atmospheric mercury concentrations with lichens.

    PubMed

    Vannini, Andrea; Nicolardi, Valentina; Bargagli, Roberto; Loppi, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    The uptake kinetics of elemental gaseous Hg (Hg(0)) in three species of epiphytic lichens (Pseudevernia furfuracea, Evernia prunastri, and Xanthoria parietina) were investigated under four different Hg concentrations (10, 15, 30, and 45 μg/m(3)) and three different temperatures (10, 20, and 30 °C) with the aim of evaluating the lichen efficiency for Hg(0) accumulation and their potential use in the estimate of atmospheric concentrations of this metal in the field. The results showed that under our experimental conditions the lichens accumulated Hg according to exposure time and that the metal is not released back to the atmosphere after Hg(0) was removed from the air (clearance). Pseudevernia furfuracea showed the highest Hg accumulation capacity and Evernia prunastri showed the lowest, but in these species the metal uptake kinetics was affected by temperature. Xanthoria parietina showed an intermediate metal accumulation capacity and a Hg accumulation rate independent of temperature (in the range 10-30 °C). The use of first-order kinetics equations for Hg uptake in X. parietina and available field data on Hg bioaccumulation in this species allowed reliable estimates of atmospheric Hg concentrations in the environment.

  1. Introduce lichen Lepraria incana as biomonitor of Cesium-137 from Ramsar, northern Iran.

    PubMed

    Dalvand, Amin; Jahangiri, Ahmad; Iranmanesh, Jalil

    2016-08-01

    Lichens have been used as biomonitors of airborne radionuclides released in conjunction with nuclear bomb testing as well as nuclear power plant accidents. The potential of lichens for monitoringof radionuclides has been well documented. However, there are no studies that determine natural and artificial radionuclide monitoring by lichens, in Iran. Thus, as a first step, we have conducted a comparison of (137)Csactivity concentration capacity of three epiphytic lichen species including Lepraria incana, Xanthoria parietina and Ramalina farinacea from Ramsar Northern Iran. In this work, accumulation capacity of (137)Cs was determined in 36 lichen samples using a gamma spectrometer equipped with a high purity germanium (HPGe) detector. The results showed that highest accumulation capacity of (137)Cs in the lichen species was found in Lepraria incana and Xanthoria parietina, 30.2, 9.8 Bq/kg respectively, and lowest average accumulation capacity were found in Ramalina farinacea 2.7 Bq/kg (dry weight). This study showed that activity concentration (137)Cs is in crustose > foliose > fruticose lichens in the same biotope. Thus, crustose lichens are capable to accumulate higher (137)Cs than foliose and fruticose species because of different factors such as special morphological characteristics in these species and large surface/volume ratio or longer biological half-life of (137)Cs in lichen Lepraria incana. Therefore, Lepraria incana due to high concentration capability of (137)Cs (approximately 3 and 11 time higher than Xanthoria parietina and Ramalina farinacea, respectively), is introduced as biomonitor of Cesium-137 from Ramsar, North of Iran. PMID:27132251

  2. Introduce lichen Lepraria incana as biomonitor of Cesium-137 from Ramsar, northern Iran.

    PubMed

    Dalvand, Amin; Jahangiri, Ahmad; Iranmanesh, Jalil

    2016-08-01

    Lichens have been used as biomonitors of airborne radionuclides released in conjunction with nuclear bomb testing as well as nuclear power plant accidents. The potential of lichens for monitoringof radionuclides has been well documented. However, there are no studies that determine natural and artificial radionuclide monitoring by lichens, in Iran. Thus, as a first step, we have conducted a comparison of (137)Csactivity concentration capacity of three epiphytic lichen species including Lepraria incana, Xanthoria parietina and Ramalina farinacea from Ramsar Northern Iran. In this work, accumulation capacity of (137)Cs was determined in 36 lichen samples using a gamma spectrometer equipped with a high purity germanium (HPGe) detector. The results showed that highest accumulation capacity of (137)Cs in the lichen species was found in Lepraria incana and Xanthoria parietina, 30.2, 9.8 Bq/kg respectively, and lowest average accumulation capacity were found in Ramalina farinacea 2.7 Bq/kg (dry weight). This study showed that activity concentration (137)Cs is in crustose > foliose > fruticose lichens in the same biotope. Thus, crustose lichens are capable to accumulate higher (137)Cs than foliose and fruticose species because of different factors such as special morphological characteristics in these species and large surface/volume ratio or longer biological half-life of (137)Cs in lichen Lepraria incana. Therefore, Lepraria incana due to high concentration capability of (137)Cs (approximately 3 and 11 time higher than Xanthoria parietina and Ramalina farinacea, respectively), is introduced as biomonitor of Cesium-137 from Ramsar, North of Iran.

  3. A New Species of Graphis and New Lichen Records from Vietnam, Including a Second Worldwide Report of Sarcographina cyclospora.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Santosh; Jayalal, Udeni; Oh, Soon-Ok; Nguyen, Thi Thuy; Dzung, Nguyen Anh; Hur, Jae-Seoun

    2014-03-01

    Graphis upretii is a new lichen species discovered in Vietnam. The species is characterized by a loosely corticate, rough, whitish grey to greyish green thallus, elongate and irregularly branched lirellae with an apically thin complete thalline margin (negrosina morph), laterally carbonized, entire proper exciple, clear hymenium, hyaline, 16~20 transversely locular ascospores, and about 50~95 × 10~15 µm in size. In addition, members of the taxon produce norstictic and stictic acids. Currently, the lichen flora of Vietnam include Arthonia radiata, Brigantiaea tricolor, Coenogonium implexum, Dirina paradoxa, Herpothallon sipmanii, Pertusaria pertusa, and Sarcographina cyclospora.

  4. A New Species of Graphis and New Lichen Records from Vietnam, Including a Second Worldwide Report of Sarcographina cyclospora

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Santosh; Jayalal, Udeni; Oh, Soon-Ok; Nguyen, Thi Thuy; Dzung, Nguyen Anh

    2014-01-01

    Graphis upretii is a new lichen species discovered in Vietnam. The species is characterized by a loosely corticate, rough, whitish grey to greyish green thallus, elongate and irregularly branched lirellae with an apically thin complete thalline margin (negrosina morph), laterally carbonized, entire proper exciple, clear hymenium, hyaline, 16~20 transversely locular ascospores, and about 50~95 × 10~15 µm in size. In addition, members of the taxon produce norstictic and stictic acids. Currently, the lichen flora of Vietnam include Arthonia radiata, Brigantiaea tricolor, Coenogonium implexum, Dirina paradoxa, Herpothallon sipmanii, Pertusaria pertusa, and Sarcographina cyclospora. PMID:24808729

  5. Lichen elemental composition distinguishes anthropogenic emissions from dust storm inputs and differs among species: Evidence from Xilinhot, Inner Mongolia, China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hua-Jie; Fang, Shi-Bo; Liu, Si-Wa; Zhao, Liang-Cheng; Guo, Xiu-Ping; Jiang, Yun-Jun; Hu, Jian-Sen; Liu, Xiao-Di; Xia, Yu; Wang, Yi-Dan; Wu, Qing-Feng

    2016-01-01

    To test the applicability of lichens in the biomonitoring of atmospheric elemental deposition in a typical steppe zone of Inner Mongolia, China, six foliose lichens (Physcia aipolia, PA; P. tribacia, PT; Xanthoria elegans, XE; X. mandschurica, XM; Xanthoparmelia camtschadalis, XPC; and Xp. tinctina, XPT) were sampled from the Xilin River Basin, Xilinhot, Inner Mongolia, China. Twenty-five elements (Al, Ba, Cd, Ce, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, K, La, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, P, Pb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Tb, Th, Ti, Tl, V and Zn) in the lichens were analysed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The results show that Cd, Pb and Zn were mainly atmospheric in origin, whereas the other elements were predominantly of crustal origin. Compared with other studies, our data were higher in crustal element concentrations and lower in atmospheric element concentrations, matching with the frequent, severe dust storms and road traffic in the area. The elemental concentrations in lichens are both species- and element-specific, highlighting the importance of species selection for biomonitoring air pollution using lichens. We recommend PT, XE, XM and XPT for monitoring atmospheric deposition of crustal elements; XPC and XPT for Cd and Pb; PA for Cd and Zn; and PT for Cd. PMID:27698382

  6. Diversity and community ecology of forest epiphyte testate amoebae from European Russia.

    PubMed

    Payne, Richard J; Belyakova, Olga; Mazei, Yuri

    2015-10-01

    Testate amoebae are an abundant group of microorganisms which make a significant contribution to the diversity of protist life. Most of the world's potential habitats for testate amoebae have been barely studied and when such places are investigated they frequently reveal novel communities and species. Here we consider the testate amoeba communities associated with boreal forest epiphytes (mosses and lichens); an environment which we argue has been under-researched. We present a dataset of 165 samples from four regions of western Russia and analyse these data in relation to micro-habitat position and selected environmental data. The testate amoebae of epiphytes are abundant but dominated by ubiquitous species. We show that there are trends toward a lower species richness and test concentration with greater elevation on the trunk and in lichens compared to mosses. There are considerable differences in community composition between sampling regions. Of all measured environmental variables only moisture content showed a significant relationship with testate amoeba community structure. Our data highlight how little is known about testate amoeba communities of this habitat and call for greater research efforts, particularly in less-studied regions and biomes.

  7. Diversity and community ecology of forest epiphyte testate amoebae from European Russia.

    PubMed

    Payne, Richard J; Belyakova, Olga; Mazei, Yuri

    2015-10-01

    Testate amoebae are an abundant group of microorganisms which make a significant contribution to the diversity of protist life. Most of the world's potential habitats for testate amoebae have been barely studied and when such places are investigated they frequently reveal novel communities and species. Here we consider the testate amoeba communities associated with boreal forest epiphytes (mosses and lichens); an environment which we argue has been under-researched. We present a dataset of 165 samples from four regions of western Russia and analyse these data in relation to micro-habitat position and selected environmental data. The testate amoebae of epiphytes are abundant but dominated by ubiquitous species. We show that there are trends toward a lower species richness and test concentration with greater elevation on the trunk and in lichens compared to mosses. There are considerable differences in community composition between sampling regions. Of all measured environmental variables only moisture content showed a significant relationship with testate amoeba community structure. Our data highlight how little is known about testate amoeba communities of this habitat and call for greater research efforts, particularly in less-studied regions and biomes. PMID:26355869

  8. Chemical response of Picea glehnii seed-epiphytic Penicillium species to Pythium vexans under in vitro competitive conditions for mycelial growth.

    PubMed

    Yamaji, Keiko; Hashidoko, Yasuyuki; Fukushi, Yukiharu; Tahara, Satoshi

    2005-04-01

    The potential protection of Picea glehnii seedlings from damping-off by seed-epiphytic Penicillium species was investigated. We studied the chemical response of seed-epiphytic Penicillium species (Pen. cyaneum, Pen. damascenum, and Pen. implicatum) to Pythium vexans, a damping-off fungus, in vitro. Penicillium species were cultured singly or cocultured with Pyt. vexans for 14 or 18 d, and mycelial growth, pH of culture filtrate, antifungal activity of the culture filtrate against Pyt. vexans, and the amount of antifungal compound produced by each Penicillium species, were examined. The filtrate of both the single culture of Penicillium and the coculture of Penicillium and Pyt. vexans showed antifungal activity against Pyt. vexans. In a coculture with Pyt. vexans, Pen. cyaneum produced an antifungal compound (patulin) as in the single culture. Pen. damascenum cocultured with Pyt. vexans produced an antifungal compound (citrinin), as it did in the single culture and in larger amounts on day 10. Pen. implicatum produced two antifungal compounds, frequentin and palitantin, and the ratio of frequentin (with higher antifungal activity than palitantin) to palitantin was higher in the coculture with Pyt. vexans than in the single culture. Our results indicate that these Penicillium species have the ability to produce antifungal compounds and to keep anti-fungal activity under competitive condition with Pyt. vexans. The chemical response of these Penicillium species to Pyt. vexans may contribute to protect P. glehnii seedlings from damage by Pyt. vexans. PMID:16124252

  9. Functional Diversity of Photosynthetic Light Use of 16 Vascular Epiphyte Species Under Fluctuating Irradiance in the Canopy of a Giant Virola michelii (Myristicaceae) Tree in the Tropical Lowland Forest of French Guyana

    PubMed Central

    Rascher, Uwe; Freiberg, Martin; Lüttge, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    Here we present the first study, in which a large number of different vascular epiphyte species were measured for their photosynthetic performance in the natural environment of their phorophyte in the lowland rainforest of French Guyana. More than 70 epiphyte species covered the host tree in a dense cover. Of these, the photosynthesis of 16 abundant species was analyzed intensely over several months. Moreover, the light environment was characterized with newly developed light sensors that recorded continuously and with high temporal resolution light intensity next to the epiphytes. Light intensity was highly fluctuating and showed great site specific spatio-temporal variations of photosynthetic photon flux. Using a novel computer routine we quantified the integrated light intensity the epiphytes were exposed to in a 3 h window and we related this light intensity to measurements of the actual photosynthetic status. It could be shown that the photosynthetic apparatus of the epiphytes was well adapted to the quickly changing light conditions. Some of the epiphytes were chronically photoinhibited at predawn and significant acute photoinhibition, expressed by a reduction of potential quantum efficiency (Fv/Fm)30′, was observed during the day. By correlating (Fv/Fm)30′ to the integrated and weighted light intensity perceived during the previous 3 h, it became clear that acute photoinhibition was related to light environment prior to the measurements. Additionally photosynthetic performance was not determined by rain events, with the exception of an Aechmea species. This holds true for all the other 15 species of this study and we thus conclude that actual photosynthesis of these tropical epiphytes was determined by the specific and fluctuating light conditions of their microhabitat and cannot be simply attributed to light-adapted ancestors. PMID:22629271

  10. Forests Regenerating after Clear-Cutting Function as Habitat for Bryophyte and Lichen Species of Conservation Concern

    PubMed Central

    Rudolphi, Jörgen; Gustafsson, Lena

    2011-01-01

    The majority of managed forests in Fennoscandia are younger than 70 years old but yet little is known about their potential to host rare and threatened species. In this study, we examined red-listed bryophytes and lichens in 19 young stands originating from clear-cutting (30–70 years old) in the boreal region, finding 19 red-listed species (six bryophytes and 13 lichens). We used adjoining old stands, which most likely never had been clear-cut, as reference. The old stands contained significantly more species, but when taking the amount of biological legacies (i.e., remaining deciduous trees and dead wood) from the previous forest generation into account, bryophyte species number did not differ between old and young stands, and lichen number was even higher in young stands. No dispersal effect could be detected from the old to the young stands. The amount of wetlands in the surroundings was important for bryophytes, as was the area of old forest for both lichens and bryophytes. A cardinal position of young stands to the north of old stands was beneficial to red-listed bryophytes as well as lichens. We conclude that young forest plantations may function as habitat for red-listed species, but that this depends on presence of structures from the previous forest generation, and also on qualities in the surrounding landscape. Nevertheless, at repeated clear-cuttings, a successive decrease in species populations in young production stands is likely, due to increased fragmentation and reduced substrate amounts. Retention of dead wood and deciduous trees might be efficient conservation measures. Although priority needs to be given to preservation of remnant old-growth forests, we argue that young forests rich in biological legacies and located in landscapes with high amounts of old forests may have a conservation value. PMID:21490926

  11. Forests regenerating after clear-cutting function as habitat for bryophyte and lichen species of conservation concern.

    PubMed

    Rudolphi, Jörgen; Gustafsson, Lena

    2011-01-01

    The majority of managed forests in Fennoscandia are younger than 70 years old but yet little is known about their potential to host rare and threatened species. In this study, we examined red-listed bryophytes and lichens in 19 young stands originating from clear-cutting (30-70 years old) in the boreal region, finding 19 red-listed species (six bryophytes and 13 lichens). We used adjoining old stands, which most likely never had been clear-cut, as reference. The old stands contained significantly more species, but when taking the amount of biological legacies (i.e., remaining deciduous trees and dead wood) from the previous forest generation into account, bryophyte species number did not differ between old and young stands, and lichen number was even higher in young stands. No dispersal effect could be detected from the old to the young stands. The amount of wetlands in the surroundings was important for bryophytes, as was the area of old forest for both lichens and bryophytes. A cardinal position of young stands to the north of old stands was beneficial to red-listed bryophytes as well as lichens. We conclude that young forest plantations may function as habitat for red-listed species, but that this depends on presence of structures from the previous forest generation, and also on qualities in the surrounding landscape. Nevertheless, at repeated clear-cuttings, a successive decrease in species populations in young production stands is likely, due to increased fragmentation and reduced substrate amounts. Retention of dead wood and deciduous trees might be efficient conservation measures. Although priority needs to be given to preservation of remnant old-growth forests, we argue that young forests rich in biological legacies and located in landscapes with high amounts of old forests may have a conservation value.

  12. Testing "species pair" hypotheses: evolutionary processes in the lichen-forming species complex Porpidia flavocoerulescens and Porpidia melinodes.

    PubMed

    Buschbom, Jutta; Mueller, Gregory M

    2006-03-01

    Pairs of taxa are commonly found in lichen-forming ascomycetes that differ primarily in their reproductive modes: one taxon reproduces sexually, the other vegetatively. The evolutionary processes underlying such "species pairs" are unknown. The species pair formed by Porpidia flavocoerulescens (sexual) and Porpidia melinodes (vegetative) was chosen to investigate four previously proposed hypotheses. These hypotheses posit that species pairs are either two monophyletic, independently evolving species with contrasting reproductive mode; a single outcrossing species polymorphic with regard to its reproductive modes; a sexual mother lineage frequently giving rise to asexual spin-offs; or a complex of cryptic species. The phylogenetic patterns observed within the species pair in the present study were analyzed using stringent hypothesis testing and visualizations of relationships and conflict based on tree and network reconstructions. DNA sequences at the three analyzed loci revealed the same four to five deeply divergent lineages. A detailed analysis of DNA-sequence variability revealed closely linked gene loci, but high levels of conflict within each of the gene fragments, as well as between observed genetic lineages. The observed patterns of phylogenetic relationships, linkage, and conflict are not congruent with any of the previously proposed species pair hypotheses. Rather, it is proposed that the observed results can be explained by conflicting reproductive and nutritional requirements imposed by an obligate symbiotic lifestyle. These interacting constraints produce recurring selective sweeps within predominantly vegetatively reproducing lineages and are the main forces that shape the evolution within the investigated species pair.

  13. Changes in bryophyte and lichen communities on Scots pines along an alkaline dust pollution gradient.

    PubMed

    Degtjarenko, Polina; Marmor, Liis; Randlane, Tiina

    2016-09-01

    Dust pollution can cause a significant damage of environment and endanger human health. Our study aimed to investigate epiphytic lichens and bryophytes in relation to long-term alkaline dust pollution and provide new insights into the bioindicators of dust pollution. We measured the bark pH of Scots pines and the species richness and cover of two cryptogam groups in 32 sample plots in the vicinity of limestone quarries (up to ca. 3 km) in northern Estonia. The bark pH decreased gradually with increasing distance from quarries. We recorded the changes in natural epiphytic communities, resulting in diversified artificial communities on pines near the pollution source; the distance over 2 km from the quarries was sufficient to re-establish the normal acidity of the bark and natural communities of both lichens and bryophytes. The cover of lichens and the number of bryophytes are a more promising indicator of environmental conditions than individual species occurrence. We confirmed previously proposed and suggested new bioindicator species of dust pollution (e.g., Lecidella elaeochroma, Opegrapha varia, Schistidium apocarpum). Limestone quarrying activity revealed a "parapositive" impact on cryptogamic communities, meaning that quarrying might, besides disturbances of natural communities, temporarily contribute to the distribution of locally rare species. PMID:27230146

  14. Changes in bryophyte and lichen communities on Scots pines along an alkaline dust pollution gradient.

    PubMed

    Degtjarenko, Polina; Marmor, Liis; Randlane, Tiina

    2016-09-01

    Dust pollution can cause a significant damage of environment and endanger human health. Our study aimed to investigate epiphytic lichens and bryophytes in relation to long-term alkaline dust pollution and provide new insights into the bioindicators of dust pollution. We measured the bark pH of Scots pines and the species richness and cover of two cryptogam groups in 32 sample plots in the vicinity of limestone quarries (up to ca. 3 km) in northern Estonia. The bark pH decreased gradually with increasing distance from quarries. We recorded the changes in natural epiphytic communities, resulting in diversified artificial communities on pines near the pollution source; the distance over 2 km from the quarries was sufficient to re-establish the normal acidity of the bark and natural communities of both lichens and bryophytes. The cover of lichens and the number of bryophytes are a more promising indicator of environmental conditions than individual species occurrence. We confirmed previously proposed and suggested new bioindicator species of dust pollution (e.g., Lecidella elaeochroma, Opegrapha varia, Schistidium apocarpum). Limestone quarrying activity revealed a "parapositive" impact on cryptogamic communities, meaning that quarrying might, besides disturbances of natural communities, temporarily contribute to the distribution of locally rare species.

  15. Biological effects of ammonia released from a composting plant assessed with lichens.

    PubMed

    Paoli, L; Benesperi, R; Proietti Pannunzi, D; Corsini, A; Loppi, Stefano

    2014-05-01

    In this study, we investigated whether ammonia emissions from industrial composting of organic waste may influence the surrounding environment, using lichens as bioindicators. To this purpose, samples of N-tolerant and N-sensitive lichens, namely Xanthoria parietina and Evernia prunastri, were transplanted for 1-3 months along transects at increasing distance (0-400 m) from a composting facility in Tuscany, Italy. Atmospheric concentrations of ammonia were measured using passive samplers. The physiological response of lichen transplants was investigated by means of the photosynthetic efficiency (measured as chlorophyll a fluorescence emission), the integrity of cell membranes (measured as electrolyte leakage), and sample viability (measured as enzymatic activity of dehydrogenase). Epiphytic lichen communities were investigated using biodiversity indices. The results showed decreasing concentrations of ammonia, from 48.7 μg/m(3) at the composting facility to 2.7 μg/m(3) at 400 m. The N-tolerant X. parietina was not affected and some physiological parameters even showed a higher performance, while the N-sensitive E. prunastri showed a reduced performance with increasing atmospheric concentrations approaching the source. A shift from lichen communities composed by meso-acidophilous species (actual condition) to more nitrophilous communities in the near future, approaching the composting facility is suggested. It is concluded that lichens can provide useful data for decision-makers to establish correct science-based environmentally sustainable waste management policies.

  16. Genotype variation in bark texture drives lichen community assembly across multiple environments.

    PubMed

    Lamit, L J; Lau, M K; Naesborg, R Reese; Wojtowicz, T; Whitham, T G; Gehring, C A

    2015-04-01

    A major goal of community genetics is to understand the influence of genetic variation within a species on ecological communities. Although well-documented for some organisms, additional research is necessary to understand the relative and interactive effects of genotype and environment on biodiversity, identify mechanisms through which tree genotype influences communities, and connect this emerging field with existing themes in ecology. We employ an underutilized but ecologically significant group of organisms, epiphytic bark lichens, to understand the relative importance of Populus angustifolia (narrowleaf cottonwood) genotype and environment on associated organisms within the context of community assembly and host ontogeny. Several key findings emerged. (1) In a single common garden, tree genotype explained 18-33% and 51% of the variation in lichen community variables and rough bark cover, respectively. (2) Across replicated common gardens, tree genotype affected lichen species richness, total lichen cover, lichen species composition, and rough bark cover, whereas environment only influenced composition and there were no genotype by environment interactions. (3) Rough bark cover was positively correlated with total lichen cover and richness, and was associated with a shift in species composition; these patterns occurred with variation in rough bark cover among tree genotypes of the same age in common gardens and with increasing rough bark cover along a -40 year tree age gradient in a natural riparian stand. (4) In a common garden, 20-year-old parent trees with smooth bark had poorly developed lichen communities, similar to their 10-year-old ramets (root suckers) growing in close proximity, while parent trees with high rough bark cover had more developed communities than their ramets. These findings indicate that epiphytic lichens are influenced by host genotype, an effect that is robust across divergent environments. Furthermore, the response to tree genotype is

  17. Genotype variation in bark texture drives lichen community assembly across multiple environments.

    PubMed

    Lamit, L J; Lau, M K; Naesborg, R Reese; Wojtowicz, T; Whitham, T G; Gehring, C A

    2015-04-01

    A major goal of community genetics is to understand the influence of genetic variation within a species on ecological communities. Although well-documented for some organisms, additional research is necessary to understand the relative and interactive effects of genotype and environment on biodiversity, identify mechanisms through which tree genotype influences communities, and connect this emerging field with existing themes in ecology. We employ an underutilized but ecologically significant group of organisms, epiphytic bark lichens, to understand the relative importance of Populus angustifolia (narrowleaf cottonwood) genotype and environment on associated organisms within the context of community assembly and host ontogeny. Several key findings emerged. (1) In a single common garden, tree genotype explained 18-33% and 51% of the variation in lichen community variables and rough bark cover, respectively. (2) Across replicated common gardens, tree genotype affected lichen species richness, total lichen cover, lichen species composition, and rough bark cover, whereas environment only influenced composition and there were no genotype by environment interactions. (3) Rough bark cover was positively correlated with total lichen cover and richness, and was associated with a shift in species composition; these patterns occurred with variation in rough bark cover among tree genotypes of the same age in common gardens and with increasing rough bark cover along a -40 year tree age gradient in a natural riparian stand. (4) In a common garden, 20-year-old parent trees with smooth bark had poorly developed lichen communities, similar to their 10-year-old ramets (root suckers) growing in close proximity, while parent trees with high rough bark cover had more developed communities than their ramets. These findings indicate that epiphytic lichens are influenced by host genotype, an effect that is robust across divergent environments. Furthermore, the response to tree genotype is

  18. Origin and distribution of rare earth elements in various lichen and moss species over the last century in France.

    PubMed

    Agnan, Y; Séjalon-Delmas, N; Probst, A

    2014-07-15

    Rare earth elements (REE) are known to be powerful environmental tracers in natural biogeochemical compartments. In this study, the atmospheric deposition of REE was investigated using various lichens and mosses as well as herbarium samples from 1870 to 1998 from six major forested areas in France. The comparison between the REE distribution patterns in organisms and bedrocks showed a regional uniformity influence from dust particles originating from the bedrock and/or soil weathering that were entrapped by lichens and mosses. These lithological signatures were consistent over the last century. The REE patterns of different organism species allowed minor influence of the species to be highlighted compared to the regional lithology. This was even true where the morphological features played a role in the bioaccumulation levels, which were related to the variable efficiency in trapping atmospheric dust particles. A comparison between REE profiles in the organisms and bark indicated a lack of influence of the substrate on lichen REE content. Lichens and mosses appear to be robust passive monitors of REE atmospheric deposition over decades because the mineral data was preserved in herbarium samples despite organic degradation being shown by carbon isotopes and SEM observations. To overcome the bias of REE concentration that resulted from organic degradation, the use of a normalized method is recommended to interpret the historical samples.

  19. Lichen specific thallus mass and secondary compounds change across a retrogressive fire-driven chronosequence.

    PubMed

    Asplund, Johan; Sandling, Aron; Wardle, David A

    2012-01-01

    In the long-term absence of major disturbances ecosystems enter a state of retrogression, which involves declining soil fertility and consequently a reduction in decomposition rates. Recent studies have looked at how plant traits such as specific leaf mass and amounts of secondary compounds respond to declining soil fertility during retrogression, but there are no comparable studies for lichen traits despite increasing recognition of the role that lichens can play in ecosystem processes. We studied a group of 30 forested islands in northern Sweden differing greatly in fire history, and collectively representing a retrogressive chronosequence, spanning 5000 years. We used this system to explore how specific thallus mass (STM) and carbon based secondary compounds (CBSCs) change in three common epiphytic lichen species (Hypogymnia phsyodes, Melanohalea olivacea and Parmelia sulcata) as soil fertility declines during this retrogression. We found that STMs of lichens increased sharply during retrogression, and for all species soil N to P ratio (which increased during retrogression) was a strong predictor of STM. When expressed per unit area, medullary CBSCs in all species and cortical CBSCs in P. sulcata increased during retrogression. Meanwhile, when expressed per unit mass, only cortical CBSCs in H. physodes responded to retrogression, and in the opposite direction. Given that lichen functional traits are likely to be important in driving ecological processes that drive nutrient and carbon cycling in the way that plant functional traits are, the changes that they undergo during retrogression could potentially be significant for the functioning of the ecosystem.

  20. Lichen Specific Thallus Mass and Secondary Compounds Change across a Retrogressive Fire-Driven Chronosequence

    PubMed Central

    Asplund, Johan; Sandling, Aron; Wardle, David A.

    2012-01-01

    In the long-term absence of major disturbances ecosystems enter a state of retrogression, which involves declining soil fertility and consequently a reduction in decomposition rates. Recent studies have looked at how plant traits such as specific leaf mass and amounts of secondary compounds respond to declining soil fertility during retrogression, but there are no comparable studies for lichen traits despite increasing recognition of the role that lichens can play in ecosystem processes. We studied a group of 30 forested islands in northern Sweden differing greatly in fire history, and collectively representing a retrogressive chronosequence, spanning 5000 years. We used this system to explore how specific thallus mass (STM) and carbon based secondary compounds (CBSCs) change in three common epiphytic lichen species (Hypogymnia phsyodes, Melanohalea olivacea and Parmelia sulcata) as soil fertility declines during this retrogression. We found that STMs of lichens increased sharply during retrogression, and for all species soil N to P ratio (which increased during retrogression) was a strong predictor of STM. When expressed per unit area, medullary CBSCs in all species and cortical CBSCs in P. sulcata increased during retrogression. Meanwhile, when expressed per unit mass, only cortical CBSCs in H. physodes responded to retrogression, and in the opposite direction. Given that lichen functional traits are likely to be important in driving ecological processes that drive nutrient and carbon cycling in the way that plant functional traits are, the changes that they undergo during retrogression could potentially be significant for the functioning of the ecosystem. PMID:23145078

  1. Epiphytism and pollinator specialization: drivers for orchid diversity?

    PubMed Central

    Gravendeel, Barbara; Smithson, Ann; Slik, Ferry J W; Schuiteman, Andre

    2004-01-01

    Epiphytes are a characteristic component of tropical rainforests. Out of the 25,000 orchid species currently known to science, more than 70% live in tree canopies. Understanding when and how these orchids diversified is vital to understanding the history of epiphytic biomes. We investigated whether orchids managed to radiate so explosively owing to their predominantly epiphytic habit and/or their specialized pollinator systems by testing these hypotheses from a statistical and phylogenetic standpoint. For the first approach, species numbers of 100 randomly chosen epiphytic and terrestrial genera were compared. Furthermore, the mean number of pollinators per orchid species within the five subfamilies was calculated and correlated with their time of diversification and species richness. In the second approach, molecular epiphytic orchid phylogenies were screened for clades with specific suites of epiphytic adaptations. Epiphytic genera were found to be significantly richer in species than terrestrial genera both for orchids and non-orchids. No evidence was found for a positive association between pollinator specialization and orchid species richness. Repeated associations between a small body size, short life cycle and specialized clinging roots of twig epiphytes in Bulbophyllinae and Oncidiinae were discovered. The development of twig epiphytism in the first group seems repeatedly correlated with speciation bursts. PMID:15519970

  2. Who's getting around? Assessing species diversity and phylogeography in the widely distributed lichen-forming fungal genus Montanelia (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota).

    PubMed

    Leavitt, Steven D; Divakar, Pradeep K; Ohmura, Yoshihito; Wang, Li-Song; Esslinger, Theodore L; Lumbsch, H Thorsten

    2015-09-01

    Brown parmelioid lichens comprise a number of distinct genera in one of the most species-rich families of lichen-forming fungi, Parmeliaceae (Ascomycota). In spite of their superficial similarity, a number of studies of brown parmelioids have provided important insight into diversification in lichen-forming fungi with cosmopolitan distributions. In this study we assess species diversity, biogeography and diversification of the genus Montanelia, which includes alpine to temperate saxicolous species. We sampled each of the five known species, four of which are known from broad, intercontinental distributions. In order to identify potential biogeographical patterns, each broadly distributed species was represented by individuals collected across their intercontinental distributions. Molecular sequence data were generated for six loci, including three nuclear protein-coding markers (MCM7, RPB1, and RPB2), two nuclear ribosomal markers (ITS and nrLSU), and a fragment of the mitochondrial small subunit. We used three sequence-based species delimitations methods to validate traditional, phenotype-based species and circumscribe previously unrecognized species-level lineages in Montanelia. Relationships among putative lineages and divergence times were estimated within a coalescent-based multi-locus species tree framework. Based on the results of the species delimitation analyses, we propose that the genus Montanelia is likely comprised of six to nine species-level lineages, including previously unrecognized species-level diversity in the nominal taxa M. panniformis and M. tominii. In contrast, molecular sequence data suggest that M. predisjuncta may be conspecific with the widespread taxon M. disjuncta in spite of distinct morphological differences. The rate-based age estimation of the most recent common ancestor of Montanelia (ca. 23.1Ma) was similar to previous estimates based on the fossil record. Furthermore, our data suggest that diversification in Montanelia occurred

  3. Effects of tropical montane forest disturbance on epiphytic macrolichens.

    PubMed

    Benítez, Angel; Prieto, María; González, Yadira; Aragón, Gregorio

    2012-12-15

    The high diversity of epiphytes typical of undisturbed montane tropical forests has been negatively affected by continuous deforestation and forest conversion to secondary vegetation. Macrolichens are an important component of these epiphytes. Because their physiology is strongly coupled to humidity and solar radiation, we hypothesized that microclimatic changes derived from forest clearing and logging can affect the diversity of these poikilohydric organisms. In southern Ecuador, we examined three types of forests according to a disturbance gradient (primary forests, secondary forests, and monospecific forests of Alnus acuminata) for the presence/absence and coverage of epiphytic macrolichens that we identified on 240 trees. We found that total richness tended to decrease when the range of the disturbance increased. The impoverishment was particularly drastic for "shade-adapted lichens", while the richness of "heliophytic lichens" increased in the drier conditions of secondary growth. Epiphytic composition also differed significantly among the three types of forests, and the similarity decreased when the range of the disturbance was greater. We concluded that a span of 40 years of recovery by secondary vegetation was not enough to regenerate the diversity of epiphytic macrolichens that was lost due to forest disturbances. PMID:23137982

  4. Sunscreening fungal pigments influence the vertical gradient of pendulous lichens in boreal forest canopies.

    PubMed

    Färber, Leonie; Sølhaug, Knut Asbjorn; Esseen, Per-Anders; Bilger, Wolfgang; Gauslaa, Yngvar

    2014-06-01

    Pendulous lichens dominate canopies of boreal forests, with dark Bryoria species in the upper canopy vs. light Alectoria and Usnea species in lower canopy. These genera offer important ecosystem services such as winter forage for reindeer and caribou. The mechanism behind this niche separation is poorly understood. We tested the hypothesis that species-specific sunscreening fungal pigments protect underlying symbiotic algae differently against high light, and thus shape the vertical canopy gradient of epiphytes. Three pale species with the reflecting pigment usnic acid (Alectoria sarmentosa, Usnea dasypoga, U. longissima) and three with dark, absorbing melanins (Bryoria capillaris, B. fremontii, B. fuscescens) were compared. We subjected the lichens to desiccation stress with and without light, and assessed their performance with chlorophyll fluorescence. Desiccation alone only affected U. longissima. By contrast, light in combination with desiccation caused photoinhibitory damage in all species. Usnic lichens were significantly more susceptible to light during desiccation than melanic ones. Thus, melanin is a more efficient light-screening pigment than usnic acid. Thereby, the vertical gradient of pendulous lichens in forest canopies is consistent with a shift in type and functioning of sunscreening pigments, from high-light-tolerant Bryoria in the upper to susceptible Alectoria and Usnea in the lower canopy.

  5. Study on accumulation ability of two lichen species Hypogymnia physodes and Usnea hirta at iron-steel factory site, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Cansaran-Duman, Demet

    2011-11-01

    The use of biological responses to contaminant exposure by lichen species has become a useful tool in environmental quality evaluation and risk assesment. Lichen Hypogymnia physodes and Usnea hirta samples were collected in 2006 from 10 sites around iron-steel factory in Karabük, Turkey. H. physodes and U. hirta samples from Yenice forest were used as a control. The aim of present study was to evaluate the bioaccumulation ability and to determine the environmental impact of an iron-steel factory in Karabük. Seven elements (Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe, Pb, Ni, Cr and Cd) were analysed by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). The analytical results were compared statistically by using SPSS. As expected, the study area (Yenice forest, Karabük) chosen as control site (site no 11) showed significantly lower impact in comparison to other site (site no 1-10). Compared with the two lichen species, H. physodes showed highest metal accumulating capacity while U. hirta showed lowest. These criteria attested the best suitability for H. physodes, followed by U. hirta.

  6. Susceptibility to acidic precipitation contributes to the decline of the terricolous lichens Cetraria aculeata and Cetraria islandica in central Europe.

    PubMed

    Hauck, Markus

    2008-04-01

    The effective quantum yield of photochemical energy conversion in photosystem II (Phi2) was shown to be reduced in the terricolous lichens Cetraria aculeata and Cetraria islandica by short-term exposure to aqueous SO2 at pH values occurring in the precipitation of areas with high SO2 pollution. Significant reduction of Phi2 was found at pHepiphytic lichens in the past) has contributed to the decline of both species in central Europe. In C. islandica, but not in C. aculeata, thalli with the natural content of lichen substances were more tolerant to SO2 than thalli where the extracellular lichen substances were extracted before the experiment. This supports published results that the depsidone fumarprotocetraric acid, a major lichen substance of C. islandica, increases the pollution tolerance in lichens.

  7. [Phorophyte specificity and microenvironmental preferences of corticolous lichens in five phorophyte species from premontane forest of Finca Zíngara, Cali, Colombia)].

    PubMed

    Medina, Edier Soto; Lücking, Robert; Rojas, Ana Bolañios

    2012-06-01

    Lichenized fungi or lichens are organisms that have been little studied in the tropics and which distribution is affected by microenvironmental factors and substrate characteristics. The present study aimed to identify phorophyte specificity and microenvironmental preferences of corticolous lichens in five phorophyte species from premontane forest of the farm Finca Zingara in Cali, Colombia. For this, five individuals were selected from five tree species (phorophytes). Lichen species present in a 0.50x0.20m2 quadrant located in the trunk of each tree at a height of 1.3m were identified. Substrate parameters such as bark pH, Diameter Breast Height (DBH) and bark structure were measured. Also, microenvironmental factors including temperature, humidity and irradiance were determined. In order to detect phorophyte preferences, a non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMS) and indicator species analysis were made. Spearman correlation analysis was used to assert the relationship between environmental variables and groupings found in the NMS. A total of 69 species of lichens were found, of which 37 were identified to species, 18 to genera and 14 were not determined because they were sterile or had no spores. NMS showed that some individuals of the same tree species were grouped alongside the analysis dimensions, and they were related with the factors of light intensity, temperature and DBH. Only three lichens with preference for certain tree species were found (Arthonia microsperma by Meriania sp., Cladonia ceratophylla and sorediado 8 by Clusia sp.), suggesting absence of phorophyte preferences. Thus, it can be concluded that lichens from the study area do not show phorophyte preference, but their distribution is affected by light, temperature and DBH.

  8. [Phorophyte specificity and microenvironmental preferences of corticolous lichens in five phorophyte species from premontane forest of Finca Zíngara, Cali, Colombia)].

    PubMed

    Medina, Edier Soto; Lücking, Robert; Rojas, Ana Bolañios

    2012-06-01

    Lichenized fungi or lichens are organisms that have been little studied in the tropics and which distribution is affected by microenvironmental factors and substrate characteristics. The present study aimed to identify phorophyte specificity and microenvironmental preferences of corticolous lichens in five phorophyte species from premontane forest of the farm Finca Zingara in Cali, Colombia. For this, five individuals were selected from five tree species (phorophytes). Lichen species present in a 0.50x0.20m2 quadrant located in the trunk of each tree at a height of 1.3m were identified. Substrate parameters such as bark pH, Diameter Breast Height (DBH) and bark structure were measured. Also, microenvironmental factors including temperature, humidity and irradiance were determined. In order to detect phorophyte preferences, a non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMS) and indicator species analysis were made. Spearman correlation analysis was used to assert the relationship between environmental variables and groupings found in the NMS. A total of 69 species of lichens were found, of which 37 were identified to species, 18 to genera and 14 were not determined because they were sterile or had no spores. NMS showed that some individuals of the same tree species were grouped alongside the analysis dimensions, and they were related with the factors of light intensity, temperature and DBH. Only three lichens with preference for certain tree species were found (Arthonia microsperma by Meriania sp., Cladonia ceratophylla and sorediado 8 by Clusia sp.), suggesting absence of phorophyte preferences. Thus, it can be concluded that lichens from the study area do not show phorophyte preference, but their distribution is affected by light, temperature and DBH. PMID:23894950

  9. Preliminary assessment of terrestrial microalgae isolated from lichens as testing species for environmental monitoring: lichen phycobionts present high sensitivity to environmental micropollutants.

    PubMed

    Domínguez-Morueco, N; Moreno, H; Barreno, E; Catalá, M

    2014-01-01

    Bioassays constitute a tool for pollution analysis providing a holistic approach and high-quality indication of the toxicity. Microbioassays allow evaluating the toxicity of many samples, implying lower costs and enabling routine monitoring and pollution control. But tests conducted so far are limited to the use of a small number of taxa. Lichens are excellent bioindicators of pollution with great ecological significance. Studies show that the phycobiont is more sensitive to pollutants than the mycobiont. Phycobiont have features such as adaptation to anhydrobiosis and relatively rapid growth in vitro, making them suitable for microbioassays. Our aim is to determine the sensitivity of phycobionts to the pharmaceutical micropollutants carbamazepine and diclofenac as a preliminary step for the development of a toxicity microbioassay based on phycobionts. Optical dispersion and chlorophyll autofluorescence were used as endpoints of toxicity on two algal species showing that suspensions present cyclic and taxon specific patterns of aggregation. Trebouxia TR9 suspensions present a very high grade of aggregation while Asterochloris erici cells do not. Both micropollutants alter optical properties of the suspensions of both species. No significant alteration of chlorophyll autofluorescence by carbamazepine is observed. A. erici chlorophyll autofluorescence is extremely sensitive to diclofenac but the effect is not dependent on the drug concentration or on the time of exposure. Differently, TR9 only shows punctual chlorophyll alterations. Fluctuations in optical dispersion may indicate changes in the population structure of the species, including reproductive strategy. A. erici seems more sensitive to micropollutants, is better characterized and is available from commercial collections.

  10. Recombination and clonal propagation in different populations of the lichen Lobaria pulmonaria.

    PubMed

    Walser, J-C; Gugerli, F; Holderegger, R; Kuonen, D; Scheidegger, C

    2004-10-01

    Propagation, dispersal, and establishment are fundamental population processes, and are critical stages in the life cycle of an organism. In symbiotic organisms such as lichens, consisting of a fungus and a population of photobionts, reproduction is a complex process. Although many lichens are able to reproduce both sexually and asexually, the extent of vegetative propagation within local populations is unknown. We used six polymorphic microsatellite loci to investigate whether recombination is common in natural populations, and to assess if and how clonal reproduction influences the spatial genetic structure within populations of the epiphytic lichen species Lobaria pulmonaria. High genetic diversity within all 12 investigated populations and evidence of recombination, from various tests, indicated that L. pulmonaria is a predominantly outcrossing species. Nevertheless, clonality occurred in all populations, but the presence of recurring multilocus genotypes influenced the spatial genetic structure only within low-density populations. This could be interpreted as indicative of genetic bottlenecks owing to increased habitat loss and disturbance. Consequently, for a predominantly outcrossing lichen species, exogenous factors might be substantially altering population processes and hence genetic structure.

  11. Chemical element concentrations in four lichens on a transect entering Voyageurs National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, J.; Wetmore, C.M.

    1997-01-01

    A three factor transect study was conducted to test the hypothesis that chemical elements from air emissions in the vicinity of International Falls, Minnesota could not be detected in lichens along a 24 km transect reaching into Voyageurs National Park. It was hypothesized that element concentrations in lichens would decline exponentially downwind and would reach background values at a distance before the park boundary. Four species (Cladina rangiferina, Evernia mesomorpha, Hypogymnia physodes, and Parmelia sulcata) were sampled at ten sites for 3 years and 17 chemical elements were measured. The most notable result was a curvilinear geographic trend for many elements, which decreased from International Falls and then increased towards the park. This trend was significant for many anthropogenic elements, including S, Hg, Cd, and Cr, and for all four species. This type of distribution pattern has been observed in Hypogymnia physodes in other studies downwind of a steel mill and an oil refinery. Cladina, a ground-dwelling lichen, generally had lower tissue concentrations of the elements than the three epiphytic species. Tissue concentrations over the 3 years of sampling declined an average of 12%. Sufficient evidence exists to conclude that lichen tissue element concentrations in the vicinity of International Falls may be related to local air emissions, and that an exponential decline of element concentrations downwind of the sources does not apply to this situation.

  12. Preliminary assessment of terrestrial microalgae isolated from lichens as testing species for environmental monitoring: lichen phycobionts present high sensitivity to environmental micropollutants.

    PubMed

    Domínguez-Morueco, N; Moreno, H; Barreno, E; Catalá, M

    2014-01-01

    Bioassays constitute a tool for pollution analysis providing a holistic approach and high-quality indication of the toxicity. Microbioassays allow evaluating the toxicity of many samples, implying lower costs and enabling routine monitoring and pollution control. But tests conducted so far are limited to the use of a small number of taxa. Lichens are excellent bioindicators of pollution with great ecological significance. Studies show that the phycobiont is more sensitive to pollutants than the mycobiont. Phycobiont have features such as adaptation to anhydrobiosis and relatively rapid growth in vitro, making them suitable for microbioassays. Our aim is to determine the sensitivity of phycobionts to the pharmaceutical micropollutants carbamazepine and diclofenac as a preliminary step for the development of a toxicity microbioassay based on phycobionts. Optical dispersion and chlorophyll autofluorescence were used as endpoints of toxicity on two algal species showing that suspensions present cyclic and taxon specific patterns of aggregation. Trebouxia TR9 suspensions present a very high grade of aggregation while Asterochloris erici cells do not. Both micropollutants alter optical properties of the suspensions of both species. No significant alteration of chlorophyll autofluorescence by carbamazepine is observed. A. erici chlorophyll autofluorescence is extremely sensitive to diclofenac but the effect is not dependent on the drug concentration or on the time of exposure. Differently, TR9 only shows punctual chlorophyll alterations. Fluctuations in optical dispersion may indicate changes in the population structure of the species, including reproductive strategy. A. erici seems more sensitive to micropollutants, is better characterized and is available from commercial collections. PMID:24183288

  13. Geothermal chemical elements in lichens of Yellowstone National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, J.P.; Wetmore, C.M.

    1999-01-01

    Geothermal features (e.g. geysers, fumaroles, vents, and springs) emit gaseous mercury, sulfur and heavy metals and therefore, are natural sources of these elements in the atmosphere. Field studies of heavy metals in lichens in Italy have detected elevated concentrations near geothermal power plants, and have determined that the origin of mercury is from soil degassing, not soil particles. We studied this phenomenon in a geothermal area without power plants to determine the natural levels of mercury and other elements. Two common and abundant species of epiphytic Lichens, Bryoria fremontii and Letharia vulpina, were collected at six localities in Yellowstone National Park, USA in 1998 and analyzed for 22 chemical elements. Thirteen elements differed significantly between species. Some elements were significantly higher in the southern part of the park, while others were higher in the north. Levels of most elements were comparable with those in other national parks and wilderness areas in the region, except Hg, which was unusually high. The most likely sources of this element are the geothermal features, which are known emitters of Hg. Multivariate analyses revealed strong positive associations of Hg with S, and negative associations with soil elements, providing strong evidence that the Hg in the lichens is the result of soil degassing of elemental Hg rather than particulate Hg directly from soils. Average Hg levels in the lichens were 140 p.p.b. in Bryoria and 110 p.p.b. in Letharia, but maxima were 291 and 243 p.p.b., respectively. In spite of this, both species were healthy and abundant throughout the park.

  14. MASS LOSS AND NITROGEN DYNAMICS DURING THE DECOMPOSITION OF A N-LABELED N2-FIXING EPOPHYTIC LICHEN, LOBARIA OREGANA (TUCK.) MULL. ARG.

    EPA Science Inventory

    We studied mass loss and nitrogen dynamics during fall and spring initiated decomposition of an N2-fixing epiphytic lichen, Lobaria oregana (Tuck.) Mull. Arg. using 15N. We developed a method of labeling lichens with 15N that involved spraying lichen material with a nutrient sol...

  15. Structure of the Epiphyte Community in a Tropical Montane Forest in SW China

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Mingxu; Geekiyanage, Nalaka; Xu, Jianchu; Khin, Myo Myo; Nurdiana, Dian Ridwan; Paudel, Ekananda; Harrison, Rhett Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Vascular epiphytes are an understudied and particularly important component of tropical forest ecosystems. However, owing to the difficulties of access, little is known about the properties of epiphyte-host tree communities and the factors structuring them, especially in Asia. We investigated factors structuring the vascular epiphyte-host community and its network properties in a tropical montane forest in Xishuangbanna, SW China. Vascular epiphytes were surveyed in six plots located in mature forests. Six host and four micro-site environmental factors were investigated. Epiphyte diversity was strongly correlated with host size (DBH, diameter at breast height), while within hosts the highest epiphyte diversity was in the middle canopy and epiphyte diversity was significantly higher in sites with canopy soil or a moss mat than on bare bark. DBH, elevation and stem height explained 22% of the total variation in the epiphyte species assemblage among hosts, and DBH was the most important factor which alone explained 6% of the variation. Within hosts, 51% of the variation in epiphyte assemblage composition was explained by canopy position and substrate, and the most important single factor was substrate which accounted for 16% of the variation. Analysis of network properties indicated that the epiphyte host community was highly nested, with a low level of epiphyte specialization, and an almost even interaction strength between epiphytes and host trees. Together, these results indicate that large trees harbor a substantial proportion of the epiphyte community in this forest. PMID:25856457

  16. Structure of the epiphyte community in a tropical montane forest in SW China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Mingxu; Geekiyanage, Nalaka; Xu, Jianchu; Khin, Myo Myo; Nurdiana, Dian Ridwan; Paudel, Ekananda; Harrison, Rhett Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Vascular epiphytes are an understudied and particularly important component of tropical forest ecosystems. However, owing to the difficulties of access, little is known about the properties of epiphyte-host tree communities and the factors structuring them, especially in Asia. We investigated factors structuring the vascular epiphyte-host community and its network properties in a tropical montane forest in Xishuangbanna, SW China. Vascular epiphytes were surveyed in six plots located in mature forests. Six host and four micro-site environmental factors were investigated. Epiphyte diversity was strongly correlated with host size (DBH, diameter at breast height), while within hosts the highest epiphyte diversity was in the middle canopy and epiphyte diversity was significantly higher in sites with canopy soil or a moss mat than on bare bark. DBH, elevation and stem height explained 22% of the total variation in the epiphyte species assemblage among hosts, and DBH was the most important factor which alone explained 6% of the variation. Within hosts, 51% of the variation in epiphyte assemblage composition was explained by canopy position and substrate, and the most important single factor was substrate which accounted for 16% of the variation. Analysis of network properties indicated that the epiphyte host community was highly nested, with a low level of epiphyte specialization, and an almost even interaction strength between epiphytes and host trees. Together, these results indicate that large trees harbor a substantial proportion of the epiphyte community in this forest. PMID:25856457

  17. Causes of change in nitrophytic and oligotrophic lichen species in a Mediterranean climate: impact of land cover and atmospheric pollutants.

    PubMed

    Pinho, P; Augusto, S; Martins-Loução, M A; Pereira, M J; Soares, A; Máguas, C; Branquinho, C

    2008-08-01

    With the aim of determining the main drivers of changes in nitrophytic and oligotrophic macro-lichen communities in an industrial region with a Mediterranean climate, we considered both land-cover types and atmospheric pollutants. We determined the relation between the abundance of nitrophytic and oligotrophic species with environmental factors considering the distance of influence of land-cover types. The results showed that oligotrophic species decreased in the proximity of artificial areas, barren land and agricultural areas, associated with higher concentrations of NO2 and Zn, and Ti, probably dust of industrial and agricultural origin. Nitrophytic species were positively related to all the mentioned land-cover types, and with higher concentrations of Fe and N. Magnesium, probably from ocean aerosols, was negatively related to oligotrophic species and positively to nitrophytic.

  18. Species-specific detection of Lobaria pulmonaria (lichenized ascomycete) diaspores in litter samples trapped in snow cover.

    PubMed

    Walser, J C; Zoller, S; Büchler, U; Scheidegger, C

    2001-09-01

    The foliose lichen Lobaria pulmonaria has suffered a substantial decline in central and northern Europe during the twentieth century and is now considered to be critically endangered in many European lowland regions. Based on demographic studies, it has been proposed that under the present environmental conditions and forest management regimes, dispersal of diaspores and subsequent establishment of new thalli are insufficient to maintain the remnant small lowland populations. Chances of long-term survival may therefore be reduced. The data and analytical power of these demographic studies are limited. Since lichen diaspores show very few species-specific morphological characteristics, and are therefore almost indistinguishable, the accurate assessment of diaspore flux would be a fundamental first step in better understanding the life cycle of L. pulmonaria. Here we present a new molecular approach to investigate the dispersal of L. pulmonaria diaspores in its natural environment by specifically identifying small amounts of DNA in snow litter samples at varying distances from known sources. We used a species-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primer pair to amplify the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region (ITS rDNA) and a sensitive automated PCR product detection system using fluorescent labelled primers. We detected considerable amounts of naturally dispersed diaspores, deposited as far as 50 m away from the closest potential source. Diaspores were only found in the direction of the prevailing wind. Diaspore deposition varied from 1.2 diaspores per m(2) per day at 50 m distance from the source to 15 diaspores per m(2) per day at 1 m distance. The method described in this paper opens up perspectives for studies of population dynamics and dispersal ecology mainly in lichenized ascomycetes but also in other organisms with small, wind-dispersed diaspores.

  19. Evidence for Isolation-by-Habitat among Populations of an Epiphytic Orchid Species on a Small Oceanic Island

    PubMed Central

    Mallet, Bertrand; Martos, Florent; Blambert, Laury; Pailler, Thierry; Humeau, Laurence

    2014-01-01

    Identifying factors that promote population differentiation is of interest for understanding the early stages of speciation. Gene flow among populations inhabiting different environments can be reduced by geographical distance (isolation-by-distance) or by divergent selection resulting from local adaptation (isolation-by-ecology). Few studies have investigated the influence of these factors in small oceanic islands where the influence of geographic distance is expected to be null but where habitat diversity could have a strong effect on population differentiation. In this study, we tested for the spatial divergence of phenotypes (floral morphology and floral scent) and genotypes (microsatellites) among ten populations of Jumellea rossii, an epiphytic orchid endemic to Réunion growing in three different habitats. We found a significant genetic differentiation between populations that is structured by habitat heterogeneity rather than by geographic distance between populations. These results suggest that ecological factors might reduce gene flow among populations located in different habitats. This pattern of isolation-by-habitat may be the result of both isolation-by-ecology by habitat filtering and asynchrony in flowering phenology. Furthermore, data on floral morphology match these findings, with multivariate analysis grouping populations by habitat type but could be only due to phenotypic plasticity. Indeed floral scent compounds were not significantly different between populations indicating that specific plant-pollinator mutualism does not seem to play a major role in the population differentiation of J. rossii. In conclusion, the results from our study emphasize the importance of habitat diversity of small oceanic islands as a factor of population differentiation. PMID:24498329

  20. Comparison between the accumulation capacity of four lichen species transplanted to a urban site.

    PubMed

    Bergamaschi, L; Rizzio, E; Giaveri, G; Loppi, S; Gallorini, M

    2007-07-01

    The capacity to accumulate trace elements from the atmosphere of the lichens Hypogymnia physodes, Parmelia sulcata, Pseudevernia furfuracea and Usnea gr. hirta transplanted to an urban site of N Italy was compared. Twenty-nine elements (Al, As, Br, Ca, Cd, Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Hg, I, K, La, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Th, Ti, V, Zn) were analyzed by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and Electro-Thermal Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (ET-AAS). The ratio between the concentrations of each element in exposed samples to that of control samples (exposed-to-control ratio and EC ratio) was used to investigate the accumulation rates of lichen thalli. The results showed that in general elements did not exhibit well defined trends, but rather showed fluctuations, and indicated that H. physodes, P. furfuracea and U. gr. hirta have a similar accumulation capacity, while that of P. sulcata is lower.

  1. The Lichen-GIS Project, Teaching Students How to Use Bioindicator Species to Assess Environmental Quality

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Stephen C.; McDonald, Darrel; Watson, Trey; Taylor, Josephine; Sowards, Alan B.

    2009-01-01

    A content-driven biology course for preservice K-8 teachers has been developed. This course uses the constructivist approach, where instructors engage students by organizing information around concept-based problems. To this end, a semester-long, inquiry-based project was introduced where students studied lichen populations on trees located on their campus to monitor air quality. Data were incorporated into a geographical information systems (GIS) database to demonstrate how it can be used to map communities. Student teams counted the number of each lichen type within a grid placed on each tree trunk sampled and entered this information into a GIS database. The students constructed maps of lichen populations at each sample site and wrote abstracts about their research. Student performance was assessed by the preparation of these abstracts as well as by scores on pre- and posttests of key content measures. Students also completed a survey to determine whether the project aided in their comprehension as well as their interest in incorporating this activity into their own curricula. The students’ pre- and posttest results showed an eightfold improvement in the total score after the semester project. Additionally, correct responses to each individual content measure increased by at least 35%. Total scores for the abstract ranged from 12 to 20 points out of 20 total points possible (60% to 100%), with a mean score of 15.8 points (78%). These results indicate that this exercise provided an excellent vehicle to teach students about lichens and their use as bioindicators and the application of geospatial technologies to map environmental data. PMID:23653685

  2. A new species of Phyllopsora (Lecanorales, lichen-forming Ascomycota) from Dominican amber, with remarks on the fossil history of lichens.

    PubMed

    Rikkinen, Jouko; Poinar, George O

    2008-01-01

    Phyllopsora dominicanus sp. nov. (Bacidiaceae, Lecanorales, lichen-forming Ascomycota) is described and illustrated from Dominican amber. The diagnostic features of the lichen include a minute subfolious thallus of lacinulate, ascending squamules, a well-developed upper cortex, and a net-like pseudocortex on the lower surface. The algal symbionts are unicellular green algae, forming a distinct layer immediately below the upper cortex. The fossil demonstrates that distinguishing features of Phyllopsora have remained unchanged for tens of millions of years. The fossil also provides the first detailed views of mycobiont-photobiont contacts in Tertiary green algal lichens. The mycobiont hyphae formed apical and intercalary appressoria by pressing closely against the photobiont cells. This indicates that a conserved maintenance of structure is also seen in the fine details of the fungal-algal interface.

  3. Effects of acute NH3 air pollution on N-sensitive and N-tolerant lichen species.

    PubMed

    Paoli, Luca; Maslaňáková, Ivana; Grassi, Alice; Bačkor, Martin; Loppi, Stefano

    2015-12-01

    Lichens are sensitive to the presence of ammonia (NH3) in the environment. However, in order to use them as reliable indicators in biomonitoring studies, it is necessary to establish unequivocally the occurrence of certain symptoms following the exposure to NH3 in the environment. In this paper, we simulated an episode of acute air pollution due to the release of NH3. The biological effects of acute air pollution by atmospheric NH3 have been investigated using N-sensitive (Flavoparmelia caperata) and N-tolerant (Xanthoria parietina) species. Lichen samples were exposed to ecologically relevant NH3 concentrations for 8 weeks, simulating three areas of impact: a control area (2 μg/m(3)), an area of intermediate impact (2-35 μg/m(3)) and an area of high impact (10-315 μg/m(3)), with a peak of pollution reached between the fourth and fifth week. Ammonia affected both the photobiont and the mycobiont in F. caperata, while in X. parietina only the photosynthetic performance of the photobiont was altered after exposure to the highest concentration. In the photobiont of F. caperata we recorded chlorophyll degradation as indicated by OD435/415 ratio, decrease of the photosynthetic performance (as reflected by the maximum quantum yield of primary photochemistry FV/FM and the performance index PIABS); in the mycobiont, ergosterol reduction, membrane lipid peroxidation (as reflected by the increase of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances), alteration (decrease) of the secondary metabolite usnic acid. No effects were detected on caperatic acid and dehydrogenase activity. In X. parietina, the only signal determined by NH3 was the alteration of FV/FM and the performance index PIABS. The results suggest that physiological parameters in N-sensitive lichens well reflect the effects of NH3 exposure and can be applied as early indicators in monitoring studies. PMID:26342688

  4. Effects of acute NH3 air pollution on N-sensitive and N-tolerant lichen species.

    PubMed

    Paoli, Luca; Maslaňáková, Ivana; Grassi, Alice; Bačkor, Martin; Loppi, Stefano

    2015-12-01

    Lichens are sensitive to the presence of ammonia (NH3) in the environment. However, in order to use them as reliable indicators in biomonitoring studies, it is necessary to establish unequivocally the occurrence of certain symptoms following the exposure to NH3 in the environment. In this paper, we simulated an episode of acute air pollution due to the release of NH3. The biological effects of acute air pollution by atmospheric NH3 have been investigated using N-sensitive (Flavoparmelia caperata) and N-tolerant (Xanthoria parietina) species. Lichen samples were exposed to ecologically relevant NH3 concentrations for 8 weeks, simulating three areas of impact: a control area (2 μg/m(3)), an area of intermediate impact (2-35 μg/m(3)) and an area of high impact (10-315 μg/m(3)), with a peak of pollution reached between the fourth and fifth week. Ammonia affected both the photobiont and the mycobiont in F. caperata, while in X. parietina only the photosynthetic performance of the photobiont was altered after exposure to the highest concentration. In the photobiont of F. caperata we recorded chlorophyll degradation as indicated by OD435/415 ratio, decrease of the photosynthetic performance (as reflected by the maximum quantum yield of primary photochemistry FV/FM and the performance index PIABS); in the mycobiont, ergosterol reduction, membrane lipid peroxidation (as reflected by the increase of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances), alteration (decrease) of the secondary metabolite usnic acid. No effects were detected on caperatic acid and dehydrogenase activity. In X. parietina, the only signal determined by NH3 was the alteration of FV/FM and the performance index PIABS. The results suggest that physiological parameters in N-sensitive lichens well reflect the effects of NH3 exposure and can be applied as early indicators in monitoring studies.

  5. Does exogenous carbon extend the realized niche of canopy lichens? Evidence from sub-boreal forests in British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Jocelyn; Bengtson, Per; Fredeen, Arthur L; Coxson, Darwyn S; Prescott, Cindy E

    2013-05-01

    Foliose lichens with cyanobacterial bionts (bipartite and tripartite) form a distinct assemblage of epiphytes strongly associated with humid microclimatic conditions in inland British Columbia. Previous research showed that these cyano- and cephalolichen communities are disproportionately abundant and species-rich on conifer saplings beneath Populus compared to beneath other tree species. More revealing, lichens with cyanobacterial bionts were observed beneath Populus even in stands that did not otherwise support them. We experimentally test the hypothesis that this association is due to the interception of glucose-rich nectar that is exuded from Populus extra-floral nectaries (EFN). Using CO2 flux measurements and phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis with experimental applications of 13C6-labeled glucose, we demonstrate that cyano- and cephalolichens have a strong respiratory response to glucose. Lichens treated with glucose had lower net photosynthesis and higher establishment rates than control thalli. Furthermore, lichens with cyanobacterial bionts rapidly incorporate exogenous 13C into lichen fatty acid tissues. A large proportion of the 13C taken up by the lichens was incorporated into fungal biomarkers, suggesting that the mycobiont absorbed and assimilated the majority of applied 13C6 glucose. Our observations suggest that both cyanolichens and cephalolichens may utilize an exogenous source of glucose, made available by poplar EFNs. The exogenous C may enable these lichens to become established by providing a source of C for fungal respiration despite drought-induced inactivity of the cyanobacterial partner. As such, the mycobiont may adopt an alternative nutritional strategy, using available exogenous carbon to extend its realized niche.

  6. Urbanization Impacts on Tree Canopies: The Unexplored Link Between Canopy Epiphytes and Pacific Northwest Forest Biogeochemical Cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prather, H.; Rosenstiel, T. N.

    2014-12-01

    Canopy-dwelling cryptogamic plants (i.e. lichens and mosses) serve important roles in biogeochemical cycles worldwide and are of particular importance to biogeochemical cycling in Pacific Northwest forests. Epiphytic lichens and mosses respond sensitively to both direct and indirect effects of global change, as evidenced by distinct changes in epiphyte community structure. Yet, few studies have explored how shifting epiphytic communities, resulting from changing climate and increasing air pollutant exposure, may greatly impact biogeochemical cycles of the forests they inhabit. We present the first study investigating how urbanization, as a proxy for global change, impacts epiphytic community structure and functional biodiversity and address the impending effects on Pacific Northwest forest biogeochemical cycles. We discuss the results of paired ground and arboreal epiphyte surveys across an urban to rural gradient in Portland, Oregon. Three research sites with varying distance (0km, 74km, and 109km) from urban center were surveyed and epiphytic biodiversity was described. Pronounced shifts in epiphyte community structure were observed downwind of the Portland metro region. These results suggest that the impacts of urbanization may have significant and surprisingly far-reaching impacts on forested ecosystems in the Pacific Northwest. The impacts of an altered ground and arboreal epiphytic community on Pacific Northwest forest biogeochemical processes will be discussed.

  7. Molecular systematics of the wood-inhabiting, lichen-forming genus Xylographa (Baeomycetales, Ostropomycetidae) with eight new species

    PubMed Central

    Spribille, Toby; Resl, Philipp; Ahti, Teuvo; Pérez-Ortega, Sergio; Tønsberg, Tor; Mayrhofer, Helmut; Lumbsch, H. Thorsten

    2016-01-01

    The ascomycete genus Xylographa includes some of the most abundant species of wood-inhabiting lichenized fungi in boreal and temperate regions. It has never been monographed and little is known of its species diversity and evolutionary relationships. Based on a morphological and secondary metabolite-based assessment of material from North and South America, Europe and Asia, we generated a three-locus phylogeny based on sequences of the internal transcribed spacer, 28S nuclear rDNA and mitochondrial small subunit rDNA. We analyzed the data within the context of putatively related genera in the order Baeomycetales. Xylographa is a strongly supported monophyletic group closely related to Lithographa and Ptychographa, as well as rock-dwelling and lichenicolous species of Rimularia s.lat. The evolution of linearized ascomata in Xylographa appears to have enabled ascomata to grow laterally, and patterns of lateral growth are diagnostic. We recognize twenty species in Xylographa and provide a thorough revision of nomenclature. The following eight species are new: Xylographa bjoerkii T. Sprib., X. constricta T. Sprib., X. erratica T. Sprib., X. lagoi T. Sprib. & Pérez-Ortega, X. schofieldii T. Sprib., X. septentrionalis T. Sprib., X. stenospora T. Sprib. & Resl and X. vermicularis T. Sprib. The combinations Lambiella insularis (Nyl.) T. Sprib. and Xylographa carneopallida (Räsänen) T. Sprib. are newly proposed. Xylographa constricta from southern South America represents the first known case of secondary de-lichenization in the Baeomycetales. Xylographa parallela s.str. is confirmed as bipolar on the basis of sequenced collections from both southern Chile and the northern Hemisphere. PMID:26953522

  8. Accumulation of airborne elements from vehicles in transplanted lichens in urban sites

    SciTech Connect

    Garty, J.; Kauppi, M.; Kauppi, A.

    1996-03-01

    The objective of the current study is to compare the short-term accumulation capacity of two epiphytic lichens characterized by a different type of thallus. The lichens Hypogynmia physodes (L.) Nyl. and Usnea hirta (L.) Weber em. Mot. were transplanted either to the vicinity of streets of low volume and slow traffic or to the vicinity of a highway in the city of Oulu, N. Finland, for a period of 45 d. Eleven elements were analyzed before and after transplantation. The two lichen species were found to possess a similar accumulating capacity for K and Mn. Hypogynmia physodes manifests a higher accumulating capacity than U. hirta for Na, Fe, and Cu. whereas the more sensitive lichen U. hirta exhibits a higher accumulating capacity for Mg, despite a higher primary concentration of these elements in the thallus of H. physodes. Our findings show a relative high concentration of K, Fe, Mg, Zn, Mn, Pb, and Cu in thalli of H. physodes and Mg, Zn, Pb, Cu, and Cd in U. hirta in material transplanted to streets of low volume and slow traffic, over and above the concentration found in thalli retrieved form the vicinity of the highway. This may be explained by the higher rate of abrasion of car engines running idle near traffic lights and by the lesser ventilation near the close-clustered streets of the inner city. 65 refs., 8 tabs.

  9. Optimal defense: snails avoid reproductive parts of the lichen Lobaria scrobiculata due to internal defense allocation.

    PubMed

    Asplund, Johan; Solhaug, Knut Asbjørn; Gauslaa, Yngvar

    2010-10-01

    The optimal defense theory (ODT) deals with defensive compounds improving fitness of a particular organism. It predicts that these compounds are allocated in proportion to the risk for a specific plant tissue being attacked and this tissue's value for plant fitness. As the benefit of defense cannot easily be measured in plants, the empirical evidence for ODT is limited. However, lichens are unique in the sense that their carbon-based secondary compounds can nondestructively be removed or reduced in concentration by acetone rinsing. By using such an extraction protocol, which is lethal to plants, we have tested the ODT by studying lichens instead of plants as photosynthetically active organisms. Prior to acetone rinsing, we found five times higher concentration of meta-scrobiculin in the reproductive parts (soralia) of Lobaria scrobiculata compared to somatic parts of this foliose epiphytic lichen species. At this stage, the lichen-feeding snail Cochlodina laminata avoided the soralia. However, after removal of secondary compounds, the snail instead preferred the soralia. In this way, we have successfully shown that grazing pattern inversely reflects the partitioning of the secondary compounds that have a documented deterring effect. Thus our study provides strong and novel evidence for the ODT.

  10. Rehydration of the lichen Ramalina lacera results in production of reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide and a decrease in antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Weissman, Lior; Garty, Jacob; Hochman, Ayala

    2005-04-01

    Lichens are slow-growing associations of fungi and unicellular green algae or cyanobacteria. They are poikilohydric organisms whose lifestyle in many cases consists of alternating periods of desiccation, with low metabolic activity, and hydration, which induces increase in their metabolism. Lichens have apparently adapted to such extreme transitions between desiccation and rehydration, but the mechanisms that govern these adaptations are still poorly understood. In this study, the effect of rehydration on the production of reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide as well as low-molecular-weight antioxidants was investigated with the lichen Ramalina lacera. Rehydration of R. lacera resulted in the initiation of and a rapid increase in photosynthetic activity. Recovery of photosynthesis was accompanied by bursts of intracellular production of reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide. Laser-scanning confocal microscopy using dichlorofluorescein fluorescence revealed that formation of reactive oxygen species following rehydration was associated with both symbiotic partners of the lichen. The rate and extent of reactive oxygen species production were similar in the light and in the dark, suggesting a minor contribution of photosynthesis. Diaminofluorescein fluorescence, indicating nitric oxide formation, was detected only in fungal hyphae. Activities associated with rehydration did not have a deleterious effect on membrane integrity as assessed by measurement of electrolyte leakage, but water-soluble low-molecular-weight antioxidants decreased significantly.

  11. First Report of the Lichen Species, Heterodermia flabellata (Fée) D. D. Awasthi, and Updated Taxonomic Key of Heterodermia in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Jayalal, Udeni; Joshi, Santosh; Oh, Soon-Ok; Park, Jung-Shin

    2012-01-01

    Heterodermia flabellata (Fée) D. D. Awasthi was found as a new lichen record in Jeju Island of South Korea in 2012. A detailed taxonomic description and comments are provided for the taxa. An updated key for all recorded species of Heterodermia from South Korea is given. PMID:23115514

  12. Bacterial communities associated with the lichen symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Bates, Scott T; Cropsey, Garrett W G; Caporaso, J Gregory; Knight, Rob; Fierer, Noah

    2011-02-01

    Lichens are commonly described as a mutualistic symbiosis between fungi and "algae" (Chlorophyta or Cyanobacteria); however, they also have internal bacterial communities. Recent research suggests that lichen-associated microbes are an integral component of lichen thalli and that the classical view of this symbiotic relationship should be expanded to include bacteria. However, we still have a limited understanding of the phylogenetic structure of these communities and their variability across lichen species. To address these knowledge gaps, we used bar-coded pyrosequencing to survey the bacterial communities associated with lichens. Bacterial sequences obtained from four lichen species at multiple locations on rock outcrops suggested that each lichen species harbored a distinct community and that all communities were dominated by Alphaproteobacteria. Across all samples, we recovered numerous bacterial phylotypes that were closely related to sequences isolated from lichens in prior investigations, including those from a lichen-associated Rhizobiales lineage (LAR1; putative N(2) fixers). LAR1-related phylotypes were relatively abundant and were found in all four lichen species, and many sequences closely related to other known N(2) fixers (e.g., Azospirillum, Bradyrhizobium, and Frankia) were recovered. Our findings confirm the presence of highly structured bacterial communities within lichens and provide additional evidence that these bacteria may serve distinct functional roles within lichen symbioses.

  13. Multilocus phylogeny of the lichen-forming fungal genus Melanohalea (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota): insights on diversity, distributions, and a comparison of species tree and concatenated topologies.

    PubMed

    Leavitt, Steven D; Esslinger, Theodore L; Spribille, Toby; Divakar, Pradeep K; Thorsten Lumbsch, H

    2013-01-01

    Accurate species circumscriptions are central for many biological disciplines and have critical implications for ecological and conservation studies. An increasing body of evidence suggests that in some cases traditional morphology-based taxonomy have underestimated diversity in lichen-forming fungi. Therefore, genetic data play an increasing role for recognizing distinct lineages of lichenized fungi that it would otherwise be improbable to recognize using classical phenotypic characters. Melanohalea (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota) is one of the most widespread and common lichen-forming genera in the northern Hemisphere. In this study, we assess traditional phenotype-based species boundaries, identify previously unrecognized species-level lineages and discuss biogeographic patterns in Melanohalea. We sampled 487 individuals worldwide, representing 18 of the 22 described Melanohalea species, and generated DNA sequence data from mitochondrial, nuclear ribosomal, and protein-coding markers. Diversity previously hidden within traditional species was identified using a genealogical concordance approach. We inferred relationships among sampled species-level lineages within Melanohalea using both concatenated phylogenetic methods and a coalescent-based multilocus species tree approach. Although lineages identified from genetic data are largely congruent with traditional taxonomy, we found strong evidence supporting the presence of previously unrecognized species in six of the 18 sampled taxa. Strong nodal support and overall congruence among independent loci suggest long-term reproductive isolation among most species-level lineages. While some Melanohalea taxa are truly widespread, a limited number of clades appear to have much more restricted distributional ranges. In most instances the concatenated gene tree and multilocus species tree approaches provided similar estimates of relationships. However, nodal support was generally higher in the phylogeny estimated from

  14. Multilocus phylogeny of the lichen-forming fungal genus Melanohalea (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota): insights on diversity, distributions, and a comparison of species tree and concatenated topologies.

    PubMed

    Leavitt, Steven D; Esslinger, Theodore L; Spribille, Toby; Divakar, Pradeep K; Thorsten Lumbsch, H

    2013-01-01

    Accurate species circumscriptions are central for many biological disciplines and have critical implications for ecological and conservation studies. An increasing body of evidence suggests that in some cases traditional morphology-based taxonomy have underestimated diversity in lichen-forming fungi. Therefore, genetic data play an increasing role for recognizing distinct lineages of lichenized fungi that it would otherwise be improbable to recognize using classical phenotypic characters. Melanohalea (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota) is one of the most widespread and common lichen-forming genera in the northern Hemisphere. In this study, we assess traditional phenotype-based species boundaries, identify previously unrecognized species-level lineages and discuss biogeographic patterns in Melanohalea. We sampled 487 individuals worldwide, representing 18 of the 22 described Melanohalea species, and generated DNA sequence data from mitochondrial, nuclear ribosomal, and protein-coding markers. Diversity previously hidden within traditional species was identified using a genealogical concordance approach. We inferred relationships among sampled species-level lineages within Melanohalea using both concatenated phylogenetic methods and a coalescent-based multilocus species tree approach. Although lineages identified from genetic data are largely congruent with traditional taxonomy, we found strong evidence supporting the presence of previously unrecognized species in six of the 18 sampled taxa. Strong nodal support and overall congruence among independent loci suggest long-term reproductive isolation among most species-level lineages. While some Melanohalea taxa are truly widespread, a limited number of clades appear to have much more restricted distributional ranges. In most instances the concatenated gene tree and multilocus species tree approaches provided similar estimates of relationships. However, nodal support was generally higher in the phylogeny estimated from

  15. A phylogenetic analysis of the boreal lichen Mycoblastus sanguinarius (Mycoblastaceae, lichenized Ascomycota) reveals cryptic clades correlated with fatty acid profiles

    PubMed Central

    Spribille, Toby; Klug, Barbara; Mayrhofer, Helmut

    2011-01-01

    Lichens are a prominent feature of northern conifer forests and a large number of species are thought to be circumboreal. Whether or not circumboreal lichen species really constitute monophyletic groups has seldom been tested. We investigated molecular phylogenetic patterns in the mycobiont of Mycoblastus sanguinarius, a well known epiphytic lichen species of the boreal forest, based on material collected from across the high latitude northern hemisphere. A three-locus dataset of internal transcribed spacer rDNA, translation elongation factor 1-α and replication licensing factor Mcm7 DNA sequences revealed that material treated until now as belonging to M. sanguinarius does indeed form a monophyletic group within the genus and is distinct from a strongly supported Mycoblastus affinis. The M. sanguinarius complex appears closely related to the rare Mycoblastus glabrescens, which is currently known only from the Pacific Northwest and was rediscovered during the present study. However, within M. sanguinarius s.lat. in the northern hemisphere, two deeply divergent and morphologically coherent species can be recovered, one of which matches the southern hemisphere species Mycoblastus sanguinarioides and turns out to be widespread in North America and Asia, and one of which corresponds to M. sanguinarius s.str. Both M. sanguinarius and M. sanguinarioides exhibit additional low-level genetic differentiation into geographically structured clades, the most prominent of which are distributed in East Asia/eastern North America and western North America/Europe, respectively. Individuals from these lowest-level clades are morphologically indistinguishable but chemical analyses by thin layer chromatography revealed that each clade possesses its own fatty acid profile, suggesting that chemical differentiation precedes morphological differentiation and may be a precursor to speciation. PMID:21443957

  16. Lichen compounds restrain lichen feeding by bank voles (Myodes glareolus).

    PubMed

    Nybakken, Line; Helmersen, Anne-Marit; Gauslaa, Yngvar; Selås, Vidar

    2010-03-01

    Some lichen compounds are known to deter feeding by invertebrate herbivores. We attempted to quantify the deterring efficiency of lichen compounds against a generalist vertebrate, the bank vole (Myodes glareolus). In two separate experiments, caged bank voles had the choice to feed on lichens with natural or reduced concentrations of secondary compounds. We rinsed air-dry intact lichens in 100% acetone to remove extracellular compounds non-destructively. In the first experiment, pairs of control and rinsed lichen thalli were hydrated and offered to the bank voles. Because the lichens desiccated fast, we ran a second experiment with pairs of ground control and compound-deficient thalli, each mixed with water to porridge. Eight and six lichen species were tested in the first and second experiment, respectively. In the first, bank voles preferred compound-deficient thalli of Cladonia stellaris and Lobaria pulmonaria, but did not discriminate between the other thallus pairs. This was likely a result of deterring levels of usnic and stictic acid in the control thalli. When lichens were served as porridge, significant preference was found for acetone-rinsed pieces of Cladonia arbuscula, C. rangiferina, Platismatia glauca, and Evernia prunastri. The increased preference was caused mainly by lower consumption of control thalli. Grinding and mixing of thallus structures prevented bank voles from selecting thallus parts with lower concentration of secondary compounds and/or strengthened their deterring capacity. We conclude that some lichen secondary compounds deter feeding by bank voles.

  17. Decrease in air pollution load in urban environment of Bratislava (Slovakia) inferred from accumulation of metal elements in lichens.

    PubMed

    Guttová, Anna; Lackovičová, Anna; Pišút, Ivan; Pišút, Peter

    2011-11-01

    The study illustrates the response of epiphytic lichens to changing atmospheric conditions in Central Europe, where the emission of air pollutants has significantly decreased from 1990, in the area in and around Bratislava City. Variation in concentrations of seven metal elements (Cu, Cd, Cr, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) in the thalli of Evernia prunastri, Hypogymnia physodes and Parmelia sulcata is assessed. Samples of these species were exposed in lichen bags in 39 sites throughout the territory of the city (more than 300 km(2)) during the period December 2006-February 2007. The samples were analyzed by AAS for metal element contents prior to and after exposure. The decrease in air pollution (for all studied elements by more than 90%) corresponded to a decrease in the accumulation of elements in lichen thalli, e.g. the contents of Pb decreased by 69% and of Cd by 34% on average. The results show also variations in accumulation between with different lichen species. The background values of metal element contents in thalli of H. physodes growing in situ were measured in semi-natural sites in Slovakia. It is suggested that these can be used as a reference in large-scale monitoring studies in Central Europe. Analysis of compatible data from the current study, and the study performed at the end of 1990s shows a significant decrease of metal elements in the air pollution load. PMID:21327486

  18. Decrease in air pollution load in urban environment of Bratislava (Slovakia) inferred from accumulation of metal elements in lichens.

    PubMed

    Guttová, Anna; Lackovičová, Anna; Pišút, Ivan; Pišút, Peter

    2011-11-01

    The study illustrates the response of epiphytic lichens to changing atmospheric conditions in Central Europe, where the emission of air pollutants has significantly decreased from 1990, in the area in and around Bratislava City. Variation in concentrations of seven metal elements (Cu, Cd, Cr, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) in the thalli of Evernia prunastri, Hypogymnia physodes and Parmelia sulcata is assessed. Samples of these species were exposed in lichen bags in 39 sites throughout the territory of the city (more than 300 km(2)) during the period December 2006-February 2007. The samples were analyzed by AAS for metal element contents prior to and after exposure. The decrease in air pollution (for all studied elements by more than 90%) corresponded to a decrease in the accumulation of elements in lichen thalli, e.g. the contents of Pb decreased by 69% and of Cd by 34% on average. The results show also variations in accumulation between with different lichen species. The background values of metal element contents in thalli of H. physodes growing in situ were measured in semi-natural sites in Slovakia. It is suggested that these can be used as a reference in large-scale monitoring studies in Central Europe. Analysis of compatible data from the current study, and the study performed at the end of 1990s shows a significant decrease of metal elements in the air pollution load.

  19. Roselliniella revealed as an overlooked genus of Hypocreales, with the description of a second species on parmelioid lichens.

    PubMed

    Hawksworth, D L; Millanes, A M; Wedin, M

    2010-06-01

    Based on newly obtained 28S rDNA sequences from Roselliniella atlantica and R. euparmeliicola sp. nov., the genus Roselliniella has to be placed in Hypocreales and not in Sordariales; however, the family placement could not be resolved from the sequences obtained. The mature ascospores are single-celled and brown, but young ascospores are hyaline and sometimes have a median septum. The new species occurs on a Parmelia s.str. species in China, and differs in 24 nucleotide substitution positions in the nu-LSU rDNA region and ascospore size from R. atlantica. In this case, small variations in ascospore sizes and shape prove to be phylogenetically and taxonomically informative. The two species occur in the same clade with 95 % jack-knife support. Roselliniella atlantica occurs on Xanthoparmelia and Melanohalea species in Europe, whereas R. euparmeliicola was found on the species of Parmelia s.str. DNA was successfully recovered from a dried specimen of R. atlantica collected in 1992. Two unidentified fungi were also recovered from the Chinese specimen, and these belong to Sordariomycetidae and Dothideomycetes; whether these two are additional fungi living endolichenically in the lichen host, saprobes, or contaminants could not be ascertained.

  20. Pleistocene Speciation in North American Lichenized Fungi and the Impact of Alternative Species Circumscriptions and Rates of Molecular Evolution on Divergence Estimates

    PubMed Central

    Leavitt, Steven D.; Lumbsch, H. Thorsten; Stenroos, Soili; Clair, Larry L. St.

    2013-01-01

    Pleistocene climatic fluctuations influenced patterns of genetic variation and promoted speciation across a wide range of species groups. Lichens are commonly found in habitats that were directly impacted by glacial cycles; however, the role of Pleistocene climate in driving speciation in most lichen symbionts remains unclear. This uncertainty is due in part to limitations in our ability to accurately recognize independently evolving lichen-forming fungal lineages and a lack of relevant fossil calibrations. Using a coalescent-based species tree approach, we estimated divergence times for two sister clades in the genus Xanthoparmelia (Parmeliaceae) restricted to western North America. We assessed the influence of two different species circumscription scenarios and various locus-specific rates of molecular evolution on divergence estimates. Species circumscriptions were validated using the program BP&P. although speciation was generally supported in both scenarios, divergence times differed between traditional species circumscriptions and those based on genetic data, with more recent estimates resulting from the former. Similarly, rates of evolution for different loci resulted in variable divergence time estimates. However, our results unambiguously indicate that diversification in the sampled Xanthoparmelia clades occurred during the Pleistocene. Our study highlights the potential impact of ambiguous species circumscriptions and uncertain rates of molecular evolution on estimating divergence times within a multilocus species tree framework. PMID:24386465

  1. Pleistocene speciation in North American lichenized fungi and the impact of alternative species circumscriptions and rates of molecular evolution on divergence estimates.

    PubMed

    Leavitt, Steven D; Lumbsch, H Thorsten; Stenroos, Soili; St Clair, Larry L

    2013-01-01

    Pleistocene climatic fluctuations influenced patterns of genetic variation and promoted speciation across a wide range of species groups. Lichens are commonly found in habitats that were directly impacted by glacial cycles; however, the role of Pleistocene climate in driving speciation in most lichen symbionts remains unclear. This uncertainty is due in part to limitations in our ability to accurately recognize independently evolving lichen-forming fungal lineages and a lack of relevant fossil calibrations. Using a coalescent-based species tree approach, we estimated divergence times for two sister clades in the genus Xanthoparmelia (Parmeliaceae) restricted to western North America. We assessed the influence of two different species circumscription scenarios and various locus-specific rates of molecular evolution on divergence estimates. Species circumscriptions were validated using the program BP&P. although speciation was generally supported in both scenarios, divergence times differed between traditional species circumscriptions and those based on genetic data, with more recent estimates resulting from the former. Similarly, rates of evolution for different loci resulted in variable divergence time estimates. However, our results unambiguously indicate that diversification in the sampled Xanthoparmelia clades occurred during the Pleistocene. Our study highlights the potential impact of ambiguous species circumscriptions and uncertain rates of molecular evolution on estimating divergence times within a multilocus species tree framework.

  2. Epiphytic algae on mosses in the Altindere Valley National Park (Maçka-Trabzon/Turkey).

    PubMed

    Sahin, B; Ozdemir, T

    2008-09-15

    Species composition and abundance of epiphytic algae on mosses growing in the Altindere Valley National Park were investigated in March 2008. The epiphytic algae identified in these samples were 27 species in total, 15 of the Bacillariophyta, 7 of the Cyanophyta, 4 of the Chlorophyta and a single of the Euglenophyta species. The members of the Bacillariophyta were more frequently found among these epiphytic algae on mosses. Netrium digitus (Ehrenb.) Itzigs and Rothe var. curtum (Borge) Willi Krieg. was recorded for the first time in the desmids flora of Turkey. The epiphytic algal flora on mosses at the submerged habitat was the richest of the three habitats.

  3. Wickerhamiella siamensis f.a., sp. nov., an endophytic and epiphytic yeast species isolated from sugar cane leaf.

    PubMed

    Khunnamwong, Pannida; Surussawadee, Janjira; Jindamorakot, Sasitorn; Limtong, Savitree

    2014-11-01

    Six strains representing a novel yeast species were isolated from tissue (DMKU-SE106(T), DMKU-SE110, DMKU-SE112 and DMKU-SE132) and the external surface (DMKU-SP335 and DMKU-SP406) of sugar cane leaves collected in Thailand. On the basis of morphological, biochemical, physiological and chemotaxonomic characteristics, and sequence analysis of the D1/D2 region of the LSU rRNA gene and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region, the six strains were found to represent a single novel species of the genus Wickerhamiella although the formation of ascospores was not observed. The sequences of the D1/D2 region of the LSU rRNA gene and ITS region of the six strains differed from each other by 0-2 and 2-3 nt substitutions, respectively. The novel species was related most closely to Candida infanticola but with 4.5-4.6% nucleotide substitutions in the D1/D2 region of the LSU rRNA gene and 6.6-7.1% nucleotide substitutions in the ITS region. The name Wickerhamiella siamensis f.a., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is DMKU-SE106(T) ( =BCC 61185(T) =NBRC 109697(T) =CBS 13331(T)).

  4. Wickerhamiella siamensis f.a., sp. nov., an endophytic and epiphytic yeast species isolated from sugar cane leaf.

    PubMed

    Khunnamwong, Pannida; Surussawadee, Janjira; Jindamorakot, Sasitorn; Limtong, Savitree

    2014-11-01

    Six strains representing a novel yeast species were isolated from tissue (DMKU-SE106(T), DMKU-SE110, DMKU-SE112 and DMKU-SE132) and the external surface (DMKU-SP335 and DMKU-SP406) of sugar cane leaves collected in Thailand. On the basis of morphological, biochemical, physiological and chemotaxonomic characteristics, and sequence analysis of the D1/D2 region of the LSU rRNA gene and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region, the six strains were found to represent a single novel species of the genus Wickerhamiella although the formation of ascospores was not observed. The sequences of the D1/D2 region of the LSU rRNA gene and ITS region of the six strains differed from each other by 0-2 and 2-3 nt substitutions, respectively. The novel species was related most closely to Candida infanticola but with 4.5-4.6% nucleotide substitutions in the D1/D2 region of the LSU rRNA gene and 6.6-7.1% nucleotide substitutions in the ITS region. The name Wickerhamiella siamensis f.a., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is DMKU-SE106(T) ( =BCC 61185(T) =NBRC 109697(T) =CBS 13331(T)). PMID:25168613

  5. On monitoring anthropogenic airborne uranium concentrations and (235)U/(238)U isotopic ratio by Lichen - bio-indicator technique.

    PubMed

    Golubev, A V; Golubeva, V N; Krylov, N G; Kuznetsova, V F; Mavrin, S V; Aleinikov, A Yu; Hoppes, W G; Surano, K A

    2005-01-01

    Lichens are widely used to assess the atmospheric pollution by heavy metals and radionuclides. However, few studies are available in publications on using lichens to qualitatively assess the atmospheric pollution levels. The paper presents research results applying epiphytic lichens as bio-monitors of quantitative atmospheric contamination with uranium. The observations were conducted during 2.5 years in the natural environment. Two experimental sites were used: one in the vicinity of a uranium contamination source, the other one - at a sufficient distance away to represent the background conditions. Air and lichens were sampled at both sites monthly. Epiphytic lichens Hypogimnia physodes were used as bio-indicators. Lichen samples were taken from various trees at about 1.5m from the ground. Air was sampled with filters at sampling stations. The uranium content in lichen and air samples as well as isotopic mass ratios (235)U/(238)U were measured by mass-spectrometer technique after uranium pre-extraction. Measured content of uranium were 1.45 mgkg(-1) in lichen at 2.09 E-04 microgm(-3) in air and 0.106 mgkg(-1) in lichen at 1.13 E-05 microgm(-3) in air. The relationship of the uranium content in atmosphere and that in lichens was determined, C(AIR)=exp(1.1 x C(LICHEN)-12). The possibility of separate identification of natural and man-made uranium in lichens was demonstrated in principle.

  6. Structural Impacts on Thallus and Algal Cell Components of Two Lichen Species in Response to Low-Level Air Pollution in Pacific Northwest Forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ra, Hyung-Shim Y.; Rubin, Laura; Crang, Richard F. E.

    2004-04-01

    Lichens have long been regarded as bioindicators of air pollution, and structural studies typically have indicated negative impacts in highly polluted areas. In this research, Parmelia sulcata and Platismatia glauca were collected from one clean and two polluted sites in the Pacific Northwest forests of the United States to investigate the anatomical and ultrastructural responses of relatively resistant lichens to moderate air pollution. Light microscopy of polluted materials revealed only slight increases in the algal cell proportions of the thallus, and a decrease in the fungal cells of the medulla. Using transmission electron microscopy, increased lipid droplets in the cytoplasm and an increase in the cell wall thickness of the photobionts were found in the polluted lichens. These results were compared with physiological data in which the net carbon uptake did not show any significant differences; however, the total chlorophyll content was heightened in the polluted samples. The increased total chlorophyll content and the absence of any changes in the algal cell proportions of the polluted samples suggest that the photobionts possessed a higher chlorophyll content per unit volume of the photobiont at polluted sites. The results also indicate that lichens have altered their storage allocation in different cellular compartments. This may be a result of symbiotic readjustment(s) between the photobiont and the mycobiont. In comparison with the physiological results from these two species, these changes do not represent damaging effects by low-level air pollution.

  7. Structural impacts on thallus and algal cell components of two lichen species in response to low-level air pollution in pacific northwest forests.

    PubMed

    Ra, Hyung-Shim Y; Rubin, Laura; Crang, Richard F E

    2004-04-01

    Lichens have long been regarded as bioindicators of air pollution, and structural studies typically have indicated negative impacts in highly polluted areas. In this research, Parmelia sulcata and Platismatia glauca were collected from one clean and two polluted sites in the Pacific Northwest forests of the United States to investigate the anatomical and ultrastructural responses of relatively resistant lichens to moderate air pollution. Light microscopy of polluted materials revealed only slight increases in the algal cell proportions of the thallus, and a decrease in the fungal cells of the medulla. Using transmission electron microscopy, increased lipid droplets in the cytoplasm and an increase in the cell wall thickness of the photobionts were found in the polluted lichens. These results were compared with physiological data in which the net carbon uptake did not show any significant differences; however, the total chlorophyll content was heightened in the polluted samples. The increased total chlorophyll content and the absence of any changes in the algal cell proportions of the polluted samples suggest that the photobionts possessed a higher chlorophyll content per unit volume of the photobiont at polluted sites. The results also indicate that lichens have altered their storage allocation in different cellular compartments. This may be a result of symbiotic readjustment(s) between the photobiont and the mycobiont. In comparison with the physiological results from these two species, these changes do not represent damaging effects by low-level air pollution.

  8. Rainforest air-conditioning: the moderating influence of epiphytes on the microclimate in tropical tree crowns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuntz, Sabine; Simon, Ulrich; Zotz, Gerhard

    2002-05-01

    Epiphytes are often assumed to influence the microclimatic conditions of the tree crowns that they inhabit. In order to quantify this notion, we measured the parameters "temperature" (of the substrate surface and the boundary layer of air above it), "evaporative drying rate" and "evapotranspiration" at various locations within tree crowns with differing epiphyte assemblages. The host tree species was Annona glabra, which was either populated by one of three epiphyte species ( Dimerandra emarginata, Tillandsia fasciculata, or Vriesea sanguinolenta) or was epiphyte-free. We found that during the hottest and driest time of day, microsites in the immediate proximity of epiphytes had significantly lower temperatures than epiphyte-bare locations within the same tree crown, even though the latter were also shaded by host tree foliage or branches. Moreover, water loss through evaporative drying at microsites adjacent to epiphytes was almost 20% lower than at exposed microsites. We also found that, over the course of several weeks, the evapotranspiration in tree crowns bearing epiphytes was significantly lower than in trees without epiphytes. Although the influence of epiphytes on temperature extremes and evaporation rates is relatively subtle, their mitigating effect could be of importance for small animals like arthropods inhabiting an environment as harsh and extreme as the tropical forest canopy.

  9. Lichens as bioindicators of air quality. Forest Service general technical report (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Stolte, K.; Doty, R.; Mangis, D.; Tonnessen, K.; Huckaby, L.S.

    1993-03-01

    The report is the result of a workshop held in Denver, Colorado on April 9-11, 1991. It summarizes the current literature and techniques for using lichens to monitor air quality. Experts in lichenology and ecology contributed information on lichen floristics, characterization of monitoring sites, lichen species and communities, identifying lichen species sensitive to pollutants, active monitoring with transplants, chemical analysis of lichens, and case studies as examples of lichen biomonitoring scenarios.

  10. The Magnetic Properties of Lichens Exposed Around a Cement Plant in Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkler, Aldo; Paoli, Luca; Guttová, Anna; Loppi, Stefano; Sagnotti, Leonardo

    2015-04-01

    A cement industry is a source of dust pollution, from quarrying and grinding of the raw material to kiln operations. Airborne pollutants related to combustion processes are also emitted, especially during kiln operations and power generation. The use of biomonitors can provide valuable information about the impact of airborne pollutants released during cement production and lichens are suitable bioindicators of air pollution, providing reliable information on the quality of the environment. We investigated the magnetic hysteresis properties and the elemental concentrations of epiphytic lichens from selected sites (a cement mill, two quarries, agricultural areas, and villages) in SW Slovakia; in particular, both transplanted and in situ lichens, bark, soil and rock samples from the sampling sites, as well as pre-transplant samples have been characterized. Evernia prunastri transplants, exposed up to 180 days, showed excellent correlations between the saturation magnetization (Ms) and saturation remanent magnetization (Mrs) values and the Fe concentrations; the analyzed samples were magnetically homogeneous, with marked differences only for the sample from a basalt quarry. Xanthoria parietina autochthonous samples have also a similar magnetic mineralogy; anyway their Ms and Mrs values were two orders of magnitude higher with respect to those from the transplants, implying increased concentration of magnetic particles according to the different lichen species and to the prolonged exposure. Magnetic methods can be valuable for discriminating various natural and anthropogenic sources of dust. In this study, we point out that the magnetic properties may also reflect the influence of the basalt quarry activity, of the soil and of the bedrock. For a proper evaluation of the pollution related to human activities, it is thus essential to verify the nature of the substrate and to select suitable and homogeneous pre/post lichen transplant sites.

  11. Lichens of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Pearson, L.C.; Rope, S.K.

    1987-09-01

    A study begun in 1984 to evaluate the feasibility of using lichens to monitor air pollution at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) has provided good baseline data on the lichen flora of the site. To date, 111 lichen taxa, including 25 genera and 110 species, have been identified. Six genera (Agrestia, Heterodermia, Microthelia, Polyblastiopsis, Teloschistes, and Verrucaria) and 49 species were previously unrecorded in Idaho. A key to the lichen species of the INEL and a general description of the genera are included as appendices to this report. Voucher specimens of lichens found at the INEL are being stored at the Radiological and Environmental Sciences Laboratory. As of May 1987, 43 species have been curated in the lichen herbarium there.

  12. Distribution of vascular epiphytes along a tropical elevational gradient: disentangling abiotic and biotic determinants.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yi; Liu, Guangfu; Zang, Runguo; Zhang, Jian; Lu, Xinghui; Huang, Jihong

    2016-01-01

    Epiphytic vascular plants are common species in humid tropical forests. Epiphytes are influenced by abiotic and biotic variables, but little is known about the relative importance of direct and indirect effects on epiphyte distribution. We surveyed 70 transects (10 m × 50 m) along an elevation gradient (180 m-1521 m) and sampled all vascular epiphytes and trees in a typical tropical forest on Hainan Island, south China. The direct and indirect effects of abiotic factors (climatic and edaphic) and tree community characteristics on epiphytes species diversity were examined. The abundance and richness of vascular epiphytes generally showed a unimodal curve with elevation and reached maximum value at ca. 1300 m. The species composition in transects from high elevation (above 1200 m) showed a more similar assemblage. Climate explained the most variation in epiphytes species diversity followed by tree community characteristics and soil features. Overall, climate (relative humidity) and tree community characteristics (tree size represented by basal area) had the strongest direct effects on epiphyte diversity while soil variables (soil water content and available phosphorus) mainly had indirect effects. Our study suggests that air humidity is the most important abiotic while stand basal area is the most important biotic determinants of epiphyte diversity along the tropical elevational gradient. PMID:26796667

  13. Distribution of vascular epiphytes along a tropical elevational gradient: disentangling abiotic and biotic determinants.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yi; Liu, Guangfu; Zang, Runguo; Zhang, Jian; Lu, Xinghui; Huang, Jihong

    2016-01-01

    Epiphytic vascular plants are common species in humid tropical forests. Epiphytes are influenced by abiotic and biotic variables, but little is known about the relative importance of direct and indirect effects on epiphyte distribution. We surveyed 70 transects (10 m × 50 m) along an elevation gradient (180 m-1521 m) and sampled all vascular epiphytes and trees in a typical tropical forest on Hainan Island, south China. The direct and indirect effects of abiotic factors (climatic and edaphic) and tree community characteristics on epiphytes species diversity were examined. The abundance and richness of vascular epiphytes generally showed a unimodal curve with elevation and reached maximum value at ca. 1300 m. The species composition in transects from high elevation (above 1200 m) showed a more similar assemblage. Climate explained the most variation in epiphytes species diversity followed by tree community characteristics and soil features. Overall, climate (relative humidity) and tree community characteristics (tree size represented by basal area) had the strongest direct effects on epiphyte diversity while soil variables (soil water content and available phosphorus) mainly had indirect effects. Our study suggests that air humidity is the most important abiotic while stand basal area is the most important biotic determinants of epiphyte diversity along the tropical elevational gradient.

  14. Lichen Sclerosus

    MedlinePlus

    ... of lichen sclerosus is unknown. Scientists have different theories to try to explain the cause, including an ... Other symptoms caused from chronic skin irritation Painful urination (peeing) due to urine flowing over irritated skin ...

  15. The phylogenetic analysis of fungi associated with lichenized ascomycete genus Bryoria reveals new lineages in the Tremellales including a new species Tremella huuskonenii hyperparasitic on Phacopsis huuskonenii.

    PubMed

    Lindgren, Hanna; Diederich, Paul; Goward, Trevor; Myllys, Leena

    2015-09-01

    The basidiomycete order Tremellales includes many species parasitic on or cohabiting with lichen-forming fungi. In this study, we examined the phylogenetic position of Tremellales obtained from Bryoria thalli using nSSU, 5.8S, and partial nLSU sequence data. Both Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses revealed the presence of basidiomycetous fungi in three separate clades within Tremellales. Tremellales sp. A and Tremella sp. B exist asymptomatically in Bryoria thalli and should thus be regarded as endolichenic rather than lichenicolous fungi. The third lineage represents a new species and is described here as Tremella huuskonenii. It is hyperparasitic over galls induced by Phacopsis huuskonenii, a lichenicolous fungus growing in Bryoria thalli. We also examined the genetic diversity of Tremella sp. B and Tremella huuskonenii with an extended taxon sampling using ITS and partial nLSU sequence data. For comparison, ITS, GAPDH, and Mcm7 regions were used for phylogenetic analyses of the host lichen specimens. According to our results, phylogenetic structure within the two Tremella species does not appear to correlate with the geographic distribution nor with the phylogeny or the secondary chemistry of the host lichen. However, ITS haplotype analysis of T. huuskonenii revealed some genetic differences between European and North American populations as some haplotypes were more common in Europe than in North America and vice versa.

  16. The phylogenetic analysis of fungi associated with lichenized ascomycete genus Bryoria reveals new lineages in the Tremellales including a new species Tremella huuskonenii hyperparasitic on Phacopsis huuskonenii.

    PubMed

    Lindgren, Hanna; Diederich, Paul; Goward, Trevor; Myllys, Leena

    2015-09-01

    The basidiomycete order Tremellales includes many species parasitic on or cohabiting with lichen-forming fungi. In this study, we examined the phylogenetic position of Tremellales obtained from Bryoria thalli using nSSU, 5.8S, and partial nLSU sequence data. Both Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses revealed the presence of basidiomycetous fungi in three separate clades within Tremellales. Tremellales sp. A and Tremella sp. B exist asymptomatically in Bryoria thalli and should thus be regarded as endolichenic rather than lichenicolous fungi. The third lineage represents a new species and is described here as Tremella huuskonenii. It is hyperparasitic over galls induced by Phacopsis huuskonenii, a lichenicolous fungus growing in Bryoria thalli. We also examined the genetic diversity of Tremella sp. B and Tremella huuskonenii with an extended taxon sampling using ITS and partial nLSU sequence data. For comparison, ITS, GAPDH, and Mcm7 regions were used for phylogenetic analyses of the host lichen specimens. According to our results, phylogenetic structure within the two Tremella species does not appear to correlate with the geographic distribution nor with the phylogeny or the secondary chemistry of the host lichen. However, ITS haplotype analysis of T. huuskonenii revealed some genetic differences between European and North American populations as some haplotypes were more common in Europe than in North America and vice versa. PMID:26321732

  17. Epiphyte response to drought and experimental warming in an Andean cloud forest

    PubMed Central

    Rapp, Joshua M.; Silman, Miles R.

    2014-01-01

    The high diversity and abundance of vascular epiphytes in tropical montane cloud forest is associated with frequent cloud immersion, which is thought to protect plants from drought stress. Increasing temperature and rising cloud bases associated with climate change may increase epiphyte drought stress, leading to species and biomass loss. We tested the hypothesis that warmer and drier conditions associated with a lifting cloud base will lead to increased mortality and/or decreased recruitment of epiphyte ramets, altering species composition in epiphyte mats. By using a reciprocal transplant design, where epiphyte mats were transplanted across an altitudinal gradient of increasing cloud immersion, we differentiated between the effects of warmer and drier conditions from the more general prediction of niche theory that transplanting epiphytes in any direction away from their home elevation should result in reduced performance. Effects differed among species, but effects were generally stronger and more negative for epiphytes in mats transplanted down slope from the highest elevation, into warmer and drier conditions, than for epiphyte mats transplanted from other elevations. In contrast, epiphytes from lower elevations showed greater resistance to drought in all treatments. Epiphyte community composition changed with elevation, but over the timescale of the experiment there were no consistent changes in species composition. Our results suggest some epiphytes may show resistance to climate change depending on the environmental and evolutionary context. In particular, sites where high rainfall makes cloud immersion less important for epiphyte water-balance, or where occasional drought has previously selected for drought-resistant taxa, may be less adversely affected by predicted climate changes. PMID:25165534

  18. Quantifying the influence of small omnivorous fishes on seagrass epiphyte load.

    PubMed

    Gilby, B L; Henderson, C J; Tibbetts, I R; Burfeind, D D

    2016-09-01

    The influence of two cryptic, seagrass-inhabiting omnivorous fishes, the fan-bellied leatherjacket Monacanthus chinensis and the variable sabretoothed blenny Petroscirtes variabilis, on seagrass epiphyte biomass are described. Overall, M. chinensis significantly reduced epiphyte biomass by 35·1% after 18 h in experimental aquaria, whilst P. variabilis showed a non-significant 15·7% reduction. It is concluded that some cryptic omnivorous species play an important role in epiphyte removal in seagrass beds. PMID:27456225

  19. Epiphyte response to drought and experimental warming in an Andean cloud forest.

    PubMed

    Rapp, Joshua M; Silman, Miles R

    2014-01-01

    The high diversity and abundance of vascular epiphytes in tropical montane cloud forest is associated with frequent cloud immersion, which is thought to protect plants from drought stress. Increasing temperature and rising cloud bases associated with climate change may increase epiphyte drought stress, leading to species and biomass loss. We tested the hypothesis that warmer and drier conditions associated with a lifting cloud base will lead to increased mortality and/or decreased recruitment of epiphyte ramets, altering species composition in epiphyte mats. By using a reciprocal transplant design, where epiphyte mats were transplanted across an altitudinal gradient of increasing cloud immersion, we differentiated between the effects of warmer and drier conditions from the more general prediction of niche theory that transplanting epiphytes in any direction away from their home elevation should result in reduced performance. Effects differed among species, but effects were generally stronger and more negative for epiphytes in mats transplanted down slope from the highest elevation, into warmer and drier conditions, than for epiphyte mats transplanted from other elevations. In contrast, epiphytes from lower elevations showed greater resistance to drought in all treatments. Epiphyte community composition changed with elevation, but over the timescale of the experiment there were no consistent changes in species composition. Our results suggest some epiphytes may show resistance to climate change depending on the environmental and evolutionary context. In particular, sites where high rainfall makes cloud immersion less important for epiphyte water-balance, or where occasional drought has previously selected for drought-resistant taxa, may be less adversely affected by predicted climate changes.

  20. Lichenized and lichenicolous fungi from the Albanian Alps (Kosovo, Montenegro)

    PubMed Central

    Strasser, Eva A.; Hafellner, Josef; Stešević, Danijela; Geci, Fehmi; Mayrhofer, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    396 taxa (381 species) of lichenized and 45 species of lichenicolous fungi from the upper montane, subalpine and alpine belts of the Albanian Alps (= Prokletije Mountain Range, Bjeshkët e Nemuna) are presented. 92 lichenized and 26 lichenicolous fungi are new to Montenegro, 165 lichenized and 24 lichenicolous fungi are new to Kosovo, and 25 lichenized fungi (23 species) are new for the Balkan Peninsula. PMID:26869727

  1. Lichen-based critical loads for atmospheric nitrogen deposition in Western Oregon and Washington Forests, USA.

    PubMed

    Geiser, Linda H; Jovan, Sarah E; Glavich, Doug A; Porter, Matthew K

    2010-07-01

    Critical loads (CLs) define maximum atmospheric deposition levels apparently preventative of ecosystem harm. We present first nitrogen CLs for northwestern North America's maritime forests. Using multiple linear regression, we related epiphytic-macrolichen community composition to: 1) wet deposition from the National Atmospheric Deposition Program, 2) wet, dry, and total N deposition from the Communities Multi-Scale Air Quality model, and 3) ambient particulate N from Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE). Sensitive species declines of 20-40% were associated with CLs of 1-4 and 3-9 kg N ha(-1)y(-1) in wet and total deposition. CLs increased with precipitation across the landscape, presumably from dilution or leaching of depositional N. Tight linear correlation between lichen and IMPROVE data suggests a simple screening tool for CL exceedance in US Class I areas. The total N model replicated several US and European lichen CLs and may therefore be helpful in estimating other temperate-forest lichen CLs.

  2. Monitoring temporal trends of air pollution in an urban area using mosses and lichens as biomonitors.

    PubMed

    Gerdol, Renato; Marchesini, Roberta; Iacumin, Paola; Brancaleoni, Lisa

    2014-08-01

    Monitoring air quality by using living organisms as biomonitors has received increasing attention in recent years. However, rather few studies were based on the concomitant use of passive biomonitoring (based on the different sensitivity of living organisms to air pollution) and active biomonitoring (based on their capacity to accumulate pollutants in the tissues). We carried out a repeated survey of an urban area in Northern Italy, with the objective of comparing temporal trends of different kinds of air pollutants with bioindication (passive biomonitoring) and bioaccumulation (active biomonitoring) techniques. During a five-year interval, temporal patterns of moss metal concentrations underwent significant changes probably due to intercurring variations in the importance of different pollution sources. Nitrogen (N) concentration in moss tissues also decreased and was paralleled by increasing diversity of epiphytic lichens. Increasing δ(15)N in moss tissues suggested a higher contribution of oxidized N species compared with reduced N species.

  3. Species delimitation in taxonomically difficult lichen-forming fungi: an example from morphologically and chemically diverse Xanthoparmelia (Parmeliaceae) in North America.

    PubMed

    Leavitt, Steven D; Johnson, Leigh A; Goward, Trevor; St Clair, Larry L

    2011-09-01

    Mounting evidence suggests many morphology-based species circumscriptions in lichenized ascomycetes misrepresent fungal diversity. The lichenized ascomycete genus Xanthoparmelia includes over 800 described species displaying a considerable range of morphological and chemical variation. Species circumscriptions in this genus have traditionally been based on thallus morphology, medullary chemistry, and the presence or absence of sexual or asexual reproductive structures. Notwithstanding concerted effort on the part of taxonomists to arrive at a natural classification, modern taxonomic concepts for the most part remain unclear. Here we assess the evolution of characters traditionally regarded as taxonomically important by reconstructing a phylogenetic hypothesis based on sequence data from four nuclear ribosomal markers as well as fragments from two protein-coding nuclear loci. A total of 414 individuals were tested, representing 19 currently accepted species. Most sampled species, as currently circumscribed, were recovered as polyphyletic, suggesting that major diagnostic characters have evolved in a homoplasious manner. The vagrant growth form, distinct medullary chemistries, and production of vegetative diaspores appear to have evolved independently multiple times. Application of a population assignment test resulted in the recognition of 21 species-level genetic clusters, each of which was supported by a comparison of genetic distances as well as a Bayesian species delimitation method calculating probabilities associated with speciation events. Inferred clusters are largely incongruent with traditionally circumscribed species due to the prevalence of cryptic diversity and, in some cases, high levels of intraspecific morphological and chemical variation. These results call for a major taxonomic revision of Xanthoparmelia species in western North America.

  4. Epiphytes as an Indicator of Climate Change in Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kettwich, S. K.

    2013-12-01

    Although climate change threatens many ecosystems, current research in this field suggests tropical vegetation lags in response. Epiphytes, or arboreal vegetation, occupy tight, climate-defined niches compared with co-occurring life forms such as trees, yet there have been few studies of Hawaii's epiphyte communities. Because of Hawaii Island's natural climatic diversity, it is an ideal location to understand how these intrinsically climate sensitive plants interact with the atmosphere and evaluate how they may serve as a near-term indicator of climate change. Here we establish a baseline from which changes in corticolous epiphyte communities can be monitored as a leading indicator of likely forest changes by 1) investigating patterns of epiphyte abundance and species composition across elevation and precipitation gradients on windward Hawaii Island, and 2) using physiological measurements to investigate the relative importance of rain vs. fog in epiphyte-atmosphere interactions. The precipitation gradient keeps elevation constant at 1000m, while varying precipitation between 2,400 and 6,400 mm/year. The elevation gradient keeps rainfall constant at 3000mm/year, and varies elevation between 200 and 1750 m. Forest sites are dominated by Ohia Lehua (Metrosideros polymorpha) across broad geographic and climatological ranges thus allowing examination of epiphytes on this single host. We quantified bryophytes and vascular plants growing on Ohia trunks with standardized diameter and branching characteristics. Overall, epiphyte communities showed much finer scale responses to climate variation when compared with structurally dominant vegetation (which was broadly similar at all sites). The precipitation gradient exhibits a clear increase in abundance of all epiphyte groups and a definable increase in diversity with increasing rainfall. Results across the elevation gradient show a higher abundance of filmy ferns and bryophytes above the lifting condensation level (about

  5. Physiological and chemical response of lichens transplanted in and around an industrial area of south Italy: relationship with the lichen diversity.

    PubMed

    Paoli, Luca; Pisani, Tommaso; Guttová, Anna; Sardella, Giovanni; Loppi, Stefano

    2011-05-01

    The lichen Evernia prunastri (L.) Ach. has been exposed for 3 months in and around an industrial area of Mediterranean Italy for monitoring physiological (photosynthetic efficiency, membrane lipids peroxidation and cell membrane integrity) and chemical (bioaccumulation of the heavy metals Cr, Ni, Pb, V and Zn) effects and investigate the consistency with the environmental quality status depicted by the diversity of epiphytic lichens (index of lichen diversity (ILD)). The results showed that thalli transplanted close to the industrial area exhibited early stress symptoms, as revealed by the increase in electrical conductivity indicating a damage endured by lichen cell membranes. The electrical conductivity was inversely correlated with the diversity of epiphytic lichens recorded at the same sites. The ILD negatively correlated also with membrane lipid peroxidation and the rate of accumulation of Pb, V and Zn. Reciprocal correlations found among trace elements pinpointed vehicular traffic and metal processing in the industrial area as main sources. The damage endured by cell membranes was the best physiological indicator consistent with the air quality status depicted by the diversity of epiphytic lichens.

  6. Catalogue of the Lichenized and Lichenicolous Fungi of Montenegro

    PubMed Central

    Knežević, Branka; Mayrhofer, Helmut

    2011-01-01

    Summary The catalogue is based on a comprehensive evaluation of 169 published sources. The lichen mycota as currently known from Montenegro includes 681 species (with eight subspecies, nine varieties and one form) of lichenized fungi, 12 species of lichenicolous fungi, and nine non-lichenized fungi traditionally included in lichenological literature. PMID:21423858

  7. Two Species of Bryoria (Lichenized Ascomycota, Parmeliaceae) from the Sino-Himalayas

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Li-song; Harada, Hiroshi; Koh, Young Jin

    2005-01-01

    We performed a taxonomic study on two species of the genus Bryoria from the Sino-Himalayas, SW-China. B. nadvornikiana is new to China and B. furcellata is new to Yunnan and Sichuan provinces in the Sino-Himalayas. Morphology, habitat, distributions and chemistry of the two species are discussed. PMID:24049496

  8. A Molecular Phylogeny of the Lichen Genus Lecidella Focusing on Species from Mainland China

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xin; Zhang, Lu Lu; Zhao, Zun Tian; Wang, Wei Cheng; Leavitt, Steven D.; Lumbsch, Helge Thorsten

    2015-01-01

    The phylogeny of Lecidella species is studied, based on a 7-locus data set using ML and Bayesian analyses. Phylogenetic relationships among 43 individuals representing 11 Lecidella species, mainly from mainland China, were included in the analyses and phenotypical characters studied and mapped onto the phylogeny. The Lecidella species fall into three major clades, which are proposed here as three informal groups–Lecidella stigmatea group, L. elaeochroma group and L. enteroleucella group, each of them strongly supported. Our phylogenetic analyses support traditional species delimitation based on morphological and chemical traits in most but not all cases. Individuals considered as belonging to the same species based on phenotypic characters were found to be paraphyletic, indicating that cryptic species might be hidden under these names (e.g. L. carpathica and L. effugiens). Potentially undescribed species were found within the phenotypically circumscribed species L. elaeochroma and L. stigmatea. Additional sampling across a broader taxonomic and geographic scale will be crucial to fully resolving the taxonomy in this cosmopolitan genus. PMID:26414323

  9. Lichens from Simeonof Wilderness, Shumagin Island, Southwestern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Talbot, Stephen S.; Talbot, Sandra L.; Thomson, J.W.; Daniels, F.J.A.; Schofield, W.B.

    2002-01-01

    One hundred eighty-eight taxa of lichens are reported from Simeonof Island in the Shumagin Islands of southwestern Alaska. Wide-ranging arctic-alpine and boreal species dominate the lichens; a coastal element is moderately represented, while amphi-Beringian species form a minor element. The lichen component of Empetrum nigrum dwarf shrub heath, the dominant vegetation type, was analyzed to identify the most frequently occurring lichens within this community.

  10. Lignin phenols derivatives in lichens.

    PubMed

    Zavarzina, A G; Romankevich, E A; Peresypkin, V I; Ulyantzev, A S; Belyaev, N A; Zavarzin, A A

    2015-01-01

    Lignin monophenols have been measured in the cupric oxide oxidation products from lichens of different systematic groups. It is shown for the first time that syringyl structures in most lichens strongly dominate over vanillyl and p-hydroxyl ones (S/V 7-583, S/P 3-30). This distinguishes lichens from algae and mosses (p-hydroxyl phenols are dominant) and from higher plants (S/V ratios are from 0 in gymnosperms to 1.1-5.2 in angiosperms). Molecular ratios of phenols as well as the ratios of acids to aldehydes in lichens were different from lignin of higher plants, suggesting contribution of non-lignin phenols in CuO oxidation products. The contents of syringyl and vanillyl phenols in some lichen species were comparable to non-woody tissues of higher plants. Results of the study suggest that lichens can be important source of aromatic structures in soils and hydrosphere, particularly in the regions were lichens are abundant. PMID:26728733

  11. Lignin phenols derivatives in lichens.

    PubMed

    Zavarzina, A G; Romankevich, E A; Peresypkin, V I; Ulyantzev, A S; Belyaev, N A; Zavarzin, A A

    2015-01-01

    Lignin monophenols have been measured in the cupric oxide oxidation products from lichens of different systematic groups. It is shown for the first time that syringyl structures in most lichens strongly dominate over vanillyl and p-hydroxyl ones (S/V 7-583, S/P 3-30). This distinguishes lichens from algae and mosses (p-hydroxyl phenols are dominant) and from higher plants (S/V ratios are from 0 in gymnosperms to 1.1-5.2 in angiosperms). Molecular ratios of phenols as well as the ratios of acids to aldehydes in lichens were different from lignin of higher plants, suggesting contribution of non-lignin phenols in CuO oxidation products. The contents of syringyl and vanillyl phenols in some lichen species were comparable to non-woody tissues of higher plants. Results of the study suggest that lichens can be important source of aromatic structures in soils and hydrosphere, particularly in the regions were lichens are abundant.

  12. Mollusc grazing may constrain the ecological niche of the old forest lichen Pseudocyphellaria crocata.

    PubMed

    Gauslaa, Y

    2008-11-01

    This study reports on mollusc grazing of two epiphytic cyanobacterial lichens (Pseudocyphellaria crocata and Lobaria pulmonaria) transplanted within three Picea abies-dominated boreal rain forest stands (clear-cut, young and old forests) in west central Norway. Grazing was particularly high in transplants located in the old forest and was almost absent in clear-cut transplants. Grazing marks were absent on natural thalli on nearby spruce twigs (required creeping distance for mollusc from the ground >4 m). Transplantation of lichens from twigs to artificial transplantation frames reduced the creeping distance to 1.2 m, and caused a significant increase in grazing damage in P. crocata. Given a paired choice under transplantation, molluscs consistently preferred P. crocata and avoided L. pulmonaria, implying species-specific differences in herbivore defence. Pseudocyphellaria crocata has a much lower content of the medullary depsidones stictic and constictic acid than L. pulmonaria. Heavy grazing occurred in the P. crocata thalli lowest in these two depsidones. The upper part of the medulla hosting the photobiont was the preferred fodder for grazing molluscs. Molluscs avoided the yellow soralia in P. crocata (localised pulvinic acid), suggesting a role for pulvinic acid in preventing grazing of detached soredia and early establishment stages. The preference of P. crocata for thin spruce twigs is probably a result of a lower grazing pressure on twigs compared to e.g. deciduous stems that frequently support the better defended L. pulmonaria. Ongoing climate changes with increased annual rainfall and milder winters have presumably increased mollusc grazing, particularly in SW parts of Norway which have more species of lichen-feeding molluscs than the boreal sites studied. These temperate areas lacking natural spruce populations have recently experienced reported extinctions of the poorly defended P. crocata from rocks and deciduous stems prone to mollusc grazing. Lichen

  13. Occurrence patterns of lichens on stumps in young managed forests.

    PubMed

    Svensson, Måns; Dahlberg, Anders; Ranius, Thomas; Thor, Göran

    2013-01-01

    The increasing demand for forest-derived bio-fuel may decrease the amount of dead wood and hence also the amount of available substrate for saproxylic ( = dead-wood dependent) organisms. Cut stumps constitute a large portion of dead wood in managed boreal forests. The lichen flora of such stumps has received little interest. Therefore, we investigated which lichens that occur on stumps in young (4-19 years), managed forests and analyzed how species richness and occurrence of individual species were related to stump and stand characteristics. We performed lichen inventories of 576 Norway spruce stumps in 48 forest stands in two study areas in Central Sweden, recording in total 77 lichen species. Of these, 14 were obligately lignicolous, while the remaining were generalists that also grow on bark, soil or rocks. We tested the effect of characteristics reflecting successional stage, microclimate, substrate patch size, and the species pool in the surrounding area on (1) total lichen species richness, (2) species richness of obligately lignicolous lichens and (3) the occurrence of four obligately lignicolous lichen species. The most important variables were stump age, with more species on old stumps, and study area, with similar total species richness but differences in occupancy for individual species. Responses for total lichen species richness and species richness of obligately lignicolous lichens were overall similar, indicating similar ecological requirements of these two groups. Our results indicate that species richness measurements serve as poor proxies for the responses of individual, obligately lignicolous lichen species.

  14. Exploring symbiont management in lichens.

    PubMed

    Grube, Martin; Spribille, Toby

    2012-07-01

    Lichens are unique among fungal symbioses in that their mycelial structures are compact and exposed to the light as thallus structures. The myriad intersections of unique fungal species with photosynthetic partner organisms (green algae in 90% of lichens) produce a wide variety of diverse shapes and colours of the fully synthesized lichen thallus when growing in nature. This characteristic complex morphology is, however, not achieved in the fungal axenic state. Even under ideal environmental conditions, the lichen life cycle faces considerable odds: first, meiotic spores are only produced on well-established thalli and often only after achieving considerable age in a stable environment, and second, even then in vivo resynthesis requires the presence of compatible algal strains where fungal spores germinate. Many lichen species have evolved a way around the resynthesis bottleneck by producing asexual propagules for joint propagation of symbionts. These different dispersal strategies ostensibly shape the population genetic structure of lichen symbioses, but the relative contributions of vertical (joint) and horizontal (independent) symbiont transmission have long eluded lichen evolutionary biologists. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Dal Grande et al. (2012) close in on this question with the lung lichen, Lobaria pulmonaria, a flagship species in the conservation of old growth forests. By capitalizing on available microsatellite markers for both fungal and algal symbionts, they show that while vertical transmission is the predominant mode of reproduction, horizontal transmission is demonstrable and actively shapes population genetic structure. The resulting mixed propagation system is a highly successful balance of safe recruitment of symbiotic clones and endless possibilities for fungal recombination and symbiont shuffling. PMID:22916345

  15. Exploring symbiont management in lichens.

    PubMed

    Grube, Martin; Spribille, Toby

    2012-07-01

    Lichens are unique among fungal symbioses in that their mycelial structures are compact and exposed to the light as thallus structures. The myriad intersections of unique fungal species with photosynthetic partner organisms (green algae in 90% of lichens) produce a wide variety of diverse shapes and colours of the fully synthesized lichen thallus when growing in nature. This characteristic complex morphology is, however, not achieved in the fungal axenic state. Even under ideal environmental conditions, the lichen life cycle faces considerable odds: first, meiotic spores are only produced on well-established thalli and often only after achieving considerable age in a stable environment, and second, even then in vivo resynthesis requires the presence of compatible algal strains where fungal spores germinate. Many lichen species have evolved a way around the resynthesis bottleneck by producing asexual propagules for joint propagation of symbionts. These different dispersal strategies ostensibly shape the population genetic structure of lichen symbioses, but the relative contributions of vertical (joint) and horizontal (independent) symbiont transmission have long eluded lichen evolutionary biologists. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Dal Grande et al. (2012) close in on this question with the lung lichen, Lobaria pulmonaria, a flagship species in the conservation of old growth forests. By capitalizing on available microsatellite markers for both fungal and algal symbionts, they show that while vertical transmission is the predominant mode of reproduction, horizontal transmission is demonstrable and actively shapes population genetic structure. The resulting mixed propagation system is a highly successful balance of safe recruitment of symbiotic clones and endless possibilities for fungal recombination and symbiont shuffling.

  16. Vascular Epiphyte Diversity Differs with Host Crown Zone and Diameter, but Not Orientation in a Tropical Cloud Forest

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xixi; Long, Wenxing; Schamp, Brandon S.; Yang, Xiaobo; Kang, Yong; Xie, Zhixu; Xiong, Menghui

    2016-01-01

    Vascular epiphytes are important components of biological diversity in tropical forests. We measured the species richness and abundance of vascular epiphytes along four vertical crown zones and five horizontal orientations on 376 trees, as well as the diameter at breast height (DBH) of host trees in tropical cloud forests in Bawangling, Hainan, China. The relationship between vascular epiphyte species richness and host tree DBH was assessed using a generalized linear model. There were 1,453 vascular individual epiphytes attributed to 9 families, 24 genera and 35 species, with orchids and pteridophytes dominating. Both the species richness and abundance of epiphytes significantly differed among the four crown zones for all collections and each host tree, suggesting that vertical microhabitats contribute to the distribution of epiphytes on host trees. Neither epiphyte abundance nor species richness differed among the eastern, southern, western, and northern orientations for all host trees; however, both richness and abundance were significantly higher for epiphytes that encircled host tree trunks. This suggests that morphological and physiological characteristics of the tree, but not microclimates probably contribute to the distribution of epiphytes on host trees. Epiphyte species richness was positively correlated with tree DBH across the six host tree species studied, with increases in DBH among smaller trees resulting in larger increases in richness, while increases in DBH among larger host trees resulting in more modest increases in ephiphyte richness. Our findings contribute support for a positive relationship between epiphyte species richness and host tree DBH and provide important guidance for future surveys of epiphyte community development. PMID:27391217

  17. Vascular Epiphyte Diversity Differs with Host Crown Zone and Diameter, but Not Orientation in a Tropical Cloud Forest.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xixi; Long, Wenxing; Schamp, Brandon S; Yang, Xiaobo; Kang, Yong; Xie, Zhixu; Xiong, Menghui

    2016-01-01

    Vascular epiphytes are important components of biological diversity in tropical forests. We measured the species richness and abundance of vascular epiphytes along four vertical crown zones and five horizontal orientations on 376 trees, as well as the diameter at breast height (DBH) of host trees in tropical cloud forests in Bawangling, Hainan, China. The relationship between vascular epiphyte species richness and host tree DBH was assessed using a generalized linear model. There were 1,453 vascular individual epiphytes attributed to 9 families, 24 genera and 35 species, with orchids and pteridophytes dominating. Both the species richness and abundance of epiphytes significantly differed among the four crown zones for all collections and each host tree, suggesting that vertical microhabitats contribute to the distribution of epiphytes on host trees. Neither epiphyte abundance nor species richness differed among the eastern, southern, western, and northern orientations for all host trees; however, both richness and abundance were significantly higher for epiphytes that encircled host tree trunks. This suggests that morphological and physiological characteristics of the tree, but not microclimates probably contribute to the distribution of epiphytes on host trees. Epiphyte species richness was positively correlated with tree DBH across the six host tree species studied, with increases in DBH among smaller trees resulting in larger increases in richness, while increases in DBH among larger host trees resulting in more modest increases in ephiphyte richness. Our findings contribute support for a positive relationship between epiphyte species richness and host tree DBH and provide important guidance for future surveys of epiphyte community development. PMID:27391217

  18. Sequestration of lichen compounds by lichen-feeding members of the Arctiidae (Lepidoptera).

    PubMed

    Hesbacher, S; Giez, I; Embacher, G; Fiedler, K; Max, W; Trawöger, A; Türk, R; Lange, O L; Proksch, P

    1995-12-01

    A survey for the presence of sequestered lichen compounds in 103 wild-caught imagines representing eight different genera and 16 different species of the Arctiidae was conducted. Known lichen compounds were detected for the first time in 24 of the analyzed specimens (representing five different genera and 11 different species) based on their HPLC retention times and on their UV-absorption spectra. The anthraquinone parietin, the depside atranorin, as well as a hydrolytic cleavage product of the latter were among the lichen compounds most frequently detected in wild-caught imagines. The observed variation of sequestered lichen compounds in wild-caught imagines with unknown feeding history may be due to several reasons. Lack of lichen compounds in imagines may have been caused, for example, by larvae feeding on lichens with no or only minute amounts of phenolic products. The age of the specimens analyzed may also influence the results obtained. Avoidance of lichen compounds by selective feeding on those parts of lichen thalli that have no or little lichen products may be another reason for the lack of lichen compounds in imagines. Preliminary feeding experiments conducted with larvae ofEilema complana, for example, indicated that the larvae fed exclusively on the algal layer and cortex of the lichenCladonia pyxidata, whereas the medulla, which is rich in fumarprotocetrarie acid, was avoided. As expected, imagines hatching from the larvae were free of this lichen compound. Any ecological role of the sequestered lichen compounds for the herbivores is unknown. It is possible, however, that sequestered lichen compounds may be utilized for the chemical defense of arctiid moths or against microbial pathogens. PMID:24233908

  19. Not rare. But, endangered Elemental profiles of three corticolous lichen species on red spruce in Maine. [Usnea subfloridana; Platismatia glauca; Hypogymnia physodes

    SciTech Connect

    Stubbs, C.S.; Homola, R.H. )

    1990-01-01

    Usnea subfloridana Stirton, Platismatia glauca (L.) Club. and Club., and Hypogymnia physodes (L.) Nyl. are lichen species moderately to highly sensitive to air pollutants, including acid deposition and ozone. Some researchers have attributed depauperate populations and local extinctions of these species to poor air quality. Since 1985, areas of Maine annually experienced mean summer rain and fog events of pH 4.5 or lower and ozone levels above national standards. Given this possible threat to these and other pollution sensitive species, baseline elemental analyses for Ca, K, P, Mg, Al, B, Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn, N, S, Na, and Pb were performed in 1986 on coastal and inland populations on Picea rubens L. Elemental analyses were again performed on nontransplanted and transplanted lichens from the same populations in 1988. There were statistically significant differences in elemental profiles between nontransplanted 1986 and 1988 samples for all three species, such as significant decreases in Ca and Mg concentrations, and increases in Al, Cu, Fe, and Zn for U. subfloridana. Elemental concentrations between nontransplanted and transplanted material differed significantly, but no consistent pattern emerged. These results, coupled with other evidence (such as luxuriance and density ratings), suggest that both inland and coastal populations of U. subfloridana on red spruce are experiencing ecophysiological stress.

  20. Loss of Lecanora conizaeoides and other fluctuations of epiphytes on oak in S.E. England over 21 years with declining SO 2 concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, J. W.; Bell, J. N. B.; Massara, A. C.

    Epiphytic lichens and algae were studied on the bark of mature, free-standing Quercus robur L. at five stations along a transect extending S.S.W. for nearly 70 km into rural Sussex from central London. Percentage cover data for the epiphytes was recorded annually over the period 1979-1999 at chest height (1500 mm) and on the trunk base (450 mm). Data from the nearest pollution monitoring stations in the UK network show that SO 2 concentrations have declined at all transect stations, but particularly dramatically at the three inner sites (Kensington Gardens, Putney Heath, Epsom Common). The crustose lichen Lecanora conizaeoides, initially almost ubiquitous on oak bark at Epsom Common and once frequent at all but the innermost site, had declined and is now extinct at the four outer stations. However, it had recently appeared on oak bases in Kensington Gardens, the only station to retain appreciable SO 2 levels. Lepraria incana agg. had increased progressively at all sites with the decline of SO 2. 'Green alga', probably Desmococcus viridis, had also increased with declining importance of SO 2, although there was evidence that it was the most SO 2-tolerant of the three epiphytes. Its abundance at the urban stations is possibly connected with their high NO x concentrations. Hypogymnia physodes was the most common macrolichen but only occurred in significant quantities at the two outer sites (Hesworth Common, Holmwood Common). It too had shown a significant decline with falling SO 2 levels. No significant re-colonization of formally polluted sites by SO 2-sensitive macrolichens had been noted during 21 years of study, probably because of the high acidity of oak bark and elevated NO x in inner London. The loss of L. conizaeoides supports the hypothesis that this species requires elevated SO 2 inputs (or some closely related chemical factor) for healthy growth, but competitive interactions with the other epiphytes and attacks by the parasitic fungus Athelia arachnoidea

  1. Lichens: unexpected anti-prion agents?

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Cynthia M; Bennett, James P; Johnson, Christopher J

    2012-01-01

    The prion diseases sheep scrapie and cervid chronic wasting disease are transmitted, in part, via an environmental reservoir of infectivity; prions released from infected animals persist in the environment and can cause disease years later. Central to controlling disease transmission is the identification of methods capable of inactivating these agents on the landscape. We have found that certain lichens, common, ubiquitous, symbiotic organisms, possess a serine protease capable of degrading prion protein (PrP) from prion-infected animals. The protease functions against a range of prion strains from various hosts and reduces levels of abnormal PrP by at least two logs. We have now tested more than twenty lichen species from several geographical locations and from various taxa and found that approximately half of these species degrade PrP. Critical next steps include examining the effect of lichens on prion infectivity and cloning the protease responsible for PrP degradation. The impact of lichens on prions in the environment remains unknown. We speculate that lichens could have the potential to degrade prions when they are shed from infected animals onto lichens or into environments where lichens are abundant. In addition, lichens are frequently consumed by cervids and many other animals and the effect of dietary lichens on prion disease transmission should also be considered.

  2. Lichens: unexpected anti-prion agents?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodriguez, Cynthia M.; Bennett, James P.; Johnson, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    The prion diseases sheep scrapie and cervid chronic wasting disease are transmitted, in part, via an environmental reservoir of infectivity; prions released from infected animals persist in the environment and can cause disease years later. Central to controlling disease transmission is the identification of methods capable of inactivating these agents on the landscape. We have found that certain lichens, common, ubiquitous, symbiotic organisms, possess a serine protease capable of degrading prion protein (PrP) from prion-infected animals. The protease functions against a range of prion strains from various hosts and reduces levels of abnormal PrP by at least two logs. We have now tested more than 20 lichen species from several geographical locations and from various taxa and found that approximately half of these species degrade PrP. Critical next steps include examining the effect of lichens on prion infectivity and cloning the protease responsible for PrP degradation. The impact of lichens on prions in the environment remains unknown. We speculate that lichens could have the potential to degrade prions when they are shed from infected animals onto lichens or into environments where lichens are abundant. In addition, lichens are frequently consumed by cervids and many other animals and the effect of dietary lichens on prion disease transmission should also be considered.

  3. Phylogenetic placement, species delimitation, and cyanobiont identity of endangered aquatic Peltigera species (lichen-forming Ascomycota, Lecanoromycetes).

    PubMed

    Miadlikowska, Jolanta; Richardson, David; Magain, Nicolas; Ball, Bernard; Anderson, Frances; Cameron, Robert; Lendemer, James; Truong, Camille; Lutzoni, François

    2014-07-11

    • Premise of this study: Aquatic cyanolichens from the genus Peltigera section Hydrothyriae are subject to anthropogenic threats and, therefore, are considered endangered. In this study we addressed the phylogenetic placement of section Hydrothyriae within Peltigera. We delimited species within the section and identified their symbiotic cyanobacteria.• Methods: Species delimitation and population structure were explored using monophyly as a grouping criterion (RAxML) and Structurama based on three protein-coding genes in combination with two nuclear ribosomal loci. The 16S and rbcLX sequences for the cyanobionts were analyzed in the broad phylogenetic context of free-living and symbiotic cyanobacteria.• Key results: We confirm with high confidence the placement of section Hydrothyriae within the monophyletic genus Peltigera; however, its phylogenetic position within the genus remains unsettled. We recovered three distinct monophyletic groups corresponding to three species: P. hydrothyria, P. gowardii s.s., and P. aquatica Miadl. & Lendemer, the latter being formally introduced here. Each species was associated with an exclusive set of Nostoc haplotypes.• Conclusions: The ITS region alone provides sufficient genetic information to distinguish the three morphologically cryptic species within section Hydrothyriae. Section Hydrothyriae seems to be associated with a monophyletic lineage of Nostoc, that has not been found in symbiotic association with other members of Peltigera. Capsosira lowei should be transferred to the genus Nostoc. Potential threats to P. aquatica should be re-examined based on the recognition of two aquatic species in western North America.

  4. Assessment of lichen diversity by index of atmospheric purity (IAP), index of human impact (IHI) and other environmental factors in an urban area (Grenoble, southeast France).

    PubMed

    Gombert, S; Asta, J; Seaward, M R D

    2004-05-25

    An assessment of air quality in the Grenoble area was made using the index of atmospheric purity (IAP). The survey area was divided into 198 units (0.7 x 1 km), in which 345 average lichen relevés were analyzed according to the Braun-Blanquet method. Each relevé station was characterized in the field by a subjective index of human impact (IHI) calculated according to four local environmental parameters influencing the epiphytic lichen flora: urbanization (urban, suburban or rural area), road traffic (low or high), local developments (stations located within crop fields, green areas, housing sites or car parks), and exposure (trees isolated, in rows or grouped). Eighty-three epiphytic lichen species and two algae were recorded and grouped into three ecological categories defined according to bark type and nutrient needs: nitrophytic, neutrophytic and acidophytic species. IAP values, varying from 5.9 to 71.7, were clustered into five categories in order to produce an air-quality map. The geographical pattern of the IAP map showed no clear connection with local sources of pollution, such as the vicinity of a road or an industrial plant, and was not correlated with annual mean values of SO(2), NO(2) and NO for the years 1994-1997. IAP appeared to be influenced by environmental artificiality as shown by a polynomial trend observed between IAP and IHI, even if IAP values were broadly scattered. Multivariate analysis (canonical correspondence) showed that high IAP values could be observed in stations of "natural" environments at high elevations and in stations of "artificial" environments at low elevations. It was also shown that IAP varied in relation to the relative proportion of ecological groups of lichen relevés: although a majority of neutrophytic species (>50%) with a much lower percentage of nitrophytic species generally characterized high IAP, a predominance of acidophytic or nitrophytic species led to a decrease in the IAP. A correlation between nitrophytic

  5. Coalescent-based species delimitation approach uncovers high cryptic diversity in the cosmopolitan lichen-forming fungal genus Protoparmelia (Lecanorales, Ascomycota).

    PubMed

    Singh, Garima; Dal Grande, Francesco; Divakar, Pradeep K; Otte, Jürgen; Leavitt, Steven D; Szczepanska, Katarzyna; Crespo, Ana; Rico, Víctor J; Aptroot, André; Cáceres, Marcela Eugenia da Silva; Lumbsch, H Thorsten; Schmitt, Imke

    2015-01-01

    Species recognition in lichen-forming fungi has been a challenge because of unsettled species concepts, few taxonomically relevant traits, and limitations of traditionally used morphological and chemical characters for identifying closely related species. Here we analyze species diversity in the cosmopolitan genus Protoparmelia s.l. The ~25 described species in this group occur across diverse habitats from the boreal-arctic/alpine to the tropics, but their relationship to each other remains unexplored. In this study, we inferred the phylogeny of 18 species currently assigned to this genus based on 160 specimens and six markers: mtSSU, nuLSU, ITS, RPB1, MCM7, and TSR1. We assessed the circumscription of species-level lineages in Protoparmelia s. str. using two coalescent-based species delimitation methods--BP&P and spedeSTEM. Our results suggest the presence of a tropical and an extra-tropical lineage, and eleven previously unrecognized distinct species-level lineages in Protoparmelia s. str. Several cryptic lineages were discovered as compared to phenotype-based species delimitation. Many of the putative species are supported by geographic evidence. PMID:25932996

  6. Coalescent-Based Species Delimitation Approach Uncovers High Cryptic Diversity in the Cosmopolitan Lichen-Forming Fungal Genus Protoparmelia (Lecanorales, Ascomycota)

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Garima; Dal Grande, Francesco; Divakar, Pradeep K.; Otte, Jürgen; Leavitt, Steven D.; Szczepanska, Katarzyna; Crespo, Ana; Rico, Víctor J.; Aptroot, André; Cáceres, Marcela Eugenia da Silva; Lumbsch, H. Thorsten; Schmitt, Imke

    2015-01-01

    Species recognition in lichen-forming fungi has been a challenge because of unsettled species concepts, few taxonomically relevant traits, and limitations of traditionally used morphological and chemical characters for identifying closely related species. Here we analyze species diversity in the cosmopolitan genus Protoparmelia s.l. The ~25 described species in this group occur across diverse habitats from the boreal -arctic/alpine to the tropics, but their relationship to each other remains unexplored. In this study, we inferred the phylogeny of 18 species currently assigned to this genus based on 160 specimens and six markers: mtSSU, nuLSU, ITS, RPB1, MCM7, and TSR1. We assessed the circumscription of species-level lineages in Protoparmelia s. str. using two coalescent-based species delimitation methods – BP&P and spedeSTEM. Our results suggest the presence of a tropical and an extra-tropical lineage, and eleven previously unrecognized distinct species-level lineages in Protoparmelia s. str. Several cryptic lineages were discovered as compared to phenotype-based species delimitation. Many of the putative species are supported by geographic evidence. PMID:25932996

  7. UV-C tolerance of symbiotic Trebouxia sp. in the space-tested lichen species Rhizocarpon geographicum and Circinaria gyrosa: role of the hydration state and cortex/screening substances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, Francisco Javier; Meeßen, Joachim; del Carmen Ruiz, M.; Sancho, Leopoldo G.; Ott, Sieglinde; Vílchez, Carlos; Horneck, Gerda; Sadowsky, Andres; de la Torre, Rosa

    2014-01-01

    Many experiments were carried out in order to evaluate the survival capacity of extremotolerant lichens when facing harsh conditions, including those of outer space or of simulated Martian environment. For further progress, a deeper study on the physiological mechanisms is needed that confer the unexpected levels of resistance detected on these symbiotic organisms. In this work, the response of the lichenized green algae Trebouxia sp. (a predominant lichen photobiont) to increasing doses of UV-C radiation is studied. UV-C (one of the most lethal factors to be found in space together with vacuum and cosmic-ionizing radiation with high atomic number and energy (HZE) particles) has been applied in the present experiments up to a maximum dose analogue to 67 days in Low Earth Orbit (LEO). For that purpose we selected two extremotolerant and space-tested lichen species in which Trebouxia sp. is the photosynthetic partner: the crustose lichen Rhizocarpon geographicum and the fruticose lichen Circinaria gyrosa. In order to evaluate the effect of the physiological state of the lichen thallus (active when wet and dormant when dry) and of protective structures (cortex and photoprotective pigments) on the resistance of the photobiont to UV-C, four different experimental conditions were tested: (1) dry intact samples, (2) wet intact samples, (3) dry samples without cortex/acetone-rinsed and (4) wet samples without cortex/acetone-rinsed. After irradiation and a 72 hours period of recovery, the influence of UV-C on the two lichen's photobiont under each experimental approach was assessed by two complimentary methods: (1) By determining the photosystem II (PSII) activity in three successive 24 hours intervals (Mini-PAM fluorometer) to investigate the overall state of the photosynthetic process and the resilience of Trebouxia sp. (2) By performing high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-quantification of four essential photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b,

  8. Invertebrate response to nutrient-driven epiphytic load increase in Posidonia oceanica meadows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castejón-Silvo, Inés; Domínguez, Marta; Terrados, Jorge; Tomas, Fiona; Morales-Nin, Beatriz

    2012-10-01

    Nutrient increases in coastal systems are becoming a world-wide concern since they promote strong structural and functional changes in shallow ecosystems. Increased nutrient availability in the water column may strongly enhance the leaf epiphytic communities of key habitat-forming species such as seagrasses through a bottom-up mechanism, competing for light and nutrients with the leaves. Epiphytes support an abundant and diverse community of resident invertebrates which fuel higher trophic levels in Posidonia oceanica food webs. We evaluated the response of seagrass, epiphytes and the invertebrate community to an experimental increase of water column nutrient availability. Nutrient increase was followed by a rise of epiphyte biomass. The increase in epiphytic biomass promoted invertebrate abundance, but appeared to have negative effects on P. oceanica shoot size. On the other hand, the increase in invertebrate abundance did not seem to control epiphytic biomass, which was not reversed to pre-nutrient enrichment levels. This work suggests that the abundance of invertebrate populations is limited by epiphyte biomass, through food or habitat provision, in P. oceanica systems and points to nutrients as the main driver of epiphyte biomass during summer. The results illustrate the control mechanisms at community level in P. oceanica meadows and the possible responses of a threatened ecosystem to human impact such as eutrophication.

  9. Secondary metabolites of the lichen Hypogymnia physodes (L.) Nyl. and their presence in spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) bark.

    PubMed

    Latkowska, Ewa; Bober, Beata; Chrapusta, Ewelina; Adamski, Michal; Kaminski, Ariel; Bialczyk, Jan

    2015-10-01

    Lichen species typically have a characteristic profile of secondary metabolites. Dense populations of Hypogymnia physodes growing frequently as epiphytes on tree branches have harmful effects on the host, likely due to their secondary compounds, which were undetected in tree tissues until now. The aim of the present study was to re-characterise the suite of secondary metabolites of H. physodes thalli and to estimate their translocation into spruce (Picea abies) bark. Thallus and bark extracts were compared using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The compounds were identified based on their UV, MS and MS/MS spectra as well as retention factors of their TLC analysis. In addition to the previously described secondary metabolites (protocetraric, physodalic, 3-hydroxyphysodic, physodic, and 2'-O-methylphysodic acids, atranorin and chloroatranorin) of H. physodes, further three were identified in its thalli: conphysodalic, 4-O-methylphysodic and α-alectoronic acids. Fragmentation patterns from the negative ionisation of each compound were proposed, some of which were described for the first time. Among all of the detected lichen substances, a few, e.g., physodalic, 3-hydroxyphysodic, physodic acids and atranorin, were present in the bark of spruce branches that were abundantly colonised by lichen. The newly identified compounds of H. physodes thalli may belong to its constant or accessory secondary metabolites. These compounds may be useful in the chemotaxonomic classification of this species. The presence of some lichen substances in spruce bark confirmed their ability to penetrate host tissues. These data suggest that H. physodes compounds may cause long-term effects on spruces in nature.

  10. Secondary metabolites of the lichen Hypogymnia physodes (L.) Nyl. and their presence in spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) bark.

    PubMed

    Latkowska, Ewa; Bober, Beata; Chrapusta, Ewelina; Adamski, Michal; Kaminski, Ariel; Bialczyk, Jan

    2015-10-01

    Lichen species typically have a characteristic profile of secondary metabolites. Dense populations of Hypogymnia physodes growing frequently as epiphytes on tree branches have harmful effects on the host, likely due to their secondary compounds, which were undetected in tree tissues until now. The aim of the present study was to re-characterise the suite of secondary metabolites of H. physodes thalli and to estimate their translocation into spruce (Picea abies) bark. Thallus and bark extracts were compared using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The compounds were identified based on their UV, MS and MS/MS spectra as well as retention factors of their TLC analysis. In addition to the previously described secondary metabolites (protocetraric, physodalic, 3-hydroxyphysodic, physodic, and 2'-O-methylphysodic acids, atranorin and chloroatranorin) of H. physodes, further three were identified in its thalli: conphysodalic, 4-O-methylphysodic and α-alectoronic acids. Fragmentation patterns from the negative ionisation of each compound were proposed, some of which were described for the first time. Among all of the detected lichen substances, a few, e.g., physodalic, 3-hydroxyphysodic, physodic acids and atranorin, were present in the bark of spruce branches that were abundantly colonised by lichen. The newly identified compounds of H. physodes thalli may belong to its constant or accessory secondary metabolites. These compounds may be useful in the chemotaxonomic classification of this species. The presence of some lichen substances in spruce bark confirmed their ability to penetrate host tissues. These data suggest that H. physodes compounds may cause long-term effects on spruces in nature. PMID:26342621

  11. Long-term biological monitoring of environmental quality around a solid waste landfill assessed with lichens.

    PubMed

    Paoli, L; Corsini, A; Bigagli, V; Vannini, J; Bruscoli, C; Loppi, S

    2012-02-01

    The diversity of epiphytic lichens and the accumulation of selected trace elements in the lichen Flavoparmelia caperata L. (Hale) were used as indicators of pollution around a landfill in central Italy along 14 years of waste management. Lichens revealed an increased deposition for some elements (i.e., Cd, Cr, Fe and Ni) and a decrease of the lichen diversity at sites facing the landfill after an enlargement of the dumping area. However, the results allowed to exclude a significant increase in heavy metal depositions in the surrounding area and suggested that successful waste management may be associated with environmental quality. It is concluded that lichen monitoring might provide essential information to enhance the implementation of ecological impact assessment, supporting industrial regulatory procedures, also when waste management is concerned.

  12. Host tree phenology affects vascular epiphytes at the physiological, demographic and community level

    PubMed Central

    Einzmann, Helena J. R.; Beyschlag, Joachim; Hofhansl, Florian; Wanek, Wolfgang; Zotz, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    The processes that govern diverse tropical plant communities have rarely been studied in life forms other than trees. Structurally dependent vascular epiphytes, a major part of tropical biodiversity, grow in a three-dimensional matrix defined by their hosts, but trees differ in their architecture, bark structure/chemistry and leaf phenology. We hypothesized that the resulting seasonal differences in microclimatic conditions in evergreen vs. deciduous trees would affect epiphytes at different levels, from organ physiology to community structure. We studied the influence of tree leaf phenology on vascular epiphytes on the Island of Barro Colorado, Panama. Five tree species were selected, which were deciduous, semi-deciduous or evergreen. The crowns of drought-deciduous trees, characterized by sunnier and drier microclimates, hosted fewer individuals and less diverse epiphyte assemblages. Differences were also observed at a functional level, e.g. epiphyte assemblages in deciduous trees had larger proportions of Crassulacean acid metabolism species and individuals. At the population level a drier microclimate was associated with lower individual growth and survival in a xerophytic fern. Some species also showed, as expected, lower specific leaf area and higher δ13C values when growing in deciduous trees compared with evergreen trees. As hypothesized, host tree leaf phenology influences vascular epiphytes at different levels. Our results suggest a cascading effect of tree composition and associated differences in tree phenology on the diversity and functioning of epiphyte communities in tropical lowland forests. PMID:25392188

  13. Host tree phenology affects vascular epiphytes at the physiological, demographic and community level.

    PubMed

    Einzmann, Helena J R; Beyschlag, Joachim; Hofhansl, Florian; Wanek, Wolfgang; Zotz, Gerhard

    2014-11-11

    The processes that govern diverse tropical plant communities have rarely been studied in life forms other than trees. Structurally dependent vascular epiphytes, a major part of tropical biodiversity, grow in a three-dimensional matrix defined by their hosts, but trees differ in their architecture, bark structure/chemistry and leaf phenology. We hypothesized that the resulting seasonal differences in microclimatic conditions in evergreen vs. deciduous trees would affect epiphytes at different levels, from organ physiology to community structure. We studied the influence of tree leaf phenology on vascular epiphytes on the Island of Barro Colorado, Panama. Five tree species were selected, which were deciduous, semi-deciduous or evergreen. The crowns of drought-deciduous trees, characterized by sunnier and drier microclimates, hosted fewer individuals and less diverse epiphyte assemblages. Differences were also observed at a functional level, e.g. epiphyte assemblages in deciduous trees had larger proportions of Crassulacean acid metabolism species and individuals. At the population level a drier microclimate was associated with lower individual growth and survival in a xerophytic fern. Some species also showed, as expected, lower specific leaf area and higher δ(13)C values when growing in deciduous trees compared with evergreen trees. As hypothesized, host tree leaf phenology influences vascular epiphytes at different levels. Our results suggest a cascading effect of tree composition and associated differences in tree phenology on the diversity and functioning of epiphyte communities in tropical lowland forests.

  14. Lichens as indicators of the atmosphere state in the oil exploration district of Tomsk Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolshunova, Tatiana; Ivan, Podkozlin

    2013-04-01

    Lichens are widespread in the vegetative cover of West Siberia, particularly in the north. They play an important role in the migration and transformation of chemical pollutants. Lichens lack waxy cuticles and are largely dependent on the atmosphere for their water and nutrient uptake. Lichens are not only studied and used as indicators, but also as accumulators, e.g. for trace and heavy metals. In fact, lichens are known for their ability to accumulate airborne substances to concentrations far greater those in the atmosphere, and the element contents of lichen thalli proved to be directly correlated with environmental levels. Monitoring of the atmosphere pollution using lichens is more efficient than that using snow cover. Because of the long lichen life it is possible to obtain persistent mean characteristics of the ecosystems state. Epiphytic lichens, growing on tree stems are more appropriate to use than that which grow on soil. Epiphytic lichens are more sensitive to changes of the chemical composition of the atmosphere. Pollutants penetrate in the lichen thalli from the atmosphere together with precipitations and dust. Moreover the precipitations are saturated with pollutants when going through crowns of trees and trickling down the steams and branches. Lichen studies are especially important in territories subjected to excessive human activity. Because a great part of Tomsk region (West Siberia, Russia) is the territory of the oil-field exploration, there the atmosphere monitoring is a necessary part of the whole environmental monitoring. The aim of this investigation is the estimation of the influence of oil exploration industry in Tomsk region on the atmosphere by means of the study of epiphytic lichens. Lichen samples were collected in August and September 2010-2011. Sampling net included seven areas distributed inside the oil-exploration districts of Tomsk region. In total 27 samples were collected. In these samples 53 chemical elements were detected by

  15. Prolonging the hydration and active metabolism from light periods into nights substantially enhances lichen growth.

    PubMed

    Bidussi, Massimo; Gauslaa, Yngvar; Solhaug, Knut Asbjørn

    2013-05-01

    This study investigates how hydration during light and dark periods influences growth in two epiphytic old forest lichens, the green algal Lobaria pulmonaria and the cyanobacterial L. scrobiculata. The lichens were cultivated in growth chambers for 14 days (200 μmol m(-1) s(-2); 12 h photoperiod) at four temperature regimes (25/20 °C, 21/16 °C, 13/8 °C, and 6/1 °C; day/night temperatures) and two hydration regimes (12 h day-time hydration; 12 h day-time + 12 h night-time hydration). Growth was highly dynamic, showing that short-term growth experiments in growth cabinets have a high, but largely unexplored potential in functional lichen studies. The highest measured growth rates were not far from the maximal dry matter gain estimated from published net photosynthetic CO2 uptake data. For the entire data set, photobiont type, temperature, hydration regime and specific thallus mass accounted for 46.6 % of the variation in relative growth rate (RGR). Both species showed substantially higher relative growth rates based on both biomass (RGR) and thallus area (RTAGR) when they were hydrated day and night compared to hydration in light only. Chronic photoinhibition was substantial in thalli hydrated only during the day time and kept at the highest and lowest temperature regimes, resulting in exponential increases in RGR with increasing maximal PSII efficiency (F v/F m) in both species. However, the depression in F v/F m was stronger for the cyanolichen than for the cephalolichen at extreme temperatures. The growth-stimulating effect of night-time hydration suggests that nocturnal metabolic activity improves recovery of photoinhibition and/or enhances the conversion rate of photosynthates into thallus extension.

  16. Plant epiphytism in semiarid conditions revealed the influence of habitat and climate variables on AM fungi communities distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torrecillas, Emma; Torres, Pilar; Díaz, Gisela; del Mar Alguacil, Maria; Querejeta, Jose Ignacio; García, Fuensanta; Roldán, Antonio

    2014-05-01

    In semiarid Mediterranean ecosystems epiphytic plant species are practically absent and only some species of palm-trees can support epiphytes growing in their lower crown area, such as Phoenix dactylifera L. (date palm). In this study we focused in Sonchus tenerrimus L. plants growing as facultative epiphytes in P. dactylifera and its terrestrial forms growing in adjacent soils, Our aim was to determine the possible presence of AMF in these peculiar habitats and to relate AMF communities with climatic variations. We investigated the AMF community composition of epiphytic and terrestrial S. tenerrimus plants along a temperature and precipitation gradient across 12 localities. Epiphytic roots were colonized by AM fungi as determined by microscopic observation, all epiphytic and terrestrial samples analysed showed AMF sequences from taxa belonging to the phylum Glomeromycota, which were grouped in 30 AMF OTUs. The AMF community composition was clearly different between epiphytic and terrestrial root samples and this could be attributable to dispersal constraints and/or the contrasting environmental and ecophysiological conditions prevailing in each habitat. Across sites, the richness and diversity of terrestrial AMF communities was positively correlated with rainfall amount during the most recent growing season. In contrast, there was no significant correlation between climate variables and AMF richness and diversity for epiphytic AMF communities, which suggests that the composition of AMF communities in epiphytic habitats appears to be largely determined by the availability and dispersion of fungal propagules from adjacent terrestrial habitats.

  17. Survival and Growth of Epiphytic Ferns Depend on Resource Sharing.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hua-Zheng; Song, Liang; Liu, Wen-Yao; Xu, Xing-Liang; Hu, Yue-Hua; Shi, Xian-Meng; Li, Su; Ma, Wen-Zhang; Chang, Yan-Fen; Fan, Ze-Xin; Lu, Shu-Gang; Wu, Yi; Yu, Fei-Hai

    2016-01-01

    Locally available resources can be shared within clonal plant systems through physiological integration, thus enhancing their survival and growth. Most epiphytes exhibit clonal growth habit, but few studies have tested effects of physiological integration (resource sharing) on survival and growth of epiphytes and whether such effects vary with species. We conducted two experiments, one on individuals (single ramets) and another on groups (several ramets within a plot), with severed and intact rhizome treatments (without and with physiological integration) on two dominant epiphytic ferns (Polypodiodes subamoena and Lepisorus scolopendrium) in a subtropical montane moist forest in Southwest China. Rhizome severing (preventing integration) significantly reduced ramet survival in the individual experiment and number of surviving ramets in the group experiment, and it also decreased biomass of both species in both experiments. However, the magnitude of such integration effects did not vary significantly between the two species. We conclude that resource sharing may be a general strategy for clonal epiphytes to adapt to forest canopies where resources are limited and heterogeneously distributed in space and time. PMID:27066052

  18. Survival and Growth of Epiphytic Ferns Depend on Resource Sharing

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Hua-Zheng; Song, Liang; Liu, Wen-Yao; Xu, Xing-Liang; Hu, Yue-Hua; Shi, Xian-Meng; Li, Su; Ma, Wen-Zhang; Chang, Yan-Fen; Fan, Ze-Xin; Lu, Shu-Gang; Wu, Yi; Yu, Fei-Hai

    2016-01-01

    Locally available resources can be shared within clonal plant systems through physiological integration, thus enhancing their survival and growth. Most epiphytes exhibit clonal growth habit, but few studies have tested effects of physiological integration (resource sharing) on survival and growth of epiphytes and whether such effects vary with species. We conducted two experiments, one on individuals (single ramets) and another on groups (several ramets within a plot), with severed and intact rhizome treatments (without and with physiological integration) on two dominant epiphytic ferns (Polypodiodes subamoena and Lepisorus scolopendrium) in a subtropical montane moist forest in Southwest China. Rhizome severing (preventing integration) significantly reduced ramet survival in the individual experiment and number of surviving ramets in the group experiment, and it also decreased biomass of both species in both experiments. However, the magnitude of such integration effects did not vary significantly between the two species. We conclude that resource sharing may be a general strategy for clonal epiphytes to adapt to forest canopies where resources are limited and heterogeneously distributed in space and time. PMID:27066052

  19. Survival and Growth of Epiphytic Ferns Depend on Resource Sharing.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hua-Zheng; Song, Liang; Liu, Wen-Yao; Xu, Xing-Liang; Hu, Yue-Hua; Shi, Xian-Meng; Li, Su; Ma, Wen-Zhang; Chang, Yan-Fen; Fan, Ze-Xin; Lu, Shu-Gang; Wu, Yi; Yu, Fei-Hai

    2016-01-01

    Locally available resources can be shared within clonal plant systems through physiological integration, thus enhancing their survival and growth. Most epiphytes exhibit clonal growth habit, but few studies have tested effects of physiological integration (resource sharing) on survival and growth of epiphytes and whether such effects vary with species. We conducted two experiments, one on individuals (single ramets) and another on groups (several ramets within a plot), with severed and intact rhizome treatments (without and with physiological integration) on two dominant epiphytic ferns (Polypodiodes subamoena and Lepisorus scolopendrium) in a subtropical montane moist forest in Southwest China. Rhizome severing (preventing integration) significantly reduced ramet survival in the individual experiment and number of surviving ramets in the group experiment, and it also decreased biomass of both species in both experiments. However, the magnitude of such integration effects did not vary significantly between the two species. We conclude that resource sharing may be a general strategy for clonal epiphytes to adapt to forest canopies where resources are limited and heterogeneously distributed in space and time.

  20. The spatial and seasonal variation of nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide in Cape Breton Highlands National Park, Canada, and the association with lichen abundance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, Mark D.; Heal, Mathew R.; Li, Zhengyan; Kuchta, James; King, Gavin H.; Hayes, Alex; Lambert, Sheldon

    2013-01-01

    Over 200,000 tourists per year visit Cape Breton Highlands National Park, Nova Scotia, Canada. The forests within the park are home to many rare epiphytic lichens, the species diversity of which has declined in some areas. The primary motivation for this study was to gain insight into the concentrations and potential local and long-range sources of air pollution, but its association with lichen species diversity was also examined. Ogawa passive diffusion samplers were used to measure nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) in the park at 19 sites in the winter and 20 sites in the summer of 2011. An improvement in the sensitivity of the sampler analytical protocol was developed. The mean concentrations in the park of winter and summer NO2 (0.81 and 0.16 ppb) and SO2 (0.24 and 0.21 ppb) are not at levels known to be phytotoxic to lichen. The NO2 concentrations in winter were significantly (p = 0.001) higher than those in summer whilst the SO2 concentrations did not differ significantly between winter and summer (p = 0.429). Highest NO2 concentrations in both seasons were observed in the Grand Anse Valley, presumably due to the steep road, emissions from the Pleasant Bay community at the foot of the valley and the enclosed topography of this area reducing dispersion of primary emissions. The SO2 concentrations in the park tended to be greater at elevated sites than valley sites, consistent with dispersion from long-range, rather than local, sources for this pollutant. Significant predictors in a multilinear regression for an index of air purity (lichen based measure of air quality) were lichen species number (p = 0.009), forest old growth index (p = 0.001) and distance from roads (p < 0.001) (model R2 = 0.8, model p = 0.004). The study suggests that local sources of pollution (roads emissions) are adversely associated with lichen species diversity in this National Park, compared with long-range transport, and that monitoring programs such as a lichen

  1. Microbiome change by symbiotic invasion in lichens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maier, Stefanie; Wedin, Mats; Fernandez-Brime, Samantha; Cronholm, Bodil; Westberg, Martin; Weber, Bettina; Grube, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Biological soil crusts (BSC) seal the soil surface from erosive forces in many habitats where plants cannot compete. Lichens symbioses of fungi and algae often form significant fraction of these microbial assemblages. In addition to the fungal symbiont, many species of other fungi can inhabit the lichenic structures and interact with their hosts in different ways, ranging from commensalism to parasitism. More than 1800 species of lichenicolous (lichen-inhabiting) fungi are known to science. One example is Diploschistes muscorum, a common species in lichen-dominated BSC that infects lichens of the genus Cladonia. D. muscorum starts as a lichenicolous fungus, invading the lichen Cladonia symphycarpa and gradually develops an independent Diploschistes lichen thallus. Furthermore, bacterial groups, such as Alphaproteobacteria and Acidobacteria, have been consistently recovered from lichen thalli and evidence is rapidly accumulating that these microbes may generally play integral roles in the lichen symbiosis. Here we describe lichen microbiome dynamics as the parasitic lichen D. muscorum takes over C. symphycarpa. We used high-throughput 16S rRNA gene and photobiont-specific ITS rDNA sequencing to track bacterial and algal transitions during the infection process, and employed fluorescence in situ hybridization to localize bacteria in the Cladonia and Diploschistes lichen thalli. We sampled four transitional stages, at sites in Sweden and Germany: A) Cladonia with no visible infection, B) early infection stage defined by the first visible Diploschistes thallus, C) late-stage infection with parts of the Cladonia thallus still identifiable, and D) final stage with a fully developed Diploschistes thallus, A gradual microbiome shift occurred during the transition, but fractions of Cladonia-associated bacteria were retained during the process of symbiotic reorganization. Consistent changes observed across sites included a notable decrease in the relative abundance of

  2. Mollusc grazing limits growth and early development of the old forest lichen Lobaria pulmonaria in broadleaved deciduous forests.

    PubMed

    Asplund, Johan; Gauslaa, Yngvar

    2008-02-01

    THIS STUDY AIMS: (1) to quantify mollusc grazing on juvenile and mature thalli of the foliose epiphytic lichen Lobaria pulmonaria, and (2) to test the hypothesis inferring a herbivore defensive role of lichen depsidones in forests with indigenous populations of lichen-feeding molluscs. Lichens were transplanted in shaded and less shaded positions in each of two calcareous broadleaved deciduous forests, one poor in lichens, one with a rich Lobarion community. Preventing the access of molluscs significantly reduced the loss of juvenile L. pulmonaria, particularly in the naturally lichen-poor forest. Molluscs also severely grazed mature thalli in the lichen-poor forest, especially thalli placed under the more shading canopies. Furthermore, reducing the natural concentration of depsidones by pre-rinsing with acetone increased subsequent grazing significantly, showing that lichen depsidones function as herbivore defence in natural habitats. Our results suggest that mollusc grazing may play important roles in shaping the epiphytic vegetation in calcareous deciduous forests, and that recently established juvenile L. pulmonaria thalli seem to be particularly vulnerable.

  3. Eutrophic lichens respond to multiple forms of N: implications for critical levels and critical loads research.

    PubMed

    Jovan, Sarah; Riddell, Jennifer; Padgett, Pamela E; Nash, Thomas H

    2012-10-01

    Epiphytic lichen communities are highly sensitive to excess nitrogen (N), which causes the replacement of native floras by N-tolerant, "weedy" eutrophic species. This shift is commonly used as the indicator of ecosystem "harm" in studies developing empirical critical levels (CLE) for ammonia (NH3) and critical loads (CLO) for N. To be most effective, empirical CLE and/or CLO must firmly link lichen response to causal pollutant(s), which is difficult to accomplish in field studies in part because the high cost of N measurements limits their use. For this case study we synthesized an unprecedented array of atmospheric N measurements across 22 long-term monitoring sites in the Los Angeles Basin, California, USA: gas concentrations of NH3, nitric acid (HNO3), nitrogen dioxide, and ozone (n = 10 sites); N deposition in throughfall (n = 8 sites); modeled estimates of eight different forms of N (n = 22 sites); and nitrate deposition accumulated on oak twigs (n = 22 sites). We sampled lichens on black oak (Quercus kelloggii Newb.), and scored plots using two indices of eutroph (N tolerant species) abundance to characterize the community-level response to N. Our results contradict two common assertions about the lichen-N response: (1) that eutrophs respond specifically to NH3 and (2) that the response necessarily depends upon the increased pH of lichen substrates. Eutroph abundance related significantly but weakly to NH3 (r2 = 0.48). Total N deposition as measured in canopy throughfall was by far the best predictor of eutroph abundance (r2 = 0.94), indicating that eutrophs respond to multiple forms of N. Most N variables had significant correlations to eutroph abundance (r2 = 0.36-0.62) as well as to each other (r2 = 0.61-0.98), demonstrating the risk of mistaken causality in CLE/CLO field studies that lack sufficient calibration data. Our data furthermore suggest that eutroph abundance is primarily driven by N inputs, not substrate pH, at least at the high-pH values found

  4. Lichens survive in space: results from the 2005 LICHENS experiment.

    PubMed

    Sancho, Leopoldo G; de la Torre, Rosa; Horneck, Gerda; Ascaso, Carmen; de Los Rios, Asunción; Pintado, Ana; Wierzchos, J; Schuster, M

    2007-06-01

    This experiment was aimed at establishing, for the first time, the survival capability of lichens exposed to space conditions. In particular, the damaging effect of various wavelengths of extraterrestrial solar UV radiation was studied. The lichens used were the bipolar species Rhizocarpon geographicum and Xanthoria elegans, which were collected above 2000 m in the mountains of central Spain and as endolithic communities inhabiting granites in the Antarctic Dry Valleys. Lichens were exposed to space in the BIOPAN-5 facility of the European Space Agency; BIOPAN-5 is located on the outer shell of the Earth-orbiting FOTON-M2 Russian satellite. The lichen samples were launched from Baikonur by a Soyuz rocket on May 31, 2005, and were returned to Earth after 16 days in space, at which time they were tested for survival. Chlorophyll fluorescence was used for the measurement of photosynthetic parameters. Scanning electron microscopy in back-scattered mode, low temperature scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy were used to study the organization and composition of both symbionts. Confocal laser scanning microscopy, in combination with the use of specific fluorescent probes, allowed for the assessment of the physiological state of the cells. All exposed lichens, regardless of the optical filters used, showed nearly the same photosynthetic activity after the flight as measured before the flight. Likewise, the multimicroscopy approach revealed no detectable ultrastructural changes in most of the algal and fungal cells of the lichen thalli, though a greater proportion of cells in the flight samples had compromised membranes, as revealed by the LIVE/DEAD BacLight Bacterial Viability Kit. These findings indicate that most lichenized fungal and algal cells can survive in space after full exposure to massive UV and cosmic radiation, conditions proven to be lethal to bacteria and other microorganisms. The lichen upper cortex seems to provide adequate

  5. Lichens survive in space: results from the 2005 LICHENS experiment.

    PubMed

    Sancho, Leopoldo G; de la Torre, Rosa; Horneck, Gerda; Ascaso, Carmen; de Los Rios, Asunción; Pintado, Ana; Wierzchos, J; Schuster, M

    2007-06-01

    This experiment was aimed at establishing, for the first time, the survival capability of lichens exposed to space conditions. In particular, the damaging effect of various wavelengths of extraterrestrial solar UV radiation was studied. The lichens used were the bipolar species Rhizocarpon geographicum and Xanthoria elegans, which were collected above 2000 m in the mountains of central Spain and as endolithic communities inhabiting granites in the Antarctic Dry Valleys. Lichens were exposed to space in the BIOPAN-5 facility of the European Space Agency; BIOPAN-5 is located on the outer shell of the Earth-orbiting FOTON-M2 Russian satellite. The lichen samples were launched from Baikonur by a Soyuz rocket on May 31, 2005, and were returned to Earth after 16 days in space, at which time they were tested for survival. Chlorophyll fluorescence was used for the measurement of photosynthetic parameters. Scanning electron microscopy in back-scattered mode, low temperature scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy were used to study the organization and composition of both symbionts. Confocal laser scanning microscopy, in combination with the use of specific fluorescent probes, allowed for the assessment of the physiological state of the cells. All exposed lichens, regardless of the optical filters used, showed nearly the same photosynthetic activity after the flight as measured before the flight. Likewise, the multimicroscopy approach revealed no detectable ultrastructural changes in most of the algal and fungal cells of the lichen thalli, though a greater proportion of cells in the flight samples had compromised membranes, as revealed by the LIVE/DEAD BacLight Bacterial Viability Kit. These findings indicate that most lichenized fungal and algal cells can survive in space after full exposure to massive UV and cosmic radiation, conditions proven to be lethal to bacteria and other microorganisms. The lichen upper cortex seems to provide adequate

  6. Innovative Approaches Using Lichen Enriched Media to Improve Isolation and Culturability of Lichen Associated Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Biosca, Elena G.; Flores, Raquel; Santander, Ricardo D.; Díez-Gil, José Luis; Barreno, Eva

    2016-01-01

    and other lichen species. PMID:27494030

  7. Innovative Approaches Using Lichen Enriched Media to Improve Isolation and Culturability of Lichen Associated Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Biosca, Elena G; Flores, Raquel; Santander, Ricardo D; Díez-Gil, José Luis; Barreno, Eva

    2016-01-01

    and other lichen species.

  8. Innovative Approaches Using Lichen Enriched Media to Improve Isolation and Culturability of Lichen Associated Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Biosca, Elena G; Flores, Raquel; Santander, Ricardo D; Díez-Gil, José Luis; Barreno, Eva

    2016-01-01

    and other lichen species. PMID:27494030

  9. The Lichen Dirinaria picta New to South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Jayalal, Udeni; Oh, Sang-Sil; Joshi, Santosh; Oh, Soon-Ok

    2013-01-01

    Two species of the lichen genus Dirinaria (Tuck.) Clem. are recognized in the South Korean lichen mycota, viz: D. applanata and D. picta. Descriptions of each species with their morphological, anatomical, and chemical characteristics together with molecular analysis and a key to known Dirinaria species are presented. D. picta is recorded from South Korea for the first time. PMID:24198671

  10. Lichen physiology and cell biology

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D.H.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents information on topics relating to mineral element accumulation in bog lichens, nitrogen losses from diazotrophic lichens, influence of automobile exhaust and lead on the oxygen exchange of lichens, temporal variation in lichen element levels, and lead and uranium uptake by lichens. Other topics include the architecture of the concentric bodies in the mycobiont of Peltigera praetextata; multiple enzyme forms in lichens, photosynthesis, water relations multiple enzyme forms in lichens, photosynthesis, water relations and thallus structure of strictaceae lichens; and aspects of carbohydrate metabolism in lichens. The distribution of uranium and companion elements in lichen heath associated with undisturbed uranium deposits in the Canadian Arctic is also discussed.

  11. Covariance of lichen and vascular plant floras

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, J.P.; Wetmore, C.M.

    1999-01-01

    The geographic relationships among taxonomic groups are important to study to determine patterns of biodiversity and whether or not associations occur between large groups, e.g., birds and vascular plants. This study was undertaken to determine relationships between higher plants and lower plants, specifically vascular plant and lichen floras in nine national parks of the Great Lakes region. No significant relationship was found between vascular plant floras and lichen floras in this area, which spans 1200 km longitudinally, or between an additional 19 areas from North America that were less than 1000 km(2) in area. For areas larger than 1000 km(2), however, a significant positive relationship existed for 33 areas that span one to approximately 150 million km(2). The ratio of numbers of vascular plants to lichens appeared to average just over 6 across the 33 areas. In the Great Lakes parks, between 28-30% of either the vascular plant or lichen species were singletons (occurring in only one park), but the parks that contained the most singletons were not congruent: Isle Royale had the most singleton lichens, while Indiana Dunes had the most vascular plant singletons. Fewer lichen species (2%) than vascular plants (4%) occurred in all nine parks. Latitude appeared to explain some of the variation between the two groups: vascular plants decreased with increasing latitude, while lichens increased.

  12. Vanadium contamination of lichens and tree foliage in the vicinity of three oil-fired power plants in Eastern Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Juichang, R.; Freedman, B.; Coles, C.; Zwicker, B.; Holzbecker, J.; Chatt, A.

    1995-06-01

    Vanadium concentrations were determined by neutron activation analysis in samples of epiphytic lichens and tree foliage collected at sites along 10 transects in the vicinity of three oil-fired power plants in eastern Canada. The vanadium concentrations in plants decreased exponentially with increasing distance from the power plants. Substantially larger concentrations of vanadium occurred in lichen tissues than in tree foliage. Lichens clearly are more suitable for biomonitoring environmental contamination with vanadium near oil-fired power plants. 2 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  13. Lichens and lepidopterons

    SciTech Connect

    Sigal, L.L.

    1984-01-01

    The newly found association of Usnea strigosa (Ach.) A. Eat. and the lichenophagous larva of the moth Zanclognatha theralis (Walker) is described. The possible biological role of lichen acids in the lichen-moth relationship is discussed.

  14. Lichen planus actinicus.

    PubMed

    Kim, Gene H; Mikkilineni, Radha

    2007-01-01

    A 53-year-old woman presented for evaluation and treatment of discrete, violaceous, annular plaques on the forehead and cheeks. The biopsy specimen and the clinical presentation were consistent with lichen planus actinicus. Lichen planus actinicus is a photosensitive variant of lichen planus that can present with annular, melasma-like, dyschromic, or violaceous plaques in sun-exposed areas. The clinical manifestations of lichen planus actinicus and treatments are discussed.

  15. Terricolous lichens in the glacier forefield of the Matscherferner (Eastern Alps, South Tyrol, Italy)

    PubMed Central

    Bilovitz, Peter O.; Tutzer, Veronika; Wallner, Anja; Nascimbene, Juri; Mayrhofer, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    Two sampling sites were established at increasing distance from the glacier to investigate lichen communities on soil, plant debris and terricolous mosses in the glacier forefield of the Matscherferner. The survey yielded 34 lichen species and one lichenicolous fungus. In addition, 19 lichen species and one lichenicolous fungus were found by collecting at random, outside the two sampling sites. PMID:27042696

  16. Lichen planus actinicus.

    PubMed

    Zanca, A; Zanca, A

    1978-01-01

    Two patients with lichen planus actinicus are reported. Lichen planus actinicus is more descriptive than lichen planus tropicus, since the condition appears in more temperate climate, i.e. Italy. The etiology of this condition is obscure, but light may act as a triggering mechanism.

  17. Algal and fungal diversity in Antarctic lichens.

    PubMed

    Park, Chae Haeng; Kim, Kyung Mo; Elvebakk, Arve; Kim, Ok-Sun; Jeong, Gajin; Hong, Soon Gyu

    2015-01-01

    The composition of lichen ecosystems except mycobiont and photobiont has not been evaluated intensively. In addition, recent studies to identify algal genotypes have raised questions about the specific relationship between mycobiont and photobiont. In the current study, we analyzed algal and fungal community structures in lichen species from King George Island, Antarctica, by pyrosequencing of eukaryotic large subunit (LSU) and algal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) domains of the nuclear rRNA gene. The sequencing results of LSU and ITS regions indicated that each lichen thallus contained diverse algal species. The major algal operational taxonomic unit (OTU) defined at a 99% similarity cutoff of LSU sequences accounted for 78.7-100% of the total algal community in each sample. In several cases, the major OTUs defined by LSU sequences were represented by two closely related OTUs defined by 98% sequence similarity of ITS domain. The results of LSU sequences indicated that lichen-associated fungi belonged to the Arthoniomycetes, Eurotiomycetes, Lecanoromycetes, Leotiomycetes, and Sordariomycetes of the Ascomycota, and Tremellomycetes and Cystobasidiomycetes of the Basidiomycota. The composition of major photobiont species and lichen-associated fungal community were mostly related to the mycobiont species. The contribution of growth forms or substrates on composition of photobiont and lichen-associated fungi was not evident. PMID:25105247

  18. Algal and fungal diversity in Antarctic lichens.

    PubMed

    Park, Chae Haeng; Kim, Kyung Mo; Elvebakk, Arve; Kim, Ok-Sun; Jeong, Gajin; Hong, Soon Gyu

    2015-01-01

    The composition of lichen ecosystems except mycobiont and photobiont has not been evaluated intensively. In addition, recent studies to identify algal genotypes have raised questions about the specific relationship between mycobiont and photobiont. In the current study, we analyzed algal and fungal community structures in lichen species from King George Island, Antarctica, by pyrosequencing of eukaryotic large subunit (LSU) and algal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) domains of the nuclear rRNA gene. The sequencing results of LSU and ITS regions indicated that each lichen thallus contained diverse algal species. The major algal operational taxonomic unit (OTU) defined at a 99% similarity cutoff of LSU sequences accounted for 78.7-100% of the total algal community in each sample. In several cases, the major OTUs defined by LSU sequences were represented by two closely related OTUs defined by 98% sequence similarity of ITS domain. The results of LSU sequences indicated that lichen-associated fungi belonged to the Arthoniomycetes, Eurotiomycetes, Lecanoromycetes, Leotiomycetes, and Sordariomycetes of the Ascomycota, and Tremellomycetes and Cystobasidiomycetes of the Basidiomycota. The composition of major photobiont species and lichen-associated fungal community were mostly related to the mycobiont species. The contribution of growth forms or substrates on composition of photobiont and lichen-associated fungi was not evident.

  19. Surface Hydrophobicity Causes SO2 Tolerance in Lichens

    PubMed Central

    Hauck, Markus; Jürgens, Sascha-René; Brinkmann, Martin; Herminghaus, Stephan

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims The superhydrophobicity of the thallus surface in one of the most SO2-tolerant lichen species, Lecanora conizaeoides, suggests that surface hydrophobicity could be a general feature of lichen symbioses controlling their tolerance to SO2. The study described here tests this hypothesis. Methods Water droplets of the size of a raindrop were placed on the surface of air-dry thalli in 50 lichen species of known SO2 tolerance and contact angles were measured to quantify hydrophobicity. Key Results The wettability of lichen thalli ranges from strongly hydrophobic to strongly hydrophilic. SO2 tolerance of the studied lichen species increased with increasing hydrophobicity of the thallus surface. Extraction of extracellular lichen secondary metabolites with acetone reduced, but did not abolish the hydrophobicity of lichen thalli. Conclusions Surface hydrophobicity is the main factor controlling SO2 tolerance in lichens. It presumably originally evolved as an adaptation to wet habitats preventing the depression of net photosynthesis due to supersaturation of the thallus with water. Hydrophilicity of lichen thalli is an adaptation to dry or humid, but not directly rain-exposed habitats. The crucial role of surface hydrophobicity in SO2 also explains why many markedly SO2-tolerant species are additionally tolerant to other (chemically unrelated) toxic substances including heavy metals. PMID:18077467

  20. Changing lichen diversity in and around urban settlements of Garhwal Himalayas due to increasing anthropogenic activities.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Vertika; Upreti, Dalip K

    2011-03-01

    Decrease in lichen diversity is an important biometric tool to assess the prevailing environmental condition in an area. An attempt has been made to explore the utility of lichen diversity in the monitoring of air pollution in the city of Pauri and Srinagar, Garhwal Himalayas, Uttaranchal. Eighty five lichen species were recorded from Pauri and Srinagar (Garhwal) in June 2005. It was observed that polluted sites had very low lichen diversity, mostly dominated by members of lichen family Physciaceae. Kiyonkaleshwar area is the site with maximum lichen diversity (46 lichen taxa) located in a more or less pollution-free area of Pauri city. Two-dimensional principal components analysis plot revealed significant positive contribution of natural (unaltered) sites towards lichen biodiversity, thus affirming the utility of lichen diversity in biomonitoring studies in a wide geographical area.

  1. Spatial scales of variation in lichens: implications for sampling design in biomonitoring surveys.

    PubMed

    Giordani, Paolo; Brunialti, Giorgio; Frati, Luisa; Incerti, Guido; Ianesch, Luca; Vallone, Emanuele; Bacaro, Giovanni; Maccherini, Simona

    2013-02-01

    The variability of biological data is a main constraint affecting the quality and reliability of lichen biomonitoring surveys for estimation of the effects of atmospheric pollution. Although most epiphytic lichen bioindication surveys focus on between-site differences at the landscape level, associated with the large scale effects of atmospheric pollution, current protocols are based on multilevel sampling, thus adding further sources of variation and affecting the error budget. We test the hypothesis that assemblages of lichen communities vary at each spatial scale examined, in order to determine what scales should be included in future monitoring studies. We compared four sites in Italy, along gradients of atmospheric pollution and climate, to test the partitioning of the variance components of lichen diversity across spatial scales (from trunks to landscapes). Despite environmental heterogeneity, we observed comparable spatial variance. However, residuals often overcame between-plot variability, leading to biased estimation of atmospheric pollution effects.

  2. Metabolic Profiling of Alpine and Ecuadorian Lichens.

    PubMed

    Mittermeier, Verena K; Schmitt, Nicola; Volk, Lukas P M; Suárez, Juan Pablo; Beck, Andreas; Eisenreich, Wolfgang

    2015-10-01

    Non-targeted ¹H-NMR methods were used to determine metabolite profiles from crude extracts of Alpine and Ecuadorian lichens collected from their natural habitats. In control experiments, the robustness of metabolite detection and quantification was estimated using replicate measurements of Stereocaulon alpinum extracts. The deviations in the overall metabolite fingerprints were low when analyzing S. alpinum collections from different locations or during different annual and seasonal periods. In contrast, metabolite profiles observed from extracts of different Alpine and Ecuadorian lichens clearly revealed genus- and species-specific profiles. The discriminating functions determining cluster formation in principle component analysis (PCA) were due to differences in the amounts of genus-specific compounds such as sticticin from the Sticta species, but also in the amounts of ubiquitous metabolites, such as sugar alcohols or trehalose. However, varying concentrations of these metabolites from the same lichen species e.g., due to different environmental conditions appeared of minor relevance for the overall cluster formation in PCA. The metabolic clusters matched phylogenetic analyses using nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA) internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences of lichen mycobionts, as exemplified for the genus Sticta. It can be concluded that NMR-based non-targeted metabolic profiling is a useful tool in the chemo-taxonomy of lichens. The same approach could also facilitate the discovery of novel lichen metabolites on a rapid and systematical basis.

  3. Grazer diversity effects in an eelgrass-epiphyte-microphytobenthos system.

    PubMed

    Jaschinski, Sybill; Aberle, Nicole; Gohse-Reimann, Sandra; Brendelberger, Heinz; Wiltshire, Karen H; Sommer, Ulrich

    2009-03-01

    The dramatic loss of biodiversity and its consequences for ecosystem processes have been of considerable interest in recent ecological studies. However, the complex and interacting processes influencing diversity effects in multitrophic systems are still poorly understood. We used an experimental eelgrass system to study the effects of changing richness of three consumer species on the biomass, diversity and taxonomic composition of both epiphytic and benthic microalgal assemblages. After 1 week, consumer richness enhanced the grazing impact on epiphyte biomass relative to single consumer treatments and a positive effect of consumer richness on prey diversity was found. Moreover, strong effects of consumer species identity on taxonomic composition were found in both microalgal assemblages. However, the effects of consumer richness were not consistent over time. The consequences of high nutrient availability seemed to have masked consumer richness effects.

  4. Effect of simulated acid rain on quantity of epiphytic microfungi on Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) needles.

    PubMed

    Ranta, H M

    1990-01-01

    The effects of simulated acid rain on the phyllosphere microflora of pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) were studied experimentally in northern Finland during the summer of 1988. Trees were irrigated with artificial acid rain of pH4 and pH3 (H(2)SO(4) and HNO(3), weight ratio of S:N=2.86:1). Untreated trees and trees irrigated with spring water (pH6) were used as controls. Two sampling heights (0.5m and 2m) were used. The needles were colonized exclusively by epiphytic fungi, mainly Aureobasidium pullulans (de Bary) Arnaud. The lower branches had significantly more epiphytic fungi than the upper branches. Compared to the control trees, the numbers of epiphytic fungi were significantly decreased on the needles of trees irrigated with acid rain. Acid rain affected the number of epiphytic fungi equally at both sampling heights. The species composition of the epiphytic fungi was not affected by the acid treatments.

  5. Evaluation of a combined macrophyte–epiphyte bioassay for assessing nutrient enrichment in the Portneuf River, Idaho, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ray, Andrew M.; Mebane, Christopher A.; Raben, Flint; Irvine, Kathryn M.; Marcarelli, Amy M.

    2014-01-01

    We describe and evaluate a laboratory bioassay that uses Lemna minor L. and attached epiphytes to characterize the status of ambient and nutrient-enriched water from the Portneuf River, Idaho, USA. Specifically, we measured morphological (number of fronds, longest surface axis, root length) and population-level (number of plants, dry mass) responses of L. minor, and community-level (ash free dry mass [AFDM] and chlorophyll a [chl a]) responses of epiphytes to nutrient enrichment. Overall, measures of macrophyte biomass and abundance increased with increasing concentrations of dissolved phosphorus (P) and responded more predictably to nutrient enrichment than morphological measures. Epiphyte AFDM and chl a were also greatest in P enriched-water; enrichments of N alone produced no measurable epiphytic response. The epiphyte biomass response did not directly mirror macrophyte biomass responses, illustrating the value of a combined macrophyte-epiphyte assay to more fully evaluate nutrient management strategies. Finally, the most P-enriched waters not only supported greater standing stocks of macrophyte and epiphytes, but also had significantly higher water column dissolved oxygen and dissolved organic carbon concentrations and a lower pH. Advantages of this macrophyte-epiphyte bioassay over more traditional single species assays include the use of a more realistic level of biological organization, a relatively short assay schedule (~10 days), and the inclusion of multiple biological response and water quality measures.

  6. Evaluation of a combined macrophyte-epiphyte bioassay for assessing nutrient enrichment in the Portneuf River, Idaho, USA.

    PubMed

    Ray, Andrew M; Mebane, Christopher A; Raben, Flint; Irvine, Kathryn M; Marcarelli, Amy M

    2014-07-01

    We describe and evaluate a laboratory bioassay that uses Lemna minor L. and attached epiphytes to characterize the status of ambient and nutrient-enriched water from the Portneuf River, Idaho. Specifically, we measured morphological (number of fronds, longest surface axis, and root length) and population-level (number of plants and dry mass) responses of L. minor and community-level (ash-free dry mass [AFDM] and chlorophyll a [Chl a]) responses of epiphytes to nutrient enrichment. Overall, measures of macrophyte biomass and abundance increased with increasing concentrations of dissolved phosphorus (P) and responded more predictably to nutrient enrichment than morphological measures. Epiphyte AFDM and Chl a were also greatest in P-enriched water; enrichments of N alone produced no measurable epiphytic response. The epiphyte biomass response did not directly mirror macrophyte biomass responses, illustrating the value of a combined macrophyte-epiphyte assay to more fully evaluate nutrient management strategies. Finally, the most P-enriched waters not only supported greater standing stocks of macrophyte and epiphytes but also had significantly higher water column dissolved oxygen and dissolved organic carbon concentrations and a lower pH. Advantages of this macrophyte-epiphyte bioassay over more traditional single-species assays include the use of a more realistic level of biological organization, a relatively short assay schedule (~10 days), and the inclusion of multiple biological response and water-quality measures.

  7. Age, sun and substrate: triggers of bacterial communities in lichens.

    PubMed

    Cardinale, Massimiliano; Steinová, Jana; Rabensteiner, Johannes; Berg, Gabriele; Grube, Martin

    2012-02-01

    Bacterial communities colonize the surfaces of lichens in a biofilm-like manner. The overall structure of the bacterial communities harboured by the lichens shows similarities, in particular the dominance of not yet cultured Alphaproteobacteria. Parameters causing variation in abundance, composition and spatial organization of the lichen-associated bacterial communities are so far poorly understood. As a first step, we used a microscopic approach to test the significance of both lichen-intrinsic and extrinsic environmental factors on the bacterial communities associated with 11 lichen samples, belonging to six species. Some of these species have thalli with a distinct age gradient. A statistically significant effect can be attributed to the age of the thallus parts, which is an intrinsic factor: growing parts of the lichens host bacterial communities that significantly differ from those of the ageing portions of the thalli. The substrate type (rock, tree, understory) and (at a lower extent) the exposition to the sun also affected the bacterial communities. Interestingly, the abundance of bacterial cells in the lichens was also influenced by the same structure-triggering factors. No effect on the composition with main bacterial groups was attributed to different lichen species, differentiated thallus parts or thallus growth type. Our results are important for the experimental designs in lichen-bacterial ecology. PMID:23757225

  8. How do you solve a problem like Letharia? A new look at cryptic species in lichen-forming fungi using Bayesian clustering and SNPs from multilocus sequence data.

    PubMed

    Altermann, Susanne; Leavitt, Steven D; Goward, Trevor; Nelsen, Matthew P; Lumbsch, H Thorsten

    2014-01-01

    The inclusion of molecular data is increasingly an integral part of studies assessing species boundaries. Analyses based on predefined groups may obscure patterns of differentiation, and population assignment tests provide an alternative for identifying population structure and barriers to gene flow. In this study, we apply population assignment tests implemented in the programs STRUCTURE and BAPS to single nucleotide polymorphisms from DNA sequence data generated for three previous studies of the lichenized fungal genus Letharia. Previous molecular work employing a gene genealogical approach circumscribed six species-level lineages within the genus, four putative lineages within the nominal taxon L. columbiana (Nutt.) J.W. Thomson and two sorediate lineages. We show that Bayesian clustering implemented in the program STRUCTURE was generally able to recover the same six putative Letharia lineages. Population assignments were largely consistent across a range of scenarios, including: extensive amounts of missing data, the exclusion of SNPs from variable markers, and inferences based on SNPs from as few as three gene regions. While our study provided additional evidence corroborating the six candidate Letharia species, the equivalence of these genetic clusters with species-level lineages is uncertain due, in part, to limited phylogenetic signal. Furthermore, both the BAPS analysis and the ad hoc ΔK statistic from results of the STRUCTURE analysis suggest that population structure can possibly be captured with fewer genetic groups. Our findings also suggest that uneven sampling across taxa may be responsible for the contrasting inferences of population substructure. Our results consistently supported two distinct sorediate groups, 'L. lupina' and L. vulpina, and subtle morphological differences support this distinction. Similarly, the putative apotheciate species 'L. lucida' was also consistently supported as a distinct genetic cluster. However, additional studies

  9. How Do You Solve a Problem like Letharia? A New Look at Cryptic Species in Lichen-Forming Fungi Using Bayesian Clustering and SNPs from Multilocus Sequence Data

    PubMed Central

    Altermann, Susanne; Leavitt, Steven D.; Goward, Trevor; Nelsen, Matthew P.; Lumbsch, H. Thorsten

    2014-01-01

    The inclusion of molecular data is increasingly an integral part of studies assessing species boundaries. Analyses based on predefined groups may obscure patterns of differentiation, and population assignment tests provide an alternative for identifying population structure and barriers to gene flow. In this study, we apply population assignment tests implemented in the programs STRUCTURE and BAPS to single nucleotide polymorphisms from DNA sequence data generated for three previous studies of the lichenized fungal genus Letharia. Previous molecular work employing a gene genealogical approach circumscribed six species-level lineages within the genus, four putative lineages within the nominal taxon L. columbiana (Nutt.) J.W. Thomson and two sorediate lineages. We show that Bayesian clustering implemented in the program STRUCTURE was generally able to recover the same six putative Letharia lineages. Population assignments were largely consistent across a range of scenarios, including: extensive amounts of missing data, the exclusion of SNPs from variable markers, and inferences based on SNPs from as few as three gene regions. While our study provided additional evidence corroborating the six candidate Letharia species, the equivalence of these genetic clusters with species-level lineages is uncertain due, in part, to limited phylogenetic signal. Furthermore, both the BAPS analysis and the ad hoc ΔK statistic from results of the STRUCTURE analysis suggest that population structure can possibly be captured with fewer genetic groups. Our findings also suggest that uneven sampling across taxa may be responsible for the contrasting inferences of population substructure. Our results consistently supported two distinct sorediate groups, ‘L. lupina’ and L. vulpina, and subtle morphological differences support this distinction. Similarly, the putative apotheciate species ‘L. lucida’ was also consistently supported as a distinct genetic cluster. However, additional

  10. [Secondary fungal metabolites (mycotoxins) in lichens of different taxonomic groups].

    PubMed

    Burkin, A A; Kononenko, G P

    2014-01-01

    Secondary fungal metabolites (mycotoxins) in 22 lichen species of the families Parmeliaceae, Nephromataceae, Umbilicariaceae, Ramalinaceae, Cladoniaceae, Peltigeraceae, and Teloschistaceae were identified determined by enzyme immunoassay enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The following mycotoxins were identified found in these lichens in a broad concentration range with a frequency of 70-100%: sterigmatocystin (7-2090 ng/g), alternariol (20-6460 ng/g), and emodin (45-94500 ng/g). Mycophenolic acid frequently occurred in 19 lichen species; citrinin, in 17 species; diacetoxyscirpenol, in 11 species; cyclopiazonic acid, in 10 species; and zearalenone, in 9 species. PR toxin was regularly detected in three lichen species; deoxynivalenol, fumonisins, and ochratoxin A, in two species; and T-2 toxin and ergot alkaloids, in one species. Aflatoxin B1 was detected in only six species with a frequency of 2-42%, whereas roridin A was identified present in 10% of Hypogymnia physodes samples.

  11. Evaluating factors that predict the structure of a commensalistic epiphyte-phorophyte network.

    PubMed

    Sáyago, Roberto; Lopezaraiza-Mikel, Martha; Quesada, Mauricio; Álvarez-Añorve, Mariana Yolotl; Cascante-Marín, Alfredo; Bastida, Jesus Ma

    2013-04-01

    A central issue in ecology is the understanding of the establishment of biotic interactions. We studied the factors that affect the assembly of the commensalistic interactions between vascular epiphytes and their host plants. We used an analytical approach that considers all individuals and species of epiphytic bromeliads and woody hosts and non-hosts at study plots. We built models of interaction probabilities among species to assess if host traits and abundance and spatial overlap of species predict the quantitative epiphyte-host network. Species abundance, species spatial overlap and host size largely predicted pairwise interactions and several network metrics. Wood density and bark texture of hosts also contributed to explain network structure. Epiphytes were more common on large hosts, on abundant woody species, with denser wood and/or rougher bark. The network had a low level of specialization, although several interactions were more frequent than expected by the models. We did not detect a phylogenetic signal on the network structure. The effect of host size on the establishment of epiphytes indicates that mature forests are necessary to preserve diverse bromeliad communities. PMID:23407832

  12. Measurements of plutonium, 237Np, and 137Cs in the BCR 482 lichen reference material

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Lavelle, Kevin B.; Miller, Jeffrey L.; Hanson, Susan K.; Connick, William B.; Spitz, Henry B.; Glover, Samuel E.; Oldham, Warren J.

    2015-10-01

    Select anthropogenic radionuclides were measured in lichen reference material, BCR 482. This material was originally collected in Axalp, Switzerland in 1991 and is composed of the epiphytic lichen Pseudevernia furfuracea. Samples from three separate bottles of BCR 482 were analyzed for uranium, neptunium, and plutonium isotopes by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and analyzed for cesium-137 by gamma-ray spectrometry. The isotopic composition of the radionuclides measured in BCR 482 suggests contributions from both global fallout resulting from historical nuclear weapons testing and more volatile materials released following the Chernobyl accident.

  13. Oral lichen planus preceding concomitant lichen planopilaris.

    PubMed

    Stoopler, Eric T; Alfaris, Sausan; Alomar, Dalal; Alawi, Faizan

    2016-09-01

    Lichen planus (LP) is an immune-mediated mucocutaneous disorder with a wide array of clinical presentations. Oral lichen planus (OLP) is characterized clinically by striae, desquamation, and/or ulceration. Lichen planopilaris (LPP), a variant of LP, affects the scalp, resulting in perifollicular erythema and scarring of cutaneous surfaces accompanied by hair loss. The association between OLP and LPP has been reported previously with scant information on concomitant or sequential disease presentation. We describe a patient with concomitant OLP and LPP, and to the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on OLP preceding the onset of LPP. PMID:27544399

  14. Epiphyte communities on Thalassia testudinum from Grand Cayman, British West Indies: Their composition, structure, and contribution to lagoonal sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corlett, Hilary; Jones, Brian

    2007-02-01

    Thalassia testudinum, the most common seagrass found in lagoons around Grand Cayman, influences sedimentation by baffling currents, binding sediment on the seafloor, and providing substrates for a diverse epiphytic biota. About 85% of the epiphytic biota is formed of at least 3 species of coralline algae, 72 species of foraminifera, and 61 species of diatoms. The rest of the biota is formed of sponges, gastropods, ostracods, coccoliths, dinoflagellates, brown algae, and worms. The epiphytes are organized in three communities that are part of an organized tripartite community succession. The basal diatom community is overlain by the coralline algae community, which is then overlain by a community composed of a variety of taxa. The coralline algae community, which is the most extensive, typically covers ˜ 75% of the leaf's surface. Potentially, the skeletons of these epiphytes can make a significant contribution to the fine-grained sediment budget of these lagoons. Surprisingly, only a few of the epiphytes were found in the lagoonal sediment. It appears, therefore, that the epiphytes are lost through skeletal dissolution or transported out of the lagoon following storms. Irrespective of the cause, the epiphytes do not form a significant part of the lagoon sediment in Grand Cayman.

  15. Antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of some lichens and their constituents.

    PubMed

    Kosanić, Marijana; Ranković, Branislav

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the acetone, methanol, and aqueous extracts of the lichens Cladonia furcata (many-forked Cladonia), Hypogymnia physodes (puffed lichen), and Umbilicaria polyphylla (manyleaf navel lichen) and the antimicrobial activity of fumarprotocetraric acid, gyrophoric acid, and physodic acid isolated from the respective lichen species. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by five different methods: free radical scavenging, superoxide anion radical scavenging, reducing power, determination of total phenolic compounds, and determination of total flavonoid content. U. polyphyla exhibited more powerful antioxidant activities than the other lichen species examined: methanol extracts of U. polyphyla showed 90.08% free radical scavenging activities (the ratio was greater than those of standard antioxidants). Moreover, the extracts tested had effective reducing power and superoxide anion radical scavenging. Total contents of phenol and flavonoid in extracts were determined as pyrocatechol equivalents and as rutin equivalents, respectively. A significant strong relationship between total phenolic and flavonoid contents and their antioxidative activities was observed. The antimicrobial activity was estimated by determination of the minimal inhibitory concentration by the broth microdilution method against six species of bacteria and 10 species of fungi. In general, the lichen extracts tested and their respective acids had relatively strong antimicrobial activity against the microorganisms tested. The present study shows that the lichen species tested demonstrated strong antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. The results suggest that lichens may be used as good sources of natural antioxidants and for pharmaceutical purposes in treating various diseases.

  16. Ecology and conservation of a rare, old-growth-associated canopy lichen in a silvicultural landscape

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosso, A.L.; McCune, B.; Rambo, T.

    2000-01-01

    Nephroma occultum Wetm. is a rare, epiphytic lichen associated with old-growth forests of northwestern North America. We describe its distribution, abundance, and habitat within the managed landscape of a southwestern Oregon watershed. Because this species is found mainly in the canopy, we used direct canopy access (tree climbing) in combination with ground (litter) searches for our surveys. We recommend this dual approach when confident determination of presence or absence of a canopy species is needed. Our surveys confirm that N. occultum is a rare old-growth associate within the area of this study, the southernmost extension of its known range. It was both rare across the landscape and uncommon in our primary study site, a 500 yr old stand. It was most often found growing close to the trunk on branches of large Pseudotsuga menziesii, but its distribution was sporadic even within an old-growth stand. The scarcity of very old stands, in combination with the limited ability of this species to disperse within and between stands, has likely contributed to its rarity within the watershed. Management for N. occultum should focus on populations and habitat needs rather than on individuals. Our calculations show that cutting with retention of individual trees surrounded by small buffers could result in the eventual loss of N. occultum from the study area.

  17. Forest successional stage affects the cortical secondary chemistry of three old forest lichens.

    PubMed

    Nybakken, Line; Asplund, Johan; Solhaug, Knut Asbjørn; Gauslaa, Yngvar

    2007-08-01

    Three epiphytic old forest lichens (Usnea longissima, Pseudocyphellaria crocata, and Lobaria pulmonaria) were transplanted along a natural shade-sun gradient comprising three successional stages in boreal spruce forests (dense young forest, open old forest, and clear-cut) for one summer. After harvest, extractable secondary compounds were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography, and the brown pigmentation in melanic species was quantified by reflectance measurements. Cortical compounds in all species increased from shady young forests to exposed clear-cuts. Usnic acid, the major cortical, secondary compound in U. longissima, showed consistently higher concentration in the clear-cut than in the two forested stands. Pseudocyphellaria crocata and L. pulmonaria, lacking extractable secondary compounds in the cortex, significantly increased their amounts of cortical melanins in well-lit stands. The medullary compounds showed more complex responses. Many were not influenced by environmental conditions during the transplantation, whereas the majority of those that responded showed the lowest concentration in clear-cut transplants. Only a few medullary compounds showed the highest concentration in the clear-cut, and at a low level of significance. The synthesis of UV-B-absorbing usnic acid and melanins seems to be part of an acclimation to increased light exposure. The medullary compounds in studied species barely function as solar screens despite their strong UV-B absorbance.

  18. The role of epiphytism in architecture and evolutionary constraint within mycorrhizal networks of tropical orchids.

    PubMed

    Martos, Florent; Munoz, François; Pailler, Thierry; Kottke, Ingrid; Gonneau, Cédric; Selosse, Marc-André

    2012-10-01

    Characterizing the architecture of bipartite networks is increasingly used as a framework to study biotic interactions within their ecological context and to assess the extent to which evolutionary constraint shape them. Orchid mycorrhizal symbioses are particularly interesting as they are viewed as more beneficial for plants than for fungi, a situation expected to result in an asymmetry of biological constraint. This study addressed the architecture and phylogenetic constraint in these associations in tropical context. We identified a bipartite network including 73 orchid species and 95 taxonomic units of mycorrhizal fungi across the natural habitats of Reunion Island. Unlike some recent evidence for nestedness in mycorrhizal symbioses, we found a highly modular architecture that largely reflected an ecological barrier between epiphytic and terrestrial subnetworks. By testing for phylogenetic signal, the overall signal was stronger for both partners in the epiphytic subnetwork. Moreover, in the subnetwork of epiphytic angraecoid orchids, the signal in orchid phylogeny was stronger than the signal in fungal phylogeny. Epiphytic associations are therefore more conservative and may co-evolve more than terrestrial ones. We suggest that such tighter phylogenetic specialization may have been driven by stressful life conditions in the epiphytic niches. In addition to paralleling recent insights into mycorrhizal networks, this study furthermore provides support for epiphytism as a major factor affecting ecological assemblage and evolutionary constraint in tropical mycorrhizal symbioses.

  19. Host specificity in vascular epiphytes: a review of methodology, empirical evidence and potential mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Katrin; Mendieta-Leiva, Glenda; Zotz, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    Information on the degree of host specificity is fundamental for an understanding of the ecology of structurally dependent plants such as vascular epiphytes. Starting with the seminal paper of A.F.W. Schimper on epiphyte ecology in the late 19th century over 200 publications have dealt with the issue of host specificity in vascular epiphytes. We review and critically discuss this extensive literature. The available evidence indicates that host ranges of vascular epiphytes are largely unrestricted while a certain host bias is ubiquitous. However, tree size and age and spatial autocorrelation of tree and epiphyte species have not been adequately considered in most statistical analyses. More refined null expectations and adequate replication are needed to allow more rigorous conclusions. Host specificity could be caused by a large number of tree traits (e.g. bark characteristics and architectural traits), which influence epiphyte performance. After reviewing the empirical evidence for their relevance, we conclude that future research should use a more comprehensive approach by determining the relative importance of various potential mechanisms acting locally and by testing several proposed hypotheses regarding the relative strength of host specificity in different habitats and among different groups of structurally dependent flora. PMID:25564514

  20. Effects of Macroalgal Chemical Extracts on Spore Behavior of the Antarctic Epiphyte Elachista antarctica Phaeophyceae.

    PubMed

    Bucolo, Philip; Amsler, Charles D; McClintock, James B; Baker, Bill J

    2012-12-01

    Most macroalgal species along the Western Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) are defended against predation, many using chemical defenses. These subtidal communities are also mostly devoid of free living filamentous algae. However, one endo/epiphyte, Elachista antarctica, is found growing exclusively out of the palatable rhodophyte Palmaria decipiens. To understand this unusual and exclusive epiphytization, we tested whether macroalgal secondary metabolites such as those responsible for deterring sympatric grazers, affect the behaviors of the epiphyte's spores. Settlement, germination, and swimming behaviors of the epiphyte's motile spores were quantified in the presence of fractionated lipophilic and hydrophilic extracts of host P. decipiens and other rhodophytes from the shallow subtidal. Host P. decipiens was the only alga tested that did not inhibit spore settlement or germination. We also examined whether extracts from these chemically rich algae affect spore swimming behaviors and found spores to be chemotactically attracted to seawater soluble extract fractions of host P. decipiens. These results indicate that chemosensory behaviors of the epiphyte's spores to metabolites associated with these chemically defended macrophytes can explain this exclusive epiphyte-host interaction.

  1. Abundance of epiphytic dinoflagellates from coastal waters off Jeju Island, Korea During Autumn 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyung Seop; Yih, Wonho; Kim, Jong Hyeok; Myung, Geumog; Jeong, Hae Jin

    2011-09-01

    The occurrence of harmful epiphytic dinoflagellates is of concern to scientists, the aquaculture industry, and government due to their toxicity not only to marine organisms but also to humans. There have been no studies on the abundance of the epiphytic dinoflagellates in Korean waters. We explored the presence of epiphytic dinoflagellates in the coastal waters off Jeju Island, southwestern Korea. Furthermore, we measured the abundance of epiphytic dinoflagellates on the thalli of 24 different macroalgae, collected from five different locations in October 2009. Five epiphytic dinoflagellate genera Amphidinium, Coolia, Gambierdiscus, Ostreopsis, and Prorocentrum were found. These five genera were observed on the thalli of the macroalgae Chordaria flagelliformis, Martensia sp., Padina arborescens, and Sargassum sp., while none were observed exceptionally on Codium fragile. The abundance of Ostreopsis spp. was highest on Derbesia sp. (8,660 cells/g wet weight), while that of Gambierdiscus spp. was highest on Martensia sp. (4,870 cells/g-ww). The maximum abundances of Amphidinium spp., Coolia spp., and Prorocentrum spp. were 410, 710, and 300 cells/g-ww, respectively. The maximum abundance of Coolia spp., Gambierdiscus spp., and Ostreopsis spp. obtained in the present study was lower than for other locations reported in literature. The results of the present study suggest that the presence and abundance of epiphytic dinoflagellates may be related to the macroalgal species of the coastal waters of Jeju Island.

  2. Influence of habitat and climate variables on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus community distribution, as revealed by a case study of facultative plant epiphytism under semiarid conditions.

    PubMed

    Torrecillas, E; Torres, P; Alguacil, M M; Querejeta, J I; Roldán, A

    2013-12-01

    In semiarid Mediterranean ecosystems, epiphytic plant species are practically absent, and only some species of palm trees can support epiphytes growing in their lower crown area, such as Phoenix dactylifera L. (date palm). In this study, we focused on Sonchus tenerrimus L. plants growing as facultative epiphytes in P. dactylifera and its terrestrial forms growing in adjacent soils. Our aim was to determine the possible presence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in these peculiar habitats and to relate AMF communities with climatic variations. We investigated the AMF community composition of epiphytic and terrestrial S. tenerrimus plants along a temperature and precipitation gradient across 12 localities. Epiphytic roots were colonized by AMF, as determined by microscopic observation; all of the epiphytic and terrestrial samples analyzed showed AMF sequences from taxa belonging to the phylum Glomeromycota, which were grouped in 30 AMF operational taxonomic units. The AMF community composition was clearly different between epiphytic and terrestrial root samples, and this could be attributable to dispersal constraints and/or the contrasting environmental and ecophysiological conditions prevailing in each habitat. Across sites, the richness and diversity of terrestrial AMF communities was positively correlated with rainfall amount during the most recent growing season. In contrast, there was no significant correlation between climate variables and AMF richness and diversity for epiphytic AMF communities, which suggests that the composition of AMF communities in epiphytic habitats appears to be largely determined by the availability and dispersion of fungal propagules from adjacent terrestrial habitats.

  3. Influence of Habitat and Climate Variables on Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus Community Distribution, as Revealed by a Case Study of Facultative Plant Epiphytism under Semiarid Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Torrecillas, E.; Torres, P.; Querejeta, J. I.; Roldán, A.

    2013-01-01

    In semiarid Mediterranean ecosystems, epiphytic plant species are practically absent, and only some species of palm trees can support epiphytes growing in their lower crown area, such as Phoenix dactylifera L. (date palm). In this study, we focused on Sonchus tenerrimus L. plants growing as facultative epiphytes in P. dactylifera and its terrestrial forms growing in adjacent soils. Our aim was to determine the possible presence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in these peculiar habitats and to relate AMF communities with climatic variations. We investigated the AMF community composition of epiphytic and terrestrial S. tenerrimus plants along a temperature and precipitation gradient across 12 localities. Epiphytic roots were colonized by AMF, as determined by microscopic observation; all of the epiphytic and terrestrial samples analyzed showed AMF sequences from taxa belonging to the phylum Glomeromycota, which were grouped in 30 AMF operational taxonomic units. The AMF community composition was clearly different between epiphytic and terrestrial root samples, and this could be attributable to dispersal constraints and/or the contrasting environmental and ecophysiological conditions prevailing in each habitat. Across sites, the richness and diversity of terrestrial AMF communities was positively correlated with rainfall amount during the most recent growing season. In contrast, there was no significant correlation between climate variables and AMF richness and diversity for epiphytic AMF communities, which suggests that the composition of AMF communities in epiphytic habitats appears to be largely determined by the availability and dispersion of fungal propagules from adjacent terrestrial habitats. PMID:24038687

  4. Influence of habitat and climate variables on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus community distribution, as revealed by a case study of facultative plant epiphytism under semiarid conditions.

    PubMed

    Torrecillas, E; Torres, P; Alguacil, M M; Querejeta, J I; Roldán, A

    2013-12-01

    In semiarid Mediterranean ecosystems, epiphytic plant species are practically absent, and only some species of palm trees can support epiphytes growing in their lower crown area, such as Phoenix dactylifera L. (date palm). In this study, we focused on Sonchus tenerrimus L. plants growing as facultative epiphytes in P. dactylifera and its terrestrial forms growing in adjacent soils. Our aim was to determine the possible presence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in these peculiar habitats and to relate AMF communities with climatic variations. We investigated the AMF community composition of epiphytic and terrestrial S. tenerrimus plants along a temperature and precipitation gradient across 12 localities. Epiphytic roots were colonized by AMF, as determined by microscopic observation; all of the epiphytic and terrestrial samples analyzed showed AMF sequences from taxa belonging to the phylum Glomeromycota, which were grouped in 30 AMF operational taxonomic units. The AMF community composition was clearly different between epiphytic and terrestrial root samples, and this could be attributable to dispersal constraints and/or the contrasting environmental and ecophysiological conditions prevailing in each habitat. Across sites, the richness and diversity of terrestrial AMF communities was positively correlated with rainfall amount during the most recent growing season. In contrast, there was no significant correlation between climate variables and AMF richness and diversity for epiphytic AMF communities, which suggests that the composition of AMF communities in epiphytic habitats appears to be largely determined by the availability and dispersion of fungal propagules from adjacent terrestrial habitats. PMID:24038687

  5. Lichen palatability depends on investments in herbivore defence.

    PubMed

    Gauslaa, Yngvar

    2005-03-01

    Lichens are well-suited organisms for experimental herbivory studies because their secondary compounds, assumed to deter grazing, can be non-destructively extracted. Thalli of 17 lichen species from various habitats were cut in two equal parts; compounds were extracted from one part by acetone, the other served as a control. These two pieces were offered as a paired choice to the generalist herbivore snail Cepaea hortensis. Control thalli of all lichens were consumed at a low rate regardless of their investments in acetone-extractable lichen compounds; naturally compound-deficient lichen species were not preferred compared to those with high contents. However, for extracted thalli, there was a highly significant positive correlation between rate of consumption and the extracted compound contents. These data imply that herbivore defence has evolved in different directions in different lichens. Studied members of Parmeliaceae, common in oligotrophic habitats, have high contents of carbon-rich acetone-soluble compounds; these lichens became highly palatable to snails subsequent to acetone rinsing. Extracted lichen compounds were applied to pieces of filter paper and fed to snails. Extracts from members of the Parmeliaceae significantly deterred feeding on paper. Such data suggest that generalist herbivores may have shaped evolution in the widespread and highly diverse Parmeliaceae towards high investments in lichen compounds. On the other hand, lichens belonging to the Physciaceae and Teloschistales, common in nutrient-enriched habitats, are deficient in, or have low concentrations of, lichen compounds. Such lichens did not become more palatable after acetone rinsing. The orange anthraquinone compound parietin, restricted to the Teloschistales, and which has previously been found to protect against excess light, did not deter grazing.

  6. Epiphyte Water Retention and Evaporation in Native and Invaded Tropical Montane Cloud Forests in Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mudd, R. G.; Giambelluca, T. W.

    2006-12-01

    Epiphyte water retention was quantified at two montane cloud forest sites in Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park, one native and the other invaded by an alien tree species. Water storage elements measured included all epiphytic mosses, leafy liverworts, and filmy ferns. Tree surface area was estimated and a careful survey was taken to account for all epiphytes in the sample area of the forest. Samples were collected and analyzed in the lab for epiphyte water retention capacity (WRC). Based on the volume of the different kinds of epiphytes and their corresponding WRC, forest stand water retention capacity for each survey area was estimated. Evaporation from the epiphyte mass was quantified using artificial reference samples attached to trees that were weighed at intervals to determine changes in stored water on days without significant rain or fog. In addition, a soil moisture sensor was wrapped in an epiphyte sample and left in the forest for a 6-day period. Epiphyte biomass at the Native Site and Invaded Site were estimated to be 2.89 t ha-1 and 1.05 t ha-1, respectively. Average WRC at the Native Site and Invaded Site were estimated at 1.45 mm and 0.68 mm, respectively. The difference is likely due to the presence of the invasive Psidium cattleianum at the Invaded Site because its smooth stem surface is unable to support a significant epiphytic layer. The evaporation rate from the epiphyte mass near WSC for the forest stand at the Native Site was measured at 0.38 mm day-1, which represented 10.6 % of the total ET from the forest canopy at the Native Site during the period. The above research has been recently complemented by a thorough investigation of the WSC of all water storage elements (tree stems, tree leaves, shrubs, grasses, litter, fallen branches, and epiphytes) at six forested sites at different elevations within, above, and below the zone of frequent cloud-cover. The goal of this study was to create an inexpensive and efficient methodology for acquiring

  7. Lichens as a tool for biogeochemical prospecting.

    PubMed

    Chettri, M K; Sawidis, T; Karataglis, S

    1997-12-01

    The heavy metal content in lichens and vascular plants from abandoned copper mining areas, Gerakario (Kilkis) and Megali Panagia (Chalkidiki), have been compared with metal content in soil in order to assess their efficiency to accumulate five metals (Cu, Mn, Pb, Zn, and Cr). The average metal content in the mineralized soil of Gerakario was, in descending order, Cu, Mn, Pb, Zn, and Cr, and in Chalkidiki it was Cu, Mn, Cr, Pb, and Zn. The epilithic lichens (Neophuscelia pulla) accumulated the highest amount of Cu and Pb, and Xanthoparmelia taractica accumulated the highest amount of Zn. All the lichens revealed significant (P < 0.05) correlation between Cu content in soil and that in thalli. Out of five metals studied, four (Cu, Pb, Mn, and Cr) in the epigeic lichen Cladonia convoluta, two (Cu and Mn) in both epilithic lichen N. pulla and X. taractica, and one (Pb) in vascular plant Minuartia (root) were significantly (P < 0.05) correlated between their metal content in plant tissue and in soil. Further, discoloration of C. convoluta with higher Cu concentrations adds a visible clue for biogeochemical exploration. Thus, lichens along with other symptomatic species will help in locating mining areas.

  8. Genetic Basis of Self-Incompatibility in the Lichen-Forming Fungus Lobaria pulmonaria and Skewed Frequency Distribution of Mating-Type Idiomorphs: Implications for Conservation

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Garima; Dal Grande, Francesco; Cornejo, Carolina; Schmitt, Imke; Scheidegger, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    Fungal populations that reproduce sexually are likely to be genetically more diverse and have a higher adaptive potential than asexually reproducing populations. Mating systems of fungal species can be self-incompatible, requiring the presence of isolates of different mating-type genes for sexual reproduction to occur, or self-compatible, requiring only one. Understanding the distribution of mating-type genes in populations can help to assess the potential of self-incompatible species to reproduce sexually. In the locally threatened epiphytic lichen-forming fungus Lobaria pulmonaria (L.) Hoffm., low frequency of sexual reproduction is likely to limit the potential of populations to adapt to changing environmental conditions. Our study provides direct evidence of self-incompatibility (heterothallism) in L. pulmonaria. It can thus be hypothesized that sexual reproduction in small populations might be limited by an unbalanced distribution of mating-type genes. We therefore assessed neutral genetic diversity (using microsatellites) and mating-type ratio in 27 lichen populations (933 individuals). We found significant differences in the frequency of the two mating types in 13 populations, indicating a lower likelihood of sexual reproduction in these populations. This suggests that conservation translocation activities aiming at maximizing genetic heterogeneity in threatened and declining populations should take into account not only presence of fruiting bodies in transplanted individuals, but also the identity and balanced representation of mating-type genes. PMID:23236495

  9. The Lichen Genus Parmotrema in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Jayalal, Udeni; Divakar, Pradeep K.; Joshi, Santosh; Oh, Soon-Ok; Koh, Young Jin

    2013-01-01

    Parmotrema A. Massal. is a common lichen genus scattered throughout the Korean Peninsula; however, no detailed taxonomic or revisionary study of this genus has been conducted for nearly two decades. Therefore, this study revised the taxonomy of this genus based on specimens deposited in the lichen herbarium at the Korean Lichen Research Institute and samples wereidentified using recent literature. In this revisionary study, a total of eighteen species of Parmotrema including eight new records [Parmotrema cetratum (Ach.) Hale, Parmotrema cristiferum (Taylor) Hale, Parmotrema grayanum (Hue) Hale, Parmotrema defectum (Hale) Hale, Parmotrema dilatatum (Vain.) Hale, Parmotrema margaritatum (Hue) Hale, Parmotrema pseudocrinitum (Abbayes) Hale, and Parmotrema subsumptum (Nyl.) Hale] are documented. Detailed descriptions of each species with their morphological, anatomical and chemical characteristics are also given and a key to the known Parmotrema species of the Korean Peninsula is presented. PMID:23610536

  10. The Lichen Genus Sticta in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Jayalal, Udeni; Joshi, Santosh; Oh, Soon-Ok; Kim, Jung A; Koh, Young Jin; Crişan, Florin

    2014-01-01

    Sticta (Schreber.) Ach. is one of the common lichen genera in tropical and subtropical regions, but not in the Korean Peninsula. For almost two decades, no detailed taxonomic or revisionary study has been done on this genus. This study was based on the specimens deposited in the lichen herbarium at the Korean Lichen Research Institute, and the samples were identified on the basis of recent literature. In this revisionary study, a total of eight species of Sticta, including a newly recorded one are documented. These species include Sticta fuliginosa (Dicks.) Ach., Sticta gracilis (Müll. Arg.) Zahlbr., Sticta limbata (Sm.) Ach., Sticta nylanderiana Zahlbr., Sticta sublimbata (J. Steiner) Swinscow & Krog, Sticta weigelii (Ach.) Vain., Sticta wrightii Tuck., and Sticta yatabeana Müll. Arg. Detailed descriptions of S. nylanderiana, S. sublimbata, S. weigelii, and S. yatabeana with their morphological, anatomical, and chemical characteristics are provided. A key description of all known Sticta species of the Korean Peninsula is also presented. PMID:24808727

  11. A comprehensive checklist of vascular epiphytes of the Atlantic Forest reveals outstanding endemic rates

    PubMed Central

    Freitas, Leandro; Salino, Alexandre; Neto, Luiz Menini; Elias Almeida, Thaís; Mortara, Sara Ribeiro; Stehmann, João Renato; Amorim, André Marcio; Guimarães, Elsie Franklin; Coelho, Marcus Nadruz; Zanin, Ana; Forzza, Rafaela Campostrini

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Knowledge of the geographic distribution of plants is essential to underpin the understanding of global biodiversity patterns. Vascular epiphytes are important components of diversity and functionality of Neotropical forests but, unlike their terrestrial counterparts, they are under-represented in large-scale diversity and biogeographic analyses. This is the case for the Atlantic Forest - one of the most diverse and threatened biomes worldwide. We provide the first comprehensive species list of Atlantic Forest vascular epiphytes; their endemism patterns and threatened species occurrence have also been analyzed. A list with 2,256 species of (hemi-)epiphytes - distributed in 240 genera and 33 families - is presented based on the updated Brazilian Flora Checklist. This represents more than 15% of the total vascular plant richness in the Atlantic Forest. Moreover, 256 species are included on the Brazilian Red List. More than 93% of the overall richness is concentrated in ten families, with 73% represented by Orchidaceae and Bromeliaceae species alone. A total of 78% of epiphytic species are endemic to the Atlantic Forest, in contrast to overall vascular plant endemism in this biome estimated at 57%. Among the non-endemics, 13% of epiphytic species also occur either in the Amazon or in the Cerrado - the other two largest biomes of Brazil – and only 8% are found in two or more Brazilian biomes. This pattern of endemism, in addition to available dated phylogenies of some genera, indicate the dominance of recent radiations of epiphytic groups in the Atlantic Forest, showing that the majority of divergences dating from the Pliocene onwards are similar to those that were recently reported for other Neotropical plants. PMID:26884706

  12. Lead Isotopes and Temporal Records of Atmospheric Aerosol and Pollutants in Lichens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Getty, S. R.; Nash, T.; Asmerom, Y.

    2001-05-01

    , and not local effects of wind or rock substrate. There, the 206Pb/207Pb of 1.18 is identical among epiphytic lichens suspended from trees (Usnea sp.) and a thallus profile for a radial epilithic lichens (Xanthoparmelia sp.). Each lichen contrasts strongly with the 206Pb/207Pb of 1.138 for the basalt substrate. These results show that temporal records of airborne PM in radial lichens can help to reconstruct rates of recycling of aeolian soils and aerosol dispersal in desert ecosystems.

  13. Comparative analysis of the antioxidant properties of Icelandic and Hawaiian lichens.

    PubMed

    Hagiwara, Kehau; Wright, Patrick R; Tabandera, Nicole K; Kelman, Dovi; Backofen, Rolf; Ómarsdóttir, Sesselja; Wright, Anthony D

    2016-09-01

    Antioxidant activity of symbiotic organisms known as lichens is an intriguing field of research because of its strong contribution to their ability to withstand extremes of physical and biological stress (e.g. desiccation, temperature, UV radiation and microbial infection). We present a comparative study on the antioxidant activities of 76 Icelandic and 41 Hawaiian lichen samples assessed employing the DPPH- and FRAP-based antioxidant assays. Utilizing this unprecedented sample size, we show that while highest individual sample activity is present in the Icelandic dataset, the overall antioxidant activity is higher for lichens found in Hawaii. Furthermore, we report that lichens from the genus Peltigera that have been described as strong antioxidant producers in studies on Chinese, Russian and Turkish lichens also show high antioxidant activities in both Icelandic and Hawaiian lichen samples. Finally, we show that opportunistic sampling of lichens in both Iceland and Hawaii will yield high numbers of lichen species that exclusively include green algae as photobiont. PMID:25808912

  14. Comparative analysis of the antioxidant properties of Icelandic and Hawaiian lichens.

    PubMed

    Hagiwara, Kehau; Wright, Patrick R; Tabandera, Nicole K; Kelman, Dovi; Backofen, Rolf; Ómarsdóttir, Sesselja; Wright, Anthony D

    2016-09-01

    Antioxidant activity of symbiotic organisms known as lichens is an intriguing field of research because of its strong contribution to their ability to withstand extremes of physical and biological stress (e.g. desiccation, temperature, UV radiation and microbial infection). We present a comparative study on the antioxidant activities of 76 Icelandic and 41 Hawaiian lichen samples assessed employing the DPPH- and FRAP-based antioxidant assays. Utilizing this unprecedented sample size, we show that while highest individual sample activity is present in the Icelandic dataset, the overall antioxidant activity is higher for lichens found in Hawaii. Furthermore, we report that lichens from the genus Peltigera that have been described as strong antioxidant producers in studies on Chinese, Russian and Turkish lichens also show high antioxidant activities in both Icelandic and Hawaiian lichen samples. Finally, we show that opportunistic sampling of lichens in both Iceland and Hawaii will yield high numbers of lichen species that exclusively include green algae as photobiont.

  15. Ice encapsulation protects rather than disturbs the freezing lichen.

    PubMed

    Bjerke, J W

    2009-03-01

    Arctic and alpine terricolous lichens are adapted to harsh environments and are tolerant to extremely low temperatures when metabolically inactive. However, there are reports indicating that freezing can be lethal to metabolically active lichens. With a projected warmer and more unstable climate, winter precipitation at high latitudes will fall more frequently as rain, causing snowmelt and encapsulating terricolous lichens in ice or exposing them to large temperature fluctuations. Lichens are a major winter food source for reindeer in most parts of the circumpolar region. A laboratory experiment tested how three hydrated reindeer forage lichen species covered by snow, encapsulated in ice, or uncovered responded to storage at freezing temperatures and subsequent warming. Photosynthetic performance (maximal fluorescence of dark-adapted samples and net photosynthetic rates) was significantly lower in lichens not insulated by snow or ice, whereas there were few differences between the snow and ice treatments. It is suggested that snow and ice provide sufficiently moist environments to improve extracellular and reduce intracellular ice nucleation activity. Ice encapsulation, which is often lethal to vascular plants, did not have any negative effects on the studied lichens. The results indicate that complete snow and ice melt followed by refreezing can be detrimental to terricolous lichen ecosystems. Reduced lichen biomass will have a negative effect both on reindeer winter survival and the indigenous peoples who herd reindeer.

  16. Ice encapsulation protects rather than disturbs the freezing lichen.

    PubMed

    Bjerke, J W

    2009-03-01

    Arctic and alpine terricolous lichens are adapted to harsh environments and are tolerant to extremely low temperatures when metabolically inactive. However, there are reports indicating that freezing can be lethal to metabolically active lichens. With a projected warmer and more unstable climate, winter precipitation at high latitudes will fall more frequently as rain, causing snowmelt and encapsulating terricolous lichens in ice or exposing them to large temperature fluctuations. Lichens are a major winter food source for reindeer in most parts of the circumpolar region. A laboratory experiment tested how three hydrated reindeer forage lichen species covered by snow, encapsulated in ice, or uncovered responded to storage at freezing temperatures and subsequent warming. Photosynthetic performance (maximal fluorescence of dark-adapted samples and net photosynthetic rates) was significantly lower in lichens not insulated by snow or ice, whereas there were few differences between the snow and ice treatments. It is suggested that snow and ice provide sufficiently moist environments to improve extracellular and reduce intracellular ice nucleation activity. Ice encapsulation, which is often lethal to vascular plants, did not have any negative effects on the studied lichens. The results indicate that complete snow and ice melt followed by refreezing can be detrimental to terricolous lichen ecosystems. Reduced lichen biomass will have a negative effect both on reindeer winter survival and the indigenous peoples who herd reindeer. PMID:19228329

  17. Effects of microwave and radio frequency electromagnetic fields on lichens.

    PubMed

    Urech, M; Eicher, B; Siegenthaler, J

    1996-01-01

    The effects of electromagnetic fields on lichens were investigated. Field experiments of long duration (1-3 years) were combined with laboratory experiments and theoretical considerations. Samples of the lichen species Parmelia tiliacea and Hypogymnia physodes were exposed to microwaves (2.45 GHz; 0.2, 5, and 50 mW/cm2; and control). Both species showed a substantially reduced growth rate at 50 mW/cm2. A differentiation between thermal and nonthermal effects was not possible. Temperature measurements on lichens exposed to microwaves (2.45 GHz, 50 mW/cm2) showed a substantial increase in the surface temperature and an accelerated drying process. The thermal effect of microwave on lichens was verified. The exposure of lichens of both species was repeated near a short-wave broadcast transmitter (9.5 MHz, amplitude modulated; maximum field strength 235 V/m, 332 mA/m). No visible effects on the exposed lichens were detected. At this frequency, no thermal effects were expected, and the experimental results support this hypothesis. Theoretical estimates based on climatic data and literature showed that the growth reductions in the initial experiments could very likely have been caused by drying of the lichens from the heating with microwaves. The results of the other experiments support the hypothesis that the response of the lichens exposed to microwaves was mainly due to thermal effects and that there is a low probability of nonthermal effects.

  18. Ozone reactivity and free radical scavenging behavior of phenolic secondary metabolites in lichens exposed to chronic oxidant air pollution from Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Valencia-Islas, N; Zambrano, A; Rojas, J L

    2007-08-01

    Lichen secondary metabolites putatively protect lichens from a variety of environmental stress factors, but it is unknown whether these substances respond to air pollution. To assess such a possibility, the three major phenolics of two epiphytic lichen species with contrasting tolerance to chronic air pollution from Mexico City were studied by combining experimental reactivity data and measured field contents. The antioxidant activity and antiradical power of boninic (BO), 2-O-methylsekikaic (MA), and usnic (US) acids, isolated from the tolerant Ramalina asahinae and salazinic acid (SA), atranorin (AT), and chloroatranorin (CA), from the sensitive Parmotrema stuppeum, were determined in vitro by kinetic experiments with ozone and the free radical diphenyl picryl hidrazyl (DPPH*), respectively. In addition, the field contents of these phenolics in the lichens, and the potential antioxidant capacity (PAC) they provide, were compared among three forested sites exposed to urban emissions and a similar, relatively clean site. The six phenolics had antioxidant activity and antiradical power according to these trends: CA > AT > US > SA > or = BO > or = MA for O(3); and CA > AT > US > MA > SA = BO for DPPH*. The three most reactive phenolics are cortical compounds, located in the lichen portion most exposed to the surrounding environment. In contrast, the less reactive SA, BO, and MA are medullary. Such reactivity patterns indicate that some phenolics may provide antioxidative protection at the air-lichen interface. The higher antioxidant power of CA and AT may be due to the reactive hydroxyl groups at positions 2 and 4 of ring A, instead of the less reactive methoxyl at the same positions in both BO and MA. In the field comparisons, total quantified phenolics were significantly higher near Mexico City for both lichens, except for the tolerant R. asahinae at one site. Nevertheless, only the latter species had significantly increased PAC values at all sites near the city

  19. Exploiting the Lichen Liaison.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raham, R. Gary

    1978-01-01

    For teachers in search of an easily obtainable, readily dissectable, and unique living specimen to arouse the interest of their students and illustrate important biological principles, lichens are the perfect selection. Background information and experiments on lichen anatomy, physiology, and chemistry are given. An appendix gives culture media.…

  20. Lichens in the Churchyard

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oldershaw, Cally; Hilton, Barbara; Rocca, Alis

    2010-01-01

    The late Tom Chester, in his role as the British Lichen Society churchyard coordinator, did a great deal to encourage the use of the churchyard as an educational tool. In his honour, the Society has created an award as part of its "Lichen Project". When the Society approached the Association for Science Education (ASE) for help in contacting…

  1. Lichens as Bioindicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Gregory L.; Baker, Thomas R.

    2003-01-01

    Lichens, small and unobtrusive organisms, are seldom noticed as they cling to rocks, trees, and soil in fragile veils or crusts of splendid color and ornate textures. Their beauty is captivating and fascinating, and their purpose and origins are thought-provoking. Lichens make particularly good "bioindicators". They are bioindicators of sulfur…

  2. Lichen planus actinicus.

    PubMed

    Meads, Shanna B; Kunishige, Joy; Ramos-Caro, Francisco A; Hassanein, Ashraf M

    2003-11-01

    Lichen planus actinicus is a photodistributed variant of lichen planus that most often occurs in individuals with dark complexions. Sunlight seems to be a triggering factor in most cases. Several clinical morphologic patterns have been described, and multiple therapies with variable results have been used. The lesions in some patients may remit spontaneously with sun avoidance.

  3. Lichen Mycota in South Korea: The Genus Usnea

    PubMed Central

    Jayalal, Udeni; Joshi, Santosh; Oh, Soon-Ok; Koh, Young Jin; Crişan, Florin

    2013-01-01

    Usnea Adans. is a somewhat rare lichen in South Korea, and, in nearly two decades, no detailed taxonomic or revisionary study has been conducted. This study was based on the specimens deposited in the lichen herbarium at the Korean Lichen Research Institute, and the samples were identified using information obtained from recent literature. In this study, a total of eight species of Usnea, including one new record, Usnea hakonensis Asahina, are documented. Detailed descriptions of each species with their morphological, anatomical, and chemical characteristics are provided. A key to all known Usnea species in South Korea is also presented. PMID:24198666

  4. Biodiversity and spatial distribution of epiphytic ferns on Alsophila setosa Kaulf. (Cyatheaceae) caudices in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, J L; Windisch, P G

    2010-08-01

    The extractive exploitation of the tree fern Alsophila setosa Kaulf. alters forest formations and diminishes the availability of micro-habitat for epiphytes. A survey of epiphytic fern communities on A. setosa at 16 study sites in different forest formations in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, documented the occurrence of 31 species representing 16 genera and six families. The greatest richness of species occurred in Polypodiaceae (39%) and in the genus Asplenium L. (22%). Habitual holoepiphyte was the predominant ecological category, representing 61% of the species. Similarity analysis demonstrated heterogeneity in the composition of the epiphytic ferns at the study sites and indicated that the vegetation type is not the main factor for floristic difference. The lowest total specific richness (5) was recorded for the seasonal deciduous forest site. The majority of the sites presented similar averages of phorophyte height and epiphyte richness per caudex. In 25% of the sites the height of the host plants presented significant correlation with specific richness. Considering that the majority of the epiphytes are habitual and that some of them occur exclusively or preferentially on tree ferns, the maintenance of these host plants in the vegetation is essential for the conservation of epiphytic species.

  5. Cryptic diversity and symbiont interactions in rock-posy lichens.

    PubMed

    Leavitt, Steven D; Kraichak, Ekaphan; Vondrak, Jan; Nelsen, Matthew P; Sohrabi, Mohammad; Perez-Ortega, Sergio; St Clair, Larry L; Lumbsch, H Thorsten

    2016-06-01

    Identifying factors that influence species interactions is central to research in symbiotic systems. While lichens represent iconic models of symbiosis and play important roles in understanding the biology of symbiotic interactions, patterns of interactions in lichen symbionts and mechanisms governing these relationships are not well characterized. This is due, in part to the fact that current taxonomic approaches for recognizing diversity in lichen symbionts commonly fail to accurately reflect actual species diversity. In this study, we employed DNA-based approaches to circumscribed candidate species-level lineages in rock-posy lichen symbionts (mycobiont=Rhizoplaca s. lat. species; photobiont=Trebouxia species). Our results revealed a high degree of cryptic diversity in both the myco- and photobionts in these lichens. Using the candidate species circumscribed here, we investigated the specificity of the symbionts toward their partners and inferred the relative importance of various factors influencing symbiont interactions. Distinct mycobiont species complexes, ecozones, and biomes are significantly correlated with the occurrence of photobiont OTUs, indicating that complex interactions among mycobiont lineages, ecogeography, and microhabitat determine interactions between photobionts and their mycobionts in lichen symbiosis. One-to-one specificity between mycobiont and photobiont species was not found, with the exception of R. maheui that associated with a single Trebouxia OTU that was not found with other Rhizoplaca s. lat. species. We estimated the most recent common ancestor of the core Rhizoplaca group at c. 62.5Ma, similar in age to the diverse parmelioid core group in the well-studied family Parmeliaceae. However, in contrast to Parmeliaceae, species in Rhizoplaca were found to associate with a narrow range of photobionts. Our study provides important perspectives into species diversity and interactions in iconic lichen symbiotic systems and establishes a

  6. Cryptic diversity and symbiont interactions in rock-posy lichens.

    PubMed

    Leavitt, Steven D; Kraichak, Ekaphan; Vondrak, Jan; Nelsen, Matthew P; Sohrabi, Mohammad; Perez-Ortega, Sergio; St Clair, Larry L; Lumbsch, H Thorsten

    2016-06-01

    Identifying factors that influence species interactions is central to research in symbiotic systems. While lichens represent iconic models of symbiosis and play important roles in understanding the biology of symbiotic interactions, patterns of interactions in lichen symbionts and mechanisms governing these relationships are not well characterized. This is due, in part to the fact that current taxonomic approaches for recognizing diversity in lichen symbionts commonly fail to accurately reflect actual species diversity. In this study, we employed DNA-based approaches to circumscribed candidate species-level lineages in rock-posy lichen symbionts (mycobiont=Rhizoplaca s. lat. species; photobiont=Trebouxia species). Our results revealed a high degree of cryptic diversity in both the myco- and photobionts in these lichens. Using the candidate species circumscribed here, we investigated the specificity of the symbionts toward their partners and inferred the relative importance of various factors influencing symbiont interactions. Distinct mycobiont species complexes, ecozones, and biomes are significantly correlated with the occurrence of photobiont OTUs, indicating that complex interactions among mycobiont lineages, ecogeography, and microhabitat determine interactions between photobionts and their mycobionts in lichen symbiosis. One-to-one specificity between mycobiont and photobiont species was not found, with the exception of R. maheui that associated with a single Trebouxia OTU that was not found with other Rhizoplaca s. lat. species. We estimated the most recent common ancestor of the core Rhizoplaca group at c. 62.5Ma, similar in age to the diverse parmelioid core group in the well-studied family Parmeliaceae. However, in contrast to Parmeliaceae, species in Rhizoplaca were found to associate with a narrow range of photobionts. Our study provides important perspectives into species diversity and interactions in iconic lichen symbiotic systems and establishes a

  7. Roles of epiphytes associated with macroalgae in benthic food web of a eutrophic coastal lagoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Xinqing; Huang, Lingfeng; Lin, Rongcheng; Du, Jianguo

    2015-11-01

    Macroalgae perform a significant function in the trophic dynamics in many coastal lagoons, and conventionally, they are the key trophic base that fuels the overall aquatic food web. However, few studies have considered the trophic contribution of epiphytes that attach to macroalgae in the diet of benthic primary consumers or their contribution to the trophic base of the aquatic food web. In this study, macrobenthic invertebrate biomass was combined with multiple-isotope-mixing models to distinguish the trophic importance of macroalgae and their associated epiphytic assemblages in the benthic food web during Ulva lactuca bloom in the Yundang Lagoon, a eutrophic coastal lagoon in Xiamen, China. Amphipods primarily dominated the zoobenthos, with the biomass varied from 40.9 g/m2 in January to 283.9 g/m2 in March. They mainly fed on U. lactuca and its associated epiphytes, which jointly contributed more than 60% to amphipod diets, but species-specific feeding habits were exhibited among amphipods. Using the zoobenthos biomass as a weighting factor, the contribution of U. lactuca and its epiphytes to total benthic communities during U. lactuca bloom exceeded 65%.The epiphytes were clearly utilized more than U. lactuca, with a median contribution ranging from 48.5% in January to 66.6% in March. Our findings demonstrate the trophic importance of the epiphytes in macroalgae-based coastal habitats, as found in many seagrass beds. Therefore, we propose that further food web studies of macroalgae-based ecosystems should pay greater attention to the role of epiphytes.

  8. Changes in epiphyte communities as the shrub, Acer circinatum, develops and ages

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruchty, A.M.; Rosso, A.L.

    2001-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest tall shrub Acer circinatum (vine maple) can host diverse and abundant epiphyte communities. A chronosequence approach revealed that these communities gradually shift in composition as the shrub progresses through its life cycle. Different epiphytic life forms occupy different spatial and temporal niches on shrub stems. These life forms generally shift upwards along the shrub stem as the stem ages and develops, in accordance with the similar gradient hypothesis. We postulate the following sequence of events. An initial wave of colonization occurs as new substrate is laid down. Over time, superior competitors gradually engulf and overgrow competitively inferior primary colonizers. Concurrently, shrub stem microclimate changes as shrub stems grow, age, and layer, causing the processes of competition and colonization to shift in favor of different epiphytic life forms during different life stages of the shrub stem. We define four separate shrub stem life stages: life classes 1a??4 describe, respectively, young upright a??whipsa??; vigorous, upright, mature stems; declining stems beginning to bend towards the forest floor; and horizontal, decadent stems. As space on the shrub stem is filled through growth and colonization, interspecific competition intensifies. Successful competitors persist and spread, while poor competitors are increasingly restricted to the stem tips, where interspecific competition is less intense. In these forests, Usnea, green-algal foliose lichens, and moss tufts excel as the primary colonizers and become common on the outer portions of shrub stems over time, as long as the overstory is not too dense. Moss mats are also good primary colonizers, but excel as secondary colonizers, often coming to dominate decadent shrub stems. Although all life forms can be primary colonizers, the remaining forms (cyanolichens, liverworts, and Antitrichia curtipendula) are effective secondary colonizers. Liverworts are also effective

  9. Lichens and air quality in Big Bend National Park, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Wetmore, C.M.

    1981-01-01

    This study was undertaken because of reports of decreased visibility due to haze and the possibility of increased air pollution in the park. Numerous localities where lichens had been collected 10 years ago were revisited in 1980 to look for any changes in the lichen flora. Photographs were taken from scenic vistas where photographs had been taken earlier. Permanent photographic points for lichens were established for long term monitoring. It is argued that fruticose lichens are just as useful for monitoring air quality in arid areas as in wetter areas. There has been no loss of lichen species at any locality over the past 10 years and haze conditions have not changed much. It is concluded that no significant increase in air pollution has occurred within the park over the past 10 years. 17 references, 4 figures.

  10. Differential responses of certain lichen species to sulfur-containing solutions under acidic conditions as expressed by the production of stress-ethylene

    SciTech Connect

    Garty, J.; Kauppi, M.; Kauppi, A.

    1995-05-01

    To determine whether fluctuations in the concentration of ethylene produced by lichens exposed to sulfur-containing solutions at a low pH correlate with the tolerance/sensitivity of these lichens to air pollution, we measured the amount of ethylene produced by thalli soaked in H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and NaHSO{sub 3}. The exposure of Hypogymnia physodes, Cladina stellaris, and Bryoria fuscescens to H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} at a pH ranging between 4.0 and 2.0 did not produce changes in the concentration of ethylene in comparison with samples wetted with H{sub 2}O at pH 6.8. The exposure of two pendulous lichens, Usnea hirta and Alectoria sarmentosa, to 1.0 and 5.0 mM H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} at pH 2.7 and 2.0, respectively, stimulated only a slight increase of ethylene production, whereas another pendulous lichen, Bryoria fremontii, exposed to H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} at pH 4.0-2.0 decreased its production of ethylene. The soaking of H. physodes, U. hirta, C. stellaris, and A. sarmentosa thalli in NaHSO{sub 3} at pH 4.0 gradually increased the production of ethylene. The exposure of B. fremontii and B. fuscescens to low NaHSO{sub 3} concentrations depressed the production of ethylene in these lichens. The indifference of H. physodes to H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} under strong acidic conditions correlated with its resistance to SO{sub 21} in the air. In accordance with a model by D.M. Reid (In {open_quotes}Effects of Atmospheric Pollutants on Forests, Wetlands and Agricultural Ecosystems. NATO ASI Series, Springer-Verlag, Berlin and Heidelberg, 1987) referring to higher plants, it is suggested that sulfur-containing solutions under acidic conditions increase the solubility of particles containing heavy metals entrapped among the mycobiont hyphae in lichens. This may lead to an increase of the production of endogenous ethylene in lichens as they are exposed to sulfur-containing chemicals, to acidic rain, or to heavy metal-polluted air. 65 refs., 8 tabs.

  11. Differential responses of certain lichen species to sulfur-containing solutions under acidic conditions as expressed by the production of stress-ethylene.

    PubMed

    Garty, J; Kauppi, M; Kauppi, A

    1995-05-01

    To determine whether fluctuations in the concentration of ethylene produced by lichens exposed to sulfur-containing solutions at a low pH correlate with the tolerance/sensitivity of these lichens to air pollution, we measured the amount of ethylene produced by thalli soaked in H2SO4 and NaHSO3. The exposure of Hypogymnia physodes, Cladina stellaris, and Bryoria fuscescens to H2SO4 at a pH ranging between 4.0 and 2.0 did not produce changes in the concentration of ethylene in comparison with samples wetted with H2O at pH 6.8. The exposure of two pendulous lichens, Usnea hirta and Alectoria sarmentosa, to 1.0 and 5.0 mM H2SO4 at pH 2.7 and 2.0, respectively, stimulated only a slight increase of ethylene production, whereas another pendulous lichen, Bryoria fremontii, exposed to H2SO4 at pH 4.0-2.0 decreased its production of ethylene. The soaking of H. physodes, U. hirta, C. stellaris, and A. sarmentosa thalli in NaHSO3 at pH 4.0 gradually increased the production of ethylene. The exposure of B. fremontii and B. fuscescens to low NaHSO3 concentrations depressed the production of ethylene in these lichens. The indifference of H. physodes to H2SO4 under strong acidic conditions correlated with its resistance to SO2 in the air. In accordance with a model by D.M. Reid (In "Effects of Atmospheric Pollutants on Forests, Wetlands and Agricultural Ecosystems" (T.C. Hutchinson and K.M. Meema, Eds.), Vol G 16, pp. 241-245. NATO ASI Series, Springer-Verlag, Berlin and Heidelberg, 1987) referring to higher plants, it is suggested that sulfur-containing solutions under acidic conditions increase the solubility of particles containing heavy metals entrapped among the mycobiont hyphae in lichens. This may lead to an increase of the production of endogenous ethylene in lichens as they are exposed to sulfur-containing chemicals, to acidic rain, or to heavy metal-polluted air.

  12. Retaining biodiversity in intensive farmland: epiphyte removal in oil palm plantations does not affect yield.

    PubMed

    Prescott, Graham W; Edwards, David P; Foster, William A

    2015-05-01

    The expansion of agriculture into tropical forest frontiers is one of the primary drivers of the global extinction crisis, resulting in calls to intensify tropical agriculture to reduce demand for more forest land and thus spare land for nature. Intensification is likely to reduce habitat complexity, with profound consequences for biodiversity within agricultural landscapes. Understanding which features of habitat complexity are essential for maintaining biodiversity and associated ecosystem services within agricultural landscapes without compromising productivity is therefore key to limiting the environmental damage associated with producing food intensively. Here, we focus on oil palm, a rapidly expanding crop in the tropics and subject to frequent calls for increased intensification. One promoted strategy is to remove epiphytes that cover the trunks of oil palms, and we ask whether this treatment affects either biodiversity or yield. We experimentally tested this by removing epiphytes from four-hectare plots and seeing if the biodiversity and production of fruit bunches 2 months and 16 months later differed from equivalent control plots where epiphytes were left uncut. We found a species-rich and taxonomically diverse epiphyte community of 58 species from 31 families. Epiphyte removal did not affect the production of fresh fruit bunches, or the species richness and community composition of birds and ants, although the impact on other components of biodiversity remains unknown. We conclude that as they do not adversely affect palm oil production, the diverse epiphyte flora should be left uncut. Our results underscore the importance of experimentally determining the effects of habitat complexity on yield before introducing intensive methods with no discernible benefits. PMID:26045947

  13. Retaining biodiversity in intensive farmland: epiphyte removal in oil palm plantations does not affect yield

    PubMed Central

    Prescott, Graham W; Edwards, David P; Foster, William A

    2015-01-01

    The expansion of agriculture into tropical forest frontiers is one of the primary drivers of the global extinction crisis, resulting in calls to intensify tropical agriculture to reduce demand for more forest land and thus spare land for nature. Intensification is likely to reduce habitat complexity, with profound consequences for biodiversity within agricultural landscapes. Understanding which features of habitat complexity are essential for maintaining biodiversity and associated ecosystem services within agricultural landscapes without compromising productivity is therefore key to limiting the environmental damage associated with producing food intensively. Here, we focus on oil palm, a rapidly expanding crop in the tropics and subject to frequent calls for increased intensification. One promoted strategy is to remove epiphytes that cover the trunks of oil palms, and we ask whether this treatment affects either biodiversity or yield. We experimentally tested this by removing epiphytes from four-hectare plots and seeing if the biodiversity and production of fruit bunches 2 months and 16 months later differed from equivalent control plots where epiphytes were left uncut. We found a species-rich and taxonomically diverse epiphyte community of 58 species from 31 families. Epiphyte removal did not affect the production of fresh fruit bunches, or the species richness and community composition of birds and ants, although the impact on other components of biodiversity remains unknown. We conclude that as they do not adversely affect palm oil production, the diverse epiphyte flora should be left uncut. Our results underscore the importance of experimentally determining the effects of habitat complexity on yield before introducing intensive methods with no discernible benefits. PMID:26045947

  14. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF EXTRACTS FROM ECUADORIAN LICHENS.

    PubMed

    Matvieieva, N A; Pasichnyk, L A; Zhytkevych, N V; Jacinto, Pabón Garcés Galo; Pidgorskyi, V S

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial activity of the ethanolic, isopropanolic, acetone, DMSO and aqueous extracts of the two lichen species from Ecuadorian highland, Usnea sp. and Stereocaulon sp. were explored in vitro against bacteria Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus by the disc-diffusion method. Also the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined. The strongest antimicrobial activity was found in DMSO extract of Usnea sp. compared to antibacterial activity of ciprfloxacin and cefazolin antibiotics. The inhibition zone was 28 mm, 30 mm, 31mm (DMSO extract, ciprfloxacin and cefazolin respectively) in case of B. subtilis usage as the test bacteria. MIC value for Usnea sp. and Stereocaulon sp. DMSO extracts was 0.4 mg/ml. E. coli was resistant to all kinds of extracts. The S. aureus sensitivity to lichen DMSO extracts was comparable to sensitivity of these microorganisms to tetracycline and vancomycin. Thereby, most kinds of extracts (ethanol, isopropanol, hexane, DMSO and acetone solvents) from Ecuadorian lichens Usnea sp. and Stereocaulon sp. with the exception of aqueous Stereocaulon sp. extracts possessed antibacterial activity against B. subtilis. DMSO lichen extracts had also antimicrobial activity against S. aureus. At the same time the extracts studied didn't demonstrate antibacterial activity against the representatives of the most common and harmful phytopathogenic bacteria tested. Further investigations of Ecuadorian lichens especially study of plants collected from extremal highland biotops can be very important in study of possibility of treatment of numerous diseases caused by pathogenic microorganisms. PMID:26214895

  15. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF EXTRACTS FROM ECUADORIAN LICHENS.

    PubMed

    Matvieieva, N A; Pasichnyk, L A; Zhytkevych, N V; Jacinto, Pabón Garcés Galo; Pidgorskyi, V S

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial activity of the ethanolic, isopropanolic, acetone, DMSO and aqueous extracts of the two lichen species from Ecuadorian highland, Usnea sp. and Stereocaulon sp. were explored in vitro against bacteria Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus by the disc-diffusion method. Also the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined. The strongest antimicrobial activity was found in DMSO extract of Usnea sp. compared to antibacterial activity of ciprfloxacin and cefazolin antibiotics. The inhibition zone was 28 mm, 30 mm, 31mm (DMSO extract, ciprfloxacin and cefazolin respectively) in case of B. subtilis usage as the test bacteria. MIC value for Usnea sp. and Stereocaulon sp. DMSO extracts was 0.4 mg/ml. E. coli was resistant to all kinds of extracts. The S. aureus sensitivity to lichen DMSO extracts was comparable to sensitivity of these microorganisms to tetracycline and vancomycin. Thereby, most kinds of extracts (ethanol, isopropanol, hexane, DMSO and acetone solvents) from Ecuadorian lichens Usnea sp. and Stereocaulon sp. with the exception of aqueous Stereocaulon sp. extracts possessed antibacterial activity against B. subtilis. DMSO lichen extracts had also antimicrobial activity against S. aureus. At the same time the extracts studied didn't demonstrate antibacterial activity against the representatives of the most common and harmful phytopathogenic bacteria tested. Further investigations of Ecuadorian lichens especially study of plants collected from extremal highland biotops can be very important in study of possibility of treatment of numerous diseases caused by pathogenic microorganisms.

  16. [Enzyme immunoassay of usnic acid in lichens].

    PubMed

    Burkin, A A; Kononenko, G P; Tolpysheva, T Iu

    2013-01-01

    An enzyme immunoassay for usnic acid in lichens was developed, the sensitivity of which was 0.1 microg/g of air-dried material (0.00001%). Polyclonal rabbit antibodies against bovine serum albumin conjugated to (+)-usnic acid under the conditions of formaldehyde condensation made it possible to determine the analyzed substance in solutions at concentrations from 1 ng/mL when it interacts with an immobilized gelatin conjugate homologous in the binding mode. Usnic acid in 2-26600 microg/g (0.0002-2.6%) amounts was found in all 236 studied samples of lichens belonging to 53 species and 8 families.

  17. [Vertical stratification of epiphytic bryophytes found on Quercus humboldtii (Fagaceae) from boyacá, Colombia].

    PubMed

    Gil Novoa, Jorge Enrique; Morales Puentes, María Eugenia

    2014-06-01

    Oak forest represents an ecologically important plant formation in Colombia, partly due to the large amount of epiphyte flora that harbors, especially non-vascular plants which have been poorly studied in Colombia. One of the biggest oak forests in the country is the one found in the Parque Natural Municipal "Robledales de Tipacoque" (PNMRT), in Boyacá, municipality of Tipacoque. The epiphyte bryoflora was evaluated in Q. humboldtii, using canopy climbing techniques and dividing the trees (25 individuals sampled) each into five layers (base, trunk, inner canopy, middle and outer canopy). A total of 365 samples were collected: 29% liveworts and 71% mosses. Hepatics represented 10 families, 16 genera and 26 species; mosses 11 families, 26 genera and 49 species. Considering the tree layers, the most diverse one was the base with 51 species, followed by the trunk with 43; in the canopy, the inner canopy was found the most diverse with 28 species, and was followed by the middle canopy with 18, and the outer canopy with 15. A species similarity index shows that the trunk and the middle canopy were the most closely related (0.42) in terms of species composition. The results showed that non-vascular plants were mostly found in lower layers (base and trunk), where the diversity was greater, richer (species number), and this might be caused by the microclimatic conditions in these places, such as higher humidity, lower light intensity and shade. Thus, some species are considered shade epiphytes (ombrophiles) because they are unique to these areas, like Bazzania gracilis and Taxilejeunea pterigonia, among others. Likewise, Jungermannia sp. is considered a sun epiphyte (heliophilous) because it is found only in the outer canopy. We concluded that Q. humboldtii could be considered as a potential host for the conservation of non-vascular epiphytes in Colombian forests.

  18. Prion protein degradation by lichens of the genus Cladonia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, James P.; Rodriguez, Cynthia M.; Johnson, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    It has recently been discovered that lichens contain a serine protease capable of degrading the pathogenic prion protein, the etiological agent of prion diseases such as sheep scrapie and cervid chronic wasting disease. Limited methods are available to degrade or inactivate prion disease agents, especially in the environment, and lichens or their serine protease could prove important for management of these diseases. Scant information is available regarding the presence or absence of the protease responsible for degrading prion protein (PrP) in lichen species and, in this study, we tested the hypothesis that PrP degradation activity in lichens is phylogenetically-based by testing 44 species of Cladonia lichens, a genus for which a significant portion of the phylogeny is well established. We categorized PrP degradation activity among the 44 species (high, moderate, low or none) and found that activity in Cladonia species did not correspond with phylogenetic position of the species. Degradation of PrP did correspond, however, with three classical taxonomic characters within the genus: species with brown apothecia, no usnic acid, and the presence of a cortex. Of the 44 species studied, 18 (41%) had either high or moderate PrP degradation activity, suggesting the protease may be frequent in this genus of lichens.

  19. Mycorrhizal fungal diversity and community composition in a lithophytic and epiphytic orchid.

    PubMed

    Xing, Xiaoke; Gai, Xuege; Liu, Qiang; Hart, Miranda M; Guo, Shunxing

    2015-05-01

    Some orchid species are present as epiphytes and lithophytes in the same habitat, but little is known about the differences of their mycorrhizal fungal communities. We used Coelogyne viscosa, which occurs both as an epiphyte and a lithophyte, as a study system to investigate orchid mycorrhizal fungal communities in lithophytes and epiphytes in Xishuangbanna National Nature Reserve (Yunnan Province, China). Twenty-three fungal operational taxonomic units (OTUs) from 18 sampling sites were identified. Results indicated that mycorrhizal fungal community composition was different between epi- and lithophytes. When we analyzed the Tulasnellaceae and Sebacinales communities separately, we found that the Sebacinales fungal communities were significantly different in the two growth habitats, but the Tulasnellaceae fungal communities were not. Our results provide evidence for distinct orchid mycorrhiza fungal communities depending on the growth habitat of the orchid. Consistent with some recent investigations of mycorrhizal fungus community composition, this study suggests that for one orchid, growth habitat affects mycorrhizal symbioses.

  20. Learning about Lichens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Danny

    1982-01-01

    Provides background information and teaching suggestions for collecting and using lichens in the classroom and for conducting field investigations. Focuses on structure, reproduction, photosynthesis, and effects of air pollution. (DC)

  1. Generalized lichen nitidus.

    PubMed

    Arizaga, A T; Gaughan, M D; Bang, R H

    2002-03-01

    We report a 38-year-old man who presented with a generalized papular eruption that was clinically and histologically consistent with lichen nitidus. This patient's condition had been persistent for approximately 1 year; however, soon after assuming employment that entailed significant, regular sun exposure, the patient noted marked clearing of his lesions in sun-exposed areas. This case corroborates previous reports that suggest that generalized lichen nitidus can be successfully managed with ultraviolet light therapy.

  2. Intrinsic factors of Peltigera lichens influence the structure of the associated soil bacterial microbiota.

    PubMed

    Leiva, Diego; Clavero-León, Claudia; Carú, Margarita; Orlando, Julieta

    2016-11-01

    Definition of lichens has evolved from bi(tri)partite associations to multi-species symbioses, where bacteria would play essential roles. Besides, although soil bacterial communities are known to be affected by edaphic factors, when lichens grow upon them these could become less preponderant. We hypothesized that the structure of both the lichen microbiota and the microbiota in the soil underneath lichens is shaped by lichen intrinsic and extrinsic factors. In this work, intrinsic factors corresponded to mycobiont and cyanobiont identities of Peltigera lichens, metabolite diversity and phenoloxidase activity and extrinsic factors involved the site of the forest where lichens grow. Likewise, the genetic and metabolic structure of the lichen and soil bacterial communities were analyzed by fingerprinting. Among the results, metabolite diversity was inversely related to the genetic structure of bacterial communities of lichens and soils, highlighting the far-reaching effect of these substances; while phenoloxidase activity was inversely related to the metabolic structure only of the lichen bacterial microbiota, presuming a more limited effect of the products of these enzymes. Soil bacterial microbiota was different depending on the site and, strikingly, according to the cyanobiont present in the lichen over them, which could indicate an influence of the photobiont metabolism on the availability of soil nutrients. PMID:27543320

  3. Intrinsic factors of Peltigera lichens influence the structure of the associated soil bacterial microbiota.

    PubMed

    Leiva, Diego; Clavero-León, Claudia; Carú, Margarita; Orlando, Julieta

    2016-11-01

    Definition of lichens has evolved from bi(tri)partite associations to multi-species symbioses, where bacteria would play essential roles. Besides, although soil bacterial communities are known to be affected by edaphic factors, when lichens grow upon them these could become less preponderant. We hypothesized that the structure of both the lichen microbiota and the microbiota in the soil underneath lichens is shaped by lichen intrinsic and extrinsic factors. In this work, intrinsic factors corresponded to mycobiont and cyanobiont identities of Peltigera lichens, metabolite diversity and phenoloxidase activity and extrinsic factors involved the site of the forest where lichens grow. Likewise, the genetic and metabolic structure of the lichen and soil bacterial communities were analyzed by fingerprinting. Among the results, metabolite diversity was inversely related to the genetic structure of bacterial communities of lichens and soils, highlighting the far-reaching effect of these substances; while phenoloxidase activity was inversely related to the metabolic structure only of the lichen bacterial microbiota, presuming a more limited effect of the products of these enzymes. Soil bacterial microbiota was different depending on the site and, strikingly, according to the cyanobiont present in the lichen over them, which could indicate an influence of the photobiont metabolism on the availability of soil nutrients.

  4. Substrate preferences of epiphytic bromeliads: an experimental approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zotz, Gerhard; Vollrath, Birgit

    2002-05-01

    Based on the known vertical distributions of three epiphyte species we tested the hypothesis that observed interspecific differences are determined at a very early ontogenetic stage. We attached 1296 first-year seedlings of the three species Guzmania monostachya, Tillandsia fasciculata, and Vriesea sanguinolenta (Bromeliaceae) to substrates differing in orientation and relative position within the crown of the host tree, Annona glabra. Surprisingly, we found no evidence for differential mortality on different substrate types for any of the three species. Hence, differences in vertical distribution cannot be explained by interspecific differences in site-specific survival at this stage. This suggests that spatial distribution patterns are determined even earlier, probably resulting from species differences in seed dispersal or during germination.

  5. Growth of epiphytic bromeliads in a changing world: The effects of CO 2, water and nutrient supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zotz, Gerhard; Bogusch, Wiebke; Hietz, Peter; Ketteler, Nadine

    2010-11-01

    Vascular epiphytes, which respond to varying water supply more than any other life form, are thought to be particularly vulnerable to climate change because they are de-coupled from the soil and are thus more directly affected by atmospheric conditions. The few available studies addressing the effect of climate change on epiphytes have either studied plant responses to changes in water supply or to elevated CO 2, but none has looked at possible interactions of these abiotic factors. Here, we present a growth chamber study on the response of individuals of 11 species of epiphytic bromeliads from both tropical lowlands and montane areas to varying CO 2, water and nutrient levels. Water availability had by far the strongest and most consistent impact on plant growth, while the effects of elevated CO 2 and increased nutrient supply were much less consistent across species or habitats. A significant mitigation of reduced water availability by increased CO 2 levels could not be detected. While some species from montane areas were very susceptible to low water availability, lowland species were mostly quite drought-tolerant. These results suggest that global change can pose a real threat to vascular epiphytes through changes in the altitude of cloud formation and altered precipitation patterns, acknowledging substantial differences between species and habitats. Other aspects of global change like the increase of atmospheric CO 2 levels as such seem of limited relevance for the functioning of epiphytic plants.

  6. Dissociation and metal-binding characteristics of yellow lichen substances suggest a relationship with site preferences of lichens

    PubMed Central

    Hauck, Markus; Jürgens, Sascha-René; Willenbruch, Karen; Huneck, Siegfried; Leuschner, Christoph

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Many species of lichen-forming fungi contain yellow or orange extracellular pigments belonging to the dibenzofurans (usnic acid), anthraquinones (e.g. parietin) or pulvinic acid group. These pigments are all equally efficient light screens, leading us to question the potential ecological and evolutionary significance of diversity in yellow and orange lichen substances. Here the hypothesis is tested that the different pigments differ in metal-binding characteristics, which suggest that they may contribute to adaptation to sites differing in pH and metal availability. Methods UV spectroscopy was used to study the dissociation and the pH dependence of the metal-binding behaviour of seven isolated lichen substances in methanol. Metals applied were selected macro- and micro-nutrients (Cu2+, Fe2+, Fe3+, Mg2+, Mn2+ and Zn2+). Key Results All the pigments studied are strong to moderate acids with pKa1 values between 2·8 and 4·5. Metal complexation is common in the lichen substances studied. Complexation takes place under acidic conditions with usnic acid, but under alkaline conditions with parietin and most compounds of the pulvinic acid group. The pulvinic acid derivative rhizocarpic acid forms metal complexes both in the acidic and the alkaline range. Conclusions Metal complexation by lichen substances could be a prerequisite for lichen substance-mediated control of metal uptake. Assuming such an effect at pH values where the affinity of the metal for the lichen substance is intermediate would explain the strong preference of lichens with usnic or rhizocarpic acids to acidic substrata. Moreover, it would explain the preference of lichens with parietin and some lichens with compounds of the pulvinic acid group either for nutrient-rich substrata at low pH or for calcareous substrata. PMID:18977765

  7. Multiple origins of crassulacean acid metabolism and the epiphytic habit in the Neotropical family Bromeliaceae

    PubMed Central

    Crayn, Darren M.; Winter, Klaus; Smith, J. Andrew C.

    2004-01-01

    The large Neotropical family Bromeliaceae presents an outstanding example of adaptive radiation in plants, containing a wide range of terrestrial and epiphytic life-forms occupying many distinct habitats. Diversification in bromeliads has been linked to several key innovations, including water- and nutrient-impounding phytotelmata, absorptive epidermal trichomes, and the water-conserving mode of photosynthesis known as crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM). To clarify the origins of CAM and the epiphytic habit, we conducted a phylogenetic analysis of nucleotide sequences for 51 bromeliad taxa by using the plastid loci matK and the rps16 intron, combined with a survey of photosynthetic pathway determined by carbon-isotope ratios for 1,873 species representing 65% of the family. Optimization of character-states onto the strict consensus tree indicated that the last common ancestor of Bromeliaceae was a terrestrial C3 mesophyte, probably adapted to moist, exposed, nutrient-poor habitats. Both CAM photosynthesis and the epiphytic habit evolved a minimum of three times in the family, most likely in response to geological and climatic changes in the late Tertiary. The great majority of epiphytic forms are now found in two lineages: in subfamily Tillandsioideae, in which C3 photosynthesis was the ancestral state and CAM developed later in the most extreme epiphytes, and in subfamily Bromelioideae, in which CAM photosynthesis predated the appearance of epiphytism. Subsequent radiation of the bromelioid line into less xeric habitats has led to reversion to C3 photosynthesis in some taxa, showing that both gain and loss of CAM have occurred in the complex evolutionary history of this family. PMID:14982989

  8. Antarctic Epilithic Lichens as Niches for Black Meristematic Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Selbmann, Laura; Grube, Martin; Onofri, Silvano; Isola, Daniela; Zucconi, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Sixteen epilithic lichen samples (13 species), collected from seven locations in Northern and Southern Victoria Land in Antarctica, were investigated for the presence of black fungi. Thirteen fungal strains isolated were studied by both morphological and molecular methods. Nuclear ribosomal 18S gene sequences were used together with the most similar published and unpublished sequences of fungi from other sources, to reconstruct an ML tree. Most of the studied fungi could be grouped together with described or still unnamed rock-inhabiting species in lichen dominated Antarctic cryptoendolithic communities. At the edge of life, epilithic lichens withdraw inside the airspaces of rocks to find conditions still compatible with life; this study provides evidence, for the first time, that the same microbes associated to epilithic thalli also have the same fate and chose endolithic life. These results support the concept of lichens being complex symbiotic systems, which offer attractive and sheltered habitats for other microbes. PMID:24832808

  9. Lichens and mosses on shrub-steppe soils in Southeastern Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Link, Steven O.; Ryan, Bruce D.; Downs, Janelle L. ); Cadwell, Larry L. ); Soll, Jonathan A.; Hawke, Mary Ann; Ponzetti, Jeanne

    2001-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the lichens and mosses found on soils of the shrub-steppe at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington. Thirteen sites primarily at low elevation were intensively sampled. Twenty nine lichens and six moss species were identified. Three lichens were considered undescribed species. Based on comparison with other studies and herbarium records, we conclude the soil lichen flora of the Hanford Site is substantially different than that of the Great Basin or of the shrub-steppe in Idaho.

  10. Catalogue of the Lichenized and Lichenicolous Fungi of Bosnia and Herzegovina

    PubMed Central

    Bilovitz, Peter O.; Mayrhofer, Helmut

    2011-01-01

    Summary The catalogue is based on a comprehensive evaluation of 152 published sources. It includes 624 species (with 4 subspecies and 13 varieties) of lichenized and 17 species of lichenicolous Ascomycota, as well as 9 non-lichenized Ascomycota traditionally included in lichenological literature. PMID:22121302

  11. Terricolous Lichens in the Glacier Forefield of the Rötkees (Eastern Alps, South Tyrol, Italy)

    PubMed Central

    Bilovitz, Peter O.; Nascimbene, Juri; Tutzer, Veronika; Wallner, Anja; Mayrhofer, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    Summary The investigation of lichens on soil, plant debris and terricolous mosses in the glacier forefield of the Rötkees yielded 31 lichen taxa (29 species and 2 varieties) and one lichenicolous fungus. Micarea incrassata Hedl. (Lecanorales) is new to Italy. Three sampling sites were established at increasing distance from the glacier, in order to compare species diversity, abundance and composition. PMID:26869737

  12. Terricolous Lichens in the Glacier Forefield of the Gaisbergferner (Eastern Alps, Tyrol, Austria)

    PubMed Central

    Bilovitz, Peter O.; Wallner, Anja; Tutzer, Veronika; Nascimbene, Juri; Mayrhofer, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    Summary The investigation of lichens on soil, plant debris and terricolous mosses in the glacier forefield of the Gaisbergferner yielded 41 lichen taxa (39 species and 2 varieties) and one lichenicolous fungus. Three sampling sites were established at increasing distance from the glacier, in order to compare species diversity, abundance and composition. PMID:26869736

  13. Understanding Phenotypical Character Evolution in Parmelioid Lichenized Fungi (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota)

    PubMed Central

    Divakar, Pradeep K.; Kauff, Frank; Crespo, Ana; Leavitt, Steven D.; Lumbsch, H. Thorsten

    2013-01-01

    Parmelioid lichens form a species-rich group of predominantly foliose and fruticose lichenized fungi encompassing a broad range of morphological and chemical diversity. Using a multilocus approach, we reconstructed a phylogeny including 323 OTUs of parmelioid lichens and employed ancestral character reconstruction methods to understand the phenotypical evolution within this speciose group of lichen-forming fungi. Specifically, we were interested in the evolution of growth form, epicortex structure, and cortical chemistry. Since previous studies have shown that results may differ depending on the reconstruction method used, here we employed both maximum-parsimony and maximum-likelihood approaches to reconstruct ancestral character states. We have also implemented binary and multistate coding of characters and performed parallel analyses with both coding types to assess for potential coding-based biases. We reconstructed the ancestral states for nine well-supported major clades in the parmelioid group, two higher-level sister groups and the ancestral character state for all parmelioid lichens. We found that different methods for coding phenotypical characters and different ancestral character state reconstruction methods mostly resulted in identical reconstructions but yield conflicting inferences of ancestral states, in some cases. However, we found support for the ancestor of parmelioid lichens having been a foliose lichen with a non-pored epicortex and pseudocyphellae. Our data suggest that some traits exhibit patterns of evolution consistent with adaptive radiation. PMID:24312438

  14. Raman spectra of oxalates in lichen encrustations on Renaissance frescoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, H. G. M.; Farwell, D. W.; Seaward, M. R. D.

    The vibrational Raman spectra of lichen encrustations on biodeteriorated Renaissance frescoes have been recorded using a laser Raman microprobe. The major chemical species identified in the encrustations is calcium oxalate. Other vibrational features in the Raman spectra have been assigned to fragments of the substratum incorporated from the biodeterioration process and to organic by-products of lichen metabolism such as erythrin, lecanoric acid and meso-erythritol.

  15. Lichens as biomonitors around a coal-fired power station in Israel.

    PubMed

    Garty, Jacob; Tomer, Sharon; Levin, Tal; Lehr, Haya

    2003-03-01

    In the present study epiphytic lichens were applied as biomonitors of air pollution to determine the environmental impact of a coal-fired power station. Thalli of the lichen Ramalina lacera (With.) J.R. Laund. growing on carob twigs (Ceratonia siliqua L.) were collected with their substrate in July 2000 in a relatively unpolluted forest near HaZorea, Ramoth Menashe, Northeast Israel, and transplanted to 10 biomonitoring sites in the vicinity of the coal-fired power station Oroth Rabin near the town of Hadera. The lichens were retrieved in January 2001. We examined the following parameters of lichen vitality: (a) potential quantum yield of photosynthesis expressed as fluorescence ratio F(v)/F(m), (b) stress-ethylene production, and (c) electric conductivity expressing integrity of cell membranes. Following an exposure of 7 months, the lichens were retrieved and physiological parameters and data of elemental content were analyzed comparatively. Electric conductivity values correlated positively with B, Fe, Mg, Mn, Na, Pb, S, Sn, and Ti content. Concentrations of stress-ethylene correlated positively with Al, Ba, Pb, S, and V content and negatively with Cu and Sn. F(v)/F(m) ratios correlated negatively with S content. Some of the heavy metals reached lower levels than those reported in the relevant literature despite a wind regime that should have blown pollutants toward the biomonitoring sites.

  16. Effects of enhanced loads of nutrients on epiphytes on leaves and rhizomes of Posidonia oceanica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balata, David; Piazzi, Luigi; Nesti, Ugo; Bulleri, Fabio; Bertocci, Iacopo

    2010-04-01

    The increase of anthropogenic activities has severely altered both terrestrial and aquatic systems. Urbanisation, excessive use of agricultural fertilisers, organic runoff and climate change have caused an increase of nutrients in coastal waters, altering the diversity and food-web structure of benthic assemblages. The aims of the present paper were to text if an experimentally increased availability of nutrients, primarily nitrogen and phosphorous, in an oligotrophic basin, would affect epiphytic assemblages on leaves and rhizomes of P. oceanica and whether this could change rates of consumption of the plant by herbivores. In particular, we tested the hypothesis i) that changes to species composition and abundance of epiphytic assemblages generated by nutrients enrichment would vary between leaves and rhizomes and that ii) alterations to epiphytic assemblages on leaves might, in turn, modify feeding rates of herbivorous fish. After two years, the structure of both leaf and rhizome epiphytic assemblages responded to changes in nutrient concentrations before the occurrence of drastic alterations to the host plant, but only the former showed significant changes in terms of species composition. Moreover, a larger intensity of grazing on P. oceanica leaves was documented in experimentally enriched areas than in controls. The present findings and conclusions are applicable to other systems where patterns of biodiversity depend on changes in the availability of nutrients due to natural or anthropogenic events, likely interacting with biological processes, such as competition and grazing.

  17. Oral lichen planus.

    PubMed

    Olson, Meredith A; Rogers, Roy S; Bruce, Alison J

    2016-01-01

    Lichen planus is an inflammatory mucocutaneous disease that can affect the skin, hair, nails, and mucosal surfaces. Mucosal sites of involvement include oral, genital, ocular, otic, esophageal, and, less commonly, bladder, nasal, laryngeal, and anal surfaces. Oral lichen planus is a mucosal variant of lichen planus, which tends to affect women more often than men, with a typically more chronic course and potential for significant morbidity. Treatment can be challenging, and there is potentially a low risk of malignant transformation; however, therapeutic benefits can be obtained with various topical and systemic medications. Clinical monitoring is recommended to ensure symptomatic control. Increasing awareness and recognition of this entity have continued to fuel advances in therapy and in our understanding of the disease. PMID:27343965

  18. Water requirements of terrestrial and epiphytic orchid seeds and seedlings, and evidence for water uptake by means of mycotrophy.

    PubMed

    Yoder; Zettler; Stewart

    2000-07-28

    The use of endomycorrhizal fungi as an energy source (=mycotrophy) initiates seedling development and supplements or replaces photosynthesis in all orchids in nature. Fungus-infected and non-infected seeds of the monkey face orchid, Platanthera integrilabia, a US Federally-threatened terrestrial species, had a different set of water relations than seeds of the green fly orchid, Epidendrum conopseum, a subtropical epiphyte. Seeds of the terrestrial species had lower water loss rates, smaller activation energies for water loss and absorbed water from lower relative humidities. Thus, the epiphyte lacks the enhanced water retention capacity associated with the terrestrial species, implying that epiphytic orchids are capable of germinating quickly given an adequately moist substrate. After germination, water content of fungus-infected seeds was higher. These results provide first time fundamental information related to habitat preference by analyzing seed. Germination is considerably enhanced with mycorrhizal fungi that facilitate the absorption of free water by their orchid seed hosts.

  19. Epiphytic cryptogams as a source of bioaerosols and trace gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruckteschler, Nina; Hrabe de Angelis, Isabella; Zartman, Charles E.; Araùjo, Alessandro; Pöschl, Ulrich; Manzi, Antonio O.; Andreae, Meinrat O.; Pöhlker, Christopher; Weber, Bettina

    2016-04-01

    Cryptogamic covers comprise (cyano-)bacteria, algae, lichens, bryophytes, fungi, and archaea in varying proportions. These organisms do not form flowers, but reproduce by spores or cell cleavage with these reproductive units being dispersed via the atmosphere. As so-called poikilohydric organisms they are unable to regulate their water content, and their physiological activity pattern mainly follows the external water conditions. We hypothesize, that both spore dispersal and the release of trace gases are governed by the moisture patterns of these organisms and thus they could have a greater impact on the atmosphere than previously thought. In order to test this hypothesis, we initiated experiments at the study site Amazonian Tall Tower Observatory (ATTO) in September 2014. We installed microclimate sensors in epiphytic cryptogams at four different heights of a tree to monitor the activity patterns of these organisms. Self-developed moisture probes are used to analyze the water status of the organisms accompanied by light and temperature sensors. The continuously logged data are linked to ongoing measurements of trace gases and particulate bioaerosols to analyze these for the relevance of cryptogams. Here, we are particularly interested in diurnal cycles of coarse mode particles and the atmospheric abundance of fine potassium-rich particles from a currently unknown biogenic source. Based upon the results of this field study we also investigate the bioaerosol and trace gas release patterns of cryptogamic covers under controlled conditions. With this combined approach of field and laboratory experiments we aim to disclose the role of cryptogamic covers in bioaerosol and trace gas release patterns in the Amazonian rainforest.

  20. Free-living ciliates from epiphytic tank bromeliads in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Durán-Ramírez, Carlos Alberto; García-Franco, José Guadalupe; Foissner, Wilhelm; Mayén-Estrada, Rosaura

    2015-02-01

    The ciliate diversity of Mexican bromeliads is poorly known. We studied the ciliate community of two species of epiphytic tank bromeliads from 48 individuals of Tillandsia heterophylla and four of T. prodigiosa. The bromeliads occurred on over 22 tree host species. Samples were collected during 2009 and 2010 in a mountain cloud forest and in two coffee plantations and in a pine-oak forest. The ciliates were identified in live and protargol preparations. We recorded 61 ciliate species distributed in 39 genera grouped in eight classes. Ten species were frequent in the 52 samples (20 ± 3.2) and Leptopharynx bromeliophilus was the most frequent recorded in 25 samples. Thirty-three species are new for the fauna of Mexico, 24 species have been recorded for the first time in tank bromeliads. The classes Spirotrichea, Oligohymenophorea and Colpodea presented the highest number of species, 16, 14, and 12, respectively. Colpoda was the most species-rich genus being present with six species. A low similarity between areas and seasons was obtained with Jaccard's index. We conclude that the two bromeliads species host a rich ciliate diversity whose knowledge contributes to the question of ciliate distribution and specifically, in tank bromeliads.

  1. Free-living ciliates from epiphytic tank bromeliads in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Durán-Ramírez, Carlos Alberto; García-Franco, José Guadalupe; Foissner, Wilhelm; Mayén-Estrada, Rosaura

    2015-02-01

    The ciliate diversity of Mexican bromeliads is poorly known. We studied the ciliate community of two species of epiphytic tank bromeliads from 48 individuals of Tillandsia heterophylla and four of T. prodigiosa. The bromeliads occurred on over 22 tree host species. Samples were collected during 2009 and 2010 in a mountain cloud forest and in two coffee plantations and in a pine-oak forest. The ciliates were identified in live and protargol preparations. We recorded 61 ciliate species distributed in 39 genera grouped in eight classes. Ten species were frequent in the 52 samples (20 ± 3.2) and Leptopharynx bromeliophilus was the most frequent recorded in 25 samples. Thirty-three species are new for the fauna of Mexico, 24 species have been recorded for the first time in tank bromeliads. The classes Spirotrichea, Oligohymenophorea and Colpodea presented the highest number of species, 16, 14, and 12, respectively. Colpoda was the most species-rich genus being present with six species. A low similarity between areas and seasons was obtained with Jaccard's index. We conclude that the two bromeliads species host a rich ciliate diversity whose knowledge contributes to the question of ciliate distribution and specifically, in tank bromeliads. PMID:25497463

  2. The influence of nitrogen in stemflow and precipitation on epiphytic bryophytes, Isothecium myosuroides Brid., Dicranum scoparium Hewd. and Thuidium tamariscinum (Hewd.) Schimp of Atlantic oakwoods.

    PubMed

    Leith, I D; Mitchell, R J; Truscott, A-M; Cape, J N; van Dijk, N; Smith, R I; Fowler, D; Sutton, M A

    2008-09-01

    The spatial relationship between the concentration and deposition of the major ions in precipitation and stemflow and their influence on the tissue nitrogen concentration of three epiphytic bryophytes on Quercus petraea (Matt) Liebl. and Q. robur L. was investigated at seven UK Atlantic oak woodland sites with a range of total N deposition of 55-250 mmol m(-2). The main driver of change in tissue N concentrations of three epiphytic bryophytes (Isothecium myosuroides Brid. (Eurhynchium myosuroides (Brid.) Schp.), Dicranum scoparium Hewd. and Thuidium tamariscinum (Hewd.) Schimp.) was total N deposition in stemflow, dominated by ammonium deposition. The three epiphytic species also showed strong relationships between tissue N concentration and total N deposition in rainfall but a poor correlation with total N ion concentration in rainfall. This study shows that epiphytic bryophytes utilise stemflow N and thus increase their risk from inputs of total N deposition compared to terricolous species at the same site.

  3. The influence of nitrogen in stemflow and precipitation on epiphytic bryophytes, Isothecium myosuroides Brid., Dicranum scoparium Hewd. and Thuidium tamariscinum (Hewd.) Schimp of Atlantic oakwoods.

    PubMed

    Leith, I D; Mitchell, R J; Truscott, A-M; Cape, J N; van Dijk, N; Smith, R I; Fowler, D; Sutton, M A

    2008-09-01

    The spatial relationship between the concentration and deposition of the major ions in precipitation and stemflow and their influence on the tissue nitrogen concentration of three epiphytic bryophytes on Quercus petraea (Matt) Liebl. and Q. robur L. was investigated at seven UK Atlantic oak woodland sites with a range of total N deposition of 55-250 mmol m(-2). The main driver of change in tissue N concentrations of three epiphytic bryophytes (Isothecium myosuroides Brid. (Eurhynchium myosuroides (Brid.) Schp.), Dicranum scoparium Hewd. and Thuidium tamariscinum (Hewd.) Schimp.) was total N deposition in stemflow, dominated by ammonium deposition. The three epiphytic species also showed strong relationships between tissue N concentration and total N deposition in rainfall but a poor correlation with total N ion concentration in rainfall. This study shows that epiphytic bryophytes utilise stemflow N and thus increase their risk from inputs of total N deposition compared to terricolous species at the same site. PMID:18343004

  4. Measurements of plutonium, 237Np, and 137Cs in the BCR 482 lichen reference material

    SciTech Connect

    Lavelle, Kevin B.; Miller, Jeffrey L.; Hanson, Susan K.; Connick, William B.; Spitz, Henry B.; Glover, Samuel E.; Oldham, Warren J.

    2015-10-01

    Select anthropogenic radionuclides were measured in lichen reference material, BCR 482. This material was originally collected in Axalp, Switzerland in 1991 and is composed of the epiphytic lichen Pseudevernia furfuracea. Samples from three separate bottles of BCR 482 were analyzed for uranium, neptunium, and plutonium isotopes by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and analyzed for cesium-137 by gamma-ray spectrometry. The isotopic composition of the radionuclides measured in BCR 482 suggests contributions from both global fallout resulting from historical nuclear weapons testing and more volatile materials released following the Chernobyl accident.

  5. Are lichens active under snow in continental Antarctica?

    PubMed

    Pannewitz, Stefan; Schlensog, Mark; Green, T G Allan; Sancho, Leopoldo G; Schroeter, Burkhard

    2003-03-01

    Photosynthetic activity, detected as chlorophyll a fluorescence, was measured for lichens under undisturbed snow in continental Antarctica using fibre optics. The fibre optics had been buried by winter snowfall after being put in place the previous year under snow-free conditions. The fibre optics were fixed in place using specially designed holding devices so that the fibre ends were in close proximity to selected lichens. Several temperature and PPFD (photosynthetic photon flux density) sensors were also installed in or close to the lichens. By attaching a chlorophyll a fluorometer to the previously placed fibre optics it proved possible to measure in vivo potential photosynthetic activity of continental Antarctic lichens under undisturbed snow. The snow cover proved to be a very good insulator for the mosses and lichens but, in contrast to the situation reported for the maritime Antarctic, it retained the severe cold of the winter and prevented early warming. Therefore, the lichens and mosses under snow were kept inactive at subzero temperatures for a prolonged time, even though the external ambient air temperatures would have allowed metabolic activity. The results suggest that the major activity period of the lichens was at the time of final disappearance of the snow and lasted about 10-14 days. The activation of lichens under snow by high air humidity appeared to be very variable and species specific. Xanthoria mawsonii was activated at temperatures below -10 degrees C through absorption of water from high air humidity. Physcia dubia showed some activation at temperatures around -5 degrees C but only became fully activated at thallus temperatures of 0 degrees C through liquid water. Candelariella flava stayed inactive until thallus temperatures close to zero indicated that liquid water had become available. Although the snow cover represented the major water supply for the lichens, lichens only became active for a brief time at or close to the time the snow

  6. Growth promoting effects of some lichen metabolites on probiotic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Gaikwad, Subhash; Verma, Neeraj; Sharma, B O; Behera, B C

    2014-10-01

    In the present study, the extract of four natural lichen species Canoparmelia eruptens, Everniastrum cirrhatum, Parmotrema austrosinense and Rimelia cetrata were studied for the source of natural antioxidant and their purified secondary metabolites were evaluated for growth promoting effects on probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus casei. The methanolic fraction of lichen species showed moderate to high antioxidant activity in the order P. austrosinense > E. cirrhatum > C. eruptens > R. cetrata. The lichen metabolites showed antioxidant activity with an IC50 values (μg/ml); lecanoric acid 79-95, salazinic 88-108, atranorin 100-116 and consalazinic acid 119-125. As far as the growth promoting effects of lichen metabolites on L. casei is concerned, lecanoric acid at 100 μg/ml conc. showed high growth stimulating activity in terms of increased dry matter of biomass (56.08 mg) of L. casei. Other lichen metabolites; salazinic acid, atranorin and consalazinic acid produced relatively less dry biomass 43.98 mg, 41.1 mg, 40.68 mg, respectively. However, standard antioxidants butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and Trolox after 36 h produced 39.04-47.81 mg dry biomass. At lower pH the growth promoting activity of lichen metabolites was found stable. PMID:25328204

  7. Epiphytic bacterial communities on two common submerged macrophytes in Taihu Lake: diversity and host-specificity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Dan; Ren, Lijuan; Wu, Qinglong

    2012-03-01

    Leaves of terrestrial and aquatic plants are home to a wide diversity of bacterial species. However, the diversity and variability of epiphytic bacteria on their submerged plant hosts remains poorly understood. We investigated the diversity and composition of epiphytic bacteria from two common submerged macrophytes: Vallisneria natans and Hydrilla verticillata in Taihu Lake, Jiangsu, China, using methods of terminal restriction fragment length polymorphisms (T-RFLP) and clone library analyses targeted at bacterial 16S rRNA genes. The results show that: (1) the libraries of the two waterweeds contain wide phylogenetic distribution of bacteria, and that the sequences of the two libraries can be separated into 93 OTUs (at 97% similar value); (2) Betaproteobacteria, including Burkholderiales, was the most abundant bacterial group on both plants. Cyanobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria were the second largest groups on V. natans and H. verticillata, respectively. Both clone libraries included some sequences related to those of methanotrophs and nitrogen-fixing bacteria; (3) Cluster analysis of the T-RFLP profiles showed two distinct clusters corresponding to the two plant populations. Both ANOSIM of the T-RFLP data and Libshuff analysis of the two clone libraries indicated a significant difference in epiphytic bacterial communities between the two plants. Therefore, the epiphytic bacterial communities on submerged macrophytes appear to be diverse and host-specific, which may aid in understanding the ecological functions of submerged macrophytes in general.

  8. Depth-related variation in epiphytic communities growing on the brown alga Lobophora variegata in a Caribbean coral reef

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fricke, A.; Titlyanova, T. V.; Nugues, M. M.; Bischof, K.

    2011-12-01

    Lobophora variegata is a dominant macroalga on coral reefs across the Caribbean. Over the last two decades, it has expanded its vertical distribution to both shallow and deep reefs along the leeward coast of the island of Curaçao, Southern Caribbean. However, the ecological implications of this expansion and the role of L. variegata as a living substratum are poorly known. This study compared epiphytic algal communities on L. variegata blades along two depth transects (6-40 m). The epiphytic community was diverse with a total of 70 species of which 49 were found directly attached to L. variegata. The epiphytic community varied significantly between blade surface, depth and site. The greatest number of genera per blade was found growing on the underside of the blades regardless of site and depth. Filamentous red algae (e.g. Neosiphonia howei) were commonly found on the upperside of the blades over the whole depth gradient, whereas the underside was mainly colonized by calcifying (e.g. Hydrolithon spp., Jania spp., Amphiroa fragillissima), fleshy red algae (e.g. Champia spp., Gelidiopsis spp., Hypnea spinella) and foliose brown alga (e.g. Dictyota spp.). Anotrichum tenue, a red alga capable of overgrowing corals, was a common epiphyte of both blade surfaces. L. variegata plays an important role as a newly available substratum. Thus, its spread may influence other algal species and studies of benthic macroalgae such as L. variegata should also take into consideration their associated epiphytic algal communities.

  9. Response of epiphytic bryophytes to simulated N deposition in a subtropical montane cloud forest in southwestern China.

    PubMed

    Song, Liang; Liu, Wen-Yao; Ma, Wen-Zhang; Qi, Jin-Hua

    2012-11-01

    A field manipulation experiment was conducted in a subtropical montane cloud forest in southwestern China to determine the possible responses of epiphytic bryophytes to increasing nitrogen (N) deposition from community to physiology level, and to find sensitive epiphytic bryophytes that may be used as indicators for assessing the degree of N pollution. N addition had significantly negative effects on species richness and cover of the epiphytic bryophyte community. Harmful effects of high N loads were recorded for chlorophyll, growth, and vitality of the species tested. The decline of some epiphytic bryophytes may result from detrimental effects on degradation to photosynthetic pigments. Bazzania himalayana (Mitt.) Schiffn., Bazzania ovistipula (Steph.) Mizut., and Homaliodendron flabellatum (Sm.) Fleisch. are candidates in atmospheric nitrogen monitoring. Epiphytic bryophytes in the montane cloud forest are very sensitive to increasing N deposition and often difficult to recover once they have been destroyed, providing early detection of enhanced N pollution for trees or even the whole forest ecosystem. The inference that increasing N pollution may lead to loss of biodiversity is a concern to the developing economy in western China, and should alert the government to the adverse impacts caused by increased industrial pollution during the process of China's West Development.

  10. The importance of epiphytes to total rainfall interception by a tropical montane rain forest in Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hölscher, Dirk; Köhler, Lars; van Dijk, Albert I. J. M.; Bruijnzeel, L. A.(Sampurno)

    2004-06-01

    The abundant epiphyte vegetation of upper montane tropical rain forests, which in terms of biomass is mainly composed of non-vascular plants (mosses, liverworts and lichens), can be expected to influence the magnitude of canopy water fluxes such as rainfall interception. The objects of this study were to: (i) estimate stand canopy water storage characteristics, (ii) determine rainfall interception by the canopy as a whole, and (iii) adapt an analytical model of rainfall interception, to enable the quantification of the contribution by non-vascular epiphytes to total interception. The studied old-growth forest in the Cordillera de Talamanca, Costa Rica, was 35 m tall, dominated by oaks, and little affected by fog. The estimated leaf area index of the trees was 7.7 m 2 m -2, which combined with results from a leaf wetting experiment gave a tree leaf water storage capacity of 1.08 mm at the stand level. The biomass of non-vascular epiphytes amounted to 1.9 t ha -1 dry weight. Monthly moss water contents measured in situ ranged between 24 and 406% of moss dry weight, corresponding to a maximum moss water storage of 0.81 mm at stand level. Seasonal variation in moss water contents was reproduced satisfactorily by a running water balance model. A modified analytical interception model, which incorporated the moss water balance model, was applied. Weekly sums of observed throughfall, stemflow and interception measurements were available for comparison and amounted to 70, 2 and 28% of the associated 2150 mm of rain. The model predicted the observed values quite well and suggested that mosses contributed about 6% to the modelled interception total. Hence, the hydrological importance of epiphytes in the studied forest was rather limited despite their considerable maximum water storage capacity. This is thought to reflect the fact that under the prevailing rainfall conditions only a fraction of the potential storage is actually available.

  11. Summer Epiphytic Diatoms from Terra Nova Bay and Cape Evans (Ross Sea, Antarctica) - A Synthesis and Final Conclusions

    PubMed Central

    Majewska, Roksana; Convey, Peter; De Stefano, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Despite recent advances in polar marine biology and related fields, many aspects of the ecological interactions that are crucial for the functioning of Antarctic shallow water habitats remain poorly understood. Although epiphytic diatoms play an essential role in the Antarctic marine food web, basic information regarding their ecology, biodiversity and biogeography is largely unavailable. Here, we synthesise studies on Ross Sea epiphytic diatoms collected during 11 summer Antarctic expeditions between the years 1989/90 and 2011/12, presenting a full list of diatom taxa associated with three macroalgal species (Iridaea cordata, Phyllophora antarctica, and Plocamium cartilagineum) and their epiphytic sessile fauna. Diatom communities found during the three summer months at various depths and sampling stations differed significantly in terms of species composition, growth form structure and abundances. Densities ranged from 21 to >8000 cells mm-2, and were significantly higher on the surface of epiphytic micro-fauna than on any of the macroalgal species examined. Generally, host organisms characterized by higher morphological heterogeneity (sessile microfauna, ramified Plocamium) supported richer diatom communities than those with more uniform surfaces (Iridaea). Differences between epiphytic communities associated with different macroalgae were reflected better in species composition than in growth form structure. The latter changed significantly with season, which was related strongly to the changing ice conditions. A general trend towards an increasing number of erect forms in deeper waters and tube-dwelling diatoms in the shallowest sites (2–5 m) was also observed. This study explores further important and largely previously unknown aspects of relationships and interactions between Antarctic epiphytic diatoms and their micro- and macro-environments. PMID:27078637

  12. Summer Epiphytic Diatoms from Terra Nova Bay and Cape Evans (Ross Sea, Antarctica)--A Synthesis and Final Conclusions.

    PubMed

    Majewska, Roksana; Convey, Peter; De Stefano, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Despite recent advances in polar marine biology and related fields, many aspects of the ecological interactions that are crucial for the functioning of Antarctic shallow water habitats remain poorly understood. Although epiphytic diatoms play an essential role in the Antarctic marine food web, basic information regarding their ecology, biodiversity and biogeography is largely unavailable. Here, we synthesise studies on Ross Sea epiphytic diatoms collected during 11 summer Antarctic expeditions between the years 1989/90 and 2011/12, presenting a full list of diatom taxa associated with three macroalgal species (Iridaea cordata, Phyllophora antarctica, and Plocamium cartilagineum) and their epiphytic sessile fauna. Diatom communities found during the three summer months at various depths and sampling stations differed significantly in terms of species composition, growth form structure and abundances. Densities ranged from 21 to >8000 cells mm-2, and were significantly higher on the surface of epiphytic micro-fauna than on any of the macroalgal species examined. Generally, host organisms characterized by higher morphological heterogeneity (sessile microfauna, ramified Plocamium) supported richer diatom communities than those with more uniform surfaces (Iridaea). Differences between epiphytic communities associated with different macroalgae were reflected better in species composition than in growth form structure. The latter changed significantly with season, which was related strongly to the changing ice conditions. A general trend towards an increasing number of erect forms in deeper waters and tube-dwelling diatoms in the shallowest sites (2-5 m) was also observed. This study explores further important and largely previously unknown aspects of relationships and interactions between Antarctic epiphytic diatoms and their micro- and macro-environments. PMID:27078637

  13. Summer Epiphytic Diatoms from Terra Nova Bay and Cape Evans (Ross Sea, Antarctica)--A Synthesis and Final Conclusions.

    PubMed

    Majewska, Roksana; Convey, Peter; De Stefano, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Despite recent advances in polar marine biology and related fields, many aspects of the ecological interactions that are crucial for the functioning of Antarctic shallow water habitats remain poorly understood. Although epiphytic diatoms play an essential role in the Antarctic marine food web, basic information regarding their ecology, biodiversity and biogeography is largely unavailable. Here, we synthesise studies on Ross Sea epiphytic diatoms collected during 11 summer Antarctic expeditions between the years 1989/90 and 2011/12, presenting a full list of diatom taxa associated with three macroalgal species (Iridaea cordata, Phyllophora antarctica, and Plocamium cartilagineum) and their epiphytic sessile fauna. Diatom communities found during the three summer months at various depths and sampling stations differed significantly in terms of species composition, growth form structure and abundances. Densities ranged from 21 to >8000 cells mm-2, and were significantly higher on the surface of epiphytic micro-fauna than on any of the macroalgal species examined. Generally, host organisms characterized by higher morphological heterogeneity (sessile microfauna, ramified Plocamium) supported richer diatom communities than those with more uniform surfaces (Iridaea). Differences between epiphytic communities associated with different macroalgae were reflected better in species composition than in growth form structure. The latter changed significantly with season, which was related strongly to the changing ice conditions. A general trend towards an increasing number of erect forms in deeper waters and tube-dwelling diatoms in the shallowest sites (2-5 m) was also observed. This study explores further important and largely previously unknown aspects of relationships and interactions between Antarctic epiphytic diatoms and their micro- and macro-environments.

  14. [Dendrobium officinale cliff epiphytic cultivation method].

    PubMed

    Si, Jin-ping; Chen, Zi-yun; Lu, Jing-jing; Zhu, Yu-qiu; Cai, Guo-jian; Huang, Bing-rong; Zhang, Kun-yi; Jin, Chuan-gao

    2015-06-01

    To solve the issues of costly planting of facility cultivation method and inferior efficacy than wild herbs of Dendrobium officinale, the cliff epiphytic cultivation method was studied. To research the growth, agronomic traits, yield, polysaccharide and alcohol-soluble extract contents were measured on the D. officinale from different water regulation and cliff slope gradients treatments. The results showed that D. officinale epiphytic at 85 degrees-90 degrees cliff and sprayed water 1-2 h x d(-1) at the growing season can get better growth and obtain high yield, and the morphology has no different from wild cliff D. officinale, even in the environments without shade. The contents of polysaccharide and alcohol-soluble extract are closely related to the physiological ages, but significantly higher than the facility cultivation. It is possible that environmental stresses benefit the accumulation of polysaccharides, alcohol-soluble extract and other efficient ingredients.

  15. Biogeochemical signatures in the lichen Hypogymnia physodes in the mid Urals.

    PubMed

    Purvis, O W; Longden, J; Shaw, G; Chimonides, P D J; Jeffries, T E; Jones, G C; Mikhailova, I N; Williamson, B J

    2006-01-01

    Multi-element content and uranium (U) isotopes were investigated in the lichen Hypogymnia physodes (native and transplants) sampled across a 60-km transect, centred on Karabash smelter town, from Turgoyak Lake (SW) to Kyshtym (NE) to investigate the origin of U. Kyshtym was the site of a major nuclear accident in 1957. (234)U/(238)U activity ratios in native thalli sampled during July 2001 were within the natural isotopic ratio in minerals. Uranium/thorium (U/Th) ratios were higher in native thalli towards the NE (average 0.73) than those in the SW (average 0.57). Element signatures in native thalli and transplants suggest U was derived from fossil fuel combustion from Karabash and sources lying further to the east. Systematic and significant U enrichment indicative of a nuclear fuel cycle source was not detected in any sample. Element signatures in epiphytic lichen transplants and native thalli provide a powerful method to evaluate U deposition.

  16. Analysis of ontogenetic spectra of populations of plants and lichens via ordinal regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sofronov, G. Yu.; Glotov, N. V.; Ivanov, S. M.

    2015-03-01

    Ontogenetic spectra of plants and lichens tend to vary across the populations. This means that if several subsamples within a sample (or a population) were collected, then the subsamples would not be homogeneous. Consequently, the statistical analysis of the aggregated data would not be correct, which could potentially lead to false biological conclusions. In order to take into account the heterogeneity of the subsamples, we propose to use ordinal regression, which is a type of generalized linear regression. In this paper, we study the populations of cowberry Vaccinium vitis-idaea L. and epiphytic lichens Hypogymnia physodes (L.) Nyl. and Pseudevernia furfuracea (L.) Zopf. We obtain estimates for the proportions of between-sample variability in the total variability of the ontogenetic spectra of the populations.

  17. Taxonomic Study of the Lichen Genus Lobaria in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Mei-Rong; Wang, Xin Yu; Koh, Young Jin

    2012-01-01

    Lobaria (Schreb.) Hoffm is a common foliose lichen genus found on the Korean Peninsula, yet until now, no revision study has been done on this genus. After careful examination of specimens deposited in the Korean Lichen Research Institute (KoLRI), nine distinct species of Lobaria were confirmed. Morphological characteristics such as the presence or absence of isidia, or whether or not the surface was ridged or smooth, and chemical characteristics such as the result of the medulla reaction were of significant importance in the differentiation of species. Here, we provided detailed descriptions together with a key to all the known Korean species. PMID:22783127

  18. New or otherwise interesting lichenized and lichenicolous fungi from Montenegro

    PubMed Central

    Bilovitz, Peter O.; Knežević, Branka; Stešević, Danijela; Vitikainen, Orvo; Dragićević, Snežana; Mayrhofer, Helmut

    2011-01-01

    A list of 256 taxa of lichens (252 species) and 2 species of lichenicolous fungi from Montenegro is presented, including 58 taxa (57 species) new to Montenegro. The list is based on specimens kept in the lichen collections of the herbaria GZU, H, Podgorica, and in the private herbarium of Klaus Kalb, and on recent field work in various parts of the country. The genera Biatoridium, Carbonea, Cercidospora, Heppia, Hyperphyscia, Hypocenomyce, Leprocaulon, Lethariella, Megalospora, Orphniospora, Psorinia and Vahliella are reported from Montenegro for the first time. PMID:22102779

  19. Lichen physiological traits and growth forms affect communities of associated invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Bokhorst, Stef; Asplund, Johan; Kardol, Paul; Wardle, David A

    2015-09-01

    While there has been much interest in the relationships between traits of primary producers and composition of associated invertebrate consumer communities, our knowledge is largely based on studies from vascular plants, while other types of functionally important producers, such as lichens, have rarely been considered. To address how physiological traits of lichens drive community composition of invertebrates, we collected thalli from 27 lichen species from southern Norway and quantified the communities of associated springtails, mites, and nematodes. For each lichen species, we measured key physiological thallus traits and determined whether invertebrate communities were correlated with these traits. We also explored whether invertebrate communities differed among lichen groups, categorized according to nitrogen-fixing ability, growth form, and substratum. Lichen traits explained up to 39% of the variation in abundances of major invertebrate groups. For many invertebrate groups, abundance was positively correlated with lichen N and P concentrations, N:P ratio, and the percentage of water content on saturation (WC), but had few relationships with concentrations of carbon-based secondary compounds. Diversity and taxonomic richness of invertebrate groups were sometimes also correlated with lichen N and N:P ratios. Nitrogen-fixing lichens showed higher abundance and diversity of some invertebrate groups than did non-N-fixing lichens. However, this emerged in part because most N-fixing lichens have a foliose growth form that benefits invertebrates, through, improving the microclimate, independently of N concentration. Furthermore, invertebrate communities associated with terricolous lichens were determined more by their close proximity to the soil invertebrate pool than by lichen traits. Overall, our results reveal that differences between lichen species have a large impact on the invertebrate communities that live among the thalli. Different invertebrate groups show

  20. Lichen physiological traits and growth forms affect communities of associated invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Bokhorst, Stef; Asplund, Johan; Kardol, Paul; Wardle, David A

    2015-09-01

    While there has been much interest in the relationships between traits of primary producers and composition of associated invertebrate consumer communities, our knowledge is largely based on studies from vascular plants, while other types of functionally important producers, such as lichens, have rarely been considered. To address how physiological traits of lichens drive community composition of invertebrates, we collected thalli from 27 lichen species from southern Norway and quantified the communities of associated springtails, mites, and nematodes. For each lichen species, we measured key physiological thallus traits and determined whether invertebrate communities were correlated with these traits. We also explored whether invertebrate communities differed among lichen groups, categorized according to nitrogen-fixing ability, growth form, and substratum. Lichen traits explained up to 39% of the variation in abundances of major invertebrate groups. For many invertebrate groups, abundance was positively correlated with lichen N and P concentrations, N:P ratio, and the percentage of water content on saturation (WC), but had few relationships with concentrations of carbon-based secondary compounds. Diversity and taxonomic richness of invertebrate groups were sometimes also correlated with lichen N and N:P ratios. Nitrogen-fixing lichens showed higher abundance and diversity of some invertebrate groups than did non-N-fixing lichens. However, this emerged in part because most N-fixing lichens have a foliose growth form that benefits invertebrates, through, improving the microclimate, independently of N concentration. Furthermore, invertebrate communities associated with terricolous lichens were determined more by their close proximity to the soil invertebrate pool than by lichen traits. Overall, our results reveal that differences between lichen species have a large impact on the invertebrate communities that live among the thalli. Different invertebrate groups show

  1. The Use of Lichens as Indicators of Ambient Air Quality in Southern Ontario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tulumello, Patricia M.

    The inverse relationship between arboreal lichen species richness and sulphur dioxide in ambient air has been thoroughly documented in the literature. Previous work in southern Ontario has shown that lichen bioindication can identify areas of potential concern regarding air quality. The EMAN suite of lichens was applied in the City of Sarnia by surveying 458 Sugar Maple trees, in order to test the applicability of lichen bioindication under conditions of high mean SO2 levels and high species richness values. The results of the survey were explored using Geographic Information Systems. A spatial relationship between lichen community variables, the Bluewater Bridge and the highway was identified. Lichen species richness, lichen percent cover and Index of Atmospheric Purity values were higher along the bridge and highway. No strong gradients were found between other known pollution sources and no lichen deserts were identified. The most common community grouping consisted of Physcia millegrana Degel, Candelaria concolor (Dicks) B. Stein, Physcia aipolia (Ehrh ex Humb.) Furnrohr; all of which are known nitrophytes. The relationship between substrate pH and lichen species richness was examined. Sites with a known source of anthropogenic chemical contamination were found to have a correlation of r2=o.8 between lichen species richness and pH. The inverse was found for sites with no known source of contamination with a correlation of r2=-0.72. The findings suggest that species richness may be influenced by altering substrate pH which promotes the growth of nitrophytic species capable of tolerating high SO2 levels.

  2. Lichen-Associated Fungal Community in Hypogymnia hypotrypa (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota) Affected by Geographic Distribution and Altitude.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanyan; Zheng, Yong; Wang, Xinyu; Wei, Xinli; Wei, Jiangchun

    2016-01-01

    Lichen-associated fungal species have already been investigated in almost all the main growth forms of lichens, however, whether or not they are homogeneous and constant within each lichen species are still inconclusive. Moreover, the related ecological factors to affect and structure the fungal composition have been poorly studied. In order to answer these questions, we took Hypogymnia hypotrypa as a model to study the relationship between the lichen-associated fungal composition and two ecological factors, i.e., site and altitude, using the method of IlluminaMiSeq sequencing. Four different sites and two levels of altitude were included in this study, and the effects of site and altitude on fungal community composition were assessed at three levels, i.e., operational taxonomic unit (OTU), class and phylum. The results showed that a total of 50 OTUs were identified and distributed in 4 phyla, 13 classes, and 20 orders. The lichen-associated fungal composition within H. hypotrypa were significantly affected by both site and altitude at OTU and class levels, while at the phylum level, it was only affected by altitude. While the lichen associated fungal communities were reported to be similar with endophytic fungi of the moss, our results indicated the opposite results in some degree. But whether there exist specific OTUs within this lichen species corresponding to different sites and altitudes is still open. More lichen species and ecological factors would be taken into the integrated analyses to address these knowledge gaps in the near future. PMID:27547204

  3. Lichen-Associated Fungal Community in Hypogymnia hypotrypa (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota) Affected by Geographic Distribution and Altitude

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yanyan; Zheng, Yong; Wang, Xinyu; Wei, Xinli; Wei, Jiangchun

    2016-01-01

    Lichen-associated fungal species have already been investigated in almost all the main growth forms of lichens, however, whether or not they are homogeneous and constant within each lichen species are still inconclusive. Moreover, the related ecological factors to affect and structure the fungal composition have been poorly studied. In order to answer these questions, we took Hypogymnia hypotrypa as a model to study the relationship between the lichen-associated fungal composition and two ecological factors, i.e., site and altitude, using the method of IlluminaMiSeq sequencing. Four different sites and two levels of altitude were included in this study, and the effects of site and altitude on fungal community composition were assessed at three levels, i.e., operational taxonomic unit (OTU), class and phylum. The results showed that a total of 50 OTUs were identified and distributed in 4 phyla, 13 classes, and 20 orders. The lichen-associated fungal composition within H. hypotrypa were significantly affected by both site and altitude at OTU and class levels, while at the phylum level, it was only affected by altitude. While the lichen associated fungal communities were reported to be similar with endophytic fungi of the moss, our results indicated the opposite results in some degree. But whether there exist specific OTUs within this lichen species corresponding to different sites and altitudes is still open. More lichen species and ecological factors would be taken into the integrated analyses to address these knowledge gaps in the near future. PMID:27547204

  4. Oral lichen planus in childhood.

    PubMed

    Laeijendecker, Ronald; Van Joost, Theodoor; Tank, Bhupendra; Oranje, Arnold P; Neumann, H A Martino

    2005-01-01

    Oral lichen planus is rare in childhood, and only a few reports on this subject have appeared in the literature. Our objective was to report individual cases of oral lichen planus in childhood from our practice and to review the literature on this subject. We recruited patients younger than 18 years with oral lichen planus and documented several clinical aspects, the histopathology, patch tests, and blood examination findings. Three patients from about 10,000 dermatology patients younger than 18 years seen from 1994 to 2003 were included. Of these three, an Asian girl aged 11 years had an asymptomatic, hyperkeratotic variant of oral lichen planus, which disappeared without any treatment after 1 year. An Asian boy aged 16 years had an erosive oral lichen planus with severe pain, which healed after intensive local and systemic treatment in 2 years. A Caucasian girl aged 14 years had a hyperkeratotic variant with a little soreness, which disappeared with local treatment after 3 months. Our findings indicated that oral lichen planus in childhood is rare and therefore at present it is not possible to draw firm conclusions considering its nature and etiology. Oral lichen planus in childhood seems to occur preferentially in those of Asian race. The clinical features resemble those of oral lichen planus in adults. However, generally the prognosis of oral lichen planus in childhood seems to be more favorable than in adults.

  5. Ice Nucleation Activity in Lichens

    PubMed Central

    Kieft, Thomas L.

    1988-01-01

    A newly discovered form of biological ice nucleus associated with lichens is described. Ice nucleation spectra of a variety of lichens from the southwestern United States were measured by the drop-freezing method. Several epilithic lichen samples of the genera Rhizoplaca, Xanthoparmelia, and Xanthoria had nuclei active at temperatures as warm as −2.3°C and had densities of 2.3 × 106 to more than 1 × 108 nuclei g−1 at −5°C (2 to 4 orders of magnitude higher than any plants infected with ice nucleation-active bacteria). Most lichens tested had nucleation activity above −8°C. Lichen substrates (rocks, plants, and soil) showed negligible activity above −8°C. Ice nucleation-active bacteria were not isolated from the lichens, and activity was not destroyed by heat (70°C) or sonication, indicating that lichen-associated ice nuclei are nonbacterial in origin and differ chemically from previously described biological ice nuclei. An axenic culture of the lichen fungus Rhizoplaca chrysoleuca showed detectable ice nucleation activity at −1.9°C and an ice nucleation density of 4.5 × 106 nuclei g−1 at −5°C. It is hypothesized that these lichens, which are both frost tolerant and dependent on atmospheric moisture, derive benefit in the form of increased moisture deposition as a result of ice nucleation. PMID:16347678

  6. Ice nucleation activity in lichens.

    PubMed

    Kieft, T L

    1988-07-01

    A newly discovered form of biological ice nucleus associated with lichens is described. Ice nucleation spectra of a variety of lichens from the southwestern United States were measured by the drop-freezing method. Several epilithic lichen samples of the genera Rhizoplaca, Xanthoparmelia, and Xanthoria had nuclei active at temperatures as warm as -2.3 degrees C and had densities of 2.3 x 10 to more than 1 x 10 nuclei g at -5 degrees C (2 to 4 orders of magnitude higher than any plants infected with ice nucleation-active bacteria). Most lichens tested had nucleation activity above -8 degrees C. Lichen substrates (rocks, plants, and soil) showed negligible activity above -8 degrees C. Ice nucleation-active bacteria were not isolated from the lichens, and activity was not destroyed by heat (70 degrees C) or sonication, indicating that lichen-associated ice nuclei are nonbacterial in origin and differ chemically from previously described biological ice nuclei. An axenic culture of the lichen fungus Rhizoplaca chrysoleuca showed detectable ice nucleation activity at -1.9 degrees C and an ice nucleation density of 4.5 x 10 nuclei g at -5 degrees C. It is hypothesized that these lichens, which are both frost tolerant and dependent on atmospheric moisture, derive benefit in the form of increased moisture deposition as a result of ice nucleation.

  7. Littoral lichens as a novel source of potentially bioactive Actinobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Parrot, Delphine; Antony-Babu, Sanjay; Intertaglia, Laurent; Grube, Martin; Tomasi, Sophie; Suzuki, Marcelino T.

    2015-01-01

    Cultivable Actinobacteria are the largest source of microbially derived bioactive molecules. The high demand for novel antibiotics highlights the need for exploring novel sources of these bacteria. Microbial symbioses with sessile macro-organisms, known to contain bioactive compounds likely of bacterial origin, represent an interesting and underexplored source of Actinobacteria. We studied the diversity and potential for bioactive-metabolite production of Actinobacteria associated with two marine lichens (Lichina confinis and L. pygmaea; from intertidal and subtidal zones) and one littoral lichen (Roccella fuciformis; from supratidal zone) from the Brittany coast (France), as well as the terrestrial lichen Collema auriforme (from a riparian zone, Austria). A total of 247 bacterial strains were isolated using two selective media. Isolates were identified and clustered into 101 OTUs (98% identity) including 51 actinobacterial OTUs. The actinobacterial families observed were: Brevibacteriaceae, Cellulomonadaceae, Gordoniaceae, Micrococcaceae, Mycobacteriaceae, Nocardioidaceae, Promicromonosporaceae, Pseudonocardiaceae, Sanguibacteraceae and Streptomycetaceae. Interestingly, the diversity was most influenced by the selective media rather than lichen species or the level of lichen thallus association. The potential for bioactive-metabolite biosynthesis of the isolates was confirmed by screening genes coding for polyketide synthases types I and II. These results show that littoral lichens are a source of diverse potentially bioactive Actinobacteria. PMID:26514347

  8. Littoral lichens as a novel source of potentially bioactive Actinobacteria.

    PubMed

    Parrot, Delphine; Antony-Babu, Sanjay; Intertaglia, Laurent; Grube, Martin; Tomasi, Sophie; Suzuki, Marcelino T

    2015-10-30

    Cultivable Actinobacteria are the largest source of microbially derived bioactive molecules. The high demand for novel antibiotics highlights the need for exploring novel sources of these bacteria. Microbial symbioses with sessile macro-organisms, known to contain bioactive compounds likely of bacterial origin, represent an interesting and underexplored source of Actinobacteria. We studied the diversity and potential for bioactive-metabolite production of Actinobacteria associated with two marine lichens (Lichina confinis and L. pygmaea; from intertidal and subtidal zones) and one littoral lichen (Roccella fuciformis; from supratidal zone) from the Brittany coast (France), as well as the terrestrial lichen Collema auriforme (from a riparian zone, Austria). A total of 247 bacterial strains were isolated using two selective media. Isolates were identified and clustered into 101 OTUs (98% identity) including 51 actinobacterial OTUs. The actinobacterial families observed were: Brevibacteriaceae, Cellulomonadaceae, Gordoniaceae, Micrococcaceae, Mycobacteriaceae, Nocardioidaceae, Promicromonosporaceae, Pseudonocardiaceae, Sanguibacteraceae and Streptomycetaceae. Interestingly, the diversity was most influenced by the selective media rather than lichen species or the level of lichen thallus association. The potential for bioactive-metabolite biosynthesis of the isolates was confirmed by screening genes coding for polyketide synthases types I and II. These results show that littoral lichens are a source of diverse potentially bioactive Actinobacteria.

  9. Lichen substances affect metal adsorption in Hypogymnia physodes.

    PubMed

    Hauck, Markus; Huneck, Siegfried

    2007-01-01

    Lichen substances are known to function as chelators of cations. We tested the hypothesis that lichen substances can control the uptake of toxic metals by adsorbing metal ions at cation exchange sites on cell walls. If true, this hypothesis would help to provide a mechanistic explanation for results of a recent study showing increased production of physodalic acid by thalli of the lichen Hypogymnia physodes transplanted to sites with heavy metal pollution. We treated cellulose filters known to mimic the cation exchange abilities of lichen thalli with four lichen substances produced by H. physodes (physodic acid, physodalic acid, protocetraric acid, and atranorin). Treated filters were exposed to solutions containing seven cations (Ca(2+), Cu(2+), Fe(2+), Fe(3+), Mg(2+), Mn(2+), and Na(+)), and changes to the solution concentrations were measured. Physodalic acid was most effective at influencing metal adsorption, as it increased the adsorption of Fe(3+), but reduced the adsorption of Cu(2+), Mn(2+), and Na(+), and to a lesser extent, that of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+). Reduced Na(+) adsorption matches with the known tolerance of this species to NaCl. The results may indicate a possible general role of lichen substances in metal homeostasis and pollution tolerance. PMID:17136464

  10. Littoral lichens as a novel source of potentially bioactive Actinobacteria.

    PubMed

    Parrot, Delphine; Antony-Babu, Sanjay; Intertaglia, Laurent; Grube, Martin; Tomasi, Sophie; Suzuki, Marcelino T

    2015-01-01

    Cultivable Actinobacteria are the largest source of microbially derived bioactive molecules. The high demand for novel antibiotics highlights the need for exploring novel sources of these bacteria. Microbial symbioses with sessile macro-organisms, known to contain bioactive compounds likely of bacterial origin, represent an interesting and underexplored source of Actinobacteria. We studied the diversity and potential for bioactive-metabolite production of Actinobacteria associated with two marine lichens (Lichina confinis and L. pygmaea; from intertidal and subtidal zones) and one littoral lichen (Roccella fuciformis; from supratidal zone) from the Brittany coast (France), as well as the terrestrial lichen Collema auriforme (from a riparian zone, Austria). A total of 247 bacterial strains were isolated using two selective media. Isolates were identified and clustered into 101 OTUs (98% identity) including 51 actinobacterial OTUs. The actinobacterial families observed were: Brevibacteriaceae, Cellulomonadaceae, Gordoniaceae, Micrococcaceae, Mycobacteriaceae, Nocardioidaceae, Promicromonosporaceae, Pseudonocardiaceae, Sanguibacteraceae and Streptomycetaceae. Interestingly, the diversity was most influenced by the selective media rather than lichen species or the level of lichen thallus association. The potential for bioactive-metabolite biosynthesis of the isolates was confirmed by screening genes coding for polyketide synthases types I and II. These results show that littoral lichens are a source of diverse potentially bioactive Actinobacteria. PMID:26514347

  11. Bathymetric variation of epiphytic assemblages on Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile leaves in relation to anthropogenic disturbance in the southeastern Mediterranean.

    PubMed

    Ben Brahim, Mounir; Mabrouk, Lotfi; Hamza, Asma; Mahfoudi, Mabrouka; Bouain, Abderrahmane; Aleya, Lotfi

    2014-12-01

    A survey of the epiphytic leaves of Posidonia oceanica was conducted along a depth transect at both the control station Attaya in the Kerkennah Islands and the disturbed Mahres station on the Sfax coast (Tunisia). Samples were collected by scuba divers at depths of 5, 10, 15, and 20 m in July 2008. We evaluated whether the pattern of spatial variability of the macroepiphyte assemblages of leaves of Posidonia oceanica differed in relation to anthropogenic interference. The results indicate that the decrease in shoot density and leaf length according to depth was low at Mahres. The biomass of epiphytic leaves and the percentage cover of epiphytic assemblages decreased with depth for both stations and heavily at Mahres, this decline being related to anthropogenic disturbance. This study shows that the highest values of epifauna and epiflora were detected at the disturbed station Mahres. Macroalgae assemblages decreased with depth at both stations and were dominated by Rhodophyta, whereas the percentage cover of the epifauna leaf that decreases according to depth was dominated by Hydrozoa and Bryozoa. Changes in epiphyte assemblages, epiphytic biomass, percentage cover, and species richness in proportion to Heterokontophyta, Rhodophyta, Cyanobacteria, Hydrozoa, Porifera, and Tunicata between the two stations constitute promising tools for detecting environmental disturbance. PMID:25023658

  12. Morphological innovation, ecological opportunity, and the radiation of a major vascular epiphyte lineage.

    PubMed

    Sundue, Michael A; Testo, Weston L; Ranker, Tom A

    2015-09-01

    The emergence of angiosperm-dominated tropical forests in the Cretaceous led to major shifts in the composition of biodiversity on Earth. Among these was the rise to prominence of epiphytic plant lineages, which today comprise an estimated one-quarter of tropical vascular plant diversity. Among the most successful epiphytic groups is the Polypodiaceae, which comprises an estimated 1500 species and displays a remarkable breadth of morphological and ecological diversity. Using a time-calibrated phylogeny for 417 species, we characterized macroevolutionary patterns in the family, identified shifts in diversification rate, and identified traits that are potential drivers of diversification. We find high diversification rates throughout the family, evidence for a radiation in a large clade of Paleotropical species, and support for increased rates of diversification associated with traits including chlorophyllous spores and noncordiform gametophytes. Contrary to previous hypotheses, our results indicate epiphytic species and groups with humus-collecting leaves diversify at lower rates than the family as a whole. We find that diversification rates in the Polypodiaceae are positively correlated with changes in elevation. Repeated successful exploration of novel habitat types, rather than morphological innovation, appears to be the primary driver of diversification in this group.

  13. Genotypic variation in a foundation tree (Populus tremula L.) explains community structure of associated epiphytes

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Chantel; Ellis, Christopher J.; Iason, Glenn R.; Ennos, Richard A.

    2014-01-01

    Community genetics hypothesizes that within a foundation species, the genotype of an individual significantly influences the assemblage of dependent organisms. To assess whether these intra-specific genetic effects are ecologically important, it is required to compare their impact on dependent organisms with that attributable to environmental variation experienced over relevant spatial scales. We assessed bark epiphytes on 27 aspen (Populus tremula L.) genotypes grown in a randomized experimental array at two contrasting sites spanning the environmental conditions from which the aspen genotypes were collected. We found that variation in aspen genotype significantly influenced bark epiphyte community composition, and to the same degree as environmental variation between the test sites. We conclude that maintaining genotypic diversity of foundation species may be crucial for conservation of associated biodiversity. PMID:24789141

  14. Epiphytic bryozoans on Neptune grass – a sample-based data set

    PubMed Central

    Lepoint, Gilles; Heughebaert, André; Michel, Loïc N.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background The seagrass Posidonia oceanica L. Delile, commonly known as Neptune grass, is an endemic species of the Mediterranean Sea. It hosts a distinctive and diverse epiphytic community, dominated by various macroalgal and animal organisms. Mediterranean bryozoans have been extensively studied but quantitative data assessing temporal and spatial variability have rarely been documented. In Lepoint et al. (2014a, b) occurrence and abundance data of epiphytic bryozoan communities on leaves of Posidonia oceanica inhabiting Revellata Bay (Corsica, Mediterranean Sea) were reported and trophic ecology of Electra posidoniae Gautier assessed. New information Here, metadata information is provided on the data set discussed in Lepoint et al. (2014a) and published on the GBIF portal as a sampling-event data set: http://ipt.biodiversity.be/resource?r=ulg_bryozoa&v=1.0). The data set is enriched by data concerning species settled on Posidonia scales (dead petiole of Posidonia leaves, remaining after limb abscission). PMID:27551218

  15. Epilithic lichens in the Beacon sandstone formation, Victoria Land, Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hale, M. E.; Friedmann, E. I. (Principal Investigator)

    1987-01-01

    The epilithic lichen flora on the Beacon sandstone formation in Victoria Land consists of seven species: Acarospora gwynnii Dodge & Rudolph, Buellia grisea Dodge & Baker, B. pallida Dodge & Baker, Carbonea capsulata (Dodge & Baker) Hale comb. nov., Lecanora fuscobrunnea Dodge & Baker, Lecidea cancriformis Dodge & Baker, and L. siplei Dodge & Baker. The typification of the species is given along with descriptions and distribution in Antarctica.

  16. Epilithic lichens in the Beacon sandstone formation, Victoria Land, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Hale, M E

    1987-01-01

    The epilithic lichen flora on the Beacon sandstone formation in Victoria Land consists of seven species: Acarospora gwynnii Dodge & Rudolph, Buellia grisea Dodge & Baker, B. pallida Dodge & Baker, Carbonea capsulata (Dodge & Baker) Hale comb. nov., Lecanora fuscobrunnea Dodge & Baker, Lecidea cancriformis Dodge & Baker, and L. siplei Dodge & Baker. The typification of the species is given along with descriptions and distribution in Antarctica.

  17. A contribution to the lichenized fungi of Bosnia and Herzegovina

    PubMed Central

    Bilovitz, Peter O.; Mayrhofer, Helmut

    2011-01-01

    A list of 27 species of lichenized fungi from Bosnia and Herzegovina is presented, based on herbarium specimens kept in GZU. Six species are new to Bosnia and Herzegovina: Fuscopannaria sampaiana, Lecidea tessellata, Micarea melaena, Rinodina polysporoides, Usnea barbata, and Xanthoparmelia verruculifera. PMID:22318700

  18. A contribution to the lichenized fungi of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

    PubMed

    Bilovitz, Peter O; Mayrhofer, Helmut

    2009-08-31

    A list of 27 species of lichenized fungi from Bosnia and Herzegovina is presented, based on herbarium specimens kept in GZU. Six species are new to Bosnia and Herzegovina: Fuscopannaria sampaiana, Lecidea tessellata, Micarea melaena, Rinodina polysporoides, Usnea barbata, and Xanthoparmelia verruculifera.

  19. Lichens as sentinels for air pollution at remote alpine areas (Italy).

    PubMed

    Loppi, Stefano

    2014-02-01

    The present study was undertaken with the aim of using epiphytic lichens as sentinels for air pollution at two remote alpine sites (1,400 and 1,800 m above sea level (asl)) of NW Italy. The results indicated that the site at 1,800 m prompted for early warning indications of biological changes. Although levels of the many elements assayed in samples of the lichen Pseudevernia furfuracea (L.) Zopf, ranging from minor elements (e.g., Al) to ultra-trace (e.g., Pt), were at normal levels, indications of a slowly worsening environment were given by the lichen biodiversity and by damage to cell membranes. The analysis of Pb isotopic ratios suggested that the origin of Pb accumulated in lichens is not local, but linked to the long-range transport by air masses. It was concluded that the origin of pollutants is from air mass coming from the Po plain of Italy and from densely populated areas of Switzerland and France.

  20. Estimating global carbon uptake by lichens and bryophytes with a process-based model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porada, P.; Weber, B.; Elbert, W.; Pöschl, U.; Kleidon, A.

    2013-02-01

    Lichens and bryophytes are abundant globally and they may even form the dominant autotrophs in (sub)polar ecosystems, in deserts and at high altitudes. Moreover, they can be found in large amounts as epiphytes in old-growth forests. Here, we present the first process-based model which estimates the net carbon uptake by these organisms at the global scale, thus assessing their significance for biogeochemical cycles. The model uses gridded climate data and key properties of the habitat (e.g. disturbance intervals) to predict processes which control net carbon uptake, namely photosynthesis, respiration, water uptake and evaporation. It relies on equations used in many dynamical vegetation models, which are combined with concepts specific to lichens and bryophytes, such as poikilohydry or the effect of water content on CO2 diffusivity. To incorporate the great functional variation of lichens and bryophytes at the global scale, the model parameters are characterised by broad ranges of possible values instead of a single, globally uniform value. The predicted terrestrial net carbon uptake of 0.34 to 3.3 (Gt C) yr-1 and global patterns of productivity are in accordance with empirically-derived estimates. Considering that the assimilated carbon can be invested in processes such as weathering or nitrogen fixation, lichens and bryophytes may play a significant role in biogeochemical cycles.

  1. Estimating global carbon uptake by lichens and bryophytes with a process-based model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porada, P.; Weber, B.; Elbert, W.; Pöschl, U.; Kleidon, A.

    2013-11-01

    Lichens and bryophytes are abundant globally and they may even form the dominant autotrophs in (sub)polar ecosystems, in deserts and at high altitudes. Moreover, they can be found in large amounts as epiphytes in old-growth forests. Here, we present the first process-based model which estimates the net carbon uptake by these organisms at the global scale, thus assessing their significance for biogeochemical cycles. The model uses gridded climate data and key properties of the habitat (e.g. disturbance intervals) to predict processes which control net carbon uptake, namely photosynthesis, respiration, water uptake and evaporation. It relies on equations used in many dynamical vegetation models, which are combined with concepts specific to lichens and bryophytes, such as poikilohydry or the effect of water content on CO2 diffusivity. To incorporate the great functional variation of lichens and bryophytes at the global scale, the model parameters are characterised by broad ranges of possible values instead of a single, globally uniform value. The predicted terrestrial net uptake of 0.34 to 3.3 Gt yr-1 of carbon and global patterns of productivity are in accordance with empirically-derived estimates. Considering that the assimilated carbon can be invested in processes such as weathering or nitrogen fixation, lichens and bryophytes may play a significant role in biogeochemical cycles.

  2. The importance of the poikilohydric nature of lichens as natural tracers for delta18O of ambient vapour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartard, Britta; Cuntz, Matthias; Lakatos, Michael; Máguas, Cristina

    2010-05-01

    both constant water supply and stomatal control. Their water status and, consequentially, vapour pressure at the evaporative sites constantly tends to equilibrate with the surrounding air. This specificity signifies the uniqueness of these organisms to be able to isotopically equilibrate with ambient vapour regardless of prevailing relative humidity conditions. These findings are supported by first observations obtained within field studies in a Mediterranean sand-dune habitat in Portugal: Thallus water isotopic composition of exposed growing, epiphytic lichens directly resembled that of ambient vapour throughout a diel course. A model was developed as a proof of concept for that accounts for the specific water relations of these poikilohydric organisms. The approach incorporates firstly their variable thallus water potential and secondly a compartmentation of the thallus water into two isotopically distinct but connected water pools. Moreover, the result represent first steps towards the development of pikilohydric organisms as a recorder of ambient vapour isotopic composition.

  3. Ecological implication of variation in the secondary metabolites in Parmelioid lichens with respect to altitude.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Vertika; Patel, D K; Bajpai, Rajesh; Semwal, Manoj; Upreti, D K

    2016-01-01

    Lichens are known to synthesize a variety of secondary metabolites having multifunctional activity in response to external environmental condition. Two common lichen extrolites, atranorin and salazinic acid, are known to afford antioxidant as well as photoprotectant nature depending on the abiotic/biotic stress. The present investigation aims to study the influence of altitudinal gradient on the quantitative profile of atranorin and salazinic acid in three lichen species, Bulbothrix setschwanensis (Zahlbr.) Hale, Everniastrum cirrhatum (Fr.) Hale and Parmotrema reticulatum (Taylor) Choisy, Parmeliaceae using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) technique. Samples were collected from high-altitude area, usually considered as non-polluted sites of Garhwal Himalaya. Characterization and quantification of the lichen substances in samples were carried out comparing with the standards of atranorin and salazinic acid. Results indicated significant variation in the chemical content with the rising altitude. All the three lichen species showed higher quantities of chemical substances with the altitudinal rise, while among the three lichen species, E. cirrhatum showed the highest quantity of total lichen compounds. The higher abundance and frequency of E. cirrhatum with increasing altitude as compared to B. setschwanensis and P. reticulatum may be attributed due to the presence of higher quantity of photoprotecting/antioxidant chemicals especially salazinic acid. Thus, the present study shows the prominent role of secondary metabolite in wider ecological distribution of Parmelioid lichens at higher altitudes.

  4. Ecological implication of variation in the secondary metabolites in Parmelioid lichens with respect to altitude.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Vertika; Patel, D K; Bajpai, Rajesh; Semwal, Manoj; Upreti, D K

    2016-01-01

    Lichens are known to synthesize a variety of secondary metabolites having multifunctional activity in response to external environmental condition. Two common lichen extrolites, atranorin and salazinic acid, are known to afford antioxidant as well as photoprotectant nature depending on the abiotic/biotic stress. The present investigation aims to study the influence of altitudinal gradient on the quantitative profile of atranorin and salazinic acid in three lichen species, Bulbothrix setschwanensis (Zahlbr.) Hale, Everniastrum cirrhatum (Fr.) Hale and Parmotrema reticulatum (Taylor) Choisy, Parmeliaceae using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) technique. Samples were collected from high-altitude area, usually considered as non-polluted sites of Garhwal Himalaya. Characterization and quantification of the lichen substances in samples were carried out comparing with the standards of atranorin and salazinic acid. Results indicated significant variation in the chemical content with the rising altitude. All the three lichen species showed higher quantities of chemical substances with the altitudinal rise, while among the three lichen species, E. cirrhatum showed the highest quantity of total lichen compounds. The higher abundance and frequency of E. cirrhatum with increasing altitude as compared to B. setschwanensis and P. reticulatum may be attributed due to the presence of higher quantity of photoprotecting/antioxidant chemicals especially salazinic acid. Thus, the present study shows the prominent role of secondary metabolite in wider ecological distribution of Parmelioid lichens at higher altitudes. PMID:26370809

  5. Lichen Persistence and Recovery in Response to Varied Volcanic Disturbances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, P.; Wheeler, T. B.

    2015-12-01

    Volcanic eruptions produce many ecological disturbances that structure vegetation. While lichens are sensitive to disturbances, little is known about their responses to volcanic disturbances, except for colonization of lava. We examined lichen community responses through time to different disturbances produced by the May 1, 2008 eruption of Volcan Chaiten in south-central Chile. Pre-eruption vegetation near the volcano was old-growth Valdivian temperate rainforest dominated by closed-canopy Nothofagus sp... In 2012, we installed thirteen 1-acre plots across volcanic disturbance zones on which a time-constrained search was done for all macrolichen species, each of which was assigned an approximate log10 categorical abundance. We also installed a 0.2 m2 quadrat on two representative trees per plot for repeat photography of lichen cover. We remeasured at least one plot per disturbance zone in 2014 and re-photographed tree quadrats in 2013 and 2014. We then analyzed species composition and abundance differences among disturbance zones. In 2012, the blast (pyroclastic density flow), scorch (standing scorched forest at the edge of the blast) and deep tephra (>10 cm) zones had the lowest lichen species richness (5-13 species), followed by reference (unimpacted) and shallow (<10 cm) tephra (17-20 species). Gravel rain (preexisting rock ejected by eruption initiation), gravel rain + pumice and flooded forests (fluvially reworked volcanic material entrained by heavy rains) were species-rich (25-42 species). In 2014, the blast and deep tephra had regained 2-3 times the number of lichen species since 2012 while the light tephra and reference were essentially unchanged. Gravel rain, gravel rain + pumice and flooded forest plots all had about the same number of species in 2014 as 2012. Lichen colonization and growth in tree quadrats varied widely, from very little colonization in the blast to prolific colonization in the gravel rain + pumice zone. Lichen's varied responses to

  6. DISTRIBUTION OF ALGAL EPIPHYTES ACROSS ENVIRONMENTAL GRADIENTS AT DIFFERENT SCALES: INTERTIDAL ELEVATION, HOST CANOPIES, AND HOST FRONDS(1).

    PubMed

    Longtin, Caroline M; Scrosati, Ricardo A; Whalen, Gillian B; Garbary, David J

    2009-08-01

    Understanding epiphyte distribution in coastal communities is important because these organisms affect many others directly or indirectly. Yet, their distribution has been considerably less studied than that of their hosts and other primary-space holders. Identifying major sources of variation in epiphyte abundance is thus still a need. Environmental gradients help predict species distribution and are pervasive on marine shores. In this study, we test the notion that environmental gradients across intertidal elevation, throughout host canopies, and along host fronds explain a large variation in the abundance of sympatric epiphytes. Our model system was the assemblage of Ascophyllum nodosum (L.) Le Jol. and its epiphytes Vertebrata lanosa (L.) T. A. Chr. [= Polysiphonia lanosa (L.) Tandy], Elachista fucicola (Velley) Aresch., and Pylaiella littoralis (L.) Kjellm. On the coast of Nova Scotia (Canada), we found evidence of a spatial segregation among these species at almost all scales. While the red epiphyte V. lanosa was more common at high- and midintertidal elevations (peaking at midelevations) and on middle segments of host fronds, the brown epiphytes E. fucicola and P. littoralis were more common at low elevations and restricted to distal segments of host fronds. Canopy habitat affected abundance only for V. lanosa, which was more common within the host canopy than on its periphery at midelevations. Since the studied gradients are related to predictable changes in abiotic factors, the identification of likely causes behind the observed patterns was facilitated. Our study ends by proposing abiotic and biotic factors that deserve priority in the experimental testing of the forces structuring this assemblage. PMID:27034211

  7. Lichen communities along a pollution gradient 40 years after decommissioning of a Cu-Ni smelter.

    PubMed

    Schram, Lyndsay J; Wagner, Christopher; McMullin, Richard Troy; Anand, Madhur

    2015-06-01

    Pollution control initiatives in Greater Sudbury, Ontario, Canada, resulted in the decommissioning of the Coniston Smelter in 1972. The last assessment of the effects from the smelter on the surrounding lichen biota was in 1990, which showed an overall improvement in richness following these initiatives, but still few species were present close to the smelter. We examined five sites along this gradient to determine if this pattern is still present on the landscape. Sixty-four macrolichen species in 15 genera were found. Lichen richness and Shannon diversity increased at all sites, but the increase was no longer linear with distance from the smelter. There was no significant difference between lichen richness and diversity at sites at increasing distances from the smelter. We show that past air pollution from the Coniston Smelter is no longer restricting lichen growth and development in the Greater Sudbury area as it was historically. Lichen populations are, therefore, now shaped by other environmental variables. PMID:25598157

  8. Lichens as monitors of aerial heavy metal pollutants in and around Kampala

    SciTech Connect

    Nyangababo, J.T.

    1987-01-01

    The use of ion exchange resins and biological materials has aroused much interest in the search for inexpensive devices for monitoring pollution. Recent investigators have shown that plants themselves may be used as indicators of aerial fallout of heavy metals. Other workers have pursued the concept of using biological materials still further, by using mosses as indicators of aerial metal depositions. Lichens possess remarkable ion-exchange properties similar to many ion-exchange resins and are therefore suitable for the collection and retention of airborne metals. Lichens have been shown to be good indicators of pollution level; a close correlation is usually found between the distribution pattern of lichen species and the trace metal content of the surrounding air. This study was undertaken to determine the degree of contamination of the Kampala, Uganda environment by heavy metals from industries and motor traffic by using lichens as and indicator device. One type of lichen species (Calyrneferes usambaricum) was used as the test plant.

  9. Ecological half-life of 137Cs in lichens in an alpine region.

    PubMed

    Machart, Peter; Hofmann, Werner; Türk, Roman; Steger, Ferdinand

    2007-01-01

    About 17 years after the Chernobyl accident, lichen samples were collected in an alpine region in Austria (Bad Gastein), which was heavily contaminated by the Chernobyl fallout. Measured 137Cs activity concentrations in selected lichens (Cetraria islandica, Cetraria cucullata, and Cladonia arbuscula) ranged from 100 to 1100 Bq kg(-1) dry weight, depending on lichen species and sampling site. Ecological half-lives for 137Cs in different lichen samples, obtained by comparison with earlier measurements of the same lichen species at the same site, ranged from 2 to 6 years, with average values between 3 and 4 years. Comparison with earlier studies indicated that ecological half-lives hardly changed during the last 10 years, suggesting that ecological clearance mechanisms (e.g. washout or soil transfer) did not vary substantially at the selected sampling area.

  10. Seagrass epiphytes: useful indicator, potential biological criterion, or forlorn hope?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epiphytes on seagrasses have been studied for more than 50 years, and proposed as an indicator of anthropogenic nutrient enrichment for over 30 years. Epiphytes have been correlated with seagrass declines, causally related to nutrient additions in both field and mesocosm experim...

  11. [Distribution of Mycotoxins and Usnic Acid in the Thalli of Epigenous Lichens].

    PubMed

    Kononenko, G P; Burkin, A A

    2015-01-01

    The distribution of mycotoxins anc unic acid in the thallus of epigenous fruticose lichens Alectoria ochroleuca; several species of the genera Cladonia, Cotraria, and Flavocetraria; foliose lichens Nephroma arcticum; and six species of the genus Peltigera were studied by mnzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The mycotoxin content was lower in the top or apical parts of the thalli than in the basal parts and in dead areas. Differences in the distribution of usnic acid were insignificant in the majority of species, but in Cladonia stellaris and N. arcticum lichens the content of this metabolite in the upper and pc ripheral areas was higher than in the basal parts.

  12. Two strategies by epiphytic orchids for maintaining water balance: thick cuticles in leaves and water storage in pseudobulbs

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shi-Jian; Sun, Mei; Yang, Qiu-Yun; Ma, Ren-Yi; Zhang, Jiao-Lin; Zhang, Shi-Bao

    2016-01-01

    Epiphytes are an important component of tropical and subtropical flora, and serve vital ecological functions in forest hydrology and nutrient fluxes. However, they often encounter water deficits because there is no direct contact between their roots and the soil. The strategies employed by epiphytes for maintaining water balance in relatively water-limited habitats are not completely understood. In the present study, we investigated the anatomical traits, water loss rates, and physiology of leaves and pseudobulbs of four Dendrobium species with different pseudobulb morphologies to understand the roles of leaf and pseudobulb in maintaining water balance of epiphytic orchids. Our results showed that two species (D. chrysotoxum and D. officinale), with lower rates of water loss, have thicker leaves and upper cuticles, but lower epidermal thickness and leaf dry mass per area. In contrast, the other two species (D. chrysanthum and D. crystallinum) with thinner cuticles and higher rates of water loss, have less tissue density and greater saturated water contents in their pseudobulbs. Therefore, our results indicate that these latter two species may resist drought by storing water in the pseudobulbs to compensate for their thin cuticles and rapid water loss through the leaves. Under the same laboratory conditions, excised pseudobulbs with attached leaves had lower rates of water loss when compared with samples comprising only excised leaves. This implies that epiphytic orchids utilize two different strategies for sustaining water balance: thick cuticles to conserve water in leaves and water storage in pseudobulbs. Our results also show that Dendrobium species with thin cuticles tend to have pseudobulbs with high water storage capacity that compensates for their faster rates of water loss. These outcomes contribute to our understanding of the adaptive water-use strategies in Dendrobium species, which is beneficial for the conservation and cultivation of epiphytic orchids

  13. Two strategies by epiphytic orchids for maintaining water balance: thick cuticles in leaves and water storage in pseudobulbs.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shi-Jian; Sun, Mei; Yang, Qiu-Yun; Ma, Ren-Yi; Zhang, Jiao-Lin; Zhang, Shi-Bao

    2016-01-01

    Epiphytes are an important component of tropical and subtropical flora, and serve vital ecological functions in forest hydrology and nutrient fluxes. However, they often encounter water deficits because there is no direct contact between their roots and the soil. The strategies employed by epiphytes for maintaining water balance in relatively water-limited habitats are not completely understood. In the present study, we investigated the anatomical traits, water loss rates, and physiology of leaves and pseudobulbs of four Dendrobium species with different pseudobulb morphologies to understand the roles of leaf and pseudobulb in maintaining water balance of epiphytic orchids. Our results showed that two species (D. chrysotoxum and D. officinale), with lower rates of water loss, have thicker leaves and upper cuticles, but lower epidermal thickness and leaf dry mass per area. In contrast, the other two species (D. chrysanthum and D. crystallinum) with thinner cuticles and higher rates of water loss, have less tissue density and greater saturated water contents in their pseudobulbs. Therefore, our results indicate that these latter two species may resist drought by storing water in the pseudobulbs to compensate for their thin cuticles and rapid water loss through the leaves. Under the same laboratory conditions, excised pseudobulbs with attached leaves had lower rates of water loss when compared with samples comprising only excised leaves. This implies that epiphytic orchids utilize two different strategies for sustaining water balance: thick cuticles to conserve water in leaves and water storage in pseudobulbs. Our results also show that Dendrobium species with thin cuticles tend to have pseudobulbs with high water storage capacity that compensates for their faster rates of water loss. These outcomes contribute to our understanding of the adaptive water-use strategies in Dendrobium species, which is beneficial for the conservation and cultivation of epiphytic orchids

  14. Modelling relationships between lichen bioindicators, air quality and climate on a national scale: results from the UK OPAL air survey.

    PubMed

    Seed, Lindsay; Wolseley, Pat; Gosling, Laura; Davies, Linda; Power, Sally A

    2013-11-01

    Air pollution has many negative effects on the natural environment, from changes in plant growth patterns to loss of ecosystem function. This study uses citizen science to investigate national-scale patterns in the distribution and abundance of selected lichen species on tree trunks and branches, and to relate these to air pollution and climate. Volunteers collected data for nine lichen indicators on 19,334 deciduous trees. Submitted data provided information on species-level patterns, and were used to derive composite lichen indices. Multiple linear regression and ANCOVA were used to model the relationships between lichen response variables on Quercus spp. and pollution, climate and location. The study demonstrated significant relationships between patterns in indicator lichens and levels of N- and S-containing pollutants on trunks and twigs. The derived lichen indices show great potential as a tool to provide information on local, site-specific levels of air quality. PMID:23992684

  15. Monitoring of arsenic, boron and mercury by lichen and soil analysis in the Mt. Amiata geothermal area (central Italy)

    SciTech Connect

    Loppi, S.

    1997-12-31

    Epiphytic lichens and top-soils from the Mt. Amiata geothermal field (central Italy) were analyzed for their As, B and Hg content. Three areas were selected: (1) Abbadia S. Salvatore, where a large Hg mine with smelting and roasting plant was located; (2) Piancastagnaio, where there are geothermal power plants; (3) a remote site far from mines and geothermal power plants. The results showed that the geothermal power plants do not represent a macroscopic source of arsenic and boron contamination in the area. As far as mercury is concerned, at the Hg mining area of Abbadia S. Salvatore concentrations were extremely high both in soil and epiphytic lichens, and the anomalous content in these organisms was due to the uptake of elemental mercury originating from soil degassing. At the geothermal area of Piancastagnaio, soil mercury was not different from that in the control area, but Hg in lichens was almost twice the control levels, suggesting that the gaseous emissions from the geothermal power plants are an important source of air contamination.

  16. Characterization of the diversity of mycosporine-like amino acids in lichens from high altitude region of Himalaya.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Vertika; Kumari, Rupender; Patel, Davendra K; Upreti, Dalip K

    2016-01-01

    Lichens are tolerant to a number of environmental variables including high-intensity solar radiations, which is mainly due to the presence of chemical substances in the thallus. Especially, cyanobacterial lichens synthesize a unique class of chemical substances known as mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) the primary characteristic of which is strong ultraviolet (UV) absorption between 300 and 360 nm. In view of its UV-protecting potential, the applicability of mass spectral fragmentation using electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometric analysis for the characterization of MAAs in lichen samples was explored. MAA compounds were characterized in four cyanobacteria-containing lichen species belonging to genus Peltigera, Stereocaulon and Lobaria. Among them, Peltigera and Lobaria are true cyanobacteria containing lichens (cyanolichens) while Stereocaulon is a tripartite lichen, as it contains both green algae (in the thallus) and cyanobacteria (in the cephalodia), collected from higher altitudes of Himalaya (Tungnath-Chopta in Garhwal Himalaya, 3432 m) from an exposed locality experiencing high light intensity. Mass spectral data of distinctive fragmentation pattern revealed that all the four species have good diversity of MAA compounds, especially Lobaria retigera was found to be enriched with highest diversity of oxo and imino MAAs. Overall, different numbers of oxo and imino MAA compounds were detected in the remaining lichen species. Good diversity of imino MAAs has ecological significance which is required to be investigated further. Moreover, the impressive diversity characterized in each lichen species suggests that lichens should be thoroughly studied for their MAAs contents.

  17. Lichens as bioindicators of geothermal air pollution in central Italy

    SciTech Connect

    Loppi, S.

    1996-11-01

    The suitability of lichens as bioindicators of geothermal air pollution was evaluated in central Italy. Fifty-one sites were sampled in the Travale-Radicondoli geothermal field, an area of about 15 km{sup 2}. Lichens on 1-5 trees per station were sampled, using 30 x 50 cm grids on tree boles, where lichens were most dense. Index of Atmospheric Purity (IAP) was calculated as the sum of the frequencies of all lichen species present at the station. Using automatic mapping programs, the area was divided into four air quality zones and the lowest IAP values were found within about 500 m of geothermal power plants. No direct measurements of air pollution are available for the whole study area, however, other studies show that air pollution levels (mercury, boron) fall with distance from a geothermal source. Also no substrate parameter (height, circumference, bark pH, and buffer capacity of the trees) discriminates between IAP zones. This suggests that air pollution arising from geothermal emissions is responsible for the zonation shown, with values for species richness and IAP rising with distance from geothermal installations. It is concluded that lichens are reliable bioindicators of geothermal pollution. 64 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  18. Differences between Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae B728a and Pantoea agglomerans BRT98 in epiphytic and endophytic colonization of leaves.

    PubMed

    Sabaratnam, Siva; Beattie, Gwyn A

    2003-02-01

    The leaf colonization strategies of two bacterial strains were investigated. The foliar pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae strain B728a and the nonpathogen Pantoea agglomerans strain BRT98 were marked with a green fluorescent protein, and surface (epiphytic) and subsurface (endophytic) sites of bean and maize leaves in the laboratory and the field were monitored to see if populations of these strains developed. The populations were monitored using both fluorescence microscopy and counts of culturable cells recovered from nonsterilized and surface-sterilized leaves. The P. agglomerans strain exclusively colonized epiphytic sites on the two plant species. Under favorable conditions, the P. agglomerans strain formed aggregates that often extended over multiple epidermal cells. The P. syringae pv. syringae strain established epiphytic and endophytic populations on asymptomatic leaves of the two plant species in the field, with most of the P. syringae pv. syringae B728a cells remaining in epiphytic sites of the maize leaves and an increasing number occupying endophytic sites of the bean leaves in the 15-day monitoring period. The epiphytic P. syringae pv. syringae B728a populations appeared to originate primarily from multiplication in surface sites rather than from the movement of cells from subsurface to surface sites. The endophytic P. syringae pv. syringae B728a populations appeared to originate primarily from inward movement through the stomata, with higher levels of multiplication occurring in bean than in maize. A rainstorm involving a high raindrop momentum was associated with rapid growth of the P. agglomerans strain on both plant species and with rapid growth of both the epiphytic and endophytic populations of the P. syringae pv. syringae strain on bean but not with growth of the P. syringae pv. syringae strain on maize. These results demonstrate that the two bacterial strains employed distinct colonization strategies and that the epiphytic and

  19. Lichens of the U. S. national parks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, J.P.; Wetmore, C.M.

    2005-01-01

    Over 26,100 records of lichens present in 144 U.S. national park units were assembled from various sources into a database and analyzed. Within these 144 park units 2,435 species and 375 genera are reported, representing 63% and 74% of the North American flora, respectively. The park units are located in 41 states and Washington, D.C. The average number of species in a park is 104, but the median is 60, indicating there are many parks with a small number of species and a few with high numbers. Isle Royale National Park has the most species, 611, and twelve parks have only one species reported. The number of records of lichens present ranged from one for 25 parks, to 1,623 for Isle Royale. Physcia aipolia is the most frequently observed species, being found in 65 parks. One fourth of the park units are classified cultural resource parks, while the remainder are considered natural resource parks. This study was based on 453 sources, including literature citations, park reports and collections in the University of Minnesota Herbarium. Copyright ?? 2005 by the American Bryological and Lichenological Society, Inc.

  20. Notes on Lichen Genus Buellia De Not. (lichenized Ascomycetes) from South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Yogesh; Wang, Xin Yu; Lökös, László; Koh, Young Jin

    2010-01-01

    Based on a literature survey and assessment of the important features of lichen genus Buellia (spore shape and size, anatomy of the exciple as well as analysis of the lichen substances), the present paper describes four new records of B. maritima, B. polyspora, B. spuria and B. stellulata from South Korea. Among them, B. maritima and B. polyspora are firstly reported in East Asia including in China, the Korean Peninsula and Japan. Brief description of all the new records along with earlier described species placed under genus Amandinea and Hafellia are provided with their distribution and chemistry. A key to all the Buellia species reported so far from South Korea is also provided. PMID:23956628

  1. The significance of lichens and their metabolites.

    PubMed

    Huneck, S

    1999-12-01

    Lichens, symbiontic organisms of fungi and algae, synthesize numerous metabolites, the "lichen substances," which comprise aliphatic, cycloaliphatic, aromatic, and terpenic compounds. Lichens and their metabolites have a manifold biological activity: antiviral, antibiotic, antitumor, allergenic, plant growth inhibitory, antiherbivore, and enzyme inhibitory. Usnic acid, a very active lichen substance is used in pharmaceutical preparations. Large amounts of Pseudevernia furfuracea and Evernia prunastri are processed in the perfume industry, and some lichens are sensitive reagents for the evaluation of air pollution.

  2. The Significance of Lichens and Their Metabolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huneck, S.

    Lichens, symbiontic organisms of fungi and algae, synthesize numerous metabolites, the "lichen substances," which comprise aliphatic, cycloaliphatic, aromatic, and terpenic compounds. Lichens and their metabolites have a manifold biological activity: antiviral, antibiotic, antitumor, allergenic, plant growth inhibitory, antiherbivore, and enzyme inhibitory. Usnic acid, a very active lichen substance is used in pharmaceutical preparations. Large amounts of Pseudevernia furfuracea and Evernia prunastri are processed in the perfume industry, and some lichens are sensitive reagents for the evaluation of air pollution.

  3. Preliminary study of volcano monitoring using geochemical composition of lichen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    KUAN, S.

    2012-12-01

    Taipei City, the capital of Taiwan, is bounded with Tatun Volcano Group (TVG), which is not active since 200 ka. However, some evidences indicate that the latest explosion of volcanic ash was dated to 5-6 ka as well as TVG is so close to metropolis. The monitoring on TVG is crucial for crisis management. For monitoring TVG, changes of geochemical signal in some volcanic gases and hot springs are currently assessed by monthly sampling. The geochemistry of volcanic gas and hot spring represents a short-term condition on sampling time and is highly controlled by temperature and precipitation on the surface. A long-term average geochemistry will be very helpful to be compared with the results of volcanic gas and hot spring. A bioindicator not only has the ability to store geochemical compositions in their tissues but also has a wide geographical distribution. It is very suitable in this kind of study and lichen is one of the best bioindicators mainly because lichens grow slowly and have a large-scale dependence upon the environment for their nutrition, In TVG, the high SO2 content in the atmosphere results in the absence of fruticose lichen. On the contrary, crustos lichen is the most common species in the study area. For the preliminary analysis, one fruticose, four foliose and four crustos lichens were collected around the major emission centers of volcanic gas. According to the results of ICP-MS analysis, the abundances of heavy metals are generally in the order of Zn, Fe, Mn, Cu, Cr, Pb, Cd, Ni, V, Co and U. Factor analysis (FA) demonstrates that most of the metals show very high loadings in the first factor. This means that the fractionation of metals among different lichen species is minor and the geochemical compositions of lichen are possibly controlled by the same source (atmosphere). The second factor of FA includes Mn, Sr and Ba, which share the same oxidation state of +2 in acidic environment. This factor can describe the variation of Mn, Sr and Ba in the

  4. Interactions between marine facultative epiphyte Chlamydomonas sp. (Chlamydomonadales, Chlorophyta) and ceramiaceaen algae (Rhodophyta).

    PubMed

    Klochkova, Tatyana A; Cho, Ga Youn; Boo, Sung Min; Chung, Ki Wha; Kim, Song Ja; Kim, Gwang Hoon

    2008-07-01

    Previously unrecorded marine Chlamydomonas that grew epiphytic on ceramiaceaen algae was collected from the western coast of Korea and isolated into a unialgal culture. The isolate was subjected to 18S rDNA phylogenetic analysis as well as ultrastructure and life cycle studies. It had an affinity with the marine Chlamydomonas species and was less related to freshwater/terrestrial representatives of this genus. It had flagella shorter than the cell body two-layered cell wall with striated outer surface and abundant mucilaginous material beneath the innermost layer and no contractile vacuoles. This alga grew faster in mixed cultures with ceramiaceaen algae rather than in any tested unialgal culture condition; the cells looked healthier and zoosporangia and motile flagellated vegetative cells appeared more often. These results suggested that this Chlamydomonas might be a facultative epiphyte benefiting from its hosts. Several ceramiaceaen algae were tested as host plants. Meanwhile, cell deformation or collapse of the whole thallus was caused to Aglaothamnion byssoides, and preliminary study suggested that a substance released from Chlamydomonas caused the response. This is first report on harmful epiphytic interactions between Chlamydomonas species and red ceramiaceaen algae.

  5. Divergent Adaptive Strategies by Two Co-occurring Epiphytic Orchids to Water Stress: Escape or Avoidance?

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Hu, Hong; Zhang, Shi-Bao

    2016-01-01

    Due to the fluctuating water availability in the arboreal habitat, epiphytic plants are considered vulnerable to climate change and anthropogenic disturbances. Although co-occurring taxa have been observed divergent adaptive performances in response to drought, the underlying physiological and morphological mechanisms by which epiphyte species cope with water stress remain poorly understood. In the present study, two co-occurring epiphytic orchids with different phenologies were selected to investigate their drought-resistance performances. We compared their functional traits, and monitored their physiological performances in a 25-days of drought treatment. In contrast to the deciduous species Pleione albiflora, the evergreen species Coelogyne corymbosa had different root anatomical structures and higher values for saturated water content of pseudobulbs. Moreover, plants of C. corymbosa had thicker leaves and epidermis, denser veins and stomata, and higher values for leaf mass per unit area and the time required to dry saturated leaves to 70% relative water content. However, samples from that species had lower values for net photosynthetic rate (A n), stomatal length and chlorophyll content per unit dry mass. Nevertheless, due to greater capacity for water storage and conservation, C. corymbosa maintained higher A n, stomatal conductance (g s), and instantaneous water-use efficiency during severe drought period, and their values for leaf water potential were higher after the water stress treatment. By Day 10 after irrigation was restarted, only C. corymbosa plants recovered their values for A n and g s to levels close to those calculated prior to the imposition of water stress. Our results suggest that the different performance responding to drought and re-watering in two co-occurring epiphytic orchids is related to water-related traits and these two species have divergent adaptive mechanisms. Overall, C. corymbosa demonstrates drought avoidance by enhancing water

  6. Divergent Adaptive Strategies by Two Co-occurring Epiphytic Orchids to Water Stress: Escape or Avoidance?

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Hu, Hong; Zhang, Shi-Bao

    2016-01-01

    Due to the fluctuating water availability in the arboreal habitat, epiphytic plants are considered vulnerable to climate change and anthropogenic disturbances. Although co-occurring taxa have been observed divergent adaptive performances in response to drought, the underlying physiological and morphological mechanisms by which epiphyte species cope with water stress remain poorly understood. In the present study, two co-occurring epiphytic orchids with different phenologies were selected to investigate their drought-resistance performances. We compared their functional traits, and monitored their physiological performances in a 25-days of drought treatment. In contrast to the deciduous species Pleione albiflora, the evergreen species Coelogyne corymbosa had different root anatomical structures and higher values for saturated water content of pseudobulbs. Moreover, plants of C. corymbosa had thicker leaves and epidermis, denser veins and stomata, and higher values for leaf mass per unit area and the time required to dry saturated leaves to 70% relative water content. However, samples from that species had lower values for net photosynthetic rate (A n), stomatal length and chlorophyll content per unit dry mass. Nevertheless, due to greater capacity for water storage and conservation, C. corymbosa maintained higher A n, stomatal conductance (g s), and instantaneous water-use efficiency during severe drought period, and their values for leaf water potential were higher after the water stress treatment. By Day 10 after irrigation was restarted, only C. corymbosa plants recovered their values for A n and g s to levels close to those calculated prior to the imposition of water stress. Our results suggest that the different performance responding to drought and re-watering in two co-occurring epiphytic orchids is related to water-related traits and these two species have divergent adaptive mechanisms. Overall, C. corymbosa demonstrates drought avoidance by enhancing water

  7. Divergent Adaptive Strategies by Two Co-occurring Epiphytic Orchids to Water Stress: Escape or Avoidance?

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Hu, Hong; Zhang, Shi-Bao

    2016-01-01

    Due to the fluctuating water availability in the arboreal habitat, epiphytic plants are considered vulnerable to climate change and anthropogenic disturbances. Although co-occurring taxa have been observed divergent adaptive performances in response to drought, the underlying physiological and morphological mechanisms by which epiphyte species cope with water stress remain poorly understood. In the present study, two co-occurring epiphytic orchids with different phenologies were selected to investigate their drought-resistance performances. We compared their functional traits, and monitored their physiological performances in a 25-days of drought treatment. In contrast to the deciduous species Pleione albiflora, the evergreen species Coelogyne corymbosa had different root anatomical structures and higher values for saturated water content of pseudobulbs. Moreover, plants of C. corymbosa had thicker leaves and epidermis, denser veins and stomata, and higher values for leaf mass per unit area and the time required to dry saturated leaves to 70% relative water content. However, samples from that species had lower values for net photosynthetic rate (An), stomatal length and chlorophyll content per unit dry mass. Nevertheless, due to greater capacity for water storage and conservation, C. corymbosa maintained higher An, stomatal conductance (gs), and instantaneous water-use efficiency during severe drought period, and their values for leaf water potential were higher after the water stress treatment. By Day 10 after irrigation was restarted, only C. corymbosa plants recovered their values for An and gs to levels close to those calculated prior to the imposition of water stress. Our results suggest that the different performance responding to drought and re-watering in two co-occurring epiphytic orchids is related to water-related traits and these two species have divergent adaptive mechanisms. Overall, C. corymbosa demonstrates drought avoidance by enhancing water

  8. [Lichen striatus. Epidemiologic study].

    PubMed

    Sittart, J A; Pegas, J R; Sant'Ana, L A; Pires, M C

    1989-01-01

    The authors are showing a retrospective study of 53 cases of lichen striatus concerning sex, colour, age, place of lesions, associated diseases and period of the year of occurrence of the dermatosis. There was a larger number of cases in females of white race and age-between 2 and 5 years old. A greater occurrence was observed in the months of September and March which correspond to spring and summer. Adding the fact that there have been more cases in children, at times in brothers and the trend to spontaneous involution, the authors suggest the possibility of a virus as etiology to this entity. PMID:2666785

  9. Lichens as biomonitors of air quality around a diamond mine, northwest territories, Canada.

    PubMed

    Naeth, M A; Wilkinson, S R

    2008-01-01

    Lichens are known to be bioaccumulators of atmospheric pollutants and are abundant in the Canadian arctic. Mining in this region may negatively impact the tundra communities and these impacts may be detected by increased accumulation of heavy metals, greenhouse gas constituents, and organic compounds in lichen tissue. The effect of sampling direction and distance from a diamond mine on bioaccumulation in three lichen species, Flavocetraria nivalis, Flavocetraria cucullata, and Cladina arbuscula, was investigated. Eight sample sites were located immediately adjacent to a diamond mine, one in each cardinal and ordinal direction, and six sample sites each were located 30 and 60 km from the mine (cardinal, NE, and SE). Thirty-three major and trace elements, sulfate (SO(4)), nitrate (NO(3)), ammonium (NH(4)), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and phthalates were analyzed in lichen tissue and soil. A significant interaction occurred between distance and direction from the mine. Highest concentrations of Al, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Ti, and V in lichen were at the mine site regardless of direction. Highest concentrations for all other elements were at the mine in at least two directions. Although present in lichen tissue, there was no significant difference among sites for Hg, Mn, S, and three phthalates. PAHs were below detection limits in lichen tissue. The effect of direction was dependent on element and species, although concentrations of most elements were greatest east or southeast of the mine site. At distance from the mine, direction had less of an effect on concentrations. Elevated concentrations in tissue did not negatively impact lichen or plant cover or lichen richness. This research strongly suggests selection of sample sites and species can impact results and interpretation of data from air quality monitoring programs that use lichens as biomonitors.

  10. Photobiont selectivity leads to ecological tolerance and evolutionary divergence in a polymorphic complex of lichenized fungi

    PubMed Central

    Muggia, Lucia; Pérez-Ortega, Sergio; Kopun, Theodora; Zellnig, Günther; Grube, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims The integrity and evolution of lichen symbioses depend on a fine-tuned combination of algal and fungal genotypes. Geographically widespread species complexes of lichenized fungi can occur in habitats with slightly varying ecological conditions, and it remains unclear how this variation correlates with symbiont selectivity patterns in lichens. In an attempt to address this question, >300 samples were taken of the globally distributed and ecologically variable lichen-forming species complex Tephromela atra, together with closely allied species, in order to study genetic diversity and the selectivity patterns of their photobionts. Methods Lichen thalli of T. atra and of closely related species T. grumosa, T. nashii and T. atrocaesia were collected from six continents, across 24 countries and 62 localities representing a wide range of habitats. Analyses of genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships were carried out both for photobionts amplified directly from the lichen thalli and from those isolated in axenic cultures. Morphological and anatomical traits were studied with light and transmission electron microscopy in the isolated algal strains. Key Results Tephromela fungal species were found to associate with 12 lineages of Trebouxia. Five new clades demonstrate the still-unrecognized genetic diversity of lichen algae. Culturable, undescribed lineages were also characterized by phenotypic traits. Strong selectivity of the mycobionts for the photobionts was observed in six monophyletic Tephromela clades. Seven Trebouxia lineages were detected in the poorly resolved lineage T. atra sensu lato, where co-occurrence of multiple photobiont lineages in single thalli was repeatedly observed. Conclusions Low selectivity apparently allows widespread lichen-forming fungi to establish successful symbioses with locally adapted photobionts in a broader range of habitats. This flexibility might correlate with both lower phylogenetic resolution and

  11. Volatile emissions from an epiphytic fungus are semiochemicals for eusocial wasps.

    PubMed

    Davis, Thomas Seth; Boundy-Mills, Kyria; Landolt, Peter J

    2012-11-01

    Microbes are ubiquitous on plant surfaces. However, interactions between epiphytic microbes and arthropods are rarely considered as a factor that affects arthropod behaviors. Here, volatile emissions from an epiphytic fungus were investigated as semiochemical attractants for two eusocial wasps. The fungus Aureobasidium pullulans was isolated from apples, and the volatile compounds emitted by fungal colonies were quantified. The attractiveness of fungal colonies and fungal volatiles to social wasps (Vespula spp.) were experimentally tested in the field. Three important findings emerged: (1) traps baited with A. pullulans caught 2750 % more wasps on average than unbaited control traps; (2) the major headspace volatiles emitted by A. pullulans were 2-methyl-1-butanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, and 2-phenylethyl alcohol; and (3) a synthetic blend of fungal volatiles attracted 4,933 % more wasps on average than unbaited controls. Wasps were most attracted to 2-methyl-1-butanol. The primary wasp species attracted to fungal volatiles were the western yellowjacket (Vespula pensylvanica) and the German yellowjacket (V. germanica), and both species externally vectored A. pullulans. This is the first study to link microbial volatile emissions with eusocial wasp behaviors, and these experiments indicate that volatile compounds emitted by an epiphytic fungus can be responsible for wasp attraction. This work implicates epiphytic microbes as important components in the community ecology of some eusocial hymenopterans, and fungal emissions may signal suitable nutrient sources to foraging wasps. Our experiments are suggestive of a potential symbiosis, but additional studies are needed to determine if eusocial wasp-fungal associations are widespread, and whether these associations are incidental, facultative, or obligate.

  12. Ten years of elemental atmospheric metal fallout and Pb isotopic composition monitoring using lichens in north-eastern France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cloquet, Christophe; Estrade, Nicolas

    2016-04-01

    We report on the chemical and Pb isotopic compositions of epiphytic lichens collected from small tree branches in the urban area of the city of Metz (NE France). Lichens were collected in five different years between 2001 and 2009. The data are first compared year to year in order to document any temporal changes and trends in metal atmospheric fallout. The area studied was then subdivided into different zones on the basis of land-use (urban, suburban, rural and industrial) in order to determine potential spatial gradients. The median concentrations and enrichment factors (EF, normalized to Al) of Pb and other metals (Cu, Zn, Cd, Ni, Cr, Hg, Fe) in lichens from the urban, suburban, and rural zones show no systematic variation between 2001 and 2008. However, the metal EFs show spatial variation and are generally highest in the urban area and lowest in the rural area. Lichens within the industrial zone (collected in 2009), which is dominated by steel industries, are richest in Al, Fe, Cr, Pb, and Zn. Although the Al concentration is high in these lichens, the EFs for the cited metals are several times higher than those measured in lichens from the other three zones. No significant differences were noted for Hg, Cd, Cu and or Ni. Lead isotopic compositions measured in lichens may be highly variable from year to year and from zone to zone. The variation is primarily interpreted to result from mixing between: (i) Pb added to gasoline (and recycled through re-emission of road dust in the atmosphere); (ii) regional industrial Pb from long-range transportation and/or mixed with urban Pb; and (iii) local industrial Pb. The median isotopic compositions of individual zones are distinct, suggesting variable mixing of these three sources. The annual variations show that 2001 was most affected by gasoline Pb, whereas 2003 and 2006 were more affected by the local steel industry.

  13. Ten years of elemental atmospheric metal fallout and Pb isotopic composition monitoring using lichens in northeastern France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cloquet, Christophe; Estrade, Nicolas; Carignan, Jean

    2015-09-01

    We report on the chemical and Pb isotopic compositions of epiphytic lichens collected from small tree branches in the urban area of the city of Metz (NE France). Lichens were collected in five different years between 2001 and 2009. The data are first compared year to year in order to document any temporal change and trend in metal atmospheric fallout. The area studied was then subdivided into different zones on the basis of land use (urban, suburban, rural and industrial) in order to determine potential spatial gradients. The median concentrations and enrichment factors (EF, normalized to Al) of Pb and other metals (Cu, Zn, Cd, Ni, Cr, Hg, Fe) in lichens from the urban, suburban, and rural zones show no systematic variation between 2001 and 2008. However, the metal EFs show spatial variation and are generally highest in the urban area and lowest in the rural area. Lichens within the industrial zone (collected in 2009), which is dominated by steel industries, are richest in Al, Fe, Cr, Pb, and Zn. Although the Al concentration is high in these lichens, the EFs for the cited metals are several times higher than those measured in lichens from the other three zones. No significant differences were noted for Hg, Cd, Cu and or Ni. Pb isotopic compositions measured in lichens may be highly variable from year to year and from zone to zone. The variation is primarily interpreted to result from mixing between: (i) Pb added to gasoline (and recycled through re-emission of road dust in the atmosphere); (ii) regional industrial Pb from long-range transportation and/or mixed with urban Pb; and (iii) local industrial Pb. The median isotopic compositions of individual zones are distinct, suggesting variable mixing of these three sources. The annual variations show that 2001 was most affected by gasoline Pb, whereas 2003 and 2006 were more affected by the local steel industry.

  14. Lichen-rock interaction in volcanic environments: evidences of soil-precursor formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vingiani, S.; Adamo, P.; Terribile, F.

    2012-04-01

    The weathering action of the lichens Lecidea fuscoatra (L.) Ach. and Stereocaulon vesuvianum Pers. on basaltic rock collected on the slopes of Mt. Etna (Sicily) at 1550 m a.s.l. has been studied using optical (OM) and electron (SEM) microscopy equipped with microanalytical device (EDS). Biological factors associated with lichen growth play a major role in the weathering of minerals on bare rocks and contribute to the preliminary phases of soil formation. The present work investigates the biogeophysical and biogeochemical weathering associated to the growth of epilithic lichens on lava flows from Mt. Etna (Sicily) and Mt. Vesuvius (Campania). The chosen lichen species were the crustose Lecidea fuscoatra (L.) Ach., the foliose Xanthoparmelia conspersa and the fructicose Stereocaulon vesuvianum Pers. An integrated approach based on the study of both disturbed and undisturbed samples of lichenized rock was applied in order to appreciate the complexity of the rock-lichen interface environment in terms of micromorphological, mineralogical and chemical properties. XRD and XRF analyses coupled to microscopical (OM), submicroscopical (SEM) and microanalitical (EDS) observations were the used techniques. In both study environments, the chemical, mineralogical and micromorphological properties of the uncoherent materials found at the lichen-rock interface suggest they consist of rock fragments eroded from the surroundings and accumulated in cavities and fissures of the rough lava flows. According to the thallus morphology, the lichens colonizing the lava preserve the interface materials from further aeolic and water erosion, provide these materials of organic matter and moisture, entrap allochtonous quartz and clay minerals. The calcium oxalate production by L. fuscoatra and X. conspersa, the Al enrichment around S. vesuvianum hyphae and the occurrence of Fe-oxide phases at the rock-lichen interface are evidences of lichens interaction with the underlying sediments. Indeed

  15. Ecological Facilitation between Two Epiphytes through Drought Mitigation in a Subtropical Rainforest

    PubMed Central

    Jian, Pei-Yu; Hu, Feng Sheng; Wang, Chiao Ping; Chiang, Jyh-min; Lin, Teng-Chiu

    2013-01-01

    Positive species interactions (facilitation) play an important role in shaping the structures and species diversity of ecological communities, particularly under stressful environmental conditions. Epiphytes in rainforests often grow in multiple-species clumps, suggesting interspecies facilitation. However, little is known about the patterns and mechanisms of epiphyte co-occurrence. We assessed the interactions of two widespread epiphyte species, Asplenium antiquum and Haplopteris zosterifolia, by examining their co-occurrence and size-class association in the field. To elucidate factors controlling their interactions, we conducted reciprocal-removal and greenhouse-drought experiments, and nutrient and isotope analyses. Forty-five percent of H. zosterifolia co-occurred with A. antiquum, whereas only 17% of A. antiquum co-occurred with H. zosterifolia. Removing the fronds plus substrate of A. antiquum reduced the relative frond length and specific leaf area of H. zosterifolia, but removing fronds only had little effect. Removing H. zosterifolia had no significant effects on the growth of A. antiquum. H. zosterifolia co-occurring and not co-occurring with A. antiquum had similar foliar nutrient concentrations and δ15N values, suggesting that A. antiquum does not affect the nutrient status of H. zosterifolia. Reduced growth of H. zosterifolia with the removal of A. antiquum substrate, together with higher foliar δ13C for H. zosterifolia growing alone than those co-occurring with A. antiquum, suggest that A. antiquum enhances water availability to H. zosterifolia. This enhancement probably resulted from water storage in the substrate of A. antiquum, which could hold water up to 6.2 times its dry weight, and from reduced evapotranspiration due to shading of A. antiquum fronds. Greater water loss occurred in the frond-clipped group than the unclipped group between days 3–13 of the drought treatment. Our results imply that drought mitigation by substrate

  16. Lichen biomonitoring networks in alberta.

    PubMed

    Case, J W

    1984-09-01

    Lichen biomonitoring of air pollution has developed over a period of about 150 yr. Several valuable techniques now exist which could complement physical/chemical air quality monitoring programmes. The affects of air pollution and acid rain, in areas such as Alberta, where lichens and bryophytes make up a significant portion of the forest vegetation, must be considered important. In addition, bioaccumulation studies can be used to map the areas of 'heavy metal' deposition, estimate actual depositional rates, and check the accuracy of pollutant dispersion models. Lichen biomonitoring techniques must now be calibrated with more 'glamorous' effects on plant physiology, ecosystem processes, cancer incidence, etc.

  17. Influence of immigration on epiphytic bacterial populations on navel orange leaves.

    PubMed

    Lindow, S E; Andersen, G L

    1996-08-01

    Factors that influenced the increase in epiphytic bacterial population size on navel orange leaves during winter months were investigated to test the assumption that such populations were the result of multiplication on orange leaves. The population sizes of bacteria of different kinds, including ice nucleation-active (Ice(sup+)) bacteria, were from 6- to 30-fold larger on leaves of navel orange trees adjacent to other plant species than on trees growing near other citrus species. Total and Ice(sup+) bacterial population sizes on other plant species growing near navel orange trees were from 18- to 60-fold and 2- to 18,000-fold larger, respectively, than on navel orange trees. About twice the number of bacterial cells of a given type were deposited onto petri dishes opened simultaneously in navel orange orchards with other plant species nearby as in orchards surrounded by citrus trees. Epiphytic bacteria and airborne bacteria were more numerous near the upwind edge of orchards bordering on other plant species, but not in orchards adjacent to other citrus trees, and decreased with distance from other plant species. Navel orange leaves also exhibited progressive increases in the ability to supercool as a function of increasing distance from the upwind edge of orchards adjacent to other plant species but not in orchards adjacent to other citrus trees. While the population size of three different bacterial strains remained nearly constant for 60 days after inoculation, total bacterial populations increased more than 50-fold during this period. These results suggest that immigration of bacteria from plants having high epiphytic bacterial populations could account for most, if not all, of the seasonal increase in bacterial populations on navel orange leaves and have important implications for procedures to modify bacterial communities on leaves. PMID:16535384

  18. Mercury Concentration and Isotopic Composition of Epiphytic Tree Lichens in the Alberta Oil Sands Region

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mercury (Hg) is a toxic heavy metal that is found associated with fossil fuel deposits and that can be released to the atmosphere during fossil fuel combustion and/or processing. Hg emitted to the atmosphere can be deposited to aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems where it can be m...

  19. Arboreal lichen in uncut and partially cut subalpine fir stands in woodland caribou habitat, northern Idaho and southeastern British Columbia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rominger, Eric M.; Allen-Johnson, Lydia; Oldemeyer, John L.

    1994-01-01

    To better understand the effects of partial cutting on arboreal lichen production within woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) habitat, lichen was hand picked from 1228 branches on 307 subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa) trees in Idaho (ID), and in British Columbia (BC). Lichen biomass from partially cut stands was compared with biomass on trees from adjacent uncut stands at each site. Arboreal lichen biomass did not differ significantly between uncut and partially cut stands. Total number of branches per tree did not differ significantly between uncut and partially cut stands. Live branches had more lichen than dead branches. Species composition of arboreal lichen changed in partially cut stands compared with adjacent uncut stands. The ratio of live to dead branches was substantially different within the BC partial cut.

  20. Fire, grazing history, lichen abundance, and winter distribution of caribou in Alaska's taiga

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collins, W.B.; Dale, B.W.; Adams, L.G.; McElwain, D.E.; Joly, Kyle

    2011-01-01

    In the early 1990s the Nelchina Caribou (Rangifer tarandus) Herd (NCH) began a dramatic shift to its current winter range, migrating at least an additional 100 km beyond its historic range. We evaluated the impacts of fire and grazing history on lichen abundance and subsequent use and distribution by the NCH. Historic (prior to 1990) and current (2002) winter ranges of the NCH had similar vascular vegetation, lichen cover (P = 0.491), and fire histories (P = 0.535), but the former range had significantly less forage lichen biomass as a result of grazing by caribou. Biomass of forage lichens was twice as great overall (P = 0.031) and 4 times greater in caribou selected sites on the current range than in the historic range, greatly increasing availability to caribou. Caribou on the current range selected for stands with >20% lichen cover (P < 0.001), greater than 1,250 kg/ha (P < 0.001) forage lichen biomass and stands older than 80 yr postfire (P < 0.001). After fires, forage lichen cover and biomass seldom recovered sufficiently to attract caribou grazing until after ???60 yr, and, as a group, primary forage lichen species did not reach maximum abundance until 180 yr postfire. Recovery following overgrazing can occur much more quickly because lichen cover, albeit mostly fragments, and organic substrates remain present. Our results provide benchmarks for wildlife managers assessing condition of caribou winter range and predicting effects of fires on lichen abundance and caribou distribution. Of our measurements of cover and biomass by species, densities and heights of trees, elevation, slope and aspect, only percentage cover by Cladonia amaurocraea, Cladina rangiferina, Flavocetraria cuculata, and lowbush cranberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea) were necessary for predicting caribou use of winter range. ?? 2011 The Wildlife Society.

  1. Three New Records of Lichen Genus Rhizocarpon from South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Yogesh; Koh, Young Jin

    2010-01-01

    The paper describes three new records of lichen genus Rhizocarpon (R. alpicola, R. grande and R. lavatum) from South Korea. Brief taxonomic description and comments are provided for the new records. An artificial key is also provided for known species of this genus in South Korea. PMID:23956659

  2. First evidence for seasonal fluctuations in lichen- and bark-colonising fungal communities.

    PubMed

    Beck, Andreas; Peršoh, Derek; Rambold, Gerhard

    2014-03-01

    Endophytic fungal communities in leaves of deciduous trees usually undergo pronounced seasonal changes. We hypothesised that such compositional shifts are predominantly caused by annuality of the leaves and therefore less pronounced in fungi colonising the perennial substrates bark and corticolous lichens. To test this hypothesis, thalli of the foliose lichen-forming fungal species Xanthoria parietina and Physconia distorta, along with the adjacent bark, were sampled during spring and autumn at two sides of a single tree in southern Germany. Analysis of clone libraries by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) revealed 588 singleton and 221 non-singleton RFLP-types of non-lichenised fungi. The communities differed significantly between host lichen species. Season and exposure had only a significant impact when the two factors were combined in the analysis. Accordingly, bark- and/or the lichen-associated fungal communities change throughout the year's course, a finding that rejects the initial hypothesis. This survey revealed valuable information for future broad-based studies, by indicating that a relatively high diversity of non-lichenised fungi is associated with corticolous lichen thalli and the adjacent bark. Furthermore, the structure of non-lichenised fungal assemblages associated with corticolous lichen communities obviously depends at least on the following factors: 'lichen species', 'exposure', and 'season'.

  3. Magnetic properties of the lichen Pseudevernia furfuracea transplanted near a cement plant in NE Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkler, Aldo; Kodnik, Danijela; Candotto Carniel, Fabio; Tretiach, Mauro

    2015-04-01

    The magnetic properties of transplanted samples of the epiphytic lichen Pseudevernia furfuracea (L.) Zopf var. furfuracea have been analyzed in the framework of a biomonitoring study in NE Italy focused on a middle-sized cement plant (clinker production: 556,000 ton year-1 in 2012). The lichen transplants were exposed for 2 months in 40 sites distributed all around the cement plant: 37 sites were located at the knots of a 700 m step grid covering agricultural, forest and urban areas and a large industrial zone, and 3 sites were located in the nearby urban centers. The elemental analysis of the exposed samples revealed a limited impact of the cement plant on the territory, while that of the industrial zone, located in the SW corner of the study area, seemed to be generally stronger. The magnetic properties of the transplanted lichens statistically agree with the elemental concentration dataset, showing that the cement plant has no significant impact on the magnetic properties of the lichens transplanted in the whole area. The samples from the industrial area show the highest values of magnetic susceptibility and of saturation magnetization and saturation remanent magnetization, in coherence with the spatial distribution of the elemental concentration values. The magnetic mineralogy is reasonably uniform throughout the whole set of samples, and is dominated by magnetite-like minerals. The magnetic mineralogy of the sample nearest to the cement plant is not magnetically distinguishable from that of the other lichen samples and does not seem to be linked to the magnetic properties of the cement therein produced. The full agreement between the magnetic and elemental datasets underlines a modest environmental impact of the cement plant, with respect to the other industrial activities in the same area.

  4. Brevetoxin persistence in sediments and seagrass epiphytes of east Florida coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Hitchcock, Gary L; Fourqurean, James W; Drake, Jeana L; Mead, Ralph N; Heil, Cynthia A

    2012-01-01

    A bloom of Karenia brevis Davis developed in September 2007 near Jacksonville, Florida and subsequently progressed south through east Florida coastal waters and the Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway (ICW). Maximum cell abundances exceeded 10(6) cells L(-1) through October in the northern ICW between Jacksonville and the Indian River Lagoon. The bloom progressed further south during November, and terminated in December 2007 at densities of 10(4) cells L(-1) in the ICW south of Jupiter Inlet, Florida. Brevetoxins were subsequently sampled in sediments and seagrass epiphytes in July and August 2008 in the ICW. Sediment brevetoxins occurred at concentrations of 11-15 ng PbTx-3 equivalents (g dry wt sediment)(-1) in three of five basins in the northern ICW during summer 2008. Seagrass beds occur south of the Mosquito Lagoon in the ICW. Brevetoxins were detected in six of the nine seagrass beds sampled between the Mosquito Lagoon and Jupiter Inlet at concentrations of 6-18 ng (g dry wt epiphytes)(-1). The highest brevetoxins concentrations were found in sediments near Patrick Air Force Base at 89 ng (g dry wt sediment)(-1). In general, brevetoxins occurred in either seagrass epiphytes or sediments. Blades of the resident seagrass species have a maximum life span of less than six months, so it is postulated that brevetoxins could be transferred between epibenthic communities of individual blades in seagrass beds. The occurrence of brevetoxins in east Florida coast sediments and seagrass epiphytes up to eight months after bloom termination supports observations from the Florida west coast that brevetoxins can persist in marine ecosystems in the absence of sustained blooms. Furthermore, our observations show that brevetoxins can persist in sediments where seagrass communities are absent.

  5. Lichen striatus following solarium exposure.

    PubMed

    Ciconte, Antoinette; Bekhor, Philip

    2007-05-01

    Two cases of lichen striatus occurring after solarium exposure are presented. Both patients were adult females who regularly attended a solarium prior to the development of their skin lesions. A 19-year-old woman attended the solarium twice weekly for 8 weeks prior to the appearance of lichen striatus on the chest and epigastrium. The condition resolved completely with the twice daily application of calcipotriol ointment for 6 months. The second patient, a 40-year-old woman, attended the solarium once weekly for 3 months before lichen striatus developed on the abdomen. She was treated with clobetasol propionate ointment, calcipotriol ointment and intralesional triamcinolone acetonide and the eruption cleared 7 months after onset. The histopathological picture in both patients supported a diagnosis of lichen striatus.

  6. Physiological and chemical response of the lichen, Flavoparmelia caperata (L.) Hale, to the urban environment of Kolkata, India.

    PubMed

    Majumder, S; Mishra, D; Ram, S S; Jana, N K; Santra, S; Sudarshan, M; Chakraborty, A

    2013-05-01

    The present study was focused on the effect of increasing urbanization including industrial and traffic activity on the accumulation of heavy metals and possible damage of selected physiological parameters (composition of assimilation pigments, membrane lipid peroxidation, and membrane integrity) of an epiphytic foliose lichen, Flavoparmelia caperata (L.) Hale. The lichen samples were collected from three different localities in and around Kolkata, India, two sites being from the urban area and one from the relatively non-polluted sub-urban area. The results showed that thalli from the urban sites have significantly higher concentrations of Fe, Cr, Cu, Zn, and Pb compared to those collected from the sub-urban site. Physiological parameters of damage also exhibited stress symptoms in thalli from the urban sites--decreased chlorophyll a indicating less photosynthetic efficiency, and increase in lipid peroxidation and electrolyte conductivity indicating cell membrane injuries. Correlation studies among metals pinpointed vehicular traffic as the main source of pollution in this area.

  7. Male genital lichen sclerosus.

    PubMed

    Bunker, Christopher Barry; Shim, Tang Ngee

    2015-01-01

    Male genital lichen sclerosus (MGLSc) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease responsible for male sexual dyspareunia and urological morbidity. An afeared complication is squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the penis. The precise etiopathogenesis of MGLSc remains controversial although genetic, autoimmune and infective (such as human papillomavirus (HPV) hepatitis C (HCV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Borrelia) factors have been implicated: Consideration of all the evidence suggests that chronic exposure of susceptible epithelium to urinary occlusion by the foreskin seems the most likely pathomechanism. The mainstay of treatment is topical ultrapotent corticosteroid therapy. Surgery is indicated for cases unresponsive to topical corticosteroid therapy, phimosis, meatal stenosis, urethral stricture, carcinoma in situ (CIS) and squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:25814697

  8. NPLichen: a database of lichens in the U.S. national parks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, J.P.; Wetmore, C.M.

    2005-01-01

    NPLichen, a database of lichens in the U. S. National Parks (Wetmore and Bennett, 1992), has been extensively revised and expanded, and is now available for public use at www.ies.wisc.edu/nplichen. As of this writing, the database contains 25,995 records of lichens in 144 national park units. The number of records of lichens not in the North American lichen checklist (Esslinger 1997) is 161, for a total of 26,156. These records include multiple occurrences of a species in some parks because more than one reference has reported presence of species. Consequently, the number of species in parks records (including new to North America) without these duplicate references is 14,986. Our table of misidentified taxa contains 307 records.

  9. Plant development in the absence of epiphytic microorganisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutschera, U.; Koopmann, V.; Grotha, R.

    2002-05-01

    Microorganisms (bacteria, fungi) are common residents of the roots, stems and leaves of higher plants. In order to explore the dependency of plant development on the presence of epiphytic microorganisms, the achenes (seeds) of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) were sterilized and germinated under aseptic conditions. The sterility of the seedlings was determined with the agar impression method. In seedlings from non-sterile seeds (control) that were likewise raised in a germ-free environment, all plant organs investigated (stem, cotyledons and primary leaves) were contaminated with bacteria. Hypocotyl elongation was not affected by epiphytic microorganisms. However, the growth rates of the cotyledons and primary leaves were higher in sterile seedlings compared with the control. The implications of this differential inhibition of organ development by epiphytic bacteria that are transmitted via the outer surface of the seed coat are discussed. We conclude that epiphytes in the above-ground phytosphere are not necessary for the development of the sunflower seedling.

  10. Patterns of lichen diversity in Yellowstone National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eversman, S.; Wetmore, C.M.; Glew, K.; Bennett, J.P.

    2002-01-01

    We here report 359 species in 103 genera from Yellowstone National Park. We found 71.3% of the total number of species in Picea engelmannii forests and 57.4% of the total number in Pseudotsuga menziesii stands. This compares to 42.3% of the species in Pinus contorta and 37.0% of the species in Pinus contorta/Pinus albicaulis stands. The presence of old Pseudotsuga menziesii and mature Picea engelmannii indicates that the forests have not burned for at least 300 yr, contributing to higher lichen diversity. The drier lodgepole pine and whitebark pine forests burn more frequently than every 300 yr and have fewer microhabitats for lichen growth. Species with thalli large enough to identify are beginning to recolonize substrates burned in the 1988 fires. Bryoria fremontii and Letharia vulpina exhibit levels of mercury and sulfur higher than those in other specimens in the region.

  11. Effects of Lichenic Extracts (Hypogymnia physodes, Ramalina polymorpha and Usnea florida) on Human Blood Cells: Cytogenetic and Biochemical Study

    PubMed Central

    Türkez, Hasan; Aydın, Elanur; Aslan, Ali

    2012-01-01

    Several lichen species have been used for medicinal purposes throughout the ages, and they were reported to be effective in the treatment of different disorders including tuberculosis, hemorrhoids, ulcer, dysentery and cancer. It is revealed that they may be easily accessible sources of natural drugs that could be used as a possible food supplement or in pharmaceutical industry after their safety evaluations. However, so far, the nature and/or biological roles of plenty of lichenes have not been elucidated exactly. The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic and oxidative effects of water extracts of three different lichen species; Hypogymnia physodes, Ramalina polymorpha and Usnea florida in cultured human blood cells (n = 5) for the first time. All lichen species were collected from the Erzurum and Artvin provinces (in Turkey) during August 2010. The lichen extracts were added into culture tubes at various concentrations (0 to 2000 mg/L). Chromosome aberrations (CA) and micronucleus (MN) tests were used for genotoxic influences estimation. In addition, biochemical parameters (total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and total oxidative stress (TOS)) were examined to determine oxidative effects. In our in-vitro test systems, it was observed that all tested lichen extracts had no mutagenic effects on human lymphocytes. Furthermore, these extracts exhibited antioxidant properties due to the type of lichen species added to the cultures. In conclusion, these lichens can be a new resource of therapeutics as recognized in this study with their non-mutagenic and antioxidant features. PMID:24250516

  12. Habitat moisture is an important driver of patterns of sap flow and water balance in tropical montane cloud forest epiphytes.

    PubMed

    Darby, Alexander; Draguljić, Danel; Glunk, Andrew; Gotsch, Sybil G

    2016-10-01

    Microclimate in the tropical montane cloud forest (TMCF) is variable on both spatial and temporal scales and can lead to large fluctuations in both leaf-level transpiration and whole plant water use. While variation in transpiration has been found in TMCFs, the influence of different microclimatic drivers on plant water relations in this ecosystem has been relatively understudied. Within the TMCF, epiphytes may be particularly affected by natural variation in microclimate due to their partial or complete disassociation from soil resources. In this study, we examined the effects of seasonal microclimate on whole plant water balance in epiphytes in both an observational and a manipulative experiment. We also evaluated the effects of different microclimatic drivers using three hierarchical linear (mixed) models. On average, 31 % of total positive sap flow was recovered via foliar water uptake (FWU) over the course of the study. We found that precipitation was the greatest driver of foliar water uptake and nighttime sap flow in our study species and that both VPD and precipitation were important drivers to daytime sap flow. We also found that despite adaptations to withstand seasonal drought, an extended dry period caused severe desiccation in most plants despite a large reduction in leaf-level and whole plant transpiration. Our results indicate that the epiphytes studied rely on FWU to maintain positive water balance in the dry season and that increases in dry periods in the TMCF may be detrimental to these common members of the epiphyte community. PMID:27262583

  13. Habitat moisture is an important driver of patterns of sap flow and water balance in tropical montane cloud forest epiphytes.

    PubMed

    Darby, Alexander; Draguljić, Danel; Glunk, Andrew; Gotsch, Sybil G

    2016-10-01

    Microclimate in the tropical montane cloud forest (TMCF) is variable on both spatial and temporal scales and can lead to large fluctuations in both leaf-level transpiration and whole plant water use. While variation in transpiration has been found in TMCFs, the influence of different microclimatic drivers on plant water relations in this ecosystem has been relatively understudied. Within the TMCF, epiphytes may be particularly affected by natural variation in microclimate due to their partial or complete disassociation from soil resources. In this study, we examined the effects of seasonal microclimate on whole plant water balance in epiphytes in both an observational and a manipulative experiment. We also evaluated the effects of different microclimatic drivers using three hierarchical linear (mixed) models. On average, 31 % of total positive sap flow was recovered via foliar water uptake (FWU) over the course of the study. We found that precipitation was the greatest driver of foliar water uptake and nighttime sap flow in our study species and that both VPD and precipitation were important drivers to daytime sap flow. We also found that despite adaptations to withstand seasonal drought, an extended dry period caused severe desiccation in most plants despite a large reduction in leaf-level and whole plant transpiration. Our results indicate that the epiphytes studied rely on FWU to maintain positive water balance in the dry season and that increases in dry periods in the TMCF may be detrimental to these common members of the epiphyte community.

  14. Comparison between epiphyte assemblages of leaves and rhizomes of the seagrass Posidonia oceanica subjected to different levels of anthropogenic eutrophication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balata, David; Bertocci, Iacopo; Piazzi, Luigi; Nesti, Ugo

    2008-09-01

    This paper aimed to compare epiphyte assemblages of leaves and rhizomes of Posidonia oceanica exposed to different levels of concentration of nutrients. The same design including a potentially impacted meadow and two reference meadows was used in each of two locations, characterized by the presence of a city or of suspended cages of a fish farm, respectively. This allowed to test for the consistency of responses of epiphytic assemblages to different sources of eutrophication. In both studies, results documented differences in patterns of composition and abundance of epiphytic assemblages on leaves between disturbed and reference meadows, while assemblages on rhizomes did not appear sensitive to this kind of disturbance. Moreover, in potentially impacted meadows, both assemblages showed different patterns of spatial variability compared to reference assemblages. Species composition and abundance of epiphyte assemblages seemed suitable for detecting moderate nutrient increases, even if adequate sampling designs are needed to separate patterns related to the large natural spatial variability of these systems from those related to changes in environmental conditions.

  15. Novel bacteria associated with Arctic seashore lichens have potential roles in nutrient scavenging.

    PubMed

    Sigurbjörnsdóttir, Margrét Auður; Heiðmarsson, Starri; Jónsdóttir, Anna Rut; Vilhelmsson, Oddur

    2014-05-01

    While generally described as a bipartite mutualistic association between fungi and algae or cyanobacteria, lichens also host diverse and heretofore little explored communities of nonphototrophic endolichenic bacteria. The composition and possible roles of these bacterial communities in the lichen symbiotic association constitute an emerging field of research. Saxicolous (rock-dwelling) seashore lichens present an unusual environment, characterized by rapid fluctuations in temperature, salinity, exposure to solar radiation, etc. The present study focuses on the bacterial biota associated with 4 species of crustose, halophilic, saxicolous seashore lichens found in northern Iceland. A denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis based characterization of the composition of the lichen-associated microbiotas indicated that they are markedly lichen-species-specific and clearly distinguishable from the environmental microbiota represented by control sampling. A collection of bacterial strains was investigated and partially identified by 16S rDNA sequencing. The strains were found to belong to 7 classes: Alphaproteobacteria, Bacilli, Actinobacteria, Flavobacteria, Cytophagia, Sphingobacteria, and Gammaproteobacteria. Several isolates display only a modest level of similarity to their nearest relatives found in GenBank, suggesting that they comprise previously undescribed taxa. Selected strains were tested for inorganic phosphate solubilization and biodegradation of several biopolymers, such as barley β-glucan, xylan, chitosan, and lignin. The results support a nutrient-scavenging role of the associate microbiota in the seashore lichen symbiotic association.

  16. Air quality monitoring system using lichens as bioindicators in Central Argentina.

    PubMed

    Estrabou, Cecilia; Filippini, Edith; Soria, Juan Pablo; Schelotto, Gabriel; Rodriguez, Juan Manuel

    2011-11-01

    Air quality studies with bioindicators have not been well developed in South America. In the city of Córdoba, there are not permanent air pollutant measurements by equipment. In order to develop an air quality biomonitoring system using lichens, we applied a systematic sampling in the city of Córdoba, Argentina. A total of 341 plots were sampled in the area of the city which is a square of 24 × 24 km. In each sample plot we selected three phorophytes and estimated the frequency and cover of lichen species growing at 1.5 m on trunks. We also calculated the Index of Atmospheric Purity (IAP) using lichen frequencies. Maps with number of lichen species, cover values, and IAP were performed. The lichen community was described with nine species where Physcia undulata and Physcia endochryscea were the most frequent. Moreover, these two species were dominant in the community with the highest cover index. The central area of the city is considered a lichen desert with poor air quality. The southeast and northwest areas of the city showed the highest IAP values and number of species. In general, the city shows fair air quality and few areas with good and very good air quality. PMID:21336488

  17. Air quality monitoring system using lichens as bioindicators in Central Argentina.

    PubMed

    Estrabou, Cecilia; Filippini, Edith; Soria, Juan Pablo; Schelotto, Gabriel; Rodriguez, Juan Manuel

    2011-11-01

    Air quality studies with bioindicators have not been well developed in South America. In the city of Córdoba, there are not permanent air pollutant measurements by equipment. In order to develop an air quality biomonitoring system using lichens, we applied a systematic sampling in the city of Córdoba, Argentina. A total of 341 plots were sampled in the area of the city which is a square of 24 × 24 km. In each sample plot we selected three phorophytes and estimated the frequency and cover of lichen species growing at 1.5 m on trunks. We also calculated the Index of Atmospheric Purity (IAP) using lichen frequencies. Maps with number of lichen species, cover values, and IAP were performed. The lichen community was described with nine species where Physcia undulata and Physcia endochryscea were the most frequent. Moreover, these two species were dominant in the community with the highest cover index. The central area of the city is considered a lichen desert with poor air quality. The southeast and northwest areas of the city showed the highest IAP values and number of species. In general, the city shows fair air quality and few areas with good and very good air quality.

  18. Lichen simplex chronicus on the ankle (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Lichen simplex chronicus on the ankle: Lichen simplex chronicus is also known as neurodermatitis. A minor itch may encourage scratching which increases the irritation, leading to more scratching. This ...

  19. Summertime actinic lichenoid eruption (lichen planus actinicus).

    PubMed

    Isaacson, D; Turner, M L; Elgart, M L

    1981-04-01

    A patient with an unusual lichenoid photosensitive eruption is presented. The features differentiating this entity from classic lichen planus, lupus erythematosus, and polymorphous light eruption are discussed. Phototesting confirmed the provocative influence of sunlight. We prefer the name "summertime actinic lichenoid eruption" to that of "lichen planus subtropicus" or "lichen planus actinicus," since this condition is not confined to subtropical countries, and, although light appears to initiate the eruption, its exact relationship to lichen planus is unclear.

  20. Degradation of the Disease-Associated Prion Protein by a Serine Protease from Lichens

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Christopher J.; Bennett, James P.; Biro, Steven M.; Duque-Velasquez, Juan Camilo; Rodriguez, Cynthia M.; Bessen, Richard A.; Rocke, Tonie E.

    2011-01-01

    The disease-associated prion protein (PrPTSE), the probable etiological agent of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), is resistant to degradation and can persist in the environment. Lichens, mutualistic symbioses containing fungi, algae, bacteria and occasionally cyanobacteria, are ubiquitous in the environment and have evolved unique biological activities allowing their survival in challenging ecological niches. We investigated PrPTSE inactivation by lichens and found acetone extracts of three lichen species (Parmelia sulcata, Cladonia rangiferina and Lobaria pulmonaria) have the ability to degrade prion protein (PrP) from TSE-infected hamsters, mice and deer. Immunoblots measuring PrP levels and protein misfolding cyclic amplification indicated at least two logs of reductions in PrPTSE. Degradative activity was not found in closely related lichen species or in algae or a cyanobacterium that inhabit lichens. Degradation was blocked by Pefabloc SC, a serine protease inhibitor, but not inhibitors of other proteases or enzymes. Additionally, we found that PrP levels in PrPTSE-enriched preps or infected brain homogenates are also reduced following exposure to freshly-collected P. sulcata or an aqueous extract of the lichen. Our findings indicate that these lichen extracts efficiently degrade PrPTSE and suggest that some lichens could have potential to inactivate TSE infectivity on the landscape or be a source for agents to degrade prions. Further work to clone and characterize the protease, assess its effect on TSE infectivity and determine which organism or organisms present in lichens produce or influence the protease activity is warranted. PMID:21589935

  1. Degradation of the disease-associated prion protein by a serine protease from lichens

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, C.J.; Bennett, J.P.; Biro, S.M.; Duque-Velasquez, J.C.; Rodriguez, C.M.; Bessen, R.A.; Rocke, T.E.; Bartz, Jason C.

    2011-01-01

    The disease-associated prion protein (PrP(TSE)), the probable etiological agent of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), is resistant to degradation and can persist in the environment. Lichens, mutualistic symbioses containing fungi, algae, bacteria and occasionally cyanobacteria, are ubiquitous in the environment and have evolved unique biological activities allowing their survival in challenging ecological niches. We investigated PrP(TSE) inactivation by lichens and found acetone extracts of three lichen species (Parmelia sulcata, Cladonia rangiferina and Lobaria pulmonaria) have the ability to degrade prion protein (PrP) from TSE-infected hamsters, mice and deer. Immunoblots measuring PrP levels and protein misfolding cyclic amplification indicated at least two logs of reductions in PrP(TSE). Degradative activity was not found in closely related lichen species or in algae or a cyanobacterium that inhabit lichens. Degradation was blocked by Pefabloc SC, a serine protease inhibitor, but not inhibitors of other proteases or enzymes. Additionally, we found that PrP levels in PrP(TSE)-enriched preps or infected brain homogenates are also reduced following exposure to freshly-collected P. sulcata or an aqueous extract of the lichen. Our findings indicate that these lichen extracts efficiently degrade PrP(TSE) and suggest that some lichens could have potential to inactivate TSE infectivity on the landscape or be a source for agents to degrade prions. Further work to clone and characterize the protease, assess its effect on TSE infectivity and determine which organism or organisms present in lichens produce or influence the protease activity is warranted.

  2. Degradation of the disease-associated prion protein by a serine protease from lichens

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, C.J.; Bennett, J.P.; Biro, S.M.; Duque-Velasquez, J. C.; Rodriguez, C.M.; Bessen, R.A.; Rocke, T.E.

    2011-01-01

    The disease-associated prion protein (PrPTSE), the probable etiological agent of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), is resistant to degradation and can persist in the environment. Lichens, mutualistic symbioses containing fungi, algae, bacteria and occasionally cyanobacteria, are ubiquitous in the environment and have evolved unique biological activities allowing their survival in challenging ecological niches. We investigated PrPTSE inactivation by lichens and found acetone extracts of three lichen species (Parmelia sulcata, Cladonia rangiferina and Lobaria pulmonaria) have the ability to degrade prion protein (PrP) from TSE-infected hamsters, mice and deer. Immunoblots measuring PrP levels and protein misfolding cyclic amplification indicated at least two logs of reductions in PrPTSE. Degradative activity was not found in closely related lichen species or in algae or a cyanobacterium that inhabit lichens. Degradation was blocked by Pefabloc SC, a serine protease inhibitor, but not inhibitors of other proteases or enzymes. Additionally, we found that PrP levels in PrPTSE-enriched preps or infected brain homogenates are also reduced following exposure to freshly-collected P. sulcata or an aqueous extract of the lichen. Our findings indicate that these lichen extracts efficiently degrade PrPTSE and suggest that some lichens could have potential to inactivate TSE infectivity on the landscape or be a source for agents to degrade prions. Further work to clone and characterize the protease, assess its effect on TSE infectivity and determine which organism or organisms present in lichens produce or influence the protease activity is warranted.

  3. Degradation of the disease-associated prion protein by a serine protease from lichens.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, C.J.; Bennett, J.P.; Biro, S.M.; Duque-Velasquez, J. C.; Rodriguez, C.M.; Bessen, R.A.; Rocke, T.E.

    2011-01-01

    The disease-associated prion protein (PrPTSE), the probable etiological agent of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), is resistant to degradation and can persist in the environment. Lichens, mutualistic symbioses containing fungi, algae, bacteria and occasionally cyanobacteria, are ubiquitous in the environment and have evolved unique biological activities allowing their survival in challenging ecological niches. We investigated PrPTSE inactivation by lichens and found acetone extracts of three lichen species (Parmelia sulcata, Cladonia rangiferina and Lobaria pulmonaria) have the ability to degrade prion protein (PrP) from TSE-infected hamsters, mice and deer. Immunoblots measuring PrP levels and protein misfolding cyclic amplification indicated at least two logs of reductions in PrPTSE. Degradative activity was not found in closely related lichen species or in algae or a cyanobacterium that inhabit lichens. Degradation was blocked by Pefabloc SC, a serine protease inhibitor, but not inhibitors of other proteases or enzymes. Additionally, we found that PrP levels in PrPTSE-enriched preps or infected brain homogenates are also reduced following exposure to freshly-collected P. sulcata or an aqueous extract of the lichen. Our findings indicate that these lichen extracts efficiently degrade PrPTSE and suggest that some lichens could have potential to inactivate TSE infectivity on the landscape or be a source for agents to degrade prions. Further work to clone and characterize the protease, assess its effect on TSE infectivity and determine which organism or organisms present in lichens produce or influence the protease activity is warranted.

  4. Degradation of the disease-associated prion protein by a serine protease from lichens.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Christopher J; Bennett, James P; Biro, Steven M; Duque-Velasquez, Juan Camilo; Rodriguez, Cynthia M; Bessen, Richard A; Rocke, Tonie E

    2011-05-11

    The disease-associated prion protein (PrP(TSE)), the probable etiological agent of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), is resistant to degradation and can persist in the environment. Lichens, mutualistic symbioses containing fungi, algae, bacteria and occasionally cyanobacteria, are ubiquitous in the environment and have evolved unique biological activities allowing their survival in challenging ecological niches. We investigated PrP(TSE) inactivation by lichens and found acetone extracts of three lichen species (Parmelia sulcata, Cladonia rangiferina and Lobaria pulmonaria) have the ability to degrade prion protein (PrP) from TSE-infected hamsters, mice and deer. Immunoblots measuring PrP levels and protein misfolding cyclic amplification indicated at least two logs of reductions in PrP(TSE). Degradative activity was not found in closely related lichen species or in algae or a cyanobacterium that inhabit lichens. Degradation was blocked by Pefabloc SC, a serine protease inhibitor, but not inhibitors of other proteases or enzymes. Additionally, we found that PrP levels in PrP(TSE)-enriched preps or infected brain homogenates are also reduced following exposure to freshly-collected P. sulcata or an aqueous extract of the lichen. Our findings indicate that these lichen extracts efficiently degrade PrP(TSE) and suggest that some lichens could have potential to inactivate TSE infectivity on the landscape or be a source for agents to degrade prions. Further work to clone and characterize the protease, assess its effect on TSE infectivity and determine which organism or organisms present in lichens produce or influence the protease activity is warranted.

  5. Molecular characterization of epiphytic bacterial communities on charophycean green algae

    PubMed

    Fisher; Wilcox; Graham

    1998-11-01

    Epiphytic bacterial communities within the sheath material of three filamentous green algae, Desmidium grevillii, Hyalotheca dissiliens, and Spondylosium pulchrum (class Charophyceae, order Zygnematales), collected from a Sphagnum bog were characterized by PCR amplification, cloning, and sequencing of 16S ribosomal DNA. A total of 20 partial sequences and nine different sequence types were obtained, and one sequence type was recovered from the bacterial communities on all three algae. By phylogenetic analysis, the cloned sequences were placed into several major lineages of the Bacteria domain: the Flexibacter/Cytophaga/Bacteroides phylum and the alpha, beta, and gamma subdivisions of the phylum Proteobacteria. Analysis at the subphylum level revealed that the majority of our sequences were not closely affiliated with those of known, cultured taxa, although the estimated evolutionary distances between our sequences and their nearest neighbors were always less than 0.1 (i.e., greater than 90% similar). This result suggests that the majority of sequences obtained in this study represent as yet phenotypically undescribed bacterial species and that the range of bacterial-algal interactions that occur in nature has not yet been fully described.

  6. Effect of fungicides on epiphytic yeasts associated with strawberry

    PubMed Central

    Debode, Jane; Van Hemelrijck, Wendy; Creemers, Piet; Maes, Martine

    2013-01-01

    We studied the effect of two commonly used fungicides on the epiphytic yeast community of strawberry. Greenhouse and field experiments were conducted applying Switch (cyprodinil plus fludioxonil) or Signum (boscalid plus pyraclostrobin) to strawberry plants. Yeasts on leaves and fruits were assessed on treated and untreated plants at several time points via plating and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis. The yeast counts on plates of the treated plants were similar to the control plants. Unripe fruits had 10 times larger yeast concentrations than ripe fruits or leaves. Some dominant yeast types were isolated and in vitro tests showed that they were at least 10 times less sensitive to Switch and Signum as compared with two important fungal strawberry pathogens Botrytis cinerea and Colletotrichum acutatum, which are the targets for the fungicide control. DGGE analysis showed that the applied fungicides had no effect on the composition of the yeast communities, while the growing system, strawberry tissue, and sampling time did affect the yeast communities. The yeast species most commonly identified were Cryptococcus, Rhodotorula, and Sporobolomyces. These results point toward the potential applicability of natural occurring yeast antagonists into an integrated disease control strategy for strawberry diseases.

  7. Candida biotypes in patients with oral leukoplakia and lichen planus. Candida biotypes in leukoplakia and lichen planus.

    PubMed

    Lipperheide, V; Quindós, G; Jiménez, Y; Pontón, J; Bagán-Sebastián, J V; Aguirre, J M

    1996-01-01

    Prevalence of yeasts in 35 leukoplakia and 34 oral lichen planus patients was compared with that observed in persons without oral diseases. Serotype and morphotype were determined on Candida albicans isolates. Yeasts were isolated from the oral cavity specimens of 43.7% of the patients. C. albicans (serotype A) was the predominant species (76% in leukoplakia, 88.2% in lichen planus and 60.8% in healthy persons). Sixteen morphotypes were encountered on malt extract agar, being 732, 733, 734, 753 and 754 the most frequently found. Morphotypes SP1N and SP1Y were the most common on Sabouraud-trypheniltetrazolium agar (68.4% of the isolates from leukoplakia and 73.3% from lichen planus, but only 46.6% of the isolates from healthy oral mucosa showed SP1N morphotype). Presence of oral lesions was associated with a marked reduction in the yeast species and C. albicans biotypes, suggesting that C. albicans and particularly some of its biotypes, show a high potential of adaptation to the changes associated with the development of oral leukoplakia and lichen planus.

  8. Exploring functional contexts of symbiotic sustain within lichen-associated bacteria by comparative omics

    PubMed Central

    Grube, Martin; Cernava, Tomislav; Soh, Jung; Fuchs, Stephan; Aschenbrenner, Ines; Lassek, Christian; Wegner, Uwe; Becher, Dörte; Riedel, Katharina; Sensen, Christoph W; Berg, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Symbioses represent a frequent and successful lifestyle on earth and lichens are one of their classic examples. Recently, bacterial communities were identified as stable, specific and structurally integrated partners of the lichen symbiosis, but their role has remained largely elusive in comparison to the well-known functions of the fungal and algal partners. We have explored the metabolic potentials of the microbiome using the lung lichen Lobaria pulmonaria as the model. Metagenomic and proteomic data were comparatively assessed and visualized by Voronoi treemaps. The study was complemented with molecular, microscopic and physiological assays. We have found that more than 800 bacterial species have the ability to contribute multiple aspects to the symbiotic system, including essential functions such as (i) nutrient supply, especially nitrogen, phosphorous and sulfur, (ii) resistance against biotic stress factors (that is, pathogen defense), (iii) resistance against abiotic factors, (iv) support of photosynthesis by provision of vitamin B12, (v) fungal and algal growth support by provision of hormones, (vi) detoxification of metabolites, and (vii) degradation of older parts of the lichen thallus. Our findings showed the potential of lichen-associated bacteria to interact with the fungal as well as algal partner to support health, growth and fitness of their hosts. We developed a model of the symbiosis depicting the functional multi-player network of the participants, and argue that the strategy of functional diversification in lichens supports the longevity and persistence of lichens under extreme and changing ecological conditions. PMID:25072413

  9. Exploring functional contexts of symbiotic sustain within lichen-associated bacteria by comparative omics.

    PubMed

    Grube, Martin; Cernava, Tomislav; Soh, Jung; Fuchs, Stephan; Aschenbrenner, Ines; Lassek, Christian; Wegner, Uwe; Becher, Dörte; Riedel, Katharina; Sensen, Christoph W; Berg, Gabriele

    2015-02-01

    Symbioses represent a frequent and successful lifestyle on earth and lichens are one of their classic examples. Recently, bacterial communities were identified as stable, specific and structurally integrated partners of the lichen symbiosis, but their role has remained largely elusive in comparison to the well-known functions of the fungal and algal partners. We have explored the metabolic potentials of the microbiome using the lung lichen Lobaria pulmonaria as the model. Metagenomic and proteomic data were comparatively assessed and visualized by Voronoi treemaps. The study was complemented with molecular, microscopic and physiological assays. We have found that more than 800 bacterial species have the ability to contribute multiple aspects to the symbiotic system, including essential functions such as (i) nutrient supply, especially nitrogen, phosphorous and sulfur, (ii) resistance against biotic stress factors (that is, pathogen defense), (iii) resistance against abiotic factors, (iv) support of photosynthesis by provision of vitamin B12, (v) fungal and algal growth support by provision of hormones, (vi) detoxification of metabolites, and (vii) degradation of older parts of the lichen thallus. Our findings showed the potential of lichen-associated bacteria to interact with the fungal as well as algal partner to support health, growth and fitness of their hosts. We developed a model of the symbiosis depicting the functional multi-player network of the participants, and argue that the strategy of functional diversification in lichens supports the longevity and persistence of lichens under extreme and changing ecological conditions. PMID:25072413

  10. Exploring functional contexts of symbiotic sustain within lichen-associated bacteria by comparative omics.

    PubMed

    Grube, Martin; Cernava, Tomislav; Soh, Jung; Fuchs, Stephan; Aschenbrenner, Ines; Lassek, Christian; Wegner, Uwe; Becher, Dörte; Riedel, Katharina; Sensen, Christoph W; Berg, Gabriele

    2015-02-01

    Symbioses represent a frequent and successful lifestyle on earth and lichens are one of their classic examples. Recently, bacterial communities were identified as stable, specific and structurally integrated partners of the lichen symbiosis, but their role has remained largely elusive in comparison to the well-known functions of the fungal and algal partners. We have explored the metabolic potentials of the microbiome using the lung lichen Lobaria pulmonaria as the model. Metagenomic and proteomic data were comparatively assessed and visualized by Voronoi treemaps. The study was complemented with molecular, microscopic and physiological assays. We have found that more than 800 bacterial species have the ability to contribute multiple aspects to the symbiotic system, including essential functions such as (i) nutrient supply, especially nitrogen, phosphorous and sulfur, (ii) resistance against biotic stress factors (that is, pathogen defense), (iii) resistance against abiotic factors, (iv) support of photosynthesis by provision of vitamin B12, (v) fungal and algal growth support by provision of hormones, (vi) detoxification of metabolites, and (vii) degradation of older parts of the lichen thallus. Our findings showed the potential of lichen-associated bacteria to interact with the fungal as well as algal partner to support health, growth and fitness of their hosts. We developed a model of the symbiosis depicting the functional multi-player network of the participants, and argue that the strategy of functional diversification in lichens supports the longevity and persistence of lichens under extreme and changing ecological conditions.

  11. Experimental reproduction of tumbleweed shield lichen (Xanthoparmelia chlorochroa) poisoning in a domestic sheep model.

    PubMed

    Dailey, Rebecca N; Montgomery, Donald L; Ingram, James T; Siemion, Roger; Raisbeck, Merl F

    2008-11-01

    Xanthoparmelia chlorochroa, commonly called tumbleweed lichen, is found throughout the Rocky Mountain region. This particular species of lichen was incriminated in the poisoning of cattle and sheep in Wyoming during the 1930s. More than 70 years elapsed before another case was reported. There is virtually no information in the veterinary literature regarding toxicity of this lichen. This report describes X. chlorochroa poisoning in domestic sheep fed lichen collected from different locales and at different times of the year. Affected animals voided red urine and displayed incoordination. A transient spike in serum creatine kinase activity occurred in all ewes during the course of the feeding trial. Histologically, necrosis of a few individual appendicular skeletal myocytes was observed in 1 ewe, but grossly discernible myonecrosis was absent. The severity of clinical signs varied depending on the location and/or time of year the lichen was collected, indicating that toxicity of the lichen may be influenced by environmental conditions. Results demonstrate that domestic sheep are a useful model for further investigation of X. chlorochroa intoxication. The current study should act as a starting point for elucidating the pathogenesis of X. chlorochroa poisoning and aid in the development of a diagnostic assay to confirm lichen poisoning.

  12. Twice malignant transformation of hypertrophic lichen planus.

    PubMed

    Krasowska, Dorota; Kozłowicz, Katarzyna; Kowal, Małgorzata; Kurylcio, Andrzej; Budzyńska-Włodarczyk, Jolanta; Polkowski, Wojciech; Chodorowska, Grażyna

    2012-01-01

    Lichen planus is a chronic mucocutaneous T-cell-mediated disease, the cause of which remains unknown. The first case of lichen planus that transformed into squamous cell carcinoma was reported in 1903. The presented study concerns the case of a 62-year-old woman in whom twice malignant transformation of hypertrophic lichen planus in the dorsal part of the left foot developed. Several studies have pointed out the malignant transformation potential of lichen planus. Epidemiological studies from the last 20 years have revealed a malignant transformation rate of 0.27% per year, emphasizing the importance of the clinical follow-up of lichen planus patients.

  13. Water isotopes in desiccating lichens.

    PubMed

    Hartard, Britta; Cuntz, Matthias; Máguas, Cristina; Lakatos, Michael

    2009-12-01

    The stable isotopic composition of water is routinely used as a tracer to study water exchange processes in vascular plants and ecosystems. To date, no study has focussed on isotope processes in non-vascular, poikilohydric organisms such as lichens and bryophytes. To understand basic isotope exchange processes of non-vascular plants, thallus water isotopic composition was studied in various green-algal lichens exposed to desiccation. The study indicates that lichens equilibrate with the isotopic composition of surrounding water vapour. A model was developed as a proof of concept that accounts for the specific water relations of these poikilohydric organisms. The approach incorporates first their variable thallus water potential and second a compartmentation of the thallus water into two isotopically distinct but connected water pools. Moreover, the results represent first steps towards the development of poikilohydric organisms as a recorder of ambient vapour isotopic composition.

  14. Water isotopes in desiccating lichens

    PubMed Central

    Cuntz, Matthias; Máguas, Cristina; Lakatos, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The stable isotopic composition of water is routinely used as a tracer to study water exchange processes in vascular plants and ecosystems. To date, no study has focussed on isotope processes in non-vascular, poikilohydric organisms such as lichens and bryophytes. To understand basic isotope exchange processes of non-vascular plants, thallus water isotopic composition was studied in various green-algal lichens exposed to desiccation. The study indicates that lichens equilibrate with the isotopic composition of surrounding water vapour. A model was developed as a proof of concept that accounts for the specific water relations of these poikilohydric organisms. The approach incorporates first their variable thallus water potential and second a compartmentation of the thallus water into two isotopically distinct but connected water pools. Moreover, the results represent first steps towards the development of poikilohydric organisms as a recorder of ambient vapour isotopic composition. PMID:19888598

  15. Notes on the Lichen Genus Hypotrachyna (Parmeliaceae) from South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Jayala, Udenil; Joshi, Santosh; Oh, Soon-Ok; Park, Jung-Shin; Koh, Young Jin

    2013-01-01

    Hypotrachyna (Vainio) Hale is a somewhat rare lichen genus found on the Korean Peni