Science.gov

Sample records for epitaxial lift-off process

  1. Internal stress-assisted epitaxial lift-off process for flexible thin film (In)GaAs solar cells on metal foil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Youngjo; Kim, Kangho; Jung, Sang Hyun; Kim, Chang Zoo; Shin, Hyun-Beom; Choi, JeHyuk; Kang, Ho Kwan

    2017-12-01

    Flexible thin film (In)GaAs solar cells are grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition on GaAs substrates and transferred to 30 μm thick Au foil by internal stress-assisted epitaxial lift-off processes. The internal stress is induced by replacing the solar cell epi-layers from GaAs to In0.015Ga0.985As, which has a slightly larger lattice constant. The compressive strained layer thickness was varied from 0 to 4.5 μm to investigate the influence of the internal stress on the epitaxial lift-off time. The etching time in the epitaxial lift-off process was reduced from 36 to 4 h by employing a GaAs/In0.015Ga0.985As heterojunction structure that has a compressive film stress of -59.0 MPa. We found that the partially strained epi-structure contributed to the much faster lateral etching rate with spontaneous bending. Although an efficiency degradation problem occurred in the strained solar cell, it was solved by optimizing the epitaxial growth conditions.

  2. RF Properties of Epitaxial Lift-Off HEMT Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Paul G.; Alterovitz, Samuel A.; Mena, Rafael A.; Smith, Edwyn D.

    1993-01-01

    Epitaxial layers containing GaAs HEMT and P-HEMT structures have been lifted-off the GaAs substrate and attached to other host substrates using an AlAs parting layer. The devices were on-wafer RF probed before and after the lift-off step showing no degradation in the measured S-parameters. The maximum stable gain indicates a low frequency enhancement of the gain of 1-2 dB with some devices showing an enhancement of F(sub max)F(sub T) consistently shows an increase of 12-20% for all lifted-off HEMT structures. Comparison of the Hall measurements and small signal models show that the gain is improved and this is most probably associated with an enhanced carrier concentration.

  3. Kerfless epitaxial silicon wafers with 7 ms carrier lifetimes and a wide lift-off process window

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gemmel, Catherin; Hensen, Jan; David, Lasse; Kajari-Schröder, Sarah; Brendel, Rolf

    2018-04-01

    Silicon wafers contribute significantly to the photovoltaic module cost. Kerfless silicon wafers that grow epitaxially on porous silicon (PSI) and are subsequently detached from the growth substrate are a promising lower cost drop-in replacement for standard Czochralski (Cz) wafers. However, a wide technological processing window appears to be a challenge for this process. This holds in particularly for the etching current density of the separation layer that leads to lift-off failures if it is too large or too low. Here we present kerfless PSI wafers of high electronic quality that we fabricate on weakly reorganized porous Si with etch current densities varying in a wide process window from 110 to 150 mA/cm2. We are able to detach all 17 out of 17 epitaxial wafers. All wafers exhibit charge carrier lifetimes in the range of 1.9 to 4.3 ms at an injection level of 1015 cm-3 without additional high-temperature treatment. We find even higher lifetimes in the range of 4.6 to 7.0 ms after applying phosphorous gettering. These results indicate that a weak reorganization of the porous layer can be beneficial for a large lift-off process window while still allowing for high carrier lifetimes.

  4. A 10-GHz amplifier using an epitaxial lift-off pseudomorphic HEMT device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Paul G.; Romanofsky, Robert R.; Alterovitz, Samuel A.; Mena, Rafael A.; Smith, Edwyn D.

    1993-01-01

    A process to integrate epitaxial lift-off devices and microstrip circuits has been demonstrated using a pseudomorphic HEMT on an alumina substrate. The circuit was a 10 GHz amplifier with the interconnection between the device and the microstrip circuit being made with photolithographically patterned metal. The measured and modeled response correlated extremely well with a maximum gain of 6.8 dB and a return loss of -14 dB at 10.4 GHz.

  5. InGaP/GaAs Inverted Dual Junction Solar Cells For CPV Applications Using Metal-Backed Epitaxial Lift-Off

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauhuis, Gerard J.; Mulder, Peter; Haverkamp, Erik J.; Schermer, John J.; Nash, Lee J.; Fulgoni, Dominic J. F.; Ballard, Ian M.; Duggan, Geoffrey

    2010-10-01

    The epitaxial lift-off (ELO) technique has been combined with inverted III-V PV cell epitaxial growth with the aim of employing thin film PV cells in HCPV systems. In a stepwise approach to the realization of an inverted triple junction on a MELO platform we have first grown a GaAs single junction PV cell to establish the basic layer release process and cell processing steps followed by the growth, fabrication and test of an inverted InGaP/GaAs dual junction structure.

  6. Transport properties of epitaxial lift off films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mena, R. A.; Schacham, S. E.; Young, P. G.; Haugland, E. J.; Alterovitz, S. A.

    1993-01-01

    Transport properties of epitaxially lifted-off (ELO) films were characterized using conductivity, Hall, and Shubnikov-de Haas measurements. A 10-15 percent increase in the 2D electron gas concentration was observed in these films as compared with adjacent conventional samples. We believe this result to be caused by a backgating effect produced by a charge build up at the interface of the ELO film and the quartz substrate. This increase results in a substantial decrease in the quantum lifetime in the ELO samples, by 17-30 percent, but without a degradation in carrier mobility. Under persistent photoconductivity, only one subband was populated in the conventional structure, while in the ELO films the population of the second subband was clearly visible. However, the increase of the second subband concentration with increasing excitation is substantially smaller than anticipated due to screening of the backgating effect.

  7. Epitaxial lift-off of electrodeposited single-crystal gold foils for flexible electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahenderkar, Naveen K.; Chen, Qingzhi; Liu, Ying-Chau; Duchild, Alexander R.; Hofheins, Seth; Chason, Eric; Switzer, Jay A.

    2017-03-01

    We introduce a simple and inexpensive procedure for epitaxial lift-off of wafer-size flexible and transparent foils of single-crystal gold using silicon as a template. Lateral electrochemical undergrowth of a sacrificial SiOx layer was achieved by photoelectrochemically oxidizing silicon under light irradiation. A 28-nanometer-thick gold foil with a sheet resistance of 7 ohms per square showed only a 4% increase in resistance after 4000 bending cycles. A flexible organic light-emitting diode based on tris(bipyridyl)ruthenium(II) that was spin-coated on a foil exploited the transmittance and flexibility of the gold foil. Cuprous oxide as an inorganic semiconductor that was epitaxially electrodeposited onto the gold foils exhibited a diode quality factor n of 1.6 (where n = 1.0 for an ideal diode), compared with a value of 3.1 for a polycrystalline deposit. Zinc oxide nanowires electrodeposited epitaxially on a gold foil also showed flexibility, with the nanowires intact up to 500 bending cycles.

  8. Adhesion Measurements of Epitaxially Lifted MBE-Grown ZnSe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mavridi, N.; Zhu, J.; Eldose, N. M.; Prior, K. A.; Moug, R. T.

    2018-05-01

    ZnSe layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), after processing by epitaxial lift-off, have been analyzed using fracture mechanics and thin-film interference to determine their adhesion properties on two different substrates, viz. ZnSe and glass, yielding adhesion energy of 270 ± 60 mJ m-2 and 34 ± 4 mJ m-2, respectively. These values are considerably larger than if only van der Waals forces were present and imply that adhesion arises from chemical bonding.

  9. Wafer-scale layer transfer of GaAs and Ge onto Si wafers using patterned epitaxial lift-off

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mieda, Eiko; Maeda, Tatsuro; Miyata, Noriyuki; Yasuda, Tetsuji; Kurashima, Yuichi; Maeda, Atsuhiko; Takagi, Hideki; Aoki, Takeshi; Yamamoto, Taketsugu; Ichikawa, Osamu; Osada, Takenori; Hata, Masahiko; Ogawa, Arito; Kikuchi, Toshiyuki; Kunii, Yasuo

    2015-03-01

    We have developed a wafer-scale layer-transfer technique for transferring GaAs and Ge onto Si wafers of up to 300 mm in diameter. Lattice-matched GaAs or Ge layers were epitaxially grown on GaAs wafers using an AlAs release layer, which can subsequently be transferred onto a Si handle wafer via direct wafer bonding and patterned epitaxial lift-off (ELO). The crystal properties of the transferred GaAs layers were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), photoluminescence, and the quality of the transferred Ge layers was characterized using Raman spectroscopy. We find that, after bonding and the wet ELO processes, the quality of the transferred GaAs and Ge layers remained the same compared to that of the as-grown epitaxial layers. Furthermore, we realized Ge-on-insulator and GaAs-on-insulator wafers by wafer-scale pattern ELO technique.

  10. Bilayer lift-off process for aluminum metallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Thomas E.; Korolev, Konstantin A.; Crow, Nathaniel A.

    2015-01-01

    Recently published reports in the literature for bilayer lift-off processes have described recipes for the patterning of metals that have recommended metal-ion-free developers, which do etch aluminum. We report the first measurement of the dissolution rate of a commercial lift-off resist (LOR) in a sodium-based buffered commercial developer that does not etch aluminum. We describe a reliable lift-off recipe that is safe for multiple process steps in patterning thin (<100 nm) and thick aluminum devices with micron-feature sizes. Our patterning recipe consists of an acid cleaning of the substrate, the bilayer (positive photoresist/LOR) deposition and development, the sputtering of the aluminum film along with a palladium capping layer and finally, the lift-off of the metal film by immersion in the LOR solvent. The insertion into the recipe of postexposure and sequential develop-bake-develop process steps are necessary for an acceptable undercut. Our recipe also eliminates any need for accompanying sonication during lift-off that could lead to delamination of the metal pattern from the substrate. Fine patterns were achieved for both 100-nm-thick granular aluminum/palladium bilayer bolometers and 500-nm-thick aluminum gratings with 6-μm lines and 4-μm spaces.

  11. Stacking of ZnSe/ZnCdSe Multi-Quantum Wells on GaAs (100) by Epitaxial Lift-Off

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eldose, N. M.; Zhu, J.; Mavridi, N.; Prior, Kevin; Moug, R. T.

    2018-05-01

    Here we present stacking of GaAs/ZnSe/ZnCdSe single-quantum well (QW) structures using epitaxial lift-off (ELO). Molecular beam epitaxy (MBE)-grown II-VI QW structure was lifted using our standard ELO technique. The QW structures were transferred onto glass plates and then subsequent layers stacked on top of each other to form a triple-QW structure. This was compared to an MBE-grown multiple-QW (MQW) structure of similar design. Low-temperature (77 K) photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy was used to compare the two structures and showed no obvious degradation of the ELO stacked layer. It was observed that by stacking the single QW layer on itself we could increase the PL emission intensity beyond that of the grown MQW structure while maintaining narrow line width.

  12. AlGaAs/Si dual-junction tandem solar cells by epitaxial lift-off and print-transfer-assisted direct bonding

    SciTech Connect

    Xiong, Kanglin; Mi, Hongyi; Chang, Tzu-Hsuan

    A novel method is developed to realize a III-V/Si dual-junction photovoltaic cell by combining epitaxial lift-off (ELO) and print-transfer-assisted bonding methods. The adoption of ELO enables III-V wafers to be recycled and reused, which can further lower the cost of III-V/Si photovoltaic panels. For demonstration, high crystal quality, micrometer-thick, GaAs/AlGaAs/GaAs films are lifted off, transferred, and directly bonded onto Si wafer without the use of any adhesive or bonding agents. The bonding interface is optically transparent and conductive both thermally and electrically. Prototype AlGaAs/Si dual-junction tandem solar cells have been fabricated and exhibit decent performance.

  13. AlGaAs/Si dual-junction tandem solar cells by epitaxial lift-off and print-transfer-assisted direct bonding

    DOE PAGES

    Xiong, Kanglin; Mi, Hongyi; Chang, Tzu-Hsuan; ...

    2018-01-04

    A novel method is developed to realize a III-V/Si dual-junction photovoltaic cell by combining epitaxial lift-off (ELO) and print-transfer-assisted bonding methods. The adoption of ELO enables III-V wafers to be recycled and reused, which can further lower the cost of III-V/Si photovoltaic panels. For demonstration, high crystal quality, micrometer-thick, GaAs/AlGaAs/GaAs films are lifted off, transferred, and directly bonded onto Si wafer without the use of any adhesive or bonding agents. The bonding interface is optically transparent and conductive both thermally and electrically. Prototype AlGaAs/Si dual-junction tandem solar cells have been fabricated and exhibit decent performance.

  14. Advanced metal lift-off process using electron-beam flood exposure of single-layer photoresist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minter, Jason P.; Ross, Matthew F.; Livesay, William R.; Wong, Selmer S.; Narcy, Mark E.; Marlowe, Trey

    1999-06-01

    In the manufacture of many types of integrated circuit and thin film devices, it is desirable to use a lift-of process for the metallization step to avoid manufacturing problems encountered when creating metal interconnect structures using plasma etch. These problems include both metal adhesion and plasma etch difficulties. Key to the success of the lift-off process is the creation of a retrograde or undercut profile in the photoresists before the metal deposition step. Until now, lift-off processing has relied on costly multi-layer photoresists schemes, image reversal, and non-repeatable photoresist processes to obtain the desired lift-off profiles in patterned photoresist. This paper present a simple, repeatable process for creating robust, user-defined lift-off profiles in single layer photoresist using a non-thermal electron beam flood exposure. For this investigation, lift-off profiles created using electron beam flood exposure of many popular photoresists were evaluated. Results of lift-off profiles created in positive tone AZ7209 and ip3250 are presented here.

  15. A Practical Approach To Lift-Off

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Susan K.; Chapman, Richard C.; Pavelchek, Edward K.

    1987-08-01

    Lift-off technology provides an alternate metal patterning technology to that of subtractive etching. In this raper, we describe an image reversal process which provides a practical means for reliably producing resist stencils which are required for successful lift-off in a 2.0 μm metal pitch CMOS process, as well as for experimental submicron processing. Experimental data and PROSIM simulations are presented to show the effects of patterning exposure dose, flood exposure dose, develop time, and focus parameters on resist linewidths as well as for control of resist retrograde (undercut) sidewall angles. Deposition and subsequent lift-off of Al/Cu alloys and sandwich metallizations is demonstrated. Because the image reversal process enables pattern definition at the top of the resist film, it is demonstrated that thicker resist films can be used to produce finer resolution of lift-off stencils over topography than would have been expected without resorting to multilayer resist structures.

  16. Chip design for thin-film deep ultraviolet LEDs fabricated by laser lift-off of the sapphire substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, H. K.; Krüger, O.; Külberg, A.; Rass, J.; Zeimer, U.; Kolbe, T.; Knauer, A.; Einfeldt, S.; Weyers, M.; Kneissl, M.

    2017-12-01

    We report on a chip design which allows the laser lift-off (LLO) of the sapphire substrate sustaining the epitaxial film of flip-chip mounted deep ultraviolet light emitting diodes. A nanosecond pulsed excimer laser with a wavelength of 248 nm was used for the LLO. A mechanically stable chip design was found to be the key to prevent crack formation in the epitaxial layers and material chipping during the LLO process. Stabilization was achieved by introducing a Ti/Au leveling layer that mechanically supports the fragile epitaxial film. The electrical and optical characterization of devices before and after the LLO process shows that the device performance did not degrade by the LLO.

  17. Lift-off process for fine-patterned PZT film using metal oxide as a sacrificial layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trong Tue, Phan; Shimoda, Tatsuya; Takamura, Yuzuru

    2017-01-01

    Patterning of lead zirconium titanate (PZT) films is crucial for highly integrated piezoelectric/ferroelectric micro-devices. In this work, we report a novel lift-off method using solution-processed indium zinc oxide (IZO) thin film as a sacrificial layer for sub-5 µm fine-patterning PZT film. The processes include IZO layer deposition and patterning, PZT film preparation, and final lift-off. The results reveal that the lift-off PZT processes provide better structural and electrical properties than those formed by the conventional wet-etching method. The successful patterning by the lift-off was mainly due to the fact that the IZO sacrificial layer is easy to etch and has a high-temperature resistance. This finding shows great promise for highly integrated electronic devices.

  18. Enhancement of photocurrent in epitaxial lift-off thin-film GaInNAsSb solar cells due to light-confinement structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyashita, Naoya; Behaghel, Benoît; Guillemoles, Jean-François; Okada, Yoshitaka

    2018-07-01

    This work focuses on the characterization of GaInNAsSb solar cells whose substrates are removed via the epitaxial lift-off (ELO) technique. As a result of the substrate removal, increases in the photocurrent and the interference feature were clearly observed. This is clear evidence of the light-confinement effect, whereby some of the unabsorbed photons at the rear metal contact were reflected back towards the front side of the ELO thin-film cell. We successfully demonstrated that the ELO technique can be applied for the GaInNAsSb cell, and the light management should add flexibility in designing the cell structures.

  19. (Cd,Zn,Mg)Te-based microcavity on MgTe sacrificial buffer: Growth, lift-off, and transmission studies of polaritons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seredyński, B.; Król, M.; Starzyk, P.; Mirek, R.; Ściesiek, M.; Sobczak, K.; Borysiuk, J.; Stephan, D.; Rousset, J.-G.; Szczytko, J.; Pietka, B.; Pacuski, W.

    2018-04-01

    Opaque substrates precluded, so far, transmission studies of II-VI semiconductor microcavities. This work presents the design and molecular beam epitaxy growth of semimagnetic (Cd,Zn,Mn)Te quantum wells embedded into a (Cd,Zn,Mg)Te-based microcavity, which can be easily separated from the GaAs substrate. Our lift-off process relies on the use of a MgTe sacrificial layer which stratifies in contact with water. This allowed us to achieve a II-VI microcavity prepared for transmission measurements. We evidence the strong light-matter coupling regime using photoluminescence, reflectivity, and transmission measurements at the same spot on the sample. By comparing a series of reflectance spectra before and after lift-off, we prove that the microcavity quality remains high. Thanks to Mn content in quantum wells we show the giant Zeeman splitting of semimagnetic exciton-polaritons in our transmitting structure.

  20. Reliable fabrication of plasmonic nanostructures without an adhesion layer using dry lift-off

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yiqin; Li, Zhiqin; Xiang, Quan; Wang, Yasi; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Duan, Huigao

    2015-10-01

    Lift-off is the most commonly used pattern-transfer method to define lithographic plasmonic metal nanostructures. A typical lift-off process is realized by dissolving patterned resists in solutions, which has the limits of low yield when not using adhesion layers and incompatibility with the fabrication of some specific structures and devices. In this work, we report an alternative ‘dry’ lift-off process to obtain metallic nanostructures via mechanical stripping by using the advantage of poor adhesion between resists and noble metal films. We show that this dry stripping lift-off method is effective for both positive- and negative-tone resists to fabricate sparse and densely-packed plasmonic nanostructures, respectively. In particular, this method is achieved without using an adhesion layer, which enables the mitigation of plasmon damping to obtain larger field enhancement. Dark-field scattering, one-photon luminescence and surface-enhanced Raman scattering measurements were performed to demonstrate the improved quality factor of the plasmonic nanostructures fabricated by this dry lift-off process.

  1. Fuel effects on flame lift-off under diesel conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Persson, Helena; Andersson, Oeivind; Egnell, Rolf

    An apparent relation between the lift-off length under diesel conditions and the ignition quality of a fuel has previously been reported. To cast light on the underlying mechanism, the current study aims to separate flame lift-off effects of the chemical ignition delay from those of other fuel properties under diesel conditions. Flame lift-off was measured in an optical diesel engine by high-speed video imaging of OH-chemiluminescence. Fuel and ambient-gas properties were varied during the experiment. Only a weak correlation was found between ignition delay and lift-off length. The data indicate that this correlation is due to a common, stronger correlationmore » with the ambient oxygen concentration. The chemical ignition delay and the fuel type had similar, weak effects on the lift-off length. A recently proposed mechanism for lift-off stabilization was used to interpret the results. It assumes that reactants approaching the lift-off position of the jet are mixed with high-temperature products found along the edges of the flame, which trigger autoignition. In this picture, the fuel effect is most likely due to differences in the amount of mixing with high-temperature products that is required for autoignition. In the current experiment, all lift-off effects seem to arise from variations in the reactant and product temperatures, induced by fuel and ambient properties. (author)« less

  2. Chemical lift-off of (11-22) semipolar GaN using periodic triangular cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Dae-Woo; Lee, Seung-Jae; Jeong, Tak; Baek, Jong Hyeob; Park, Jae-Woo; Jang, Lee-Woon; Kim, Myoung; Lee, In-Hwan; Ju, Jin-Woo

    2012-01-01

    Chemical lift-off of (11-22) semipolar GaN using triangular cavities was investigated. The (11-22) semipolar GaN was grown using epitaxial lateral overgrowth by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition on m-plane sapphire, in such a way as to keep N terminated surface of c-plane GaN exposed in the cavities. After regrowing 300 μm thick (11-22) semipolar GaN by hydride vapor phase epitaxy for a free-standing (11-22) semipolar GaN substrate, the triangular cavities of the templates were chemically etched in molten KOH. The (000-2) plane in the triangular cavities can be etched in the [0002] direction with the high lateral etching rate of 196 μm/min. The resulting free-standing (11-22) semipolar GaN substrate was confirmed to be strain-free by the Raman analysis.

  3. Chemical lift-off and direct wafer bonding of GaN/InGaN P-I-N structures grown on ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pantzas, K.; Rogers, D. J.; Bove, P.; Sandana, V. E.; Teherani, F. H.; El Gmili, Y.; Molinari, M.; Patriarche, G.; Largeau, L.; Mauguin, O.; Suresh, S.; Voss, P. L.; Razeghi, M.; Ougazzaden, A.

    2016-02-01

    p-GaN/i-InGaN/n-GaN (PIN) structures were grown epitaxially on ZnO-buffered c-sapphire substrates by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy using the industry standard ammonia precursor for nitrogen. Scanning electron microscopy revealed continuous layers with a smooth interface between GaN and ZnO and no evidence of ZnO back-etching. Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy revealed a peak indium content of just under 5 at% in the active layers. The PIN structure was lifted off the sapphire by selectively etching away the ZnO buffer in an acid and then direct bonded onto a glass substrate. Detailed high resolution transmission electron microscoy and grazing incidence X-ray diffraction studies revealed that the structural quality of the PIN structures was preserved during the transfer process.

  4. Laser polymerization-based novel lift-off technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhuian, B.; Winfield, R. J.; Crean, G. M.

    2009-03-01

    The fabrication of microstructures by two-photon polymerization has been widely reported as a means of directly writing three-dimensional nanoscale structures. In the majority of cases a single point serial writing technique is used to form a polymer model. Single layer writing can also be used to fabricate two-dimensional patterns and we report an extension of this capability by using two-photon polymerization to form a template that can be used as a sacrificial layer for a novel lift-off process. A Ti:sapphire laser, with wavelength 795 nm, 80 MHz repetition rate, 100 fs pulse duration and an average power of 700 mW, was used to write 2D grid patterns with pitches of 0.8 and 1.0 μm in a urethane acrylate resin that was spun on to a lift-off base layer. This was overcoated with gold and the grid lifted away to leave an array of gold islands. The optical transmission properties of the gold arrays were measured and found to be in agreement with a rigorous coupled-wave analysis simulation.

  5. Germanium Lift-Off Masks for Thin Metal Film Patterning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Ari

    2012-01-01

    A technique has been developed for patterning thin metallic films that are, in turn, used to fabricate microelectronics circuitry and thin-film sensors. The technique uses germanium thin films as lift-off masks. This requires development of a technique to strip or undercut the germanium chemically without affecting the deposited metal. Unlike in the case of conventional polymeric lift-off masks, the substrate can be exposed to very high temperatures during processing (sputter deposition). The reason why polymeric liftoff masks cannot be exposed to very high temperatures (greater than 100 C) is because (a) they can become cross linked, making lift-off very difficult if not impossible, and (b) they can outgas nitrogen and oxygen, which then can react with the metal being deposited. Consequently, this innovation is expected to find use in the fabrication of transition edge sensors and microwave kinetic inductance detectors, which use thin superconducting films deposited at high temperature as their sensing elements. Transition edge sensors, microwave kinetic inductance detectors, and their circuitry are comprised of superconducting thin films, for example Nb and TiN. Reactive ion etching can be used to pattern these films; however, reactive ion etching also damages the underlying substrate, which is unwanted in many instances. Polymeric lift-off techniques permit thin-film patterning without any substrate damage, but they are difficult to remove and the polymer can outgas during thin-film deposition. The outgassed material can then react with the film with the consequence of altered and non-reproducible materials properties, which, in turn, is deleterious for sensors and their circuitry. The purpose of this innovation was to fabricate a germanium lift-off mask to be used for patterning thin metal films.

  6. Ultrastable Photoelectrodes for Solar Water Splitting Based on Organic Metal Halide Perovskite Fabricated by Lift-Off Process.

    PubMed

    Nam, SeongSik; Mai, Cuc Thi Kim; Oh, Ilwhan

    2018-05-02

    Herein, we report an integrated photoelectrolysis of water employing organic metal halide (OMH) perovskite material. As generic OMH perovskite material and device architecture are highly susceptible to degradation by aqueous electrolytes, we have developed a versatile mold-cast and lift-off process to fabricate and assemble multipurpose metal encapsulation onto perovskite devices. With the metal encapsulation effectively protecting the perovskite cell and also functioning as electrocatalyst, the high-performance perovskite photoelectrodes exhibit high photovoltage and photocurrent that are effectively inherited from the original solid-state solar cell. More importantly, thus-fabricated perovskite photoelectrode demonstrates record-long unprecedented stability even at highly oxidizing potential in strong alkaline electrolyte. We expect that this versatile lift-off process can be adapted in a wide variety of photoelectrochemical devices to protect the material surfaces from corroding electrolyte and facilitate various electrochemical reactions.

  7. Process for selectively patterning epitaxial film growth on a semiconductor substrate

    DOEpatents

    Sheldon, P.; Hayes, R.E.

    1984-12-04

    Disclosed is a process for selectively patterning epitaxial film growth on a semiconductor substrate. The process includes forming a masking member on the surface of the substrate, the masking member having at least two layers including a first layer disposed on the substrate and the second layer covering the first layer. A window is then opened in a selected portion of the second layer by removing that portion to expose the first layer thereunder. The first layer is then subjected to an etchant introduced through the window to dissolve the first layer a sufficient amount to expose the substrate surface directly beneath the window, the first layer being adapted to preferentially dissolve at a substantially greater rate than the second layer so as to create an overhanging ledge portion with the second layer by undercutting the edges thereof adjacent the window. The epitaxial film is then deposited on the exposed substrate surface directly beneath the window. Finally, an etchant is introduced through the window to dissolve the remainder of the first layer so as to lift-off the second layer and materials deposited thereon to fully expose the balance of the substrate surface.

  8. Process for selectively patterning epitaxial film growth on a semiconductor substrate

    DOEpatents

    Sheldon, Peter; Hayes, Russell E.

    1986-01-01

    A process is disclosed for selectively patterning epitaxial film growth on a semiconductor substrate. The process includes forming a masking member on the surface of the substrate, the masking member having at least two layers including a first layer disposed on the substrate and the second layer covering the first layer. A window is then opened in a selected portion of the second layer by removing that portion to expose the first layer thereunder. The first layer is then subjected to an etchant introduced through the window to dissolve a sufficient amount of the first layer to expose the substrate surface directly beneath the window, the first layer being adapted to preferentially dissolve at a substantially greater rate than the second layer so as to create an overhanging ledge portion with the second layer by undercutting the edges thereof adjacent to the window. The epitaxial film is then deposited on the exposed substrate surface directly beneath the window. Finally, an etchant is introduced through the window to dissolve the remainder of the first layer so as to lift-off the second layer and materials deposited thereon to fully expose the balance of the substrate surface.

  9. Micro-opto-mechanical devices and systems using epitaxial lift off

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Camperi-Ginestet, C.; Kim, Young W.; Wilkinson, S.; Allen, M.; Jokerst, N. M.

    1993-01-01

    The integration of high quality, single crystal thin film gallium arsenide (GaAs) and indium phosphide (InP) based photonic and electronic materials and devices with host microstructures fabricated from materials such as silicon (Si), glass, and polymers will enable the fabrication of the next generation of micro-opto-mechanical systems (MOMS) and optoelectronic integrated circuits. Thin film semiconductor devices deposited onto arbitrary host substrates and structures create hybrid (more than one material) near-monolithic integrated systems which can be interconnected electrically using standard inexpensive microfabrication techniques such as vacuum metallization and photolithography. These integrated systems take advantage of the optical and electronic properties of compound semiconductor devices while still using host substrate materials such as silicon, polysilicon, glass and polymers in the microstructures. This type of materials optimization for specific tasks creates higher performance systems than those systems which must use trade-offs in device performance to integrate all of the function in a single material system. The low weight of these thin film devices also makes them attractive for integration with micromechanical devices which may have difficulty supporting and translating the full weight of a standard device. These thin film devices and integrated systems will be attractive for applications, however, only when the development of low cost, high yield fabrication and integration techniques makes their use economically feasible. In this paper, we discuss methods for alignment, selective deposition, and interconnection of thin film epitaxial GaAs and InP based devices onto host substrates and host microstructures.

  10. High-quality vertical light emitting diodes fabrication by mechanical lift-off technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Po-Min; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Chang, Chun-Yen

    2011-10-01

    We report the fabrication of mechanical lift-off high quality thin GaN with Hexagonal Inversed Pyramid (HIP) structures for vertical light emitting diodes (V-LEDs). The HIP structures were formed at the GaN/sapphire substrate interface under high temperature during KOH wet etching process. The average threading dislocation density (TDD) was estimated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and found the reduction from 2×109 to 1×108 cm-2. Raman spectroscopy analysis revealed that the compressive stress of GaN epilayer was effectively relieved in the thin-GaN LED with HIP structures. Finally, the mechanical lift-off process is claimed to be successful by using the HIP structures as a sacrificial layer during wafer bonding process.

  11. Laser lift-off scribing of the CZTSe thin-film solar cells at different pulse durations

    DOE PAGES

    Markauskas, Edgaras; Gečys, Paulius; Repins, Ingrid; ...

    2017-04-27

    Here, the transition to fully sized solar modules requires additional three-step laser structuring processes to preserve small-scale cell efficiencies over the large areas. The adjacent cell isolation (the P3 scribe) was found to be the most sensitive process in the case of laser induced damage. The laser induced layer lift-off mechanism seems to be a very attractive process for the P3 patterning, since almost all the laser affected material is removed by mechanical spallation. However, a laser induced layer spallation behavior together with scribe electrical validation under the different laser pulse durations was not investigated extensively in the past. Therefore,more » we report our novel results on the P2 and P3 laser lift-off processing of the Cu 2ZnSn(S, Se 4) (CZTSe) thin-film solar cells covering the pulse duration range from 300 fs to 60 ps. Shorter sub-ps pulses enabled us to process smaller P2 and P3 craters, although the lift-off threshold fluences were higher compared to the longer ps pulses. In the case of the layer lift-off, the laser radiation had to penetrate through the layer stack down to the CZTSe/Mo interface. At shorter sub-ps pulses, the nonlinear effects triggered absorption of the laser radiation in the bulk of the material, resulting in increased damage of the CZTSe layer. The Raman measurements confirmed the CZTSe surface stoichiometry changes for shorter pulses. Furthermore, shorter pulses induced higher electrical conductivity of a scribe, resulting in lower photo-electrical efficiency during the mini-module simulation. In the case of the P3 lift-off scribing, the 10 ps pulses were more favorable than shorter femtosecond pulses.« less

  12. Laser lift-off scribing of the CZTSe thin-film solar cells at different pulse durations

    SciTech Connect

    Markauskas, Edgaras; Gečys, Paulius; Repins, Ingrid

    Here, the transition to fully sized solar modules requires additional three-step laser structuring processes to preserve small-scale cell efficiencies over the large areas. The adjacent cell isolation (the P3 scribe) was found to be the most sensitive process in the case of laser induced damage. The laser induced layer lift-off mechanism seems to be a very attractive process for the P3 patterning, since almost all the laser affected material is removed by mechanical spallation. However, a laser induced layer spallation behavior together with scribe electrical validation under the different laser pulse durations was not investigated extensively in the past. Therefore,more » we report our novel results on the P2 and P3 laser lift-off processing of the Cu 2ZnSn(S, Se 4) (CZTSe) thin-film solar cells covering the pulse duration range from 300 fs to 60 ps. Shorter sub-ps pulses enabled us to process smaller P2 and P3 craters, although the lift-off threshold fluences were higher compared to the longer ps pulses. In the case of the layer lift-off, the laser radiation had to penetrate through the layer stack down to the CZTSe/Mo interface. At shorter sub-ps pulses, the nonlinear effects triggered absorption of the laser radiation in the bulk of the material, resulting in increased damage of the CZTSe layer. The Raman measurements confirmed the CZTSe surface stoichiometry changes for shorter pulses. Furthermore, shorter pulses induced higher electrical conductivity of a scribe, resulting in lower photo-electrical efficiency during the mini-module simulation. In the case of the P3 lift-off scribing, the 10 ps pulses were more favorable than shorter femtosecond pulses.« less

  13. Improvement in etching rate for epilayer lift-off with surfactant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Fan-Lei; Horng, Ray-Hua; Lu, Jian-Heng; Chen, Chun-Li; Kao, Yu-Cheng

    2013-03-01

    In this study, the GaAs epilayer is quickly separated from GaAs substrate by epitaxial lift-off (ELO) process with mixture etchant solution. The HF solution mixes with surfactant as mixture etchant solution to etch AlAs sacrificial layer for the selective wet etching of AlAs sacrificial layer. Addiction surfactants etchant significantly enhance the etching rate in the hydrofluoric acid etching solution. It is because surfactant provides hydrophilicity to change the contact angle with enhances the fluid properties of the mixture etchant between GaAs epilayer and GaAs substrate. Arsine gas was released from the etchant solution because the critical reaction product in semiconductor etching is dissolved arsine gas. Arsine gas forms a bubble, which easily displaces the etchant solution, before the AlAs layer was undercut. The results showed that acetone and hydrofluoric acid ratio of about 1:1 for the fastest etching rate of 13.2 μm / min. The etching rate increases about 4 times compared with pure hydrofluoric acid, moreover can shorten the separation time about 70% of GaAs epilayer with GaAs substrate. The results indicate that etching ratio and stability are improved by mixture etchant solution. It is not only saving the epilayer and the etching solution exposure time, but also reducing the damage to the epilayer structure.

  14. Space Shuttle and Launch Pad Lift-Off Debris Transport Analysis: SRB Plume-Driven

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, Jeff; Strutzenberg, Louis; Dougherty, Sam; Radke, Jerry; Liever, Peter

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses the Space Shuttle Lift-Off model developed for potential Lift-Off Debris transport. A critical Lift-Off portion of the flight is defined from approximately 1.5 sec after SRB Ignition up to 'Tower Clear', where exhaust plume interactions with the Launch Pad occur. A CFD model containing the Space Shuttle and Launch Pad geometry has been constructed and executed. The CFD model works in conjunction with a debris particle transport model and a debris particle impact damage tolerance model. These models have been used to assess the effects of the Space Shuttle plumes, the wind environment, their interactions with the Launch Pad, and their ultimate effect on potential debris during Lift-Off. Emphasis in this paper is on potential debris that might be caught by the SRB plumes.

  15. Scout Launch Lift off on Wallops Island

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-08-10

    Scout launch vehicle lift off on Wallops Island in 1965. The Scout launch vehicle was used for unmanned small satellite missions, high altitude probes, and reentry experiments. Scout, the smallest of the basic launch vehicles, is the only United States launch vehicle fueled exclusively with solid propellants. Published in the book " A Century at Langley" by Joseph Chambers pg. 92

  16. Macrophages lift off surface-bound bacteria using a filopodium-lamellipodium hook-and-shovel mechanism.

    PubMed

    Möller, Jens; Lühmann, Tessa; Chabria, Mamta; Hall, Heike; Vogel, Viola

    2013-10-07

    To clear pathogens from host tissues or biomaterial surfaces, phagocytes have to break the adhesive bacteria-substrate interactions. Here we analysed the mechanobiological process that enables macrophages to lift-off and phagocytose surface-bound Escherichia coli (E. coli). In this opsonin-independent process, macrophage filopodia hold on to the E. coli fimbriae long enough to induce a local protrusion of a lamellipodium. Specific contacts between the macrophage and E. coli are formed via the glycoprotein CD48 on filopodia and the adhesin FimH on type 1 fimbriae (hook). We show that bacterial detachment from surfaces occurrs after a lamellipodium has protruded underneath the bacterium (shovel), thereby breaking the multiple bacterium-surface interactions. After lift-off, the bacterium is engulfed by a phagocytic cup. Force activated catch bonds enable the long-term survival of the filopodium-fimbrium interactions while soluble mannose inhibitors and CD48 antibodies suppress the contact formation and thereby inhibit subsequent E. coli phagocytosis.

  17. Macrophages lift off surface-bound bacteria using a filopodium-lamellipodium hook-and-shovel mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Möller, Jens; Lühmann, Tessa; Chabria, Mamta; Hall, Heike; Vogel, Viola

    2013-01-01

    To clear pathogens from host tissues or biomaterial surfaces, phagocytes have to break the adhesive bacteria-substrate interactions. Here we analysed the mechanobiological process that enables macrophages to lift-off and phagocytose surface-bound Escherichia coli (E. coli). In this opsonin-independent process, macrophage filopodia hold on to the E. coli fimbriae long enough to induce a local protrusion of a lamellipodium. Specific contacts between the macrophage and E. coli are formed via the glycoprotein CD48 on filopodia and the adhesin FimH on type 1 fimbriae (hook). We show that bacterial detachment from surfaces occurrs after a lamellipodium has protruded underneath the bacterium (shovel), thereby breaking the multiple bacterium-surface interactions. After lift-off, the bacterium is engulfed by a phagocytic cup. Force activated catch bonds enable the long-term survival of the filopodium-fimbrium interactions while soluble mannose inhibitors and CD48 antibodies suppress the contact formation and thereby inhibit subsequent E. coli phagocytosis. PMID:24097079

  18. Patterning of supported gold monolayers via chemical lift-off lithography

    PubMed Central

    Slaughter, Liane S; Cheung, Kevin M; Kaappa, Sami; Cao, Huan H; Yang, Qing; Young, Thomas D; Serino, Andrew C; Malola, Sami; Olson, Jana M; Link, Stephan

    2017-01-01

    The supported monolayer of Au that accompanies alkanethiolate molecules removed by polymer stamps during chemical lift-off lithography is a scarcely studied hybrid material. We show that these Au–alkanethiolate layers on poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) are transparent, functional, hybrid interfaces that can be patterned over nanometer, micrometer, and millimeter length scales. Unlike other ultrathin Au films and nanoparticles, lifted-off Au–alkanethiolate thin films lack a measurable optical signature. We therefore devised fabrication, characterization, and simulation strategies by which to interrogate the nanoscale structure, chemical functionality, stoichiometry, and spectral signature of the supported Au–thiolate layers. The patterning of these layers laterally encodes their functionality, as demonstrated by a fluorescence-based approach that relies on dye-labeled complementary DNA hybridization. Supported thin Au films can be patterned via features on PDMS stamps (controlled contact), using patterned Au substrates prior to lift-off (e.g., selective wet etching), or by patterning alkanethiols on Au substrates to be reactive in selected regions but not others (controlled reactivity). In all cases, the regions containing Au–alkanethiolate layers have a sub-nanometer apparent height, which was found to be consistent with molecular dynamics simulations that predicted the removal of no more than 1.5 Au atoms per thiol, thus presenting a monolayer-like structure. PMID:29259879

  19. Space Shuttle Discovery lifts off successfully

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Clouds of exhaust and blazing light fill Launch Pad 39B as Space Shuttle Discovery lifts off at 2:19 p.m. EST Oct. 29 on mission STS-95. Making his second voyage into space after 36 years is Payload Specialist John H. Glenn Jr., senator from Ohio. Other crew members are Mission Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., Pilot Steven W. Lindsey, Payload Specialist Chiaki Mukai, (M.D., Ph.D.), with the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA), Mission Specialist Stephen K. Robinson, Mission Specialist Pedro Duque of Spain, representing the European Space Agency (ESA), and Mission Specialist Scott E. Parazynski. The STS-95 mission includes research payloads such as the Spartan solar-observing deployable spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Test Platform, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker, as well as the SPACEHAB single module with experiments on space flight and the aging process. Discovery is expected to return to KSC at 11:49 a.m. EST on Nov. 7.

  20. Space Shuttle Discovery lifts off successfully

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Clouds of exhaust seem to fill the marsh near Launch Pad 39B as Space Shuttle Discovery lifts off at 2:19 p.m. EST Oct. 29 on mission STS-95. Making his second voyage into space after 36 years is Payload Specialist John H. Glenn Jr., senator from Ohio. Other crew members are Mission Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., Pilot Steven W. Lindsey, Payload Specialist Chiaki Mukai, (M.D., Ph.D.), with the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA), Mission Specialist Stephen K. Robinson, Mission Specialist Pedro Duque of Spain, representing the European Space Agency (ESA), and Mission Specialist Scott E. Parazynski. The STS-95 mission includes research payloads such as the Spartan solar-observing deployable spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Test Platform, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker, as well as the SPACEHAB single module with experiments on space flight and the aging process. Discovery is expected to return to KSC at 11:49 a.m. EST on Nov. 7.

  1. Space Shuttle Discovery lifts off successfully

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Space Shuttle Discovery clears Launch Pad 39B at 2:19 p.m. EST Oct. 29 as it lifts off on mission STS-95. Making his second voyage into space after 36 years is Payload Specialist John H. Glenn Jr., senator from Ohio. Other crew members are Mission Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., Pilot Steven W. Lindsey, Payload Specialist Chiaki Mukai, (M.D., Ph.D.), with the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA), Mission Specialist Stephen K. Robinson, Mission Specialist Pedro Duque of Spain, representing the European Space Agency (ESA), and Mission Specialist Scott E. Parazynski. The STS-95 mission includes research payloads such as the Spartan solar-observing deployable spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Test Platform, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker, as well as the SPACEHAB single module with experiments on space flight and the aging process. Discovery is expected to return to KSC at 11:49 a.m. EST on Nov. 7.

  2. Space Shuttle Propulsion Systems Plume Modeling and Simulation for the Lift-Off Computational Fluid Dynamics Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strutzenberg, L. L.; Dougherty, N. S.; Liever, P. A.; West, J. S.; Smith, S. D.

    2007-01-01

    This paper details advances being made in the development of Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes numerical simulation tools, models, and methods for the integrated Space Shuttle Vehicle at launch. The conceptual model and modeling approach described includes the development of multiple computational models to appropriately analyze the potential debris transport for critical debris sources at Lift-Off. The conceptual model described herein involves the integration of propulsion analysis for the nozzle/plume flow with the overall 3D vehicle flowfield at Lift-Off. Debris Transport Analyses are being performed using the Shuttle Lift-Off models to assess the risk to the vehicle from Lift-Off debris and appropriately prioritized mitigation of potential debris sources to continue to reduce vehicle risk. These integrated simulations are being used to evaluate plume-induced debris environments where the multi-plume interactions with the launch facility can potentially accelerate debris particles toward the vehicle.

  3. Space Shuttle and Launch Pad Computational Fluid Dynamics Model for Lift-off Debris Transport Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dougherty, Sam; West, Jeff; Droege, Alan; Wilson, Josh; Liever, Peter; Slaby, Matthew

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the Space Shuttle Lift-off CFD model developed for potential Lift-off Debris transport for return-to-flight. The Lift-off portion of the flight is defined as the time starting with tanking of propellants until tower clear, approximately T0+6 seconds, where interactions with the launch pad cease. A CFD model containing the Space Shuttle and launch Pad geometry has been constructed and executed. Simplifications required in the construction of the model are presented and discussed. A body-fitted overset grid of up to 170 million grid points was developed which allowed positioning of the Vehicle relative to the Launch Pad over the first six seconds of Climb-Out. The CFD model works in conjunction with a debris particle transport model and a debris particle impact damage tolerance model. These models have been used to assess the interactions of the Space Shuttle plumes, the wind environment, and their interactions with each other and the Launch Pad and their ultimate effect on potential debris during Lift-off.

  4. Investigation of SSME alternate high pressure fuel turbopump lift-off seal fluid and structural dynamic interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elrod, David A.

    1989-01-01

    The Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) alternate turbopump development program (ATD) high pressure fuel turbopump (HPFTP) design utilizes an innovative lift-off seal (LOS) design that is located in close proximity to the turbine end bearing. Cooling flow exiting the bearing passes through the lift-off seal during steady state operation. The potential for fluid excitation of lift-off seal structural resonances is investigated. No fluid excitation of LOS resonances is predicted. However, if predicted LOS natural frequencies are significantly lowered by the presence of the coolant, pressure oscillations caused by synchronous whirl of the HPFTP rotor may excite a resonance.

  5. 49 CFR 393.134 - What are the rules for securing roll-on/roll-off or hook lift containers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... or hook lift containers? 393.134 Section 393.134 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... for securing roll-on/roll-off or hook lift containers? (a) Applicability. The rules in this section apply to the transportation of roll-on/roll-off or hook lift containers. (b) Securement of a roll-on...

  6. 49 CFR 393.134 - What are the rules for securing roll-on/roll-off or hook lift containers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... or hook lift containers? 393.134 Section 393.134 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... for securing roll-on/roll-off or hook lift containers? (a) Applicability. The rules in this section apply to the transportation of roll-on/roll-off or hook lift containers. (b) Securement of a roll-on...

  7. Wafer-scale controlled exfoliation of metal organic vapor phase epitaxy grown InGaN/GaN multi quantum well structures using low-tack two-dimensional layered h-BN

    SciTech Connect

    Ayari, Taha; Li, Xin; Voss, Paul L.

    Recent advances in epitaxial growth have led to the growth of III-nitride devices on 2D layered h-BN. This advance has the potential for wafer-scale transfer to arbitrary substrates, which could improve the thermal management and would allow III-N devices to be used more flexibly in a broader range of applications. We report wafer scale exfoliation of a metal organic vapor phase epitaxy grown InGaN/GaN Multi Quantum Well (MQW) structure from a 5 nm thick h-BN layer that was grown on a 2-inch sapphire substrate. The weak van der Waals bonds between h-BN atomic layers break easily, allowing the MQW structure tomore » be mechanically lifted off from the sapphire substrate using a commercial adhesive tape. This results in the surface roughness of only 1.14 nm on the separated surface. Structural characterizations performed before and after the lift-off confirm the conservation of structural properties after lift-off. Cathodoluminescence at 454 nm was present before lift-off and 458 nm was present after. Electroluminescence near 450 nm from the lifted-off structure has also been observed. These results show that the high crystalline quality ultrathin h-BN serves as an effective sacrificial layer—it maintains performance, while also reducing the GaN buffer thickness and temperature ramps as compared to a conventional two-step growth method. These results support the use of h-BN as a low-tack sacrificial underlying layer for GaN-based device structures and demonstrate the feasibility of large area lift-off and transfer to any template, which is important for industrial scale production.« less

  8. Space Shuttle Discovery lifts off successfully

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Framed by the foliage of the Canaveral National Sea Shore, Space Shuttle Discovery soars through bright blue skies as it lifts off from Launch Pad 39B at 2:19 p.m. EST Oct. 29 on mission STS-95. Making his second voyage into space after 36 years is Payload Specialist John H. Glenn Jr., senator from Ohio. Other crew members are Mission Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., Pilot Steven W. Lindsey, Payload Specialist Chiaki Mukai, (M.D., Ph.D.), with the National agency for Space Development (NASDA), Mission Specialist Stephen K. Robinson, Mission Specialist Pedro Duque of Spain, representing the European Space Agency (ESA), and Mission Specialist Scott E. Parazynski. The STS-95 mission includes research payloads such as the Spartan solar-observing deployable spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Test Platform, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker, as well as the SPACEHAB single module with experiments on space flight and the aging process. Discovery is expected to return to KSC at 11:49 a.m. EST on Nov. 7.

  9. Space Shuttle Discovery lifts off successfully

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    As if sprung from the rolling exhaust clouds below, Space Shuttle Discovery shoots into the heavens over the blue Atlantic Ocean from Launch Pad 39B on mission STS-95. Lifting off at 2:19 p.m. EST, Discovery carries a crew of six, including Payload Specialist John H. Glenn Jr., senator from Ohio, who is making his second voyage into space after 36 years. Other crew members are Mission Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., Pilot Steven W. Lindsey, Payload Specialist Chiaki Mukai, (M.D., Ph.D.), with the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA), Mission Specialist Stephen K. Robinson, Mission Specialist Pedro Duque of Spain, representing the European Space Agency (ESA), and Mission Specialist Scott E. Parazynski. The STS-95 mission includes research payloads such as the Spartan solar-observing deployable spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Test Platform, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker, as well as the SPACEHAB single module with experiments on space flight and the aging process. Discovery is expected to return to KSC at 11:49 a.m. EST on Nov. 7.

  10. Ares I Scale Model Acoustic Test Lift-Off Acoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Counter, Douglas D.; Houston, Janie D.

    2011-01-01

    The lift-off acoustic (LOA) environment is an important design factor for any launch vehicle. For the Ares I vehicle, the LOA environments were derived by scaling flight data from other launch vehicles. The Ares I LOA predicted environments are compared to the Ares I Scale Model Acoustic Test (ASMAT) preliminary results.

  11. Predictions of Transient Flame Lift-Off Length With Comparison to Single-Cylinder Optical Engine Experiments

    DOE PAGES

    Senecal, P. K.; Pomraning, E.; Anders, J. W.; ...

    2014-05-28

    A state-of-the-art, grid-convergent simulation methodology was applied to three-dimensional calculations of a single-cylinder optical engine. A mesh resolution study on a sector-based version of the engine geometry further verified the RANS-based cell size recommendations previously presented by Senecal et al. (“Grid Convergent Spray Models for Internal Combustion Engine CFD Simulations,” ASME Paper No. ICEF2012-92043). Convergence of cylinder pressure, flame lift-off length, and emissions was achieved for an adaptive mesh refinement cell size of 0.35 mm. Furthermore, full geometry simulations, using mesh settings derived from the grid convergence study, resulted in excellent agreement with measurements of cylinder pressure, heat release rate,more » and NOx emissions. On the other hand, the full geometry simulations indicated that the flame lift-off length is not converged at 0.35 mm for jets not aligned with the computational mesh. Further simulations suggested that the flame lift-off lengths for both the nonaligned and aligned jets appear to be converged at 0.175 mm. With this increased mesh resolution, both the trends and magnitudes in flame lift-off length were well predicted with the current simulation methodology. Good agreement between the overall predicted flame behavior and the available chemiluminescence measurements was also achieved. Our present study indicates that cell size requirements for accurate prediction of full geometry flame lift-off lengths may be stricter than those for global combustion behavior. This may be important when accurate soot predictions are required.« less

  12. Predictions of Transient Flame Lift-Off Length With Comparison to Single-Cylinder Optical Engine Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Senecal, P. K.; Pomraning, E.; Anders, J. W.

    A state-of-the-art, grid-convergent simulation methodology was applied to three-dimensional calculations of a single-cylinder optical engine. A mesh resolution study on a sector-based version of the engine geometry further verified the RANS-based cell size recommendations previously presented by Senecal et al. (“Grid Convergent Spray Models for Internal Combustion Engine CFD Simulations,” ASME Paper No. ICEF2012-92043). Convergence of cylinder pressure, flame lift-off length, and emissions was achieved for an adaptive mesh refinement cell size of 0.35 mm. Furthermore, full geometry simulations, using mesh settings derived from the grid convergence study, resulted in excellent agreement with measurements of cylinder pressure, heat release rate,more » and NOx emissions. On the other hand, the full geometry simulations indicated that the flame lift-off length is not converged at 0.35 mm for jets not aligned with the computational mesh. Further simulations suggested that the flame lift-off lengths for both the nonaligned and aligned jets appear to be converged at 0.175 mm. With this increased mesh resolution, both the trends and magnitudes in flame lift-off length were well predicted with the current simulation methodology. Good agreement between the overall predicted flame behavior and the available chemiluminescence measurements was also achieved. Our present study indicates that cell size requirements for accurate prediction of full geometry flame lift-off lengths may be stricter than those for global combustion behavior. This may be important when accurate soot predictions are required.« less

  13. Erbium Doped GaN Lasers by Optical Pumping

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-07-13

    obtained via growth by hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) in conjunction with a laser-lift-off (LLO) process. An Er doping level of 1.4 × 10^20 atoms/cm3... conjunction with a laser-lift-off (LLO) 2 process. An Er doping level

  14. A Lift-Off-Tolerant Magnetic Flux Leakage Testing Method for Drill Pipes at Wellhead.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jianbo; Fang, Hui; Li, Long; Wang, Jie; Huang, Xiaoming; Kang, Yihua; Sun, Yanhua; Tang, Chaoqing

    2017-01-21

    To meet the great needs for MFL (magnetic flux leakage) inspection of drill pipes at wellheads, a lift-off-tolerant MFL testing method is proposed and investigated in this paper. Firstly, a Helmholtz coil magnetization method and the whole MFL testing scheme are proposed. Then, based on the magnetic field focusing effect of ferrite cores, a lift-off-tolerant MFL sensor is developed and tested. It shows high sensitivity at a lift-off distance of 5.0 mm. Further, the follow-up high repeatability MFL probing system is designed and manufactured, which was embedded with the developed sensors. It can track the swing movement of drill pipes and allow the pipe ends to pass smoothly. Finally, the developed system is employed in a drilling field for drill pipe inspection. Test results show that the proposed method can fulfill the requirements for drill pipe inspection at wellheads, which is of great importance in drill pipe safety.

  15. A Lift-Off-Tolerant Magnetic Flux Leakage Testing Method for Drill Pipes at Wellhead

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jianbo; Fang, Hui; Li, Long; Wang, Jie; Huang, Xiaoming; Kang, Yihua; Sun, Yanhua; Tang, Chaoqing

    2017-01-01

    To meet the great needs for MFL (magnetic flux leakage) inspection of drill pipes at wellheads, a lift-off-tolerant MFL testing method is proposed and investigated in this paper. Firstly, a Helmholtz coil magnetization method and the whole MFL testing scheme are proposed. Then, based on the magnetic field focusing effect of ferrite cores, a lift-off-tolerant MFL sensor is developed and tested. It shows high sensitivity at a lift-off distance of 5.0 mm. Further, the follow-up high repeatability MFL probing system is designed and manufactured, which was embedded with the developed sensors. It can track the swing movement of drill pipes and allow the pipe ends to pass smoothly. Finally, the developed system is employed in a drilling field for drill pipe inspection. Test results show that the proposed method can fulfill the requirements for drill pipe inspection at wellheads, which is of great importance in drill pipe safety. PMID:28117721

  16. Patterning of oxide-hardened gold black by photolithography and metal lift-off

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panjwani, Deep; Yesiltas, Mehmet; Nath, Janardan; Maukonen, D. E.; Rezadad, Imen; Smith, Evan M.; Peale, R. E.; Hirschmugl, Carol; Sedlmair, Julia; Wehlitz, Ralf; Unger, Miriam; Boreman, Glenn

    2014-01-01

    A method to pattern infrared-absorbing gold black by conventional photolithography and lift-off is described. A photo-resist pattern is developed on a substrate by standard photolithography. Gold black is deposited over the whole by thermal evaporation in an inert gas at ˜1 Torr. SiO2 is then deposited as a protection layer by electron beam evaporation. Lift-off proceeds by dissolving the photoresist in acetone. The resulting sub-millimeter size gold black patterns that remain on the substrate retain high infrared absorption out to ˜5 μm wavelength and exhibit good mechanical stability. This technique allows selective application of gold black coatings to the pixels of thermal infrared imaging array detectors.

  17. Characterization of reclaimed GaAs substrates and investigation of reuse for thin film InGaAlP LED epitaxial growth

    SciTech Connect

    Englhard, M.; Klemp, C.; Behringer, M.

    This study reports a method to reuse GaAs substrates with a batch process for thin film light emitting diode (TF-LED) production. The method is based on an epitaxial lift-off technique. With the developed reclaim process, it is possible to get an epi-ready GaAs surface without additional time-consuming and expensive grinding/polishing processes. The reclaim and regrowth process was investigated with a one layer epitaxial test structure. The GaAs surface was characterized by an atomic force microscope directly after the reclaim process. The crystal structure of the regrown In{sub 0.5}(Ga{sub 0.45}Al{sub 0.55}){sub 0.5}P (Q{sub 55}) layer was investigated by high resolution x-raymore » diffraction and scanning transmission electron microscopy. In addition, a complete TF-LED grown on reclaimed GaAs substrates was electro-optically characterized on wafer level. The crystal structure of the epitaxial layers and the performance of the TF-LED grown on reclaimed substrates are not influenced by the developed reclaim process. This process would result in reducing costs for LEDs and reducing much arsenic waste for the benefit of a green semiconductor production.« less

  18. "Literacy Lift-Off": An Experimental Evaluation of a Reading Recovery Programme on Literacy Skills and Reading Self-Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, Edel; Fitzgerald, Johanna; Howard, Siobhán

    2015-01-01

    Worldwide, considerable emphasis is currently being placed on the provision of appropriate classroom-based preventative interventions and in-class literacy support, in preference to withdrawal methods of educational support. Many schools in Ireland are currently implementing Literacy Lift-Off in their classrooms. Literacy Lift-Off is an adaption…

  19. No condylar lift-off occurs because of excessive lateral soft tissue laxity in neutrally aligned total knee arthroplasty: a computer simulation study.

    PubMed

    Kuriyama, Shinichi; Ishikawa, Masahiro; Nakamura, Shinichiro; Furu, Moritoshi; Ito, Hiromu; Matsuda, Shuichi

    2016-08-01

    Condylar lift-off can induce excessive polyethylene wear after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). A computer simulation was used to evaluate the influence of femoral varus alignment and lateral collateral ligament (LCL) laxity on lift-off after single-design TKA. It was hypothesised that proper ligament balancing and coronal alignment would prevent lift-off. The computer model in this study is a dynamic musculoskeletal program that simulates gait up to 60° of knee flexion. The lift-off phenomenon was defined as positive with an intercomponent distance of >2 mm. In neutrally aligned components in the coronal plane, the femoral and tibial components were set perpendicular to the femoral and tibial mechanical axis, respectively. The femoral coronal alignment was changed from neutral to 5° varus in 1° increments. Simultaneously, the LCL length was elongated from 0 to 5 mm in 1-mm increments to provide a model of pathological slack. Within 2° of femoral varus alignment, lift-off did not occur even if the LCL was elongated by up to 5 mm. However, lift-off occurred easily in the stance phase in femoral varus alignments of >3° with slight LCL slack. The contact forces of the tibiofemoral joint were influenced more by femoral varus alignment than by LCL laxity. Aiming for neutral alignment in severely varus knees makes it difficult to achieve appropriate ligament balance. Our study suggests that no lift-off occurs with excessive LCL laxity alone in a neutrally aligned TKA and therefore that varus alignment should be avoided to decrease lift-off after TKA. Case series, Level IV.

  20. Patterning of oxide-hardened gold black by photolithography and metal lift-off

    Treesearch

    Deep Panjwani; Mehmet Yesiltas; Janardan Nath; D.E. Maukonen; Imen Rezadad; Evan M. Smith; R.E. Peale; Carol Hirschmugl; Julia Sedlmair; Ralf Wehlitz; Miriam Unger; Glenn Boreman

    2014-01-01

    A method to pattern infrared-absorbing gold black by conventional photolithography and lift-off is described. A photo-resist pattern is developed on a substrate by standard photolithography. Gold black is deposited over the whole by thermal evaporation in an inert gas at

  1. Flexible crossbar-structured resistive memory arrays on plastic substrates via inorganic-based laser lift-off.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seungjun; Son, Jung Hwan; Lee, Seung Hyun; You, Byoung Kuk; Park, Kwi-Il; Lee, Hwan Keon; Byun, Myunghwan; Lee, Keon Jae

    2014-11-26

    Crossbar-structured memory comprising 32 × 32 arrays with one selector-one resistor (1S-1R) components are initially fabricated on a rigid substrate. They are transferred without mechanical damage via an inorganic-based laser lift-off (ILLO) process as a result of laser-material interaction. Addressing tests of the transferred memory arrays are successfully performed to verify mitigation of cross-talk on a plastic substrate. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Simulating flame lift-off characteristics of diesel and biodiesel fuels using detailed chemical-kinetic mechanisms and LES turbulence model.

    SciTech Connect

    Som, S; Longman, D. E.; Luo, Z

    2012-01-01

    Combustion in direct-injection diesel engines occurs in a lifted, turbulent diffusion flame mode. Numerous studies indicate that the combustion and emissions in such engines are strongly influenced by the lifted flame characteristics, which are in turn determined by fuel and air mixing in the upstream region of the lifted flame, and consequently by the liquid breakup and spray development processes. From a numerical standpoint, these spray combustion processes depend heavily on the choice of underlying spray, combustion, and turbulence models. The present numerical study investigates the influence of different chemical kinetic mechanisms for diesel and biodiesel fuels, as well asmore » Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) and large eddy simulation (LES) turbulence models on predicting flame lift-off lengths (LOLs) and ignition delays. Specifically, two chemical kinetic mechanisms for n-heptane (NHPT) and three for biodiesel surrogates are investigated. In addition, the RNG k-{epsilon} (RANS) model is compared to the Smagorinsky based LES turbulence model. Using adaptive grid resolution, minimum grid sizes of 250 {micro}m and 125 {micro}m were obtained for the RANS and LES cases respectively. Validations of these models were performed against experimental data from Sandia National Laboratories in a constant volume combustion chamber. Ignition delay and flame lift-off validations were performed at different ambient temperature conditions. The LES model predicts lower ignition delays and qualitatively better flame structures compared to the RNG k-{epsilon} model. The use of realistic chemistry and a ternary surrogate mixture, which consists of methyl decanoate, methyl 9-decenoate, and NHPT, results in better predicted LOLs and ignition delays. For diesel fuel though, only marginal improvements are observed by using larger size mechanisms. However, these improved predictions come at a significant increase in computational cost.« less

  3. Micropatterning of poly(dimethylsiloxane) using a photoresist lift-off technique for selective electrical insulation of microelectrode arrays

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jaewon; Kim, Hyun Soo; Han, Arum

    2009-01-01

    A poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) patterning method based on a photoresist lift-off technique to make an electrical insulation layer with selective openings is presented. The method enables creating PDMS patterns with small features and various thicknesses without any limitation in the designs and without the need for complicated processes or expensive equipments. Patterned PDMS layers were created by spin-coating liquid phase PDMS on top of a substrate having sacrificial photoresist patterns, followed by a photoresist lift-off process. The thickness of the patterned PDMS layers could be accurately controlled (6.5–24 µm) by adjusting processing parameters such as PDMS spin-coating speeds, PDMS dilution ratios, and sacrificial photoresist thicknesses. PDMS features as small as 15 µm were successfully patterned and the effects of each processing parameter on the final patterns were investigated. Electrical resistance tests between adjacent electrodes with and without the insulation layer showed that the patterned PDMS layer functions properly as an electrical insulation layer. Biocompatibility of the patterned PDMS layer was confirmed by culturing primary neuron cells on top of the layer for up to two weeks. An extensive neuronal network was successfully formed, showing that this PDMS patterning method can be applied to various biosensing microdevices. The utility of this fabrication method was further demonstrated by successfully creating a patterned electrical insulation layer on flexible substrates containing multi-electrode arrays. PMID:19946385

  4. Is subscapularis recruited in a similar manner during shoulder internal rotation exercises and belly press and lift off tests?

    PubMed

    Ginn, Karen A; Reed, Darren; Jones, Chelsea; Downes, Anthony; Cathers, Ian; Halaki, Mark

    2017-06-01

    Although the belly press and lift off tests are recommended to assess subscapularis function, shoulder internal rotation (IR) exercises performed in other shoulder positions are more commonly used to restore subscapularis function. It is not known if shoulder IR exercises specifically activate subscapularis to the same degree as the lift off and belly press tests, and thus have the potential to effect subscapularis strength gains. Therefore, the aim was to compare subscapularis activation levels with those of other shoulder internal rotator muscles during the belly press and lift off tests and shoulder IR exercise positions. Original research. Twenty asymptomatic volunteers performed maximal isometric contractions during the belly press and lift off tests and shoulder IR performed at 90° and 0° abduction in an upright position and supported at 90° abduction in supine. Muscle activation levels were recorded using a combination of indwelling and surface electrodes. Data were normalized to maximum voluntary contractions and averaged. Moderate average subscapularis activation levels were recorded during all shoulder IR tasks examined with no significant difference between tasks (p=0.18). The belly press test was the only IR task in which subscapularis activation levels were significantly higher than all other shoulder internal rotator muscles (p<0.05). Shoulder IR exercises activate subscapularis to similar moderate levels as the belly press and lift off tests and therefore, have similar potential to strengthen subscapularis. However, the belly press test, with significantly higher subscapularis activation than other shoulder internal rotators, more specifically targets subscapularis. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Epitaxial thinning process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegel, C. M. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A method is described for thinning an epitaxial layer of a wafer that is to be used in producing diodes having a specified breakdown voltage and which also facilitates the thinning process. Current is passed through the epitaxial layer, by connecting a current source between the substrate of the wafer and an electrolyte in which the wafer is immersed. When the wafer is initially immersed, the voltage across the wafer initially drops and then rises at a steep rate. When light is applied to the wafer the voltage drops, and when the light is interrupted the voltage rises again. These changes in voltage, each indicate the breakdown voltage of a Schottky diode that could be prepared from the wafer at that time. The epitaxial layer is thinned by continuing to apply current through the wafer while it is immersed and light is applied, to form an oxide film and when the oxide film is thick the wafer can then be cleaned of oxide and the testing and thinning continued. Uninterrupted thinning can be achieved by first forming an oxide film, and then using an electrolyte that dissolves the oxide about as fast as it is being formed, to limit the thickness of the oxide layer.

  6. Study of lifting operation of a tripod foundation for offshore wind turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, H.; Li, L.; Ong, M. C.

    2017-12-01

    This study addresses numerical analysis of the installation of a tripod foundation using a heavy lift vessel (HLV). Limiting sea states are firstly predicted in the frequency domain based on crane tip vertical motions using linear transfer functions. Then, numerical modelling and simulations are carried out in the time domain to analyse the coupled dynamic system taking into consideration of the nonlinearities of the system. In time-domain analysis, two lifting phases are brought into focus, i.e., the lift-off and the lowering phases. For the lift-off phase, two scenarios are considered, i.e., lift-off from the own deck of the HLV and lift-off from a transport barge. Moreover, comparative studies using two types of installation vessels, a floating vessel and a Jack-up, are investigated for the lowering process. Critical responses including the motions of the tripod and the lift wire tensions are presented and compared under various environmental and loading conditions.

  7. Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR) lifted off from Cape Canaveral

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-02-13

    KSC-2015-1363 (02/11/2015) --- The SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket carrying NOAA’s Deep Space Climate Observatory spacecraft, or DSCOVR, lifts off from Space Launch Complex 40 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida at 6:03 p.m. EST. DSCOVR is a partnership between NOAA, NASA and the U.S. Air Force, and will maintain the nation's real-time solar wind monitoring capabilities. To learn more about DSCOVR, visit www.nesdis.noaa.gov/DSCOVR. Photo credit: NASA/Tony Gray and Tim Powers

  8. Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR) lifted off from Cape Canaveral

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-02-13

    KSC-2015-1341 (02/11/2015) --- The SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket carrying NOAA’s Deep Space Climate Observatory spacecraft, or DSCOVR, lifts off from Space Launch Complex 40 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida. Liftoff occurred at 6:03 p.m. EST. DSCOVR is a partnership between NOAA, NASA and the U.S. Air Force, and will maintain the nation's real-time solar wind monitoring capabilities. To learn more about DSCOVR, visit www.nesdis.noaa.gov/DSCOVR. Photo credit: NASA/Ben Smegelsky

  9. Electron-beam patterned self-assembled monolayers as templates for Cu electrodeposition and lift-off.

    PubMed

    She, Zhe; Difalco, Andrea; Hähner, Georg; Buck, Manfred

    2012-01-01

    Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of 4'-methylbiphenyl-4-thiol (MBP0) adsorbed on polycrystalline gold substrates served as templates to control electrochemical deposition of Cu structures from acidic solution, and enabled the subsequent lift-off of the metal structures by attachment to epoxy glue. By exploiting the negative-resist behaviour of MBP0, the SAM was patterned by means of electron-beam lithography. For high deposition contrast a two-step procedure was employed involving a nucleation phase around -0.7 V versus Cu(2+)/Cu and a growth phase at around -0.35 V versus Cu(2+)/Cu. Structures with features down to 100 nm were deposited and transferred with high fidelity. By using substrates with different surface morphologies, AFM measurements revealed that the roughness of the substrate is a crucial factor but not the only one determining the roughness of the copper surface that is exposed after lift-off.

  10. A Leadership Intervention to Further the Training of Female Faculty (LIFT-OFF) in Radiology.

    PubMed

    Spalluto, Lucy B; Spottswood, Stephanie E; Deitte, Lori A; Chern, Alexander; Dewey, Charlene M

    2017-06-01

    Women are under-represented in the field of radiology, occupy a minority of leadership positions, and, at our institution, have not achieved the same level of academic success as their male counterparts. Consequently, the authors designed, implemented, and evaluated the Leadership Intervention to Further the Training of Female Faculty (LIFT-OFF) program to (1) improve access to opportunities for women's faculty development and advancement, and (2) improve clarification of expectations about the role and path of advancement. LIFT-OFF was developed based on the results of a needs assessment survey. The results generated 14 priority topics, which served as the basis for educational modules conducted by expert speakers. Module effectiveness was assessed with pre- and postsurveys to elicit participant knowledge about the targeted subject matter. A formative program evaluation was performed at the completion of year 1 of 2 to assess outcomes and impacts to date. Seventeen of 55 (31%) educational module post-survey questions demonstrated a statistically significant (P < 0.05) increase in "yes" responses, indicating an improved understanding of targeted information. At year 1, 75% of the participants indicated that the program improved access to faculty development opportunities and 62% reported improved access to career advancement opportunities. Satisfaction with pace of professional advancement increased from 25% to 46% for junior women faculty (P = 0.046). Faculty development programs such as LIFT-OFF can provide career development opportunities and executive skills necessary for women to achieve academic career success and assume leadership positions. Copyright © 2017 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Reduction of structural defects in thick 4H-SiC epitaxial layers grown on 4° off-axis substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yazdanfar, M.; Ivanov, I. G.; Pedersen, H.; Kordina, O.; Janzén, E.

    2013-06-01

    By carefully controlling the surface chemistry of the chemical vapor deposition process for silicon carbide (SiC), 100 μm thick epitaxial layers with excellent morphology were grown on 4° off-axis SiC substrates at growth rates exceeding 100 μm/h. In order to reduce the formation of step bunching and structural defects, mainly triangular defects, the effect of varying parameters such as growth temperature, C/Si ratio, Cl/Si ratio, Si/H2 ratio, and in situ pre-growth surface etching time are studied. It was found that an in-situ pre growth etch at growth temperature and pressure using 0.6% HCl in hydrogen for 12 min reduced the structural defects by etching preferentially on surface damages of the substrate surface. By then applying a slightly lower growth temperature of 1575 °C, a C/Si ratio of 0.8, and a Cl/Si ratio of 5, 100 μm thick, step-bunch free epitaxial layer with a minimum triangular defect density and excellent morphology could be grown, thus enabling SiC power device structures to be grown on 4° off axis SiC substrates.

  12. Dignitaries Await Apollo 11 Lift Off

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    From the right, NASA administrator, Dr. Thomas O. Paine talks with U.S. Vice President Spiro T. Agnew while awaiting the launch of Saturn V (AS-506) that carried the Apollo 11 spacecraft to the Moon for man's historic first landing on the lunar surface. At center is astronaut William Anders, a member of the first crew to orbit the moon during the Apollo 8 mission. At left is Lee B. James, director of Program Management at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) where the Saturn V was developed. The craft lifted off from launch pad 39 at Kennedy Space Flight Center (KSC) on July 16, 1969. The moon bound crew included astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (M) pilot. The mission finalized with splashdown in the Pacific Ocean on July 24, 1969. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

  13. Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR) lifted off from Cape Canaveral

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-02-13

    Open Image KSC-2015-1368.KSC-2015-1368 (02/11/2015) --- The SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket carrying NOAA’s Deep Space Climate Observatory spacecraft, or DSCOVR, lifts off from Space Launch Complex 40 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida. Liftoff occurred at 6:03 p.m. EST. DSCOVR is a partnership between NOAA, NASA and the U.S. Air Force, and will maintain the nation's real-time solar wind monitoring capabilities. To learn more about DSCOVR, visit www.nesdis.noaa.gov/DSCOVR. Photo credit: NASA/Tony Gray and Tim Powers

  14. Electron-beam patterned self-assembled monolayers as templates for Cu electrodeposition and lift-off

    PubMed Central

    She, Zhe; DiFalco, Andrea; Hähner, Georg

    2012-01-01

    Summary Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of 4'-methylbiphenyl-4-thiol (MBP0) adsorbed on polycrystalline gold substrates served as templates to control electrochemical deposition of Cu structures from acidic solution, and enabled the subsequent lift-off of the metal structures by attachment to epoxy glue. By exploiting the negative-resist behaviour of MBP0, the SAM was patterned by means of electron-beam lithography. For high deposition contrast a two-step procedure was employed involving a nucleation phase around −0.7 V versus Cu2+/Cu and a growth phase at around −0.35 V versus Cu2+/Cu. Structures with features down to 100 nm were deposited and transferred with high fidelity. By using substrates with different surface morphologies, AFM measurements revealed that the roughness of the substrate is a crucial factor but not the only one determining the roughness of the copper surface that is exposed after lift-off. PMID:22428101

  15. Catalyst Interface Engineering for Improved 2D Film Lift-Off and Transfer

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms by which chemical vapor deposited (CVD) graphene and hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) films can be released from a growth catalyst, such as widely used copper (Cu) foil, are systematically explored as a basis for an improved lift-off transfer. We show how intercalation processes allow the local Cu oxidation at the interface followed by selective oxide dissolution, which gently releases the 2D material (2DM) film. Interfacial composition change and selective dissolution can thereby be achieved in a single step or split into two individual process steps. We demonstrate that this method is not only highly versatile but also yields graphene and h-BN films of high quality regarding surface contamination, layer coherence, defects, and electronic properties, without requiring additional post-transfer annealing. We highlight how such transfers rely on targeted corrosion at the catalyst interface and discuss this in context of the wider CVD growth and 2DM transfer literature, thereby fostering an improved general understanding of widely used transfer processes, which is essential to numerous other applications. PMID:27934130

  16. Natural substrate lift-off technique for vertical light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chia-Yu; Lan, Yu-Pin; Tu, Po-Min; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Lin, Chien-Chung; Kuo, Hao-Chung; Chi, Gou-Chung; Chang, Chun-Yen

    2014-04-01

    Hexagonal inverted pyramid (HIP) structures and the natural substrate lift-off (NSLO) technique were demonstrated on a GaN-based vertical light-emitting diode (VLED). The HIP structures were formed at the interface between GaN and the sapphire substrate by molten KOH wet etching. The threading dislocation density (TDD) estimated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was reduced to 1 × 108 cm-2. Raman spectroscopy indicated that the compressive strain from the bottom GaN/sapphire was effectively released through the HIP structure. With the adoption of the HIP structure and NSLO, the light output power and yield performance of leakage current could be further improved.

  17. Selective epitaxy using the gild process

    DOEpatents

    Weiner, Kurt H.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention comprises a method of selective epitaxy on a semiconductor substrate. The present invention provides a method of selectively forming high quality, thin GeSi layers in a silicon circuit, and a method for fabricating smaller semiconductor chips with a greater yield (more error free chips) at a lower cost. The method comprises forming an upper layer over a substrate, and depositing a reflectivity mask which is then removed over selected sections. Using a laser to melt the unmasked sections of the upper layer, the semiconductor material in the upper layer is heated and diffused into the substrate semiconductor material. By varying the amount of laser radiation, the epitaxial layer is formed to a controlled depth which may be very thin. When cooled, a single crystal epitaxial layer is formed over the patterned substrate. The present invention provides the ability to selectively grow layers of mixed semiconductors over patterned substrates such as a layer of Ge.sub.x Si.sub.1-x grown over silicon. Such a process may be used to manufacture small transistors that have a narrow base, heavy doping, and high gain. The narrowness allows a faster transistor, and the heavy doping reduces the resistance of the narrow layer. The process does not require high temperature annealing; therefore materials such as aluminum can be used. Furthermore, the process may be used to fabricate diodes that have a high reverse breakdown voltage and a low reverse leakage current.

  18. EMG Processing Based Measures of Fatigue Assessment during Manual Lifting.

    PubMed

    Shair, E F; Ahmad, S A; Marhaban, M H; Mohd Tamrin, S B; Abdullah, A R

    2017-01-01

    Manual lifting is one of the common practices used in the industries to transport or move objects to a desired place. Nowadays, even though mechanized equipment is widely available, manual lifting is still considered as an essential way to perform material handling task. Improper lifting strategies may contribute to musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs), where overexertion contributes as the highest factor. To overcome this problem, electromyography (EMG) signal is used to monitor the workers' muscle condition and to find maximum lifting load, lifting height and number of repetitions that the workers are able to handle before experiencing fatigue to avoid overexertion. Past researchers have introduced several EMG processing techniques and different EMG features that represent fatigue indices in time, frequency, and time-frequency domain. The impact of EMG processing based measures in fatigue assessment during manual lifting are reviewed in this paper. It is believed that this paper will greatly benefit researchers who need a bird's eye view of the biosignal processing which are currently available, thus determining the best possible techniques for lifting applications.

  19. EMG Processing Based Measures of Fatigue Assessment during Manual Lifting

    PubMed Central

    Marhaban, M. H.; Abdullah, A. R.

    2017-01-01

    Manual lifting is one of the common practices used in the industries to transport or move objects to a desired place. Nowadays, even though mechanized equipment is widely available, manual lifting is still considered as an essential way to perform material handling task. Improper lifting strategies may contribute to musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs), where overexertion contributes as the highest factor. To overcome this problem, electromyography (EMG) signal is used to monitor the workers' muscle condition and to find maximum lifting load, lifting height and number of repetitions that the workers are able to handle before experiencing fatigue to avoid overexertion. Past researchers have introduced several EMG processing techniques and different EMG features that represent fatigue indices in time, frequency, and time-frequency domain. The impact of EMG processing based measures in fatigue assessment during manual lifting are reviewed in this paper. It is believed that this paper will greatly benefit researchers who need a bird's eye view of the biosignal processing which are currently available, thus determining the best possible techniques for lifting applications. PMID:28303251

  20. Effect of Impeller Geometry on Lift-Off Characteristics and Rotational Attitude in a Monopivot Centrifugal Blood Pump.

    PubMed

    Nishida, Masahiro; Nakayama, Kento; Sakota, Daisuke; Kosaka, Ryo; Maruyama, Osamu; Kawaguchi, Yasuo; Kuwana, Katsuyuki; Yamane, Takashi

    2016-06-01

    The effect of the flow path geometry of the impeller on the lift-off and tilt of the rotational axis of the impeller against the hydrodynamic force was investigated in a centrifugal blood pump with an impeller supported by a single-contact pivot bearing. Four types of impeller were compared: the FR model with the flow path having both front and rear cutouts on the tip, the F model with the flow path having only a front cutout, the R model with only a rear cutout, and the N model with a straight flow path. First, the axial thrust and the movement about the pivot point, which was loaded on the surface of the impeller, were calculated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis. Next, the lift-off point and the tilt of the rotational axis of the impeller were measured experimentally. The CFD analysis showed that the axial thrust increased gently in the FR and R models as the flow rate increased, whereas it increased drastically in the F and N models. This difference in axial thrust was likely from the higher pressure caused by the smaller circumferential velocity in the gap between the top surface of the impeller and the casing in the FR and R models than in the F and N models, which was caused by the rear cutout. These results corresponded with the experimental results showing that the impellers lifted off in the F and N models as the flow rate increased, whereas it did not in the FR and R models. Conversely, the movement about the pivot point increased in the direction opposite the side with the pump outlet as the flow rate increased. However, the tilt of the rotational axis of the impeller, which oriented away from the pump outlet, was less than 0.8° in any model under any conditions, and was considered to negligibly affect the rotational attitude of the impeller. These results confirm that a rear cutout prevents lift-off of the impeller caused by a decrease in the axial thrust. © 2016 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley

  1. Can Skateboarding Save the Planet? A Curricular Unit on Global Climate Change Developed Through the NASA LIFT-OFF Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pruett, L. E.; Burrell, S.; Chidester, C.; Metzger, E. P.

    2010-12-01

    The inclusion of global climate change education in California public high schools is constrained by several factors, including the planning time needed to effectively correlate state content standards to the multidisciplinary science of climate change, the lack of time in the curriculum, and budget constraints that limit resources for teachers. Recent efforts by the NASA LIFT-OFF program to support classroom teachers in the development of inquiry-based curricular materials have helped to alleviate many of these burdens. NASA LIFT-OFF is funded by a grant to the Alameda County Office of Education and involves a partnership between the Alameda, Santa Clara, and Los Angeles county offices of education and science faculty at California State University (CSU) East Bay, San Jose State University (SJSU), and Cal Poly Pomona. LIFT-OFF goals are to improve high school science teachers’ content knowledge through interactions with scientists from the CSU campuses, NASA, and the SETI Institute and to enhance their ability to plan and implement high-quality science inquiry in their classrooms. LIFT-OFF teachers at the three CSU campuses are developing instructional cases that use NASA resources and research-based pedagogical practices to explore engaging real-world questions. We participated in SJSU’s 2010 LIFT-OFF summer institute and worked as a team to develop a 12-day unit for high school students that focuses on the science behind global climate change. In addition to delivering science content, the unit engages students in critical thinking and evaluation. Students generate, access and interpret data, and use the knowledge gained to make small lifestyle changes that aid in the reduction of their greenhouse gas emissions. Not only does this unit of study empower students to make science-based decisions, it also incorporates diverse learning strategies, such as the use of visuals aids, language acquisition techniques to improve literacy, formative assessments and daily

  2. A NASA helicopter lifts off from KSC after being painted

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    At S.R. 3 a NASA helicopter lifts off to return to Patrick Air Force Base. The helicopter is one of four UH-1H helicopters that have had its blades painted, changing the previous black color to a pattern of white and yellow stripes. The pattern provides better visibility in smoke and fire conditions. When the rotors are turning, the stripes create a yellow and white circle that is more easily seen by a second helicopter from above. The helicopters, primarily used for security and medical evacuation for NASA, will be used to deliver water via buckets during brush fires. The change was made to comply with U.S. Fish and Wildlife and Department of Forestry regulations for helicopter-assisted fire control.

  3. LIFT Tenant Is Off and Running

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, Gynelle C.

    2001-01-01

    Lewis Incubator for Technology (LIFT) tenant, Analiza Inc., graduated from the incubator July 2000. Analiza develops technology and products for the early diagnosis of diseases, quality control of bio-pharmaceutical therapeutics, and other applications involving protein analyses. Technology links with NASA from existing and planned work are in areas of microfluidics and laser light scattering. Since their entry in LIFT in May, 1997, Analiza has: Received a $750,000 grant from the National Institutes of Health. Collaborated with a Nobel Prize winner on drug design. Collaborated with Bristol-Myers Squibb on the characterization of biological therapeutics. Added a Ph.D. senior scientist and several technicians. Received significant interest from major pharmaceutical companies about collaborating and acquiring Analiza technology.

  4. Lift-off process with bi-layer photoresist patterns for conformal-coated superhydrophilic pulsed plasma chemical vapor deposition-SiOx on SiCx for lab-on-a-chip applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konishi, Satoshi; Nakagami, Chise; Kobayashi, Taizo; Tonomura, Wataru; Kaizuma, Yoshihiro

    2015-04-01

    In this work, a lift-off process with bi-layer photoresist patterns was applied to the formation of hydrophobic/hydrophilic micropatterns on practical polymer substrates used in healthcare diagnostic commercial products. The bi-layer photoresist patterns with undercut structures made it possible to peel the conformal-coated silicon oxide (SiOx) films from substrates. SiOx and silicon carbide (SiCx) layers were deposited by pulsed plasma chemical vapor deposition (PPCVD) method which can form roughened surfaces to enhance hydrophilicity of SiOx and hydrophobicity of SiCx. Microfluidic applications using hydrophobic/hydrophilic patterns were also demonstrated on low-cost substrates such as poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) and paper films.

  5. Particle Lifting Processes in Dust Devils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neakrase, L. D. V.; Balme, M. R.; Esposito, F.; Kelling, T.; Klose, M.; Kok, J. F.; Marticorena, B.; Merrison, J.; Patel, M.; Wurm, G.

    2016-11-01

    Particle lifting in dust devils on both Earth and Mars has been studied from many different perspectives, including how dust devils could influence the dust cycles of both planets. Here we review our current understanding of particle entrainment by dust devils by examining results from field observations on Earth and Mars, laboratory experiments (at terrestrial ambient and Mars-analog conditions), and analytical modeling. By combining insights obtained from these three methodologies, we provide a detailed overview on interactions between particle lifting processes due to mechanical, thermal, electrodynamical and pressure effects, and how these processes apply to dust devils on Earth and Mars. Experiments and observations have shown dust devils to be effective lifters of dust given the proper conditions on Earth and Mars. However, dust devil studies have yet to determine the individual roles of each of the component processes acting at any given time in dust devils.

  6. Spectroscopic detection of exogenous materials in latent fingerprints treated with powders and lifted off with adhesive tapes.

    PubMed

    Banas, A; Banas, K; Breese, M B H; Loke, J; Lim, S K

    2014-07-01

    Fingerprint evidence offers great value to criminal investigations since it is an internationally recognized and established means of human identification. With recent advances in modern technology, scientists have started analyzing not only the ridge patterns of fingerprints but also substances which can be found within them. The aim of this work was to determine whether Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectromicroscopy could be used to detect contamination in a fingerprint which was dusted with powder (a technique already recognized as an effective and reliable method for developing latent fingerprints) and subsequently lifted off with adhesive tape. Explosive materials (pentaerythritol tetranitrate, C-4, TNT) and noncontrolled substances (sugar, aspirin) were used to prepare contaminated fingerprints on various substrates. Freshly deposited fingermarks with powders which were lifted off with adhesive tapes (provided by Singapore Police Force) were analyzed using a Bruker Hyperion 2000 microscope at the ISMI beamline (Singapore Synchrotron Light Source) with an attenuated total reflection objective. FTIR spectroscopy is a nondestructive technique which requires almost no sample preparation. Further, the fingerprint under analysis remains in pristine condition, allowing subsequent analysis if necessary. All analyzed substances were successfully distinguished using their FTIR spectra in powdered and lifted fingerprints. This method has the potential to significantly impact forensic science by greatly enhancing the information that can be obtained from the study of fingerprints.

  7. Study on process design of partially-balanced, hydraulically lifting vertical ship lift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Shen; Xiaofeng, Xu; Lu, Zhang; Bing, Zhu; Fei, Li

    2017-11-01

    The hub ship lift in Panjin is the first navigation structure in China for the link between the inland and open seas, which adopts a novel partially-balanced, hydraulically lifting ship lift; it can meet such requirements as fast and sharp water level change in open sea, large draft of a yacht, and launching of a ship reception chamber; its balancing weight system can effectively reduce the load of the primary lifting cylinder, and optimize the force distribution of the ship reception chamber. The paper provides an introduction to main equipment, basic principles, main features and system composition of a ship lift. The unique power system and balancing system of the completed ship lift has offered some experience for the construction of the tourism-type ship lifts with a lower lifting height.

  8. Aerodynamic Analyses and Database Development for Lift-Off/Transition and First Stage Ascent of the Ares I A106 Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pamadi, Bandu N.; Pei, Jing; Covell, Peter F.; Favaregh, Noah M.; Gumbert, Clyde R.; Hanke, Jeremy L.

    2011-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center, in partnership with NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and NASA Ames Research Center, was involved in the aerodynamic analyses, testing, and database development for the Ares I A106 crew launch vehicle in support of the Ares Design and Analysis Cycle. This paper discusses the development of lift-off/transition and ascent databases. The lift-off/transition database was developed using data from tests on a 1.75% scale model of the A106 configuration in the NASA Langley 14x22 Subsonic Wind Tunnel. The power-off ascent database was developed using test data on a 1% A106 scale model from two different facilities, the Boeing Polysonic Wind Tunnel and the NASA Langley Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel. The ascent database was adjusted for differences in wind tunnel and flight Reynolds numbers using USM3D CFD code. The aerodynamic jet interaction effects due to first stage roll control system were modeled using USM3D and OVERFLOW CFD codes.

  9. Lead zirconate titanate nanoscale patterning by ultraviolet-based lithography lift-off technique for nano-electromechanical system applications.

    PubMed

    Guillon, Samuel; Saya, Daisuke; Mazenq, Laurent; Costecalde, Jean; Rèmiens, Denis; Soyer, Caroline; Nicu, Liviu

    2012-09-01

    The advantage of using lead zirconate titanate (PbZr(0.54)Ti(0.46)O(3)) ceramics as an active material in nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) comes from its relatively high piezoelectric coefficients. However, its integration within a technological process is limited by the difficulty of structuring this material with submicrometer resolution at the wafer scale. In this work, we develop a specific patterning method based on optical lithography coupled with a dual-layer resist process. The main objective is to obtain sub-micrometer features by lifting off a 100-nm-thick PZT layer while preserving the material's piezoelectric properties. A subsequent result of the developed method is the ability to stack several layers with a lateral resolution of few tens of nanometers, which is mandatory for the fabrication of NEMS with integrated actuation and read-out capabilities.

  10. Lift-Off: Using Reference Imagery and Freehand Sketching to Create 3D Models in VR.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Bret; Keefe, Daniel F

    2016-04-01

    Three-dimensional modeling has long been regarded as an ideal application for virtual reality (VR), but current VR-based 3D modeling tools suffer from two problems that limit creativity and applicability: (1) the lack of control for freehand modeling, and (2) the difficulty of starting from scratch. To address these challenges, we present Lift-Off, an immersive 3D interface for creating complex models with a controlled, handcrafted style. Artists start outside of VR with 2D sketches, which are then imported and positioned in VR. Then, using a VR interface built on top of image processing algorithms, 2D curves within the sketches are selected interactively and "lifted" into space to create a 3D scaffolding for the model. Finally, artists sweep surfaces along these curves to create 3D models. Evaluations are presented for both long-term users and for novices who each created a 3D sailboat model from the same starting sketch. Qualitative results are positive, with the visual style of the resulting models of animals and other organic subjects as well as architectural models matching what is possible with traditional fine art media. In addition, quantitative data from logging features built into the software are used to characterize typical tool use and suggest areas for further refinement of the interface.

  11. Metal-Halide Perovskites for Gate Dielectrics in Field-Effect Transistors and Photodetectors Enabled by PMMA Lift-Off Process.

    PubMed

    Daus, Alwin; Roldán-Carmona, Cristina; Domanski, Konrad; Knobelspies, Stefan; Cantarella, Giuseppe; Vogt, Christian; Grätzel, Michael; Nazeeruddin, Mohammad Khaja; Tröster, Gerhard

    2018-06-01

    Metal-halide perovskites have emerged as promising materials for optoelectronics applications, such as photovoltaics, light-emitting diodes, and photodetectors due to their excellent photoconversion efficiencies. However, their instability in aqueous solutions and most organic solvents has complicated their micropatterning procedures, which are needed for dense device integration, for example, in displays or cameras. In this work, a lift-off process based on poly(methyl methacrylate) and deep ultraviolet lithography on flexible plastic foils is presented. This technique comprises simultaneous patterning of the metal-halide perovskite with a top electrode, which results in microscale vertical device architectures with high spatial resolution and alignment properties. Hence, thin-film transistors (TFTs) with methyl-ammonium lead iodide (MAPbI 3 ) gate dielectrics are demonstrated for the first time. The giant dielectric constant of MAPbI 3 (>1000) leads to excellent low-voltage TFT switching capabilities with subthreshold swings ≈80 mV decade -1 over ≈5 orders of drain current magnitude. Furthermore, vertically stacked low-power Au-MAPbI 3 -Au photodetectors with close-to-ideal linear response (R 2 = 0.9997) are created. The mechanical stability down to a tensile radius of 6 mm is demonstrated for the TFTs and photodetectors, simultaneously realized on the same flexible plastic substrate. These results open the way for flexible low-power integrated (opto-)electronic systems based on metal-halide perovskites. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Characteristics of Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) Nanoparticles Recovered by Lift-off Method from TFT-LCD Panel Scraps.

    PubMed

    Choi, Dongchul; Hong, Sung-Jei; Son, Yongkeun

    2014-11-27

    In this study, indium-tin-oxide (ITO) nanoparticles were simply recovered from the thin film transistor-liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD) panel scraps by means of lift-off method. This can be done by dissolving color filter (CF) layer which is located between ITO layer and glass substrate. In this way the ITO layer was easily lifted off the glass substrate of the panel scrap without panel crushing. Over 90% of the ITO on the TFT-LCD panel was recovered by using this method. After separating, the ITO was obtained as particle form and their characteristics were investigated. The recovered product appeared as aggregates of particles less than 100 nm in size. The weight ratio of In/Sn is very close to 91/9. XRD analysis showed that the ITO nanoparticles have well crystallized structures with (222) preferred orientation even after recovery. The method described in this paper could be applied to the industrial recovery business for large size LCD scraps from TV easily without crushing the glass substrate.

  13. Characteristics of Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) Nanoparticles Recovered by Lift-off Method from TFT-LCD Panel Scraps

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Dongchul; Hong, Sung-Jei; Son, Yongkeun

    2014-01-01

    In this study, indium-tin-oxide (ITO) nanoparticles were simply recovered from the thin film transistor-liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD) panel scraps by means of lift-off method. This can be done by dissolving color filter (CF) layer which is located between ITO layer and glass substrate. In this way the ITO layer was easily lifted off the glass substrate of the panel scrap without panel crushing. Over 90% of the ITO on the TFT-LCD panel was recovered by using this method. After separating, the ITO was obtained as particle form and their characteristics were investigated. The recovered product appeared as aggregates of particles less than 100 nm in size. The weight ratio of In/Sn is very close to 91/9. XRD analysis showed that the ITO nanoparticles have well crystallized structures with (222) preferred orientation even after recovery. The method described in this paper could be applied to the industrial recovery business for large size LCD scraps from TV easily without crushing the glass substrate. PMID:28788267

  14. Process for depositing an oxide epitaxially onto a silicon substrate and structures prepared with the process

    DOEpatents

    McKee, Rodney A.; Walker, Frederick J.

    1993-01-01

    A process and structure involving a silicon substrate utilizes an ultra high vacuum and molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) methods to grow an epitaxial oxide film upon a surface of the substrate. As the film is grown, the lattice of the compound formed at the silicon interface becomes stabilized, and a base layer comprised of an oxide having a sodium chloride-type lattice structure grows epitaxially upon the compound so as to cover the substrate surface. A perovskite may then be grown epitaxially upon the base layer to render a product which incorporates silicon, with its electronic capabilities, with a perovskite having technologically-significant properties of its own.

  15. Wing high-lift system with spoiler droop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gubsky, Vitaly; Pavlenko, Olga; Petrov, Albert

    2018-05-01

    Take-off and landing regimes are becoming increasingly difficult due to the increased aircraft mass and speed and the toughening of air safety demands. The capabilities of conventional single-slotted or multi-slotted flaps are limited. This problem can be resolved by the deflection or bending of the tail section, which forms a potential flow that results in an increase in the lift component at high angles of attack. Different versions of the flap on a two-part high-lift device with a spoiler are examined. Calculations show that the application of an adaptive high-lift system with spoiler droop to an aircraft increases the lift coefficient by as much as 15%. Aircraft model experiments indicated that a δs = 5° deflection of the trailing edge increases the lift coefficient by 11% - 13%. Setting the propeller load coefficient to B = 1 (thrust/velocity factor propeller area) under take-off δf = 20° and landing δf = 35° configurations increases the efficiency of a lift coefficient by 25% and 36%, respectively. The application of spoiler droop and leading edge modifications of the wing expands the operational range of angles of attack and increases the lift coefficient by 10% at a small intensity (B = 0.5). It is concluded that the application of spoiler droop to high-lift system allows improvement of the wing properties under take-off and landing regimes of various types.

  16. STS-45 Atlantis, OV-104, lifts off from KSC Launch Complex (LC) Pad

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1992-03-24

    STS-45 Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104, lifts off from a Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Launch Complex (LC) Pad at 8:13:40:048 am (Eastern Standard Time (EST)). Exhaust billows out the solid rocket boosters (SRBs) as OV-104 atop its external tank (ET) soars above the mobile launcher platform and is nearly clear of the fixed service structure (FSS) tower. The diamond shock effect produced by the space shuttle main engines (SSMEs) is visible. The glow of the SRB/SSME firings is reflected in a nearby waterway. An exhaust cloud covers the launch pad area.

  17. Method of lift-off patterning thin films in situ employing phase change resists

    DOEpatents

    Bahlke, Matthias Erhard; Baldo, Marc A; Mendoza, Hiroshi Antonio

    2014-09-23

    Method for making a patterned thin film of an organic semiconductor. The method includes condensing a resist gas into a solid film onto a substrate cooled to a temperature below the condensation point of the resist gas. The condensed solid film is heated selectively with a patterned stamp to cause local direct sublimation from solid to vapor of selected portions of the solid film thereby creating a patterned resist film. An organic semiconductor film is coated on the patterned resist film and the patterned resist film is heated to cause it to sublime away and to lift off because of the phase change.

  18. Vehicle lift-off modelling and a new rollover detection criterion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mashadi, Behrooz; Mostaghimi, Hamid

    2017-05-01

    The modelling and development of a general criterion for the prediction of rollover threshold is the main purpose of this work. Vehicle dynamics models after the wheels lift-off and when the vehicle moves on the two wheels are derived and the governing equations are used to develop the rollover threshold. These models include the properties of the suspension and steering systems. In order to study the stability of motion, the steady-state solutions of the equations of motion are carried out. Based on the stability analyses, a new relation is obtained for the rollover threshold in terms of measurable response parameters. The presented criterion predicts the best time for the prevention of the vehicle rollover by applying a correcting moment. It is shown that the introduced threshold of vehicle rollover is a proper state of vehicle motion that is best for stabilising the vehicle with a low energy requirement.

  19. Improvement of the Processes of Liquid-Phase Epitaxial Growth of Nanoheteroepitaxial Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maronchuk, I. I.; Sanikovich, D. D.; Potapkov, P. V.; Vel‧chenko, A. A.

    2018-05-01

    We have revealed the shortcomings of equipment and technological approaches in growing nanoheteroepitaxial structures with quantum dots by liquid-phase epitaxy. We have developed and fabricated a new vertical barreltype cassette for growing quantum dots and epitaxial layers of various thicknesses in one technological process. A physico-mathematical simulation has been carried out of the processes of liquid-phase epitaxial growth of quantumdimensional structures with the use of the program product SolidWorks (FlowSimulation program). Analysis has revealed the presence of negative factors influencing the growth process of the above structures. The mathematical model has been optimized, and the equipment has been modernized without additional experiments and measurements. The flow dynamics of the process gas in the reactor at various flow rates has been investigated. A method for tuning the thermal equipment has been developed. The calculated and experimental temperature distributions in the process of growing structures with high reproducibility are in good agreement, which confirms the validity of the modernization made.

  20. STS-56 Discovery, OV-103, lifts off from KSC LC Pad 39B into darkness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    STS-56 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, lifts off from Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Launch Complex (LC) Pad 39B into the early morning darkness at 1:29 am (Eastern Daylight Time (EDT)). OV-103, atop its external tank (ET) and flanked by solid rocket boosters (SRBs), rises above the mobile launcher platform. Exhaust plumes trail from the SRBs. The glow of the SRB / space shuttle main engine (SSME) firings illuminate the fixed service structure (FSS) tower. Trees are silhouetted against the launch fireworks in the foreground.

  1. Total Facelift: Forehead Lift, Midface Lift, and Neck Lift

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Patients with thick skin mainly exhibit the aging processes of sagging, whereas patients with thin skin develop wrinkles or volume loss. Asian skin is usually thicker than that of Westerners; and thus, the sagging of skin due to aging, rather than wrinkling, is the chief problem to be addressed in Asians. Asian skin is also relatively large in area and thick, implying that the weight of tissue to be lifted is considerably heavier. These factors account for the difficulties in performing a facelift in Asians. Facelifts can be divided into forehead lift, midface lift, and lower face lift. These can be performed individually or with 2-3 procedures combined. PMID:25798381

  2. STS-38 Atlantis, OV-104, lifts off from KSC LC Pad during night launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    STS-38 Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104, lifts off from Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Launch Complex (LC) Pad at 6:48:15:0639 pm (Eastern Standard Time (EST)) for Department of Defense (DOD)-devoted mission. OV-104, atop the external tank (ET) and flanked by solid rocket boosters (SRBs), is almost clear of the launch tower which is lit up by the SRB and space shuttle main engine (SSME) firings. Spotlight equipment is silhouetted against the SRB/SSME glow in the foreground. The retracted rotating service structure (RSS) is highlighted against the evening darkness by the launch fireworks.

  3. Process for forming epitaxial perovskite thin film layers using halide precursors

    DOEpatents

    Clem, Paul G.; Rodriguez, Mark A.; Voigt, James A.; Ashley, Carol S.

    2001-01-01

    A process for forming an epitaxial perovskite-phase thin film on a substrate. This thin film can act as a buffer layer between a Ni substrate and a YBa.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.7-x superconductor layer. The process utilizes alkali or alkaline metal acetates dissolved in halogenated organic acid along with titanium isopropoxide to dip or spin-coat the substrate which is then heated to about 700.degree. C. in an inert gas atmosphere to form the epitaxial film on the substrate. The YBCO superconductor can then be deposited on the layer formed by this invention.

  4. Modeling of load lifting process with unknown center of gravity position

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamanin, Y. N.; Zhukov, M. I.; Panichkin, A. V.; Redelin, R. A.

    2018-03-01

    The article proposes a new type of lifting beams that allows one to lift loads where the position of the center of gravity is unknown beforehand. The benefit of implementing this type of traverse is confirmed by the high demand for this product from the industrial enterprises and lack of their availability on the market. In conducted studies, the main kinematic and dynamic dependencies of the load lifting process with an unknown position of the center of gravity were described allowing for design and verification calculations of the traverse with flexible slings and an adjustable bail to be carried out. The obtained results can be useful to engineers and employees of enterprises engaged in the design and manufacturing of the lifting equipment and scientists doing research in “Carrying and lifting machines”.

  5. Effects of site disorder, off-stoichiometry and epitaxial strain on the optical properties of magnetoelectric gallium ferrite.

    PubMed

    Roy, Amritendu; Mukherjee, Somdutta; Sarkar, Surajit; Auluck, Sushil; Prasad, Rajendra; Gupta, Rajeev; Garg, Ashish

    2012-10-31

    We present a combined experimental-theoretical study demonstrating the role of site disorder, off-stoichiometry and strain on the optical properties of magnetoelectric gallium ferrite. Optical properties (bandgap, refractive indices and dielectric constants) were experimentally obtained by performing ellipsometric studies over the energy range 0.8-4.2 eV on pulsed laser deposited epitaxial thin films of stoichiometric gallium ferrite with b-axis orientation and the data were compared with theoretical results. Calculations on the ground state structure show that the optical activity in GaFeO(3) arises primarily from O 2p-Fe 3d transitions. Further, inclusion of site disorder and epitaxial strain in the ground state structure significantly improves the agreement between the theory and the room temperature experimental data substantiating the presence of site disorder in the experimentally derived strained GaFeO(3) films at room temperature. We attribute the modification of the ground state optical behavior upon inclusion of site disorder to the corresponding changes in the electronic band structure, especially in Fe 3d states leading to a lowered bandgap of the material.

  6. The surprising dynamics of a chain on a pulley: lift off and snapping.

    PubMed

    Brun, P-T; Audoly, Basile; Goriely, Alain; Vella, Dominic

    2016-06-01

    The motion of weights attached to a chain or string moving on a frictionless pulley is a classic problem of introductory physics used to understand the relationship between force and acceleration. Here, we consider the dynamics of the chain when one of the weights is removed and, thus, one end is pulled with constant acceleration. This simple change has dramatic consequences for the ensuing motion: at a finite time, the chain 'lifts off' from the pulley, and the free end subsequently accelerates faster than the end that is pulled. Eventually, the chain undergoes a dramatic reversal of curvature reminiscent of the crack or snap, of a whip. We combine experiments, numerical simulations and theoretical arguments to explain key aspects of this dynamical problem.

  7. STS-49 Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105, lifts off from KSC LC Pad 39B

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1992-05-07

    STS049-S-251 (7 May 1992) --- The Space Shuttle Endeavour soars toward Earth orbit where a crew of seven NASA astronauts will spend at least a week. Endeavour, the newest orbiter in NASA's Space Shuttle fleet, lifted off from Pad 39B at 7:40 p.m. (EDT), May 7, 1992. A diamond shock effect can be seen beneath the three main engines. Onboard are astronauts Daniel C. Brandenstein, mission commander; Kevin P. Chilton, pilot; and Richard J. Hieb, Bruce E. Melnick, Pierre J. Thuot, Kathryn C. Thornton and Thomas D. Akers, all mission specialists.

  8. Atlantis lifts off on mission STS-84

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Atlantis turns night into day for a few moments as it lifts off on May 15 at 4:07:48 a.m. EDT from Launch Pad 39A on the STS-84 mission. The fourth Shuttle mission of 1997 will be the sixth docking of the Space Shuttle with the Russian Space Station Mir. The commander is Charles J. Precourt. The pilot is Eileen Marie Collins. The five mission specialists are C. Michael Foale, Carlos I. Noriega, Edward Tsang Lu, Jean-Francois Clervoy of the European Space Agency and Elena V. Kondakova of the Russian Space Agency. The planned nine-day mission will include the exchange of Foale for U.S. astronaut and Mir 23 crew member Jerry M. Linenger, who has been on Mir since Jan. 15. Linenger transferred to Mir during the last docking mission, STS-81; he will return to Earth on Atlantis. Foale is slated to remain on Mir for about four months until he is replaced in September by STS-86 Mission Specialist Wendy B. Lawrence. During the five days Atlantis is scheduled to be docked with the Mir, the STS-84 crew and the Mir 23 crew, including two Russian cosmonauts, Commander Vasily Tsibliev and Flight Engineer Alexander Lazutkin, will participate in joint experiments. The STS-84 mission also will involve the transfer of more than 7,300 pounds of water, logistics and science equipment to and from the Mir. Atlantis is carrying a nearly 300-pound oxygen generator to replace one of two Mir units which have experienced malfunctions. The oxygen it generates is used for breathing by the Mir crew.

  9. Automatic detection of lift-off and touch-down of a pick-up walker using 3D kinematics.

    PubMed

    Grootveld, L; Thies, S B; Ogden, D; Howard, D; Kenney, L P J

    2014-02-01

    Walking aids have been associated with falls and it is believed that incorrect use limits their usefulness. Measures are therefore needed that characterize their stable use and the classification of key events in walking aid movement is the first step in their development. This study presents an automated algorithm for detection of lift-off (LO) and touch-down (TD) events of a pick-up walker. For algorithm design and initial testing, a single user performed trials for which the four individual walker feet lifted off the ground and touched down again in various sequences, and for different amounts of frame loading (Dataset_1). For further validation, ten healthy young subjects walked with the pick-up walker on flat ground (Dataset_2a) and on a narrow beam (Dataset_2b), to challenge balance. One 88-year-old walking frame user was also assessed. Kinematic data were collected with a 3D optoelectronic camera system. The algorithm detected over 93% of events (Dataset_1), and 95% and 92% in Dataset_2a and b, respectively. Of the various LO/TD sequences, those associated with natural progression resulted in up to 100% correctly identified events. For the 88-year-old walking frame user, 96% of LO events and 93% of TD events were detected, demonstrating the potential of the approach. Copyright © 2013 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Epitaxial growth of iridate pyrochlore Nd 2Ir 2O 7 films

    DOE PAGES

    Gallagher, J. C.; Esser, B. D.; Morrow, R.; ...

    2016-02-29

    Epitaxial films of the pyrochlore Nd 2Ir 2O 7 have been grown on (111)-oriented yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) substrates by off-axis sputtering followed by post-growth annealing. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results demonstrate phase-pure epitaxial growth of the pyrochlore films on YSZ. Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) investigation of an Nd 2Ir 2O 7 film with a short post-annealing provides insight into the mechanism for crystallization of Nd 2Ir 2O 7 during the post-annealing process. STEM images reveal clear pyrochlore ordering of Nd and Ir in the films. As a result, the epitaxial relationship between the YSZ and Nd 2Ir 2O 7 ismore » observed clearly while some interfacial regions show a thin region with polycrystalline Ir nanocrystals.« less

  11. Methods for fabricating thin film III-V compound solar cell

    DOEpatents

    Pan, Noren; Hillier, Glen; Vu, Duy Phach; Tatavarti, Rao; Youtsey, Christopher; McCallum, David; Martin, Genevieve

    2011-08-09

    The present invention utilizes epitaxial lift-off in which a sacrificial layer is included in the epitaxial growth between the substrate and a thin film III-V compound solar cell. To provide support for the thin film III-V compound solar cell in absence of the substrate, a backing layer is applied to a surface of the thin film III-V compound solar cell before it is separated from the substrate. To separate the thin film III-V compound solar cell from the substrate, the sacrificial layer is removed as part of the epitaxial lift-off. Once the substrate is separated from the thin film III-V compound solar cell, the substrate may then be reused in the formation of another thin film III-V compound solar cell.

  12. Improved process for epitaxial deposition of silicon on prediffused substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, M. G.; Halsor, J. L.; Word, J. C.

    1968-01-01

    Process for fabricating integrated circuits uniformly deposits silicon epitaxially on prediffused substrates without affecting the sublayer diffusion pattern. Two silicon deposits from different sources, and deposited at different temperatures, protect the sublayer pattern from the silicon tetrachloride reaction.

  13. Freestanding and Reactive Thin Films Fabricated by Covalent Layer-by-Layer Assembly and Subsequent Lift-Off of Azlactone-Containing Polymer Multilayers

    PubMed Central

    Buck, Maren E.

    2010-01-01

    We report an approach to the fabrication of freestanding and amine-reactive thin films that is based on the reactive layer-by-layer assembly and subsequent lift-off of azlactone-containing polymer multilayers. We demonstrate that covalently crosslinked multilayers fabricated using the azlactone-functionalized polymer poly(2-vinyl-4,4-dimethylazlactone) (PVDMA) and a primary amine-containing polymer [poly(ethyleneimine) (PEI)] can be delaminated from planar glass and silicon surfaces by immersion in mildly acidic aqueous environments to yield flexible freestanding membranes. These freestanding membranes are robust and can withstand exposure to strong acid, strong base, or incubation in high ionic strength solutions that typically lead to the disruption and erosion of polymer multilayers assembled by reversible weak interactions (e.g., ‘polyelectrolyte multilayers’ assembled by electrostatic interactions or hydrogen bonding). We demonstrate further that these PEI/PVDMA assemblies contain residual reactive azlactone functionality that can be exploited to chemically modify the films (either directly after fabrication or after they have been lifted off of the substrates on which they were fabricated) using a variety of amine-functionalized small molecules. These freestanding membranes can also be transferred readily onto other objects (for example, onto the surfaces of planar substrates containing holes or pores) to fabricate suspended polymer membranes and other film-functionalized interfaces. In addition to planar, two-dimensional freestanding films, this approach can be used to fabricate and isolate three-dimensional freestanding membranes (e.g., curved films or tubes) by layer-by-layer assembly on, and subsequent lift-off from, the surfaces of topologically complex substrates (e.g., the curved ends of glass tubing, etc.). The results of this investigation, when combined, suggest the basis of methods for the fabrication of stable, chemically-reactive, and

  14. Epitaxially Self-Assembled Alkane Layers for Graphene Electronics.

    PubMed

    Yu, Young-Jun; Lee, Gwan-Hyoung; Choi, Ji Il; Shim, Yoon Su; Lee, Chul-Ho; Kang, Seok Ju; Lee, Sunwoo; Rim, Kwang Taeg; Flynn, George W; Hone, James; Kim, Yong-Hoon; Kim, Philip; Nuckolls, Colin; Ahn, Seokhoon

    2017-02-01

    The epitaxially grown alkane layers on graphene are prepared by a simple drop-casting method and greatly reduce the environmentally driven doping and charge impurities in graphene. Multiscale simulation studies show that this enhancement of charge homogeneity in graphene originates from the lifting of graphene from the SiO 2 surface toward the well-ordered and rigid alkane self-assembled layers. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. STS-57 Endeavour, OV-105, framed by Florida vegetation, lifts off from KSC LC

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1993-06-21

    STS057-S-055 (21 June 1993) --- Framed by a variety of flora types, the Space Shuttle Endeavour lifts off Launch Pad 39B to begin the STS-57 mission. Launch occurred at 9:07:22 a.m. (EDT), June 21, 1993. The mission represents the first flight of the commercially developed SPACEHAB laboratory module and also will feature a retrieval of the European Retrievable Carrier (EURECA). Onboard for Endeavour's fourth flight are a crew of six - Ronald J. Grabe, mission commander; Brian Duffy, pilot; G. David Low, payload commander; and Nancy J. Sherlock, Peter J.K. (Jeff) Wisoff and Janice E. Voss, all mission specialists. An earlier launch attempt was scrubbed due to unacceptable weather conditions both at KSC and the overseas contingency landing sites.

  16. Modifications to the NASA SP-8072 Distributed Source Method II for Ares I Lift-off Environment Predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haynes, Jared; Kenny, Jeremy

    2009-01-01

    Lift-off acoustic environments for NASA's Ares I - Crew Launch Vehicle are predicted using the second source distribution methodology described in the NASA SP-8072. Three modifications made to the model include a shorter core length approximation, a core termination procedure upon plume deflection, and a new set of directivity indices measured from static test firings of the Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM). The modified sound pressure level predictions increased more than 5 dB overall, and the peak levels shifted two third-octave bands higher in frequency.

  17. Applying CLIPS to control of molecular beam epitaxy processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rabeau, Arthur A.; Bensaoula, Abdelhak; Jamison, Keith D.; Horton, Charles; Ignatiev, Alex; Glover, John R.

    1990-01-01

    A key element of U.S. industrial competitiveness in the 1990's will be the exploitation of advanced technologies which involve low-volume, high-profit manufacturing. The demands of such manufacture limit participation to a few major entities in the U.S. and elsewhere, and offset the lower manufacturing costs of other countries which have, for example, captured much of the consumer electronics market. One such technology is thin-film epitaxy, a technology which encompasses several techniques such as Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE), Chemical Beam Epitaxy (CBE), and Vapor-Phase Epitaxy (VPE). Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) is a technology for creating a variety of electronic and electro-optical materials. Compared to standard microelectronic production techniques (including gaseous diffusion, ion implantation, and chemical vapor deposition), MBE is much more exact, though much slower. Although newer than the standard technologies, MBE is the technology of choice for fabrication of ultraprecise materials for cutting-edge microelectronic devices and for research into the properties of new materials.

  18. Rapid low-temperature epitaxial growth using a hot-element assisted chemical vapor deposition process

    DOEpatents

    Iwancizko, Eugene; Jones, Kim M.; Crandall, Richard S.; Nelson, Brent P.; Mahan, Archie Harvin

    2001-01-01

    The invention provides a process for depositing an epitaxial layer on a crystalline substrate, comprising the steps of providing a chamber having an element capable of heating, introducing the substrate into the chamber, heating the element at a temperature sufficient to decompose a source gas, passing the source gas in contact with the element; and forming an epitaxial layer on the substrate.

  19. STS-34 Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104, lifts off from KSC LC Pad 39B

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1989-10-18

    STS034-S-025 (18 Oct 1989) --- The STS-34 Space Shuttle Atlantis lifts off from Launch Pad 39-B at 2:53:39:983 p.m. (EDT), marking the beginning of a five-day mission in space. Atlantis carries a crew of five and the spacecraft Galileo, along with a number of other scientific experiments. The Jupiter-bound probe will be deployed from Atlantis some six hours after launch. The journey to the giant planet is expected to take over six years. Crewmembers for the mission are astronauts Donald E. Williams, Michael J. McCulley, Shannon W. Lucid, Franklin R. Chang-Diaz and Ellen S. Baker. The scene was recorded with a 70mm camera.

  20. Optimum data analysis procedures for Titan 4 and Space Shuttle payload acoustic measurements during lift-off

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piersol, Allan G.

    1991-01-01

    Analytical expressions have been derived to describe the mean square error in the estimation of the maximum rms value computed from a step-wise (or running) time average of a nonstationary random signal. These analytical expressions have been applied to the problem of selecting the optimum averaging times that will minimize the total mean square errors in estimates of the maximum sound pressure levels measured inside the Titan IV payload fairing (PLF) and the Space Shuttle payload bay (PLB) during lift-off. Based on evaluations of typical Titan IV and Space Shuttle launch data, it has been determined that the optimum averaging times for computing the maximum levels are (1) T (sub o) = 1.14 sec for the maximum overall level, and T(sub oi) = 4.88 f (sub i) (exp -0.2) sec for the maximum 1/3 octave band levels inside the Titan IV PLF, and (2) T (sub o) = 1.65 sec for the maximum overall level, and T (sub oi) = 7.10 f (sub i) (exp -0.2) sec for the maximum 1/3 octave band levels inside the Space Shuttle PLB, where f (sub i) is the 1/3 octave band center frequency. However, the results for both vehicles indicate that the total rms error in the maximum level estimates will be within 25 percent the minimum error for all averaging times within plus or minus 50 percent of the optimum averaging time, so a precise selection of the exact optimum averaging time is not critical. Based on these results, linear averaging times (T) are recommended for computing the maximum sound pressure level during lift-off.

  1. Samus Counter Lifting Fixture

    SciTech Connect

    Stredde, H.; /Fermilab

    1998-05-27

    A lifting fixture has been designed to handle the Samus counters. These counters are being removed from the D-zero area and will be transported off site for further use at another facility. This fixture is designed specifically for this particular application and will be transferred along with the counters. The future use of these counters may entail installation at a facility without access to a crane and therefore a lift fixture suitable for both crane and/or fork lift usage has been created The counters weigh approximately 3000 lbs. and have threaded rods extended through the counter at the top comersmore » for lifting. When these counters were first handled/installed these rods were used in conjunction with appropriate slings and handled by crane. The rods are secured with nuts tightened against the face of the counter. The rod thread is M16 x 2({approx}.625-inch dia.) and extends 2-inch (on average) from the face of the counter. It is this cantilevered rod that the lift fixture engages with 'C' style plates at the four top comers. The strongback portion of the lift fixture is a steel rectangular tube 8-inch (vertical) x 4-inch x .25-inch wall, 130-inch long. 1.5-inch square bars are welded perpendicular to the long axis of the rectangular tube at the appropriate lift points and the 'C' plates are fastened to these bars with 3/4-10 high strength bolts -grade 8. Two short channel sections are positioned-welded-to the bottom of the rectangular tube on 40 feet centers, which are used as locators for fork lift tines. On the top are lifting eyes for sling/crane usage and are rated at 3500 lbs. safe working load each - vertical lift only.« less

  2. Wind Tunnel Testing of Powered Lift, All-Wing STOL Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Scott W.; Westra, Bryan W.; Lin, John C.; Jones, Gregory S.; Zeune, Cal H.

    2008-01-01

    Short take-off and landing (STOL) systems can offer significant capabilities to warfighters and, for civil operators thriving on maximizing efficiencies they can improve airspace use while containing noise within airport environments. In order to provide data for next generation systems, a wind tunnel test of an all-wing cruise efficient, short take-off and landing (CE STOL) configuration was conducted in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Langley Research Center (LaRC) 14- by 22-foot Subsonic Wind Tunnel. The test s purpose was to mature the aerodynamic aspects of an integrated powered lift system within an advanced mobility configuration capable of CE STOL. The full-span model made use of steady flap blowing and a lifting centerbody to achieve high lift coefficients. The test occurred during April through June of 2007 and included objectives for advancing the state-of-the-art of powered lift testing through gathering force and moment data, on-body pressure data, and off-body flow field measurements during automatically controlled blowing conditions. Data were obtained for variations in model configuration, angles of attack and sideslip, blowing coefficient, and height above ground. The database produced by this effort is being used to advance design techniques and computational tools for developing systems with integrated powered lift technologies.

  3. Process for depositing epitaxial alkaline earth oxide onto a substrate and structures prepared with the process

    DOEpatents

    McKee, Rodney A.; Walker, Frederick J.

    1996-01-01

    A process and structure involving a silicon substrate utilize molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and/or electron beam evaporation methods and an ultra-high vacuum facility to grow a layup of epitaxial alkaline earth oxide films upon the substrate surface. By selecting metal constituents for the oxides and in the appropriate proportions so that the lattice parameter of each oxide grown closely approximates that of the substrate or base layer upon which oxide is grown, lattice strain at the film/film or film/substrate interface of adjacent films is appreciably reduced or relieved. Moreover, by selecting constituents for the oxides so that the lattice parameters of the materials of adjacent oxide films either increase or decrease in size from one parameter to another parameter, a graded layup of films can be grown (with reduced strain levels therebetween) so that the outer film has a lattice parameter which closely approximates that of, and thus accomodates the epitaxial growth of, a pervoskite chosen to be grown upon the outer film.

  4. Universal description of III-V/Si epitaxial growth processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucci, I.; Charbonnier, S.; Pedesseau, L.; Vallet, M.; Cerutti, L.; Rodriguez, J.-B.; Tournié, E.; Bernard, R.; Létoublon, A.; Bertru, N.; Le Corre, A.; Rennesson, S.; Semond, F.; Patriarche, G.; Largeau, L.; Turban, P.; Ponchet, A.; Cornet, C.

    2018-06-01

    Here, we experimentally and theoretically clarify III-V/Si crystal growth processes. Atomically resolved microscopy shows that monodomain three-dimensional islands are observed at the early stages of AlSb, AlN, and GaP epitaxy on Si, independently of misfit. It is also shown that complete III-V/Si wetting cannot be achieved in most III-V/Si systems. Surface/interface contributions to the free-energy variations are found to be prominent over strain relief processes. We finally propose a general and unified description of III-V/Si growth processes, including a description of the formation of antiphase boundaries.

  5. Mars Ascent Vehicle Gross Lift-off Mass Sensitivities for Robotic Mars Sample Return

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dux, Ian J.; Huwaldt, Joseph A.; McKamey, R. Steve; Dankanich, John W.

    2011-01-01

    The Mars ascent vehicle is a critical element of the robotic Mars Sample Return (MSR) mission. The Mars ascent vehicle must be developed to survive a variety of conditions including the trans-Mars journey, descent through the Martian atmosphere and the harsh Martian surface environments while maintaining the ability to deliver its payload to a low Mars orbit. The primary technology challenge of developing the Mars ascent vehicle system is designing for all conditions while ensuring the mass limitations of the entry descent and landing system are not exceeded. The NASA In-Space Propulsion technology project has initiated the development of Mars ascent vehicle technologies with propulsion system performance and launch environments yet to be defined. To support the project s evaluation and development of various technology options the sensitivity of the Mars ascent vehicle gross lift-off mass to engine performance, inert mass, target orbits, and launch conditions has been completed with the results presented herein.

  6. Frequency response improvement of a two-port surface acoustic wave device based on epitaxial AlN thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Junning; Hao, Zhibiao; Luo, Yi; Li, Guoqiang

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents an exploration on improving the frequency response of the symmetrical two-port AlN surface acoustic wave (SAW) device, using epitaxial AlN thin film on (0001) sapphire as the piezoelectric substrate. The devices were fabricated by lift-off processes with Ti/Al composite electrodes as interleaved digital transducers (IDT). The impact of DL and the number of the IDT finger pairs on the frequency response was carefully investigated. The overall properties of the device are found to be greatly improved with DL elongation, indicated by the reduced pass band ripple and increased stop band rejection ratio. The rejection increases by 8.3 dB when DL elongates from 15.5λ to 55.5λ and 4.4 dB further accompanying another 50λ elongation. This is because larger DL repels the stray acoustic energy out of the propagation path and provides a cleaner traveling channel for functional SAW, and at the same time restrains electromagnetic feedthrough. It is also found that proper addition of the IDT finger pairs is beneficial for the device response, indicated by the ripple reduction and the insertion loss drop.

  7. Magnetic Field Enhanced Superconductivity in Epitaxial Thin Film WTe2.

    PubMed

    Asaba, Tomoya; Wang, Yongjie; Li, Gang; Xiang, Ziji; Tinsman, Colin; Chen, Lu; Zhou, Shangnan; Zhao, Songrui; Laleyan, David; Li, Yi; Mi, Zetian; Li, Lu

    2018-04-25

    In conventional superconductors an external magnetic field generally suppresses superconductivity. This results from a simple thermodynamic competition of the superconducting and magnetic free energies. In this study, we report the unconventional features in the superconducting epitaxial thin film tungsten telluride (WTe 2 ). Measuring the electrical transport properties of Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) grown WTe 2 thin films with a high precision rotation stage, we map the upper critical field H c2 at different temperatures T. We observe the superconducting transition temperature T c is enhanced by in-plane magnetic fields. The upper critical field H c2 is observed to establish an unconventional non-monotonic dependence on temperature. We suggest that this unconventional feature is due to the lifting of inversion symmetry, which leads to the enhancement of H c2 in Ising superconductors.

  8. 49 CFR 571.404 - Standard No. 404; Platform lift installations in motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... vehicle, with the vehicle's HVAC system turned off, for a minimum of 20 minutes, after which the engine is... Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 403, Lift Systems for Motor Vehicles (49 CFR 571.403). S4.1.2Lift... Safety Standard No. 403, Lift Systems for Motor Vehicles (49 CFR 571.403). S4.1.3Platform lifts must be...

  9. 49 CFR 571.404 - Standard No. 404; Platform lift installations in motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... vehicle, with the vehicle's HVAC system turned off, for a minimum of 20 minutes, after which the engine is... Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 403, Lift Systems for Motor Vehicles (49 CFR 571.403). S4.1.2Lift... Safety Standard No. 403, Lift Systems for Motor Vehicles (49 CFR 571.403). S4.1.3Platform lifts must be...

  10. 49 CFR 571.404 - Standard No. 404; Platform lift installations in motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... vehicle, with the vehicle's HVAC system turned off, for a minimum of 20 minutes, after which the engine is... Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 403, Lift Systems for Motor Vehicles (49 CFR 571.403). S4.1.2Lift... Safety Standard No. 403, Lift Systems for Motor Vehicles (49 CFR 571.403). S4.1.3Platform lifts must be...

  11. Moments after sunrise, the modified 747 carrier aircraft carrying the Endeavour lifts off from Edwards AFB on the first leg of its ferry flight back to KSC

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-12-10

    Moments after sunrise, the modified Boeing 747 carrier aircraft carrying the Space Shuttle Endeavour lifts off from Edwards Air Force Base on the first leg of its ferry flight back to the Kennedy Space Center on Dec. 10, 2008.

  12. Modeling lift operations with SASmacr Simulation Studio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kar, Leow Soo

    2016-10-01

    Lifts or elevators are an essential part of multistorey buildings which provide vertical transportation for its occupants. In large and high-rise apartment buildings, its occupants are permanent, while in buildings, like hospitals or office blocks, the occupants are temporary or users of the buildings. They come in to work or to visit, and thus, the population of such buildings are much higher than those in residential apartments. It is common these days that large office blocks or hospitals have at least 8 to 10 lifts serving its population. In order to optimize the level of service performance, different transportation schemes are devised to control the lift operations. For example, one lift may be assigned to solely service the even floors and another solely for the odd floors, etc. In this paper, a basic lift system is modelled using SAS Simulation Studio to study the effect of factors such as the number of floors, capacity of the lift car, arrival rate and exit rate of passengers at each floor, peak and off peak periods on the system performance. The simulation is applied to a real lift operation in Sunway College's North Building to validate the model.

  13. The Advanced Composition Explorer spacecraft lifts off from Pad 17A, CCAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    A Boeing Delta II expendable launch vehicle lifts off with NASA's Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) observatory at 10:39 a.m. EDT, on Aug. 25, 1997, from Launch Complex 17A, Cape Canaveral Air Station. This is the second Delta launch under the Boeing name and the first from Cape Canaveral. Launch was scrubbed one day by Air Force range safety personnel because two commercial fishing vessels were within the Delta's launch danger area. The ACE spacecraft will study low-energy particles of solar origin and high-energy galactic particles on its one-million-mile journey. The collecting power of instruments aboard ACE is 10 to 1,000 times greater than anything previously flown to collect similar data by NASA. Study of these energetic particles may contribute to our understanding of the formation and evolution of the solar system. ACE has a two-year minimum mission lifetime and a goal of five years of service. ACE was built for NASA by the Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory and is managed by the Explorer Project Office at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. The lead scientific institution is the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) in Pasadena, Calif.

  14. NASA's modified Boeing 747 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft with the Space Shuttle Endeavour on top lifts off to begin its ferry flight back to the Kennedy Space Center in Florida

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-05-08

    NASA's modified Boeing 747 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft with the Space Shuttle Endeavour on top lifts off from Edwards Air Force Base to begin its ferry flight back to the Kennedy Space Center in Florida.

  15. Vertical III-nitride thin-film power diode

    SciTech Connect

    Wierer, Jr., Jonathan; Fischer, Arthur J.; Allerman, Andrew A.

    2017-03-14

    A vertical III-nitride thin-film power diode can hold off high voltages (kV's) when operated under reverse bias. The III-nitride device layers can be grown on a wider bandgap template layer and growth substrate, which can be removed by laser lift-off of the epitaxial device layers grown thereon.

  16. Design and analysis of lifting tool assemblies to lift different engine block

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawant, Arpana; Deshmukh, Nilaj N.; Chauhan, Santosh; Dabhadkar, Mandar; Deore, Rupali

    2017-07-01

    Engines block are required to be lifted from one place to another while they are being processed. The human effort required for this purpose is more and also the engine block may get damaged if it is not handled properly. There is a need for designing a proper lifting tool which will be able to conveniently lift the engine block and place it at the desired position without any accident and damage to the engine block. In the present study lifting tool assemblies are designed and analyzed in such way that it may lift different categories of engine blocks. The lifting tool assembly consists of lifting plate, lifting ring, cap screws and washers. A parametric model and assembly of Lifting tool is done in 3D modelling software CREO 2.0 and analysis is carried out in ANSYS Workbench 16.0. A test block of weight equivalent to that of an engine block is considered for the purpose of analysis. In the preliminary study, without washer the stresses obtained on the lifting tool were more than the safety margin. In the present design, washers were used with appropriate dimensions which helps to bring down the stresses on the lifting tool within the safety margin. Analysis is carried out to verify that tool design meets the ASME BTH-1 required safety margin.

  17. STS-57 Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105, lifts off from KSC LC Pad 39B

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1993-06-21

    STS057-S-053 (21 June 1993) --- The Space Shuttle Endeavour lifts off Launch Pad 39B as captured on film by an audio-activated camera positioned at the 270-feet level on the Rotating Service Structure (RSS) at Launch Pad 39B. STS-57 launch occurred at 9:07:22 a.m. (EDT), June 21, 1993. The mission represents the first flight of the commercially developed SpaceHab laboratory module and also will feature a retrieval of the European Retrievable Carrier (EURECA). Onboard for Endeavour's fourth flight are a crew of six NASA astronauts; Ronald J. Grabe, mission commander; Brian Duffy, pilot; G. David Low, payload commander; and Nancy J. Sherlock, Peter J. K. (Jeff) Wisoff and Janice E. Voss, all mission specialists. An earlier launch attempt was scrubbed due to unacceptable weather conditions both at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and the overseas contingency landing sites.

  18. Bio-mechanical assessment toward throwing and lifting process of i-LOCA (Innovative Lobster Catcher)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudiarno, A.; Dewi, D. S.; Putri, M. A.

    2018-04-01

    Indonesia is the country rich in marine resource, one of which is lobster. East java, one of Indonesian province, especially in Region of Gresik and Lamogan, has very huge potential of lobster. Current condition shown that lobster catch by the fisherman mostly depend on lucky factor, which the lobster unintentionally trapped in fisherman’s fish net. By using this mechanism, the number of lobster catch cannot be optimum. Previous researches have produced two versions of i-LOCA, Innovative Lobster Catcher, a special tool for catching the lobster. Although produce more lobster catch, second version of i-LOCA still needs to be scrutinized, one of that is bio-mechanical assessment. The second version of i-LOCA still has no tool to ease throwing and lifting it into the sea. This condition cause Musculoskeletal Disorder (MSD) toward the fisherman. This research perform bio-mechanical assessment toward throwing and lifting process in order to suggest improvement for i-LOCA as the third version. Based on body moment calculation, we found that throwing and lifting process of third version of i-LOCA, each was 3 times and 2 times better than second version of i-LOCA. Meanwhile, Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA) score of throwing and lifting process for third version of i-LOCA can be reduced by 5 points compared to second version of i-LOCA.

  19. Epitaxial gallium arsenide wafers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, J. F.; Robinson, L. B.

    1971-01-01

    The preparation of GaAs epitaxial layers by a vapor transport process using AsCl3, Ga and H2 was pursued to provide epitaxial wafers suitable for the fabrication of transferred electron oscillators and amplifiers operating in the subcritical region. Both n-n(+) structures, and n(++)-n-n(+) sandwich structures were grown using n(+) (Si-doped) GaAs substrates. Process variables such as the input AsCl3 concentration, gallium temperature, and substrate temperature and temperature gradient and their effects on properties are presented and discussed.

  20. SiGe epitaxial memory for neuromorphic computing with reproducible high performance based on engineered dislocations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Shinhyun; Tan, Scott H.; Li, Zefan; Kim, Yunjo; Choi, Chanyeol; Chen, Pai-Yu; Yeon, Hanwool; Yu, Shimeng; Kim, Jeehwan

    2018-01-01

    Although several types of architecture combining memory cells and transistors have been used to demonstrate artificial synaptic arrays, they usually present limited scalability and high power consumption. Transistor-free analog switching devices may overcome these limitations, yet the typical switching process they rely on—formation of filaments in an amorphous medium—is not easily controlled and hence hampers the spatial and temporal reproducibility of the performance. Here, we demonstrate analog resistive switching devices that possess desired characteristics for neuromorphic computing networks with minimal performance variations using a single-crystalline SiGe layer epitaxially grown on Si as a switching medium. Such epitaxial random access memories utilize threading dislocations in SiGe to confine metal filaments in a defined, one-dimensional channel. This confinement results in drastically enhanced switching uniformity and long retention/high endurance with a high analog on/off ratio. Simulations using the MNIST handwritten recognition data set prove that epitaxial random access memories can operate with an online learning accuracy of 95.1%.

  1. The Advanced Composition Explorer spacecraft lifts off from Pad 17A, CCAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Photographers and other onlookers watch as a Boeing Delta II expendable launch vehicle lifts off with NASA's Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) observatory at 10:39 a.m. EDT, on Aug. 25, 1997, from Launch Complex 17A, Cape Canaveral Air Station. This is the second Delta launch under the Boeing name and the first from Cape Canaveral. Liftoff had been scheduled for Aug. 24, but was scrubbed one day by Air Force range safety personnel because two commercial fishing vessels were within the Delta's launch danger area. The ACE spacecraft will study low-energy particles of solar origin and high-energy galactic particles on its one-million-mile journey. The collecting power of instruments aboard ACE is 10 to 1,000 times greater than anything previously flown to collect similar data by NASA. Study of these energetic particles may contribute to our understanding of the formation and evolution of the solar system. ACE has a two-year minimum mission lifetime and a goal of five years of service. ACE was built for NASA by the Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory and is managed by the Explorer Project Office at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. The lead scientific institution is the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) in Pasadena, Calif.

  2. Role of thermal processes in dewetting of epitaxial Ag(111) film on Si(111)

    DOE PAGES

    Sanders, Charlotte E.; Zhang, Chendong D.; Kellogg, Gary L.; ...

    2014-08-01

    Epitaxially grown silver (Ag) film on silicon (Si) is an optimal plasmonic device platform, but its technological utility has been limited by its tendency to dewet rapidly under ambient conditions (standard temperature and pressure). The mechanisms driving this dewetting have not heretofore been determined. In our study, scanning probe microscopy and low-energy electron microscopy are used to compare the morphological evolution of epitaxial Ag(111)/Si(111) under ambient conditions with that of similarly prepared films heated under ultra-high vacuum (UHV) conditions. Furthermore, dewetting is seen to be initiated with the formation of pinholes, which might function to relieve strain in the film.more » We find that in the UHV environment, dewetting is determined by thermal processes, and while under ambient conditions, thermal processes are not required. Finally, we conclude that dewetting in ambient conditions is triggered by some chemical process, most likely oxidation.« less

  3. Epitaxial CoSi2 on MOS devices

    DOEpatents

    Lim, Chong Wee; Shin, Chan Soo; Petrov, Ivan Georgiev; Greene, Joseph E.

    2005-01-25

    An Si.sub.x N.sub.y or SiO.sub.x N.sub.y liner is formed on a MOS device. Cobalt is then deposited and reacts to form an epitaxial CoSi.sub.2 layer underneath the liner. The CoSi.sub.2 layer may be formed through a solid phase epitaxy or reactive deposition epitaxy salicide process. In addition to high quality epitaxial CoSi.sub.2 layers, the liner formed during the invention can protect device portions during etching processes used to form device contacts. The liner can act as an etch stop layer to prevent excessive removal of the shallow trench isolation, and protect against excessive loss of the CoSi.sub.2 layer.

  4. Process stability and morphology optimization of very thick 4H-SiC epitaxial layers grown by chloride-based CVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yazdanfar, M.; Stenberg, P.; Booker, I. D.; Ivanov, I. G.; Kordina, O.; Pedersen, H.; Janzén, E.

    2013-10-01

    The development of a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process for very thick silicon carbide (SiC) epitaxial layers suitable for high power devices is demonstrated by epitaxial growth of 200 μm thick, low doped 4H-SiC layers with excellent morphology at growth rates exceeding 100 μm/h. The process development was done in a hot wall CVD reactor without rotation using both SiCl4 and SiH4+HCl precursor approaches to chloride based growth chemistry. A C/Si ratio <1 and an optimized in-situ etch are shown to be the key parameters to achieve 200 μm thick, low doped epitaxial layers with excellent morphology.

  5. NASA's 747 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft with the Space Shuttle Atlantis on top lifts off to begin its ferry flight back to the Kennedy Space Center in Florida

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-07-01

    NASA's modified Boeing 747 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft with the Space Shuttle Atlantis on top lifts off from Edwards Air Force Base to begin its ferry flight back to the Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The cross-country journey will take approximately two days, with stops at several intermediate points for refueling.

  6. Can a new behaviorally oriented training process to improve lifting technique prevent occupationally related back injuries due to lifting?

    PubMed

    Lavender, Steven A; Lorenz, Eric P; Andersson, Gunnar B J

    2007-02-15

    A prospective randomized control trial. To determine the degree to which a new behavior-based lift training program (LiftTrainer; Ascension Technology, Burlington, VT) could reduce the incidence of low back disorder in distribution center jobs that require repetitive lifting. Most studies show programs aimed at training lifting techniques to be ineffective in preventing low back disorders, which may be due to their conceptual rather than behavioral learning approach. A total of 2144 employees in 19 distribution centers were randomized into either the LiftTrainer program or a video control group. In the LiftTrainer program, participants were individually trained in up to 5, 30-minute sessions while instrumented with motion capture sensors to quantify the L5/S1 moments. Twelve months following the initial training, injury data were obtained from company records. Survival analyses (Kaplan-Meier) indicated that there was no difference in injury rates between the 2 training groups. Likewise, there was no difference in the turnover rates. However, those with a low (<30 Nm) average twisting moment at the end of the first session experienced a significantly (P < 0.005) lower rate of low back disorder than controls. While overall the LiftTrainer program was not effective, those with twisting moments below 30 Nm reported fewer injuries, suggesting a shift in focus for "safe" lifting programs.

  7. Epitaxial strain-mediated spin-state transitions: can we switch off magnetism?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rondinelli, James; Spaldin, Nicola

    2008-03-01

    We use first-principles density functional theory calculations to explore spin-state transitions in epitaxially strained LaCoO3. While high-spin to low-spin state transitions in minerals are common in geophysics, where pressures can reach over 200 GPa, we explore whether heteroepitaxial strain can achieve similar transitions with moderate strain in thin films. LaCoO3 is known to undergo a low-spin (S=0, t2g^6eg^0) to intermediate-spin (S=1, t2g^5eg^1) or high-spin (S=2, t2g^4eg^2) state transition with increasing temperature, and thus makes it a promising candidate material for strain-mediated spin transitions. Here we discuss the physics of the low-spin transition and changes in the electronic structure of LaCoO3, most notably, the metal-insulator transition that accompanies the spin-state transitions with epitaxial strain. As thin film growth techniques continue to reach atomic-level precision, we suggest this is another approach for controlling magnetism in complex oxide heterostructures.

  8. Numerical simulations of epitaxial growth process in MOVPE reactor as a tool for design of modern semiconductors for high power electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skibinski, Jakub; Caban, Piotr; Wejrzanowski, Tomasz; Kurzydlowski, Krzysztof J.

    2014-10-01

    In the present study numerical simulations of epitaxial growth of gallium nitride in Metal Organic Vapor Phase Epitaxy reactor AIX-200/4RF-S is addressed. Epitaxial growth means crystal growth that progresses while inheriting the laminar structure and the orientation of substrate crystals. One of the technological problems is to obtain homogeneous growth rate over the main deposit area. Since there are many agents influencing reaction on crystal area such as temperature, pressure, gas flow or reactor geometry, it is difficult to design optimal process. According to the fact that it's impossible to determine experimentally the exact distribution of heat and mass transfer inside the reactor during crystal growth, modeling is the only solution to understand the process precisely. Numerical simulations allow to understand the epitaxial process by calculation of heat and mass transfer distribution during growth of gallium nitride. Including chemical reactions in numerical model allows to calculate the growth rate of the substrate and estimate the optimal process conditions for obtaining the most homogeneous product.

  9. Process for growing epitaxial gallium nitride and composite wafers

    DOEpatents

    Weber, Eicke R.; Subramanya, Sudhir G.; Kim, Yihwan; Kruger, Joachim

    2003-05-13

    A novel growth procedure to grow epitaxial Group III metal nitride thin films on lattice-mismatched substrates is proposed. Demonstrated are the quality improvement of epitaxial GaN layers using a pure metallic Ga buffer layer on c-plane sapphire substrate. X-ray rocking curve results indicate that the layers had excellent structural properties. The electron Hall mobility increases to an outstandingly high value of .mu.>400 cm.sup.2 /Vs for an electron background concentration of 4.times.10.sup.17 cm.sup.-3.

  10. Progress in high-lift aerodynamic calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Stuart E.

    1993-01-01

    The current work presents progress in the effort to numerically simulate the flow over high-lift aerodynamic components, namely, multi-element airfoils and wings in either a take-off or a landing configuration. The computational approach utilizes an incompressible flow solver and an overlaid chimera grid approach. A detailed grid resolution study is presented for flow over a three-element airfoil. Two turbulence models, a one-equation Baldwin-Barth model and a two equation k-omega model are compared. Excellent agreement with experiment is obtained for the lift coefficient at all angles of attack, including the prediction of maximum lift when using the two-equation model. Results for two other flap riggings are shown. Three-dimensional results are presented for a wing with a square wing-tip as a validation case. Grid generation and topology is discussed for computing the flow over a T-39 Sabreliner wing with flap deployed and the initial calculations for this geometry are presented.

  11. Process for growing a film epitaxially upon an oxide surface and structures formed with the process

    DOEpatents

    McKee, Rodney Allen; Walker, Frederick Joseph

    1998-01-01

    A process and structure wherein a film comprised of a perovskite or a spinel is built epitaxially upon a surface, such as an alkaline earth oxide surface, involves the epitaxial build up of alternating constituent metal oxide planes of the perovskite or spinel. The first layer of metal oxide built upon the surface includes a metal element which provides a small cation in the crystalline structure of the perovskite or spinel, and the second layer of metal oxide built upon the surface includes a metal element which provides a large cation in the crystalline structure of the perovskite or spinel. The layering sequence involved in the film build up reduces problems which would otherwise result from the interfacial electrostatics at the first atomic layers, and these oxides can be stabilized as commensurate thin films at a unit cell thickness or grown with high crystal quality to thicknesses of 0.5-0.7 .mu.m for optical device applications.

  12. Process for growing a film epitaxially upon an oxide surface and structures formed with the process

    DOEpatents

    McKee, Rodney A.; Walker, Frederick J.

    1995-01-01

    A process and structure wherein a film comprised of a perovskite or a spinel is built epitaxially upon a surface, such as an alkaline earth oxide surface, involves the epitaxial build up of alternating constituent metal oxide planes of the perovskite or spinel. The first layer of metal oxide built upon the surface includes a metal element which provides a small cation in the crystalline structure of the perovskite or spinel, and the second layer of metal oxide built upon the surface includes a metal element which provides a large cation in the crystalline structure of the perovskite or spinel. The layering sequence involved in the film build up reduces problems which would otherwise result from the interfacial electrostatics at the first atomic layers, and these oxides can be stabilized as commensurate thin films at a unit cell thickness or grown with high crystal quality to thicknesses of 0.5-0.7 .mu.m for optical device applications.

  13. Hydride vapor phase epitaxy of high structural perfection thick AlN layers on off-axis 6H-SiC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volkova, Anna; Ivantsov, Vladimir; Leung, Larry

    2011-01-01

    The employment of more than 10 μm thick AlN epilayers on SiC substrates for AlGaN/GaN high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs) substantially raises their performance in high-power energy-efficient amplifiers for 4G wireless mobile stations. In this paper, structural properties and surface morphology of thick AlN epilayers deposited by hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) on off-axis conductive 6H-SiC substrates are reported. The epilayers were examined in detail by high-resolution X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), Nomarski differential interference contrast (DIC), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and selective wet chemical etching. At optimal substrate preparation and growth conditions, a full width at half-maximum (FWHM) of the XRD rocking curve (RC) for the symmetric (00.2) reflex was very close to that of the substrate (less than 40 arcsec) suggesting low screw dislocation density in the epilayer (˜10 6 cm -2) and small in-plane tilt misorientation. Reciprocal space mapping around asymmetric reflexes and measured lattice parameters indicated a fully relaxed state of the epilayers. The unit-cell-high stepped areas of the epilayers with 0.5 nm root mean square (RMS) roughness over 1×1 μm 2 scan were alternated with step-bunching instabilities up to 350 nm in height. Low warp of the substrates makes them suitable for precise epitaxy of HEMT structures.

  14. NANOELECTRONICS. Epitaxial growth of a monolayer WSe2-MoS2 lateral p-n junction with an atomically sharp interface.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming-Yang; Shi, Yumeng; Cheng, Chia-Chin; Lu, Li-Syuan; Lin, Yung-Chang; Tang, Hao-Lin; Tsai, Meng-Lin; Chu, Chih-Wei; Wei, Kung-Hwa; He, Jr-Hau; Chang, Wen-Hao; Suenaga, Kazu; Li, Lain-Jong

    2015-07-31

    Two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) such as molybdenum sulfide MoS2 and tungsten sulfide WSe2 have potential applications in electronics because they exhibit high on-off current ratios and distinctive electro-optical properties. Spatially connected TMDC lateral heterojunctions are key components for constructing monolayer p-n rectifying diodes, light-emitting diodes, photovoltaic devices, and bipolar junction transistors. However, such structures are not readily prepared via the layer-stacking techniques, and direct growth favors the thermodynamically preferred TMDC alloys. We report the two-step epitaxial growth of lateral WSe2-MoS2 heterojunction, where the edge of WSe2 induces the epitaxial MoS2 growth despite a large lattice mismatch. The epitaxial growth process offers a controllable method to obtain lateral heterojunction with an atomically sharp interface. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  15. Three-Dimensional Effects on Multi-Element High Lift Computations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rumsey, Christopher L.; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Watson, Ralph D.

    2002-01-01

    In an effort to discover the causes for disagreement between previous 2-D computations and nominally 2-D experiment for flow over the 3-clement McDonnell Douglas 30P-30N airfoil configuration at high lift, a combined experimental/CFD investigation is described. The experiment explores several different side-wall boundary layer control venting patterns, document's venting mass flow rates, and looks at corner surface flow patterns. The experimental angle of attack at maximum lift is found to be sensitive to the side wall venting pattern: a particular pattern increases the angle of attack at maximum lift by at least 2 deg. A significant amount of spanwise pressure variation is present at angles of attack near maximum lift. A CFD study using 3-D structured-grid computations, which includes the modeling of side-wall venting, is employed to investigate 3-D effects of the flow. Side-wall suction strength is found to affect the angle at which maximum lift is predicted. Maximum lift in the CFD is shown to be limited by the growth of all off-body corner flow vortex and consequent increase in spanwise pressure variation and decrease in circulation. The 3-D computations with and without wall venting predict similar trends to experiment at low angles of attack, but either stall too earl or else overpredict lift levels near maximum lift by as much as 5%. Unstructured-grid computations demonstrate that mounting brackets lower die the levels near maximum lift conditions.

  16. Three-Dimensional Effects in Multi-Element High Lift Computations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rumsey, Christopher L.; LeeReusch, Elizabeth M.; Watson, Ralph D.

    2003-01-01

    In an effort to discover the causes for disagreement between previous two-dimensional (2-D) computations and nominally 2-D experiment for flow over the three-element McDonnell Douglas 30P-30N airfoil configuration at high lift, a combined experimental/CFD investigation is described. The experiment explores several different side-wall boundary layer control venting patterns, documents venting mass flow rates, and looks at corner surface flow patterns. The experimental angle of attack at maximum lift is found to be sensitive to the side-wall venting pattern: a particular pattern increases the angle of attack at maximum lift by at least 2 deg. A significant amount of spanwise pressure variation is present at angles of attack near maximum lift. A CFD study using three-dimensional (3-D) structured-grid computations, which includes the modeling of side-wall venting, is employed to investigate 3-D effects on the flow. Side-wall suction strength is found to affect the angle at which maximum lift is predicted. Maximum lift in the CFD is shown to be limited by the growth of an off-body corner flow vortex and consequent increase in spanwise pressure variation and decrease in circulation. The 3-D computations with and without wall venting predict similar trends to experiment at low angles of attack, but either stall too early or else overpredict lift levels near maximum lift by as much as 5%. Unstructured-grid computations demonstrate that mounting brackets lower the lift levels near maximum lift conditions.

  17. Epitaxial thin films

    DOEpatents

    Hunt, Andrew Tye; Deshpande, Girish; Lin, Wen-Yi; Jan, Tzyy-Jiuan

    2006-04-25

    Epitatial thin films for use as buffer layers for high temperature superconductors, electrolytes in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), gas separation membranes or dielectric material in electronic devices, are disclosed. By using CCVD, CACVD or any other suitable deposition process, epitaxial films having pore-free, ideal grain boundaries, and dense structure can be formed. Several different types of materials are disclosed for use as buffer layers in high temperature superconductors. In addition, the use of epitaxial thin films for electrolytes and electrode formation in SOFCs results in densification for pore-free and ideal gain boundary/interface microstructure. Gas separation membranes for the production of oxygen and hydrogen are also disclosed. These semipermeable membranes are formed by high-quality, dense, gas-tight, pinhole free sub-micro scale layers of mixed-conducting oxides on porous ceramic substrates. Epitaxial thin films as dielectric material in capacitors are also taught herein. Capacitors are utilized according to their capacitance values which are dependent on their physical structure and dielectric permittivity. The epitaxial thin films of the current invention form low-loss dielectric layers with extremely high permittivity. This high permittivity allows for the formation of capacitors that can have their capacitance adjusted by applying a DC bias between their electrodes.

  18. Summary of Lift and Lift/Cruise Fan Powered Lift Concept Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Woodrow L.

    1993-01-01

    A summary is presented of some of the lift and lift/cruise fan technology including fan performance, fan stall, ground effects, ingestion and thrust loss, design tradeoffs and integration, control effectiveness and several other areas related to vertical short takeoff and landing (V/STOL) aircraft conceptual design. The various subjects addressed, while not necessarily pertinent to specific short takeoff/vertical landing (STOVL) supersonic designs being considered, are of interest to the general field of lift and lift/cruise fan aircraft designs and may be of importance in the future. The various wind tunnel and static tests reviewed are: (1) the Doak VZ-4 ducted fan, (2) the 0.57 scale model of the Bell X-22 ducted fan aircraft, (3) the Avrocar, (4) the General Electric lift/cruise fan, (5) the vertical short takeoff and landing (V/STOL) lift engine configurations related to ingestion and consequent thrust loss, (6) the XV-5 and other fan-in-wing stall consideration, (7) hybrid configurations such as lift fan and lift/cruise fan or engines, and (8) the various conceptual design studies by air-frame contractors. Other design integration problems related to small and large V/STOL transport aircraft are summarized including lessons learned during more recent conceptual design studies related to a small executive V/STOL transport aircraft.

  19. Modelling of turbulent lifted jet flames using flamelets: a priori assessment and a posteriori validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruan, Shaohong; Swaminathan, Nedunchezhian; Darbyshire, Oliver

    2014-03-01

    This study focuses on the modelling of turbulent lifted jet flames using flamelets and a presumed Probability Density Function (PDF) approach with interest in both flame lift-off height and flame brush structure. First, flamelet models used to capture contributions from premixed and non-premixed modes of the partially premixed combustion in the lifted jet flame are assessed using a Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) data for a turbulent lifted hydrogen jet flame. The joint PDFs of mixture fraction Z and progress variable c, including their statistical correlation, are obtained using a copula method, which is also validated using the DNS data. The statistically independent PDFs are found to be generally inadequate to represent the joint PDFs from the DNS data. The effects of Z-c correlation and the contribution from the non-premixed combustion mode on the flame lift-off height are studied systematically by including one effect at a time in the simulations used for a posteriori validation. A simple model including the effects of chemical kinetics and scalar dissipation rate is suggested and used for non-premixed combustion contributions. The results clearly show that both Z-c correlation and non-premixed combustion effects are required in the premixed flamelets approach to get good agreement with the measured flame lift-off heights as a function of jet velocity. The flame brush structure reported in earlier experimental studies is also captured reasonably well for various axial positions. It seems that flame stabilisation is influenced by both premixed and non-premixed combustion modes, and their mutual influences.

  20. Big-Data RHEED analysis for understanding epitaxial film growth processes

    SciTech Connect

    Vasudevan, Rama K; Tselev, Alexander; Baddorf, Arthur P

    Reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED) has by now become a standard tool for in-situ monitoring of film growth by pulsed laser deposition and molecular beam epitaxy. Yet despite the widespread adoption and wealth of information in RHEED image, most applications are limited to observing intensity oscillations of the specular spot, and much additional information on growth is discarded. With ease of data acquisition and increased computation speeds, statistical methods to rapidly mine the dataset are now feasible. Here, we develop such an approach to the analysis of the fundamental growth processes through multivariate statistical analysis of RHEED image sequence.more » This approach is illustrated for growth of LaxCa1-xMnO3 films grown on etched (001) SrTiO3 substrates, but is universal. The multivariate methods including principal component analysis and k-means clustering provide insight into the relevant behaviors, the timing and nature of a disordered to ordered growth change, and highlight statistically significant patterns. Fourier analysis yields the harmonic components of the signal and allows separation of the relevant components and baselines, isolating the assymetric nature of the step density function and the transmission spots from the imperfect layer-by-layer (LBL) growth. These studies show the promise of big data approaches to obtaining more insight into film properties during and after epitaxial film growth. Furthermore, these studies open the pathway to use forward prediction methods to potentially allow significantly more control over growth process and hence final film quality.« less

  1. Overview of Fundamental High-Lift Research for Transport Aircraft at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leavitt, L. D.; Washburn, A. E.; Wahls, R. A.

    2007-01-01

    NASA has had a long history in fundamental and applied high lift research. Current programs provide a focus on the validation of technologies and tools that will enable extremely short take off and landing coupled with efficient cruise performance, simple flaps with flow control for improved effectiveness, circulation control wing concepts, some exploration into new aircraft concepts, and partnership with Air Force Research Lab in mobility. Transport high-lift development testing will shift more toward mid and high Rn facilities at least until the question: "How much Rn is required" is answered. This viewgraph presentation provides an overview of High-Lift research at NASA.

  2. In situ spectroscopic ellipsometry study of low-temperature epitaxial silicon growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halagačka, L.; Foldyna, M.; Leal, R.; Roca i Cabarrocas, P.

    2018-07-01

    Low-temperature growth of doped epitaxial silicon layers is a promising way to reduce the cost of p-n junction formation in c-Si solar cells. In this work, we study process of highly doped epitaxial silicon layer growth using in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry. The film was deposited by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) on a crystalline silicon substrate at a low substrate temperature of 200 °C. In the deposition process, SiF4 was used as a precursor, B2H6 as doping gas, and a hydrogen/argon mixture as carrier gas. A spectroscopic ellipsometer with a wide spectral range was used for in situ spectroscopic measurements. Since the temperature during process is 200 °C, the optical functions of silicon differ from these at room temperature and have to be adjusted. Thickness of the epitaxial silicon layer was fitted on in situ ellipsometric data. As a result we were able to determine the dynamics of epitaxial layer growth, namely initial layer formation time and epitaxial growth rate. This study opens new perspectives in understanding and monitoring the epitaxial silicon deposition processes as the model fitting can be applied directly during the growth.

  3. Powder free PECVD epitaxial silicon by plasma pulsing or increasing the growth temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wanghua; Maurice, Jean-Luc; Vanel, Jean-Charles; Cabarrocas, Pere Roca i.

    2018-06-01

    Crystalline silicon thin films are promising candidates for low cost and flexible photovoltaics. Among various synthesis techniques, epitaxial growth via low temperature plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition is an interesting choice because of two low temperature related benefits: low thermal budget and better doping profile control. However, increasing the growth rate is a tricky issue because the agglomeration of clusters required for epitaxy leads to powder formation in the plasma. In this work, we have measured precisely the time evolution of the self-bias voltage in silane/hydrogen plasmas at millisecond time scale, for different values of the direct-current bias voltage applied to the radio frequency (RF) electrode and growth temperatures. We demonstrate that the decisive factor to increase the epitaxial growth rate, i.e. the inhibition of the agglomeration of plasma-born clusters, can be obtained by decreasing the RF OFF time or increasing the growth temperature. The influence of these two parameters on the growth rate and epitaxial film quality is also presented.

  4. Seismic analysis of the frame structure reformed by cutting off column and jacking based on stiffness ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, J. K.; Xu, X. S.

    2017-11-01

    The cutting off column and jacking technology is a method for increasing story height, which has been widely used and paid much attention in engineering. The stiffness will be changed after the process of cutting off column and jacking, which directly affects the overall seismic performance. It is usually necessary to take seismic strengthening measures to enhance the stiffness. A five story frame structure jacking project in Jinan High-tech Zone was taken as an example, and three finite element models were established which contains the frame model before lifting, after lifting and after strengthening. Based on the stiffness, the dynamic time-history analysis was carried out to research its seismic performance under the EL-Centro seismic wave, the Taft seismic wave and the Tianjin artificial seismic wave. The research can provide some guidance for the design and construction of the entire jack lifting structure.

  5. Propulsive-lift concepts for improved low-speed performance of supersonic cruise arrow-wing configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coe, P. L., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Low-aspect-ratio highly swept arrow-wing supersonic aircraft possess high levels of aerodynamic efficiency at supersonic cruising speeds, however, their inherently poor low-speed lift characteristics require design constraints that compromise supersonic performance. The data discussed in this paper were obtained in wind tunnel tests with supersonic crusing configurations, in which propulsive-lift concepts were used to improve low-speed performance. The data show that the increased low-speed lift provided by propulsive-lift permits reduction of both wing size and installed thrust. This yields a batter engine/airframe match for improved supersonic cruise efficiency and range, while still providing acceptable take-off field lengths.

  6. Interfacing epitaxial oxides to gallium nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Losego, Mark Daniel

    solutions. By controlling the composition of these alloys, the oxide's lattice parameter can be engineered to match GaN and reduce interfacial state density. Compositional control is a universal challenge to oxide MBE, and the MgO-CaO system (MCO) is further complicated by magnesium's high volatility and the lack of a thermodynamically stable phase. Through a detailed investigation of MgO's deposition rate and subsequent impact on MCO composition, the process space for achieving lattice-matched compositions to GaN are fully mapped. Lattice-matched compositions are demonstrated to have the narrowest off-axis rocking curve widths ever reported for an epitaxial oxide deposited directly on GaN (0.7° in φ-circle for 200 reflection). Epitaxial deposition of the ferroelectric (Ba,Sr)TiO3 by hot RF sputtering on GaN surfaces is also demonstrated. Simple MOS capacitors are fabricated from epitaxial rocksalt oxides and (Ba,Sr)TiO3 layers deposited on n-GaN substrates. Current-voltage measurements reveal that BST epilayers have 5 orders of magnitude higher current leakage than rocksalt epilayers. This higher leakage is attributed to the smaller band offset expected at this interface; modeling confirms that electronic transport occurs by Schottky emission. In contrast, current transport across the rocksalt oxide/GaN interface occurs by Frenkel-Poole emission and can be reduced with pre-deposition surface treatments. Finally, through this work, it is realized that the integration of oxides with III-nitrides requires an appreciation of many different fields of research including materials science, surface science, and electrical engineering. By recognizing the importance that each of these fields play in designing oxide/III-nitride interfaces, this thesis has the opportunity to explore other related phenomena including accessing metastable phases through MBE (ytterbium monoxide), spinodal decomposition in metastable alloys (MCO), how polar surfaces grown by MBE compensate their bound

  7. An experimental investigation of the flow physics of high-lift systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Flint O.; Nelson, R. C.

    1995-01-01

    This progress report, a series of viewgraphs, outlines experiments on the flow physics of confluent boundary layers for high lift systems. The design objective is to design high lift systems with improved C(sub Lmax) for landing approach and improved take-off L/D and simultaneously reduce acquisition and maintenance costs. In effect, achieve improved performance with simpler designs. The research objectives include: establish the role of confluent boundary layer flow physics in high-lift production; contrast confluent boundary layer structure for optimum and non-optimum C(sub L) cases; formation of a high quality, detailed archival data base for CFD/modeling; and examination of the role of relaminarization and streamline curvature.

  8. Theoretical modeling of CHF for near-saturated pool boiling and flow boiling from short heaters using the interfacial lift-off criterion

    SciTech Connect

    Mudawar, I.; Galloway, J.E.; Gersey, C.O.

    Pool boiling and flow boiling were examined for near-saturated bulk conditions in order to determine the critical heat flux (CHF) trigger mechanism for each. Photographic studies of the wall region revealed features common to both situations. At fluxes below CHF, the vapor coalesces into a wavy layer which permits wetting only in wetting fronts, the portions of the liquid-vapor interface which contact the wall as a result of the interfacial waviness. Close examination of the interfacial features revealed the waves are generated from the lower edge of the heater in pool boiling and the heater`s upstream region in flow boiling.more » Wavelengths follow predictions based upon the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability criterion. Critical heat flux in both cases occurs when the pressure force exerted upon the interface due to interfacial curvature, which tends to preserve interfacial contact with the wall prior to CHF, is overcome by the momentum of vapor at the site of the first wetting front, causing the interface to lift away from the wall. It is shown this interfacial lift-off criterion facilitates accurate theoretical modeling of CHF in pool boiling and in flow boiling in both straight and curved channels.« less

  9. Additive Manufacturing of Single-Crystal Superalloy CMSX-4 Through Scanning Laser Epitaxy: Computational Modeling, Experimental Process Development, and Process Parameter Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basak, Amrita; Acharya, Ranadip; Das, Suman

    2016-08-01

    This paper focuses on additive manufacturing (AM) of single-crystal (SX) nickel-based superalloy CMSX-4 through scanning laser epitaxy (SLE). SLE, a powder bed fusion-based AM process was explored for the purpose of producing crack-free, dense deposits of CMSX-4 on top of similar chemistry investment-cast substrates. Optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) investigations revealed the presence of dendritic microstructures that consisted of fine γ' precipitates within the γ matrix in the deposit region. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD)-based process modeling, statistical design of experiments (DoE), and microstructural characterization techniques were combined to produce metallurgically bonded single-crystal deposits of more than 500 μm height in a single pass along the entire length of the substrate. A customized quantitative metallography based image analysis technique was employed for automatic extraction of various deposit quality metrics from the digital cross-sectional micrographs. The processing parameters were varied, and optimal processing windows were identified to obtain good quality deposits. The results reported here represent one of the few successes obtained in producing single-crystal epitaxial deposits through a powder bed fusion-based metal AM process and thus demonstrate the potential of SLE to repair and manufacture single-crystal hot section components of gas turbine systems from nickel-based superalloy powders.

  10. Epitaxial CuInSe2 thin films grown by molecular beam epitaxy and migration enhanced epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abderrafi, K.; Ribeiro-Andrade, R.; Nicoara, N.; Cerqueira, M. F.; Gonzalez Debs, M.; Limborço, H.; Salomé, P. M. P.; Gonzalez, J. C.; Briones, F.; Garcia, J. M.; Sadewasser, S.

    2017-10-01

    While CuInSe2 chalcopyrite materials are mainly used in their polycrystalline form to prepare thin film solar cells, epitaxial layers have been used for the characterization of defects. Typically, epitaxial layers are grown by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy or molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Here we present epitaxial layers grown by migration enhanced epitaxy (MEE) and compare the materials quality to MBE grown layers. CuInSe2 layers were grown on GaAs (0 0 1) substrates by co-evaporation of Cu, In, and Se using substrate temperatures of 450 °C, 530 °C, and 620 °C. The layers were characterized by high resolution X-ray diffraction (HR-XRD), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), Raman spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy (AFM). HR-XRD and HR-TEM show a better crystalline quality of the MEE grown layers, and Raman scattering measurements confirm single phase CuInSe2. AFM shows the previously observed faceting of the (0 0 1) surface into {1 1 2} facets with trenches formed along the [1 1 0] direction. The surface of MEE-grown samples appears smoother compared to MBE-grown samples, a similar trend is observed with increasing growth temperature.

  11. The effect of dust lifting process on the electrical properties of the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, Francesca; Molinaro, Roberto; Ionut Popa, Ciprian; Molfese, Cesare; Cozzolino, Fabio; Marty, Laurent; Taj-Eddine, Kamal; Di Achille, Gaetano; Silvestro, Simone; Ori, Gian Gabriele

    2015-04-01

    Airborne dust and aerosol particles affect climate by absorbing and scattering thermal and solar radiation and acting as condensation nuclei for the formation of clouds. So, they strongly influence the atmospheric thermal structure, balance and circulation. On Earth and Mars, this 'climate forcing' is one of the most uncertain processes in climate change predictions. Wind-driven blowing of sand and dust is also responsible for shaping planetary surfaces through the formation of sand dunes and ripples, the erosion of rocks, and the creation and transport of soil particles. These processes are not confined to Earth, but occur also on Mars, Venus and Titan. It is clear that the knowledge of the atmospheric dust properties and the mechanisms of dust settling and raising into the atmosphere are important to understand planetary climate and surface evolution. On Mars the physical processes responsible for dust injection into the atmosphere are still poorly understood, but they likely involve saltation as on Earth. Saltation is a process where large sand grains are forced by the wind to move in ballistic trajectories on the soil surface. During these hops they hit dust particles, that are well bound to the soil due to interparticle cohesive forces, thus transferring to them the momentum necessary to be entrained into the atmosphere. Recently, it has been shown that this process is also responsible to generate strong electric fields in the atmosphere up to 100-150 kV/m. This enhanced electric force acts as a feedback in the dust lifting process, lowering the threshold of the wind friction velocity u* necessary to initiate sand saltation. It is an important aspect of dust lifting process that need to be well characterized and modeled. Even if literature reports several measurements of E-fields in dust devils events, very few reports deal with atmospheric electric properties during dust storms or isolated gusts. We present here preliminary results of an intense field test

  12. Impact of substrate off-angle on the m-plane GaN Schottky diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Hisashi; Chonan, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Tokio; Shimizu, Mitsuaki

    2018-04-01

    We investigated the effects of the substrate off-angle on the m-plane GaN Schottky diodes. GaN epitaxial layers were grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition on m-plane GaN substrates having an off-angle of 0.1, 1.1, 1.7, or 5.1° toward [000\\bar{1}]. The surface of the GaN epitaxial layers on the 0.1°-off substrate consisted of pyramidal hillocks and contained oxygen (>1017 cm-3) and carbon (>1016 cm-3) impurities. The residual carbon and oxygen impurities decreased to <1016 cm-3 when the off-angle of the m-plane GaN substrate was increased. The leakage current of the 0.1°-off m-plane GaN Schottky diodes originated from the +c facet of the pyramidal hillocks. The leakage current was efficiently suppressed through the use of an off-angle that was observed to be greater than 1.1°. The off-angle of the m-plane GaN substrate is critical in obtaining high-performance Schottky diodes.

  13. Continuous-wave lasing in colloidal quantum dot solids enabled by facet-selective epitaxy.

    PubMed

    Fan, Fengjia; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Sabatini, Randy P; Bicanic, Kristopher T; Adachi, Michael M; McBride, James R; Reid, Kemar R; Park, Young-Shin; Li, Xiyan; Jain, Ankit; Quintero-Bermudez, Rafael; Saravanapavanantham, Mayuran; Liu, Min; Korkusinski, Marek; Hawrylak, Pawel; Klimov, Victor I; Rosenthal, Sandra J; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Sargent, Edward H

    2017-04-06

    Colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) feature a low degeneracy of electronic states at the band edges compared with the corresponding bulk material, as well as a narrow emission linewidth. Unfortunately for potential laser applications, this degeneracy is incompletely lifted in the valence band, spreading the hole population among several states at room temperature. This leads to increased optical gain thresholds, demanding high photoexcitation levels to achieve population inversion (more electrons in excited states than in ground states-the condition for optical gain). This, in turn, increases Auger recombination losses, limiting the gain lifetime to sub-nanoseconds and preventing steady laser action. State degeneracy also broadens the photoluminescence linewidth at the single-particle level. Here we demonstrate a way to decrease the band-edge degeneracy and single-dot photoluminescence linewidth in CQDs by means of uniform biaxial strain. We have developed a synthetic strategy that we term facet-selective epitaxy: we first switch off, and then switch on, shell growth on the (0001) facet of wurtzite CdSe cores, producing asymmetric compressive shells that create built-in biaxial strain, while still maintaining excellent surface passivation (preventing defect formation, which otherwise would cause non-radiative recombination losses). Our synthesis spreads the excitonic fine structure uniformly and sufficiently broadly that it prevents valence-band-edge states from being thermally depopulated. We thereby reduce the optical gain threshold and demonstrate continuous-wave lasing from CQD solids, expanding the library of solution-processed materials that may be capable of continuous-wave lasing. The individual CQDs exhibit an ultra-narrow single-dot linewidth, and we successfully propagate this into the ensemble of CQDs.

  14. Space Shuttle Systems Engineering Processes for Liftoff Debris Risk Mitigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, Michael; Riley, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the systems engineering process designed to reduce the risk from debris during Space Shuttle Launching. This process begins the day of launch from the tanking to the vehicle tower clearance. Other debris risks (i.e., Ascent, and micrometeoroid orbital debit) are mentioned) but are not the subject of this presentation. The Liftoff debris systems engineering process and an example of how it works are reviewed (i.e.,STS-119 revealed a bolt liberation trend on the Fixed Service Structure (FSS) 275 level elevator room). The process includes preparation of a Certification of Flight Readiness (CoFR) that includes (1) Lift-off debris from previous mission dispositioned, (2) Flight acceptance rationale has been provided for Lift-off debris sources/causes (3) Lift-off debris mission support documentation, processes and tools are in place for the up-coming mission. The process includes a liftoff debris data collection that occurs after each launch. This includes a post launch walkdown, that records each liftoff debris, and the entry of the debris into a database, it also includes a review of the imagery from the launch, and a review of the instrumentation data. There is also a review of the debris transport analysis process, that includes temporal and spatial framework and a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis. which incorporates a debris transport analyses (DTA), debris materials and impact tests, and impact analyses.

  15. Lift Optimization Study of a Multi-Element Three-Segment Variable Camber Airfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaul, Upender K.; Nguyen, Nhan T.

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports a detailed computational high-lift study of the Variable Camber Continuous Trailing Edge Flap (VCCTEF) system carried out to explore the best VCCTEF designs, in conjunction with a leading edge flap called the Variable Camber Krueger (VCK), for take-off and landing. For this purpose, a three-segment variable camber airfoil employed as a performance adaptive aeroelastic wing shaping control effector for a NASA Generic Transport Model (GTM) in landing and take-off configurations is considered. The objective of the study is to define optimal high-lift VCCTEF settings and VCK settings/configurations. A total of 224 combinations of VCK settings/configurations and VCCTEF settings are considered for the inboard GTM wing, where the VCCTEFs are configured as a Fowler flap that forms a slot between the VCCTEF and the main wing. For the VCK settings of deflection angles of 55deg, 60deg and 65deg, 18, 19 and 19 vck configurations, respectively, were considered for each of the 4 different VCCTEF deflection settings. Different vck configurations were defined by varying the horizontal and vertical distance of the vck from the main wing. A computational investigation using a Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) solver was carried out to complement a wind-tunnel experimental study covering three of these configurations with the goal of identifying the most optimal high-lift configurations. Four most optimal high-lift configurations, corresponding to each of the VCK deflection settings, have been identified out of all the different configurations considered in this study yielding the highest lift performance.

  16. Computational Analysis of Powered Lift Augmentation for the LEAPTech Distributed Electric Propulsion Wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deere, Karen A.; Viken, Sally A.; Carter, Melissa B.; Viken, Jeffrey K.; Wiese, Michael R.; Farr, Norma L.

    2017-01-01

    A computational study of a distributed electric propulsion wing with a 40deg flap deflection has been completed using FUN3D. Two lift-augmentation power conditions were compared with the power-off configuration on the high-lift wing (40deg flap) at a 73 mph freestream flow and for a range of angles of attack from -5 degrees to 14 degrees. The computational study also included investigating the benefit of corotating versus counter-rotating propeller spin direction to powered-lift performance. The results indicate a large benefit in lift coefficient, over the entire range of angle of attack studied, by using corotating propellers that all spin counter to the wingtip vortex. For the landing condition, 73 mph, the unpowered 40deg flap configuration achieved a maximum lift coefficient of 2.3. With high-lift blowing the maximum lift coefficient increased to 5.61. Therefore, the lift augmentation is a factor of 2.4. Taking advantage of the fullspan lift augmentation at similar performance means that a wing powered with the distributed electric propulsion system requires only 42 percent of the wing area of the unpowered wing. This technology will allow wings to be 'cruise optimized', meaning that they will be able to fly closer to maximum lift over drag conditions at the design cruise speed of the aircraft.

  17. Polytype Stability and Microstructural Characterization of Silicon Carbide Epitaxial Films Grown on [ {11}overline{{2}} {0} ]- and [0001]-Oriented Silicon Carbide Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishop, S. M.; Reynolds, C. L.; Liliental-Weber, Z.; Uprety, Y.; Zhu, J.; Wang, D.; Park, M.; Molstad, J. C.; Barnhardt, D. E.; Shrivastava, A.; Sudarshan, T. S.; Davis, R. F.

    2007-04-01

    The polytype and surface and defect microstructure of epitaxial layers grown on 4H( {11}overline{{2}} {0} ), 4H(0001) on-axis, 4H(0001) 8° off-axis, and 6H(0001) on-axis substrates have been investigated. High-resolution x-ray diffraction (XRD) revealed the epitaxial layers on 4H( {11}overline{{2}} {0} ) and 4H(0001) 8° off-axis to have the 4H-SiC (silicon carbide) polytype, while the 3C-SiC polytype was identified for epitaxial layers on 4H(0001) and 6H(0001) on-axis substrates. Cathodoluminescence (CL), Raman spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) confirmed these results. The epitaxial surface of 4H( {11}overline{{2}} {0} ) films was specular with a roughness of 0.16-nm root-mean-square (RMS), in contrast to the surfaces of the other epitaxial layer-substrate orientations, which contained curvilinear boundaries, growth pits (˜3 × 104 cm-2), triangular defects >100 μm, and significant step bunching. Molten KOH etching revealed large defect densities within 4H( {11}overline{{2}} {0} ) films that decreased with film thickness to ˜106 cm-2 at 2.5 μm, while cross-sectional TEM studies showed areas free of defects and an indistinguishable film-substrate interface for 4H( {11}overline{{2}} {0} ) epitaxial layers.

  18. Automation and control of off-planet oxygen production processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marner, W. J.; Suitor, J. W.; Schooley, L. S.; Cellier, F. E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper addresses several aspects of the automation and control of off-planet production processes. First, a general approach to process automation and control is discussed from the viewpoint of translating human process control procedures into automated procedures. Second, the control issues for the automation and control of off-planet oxygen processes are discussed. Sensors, instruments, and components are defined and discussed in the context of off-planet applications, and the need for 'smart' components is clearly established.

  19. A hypersonic lift mechanism with decoupled lift and drag surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, YiZhe; Xu, ZhiQi; Li, ShaoGuang; Li, Juan; Bai, ChenYuan; Wu, ZiNiu

    2013-05-01

    In the present study, we propose a novel lift mechanism for which the lifting surface produces only lift. This is achieved by mounting a two-dimensional shock-shock interaction generator below the lifting surface. The shock-shock interaction theory in conjunction with a three dimensional correction and checked with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is used to analyze the lift and drag forces as function of the geometrical parameters and inflow Mach number. Through this study, though limited to only inviscid flow, we conclude that it is possible to obtain a high lift to drag ratio by suitably arranging the shock interaction generator.

  20. Evaluation and verification of epitaxial process sequence for silicon solar-cell production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redfield, D.

    1981-01-01

    To achieve the program goals, 28 minimodules were fabricated and tested, using 600 cells made from three-inch-diameter wafers processed by the sequence chosen for this purpose. Of these 600 cells, half were made from epitaxially grown layers on potentially low-cost substrates. The other half were made from commercial semiconductor-grade (SG), single-crystal silicon wafers that served as controls. Cell processing was normally performed on mixed lots containing significant numbers of each of these two types of wafers. After evaluation of the performance of all cells, they were separated by types for incorporation into modules that were to be tested for electrical performance and response to environmental stress. A simplified flow chart displaying this scheme, for quantities representing half of the planned total to be processed, is presented.

  1. Biomimetic spiroid winglets for lift and drag control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerrero, Joel E.; Maestro, Dario; Bottaro, Alessandro

    2012-01-01

    In aeronautical engineering, drag reduction constitutes a challenge and there is room for improvement and innovative developments. The drag breakdown of a typical transport aircraft shows that the lift-induced drag can amount to as much as 40% of the total drag at cruise conditions and 80-90% of the total drag in take-off configuration. One way of reducing lift-induced drag is by using wingtip devices. By applying biomimetic abstraction of the principle behind a bird's wingtip feathers, we study spiroid wingtips, which look like an extended blended wingtip that bends upward by 360 degrees to form a large rigid ribbon. The numerical investigation of such a wingtip device is described and preliminary indications of its aerodynamic performance are provided.

  2. Normalized lift: an energy interpretation of the lift coefficient simplifies comparisons of the lifting ability of rotating and flapping surfaces.

    PubMed

    Burgers, Phillip; Alexander, David E

    2012-01-01

    For a century, researchers have used the standard lift coefficient C(L) to evaluate the lift, L, generated by fixed wings over an area S against dynamic pressure, ½ρv(2), where v is the effective velocity of the wing. Because the lift coefficient was developed initially for fixed wings in steady flow, its application to other lifting systems requires either simplifying assumptions or complex adjustments as is the case for flapping wings and rotating cylinders.This paper interprets the standard lift coefficient of a fixed wing slightly differently, as the work exerted by the wing on the surrounding flow field (L/ρ·S), compared against the total kinetic energy required for generating said lift, ½v(2). This reinterpreted coefficient, the normalized lift, is derived from the work-energy theorem and compares the lifting capabilities of dissimilar lift systems on a similar energy footing. The normalized lift is the same as the standard lift coefficient for fixed wings, but differs for wings with more complex motions; it also accounts for such complex motions explicitly and without complex modifications or adjustments. We compare the normalized lift with the previously-reported values of lift coefficient for a rotating cylinder in Magnus effect, a bat during hovering and forward flight, and a hovering dipteran.The maximum standard lift coefficient for a fixed wing without flaps in steady flow is around 1.5, yet for a rotating cylinder it may exceed 9.0, a value that implies that a rotating cylinder generates nearly 6 times the maximum lift of a wing. The maximum normalized lift for a rotating cylinder is 1.5. We suggest that the normalized lift can be used to evaluate propellers, rotors, flapping wings of animals and micro air vehicles, and underwater thrust-generating fins in the same way the lift coefficient is currently used to evaluate fixed wings.

  3. Variable Lifting Index (VLI): A New Method for Evaluating Variable Lifting Tasks.

    PubMed

    Waters, Thomas; Occhipinti, Enrico; Colombini, Daniela; Alvarez-Casado, Enrique; Fox, Robert

    2016-08-01

    We seek to develop a new approach for analyzing the physical demands of highly variable lifting tasks through an adaptation of the Revised NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) Lifting Equation (RNLE) into a Variable Lifting Index (VLI). There are many jobs that contain individual lifts that vary from lift to lift due to the task requirements. The NIOSH Lifting Equation is not suitable in its present form to analyze variable lifting tasks. In extending the prior work on the VLI, two procedures are presented to allow users to analyze variable lifting tasks. One approach involves the sampling of lifting tasks performed by a worker over a shift and the calculation of the Frequency Independent Lift Index (FILI) for each sampled lift and the aggregation of the FILI values into six categories. The Composite Lift Index (CLI) equation is used with lifting index (LI) category frequency data to calculate the VLI. The second approach employs a detailed systematic collection of lifting task data from production and/or organizational sources. The data are organized into simplified task parameter categories and further aggregated into six FILI categories, which also use the CLI equation to calculate the VLI. The two procedures will allow practitioners to systematically employ the VLI method to a variety of work situations where highly variable lifting tasks are performed. The scientific basis for the VLI procedure is similar to that for the CLI originally presented by NIOSH; however, the VLI method remains to be validated. The VLI method allows an analyst to assess highly variable manual lifting jobs in which the task characteristics vary from lift to lift during a shift. © 2015, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  4. Lift-fan aircraft: Lessons learned-the pilot's perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerdes, Ronald M.

    1993-01-01

    This paper is written from an engineering test pilot's point of view. Its purpose is to present lift-fan 'lessons learned' from the perspective of first-hand experience accumulated during the period 1962 through 1988 while flight testing vertical/short take-off and landing (V/STOL) experimental aircraft and evaluating piloted engineering simulations of promising V/STOL concepts. Specifically, the scope of the discussions to follow is primarily based upon a critical review of the writer's personal accounts of 30 hours of XV-5A/B and 2 hours of X-14A flight testing as well as a limited simulator evaluation of the Grumman Design 755 lift-fan aircraft. Opinions of other test pilots who flew these aircraft and the aircraft simulator are also included and supplement the writer's comments. Furthermore, the lessons learned are presented from the perspective of the writer's flying experience: 10,000 hours in 100 fixed- and rotary-wing aircraft including 330 hours in 5 experimental V/STOL research aircraft. The paper is organized to present to the reader a clear picture of lift-fan lessons learned from three distinct points of view in order to facilitate application of the lesson principles to future designs. Lessons learned are first discussed with respect to case histories of specific flight and simulator investigations. These principles are then organized and restated with respect to four selected design criteria categories in Appendix I. Lastly, Appendix Il is a discussion of the design of a hypothetical supersonic short take-off vertical landing (STOVL) fighter/attack aircraft.

  5. Epitaxial graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Heer, Walt A.; Berger, Claire; Wu, Xiaosong; First, Phillip N.; Conrad, Edward H.; Li, Xuebin; Li, Tianbo; Sprinkle, Michael; Hass, Joanna; Sadowski, Marcin L.; Potemski, Marek; Martinez, Gérard

    2007-07-01

    Graphene multilayers are grown epitaxially on single crystal silicon carbide. This system is composed of several graphene layers of which the first layer is electron doped due to the built-in electric field and the other layers are essentially undoped. Unlike graphite the charge carriers show Dirac particle properties (i.e. an anomalous Berry's phase, weak anti-localization and square root field dependence of the Landau level energies). Epitaxial graphene shows quasi-ballistic transport and long coherence lengths; properties that may persist above cryogenic temperatures. Paradoxically, in contrast to exfoliated graphene, the quantum Hall effect is not observed in high-mobility epitaxial graphene. It appears that the effect is suppressed due to the absence of localized states in the bulk of the material. Epitaxial graphene can be patterned using standard lithography methods and characterized using a wide array of techniques. These favorable features indicate that interconnected room temperature ballistic devices may be feasible for low-dissipation high-speed nanoelectronics.

  6. Canard-wing lift interference related to maneuvering aircraft at subsonic speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gloss, B. B.; Mckinney, L. W.

    1973-01-01

    An investigation was conducted at Mach numbers of 0.7 and 0.9 to determine the lift interference effect of canard location on wing planforms typical of maneuvering fighter configurations. The canard had an exposed area of 16.0 percent of the wing reference area and was located in the plane of the wing or in a position 18.5 percent of the wing mean geometric chord above the wing plane. In addition, the canard could be located at two longitudinal stations. Two different wing planforms were tested: one with a leading-edge sweep angle of 60 deg and the other with a leading-edge sweep angle of 44 deg. The results indicated that although downwash from the canard reduced the wing lift at angles of attack up to approximately 16 deg, the total lift was substantially greater with the canard on than with the canard off. At angles of attack above 16 deg, the canard delayed the wing stall. Changing canard deflection had essentially no effect on the total lift, since the additional lift generated by the canard deflection was lost on the wing due to an increased downwash at the wing from the canard.

  7. Perspective: Oxide molecular-beam epitaxy rocks!

    SciTech Connect

    Schlom, Darrell G., E-mail: schlom@cornell.edu

    2015-06-01

    Molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE) is the “gold standard” synthesis technique for preparing semiconductor heterostructures with high purity, high mobility, and exquisite control of layer thickness at the atomic-layer level. Its use for the growth of multicomponent oxides got off to a rocky start 30 yr ago, but in the ensuing decades, it has become the definitive method for the preparation of oxide heterostructures too, particularly when it is desired to explore their intrinsic properties. Examples illustrating the unparalleled achievements of oxide MBE are given; these motivate its expanding use for exploring the potentially revolutionary states of matter possessed by oxide systems.

  8. Normalized Lift: An Energy Interpretation of the Lift Coefficient Simplifies Comparisons of the Lifting Ability of Rotating and Flapping Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Burgers, Phillip; Alexander, David E.

    2012-01-01

    For a century, researchers have used the standard lift coefficient CL to evaluate the lift, L, generated by fixed wings over an area S against dynamic pressure, ½ρv 2, where v is the effective velocity of the wing. Because the lift coefficient was developed initially for fixed wings in steady flow, its application to other lifting systems requires either simplifying assumptions or complex adjustments as is the case for flapping wings and rotating cylinders. This paper interprets the standard lift coefficient of a fixed wing slightly differently, as the work exerted by the wing on the surrounding flow field (L/ρ·S), compared against the total kinetic energy required for generating said lift, ½v2. This reinterpreted coefficient, the normalized lift, is derived from the work-energy theorem and compares the lifting capabilities of dissimilar lift systems on a similar energy footing. The normalized lift is the same as the standard lift coefficient for fixed wings, but differs for wings with more complex motions; it also accounts for such complex motions explicitly and without complex modifications or adjustments. We compare the normalized lift with the previously-reported values of lift coefficient for a rotating cylinder in Magnus effect, a bat during hovering and forward flight, and a hovering dipteran. The maximum standard lift coefficient for a fixed wing without flaps in steady flow is around 1.5, yet for a rotating cylinder it may exceed 9.0, a value that implies that a rotating cylinder generates nearly 6 times the maximum lift of a wing. The maximum normalized lift for a rotating cylinder is 1.5. We suggest that the normalized lift can be used to evaluate propellers, rotors, flapping wings of animals and micro air vehicles, and underwater thrust-generating fins in the same way the lift coefficient is currently used to evaluate fixed wings. PMID:22629326

  9. Epitaxial thin film growth in outer space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ignatiev, Alex; Chu, C. W.

    1988-01-01

    A new concept for materials processing in space exploits the ultravacuum component of space for thin-film epitaxial growth. The unique LEO space environment is expected to yield 10-ftorr or better pressures, semiinfinite pumping speeds, and large ultravacuum volume (about 100 cu m) without walls. These space ultravacuum properties promise major improvement in the quality, unique nature, and throughput of epitaxially grown materials, including semiconductors, magnetic materials, and thin-film high-temperature superconductors.

  10. A Lifting Ball Valve for cryogenic fluid applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardin, Joseph M.; Reinicke, Robert H.; Bruneau, Stephen D.

    1993-11-01

    Marotta Scientific Controls, Inc. has designed a Lifting Ball Valve (LBV) capable of both flow modulation and tight shutoff for cryogenic and other applications. The LBV features a thin-walled visor valving element that lifts off the seal with near axial motion before rotating completely out of the flow path. This is accomplished with a simple, robust mechanism that minimizes cost and weight. Conventional spherical rotating seats ar plagued by leakage due to 'scuffing' as the seal and seat slide against one another while opening. Cryogenic valves, which typically utilize plastic seals, are particularly susceptible to this type of damage. The seat in the LBV lifts off the seal without 'scuffing' making it immune to this failure mode. In addition, the LBV lifting mechanism is capable of applying the very high seating loads required to seal at cryogenic temperatures. These features make the LBV ideally suited for cryogenic valve applications. Another major feature of the LBV is the fact that the visor rotates completely out of the flow path. This allows for a smaller, lighter valve for a given flow capacity, especially for line sizes above one inch. The LBV is operated by a highly integrated 'wetted' DC brushless motor. The motor rotor is 'wetted' ion that it is immersed in the fluid. To ensure compatibility, the motor rotor is encased in a thin-walled CRES weldment. The motor stator is outside the fluid containment weldment and therefore is not in direct contact with the fluid. To preclude the potential for external leakage there are no static or dynamic seals or bellows across the pressure boundary. The power required to do the work of operating the valving mechanism is transmitted across the pressure boundary by electromagnetic interaction between the motor rotor and the stator. Commutation of the motor is accomplished using the output of a special 'wetted' resolver. This paper describes the design, operation, and element testing of the LBV.

  11. Comparative Flight and Full-Scale Wind-Tunnel Measurements of the Maximum Lift of an Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silverstein, Abe; Katzoff, S; Hootman, James A

    1938-01-01

    Determinations of the power-off maximum lift of a Fairchild 22 airplane were made in the NACA full-scale wind tunnel and in flight. The results from the two types of test were in satisfactory agreement. It was found that, when the airplane was rotated positively in pitch through the angle of stall at rates of the order of 0.1 degree per second, the maximum lift coefficient was considerably higher than that obtained in the standard tests, in which the forces are measured with the angles of attack fixed. Scale effect on the maximum lift coefficient was also investigated.

  12. A Mission-Adaptive Variable Camber Flap Control System to Optimize High Lift and Cruise Lift-to-Drag Ratios of Future N+3 Transport Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urnes, James, Sr.; Nguyen, Nhan; Ippolito, Corey; Totah, Joseph; Trinh, Khanh; Ting, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Boeing and NASA are conducting a joint study program to design a wing flap system that will provide mission-adaptive lift and drag performance for future transport aircraft having light-weight, flexible wings. This Variable Camber Continuous Trailing Edge Flap (VCCTEF) system offers a lighter-weight lift control system having two performance objectives: (1) an efficient high lift capability for take-off and landing, and (2) reduction in cruise drag through control of the twist shape of the flexible wing. This control system during cruise will command varying flap settings along the span of the wing in order to establish an optimum wing twist for the current gross weight and cruise flight condition, and continue to change the wing twist as the aircraft changes gross weight and cruise conditions for each mission segment. Design weight of the flap control system is being minimized through use of light-weight shape memory alloy (SMA) actuation augmented with electric actuators. The VCCTEF program is developing better lift and drag performance of flexible wing transports with the further benefits of lighter-weight actuation and less drag using the variable camber shape of the flap.

  13. Variable Lifting Index (VLI)

    PubMed Central

    Waters, Thomas; Occhipinti, Enrico; Colombini, Daniela; Alvarez-Casado, Enrique; Fox, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We seek to develop a new approach for analyzing the physical demands of highly variable lifting tasks through an adaptation of the Revised NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) Lifting Equation (RNLE) into a Variable Lifting Index (VLI). Background: There are many jobs that contain individual lifts that vary from lift to lift due to the task requirements. The NIOSH Lifting Equation is not suitable in its present form to analyze variable lifting tasks. Method: In extending the prior work on the VLI, two procedures are presented to allow users to analyze variable lifting tasks. One approach involves the sampling of lifting tasks performed by a worker over a shift and the calculation of the Frequency Independent Lift Index (FILI) for each sampled lift and the aggregation of the FILI values into six categories. The Composite Lift Index (CLI) equation is used with lifting index (LI) category frequency data to calculate the VLI. The second approach employs a detailed systematic collection of lifting task data from production and/or organizational sources. The data are organized into simplified task parameter categories and further aggregated into six FILI categories, which also use the CLI equation to calculate the VLI. Results: The two procedures will allow practitioners to systematically employ the VLI method to a variety of work situations where highly variable lifting tasks are performed. Conclusions: The scientific basis for the VLI procedure is similar to that for the CLI originally presented by NIOSH; however, the VLI method remains to be validated. Application: The VLI method allows an analyst to assess highly variable manual lifting jobs in which the task characteristics vary from lift to lift during a shift. PMID:26646300

  14. GaN/NbN epitaxial semiconductor/superconductor heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Rusen; Khalsa, Guru; Vishwanath, Suresh; Han, Yimo; Wright, John; Rouvimov, Sergei; Katzer, D. Scott; Nepal, Neeraj; Downey, Brian P.; Muller, David A.; Xing, Huili G.; Meyer, David J.; Jena, Debdeep

    2018-03-01

    Epitaxy is a process by which a thin layer of one crystal is deposited in an ordered fashion onto a substrate crystal. The direct epitaxial growth of semiconductor heterostructures on top of crystalline superconductors has proved challenging. Here, however, we report the successful use of molecular beam epitaxy to grow and integrate niobium nitride (NbN)-based superconductors with the wide-bandgap family of semiconductors—silicon carbide, gallium nitride (GaN) and aluminium gallium nitride (AlGaN). We apply molecular beam epitaxy to grow an AlGaN/GaN quantum-well heterostructure directly on top of an ultrathin crystalline NbN superconductor. The resulting high-mobility, two-dimensional electron gas in the semiconductor exhibits quantum oscillations, and thus enables a semiconductor transistor—an electronic gain element—to be grown and fabricated directly on a crystalline superconductor. Using the epitaxial superconductor as the source load of the transistor, we observe in the transistor output characteristics a negative differential resistance—a feature often used in amplifiers and oscillators. Our demonstration of the direct epitaxial growth of high-quality semiconductor heterostructures and devices on crystalline nitride superconductors opens up the possibility of combining the macroscopic quantum effects of superconductors with the electronic, photonic and piezoelectric properties of the group III/nitride semiconductor family.

  15. GaN/NbN epitaxial semiconductor/superconductor heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Yan, Rusen; Khalsa, Guru; Vishwanath, Suresh; Han, Yimo; Wright, John; Rouvimov, Sergei; Katzer, D Scott; Nepal, Neeraj; Downey, Brian P; Muller, David A; Xing, Huili G; Meyer, David J; Jena, Debdeep

    2018-03-07

    Epitaxy is a process by which a thin layer of one crystal is deposited in an ordered fashion onto a substrate crystal. The direct epitaxial growth of semiconductor heterostructures on top of crystalline superconductors has proved challenging. Here, however, we report the successful use of molecular beam epitaxy to grow and integrate niobium nitride (NbN)-based superconductors with the wide-bandgap family of semiconductors-silicon carbide, gallium nitride (GaN) and aluminium gallium nitride (AlGaN). We apply molecular beam epitaxy to grow an AlGaN/GaN quantum-well heterostructure directly on top of an ultrathin crystalline NbN superconductor. The resulting high-mobility, two-dimensional electron gas in the semiconductor exhibits quantum oscillations, and thus enables a semiconductor transistor-an electronic gain element-to be grown and fabricated directly on a crystalline superconductor. Using the epitaxial superconductor as the source load of the transistor, we observe in the transistor output characteristics a negative differential resistance-a feature often used in amplifiers and oscillators. Our demonstration of the direct epitaxial growth of high-quality semiconductor heterostructures and devices on crystalline nitride superconductors opens up the possibility of combining the macroscopic quantum effects of superconductors with the electronic, photonic and piezoelectric properties of the group III/nitride semiconductor family.

  16. Lift estimation of Half-Rotating Wing in hovering flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X. Y.; Dong, Y. P.; Qiu, Z. Z.; Zhang, Y. Q.; Shan, J. H.

    2016-11-01

    Half-Rotating Wing (HRW) is a new kind of flapping wing system with rotating flapping instead of oscillating flapping. Estimating approach of hovering lift which generated in hovering flight was important theoretical foundation to design aircraft using HRW. The working principle of HRW based on Half-Rotating Mechanism (HRM) was firstly introduced in this paper. Generating process of lift by HRW was also given. The calculating models of two lift mechanisms for HRW, including Lift of Flow Around Wing (LFAW) and Lift of Flow Dragging Wing (LFDW), were respectively established. The lift estimating model of HRW was further deduced, by which hovering lift for HRW with different angular velocity could be calculated. Case study using XFLOW software simulation indicates that the above estimating method was effective and feasible to predict roughly the hovering lift for a new HRW system.

  17. Direct lifts of coupled cell networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias, A. P. S.; Moreira, C. S.

    2018-04-01

    In networks of dynamical systems, there are spaces defined in terms of equalities of cell coordinates which are flow-invariant under any dynamical system that has a form consistent with the given underlying network structure—the network synchrony subspaces. Given a network and one of its synchrony subspaces, any system with a form consistent with the network, restricted to the synchrony subspace, defines a new system which is consistent with a smaller network, called the quotient network of the original network by the synchrony subspace. Moreover, any system associated with the quotient can be interpreted as the restriction to the synchrony subspace of a system associated with the original network. We call the larger network a lift of the smaller network, and a lift can be interpreted as a result of the cellular splitting of the smaller network. In this paper, we address the question of the uniqueness in this lifting process in terms of the networks’ topologies. A lift G of a given network Q is said to be direct when there are no intermediate lifts of Q between them. We provide necessary and sufficient conditions for a lift of a general network to be direct. Our results characterize direct lifts using the subnetworks of all splitting cells of Q and of all split cells of G. We show that G is a direct lift of Q if and only if either the split subnetwork is a direct lift or consists of two copies of the splitting subnetwork. These results are then applied to the class of regular uniform networks and to the special classes of ring networks and acyclic networks. We also illustrate that one of the applications of our results is to the lifting bifurcation problem.

  18. Processing of catalysts by atomic layer epitaxy: modification of supports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindblad, Marina; Haukka, Suvi; Kytökivi, Arla; Lakomaa, Eeva-Liisa; Rautiainen, Aimo; Suntola, Tuomo

    1997-11-01

    Different supports were modified with titania, zirconia and chromia by the atomic layer epitaxy technique (ALE). In ALE, a metal precursor is bound to the support in saturating gas-solid reactions. Surface oxides are grown by alternating reactions of the metal precursor and an oxidizing agent. Growth mechanisms differ depending on the precursor-support pair and the processing conditions. In this work, the influences of the support, precursor and reaction temperature were investigated by comparing the growth of titania from Ti(OCH(CH 3) 2) 4 on silica and alumina, titania from TiCl 4 and Ti(OCH(CH 3) 2) 4 on silica, and zirconia from ZrCl 4 on silica and alumina. The modification of porous oxides supported on metal substrates (monoliths) was demonstrated for the growth of chromia from Cr(acac) 3.

  19. Two-Dimensional High-Lift Aerodynamic Optimization Using Neural Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenman, Roxana M.

    1998-01-01

    The high-lift performance of a multi-element airfoil was optimized by using neural-net predictions that were trained using a computational data set. The numerical data was generated using a two-dimensional, incompressible, Navier-Stokes algorithm with the Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model. Because it is difficult to predict maximum lift for high-lift systems, an empirically-based maximum lift criteria was used in this study to determine both the maximum lift and the angle at which it occurs. The 'pressure difference rule,' which states that the maximum lift condition corresponds to a certain pressure difference between the peak suction pressure and the pressure at the trailing edge of the element, was applied and verified with experimental observations for this configuration. Multiple input, single output networks were trained using the NASA Ames variation of the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm for each of the aerodynamic coefficients (lift, drag and moment). The artificial neural networks were integrated with a gradient-based optimizer. Using independent numerical simulations and experimental data for this high-lift configuration, it was shown that this design process successfully optimized flap deflection, gap, overlap, and angle of attack to maximize lift. Once the neural nets were trained and integrated with the optimizer, minimal additional computer resources were required to perform optimization runs with different initial conditions and parameters. Applying the neural networks within the high-lift rigging optimization process reduced the amount of computational time and resources by 44% compared with traditional gradient-based optimization procedures for multiple optimization runs.

  20. Lift-based up-ender and methods using same to manipulate a shipping container containing unirradiated nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Nilles, Michael J.

    A shipping container containing an unirradiated nuclear fuel assembly is lifted off the ground by operating a crane to raise a lifting tool comprising a winch. The lifting tool is connected with the shipping container by a rigging line connecting with the shipping container at a lifting point located on the shipping container between the top and bottom of the shipping container, and by winch cabling connecting with the shipping container at the top of the shipping container. The shipping container is reoriented by operating the winch to adjust the length of the winch cabling so as to rotate themore » shipping container about the lifting point. Shortening the winch cabling rotates the shipping container about the lifting point from a horizontal orientation to a vertical orientation, while lengthening the winch cabling rotates the shipping container about the lifting point from the vertical orientation to the horizontal orientation.« less

  1. Electrostatic transfer of epitaxial graphene to glass.

    SciTech Connect

    Ohta, Taisuke; Pan, Wei; Howell, Stephen Wayne

    2010-12-01

    We report on a scalable electrostatic process to transfer epitaxial graphene to arbitrary glass substrates, including Pyrex and Zerodur. This transfer process could enable wafer-level integration of graphene with structured and electronically-active substrates such as MEMS and CMOS. We will describe the electrostatic transfer method and will compare the properties of the transferred graphene with nominally-equivalent 'as-grown' epitaxial graphene on SiC. The electronic properties of the graphene will be measured using magnetoresistive, four-probe, and graphene field effect transistor geometries [1]. To begin, high-quality epitaxial graphene (mobility 14,000 cm2/Vs and domains >100 {micro}m2) is grown on SiC in an argon-mediated environmentmore » [2,3]. The electrostatic transfer then takes place through the application of a large electric field between the donor graphene sample (anode) and the heated acceptor glass substrate (cathode). Using this electrostatic technique, both patterned few-layer graphene from SiC(000-1) and chip-scale monolayer graphene from SiC(0001) are transferred to Pyrex and Zerodur substrates. Subsequent examination of the transferred graphene by Raman spectroscopy confirms that the graphene can be transferred without inducing defects. Furthermore, the strain inherent in epitaxial graphene on SiC(0001) is found to be partially relaxed after the transfer to the glass substrates.« less

  2. A proposal for epitaxial thin film growth in outer space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ignatiev, Alex; Chu, C. W.

    1988-01-01

    A new concept for materials processing in space exploits the ultravacuum component of space for thin film epitaxial growth. The unique low earth orbit space environment is expected to yield 10 to the -14th torr or better pressures, semiinfinite pumping speeds, and large ultravacuum volume without walls. These space ultravacuum properties promise major improvement in the quality, unique nature, and the throughput of epitaxially grown materials. Advanced thin film materials to be epitaxially grown in space include semiconductors, magnetic materials, and thin film high temperature superconductors.

  3. Commercial aspects of epitaxial thin film growth in outer space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ignatiev, Alex; Chu, C. W.

    1988-01-01

    A new concept for materials processing in space exploits the ultra vacuum component of space for thin film epitaxial growth. The unique low earth orbit space environment is expected to yield 10 to the -14th torr or better pressures, semiinfinite pumping speeds and large ultra vacuum volume (about 100 cu m) without walls. These space ultra vacuum properties promise major improvement in the quality, unique nature, and the throughput of epitaxially grown materials especially in the area of semiconductors for microelectronics use. For such thin film materials there is expected a very large value added from space ultra vacuum processing, and as a result the application of the epitaxial thin film growth technology to space could lead to major commercial efforts in space.

  4. EPITAXIAL GROWTH OF SILICON

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Epitaxial growth of silicon on a silicon substrate by hydrogen reduction of SiCl4 was investigated. The chemical and physical processes involved in...silicon layers were produced at temperatures between 1100 and 1300 C. The effects of the concentration of SiCl4 in H2, the flow rate of the gas, the

  5. Process for growing a film epitaxially upon a MgO surface

    DOEpatents

    McKee, Rodney Allen; Walker, Frederick Joseph

    1997-01-01

    A process and structure wherein optical quality perovskites, such as BaTiO.sub.3 or SrTiO.sub.3, are grown upon a single crystal MgO substrate involves the epitaxial build up of alternating planes of TiO.sub.2 and metal oxide wherein the first plane grown upon the MgO substrate is a plane of TiO.sub.2. The layering sequence involved in the film build up reduces problems which would otherwise result from the interfacial electrostatics at the first atomic layers, and these oxides can be stabilized as commensurate thin films at a unit cell thickness or grown with high crystal quality to thicknesses of 0.5-0.7 .mu.m for optical device applications.

  6. Low-temperature plasma-deposited silicon epitaxial films: Growth and properties

    SciTech Connect

    Demaurex, Bénédicte, E-mail: benedicte.demaurex@epfl.ch; Bartlome, Richard; Seif, Johannes P.

    2014-08-07

    Low-temperature (≤200 °C) epitaxial growth yields precise thickness, doping, and thermal-budget control, which enables advanced-design semiconductor devices. In this paper, we use plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition to grow homo-epitaxial layers and study the different growth modes on crystalline silicon substrates. In particular, we determine the conditions leading to epitaxial growth in light of a model that depends only on the silane concentration in the plasma and the mean free path length of surface adatoms. For such growth, we show that the presence of a persistent defective interface layer between the crystalline silicon substrate and the epitaxial layer stems not only frommore » the growth conditions but also from unintentional contamination of the reactor. Based on our findings, we determine the plasma conditions to grow high-quality bulk epitaxial films and propose a two-step growth process to obtain device-grade material.« less

  7. Low-temperature plasma-deposited silicon epitaxial films: Growth and properties

    DOE PAGES

    Demaurex, Bénédicte; Bartlome, Richard; Seif, Johannes P.; ...

    2014-08-05

    Low-temperature (≤ 180 °C) epitaxial growth yields precise thickness, doping, and thermal-budget control, which enables advanced-design semiconductor devices. In this paper, we use plasma-ehanced chemical vapor deposition to grow homo-epitaxial layers and study the different growth modes on crystalline silicon substrates. In particular, we determine the conditions leading to epitaxial growth in light of a model that depends only on the silane concentration in the plasma and the mean free path length of surface adatoms. For such growth, we show that the presence of a persistent defective interface layer between the crystalline silicon substrate and the epitaxial layer stems notmore » only from the growth conditions but also from unintentional contamination of the reactor. As a result of our findings, we determine the plasma conditions to grow high-quality bulk epitaxial films and propose a two-step growth process to obtain device-grade material.« less

  8. Defect mediated van der Waals epitaxy of hexagonal boron nitride on graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heilmann, M.; Bashouti, M.; Riechert, H.; Lopes, J. M. J.

    2018-04-01

    Van der Waals heterostructures comprising of hexagonal boron nitride and graphene are promising building blocks for novel two-dimensional devices such as atomically thin transistors or capacitors. However, demonstrators of those devices have been so far mostly fabricated by mechanical assembly, a non-scalable and time-consuming method, where transfer processes can contaminate the surfaces. Here, we investigate a direct growth process for the fabrication of insulating hexagonal boron nitride on high quality epitaxial graphene using plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy. Samples were grown at varying temperatures and times and studied using atomic force microscopy, revealing a growth process limited by desorption at high temperatures. Nucleation was mostly commencing from morphological defects in epitaxial graphene, such as step edges or wrinkles. Raman spectroscopy combined with x-ray photoelectron measurements confirm the formation of hexagonal boron nitride and prove the resilience of graphene against the nitrogen plasma used during the growth process. The electrical properties and defects in the heterostructures were studied with high lateral resolution by tunneling current and Kelvin probe force measurements. This correlated approach revealed a nucleation apart from morphological defects in epitaxial graphene, which is mediated by point defects. The presented results help understanding the nucleation and growth behavior during van der Waals epitaxy of 2D materials, and point out a route for a scalable production of van der Waals heterostructures.

  9. Epitaxial solar cells fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daiello, R. V.; Robinson, P. H.; Kressel, H.

    1975-01-01

    Silicon epitaxy has been studied for the fabrication of solar cell structures, with the intent of optimizing efficiency while maintaining suitability for space applications. SiH2CL2 yielded good quality layers and junctions with reproducible impurity profiles. Diode characteristics and lifetimes in the epitaxial layers were investigated as a function of epitaxial growth conditions and doping profile, as was the effect of substrates and epitaxial post-gettering on lifetime. The pyrolytic decomposition of SiH4 was also used in the epitaxial formation of highly doped junction layers on bulk Si wafers. The effects of junction layer thickness and bulk background doping level on cell performance, in particular, open-circuit voltage, were investigated. The most successful solar cells were fabricated with SiH2 CL2 to grow p/n layers on n(+) substrates. The best performance was obtained from a p(+)/p/n/n(+) structure grown with an exponential grade in the n-base layer.

  10. Removable polytetrafluoroethylene template based epitaxy of ferroelectric copolymer thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Wei; Chen, Qiusong; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Hui; Cheng, Qian; Jiang, Yulong; Zhu, Guodong

    2018-04-01

    In recent years ferroelectric polymers have shown their great potentials in organic and flexible electronics. To meet the requirements of high-performance and low energy consumption of novel electronic devices and systems, structural and electrical properties of ferroelectric polymer thin films are expected to be further optimized. One possible way is to realize epitaxial growth of ferroelectric thin films via removable high-ordered polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) templates. Here two key parameters in epitaxy process, annealing temperature and applied pressure, are systematically studied and thus optimized through structural and electrical measurements of ferroelectric copolymer thin films. Experimental results indicate that controlled epitaxial growth is realized via suitable combination of both parameters. Annealing temperature above the melting point of ferroelectric copolymer films is required, and simultaneously moderate pressure (around 2.0 MPa here) should be applied. Over-low pressure (around 1.0 MPa here) usually results in the failure of epitaxy process, while over-high pressure (around 3.0 MPa here) often results in residual of PTFE templates on ferroelectric thin films.

  11. Lift truck safety review

    SciTech Connect

    Cadwallader, L.C.

    1997-03-01

    This report presents safety information about powered industrial trucks. The basic lift truck, the counterbalanced sit down rider truck, is the primary focus of the report. Lift truck engineering is briefly described, then a hazard analysis is performed on the lift truck. Case histories and accident statistics are also given. Rules and regulations about lift trucks, such as the US Occupational Safety an Health Administration laws and the Underwriter`s Laboratories standards, are discussed. Safety issues with lift trucks are reviewed, and lift truck safety and reliability are discussed. Some quantitative reliability values are given.

  12. Epitaxial growth of hybrid nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Chaoliang; Chen, Junze; Wu, Xue-Jun; Zhang, Hua

    2018-02-01

    Hybrid nanostructures are a class of materials that are typically composed of two or more different components, in which each component has at least one dimension on the nanoscale. The rational design and controlled synthesis of hybrid nanostructures are of great importance in enabling the fine tuning of their properties and functions. Epitaxial growth is a promising approach to the controlled synthesis of hybrid nanostructures with desired structures, crystal phases, exposed facets and/or interfaces. This Review provides a critical summary of the state of the art in the field of epitaxial growth of hybrid nanostructures. We discuss the historical development, architectures and compositions, epitaxy methods, characterization techniques and advantages of epitaxial hybrid nanostructures. Finally, we provide insight into future research directions in this area, which include the epitaxial growth of hybrid nanostructures from a wider range of materials, the study of the underlying mechanism and determining the role of epitaxial growth in influencing the properties and application performance of hybrid nanostructures.

  13. A Wind-Tunnel Investigation of the Development of Lift on Wings in Accelerated Longitudinal Motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Thomas R.

    1960-01-01

    An investigation was made in the Langley 300 MPH 7- by 10-foot tunnel to determine the development of lift on a wing during a simulated constant-acceleration catapult take-off. The investigation included models of a two-dimensional wing, an unswept wing having an aspect ratio of 6, a 35 deg. swept wing having an aspect ratio of 3.05, and a 60 deg. delta wing having an aspect ratio of 2.31. All the wings investigated developed at least 90 percent of their steady-state lift in the first 7 chord lengths of travel. The development of lift was essentially independent of the acceleration when based on chord lengths traveled, and was in qualitative agreement with theory.

  14. Lift Recovery for AFC-Enabled High Lift System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shmilovich, Arvin; Yadlin, Yoram; Dickey, Eric D.; Gissen, Abraham N.; Whalen, Edward A.

    2017-01-01

    This project is a continuation of the NASA AFC-Enabled Simplified High-Lift System Integration Study contract (NNL10AA05B) performed by Boeing under the Fixed Wing Project. This task is motivated by the simplified high-lift system, which is advantageous due to the simpler mechanical system, reduced actuation power and lower maintenance costs. Additionally, the removal of the flap track fairings associated with conventional high-lift systems renders a more efficient aerodynamic configuration. Potentially, these benefits translate to a approx. 2.25% net reduction in fuel burn for a twin-engine, long-range airplane.

  15. Forehead lift

    MedlinePlus

    ... both sides even. If you have already had plastic surgery to lift your upper eyelids, a forehead ... brow lifting. In: Rubin JP, Neligan PC, eds. Plastic Surgery: Volume 2: Aesthetic Surgery . 4th ed. Philadelphia, ...

  16. The Boeing Delta II rocket with Mars Polar Lander aboard lifts off at Pad 17B, CCAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Silhouetted against the gray sky, a Boeing Delta II expendable launch vehicle with NASA's Mars Polar Lander lifts off from Launch Complex 17B, Cape Canaveral Air Station, at 3:21:10 p.m. EST. The lander is a solar-powered spacecraft designed to touch down on the Martian surface near the northern-most boundary of the south polar cap, which consists of carbon dioxide ice. The lander will study the polar water cycle, frosts, water vapor, condensates and dust in the Martian atmosphere. It is equipped with a robotic arm to dig beneath the layered terrain at the polar cap. In addition, Deep Space 2 microprobes, developed by NASA's New Millennium Program, are installed on the lander's cruise stage. After crashing into the planet's surface, they will conduct two days of soil and water experiments up to 1 meter (3 feet) below the Martian surface, testing new technologies for future planetary descent probes. The lander is the second spacecraft to be launched in a pair of Mars Surveyor '98 missions. The first is the Mars Climate Orbiter, which was launched aboard a Delta II rocket from Launch Complex 17A on Dec. 11, 1998.

  17. The Boeing Delta II rocket with Mars Polar Lander aboard lifts off at Pad 17B, CCAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Amid clouds of exhaust and into a gray-clouded sky , a Boeing Delta II expendable launch vehicle lifts off with NASA's Mars Polar Lander at 3:21:10 p.m. EST from Launch Complex 17B, Cape Canaveral Air Station. The lander is a solar-powered spacecraft designed to touch down on the Martian surface near the northern- most boundary of the south polar cap, which consists of carbon dioxide ice. The lander will study the polar water cycle, frosts, water vapor, condensates and dust in the Martian atmosphere. It is equipped with a robotic arm to dig beneath the layered terrain at the polar cap. In addition, Deep Space 2 microprobes, developed by NASA's New Millennium Program, are installed on the lander's cruise stage. After crashing into the planet's surface, they will conduct two days of soil and water experiments up to 1 meter (3 feet) below the Martian surface, testing new technologies for future planetary descent probes. The lander is the second spacecraft to be launched in a pair of Mars Surveyor '98 missions. The first is the Mars Climate Orbiter, which was launched aboard a Delta II rocket from Launch Complex 17A on Dec. 11, 1998.

  18. The Boeing Delta II rocket with Mars Polar Lander aboard lifts off at Pad 17B, CCAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    A Boeing Delta II expendable launch vehicle lifts off with NASA's Mars Polar Lander into a cloud-covered sky at 3:21:10 p.m. EST from Launch Complex 17B, Cape Canaveral Air Station. The lander is a solar-powered spacecraft designed to touch down on the Martian surface near the northern-most boundary of the south polar cap, which consists of carbon dioxide ice. The lander will study the polar water cycle, frosts, water vapor, condensates and dust in the Martian atmosphere. It is equipped with a robotic arm to dig beneath the layered terrain at the polar cap. In addition, Deep Space 2 microprobes, developed by NASA's New Millennium Program, are installed on the lander's cruise stage. After crashing into the planet's surface, they will conduct two days of soil and water experiments up to 1 meter (3 feet) below the Martian surface, testing new technologies for future planetary descent probes. The lander is the second spacecraft to be launched in a pair of Mars Surveyor '98missions. The first is the Mars Climate Orbiter, which was launched aboard a Delta II rocket from Launch Complex 17A on Dec. 11, 1998.

  19. Photoresist-free patterning by mechanical abrasion of water-soluble lift-off resists and bare substrates: toward green fabrication of transparent electrodes.

    PubMed

    Printz, Adam D; Chan, Esther; Liong, Celine; Martinez, René S; Lipomi, Darren J

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the fabrication of transparent electrodes based on grids of copper microwires using a non-photolithographic process. The process--"abrasion lithography"--takes two forms. In the first implementation (Method I), a water-soluble commodity polymer film is abraded with a sharp tool, coated with a conductive film, and developed by immersion in water. Water dissolves the polymer film and lifts off the conductive film in the unabraded areas. In the second implementation (Method II), the substrate is abraded directly by scratching with a sharp tool (i.e., no polymer film necessary). The abraded regions of the substrate are recessed and roughened. Following deposition of a conductive film, the lower profile and roughened topography in the abraded regions prevents mechanical exfoliation of the conductive film using adhesive tape, and thus the conductive film remains only where the substrate is scratched. As an application, conductive grids exhibit average sheet resistances of 17 Ω sq(-1) and transparencies of 86% are fabricated and used as the anode in organic photovoltaic cells in concert with the conductive polymer, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS). Compared to devices in which PEDOT:PSS alone serves as an anode, devices comprising grids of copper/nickel microwires and PEDOT:PSS exhibit lowered series resistance, which manifests in greater fill factor and power conversion efficiency. This simple method of forming micropatterns could find use in applications where cost and environmental impact should be minimized, especially as a potential replacement for the transparent electrode indium tin oxide (ITO) in thin-film electronics over large areas (i.e., solar cells) or as a method of rapid prototyping for laboratory-scale devices.

  20. The lift-fan powered-lift aircraft concept: Lessons learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deckert, Wallace H.

    1993-01-01

    This is one of a series of reports on the lessons learned from past research related to lift-fan aircraft concepts. An extensive review is presented of the many lift-fan aircraft design studies conducted by both government and industry over the past 45 years. Mission applications and design integration including discussions on manifolding hot gas generators, hot gas dusting, and energy transfer control are addressed. Past lift-fan evaluations of the Avrocar are discussed. Lessons learned from these past efforts are identified.

  1. Analysis of the effects of boundary-layer control in the take-off and power-off landing performance characteristics of a liaison type of airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horton, Elmer A; Loftin, Laurence K; Racisz, Stanley F; Quinn, John

    1951-01-01

    A performance analysis has been made to determine whether boundary-layer control by suction might reduce the minimum take-off and landing distances of a four-place or five-place airplane or a liaison type of airplane below those obtainable with conventional high-lift devices. The airplane was assumed to have a cruise duration of 5 hours at 60-percent power and to be operating from airstrips having a ground friction coefficient of 0.2 or a combined ground and braking coefficient of 0.4. The payload was fixed at 1500 pounds, the wing span was varied from 25 to 100 feet, the aspect ratio was varied from 5 to 15, and the power was varied from 300 to 1300 horsepower. Maximum lift coefficients of 5.0 and 2.8 were assumed for the airplanes with and without boundary-layer-control --equipment weight was included. The effects of the boundary-layer control on total take-off distance, total power-off landing distance, landing and take-off ground run, stalling speed, sinking speed, and gliding speed were determined.

  2. Process for growing a film epitaxially upon a MGO surface and structures formed with the process

    DOEpatents

    McKee, Rodney Allen; Walker, Frederick Joseph

    1998-01-01

    A process and structure wherein optical quality perovskites, such as BaTiO.sub.3 or SrTiO.sub.3, are grown upon a single crystal MgO substrate involves the epitaxial build up of alternating planes of TiO.sub.2 and metal oxide wherein the first plane grown upon the MgO substrate is a plane of TiO.sub.2. The layering sequence involved in the film build up reduces problems which would otherwise result from the interfacial electrostatics at the first atomic layers, and these oxides can be stabilized as commensurate thin films at a unit cell thickness or grown with high crystal quality to thicknesses of 0.5-0.7 .mu.m for optical device applications.

  3. Geometry program for aerodynamic lifting surface theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Medan, R. T.

    1973-01-01

    A computer program that provides the geometry and boundary conditions appropriate for an analysis of a lifting, thin wing with control surfaces in linearized, subsonic, steady flow is presented. The kernel function method lifting surface theory is applied. The data which is generated by the program is stored on disk files or tapes for later use by programs which calculate an influence matrix, plot the wing planform, and evaluate the loads on the wing. In addition to processing data for subsequent use in a lifting surface analysis, the program is useful for computing area and mean geometric chords of the wing and control surfaces.

  4. Leading edge embedded fan airfoil concept -- A new powered high lift technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phan, Nhan Huu

    A new powered-lift airfoil concept called Leading Edge Embedded Fan (LEEF) is proposed for Extremely Short Take-Off and Landing (ESTOL) and Vertical Take-Off and Landing (VTOL) applications. The LEEF airfoil concept is a powered-lift airfoil concept capable of generating thrust and very high lift-coefficient at extreme angles-of attack (AoA). It is designed to activate only at the take-off and landing phases, similar to conventional flaps or slats, allowing the aircraft to operate efficiently at cruise in its conventional configuration. The LEEF concept consists of placing a crossflow fan (CFF) along the leading-edge (LE) of the wing, and the housing is designed to alter the airfoil shape between take-off/landing and cruise configurations with ease. The unique rectangular cross section of the crossflow fan allows for its ease of integration into a conventional subsonic wing. This technology is developed for ESTOL aircraft applications and is most effectively applied to General Aviation (GA) aircraft. Another potential area of application for LEEF is tiltrotor aircraft. Unlike existing powered high-lift systems, the LEEF airfoil uses a local high-pressure air source from cross-flow fans, does not require ducting, and is able to be deployed using distributed electric power systems throughout the wing. In addition to distributed lift augmentation, the LEEF system can provide additional thrust during takeoff and landing operation to supplement the primary cruise propulsion system. Two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations of a conventional airfoil/wing using the NACA 63-3-418 section, commonly used in GA, and a LEEF airfoil/wing embedded into the same airfoil section were carried out to evaluate the advantages of and the costs associated with implementing the LEEF concept. Computational results show that significant lift and augmented thrust are available during LEEF operation while requiring only moderate fan power

  5. High-Volume Production of Lightweight Multijunction Solar Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youtsey, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    MicroLink Devices, Inc., has transitioned its 6-inch epitaxial lift-off (ELO) solar cell fabrication process into a manufacturing platform capable of sustaining large-volume production. This Phase II project improves the ELO process by reducing cycle time and increasing the yield of large-area devices. In addition, all critical device fabrication processes have transitioned to 6-inch production tool sets designed for volume production. An emphasis on automated cassette-to-cassette and batch processes minimizes operator dependence and cell performance variability. MicroLink Devices established a pilot production line capable of at least 1,500 6-inch wafers per month at greater than 80 percent yield. The company also increased the yield and manufacturability of the 6-inch reclaim process, which is crucial to reducing the cost of the cells.

  6. NASA's modified Boeing 747 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft with the Space Shuttle Endeavour on top lifts of

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    NASA's modified Boeing 747 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft with the Space Shuttle Endeavour on top lifts off from Edwards Air Force Base to begin its ferry flight back to the Kennedy Space Center in Florida.

  7. Epitaxial growth of CZT(S,Se) on silicon

    DOEpatents

    Bojarczuk, Nestor A.; Gershon, Talia S.; Guha, Supratik; Shin, Byungha; Zhu, Yu

    2016-03-15

    Techniques for epitaxial growth of CZT(S,Se) materials on Si are provided. In one aspect, a method of forming an epitaxial kesterite material is provided which includes the steps of: selecting a Si substrate based on a crystallographic orientation of the Si substrate; forming an epitaxial oxide interlayer on the Si substrate to enhance wettability of the epitaxial kesterite material on the Si substrate, wherein the epitaxial oxide interlayer is formed from a material that is lattice-matched to Si; and forming the epitaxial kesterite material on a side of the epitaxial oxide interlayer opposite the Si substrate, wherein the epitaxial kesterite material includes Cu, Zn, Sn, and at least one of S and Se, and wherein a crystallographic orientation of the epitaxial kesterite material is based on the crystallographic orientation of the Si substrate. A method of forming an epitaxial kesterite-based photovoltaic device and an epitaxial kesterite-based device are also provided.

  8. High lift selected concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, M. L.

    1979-01-01

    The benefits to high lift system maximum life and, alternatively, to high lift system complexity, of applying analytic design and analysis techniques to the design of high lift sections for flight conditions were determined and two high lift sections were designed to flight conditions. The influence of the high lift section on the sizing and economics of a specific energy efficient transport (EET) was clarified using a computerized sizing technique and an existing advanced airplane design data base. The impact of the best design resulting from the design applications studies on EET sizing and economics were evaluated. Flap technology trade studies, climb and descent studies, and augmented stability studies are included along with a description of the baseline high lift system geometry, a calculation of lift and pitching moment when separation is present, and an inverse boundary layer technique for pressure distribution synthesis and optimization.

  9. Epitaxial growth of three dimensionally structured III-V photonic crystal via hydride vapor phase epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Qiye; Kim, Honggyu; Zhang, Runyu

    2015-12-14

    Three-dimensional (3D) photonic crystals are one class of materials where epitaxy, and the resultant attractive electronic properties, would enable new functionalities for optoelectronic devices. Here we utilize self-assembled colloidal templates to fabricate epitaxially grown single crystal 3D mesostructured GaxIn1-xP (GaInP) semiconductor photonic crystals using hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE). The epitaxial relationship between the 3D GaInP and the substrate is preserved during the growth through the complex geometry of the template as confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy. XRD reciprocal space mapping of the 3D epitaxial layer further demonstrates the film to be nearly fullymore » relaxed with a negligible strain gradient. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy reflection measurement indicates the optical properties of the photonic crystal which agree with finite difference time domain simulations. This work extends the scope of the very few known methods for the fabrication of epitaxial III-V 3D mesostructured materials to the well-developed HVPE technique.« less

  10. Epitaxial growth of three dimensionally structured III-V photonic crystal via hydride vapor phase epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Qiye; Kim, Honggyu; Zhang, Runyu

    2015-12-14

    Three-dimensional (3D) photonic crystals are one class of materials where epitaxy, and the resultant attractive electronic properties, would enable new functionalities for optoelectronic devices. Here we utilize self-assembled colloidal templates to fabricate epitaxially grown single crystal 3D mesostructured Ga{sub x}In{sub 1−x}P (GaInP) semiconductor photonic crystals using hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE). The epitaxial relationship between the 3D GaInP and the substrate is preserved during the growth through the complex geometry of the template as confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy. XRD reciprocal space mapping of the 3D epitaxial layer further demonstrates the film to bemore » nearly fully relaxed with a negligible strain gradient. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy reflection measurement indicates the optical properties of the photonic crystal which agree with finite difference time domain simulations. This work extends the scope of the very few known methods for the fabrication of epitaxial III-V 3D mesostructured materials to the well-developed HVPE technique.« less

  11. Simulation model of the integrated flight/propulsion control system, displays, and propulsion system for ASTOVL lift-fan aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, W. Y. William; Borchers, Paul F.; Franklin, James A.

    1995-01-01

    A simulation model has been developed for use in piloted evaluations of takeoff, transition, hover, and landing characteristics of an advanced, short takeoff, vertical landing lift fan fighter aircraft. The flight/propulsion control system includes modes for several response types which are coupled to the aircraft's aerodynamic and propulsion system effectors through a control selector tailored to the lift fan propulsion system. Head-up display modes for approach and hover, tailored to their corresponding control modes are provided in the simulation. Propulsion system components modeled include a remote lift and a lift/cruise engine. Their static performance and dynamic response are represented by the model. A separate report describes the subsonic, power-off aerodynamics and jet induced aerodynamics in hover and forward flight, including ground effects.

  12. Microwave GaAs Integrated Circuits On Quartz Substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegel, Peter H.; Mehdi, Imran; Wilson, Barbara

    1994-01-01

    Integrated circuits for use in detecting electromagnetic radiation at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths constructed by bonding GaAs-based integrated circuits onto quartz-substrate-based stripline circuits. Approach offers combined advantages of high-speed semiconductor active devices made only on epitaxially deposited GaAs substrates with low-dielectric-loss, mechanically rugged quartz substrates. Other potential applications include integration of antenna elements with active devices, using carrier substrates other than quartz to meet particular requirements using lifted-off GaAs layer in membrane configuration with quartz substrate supporting edges only, and using lift-off technique to fabricate ultrathin discrete devices diced separately and inserted into predefined larger circuits. In different device concept, quartz substrate utilized as transparent support for GaAs devices excited from back side by optical radiation.

  13. Cosine (Cobalt Silicide Growth Through Nitrogen-Induced Epitaxy) Process For Epitaxial Cobalt Silicide Formation For High Performance Sha

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, Chong Wee; Shin, Chan Soo; Gall, Daniel

    A method for forming an epitaxial cobalt silicide layer on a MOS device includes sputter depositing cobalt in an ambient to form a first layer of cobalt suicide on a gate and source/drain regions of the MOS device. Subsequently, cobalt is sputter deposited again in an ambient of argon to increase the thickness of the cobalt silicide layer to a second thickness.

  14. Chemical vapor deposition of epitaxial silicon

    DOEpatents

    Berkman, Samuel

    1984-01-01

    A single chamber continuous chemical vapor deposition (CVD) reactor is described for depositing continuously on flat substrates, for example, epitaxial layers of semiconductor materials. The single chamber reactor is formed into three separate zones by baffles or tubes carrying chemical source material and a carrier gas in one gas stream and hydrogen gas in the other stream without interaction while the wafers are heated to deposition temperature. Diffusion of the two gas streams on heated wafers effects the epitaxial deposition in the intermediate zone and the wafers are cooled in the final zone by coolant gases. A CVD reactor for batch processing is also described embodying the deposition principles of the continuous reactor.

  15. Growth and characterization of PbSe and Pb{sub 1{minus}x}Sn{sub x}Se layers on Si (100)

    SciTech Connect

    Sachar, H.K.; Chao, I.; Fang, X.M.

    1998-12-31

    Crack-free layers of PbSe were grown on Si (100) by a combination of liquid phase epitaxy (LPE) and molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) techniques. The PbSe layer was grown by LPE on Si(100) using a MBE-grown PbSe/BaF{sub 2}/CaF{sub 2} buffer layer structure. Pb{sub 1{minus}x}Sn{sub x}Se layers with tin contents in the liquid growth solution equal to 3%, 5%, 6%, 7%, and 10%, respectively, were also grown by LPE on Si(100) substrates using similar buffer layer structures. The LPE-grown PbSe and Pb{sub 1{minus}x}Sn{sub x}Se layers were characterized by optical Nomarski microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and scanning electronmore » microscopy (SEM). Optical Nomarski characterization of the layers revealed their excellent surface morphologies and good growth solution wipe-offs. FTIR transmission experiments showed that the absorption edge of the Pb{sub 1{minus}x}Sn{sub x}Se layers shifted to lower energies with increasing tin contents. The PbSe epilayers were also lifted-off from the Si substrate by dissolving the MBE-grown BaF{sub 2} buffer layer. SEM micrographs of the cleaved edges revealed that the lifted-off layers formed structures suitable for laser fabrication.« less

  16. High-Lift Optimization Design Using Neural Networks on a Multi-Element Airfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenman, Roxana M.; Roth, Karlin R.; Smith, Charles A. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The high-lift performance of a multi-element airfoil was optimized by using neural-net predictions that were trained using a computational data set. The numerical data was generated using a two-dimensional, incompressible, Navier-Stokes algorithm with the Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model. Because it is difficult to predict maximum lift for high-lift systems, an empirically-based maximum lift criteria was used in this study to determine both the maximum lift and the angle at which it occurs. Multiple input, single output networks were trained using the NASA Ames variation of the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm for each of the aerodynamic coefficients (lift, drag, and moment). The artificial neural networks were integrated with a gradient-based optimizer. Using independent numerical simulations and experimental data for this high-lift configuration, it was shown that this design process successfully optimized flap deflection, gap, overlap, and angle of attack to maximize lift. Once the neural networks were trained and integrated with the optimizer, minimal additional computer resources were required to perform optimization runs with different initial conditions and parameters. Applying the neural networks within the high-lift rigging optimization process reduced the amount of computational time and resources by 83% compared with traditional gradient-based optimization procedures for multiple optimization runs.

  17. Numerical Calculations of 3-D High-Lift Flows and Comparison with Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Compton, William B, III

    2015-01-01

    Solutions were obtained with the Navier-Stokes CFD code TLNS3D to predict the flow about the NASA Trapezoidal Wing, a high-lift wing composed of three elements: the main-wing element, a deployed leading-edge slat, and a deployed trailing-edge flap. Turbulence was modeled by the Spalart-Allmaras one-equation turbulence model. One case with massive separation was repeated using Menter's two-equation SST (Menter's Shear Stress Transport) k-omega turbulence model in an attempt to improve the agreement with experiment. The investigation was conducted at a free stream Mach number of 0.2, and at angles of attack ranging from 10.004 degrees to 34.858 degrees. The Reynolds number based on the mean aerodynamic chord of the wing was 4.3 x 10 (sup 6). Compared to experiment, the numerical procedure predicted the surface pressures very well at angles of attack in the linear range of the lift. However, computed maximum lift was 5% low. Drag was mainly under predicted. The procedure correctly predicted several well-known trends and features of high-lift flows, such as off-body separation. The two turbulence models yielded significantly different solutions for the repeated case.

  18. Development of an integrated staircase lift for home access.

    PubMed

    Mattie, Johanne L; Borisoff, Jaimie F; Leland, Danny; Miller, William C

    2015-12-01

    Stairways into buildings present a significant environmental barrier for those with mobility impairments, including older adults. A number of home access solutions that allow users to safely enter and exit the home exist, however these all have some limitations. The purpose of this work was to develop a novel, inclusive home access solution that integrates a staircase and a lift into one device. The development of an integrated staircase lift followed a structured protocol with stakeholders providing feedback at various stages in the design process, consistent with rehabilitation engineering design methods. A novel home access device was developed. The integrated staircase-lift has the following features: inclusivity, by a universal design that provides an option for either use of stairs or a lift; constant availability, with a lift platform always ready for use on either level; and potential aesthetic advantages when integrating the device into an existing home. The potential also exists for emergency descent during a power outage, and self-powered versions. By engaging stakeholders in a user centred design process, insight on the limitations of existing home access solutions and specific feedback on our design guided development of a novel home access device.

  19. Big-data reflection high energy electron diffraction analysis for understanding epitaxial film growth processes.

    PubMed

    Vasudevan, Rama K; Tselev, Alexander; Baddorf, Arthur P; Kalinin, Sergei V

    2014-10-28

    Reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED) has by now become a standard tool for in situ monitoring of film growth by pulsed laser deposition and molecular beam epitaxy. Yet despite the widespread adoption and wealth of information in RHEED images, most applications are limited to observing intensity oscillations of the specular spot, and much additional information on growth is discarded. With ease of data acquisition and increased computation speeds, statistical methods to rapidly mine the data set are now feasible. Here, we develop such an approach to the analysis of the fundamental growth processes through multivariate statistical analysis of a RHEED image sequence. This approach is illustrated for growth of La(x)Ca(1-x)MnO(3) films grown on etched (001) SrTiO(3) substrates, but is universal. The multivariate methods including principal component analysis and k-means clustering provide insight into the relevant behaviors, the timing and nature of a disordered to ordered growth change, and highlight statistically significant patterns. Fourier analysis yields the harmonic components of the signal and allows separation of the relevant components and baselines, isolating the asymmetric nature of the step density function and the transmission spots from the imperfect layer-by-layer (LBL) growth. These studies show the promise of big data approaches to obtaining more insight into film properties during and after epitaxial film growth. Furthermore, these studies open the pathway to use forward prediction methods to potentially allow significantly more control over growth process and hence final film quality.

  20. GaN-based LEDs with a high light extraction composite surface structure fabricated by a modified YAG laser lift-off technology and the patterned sapphire substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yongjian; Trieu, Simeon; Yu, Tongjun; Chen, Zhizhong; Qi, Shengli; Tian, Pengfei; Deng, Junjing; Jin, Xiaoming; Zhang, Guoyi

    2011-08-01

    Vertical structure LEDs have been fabricated with a novel light extraction composite surface structure composed of a micron grating and nano-structure. The composite surface structure was generated by using a modified YAG laser lift-off technique, separating the wafers from cone-shaped patterned sapphire substrates. LEDs thus fabricated showed the light output power increase about 1.7-2.5 times when compared with conventional vertical structure LEDs grown on plane sapphire substrates. A three-dimensional finite difference time domain method was used to simulate this new kind of LED device. It was determined that nano-structures in composite surface patterns play a key role in the improvement of light extraction efficiency of LEDs.

  1. Large-scale Parallel Unstructured Mesh Computations for 3D High-lift Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mavriplis, Dimitri J.; Pirzadeh, S.

    1999-01-01

    A complete "geometry to drag-polar" analysis capability for the three-dimensional high-lift configurations is described. The approach is based on the use of unstructured meshes in order to enable rapid turnaround for complicated geometries that arise in high-lift configurations. Special attention is devoted to creating a capability for enabling analyses on highly resolved grids. Unstructured meshes of several million vertices are initially generated on a work-station, and subsequently refined on a supercomputer. The flow is solved on these refined meshes on large parallel computers using an unstructured agglomeration multigrid algorithm. Good prediction of lift and drag throughout the range of incidences is demonstrated on a transport take-off configuration using up to 24.7 million grid points. The feasibility of using this approach in a production environment on existing parallel machines is demonstrated, as well as the scalability of the solver on machines using up to 1450 processors.

  2. Laser-induced forward transfer (LIFT) of congruent voxels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piqué, Alberto; Kim, Heungsoo; Auyeung, Raymond C. Y.; Beniam, Iyoel; Breckenfeld, Eric

    2016-06-01

    Laser-induced forward transfer (LIFT) of functional materials offers unique advantages and capabilities for the rapid prototyping of electronic, optical and sensor elements. The use of LIFT for printing high viscosity metallic nano-inks and nano-pastes can be optimized for the transfer of voxels congruent with the shape of the laser pulse, forming thin film-like structures non-lithographically. These processes are capable of printing patterns with excellent lateral resolution and thickness uniformity typically found in 3-dimensional stacked assemblies, MEMS-like structures and free-standing interconnects. However, in order to achieve congruent voxel transfer with LIFT, the particle size and viscosity of the ink or paste suspensions must be adjusted to minimize variations due to wetting and drying effects. When LIFT is carried out with high-viscosity nano-suspensions, the printed voxel size and shape become controllable parameters, allowing the printing of thin-film like structures whose shape is determined by the spatial distribution of the laser pulse. The result is a new level of parallelization beyond current serial direct-write processes whereby the geometry of each printed voxel can be optimized according to the pattern design. This work shows how LIFT of congruent voxels can be applied to the fabrication of 2D and 3D microstructures by adjusting the viscosity of the nano-suspension and laser transfer parameters.

  3. Method utilizing laser-processing for the growth of epitaxial p-n junctions

    DOEpatents

    Young, R.T.; Narayan, J.; Wood, R.F.

    1979-11-23

    This invention is a new method for the formation of epitaxial p-n junctions in silicon. The method is relatively simple, rapid, and reliable. It produces doped epitaxial layers which are of well-controlled thickness and whose electrical properties are satisfactory. An illustrative form of the method comprises co-depositing a selected dopant and amorphous silicon on a crystalline silicon substrate to form a doped layer of amorphous silicon thereon. This layer then is irradiated with at least one laser pulse to generate a melt front which moves through the layer, into the silicon body to a depth effecting melting of virginal silicon, and back to the surface of the layer. The method may be conducted with dopants (e.g., boron and phosphorus) whose distribution coefficients approximate unity.

  4. High density circuit technology, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wade, T. E.

    1982-01-01

    The metal (or dielectric) lift-off processes used in the semiconductor industry to fabricate high density very large scale integration (VLSI) systems were reviewed. The lift-off process consists of depositing the light-sensitive material onto the wafer and patterning first in such a manner as to form a stencil for the interconnection material. Then the interconnection layer is deposited and unwanted areas are lifted off by removing the underlying stencil. Several of these lift-off techniques were examined experimentally. The use of an auxiliary layer of polyimide to form a lift-off stencil offers considerable promise.

  5. Epitaxy of mercury-based high temperature superconducting films on oxide and metal substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Yi-Yuan

    High-Tc superconducting (HTS) cuprates are highly anisotropic thus epitaxy along certain crystalline directions is essential to realize high-current-carrying capability at temperatures above 77 K. Hg-based HTS (Hg-HTS) cuprates have the record-high Tc up to 135 K, therefore are of great interest for fundamental research and practical applications. However, growth Of epitaxial Hg-HTS films is extremely difficult in conventional thermal-reaction process since Hg is highly volatile. Motivated by this, we first developed a cation-exchange process for growing epitaxial Hg-HTS films, which involves two steps: selection of precursor matrices with predesigned structure and composition followed by cation-exchange processing. New materials are formed via "atomic surgery" on an existing structure rather than thermal reaction among amorphous oxides in conventional process, thus the structural features of the precursor are inherited by the new material. Using epitaxial Tl-based HTS films as precursor and annealing them in Hg-vapor, epitaxial Hg-HTS films with superior quality have been obtained. This success encouraged us to develop epitaxy on metal tapes for coated conductors and On large-area wafers for electronic devices. For coated conductors, we addressed three critical issues: epitaxy on metal substrates, enhancement of in-field Jcs and scale-up in thickness and length. First, using a fabrication scheme that combines two processes: cation-exchange and fast-temperature-ramping-annealing, epitaxial HgBa2CaCu2O6+delta films were grown on rolling-assisted-biaxially-textured Ni substrates buffered with CeO 2/YSZ/CeO2 for the first time. We fabricated HgBa2CaCu 2O6+delta coated conductors with Tc = 122--124 K and self-field Jc > 1 x 106A/cm2 at 92 K which are record-high for HTS coated conductors. Second, we demonstrated improved in-field J cs via overdoping HgBa2CaCu 2O6+delta films (by means Of charge "overdoped"), heavy-ion-irradiation and substrate engineering. Finally

  6. Epitaxial Garnets and Hexagonal Ferrites.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-04-20

    goenv.o -,y la)ers were YIG (yttrium iron garnet ) films grown by liquid phase epitaxy w:* ( LPE ) on gadolinium gallium garnet (GGG) substrates. Magnetic...containing three epitaxial layers. In addition to the MSW work oil garnets , LPE of lithium ferrite and hexagonal fertites was studied. A substituted lead...of a stripline. The other layers are epitaxial films , generally YIG (yttrium iron garnet ) with magnetic properties adjusted by suitable modifications

  7. Inexpensive Dramatic Pneumatic Lift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morse, Robert A.

    2017-09-01

    Various experiments and demonstrations relate air pressure and air pressure difference to force and area. Carpenter and Minnix describe a large-scale pneumatic lift in which a person sitting on a board atop a plastic garbage bag is lifted when the bag is connected to the exhaustport of a vacuum cleaner, which easily lifts the person. This article describes the construction and use of an inexpensive hand-held pneumatic lift to demonstrate the same principle.

  8. Epitaxy: Programmable Atom Equivalents Versus Atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Mary X.; Seo, Soyoung E.; Gabrys, Paul A.

    The programmability of DNA makes it an attractive structure-directing ligand for the assembly of nanoparticle superlattices in a manner that mimics many aspects of atomic crystallization. However, the synthesis of multilayer single crystals of defined size remains a challenge. Though previous studies considered lattice mismatch as the major limiting factor for multilayer assembly, thin film growth depends on many interlinked variables. Here, a more comprehensive approach is taken to study fundamental elements, such as the growth temperature and the thermodynamics of interfacial energetics, to achieve epitaxial growth of nanoparticle thin films. Under optimized equilibrium conditions, single crystal, multilayer thin filmsmore » can be synthesized over 500 × 500 μm2 areas on lithographically patterned templates. Importantly, these superlattices follow the same patterns of crystal growth demonstrated in thin film atomic deposition, allowing for these processes to be understood in the context of well-studied atomic epitaxy, and potentially enabling a nanoscale model to study fundamental crystallization processes.« less

  9. AlN/GaN heterostructures for normally-off transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Zhuravlev, K. S., E-mail: zhur@isp.nsc.ru; Malin, T. V.; Mansurov, V. G.

    The structure of AlN/GaN heterostructures with an ultrathin AlN barrier is calculated for normally-off transistors. The molecular-beam epitaxy technology of in situ passivated SiN/AlN/GaN heterostructures with a two-dimensional electron gas is developed. Normally-off transistors with a maximum current density of ~1 A/mm, a saturation voltage of 1 V, a transconductance of 350 mS/mm, and a breakdown voltage of more than 60 V are demonstrated. Gate lag and drain lag effects are almost lacking in these transistors.

  10. Design of a Versatile, Teleoperable, Towable Lifting Machine with Robotic Capabilities for Use in Nasa's Lunar Base Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Elizabeth; Ogle, James; Schoppe, Dean

    1989-01-01

    The lifting machine will assist in lifting cargo off of landers sent to the Moon and in the construction of a lunar base. Three possible designs were considered for the overall configuration of the lifting machine: the variable angle crane, the tower crane, and the gantry crane. Alternate designs were developed for the major components of the lifting machine. A teleoperable, variable angle crane was chosen as its final design. The design consists of a telescoping boom mounted to a chassis that is supported by two conical wheels for towing and four outriggers for stability. Attached to the end of the boom is a seven degree of freedom robot arm for light, dexterous, lifting operations. A cable and hook suspends from the end of the boom for heavy, gross, lifting operations. Approximate structural sizes were determined for the lifter and its components. However, further analysis is needed to determine the optimum design dimensions. The design team also constructed a model of the design which demonstrates its features and operating principals.

  11. Mechanical discrete simulator of the electro-mechanical lift with n:1 roping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso, F. J.; Herrera, I.

    2016-05-01

    The design process of new products in lift engineering is a difficult task due to, mainly, the complexity and slenderness of the lift system, demanding a predictive tool for the lift mechanics. A mechanical ad-hoc discrete simulator, as an alternative to ‘general purpose’ mechanical simulators is proposed. Firstly, the synthesis and experimentation process that has led to establish a suitable model capable of simulating accurately the response of the electromechanical lift is discussed. Then, the equations of motion are derived. The model comprises a discrete system of 5 vertically displaceable masses (car, counterweight, car frame, passengers/loads and lift drive), an inertial mass of the assembly tension pulley-rotor shaft which can rotate about the machine axis and 6 mechanical connectors with 1:1 suspension layout. The model is extended to any n:1 roping lift by setting 6 equivalent mechanical components (suspension systems for car and counterweight, lift drive silent blocks, tension pulley-lift drive stator and passengers/load equivalent spring-damper) by inductive inference from 1:1 and generalized 2:1 roping system. The application to simulate real elevator systems is proposed by numeric time integration of the governing equations using the Kutta-Meden algorithm and implemented in a computer program for ad-hoc elevator simulation called ElevaCAD.

  12. Sleep, Off-Line Processing, and Vocal Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margoliash, Daniel; Schmidt, Marc F.

    2010-01-01

    The study of song learning and the neural song system has provided an important comparative model system for the study of speech and language acquisition. We describe some recent advances in the bird song system, focusing on the role of off-line processing including sleep in processing sensory information and in guiding developmental song…

  13. Synthesis of Epitaxial Single-Layer MoS2 on Au(111).

    PubMed

    Grønborg, Signe S; Ulstrup, Søren; Bianchi, Marco; Dendzik, Maciej; Sanders, Charlotte E; Lauritsen, Jeppe V; Hofmann, Philip; Miwa, Jill A

    2015-09-08

    We present a method for synthesizing large area epitaxial single-layer MoS2 on the Au(111) surface in ultrahigh vacuum. Using scanning tunneling microscopy and low energy electron diffraction, the evolution of the growth is followed from nanoscale single-layer MoS2 islands to a continuous MoS2 layer. An exceptionally good control over the MoS2 coverage is maintained using an approach based on cycles of Mo evaporation and sulfurization to first nucleate the MoS2 nanoislands and then gradually increase their size. During this growth process the native herringbone reconstruction of Au(111) is lifted as shown by low energy electron diffraction measurements. Within the MoS2 islands, we identify domains rotated by 60° that lead to atomically sharp line defects at domain boundaries. As the MoS2 coverage approaches the limit of a complete single layer, the formation of bilayer MoS2 islands is initiated. Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy measurements of both single and bilayer MoS2 samples show a dramatic change in their band structure around the center of the Brillouin zone. Brief exposure to air after removing the MoS2 layer from vacuum is not found to affect its quality.

  14. Thermal Management Design for the X-33 Lifting Body

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bouslog, S.; Mammano, J.; Strauss, B.

    1998-01-01

    The X-33 Advantage Technology Demonstrator offers a rare and exciting opportunity in Thermal Protection System development. The experimental program incorporates the latest design innovation in re-useable, low life cycle cost, and highly dependable Thermal Protection materials and constructions into both ground based and flight test vehicle validations. The unique attributes of the X-33 demonstrator for design application validation for the full scale Reusable Launch Vehicle, (RLV), are represented by both the configuration of the stand-off aeroshell, and the extreme exposures of sub-orbital hypersonic re-entry simulation. There are several challenges of producing a sub-orbital prototype demonstrator of Single Stage to Orbit/Reusable Launch Vehicle (SSTO/RLV) operations. An aggressive schedule with budgetary constraints precludes the opportunity for an extensive verification and qualification program of vehicle flight hardware. However, taking advantage of off the shelf components with proven technologies reduces some of the requirements for additional testing. The effects of scale on thermal heating rates must also be taken into account during trajectory design and analysis. Described in this document are the unique Thermal Protection System (TPS) design opportunities that are available with the lifting body configuration of the X-33. The two principal objectives for the TPS are to shield the primary airframe structure from excessive thermal loads and to provide an aerodynamic mold line surface. With the relatively benign aeroheating capability of the lifting body, an integrated stand-off aeroshell design with minimal weight and reduced procurement and operational costs is allowed. This paper summarizes the design objectives of the X-33 TPS, the flight test requirements driven configuration, and design benefits. Comparisons are made of the X-33 flight profiles and Space Shuttle Orbiter, and lifting body Reusable Launch Vehicle aerothermal environments. The X-33

  15. Method of depositing epitaxial layers on a substrate

    DOEpatents

    Goyal, Amit

    2003-12-30

    An epitaxial article and method for forming the same includes a substrate having a textured surface, and an electrochemically deposited substantially single orientation epitaxial layer disposed on and in contact with the textured surface. The epitaxial article can include an electromagnetically active layer and an epitaxial buffer layer. The electromagnetically active layer and epitaxial buffer layer can also be deposited electrochemically.

  16. Lifting strength in two-person teamwork.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tzu-Hsien

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects of lifting range, hand-to-toe distance, and lifting direction on single-person lifting strengths and two-person teamwork lifting strengths. Six healthy males and seven healthy females participated in this study. Two-person teamwork lifting strengths were examined in both strength-matched and strength-unmatched groups. Our results showed that lifting strength significantly decreased with increasing lifting range or hand-to-toe distance. However, lifting strengths were not affected by lifting direction. Teamwork lifting strength did not conform to the law of additivity for both strength-matched and strength-unmatched groups. In general, teamwork lifting strength was dictated by the weaker of the two members, implying that weaker members might be exposed to a higher potential danger in teamwork exertions. To avoid such overexertion in teamwork, members with significantly different strength ability should not be assigned to the same team.

  17. Surface and Thin Film Analysis during Metal Organic Vapour Phase Epitaxial Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, Wolfgang

    2007-06-01

    In-situ analysis of epitaxial growth is the essential ingredient in order to understand the growth process, to optimize growth and last but not least to monitor or even control the epitaxial growth on a microscopic scale. In MBE (molecular beam epitaxy) in-situ analysis tools existed right from the beginning because this technique developed from Surface Science technology with all its electron based analysis tools (LEED, RHEED, PES etc). Vapour Phase Epitaxy, in contrast, remained for a long time in an empirical stage ("alchemy") because only post growth characterisations like photoluminescence, Hall effect and electrical conductivity were available. Within the last two decades, however, optical techniques were developed which provide similar capabilities as in MBE for Vapour Phase growth. I will discuss in this paper the potential of Reflectance Anisotropy Spectroscopy (RAS) and Spectroscopic Ellipsometry (SE) for the growth of thin epitaxial semiconductor layers with zincblende (GaAs etc) and wurtzite structure (GaN etc). Other techniques and materials will be also mentioned.

  18. Thread-Lift Sutures: Still in the Lift? A Systematic Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Gülbitti, Haydar Aslan; Colebunders, Britt; Pirayesh, Ali; Bertossi, Dario; van der Lei, Berend

    2018-03-01

    In 2006, Villa et al. published a review article concerning the use of thread-lift sutures and concluded that the technique was still in its infancy but had great potential to become a useful and effective procedure for nonsurgical lifting of sagged facial tissues. As 11 years have passed, the authors now performed again a systematic review to determine the real scientific current state of the art on the use of thread-lift sutures. A systematic review was performed according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines using the PubMed database and using the Medical Subject Headings search term "Rhytidoplasty." "Rhytidoplasty" and the following entry terms were included by this Medical Subject Headings term: "facelift," "facelifts," "face Lift," "Face Lifts," "Lift," "Face," "Lifts," "Platysmotomy," "Platysmotomies," "Rhytidectomy," "Rhytidectomies," "Platysmaplasty," "and "Platysmaplasties." The Medical Subject Headings term "Rhytidoplasty" was combined with the following search terms: "Barbed suture," "Thread lift," "APTOS," "Suture suspension," "Percutaneous," and "Silhouette suture." RefWorks was used to filter duplicates. Three of the authors (H.A.G., B.C., and B.L.) performed the search independently. The initial search with all search terms resulted in 188 articles. After filtering the duplicates and the articles about open procedures, a total of 41 articles remained. Of these, the review articles, case reports, and letters to the editor were subsequently excluded, as were reports dealing with nonbarbed sutures, such as Vicryl and Prolene with Gore-Tex. This resulted in a total of 12 articles, seven additional articles since the five articles reviewed by Villa et al. The authors' review demonstrated that, within the past decade, little or no substantial evidence has been added to the peer-reviewed literature to support or sustain the promising statement about thread-lift sutures as made by Villa et al. in 2006 in terms of

  19. Wind lift generator

    SciTech Connect

    Herman, G. R.; Martin, W. A.

    1985-08-20

    A wind lift generator includes a housing structure formed by a pair of spaced apart plates mounted on support structure for pivotal rotation about a vertical axis at the forward end thereof for orienting into the wind, and said plates supporting a plurality of coaxially disposed sprockets arranged to support a pair of spaced apart drive chains in a quadrilateral configuration with lift foils connected and supported between the chains with the quadrilateral chain configuration supporting the chain for an initial lift mode at the forward end of the housing, followed by a direct impact mode extending from the frontmore » of the housing upward and backward to the rear of the housing and a negative lift mode extending from the top rear of the housing to the bottom with the vanes returning via a neutral mode to the front of the housing for repeating the lift cycle. A suitable electrical generator is driven from one or more shafts of the assembly driven by the drive chains.« less

  20. Grid-Adapted FUN3D Computations for the Second High Lift Prediction Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee-Rausch, E. M.; Rumsey, C. L.; Park, M. A.

    2014-01-01

    Contributions of the unstructured Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes code FUN3D to the 2nd AIAA CFD High Lift Prediction Workshop are described, and detailed comparisons are made with experimental data. Using workshop-supplied grids, results for the clean wing configuration are compared with results from the structured code CFL3D Using the same turbulence model, both codes compare reasonably well in terms of total forces and moments, and the maximum lift is similarly over-predicted for both codes compared to experiment. By including more representative geometry features such as slat and flap brackets and slat pressure tube bundles, FUN3D captures the general effects of the Reynolds number variation, but under-predicts maximum lift on workshop-supplied grids in comparison with the experimental data, due to excessive separation. However, when output-based, off-body grid adaptation in FUN3D is employed, results improve considerably. In particular, when the geometry includes both brackets and the pressure tube bundles, grid adaptation results in a more accurate prediction of lift near stall in comparison with the wind-tunnel data. Furthermore, a rotation-corrected turbulence model shows improved pressure predictions on the outboard span when using adapted grids.

  1. 25 CFR 23.31 - Competitive off-reservation grant process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Competitive off-reservation grant process. 23.31 Section 23.31 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN CHILD WELFARE ACT Grants to Off-Reservation Indian Organizations for Title II Indian Child and Family Service...

  2. Synchronization and information processing by an on-off coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, G. W.; Zhao, Shan

    2002-05-01

    This paper proposes an on-off coupling process for chaos synchronization and information processing. An in depth analysis for the net effect of a conventional coupling is performed. The stability of the process is studied. We show that the proposed controlled coupling process can locally minimize the smoothness and the fidelity of dynamical data. A digital filter expression for the on-off coupling process is derived and a connection is made to the Hanning filter. The utility and robustness of the proposed approach is demonstrated by chaos synchronization in Duffing oscillators, the spatiotemporal synchronization of noisy nonlinear oscillators, the estimation of the trend of a time series, and restoration of the contaminated solution of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation.

  3. Techno-economic analysis of three different substrate removal and reuse strategies for III-V solar cells: Techno-economic analysis for III-V solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, J. Scott; Remo, Timothy; Horowitz, Kelsey

    The high cost of wafers suitable for epitaxial deposition of III-V solar cells has been a primary barrier to widespread use of these cells in low-concentration and one-sun terrestrial solar applications. A possible solution is to reuse the substrate many times, thus spreading its cost across many cells. We performed a bottom-up techno-economic analysis of three different strategies for substrate reuse in high-volume manufacturing: epitaxial lift-off, spalling, and the use of a porous germanium release layer. The analysis shows that the potential cost reduction resulting from substrate reuse is limited in all three strategies--not by the number of reuse cyclesmore » achievable, but by the costs that are incurred in each cycle to prepare the substrate for another epitaxial deposition. The dominant substrate-preparation cost component is different for each of the three strategies, and the cost-ranking of these strategies is subject to change if future developments substantially reduce the cost of epitaxial deposition.« less

  4. Study for Air Vehicles at High Speeds, Identifying the Potential Benefits to Transport Aircraft of a Continuously Variable Geometry Trailing-Edge Structure that can be Utilized for Aircraft Control, Trim, Load-Alleviation, and High Lift

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-01

    Field Length is defined as the total distance from brake release to the point at which the aircraft clears a height of 35 ft. The clearance height is...height clearance. The AEFL comprises two parts, the ground roll from brake release to lift-off (GR) plus the distance from lift-off to 35 ft height

  5. Lifting bloody footwear impressions using alginate casts followed by chemical enhancement.

    PubMed

    Wiesner, Sarena; Izraeli, Elad; Shor, Yaron; Domb, Avi

    2013-05-01

    A method for lifting bloody footwear impressions using alginate casts and enhancing the lifted impressions with amido black is presented. On rough or dark substrates, background interferences may conceal significant details of footwear impressions. Illumination with alternative light sources and chemically enhancing the bloody footwear impressions may reveal additional details, but sometimes, lifting footwear impressions prior to enhancing is the only way to expose hidden details (by using blood reagents not adequate on the original). Several cast formulations were tested for lifting the footwear impressions. The best results were achieved using Aroma fine®. Enhancement of the footwear impressions was attempted with several reagents prior to lifting, during the casting process, and on the lifted footwear impressions. Applying amido black to footwear impressions lifted with alginate produced the sharpest and most detailed footwear impressions. Alginate castings followed by chemical enhancement with amido black may produce high-quality footwear impressions for comparison. © 2013 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  6. A kinetic Monte Carlo simulation method of van der Waals epitaxy for atomistic nucleation-growth processes of transition metal dichalcogenides.

    PubMed

    Nie, Yifan; Liang, Chaoping; Cha, Pil-Ryung; Colombo, Luigi; Wallace, Robert M; Cho, Kyeongjae

    2017-06-07

    Controlled growth of crystalline solids is critical for device applications, and atomistic modeling methods have been developed for bulk crystalline solids. Kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) simulation method provides detailed atomic scale processes during a solid growth over realistic time scales, but its application to the growth modeling of van der Waals (vdW) heterostructures has not yet been developed. Specifically, the growth of single-layered transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) is currently facing tremendous challenges, and a detailed understanding based on KMC simulations would provide critical guidance to enable controlled growth of vdW heterostructures. In this work, a KMC simulation method is developed for the growth modeling on the vdW epitaxy of TMDs. The KMC method has introduced full material parameters for TMDs in bottom-up synthesis: metal and chalcogen adsorption/desorption/diffusion on substrate and grown TMD surface, TMD stacking sequence, chalcogen/metal ratio, flake edge diffusion and vacancy diffusion. The KMC processes result in multiple kinetic behaviors associated with various growth behaviors observed in experiments. Different phenomena observed during vdW epitaxy process are analysed in terms of complex competitions among multiple kinetic processes. The KMC method is used in the investigation and prediction of growth mechanisms, which provide qualitative suggestions to guide experimental study.

  7. Compliant flow designs for optimum lift control of wind turbine rotors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Theodore J. H.

    An optimization approach was formulated to determine geometric designs that are most compliant to flow control devices. Single dielectric barrier discharge (SDBD) plasma actuators are used in the flow control design optimization as they are able to be incorporated into CFD simulations. An adjoint formulation was derived in order to have a numerically efficient way of calculating the shape derivatives on the surface of the geometric design. The design of a wind turbine blade retrofit for the JIMP 25kW wind turbine at Notre Dame is used to motivate analyses that utilize the optimization approach. The CFD simulations of the existing wind turbine blade were validated against wind tunnel testing. A one-parameter optimization was performed in order to design a trailing edge addition for the current wind turbine blade. The trailing edge addition was designed to meet a desired lift target while maximizing the lift-to-drag ratio. This analysis was performed at seven radial locations on the wind turbine blade. The new trailing edge retrofits were able to achieve the lift target for the outboard radial locations. The designed geometry has been fabricated and is currently being validated on a full-scale turbine and it is predicted to have an increase in annual energy production of 4.30%. The design of a trailing edge retrofit that includes the use of a SDBD plasma actuator was performed using a two-parameter optimization. The objective of this analysis was to meet the lift target and maximize the controllability of the design. The controllability is defined as the difference in lift between plasma on and plasma off cases. A trailing edge retrofit with the plasma actuator located on the pressure side was able to achieve the target passive lift increase while using plasma flow control to reduce the lift to below the original design. This design resulted in a highly compliant flow.

  8. OM-VPE growth of Mg-doped GaAs. [OrganoMetallic-Vapor Phase Epitaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, C. R.; Dietze, W. T.; Ludowise, M. J.

    1982-01-01

    The epitaxial growth of Mg-doped GaAs by the organometallic vapor phase epitaxial process (OM-VPE) has been achieved for the first time. The doping is controllable over a wide range of input fluxes of bis (cyclopentadienyl) magnesium, (C5H5)2Mg, the organometallic precursor to Mg.

  9. Mosaic structure in epitaxial thin films having large lattice mismatch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srikant, V.; Speck, J. S.; Clarke, D. R.

    1997-11-01

    Epitaxial films having a large lattice mismatch with their substrate invariably form a mosaic structure of slightly misoriented sub-grains. The mosaic structure is usually characterized by its x-ray rocking curve on a surface normal reflection but this is limited to the out-of-plane component unless off-axis or transmission experiments are performed. A method is presented by which the in-plane component of the mosaic misorientation can be determined from the rocking curves of substrate normal and off-axis reflections. Results are presented for two crystallographically distinct heteroepitaxial systems, ZnO, AlN, and GaN (wurtzite crystal structure) on c-plane sapphire and MgO (rock salt crystal structure) on (001) GaAs. The differences in the mosaic structure of these films are attributed to the crystallographic nature of their lattice dislocations.

  10. View southwest, wharf A and timber breakwater, showing sawn off ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View southwest, wharf A and timber breakwater, showing sawn off section and steel lift tower - U.S. Coast Guard Sandy Hook Station, Western Docking Structure, West of intersection of Canfield Road & Hartshorne Drive, Highlands, Monmouth County, NJ

  11. Inexpensive Dramatic Pneumatic Lift

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morse, Robert A.

    2017-01-01

    Various experiments and demonstrations relate air pressure and air pressure difference to force and area. Carpenter and Minnix describe a large-scale pneumatic lift in which a person sitting on a board atop a plastic garbage bag is lifted when the bag is connected to the exhaustport of a vacuum cleaner, which easily lifts the person. This article…

  12. Epitaxial VO2 thin-film-based radio-frequency switches with electrical activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jaeseong; Lee, Daesu; Cho, Sang June; Seo, Jung-Hun; Liu, Dong; Eom, Chang-Beom; Ma, Zhenqiang

    2017-09-01

    Vanadium dioxide (VO2) is a correlated material exhibiting a sharp insulator-to-metal phase transition (IMT) caused by temperature change and/or bias voltage. We report on the demonstration of electrically triggered radio-frequency (RF) switches based on epitaxial VO2 thin films. The highly epitaxial VO2 and SnO2 template layer was grown on a (001) TiO2 substrate by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). A resistance change of the VO2 thin films of four orders of magnitude was achieved with a relatively low threshold voltage, as low as 13 V, for an IMT phase transition. VO2 RF switches also showed high-frequency responses of insertion losses of -3 dB at the on-state and return losses of -4.3 dB at the off-state over 27 GHz. Furthermore, an intrinsic cutoff frequency of 17.4 THz was estimated for the RF switches. The study on electrical IMT dynamics revealed a phase transition time of 840 ns.

  13. 75 FR 33320 - Notice of Issuance of Final Determination Concerning a Lift Unit for an Overhead Patient Lift...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-11

    ... Determination Concerning a Lift Unit for an Overhead Patient Lift System; Correction AGENCY: U.S. Customs and... origin of a lift unit for an overhead patient lift system. The document contained two errors that this... origin of a lift unit for an overhead patient lift system. This document corrects in the DATES section of...

  14. Experimental investigation of lift enhancement for flying wing aircraft using nanosecond DBD plasma actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Junkai; Zhou, Danjie; He, Haibo; He, Chengjun; Shi, Zhiwei; Du, Hai

    2017-04-01

    The effects of the arrangement position and control parameters of nanosecond dielectric barrier discharge (NS-DBD) plasma actuators on lift enhancement for flying wing aircraft were investigated through wind tunnel experiments at a flow speed of 25 m s-1. The aerodynamic forces and moments were obtained by a six-component balance at angles of attack ranging from -4° to 28°. The lift, drag and pitching moment coefficients were compared for the cases with and without plasma control. The results revealed that the maximum control effect was achieved by placing the actuator at the leading edge of the inner and middle wing, for which the maximum lift coefficient increased by 37.8% and the stall angle of attack was postponed by 8° compared with the plasma-off case. The effects of modulation frequency and discharge voltage were also investigated. The results revealed that the lift enhancement effect of the NS-DBD plasma actuators was strongly influenced by the modulation frequency. Significant control effects were obtained at f = 70 Hz, corresponding to F + ≈ 1. The result for the pitching moment coefficient demonstrated that the plasma actuator can induce the reattachment of the separation flows when it is actuated. However, the results indicated that the discharge voltage had a negligible influence on the lift enhancement effect.

  15. Self-assembly of vertically aligned quantum ring-dot structure by Multiple Droplet Epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elborg, Martin; Noda, Takeshi; Mano, Takaaki; Kuroda, Takashi; Yao, Yuanzhao; Sakuma, Yoshiki; Sakoda, Kazuaki

    2017-11-01

    We successfully grow vertically aligned quantum ring-dot structures by Multiple Droplet Epitaxy technique. The growth is achieved by depositing GaAs quantum rings in a first droplet epitaxy process which are subsequently covered by a thin AlGaAs barrier. In a second droplet epitaxy process, Ga droplets preferentially position in the center indentation of the ring as well as attached to the edge of the ring in [ 1 1 bar 0 ] direction. By designing the ring geometry, full selectivity for the center position of the ring is achieved where we crystallize the droplets into quantum dots. The geometry of the ring and dot as well as barrier layer can be controlled in separate growth steps. This technique offers great potential for creating complex quantum molecules for novel quantum information technologies.

  16. Atlantis is lifted from its transporter in the VAB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. -- In the Vehicle Assembly Building, the orbiter Atlantis is being lifted from a transporter after rolling over from Orbiter Processing Facility bay 3. The orbiter will be raised to a vertical position, rotated and lifted into high bay 1, and stacked with its external tank and solid rocket boosters. Space Shuttle Atlantis is scheduled to launch on mission STS-104 in early July.

  17. Low-back electromyography (EMG) data-driven load classification for dynamic lifting tasks.

    PubMed

    Totah, Deema; Ojeda, Lauro; Johnson, Daniel D; Gates, Deanna; Mower Provost, Emily; Barton, Kira

    2018-01-01

    Numerous devices have been designed to support the back during lifting tasks. To improve the utility of such devices, this research explores the use of preparatory muscle activity to classify muscle loading and initiate appropriate device activation. The goal of this study was to determine the earliest time window that enabled accurate load classification during a dynamic lifting task. Nine subjects performed thirty symmetrical lifts, split evenly across three weight conditions (no-weight, 10-lbs and 24-lbs), while low-back muscle activity data was collected. Seven descriptive statistics features were extracted from 100 ms windows of data. A multinomial logistic regression (MLR) classifier was trained and tested, employing leave-one subject out cross-validation, to classify lifted load values. Dimensionality reduction was achieved through feature cross-correlation analysis and greedy feedforward selection. The time of full load support by the subject was defined as load-onset. Regions of highest average classification accuracy started at 200 ms before until 200 ms after load-onset with average accuracies ranging from 80% (±10%) to 81% (±7%). The average recall for each class ranged from 69-92%. These inter-subject classification results indicate that preparatory muscle activity can be leveraged to identify the intent to lift a weight up to 100 ms prior to load-onset. The high accuracies shown indicate the potential to utilize intent classification for assistive device applications. Active assistive devices, e.g. exoskeletons, could prevent back injury by off-loading low-back muscles. Early intent classification allows more time for actuators to respond and integrate seamlessly with the user.

  18. The processes of formation and epitaxial alignment of SrTiO3 thin films prepared by metallo-organic decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braunstein, G.; Paz-Pujalt, G. R.; Mason, M. G.; Blanton, T.; Barnes, C. L.; Margevich, D.

    1993-01-01

    The processes of formation and crystallization of thin films of SrTiO3 prepared by the method of metallo-organic decomposition have been studied with particular emphasis on the relationship between the thermal decomposition of the metallo-organic precursors and the eventual epitaxial alignment of the crystallized films. The films are deposited by spin coating onto single-crystalline silicon and SrTiO3 substrates, pyrolyzed on a hot plate at temperatures ranging from 200 to 450 °C, and subsequently heat treated in a quartz tube furnace at temperatures ranging from 300 to 1200 °C. Heat treatment at temperatures up to 450-500 °C results in the evaporation of solvents and other organic addenda, thermal decomposition of the metallo-organic (primarily metal-carboxylates) precursors, and formation of a carbonate species. This carbonate appears to be an intermediate phase in the reaction of SrCO3 and TiO2 to form SrTiO3. Relevant to this work is the fact that the carbonate species exhibits diffraction lines, indicating the formation of grains that can serve as seeds for the nucleation and growth of randomly oriented SrTiO3 crystallites, thereby leading to a polycrystalline film. Deposition on silicon substrates indeed results in the formation of polycrystalline SrTiO3. However, when the precursor solution is deposited on single-crystalline SrTiO3 substrates, the crystallization process involves a competition between two mechanisms: the random nucleation and growth of crystallites just described, and layer-by-layer solid phase epitaxy. Epitaxial alignment on SrTiO3 substrates can be achieved when the samples are heat treated at temperatures of 1100-1200 °C or at temperatures as low as 600-650 °C when the substrate is heated to about 1100 °C before spin coating.

  19. Process Waste Assessment, Mechanics Shop

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, N.M.

    1993-05-01

    This Process Waste Assessment was conducted to evaluate hazardous wastes generated in the Mechanics Shop. The Mechanics Shop maintains and repairs motorized vehicles and equipment on the SNL/California site, to include motorized carts, backhoes, street sweepers, trash truck, portable emergency generators, trencher, portable crane, and man lifts. The major hazardous waste streams routinely generated by the Mechanics Shop are used oil, spent off filters, oily rags, and spent batteries. The used off and spent off filters make up a significant portion of the overall hazardous waste stream. Waste oil and spent batteries are sent off-site for recycling. The rags andmore » spent on filters are not recycled. They are disposed of as hazardous waste. Mechanics Shop personnel continuously look for opportunities to minimize hazardous wastes.« less

  20. Photoresist-Free Patterning by Mechanical Abrasion of Water-Soluble Lift-Off Resists and Bare Substrates: Toward Green Fabrication of Transparent Electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Printz, Adam D.; Chan, Esther; Liong, Celine; Martinez, René S.; Lipomi, Darren J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the fabrication of transparent electrodes based on grids of copper microwires using a non-photolithographic process. The process—“abrasion lithography”—takes two forms. In the first implementation (Method I), a water-soluble commodity polymer film is abraded with a sharp tool, coated with a conductive film, and developed by immersion in water. Water dissolves the polymer film and lifts off the conductive film in the unabraded areas. In the second implementation (Method II), the substrate is abraded directly by scratching with a sharp tool (i.e., no polymer film necessary). The abraded regions of the substrate are recessed and roughened. Following deposition of a conductive film, the lower profile and roughened topography in the abraded regions prevents mechanical exfoliation of the conductive film using adhesive tape, and thus the conductive film remains only where the substrate is scratched. As an application, conductive grids exhibit average sheet resistances of 17 Ω sq–1 and transparencies of 86% are fabricated and used as the anode in organic photovoltaic cells in concert with the conductive polymer, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS). Compared to devices in which PEDOT:PSS alone serves as an anode, devices comprising grids of copper/nickel microwires and PEDOT:PSS exhibit lowered series resistance, which manifests in greater fill factor and power conversion efficiency. This simple method of forming micropatterns could find use in applications where cost and environmental impact should be minimized, especially as a potential replacement for the transparent electrode indium tin oxide (ITO) in thin-film electronics over large areas (i.e., solar cells) or as a method of rapid prototyping for laboratory-scale devices. PMID:24358321

  1. Aerodynamics model for a generic ASTOVL lift-fan aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birckelbaw, Lourdes G.; Mcneil, Walter E.; Wardwell, Douglas A.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes the aerodynamics model used in a simulation model of an advanced short takeoff and vertical landing (ASTOVL) lift-fan fighter aircraft. The simulation model was developed for use in piloted evaluations of transition and hover flight regimes, so that only low speed (M approximately 0.2) aerodynamics are included in the mathematical model. The aerodynamic model includes the power-off aerodynamic forces and moments and the propulsion system induced aerodynamic effects, including ground effects. The power-off aerodynamics data were generated using the U.S. Air Force Stability and Control Digital DATCOM program and a NASA Ames in-house graphics program called VORVIEW which allows the user to easily analyze arbitrary conceptual aircraft configurations using the VORLAX program. The jet-induced data were generated using the prediction methods of R. E. Kuhn et al., as referenced in this report.

  2. Measurements of noise produced by flow past lifting surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kendall, J. M.

    1978-01-01

    Wind tunnel studies have been conducted to determine the specific locations of aerodynamic noise production within the flow field about various lifting-surface configurations. The models tested included low aspect ratio shapes intended to represent aircraft flaps, a finite aspect ratio NACA 0012 wing, and a multi-element wing section consisting of a main section, a leading edge flap, and dual trailing edge flaps. Turbulence was induced on the models by surface roughness. Lift and drag were measured for the flap models. Hot-wire anemometry was used for study of the flap-model vortex roll-up. Apparent noise source distributions were measured by use of a directional microphone system, located outside the tunnel, which was scanned about the flow region to be analyzed under computer control. These distributions exhibited a diversity of pattern, suggesting that several flow processes are important to lifting-surface noise production. Speculation concerning these processes is offered.

  3. Functional Epitaxial Oxide Devices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-12

    complex oxides , epitaxial growth, antennas, varactors 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: REPORT U b. ABSTRACT u c. THIS PAGE u 17. LIMITATION OF...Technical Report DATES COVERED (From - To) 17-06-2008-31-12-2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Functional Epitaxial Oxide Devices 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER NA...This research effort addresses the need for high performance radio frequency (RF) components, specifically varactors and miniaturized, high gain

  4. Portable seat lift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weddendorf, Bruce (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A portable seat lift that can help individuals either (1) lower themselves to a sitting position or (2) raise themselves to a standing position is presented. The portable seat lift consists of a seat mounted on a base with two levers, which are powered by a drive unit.

  5. Epitaxy of semiconductor-superconductor nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krogstrup, P.; Ziino, N. L. B.; Chang, W.; Albrecht, S. M.; Madsen, M. H.; Johnson, E.; Nygård, J.; Marcus, C. M.; Jespersen, T. S.

    2015-04-01

    Controlling the properties of semiconductor/metal interfaces is a powerful method for designing functionality and improving the performance of electrical devices. Recently semiconductor/superconductor hybrids have appeared as an important example where the atomic scale uniformity of the interface plays a key role in determining the quality of the induced superconducting gap. Here we present epitaxial growth of semiconductor-metal core-shell nanowires by molecular beam epitaxy, a method that provides a conceptually new route to controlled electrical contacting of nanostructures and the design of devices for specialized applications such as topological and gate-controlled superconducting electronics. Our materials of choice, InAs/Al grown with epitaxially matched single-plane interfaces, and alternative semiconductor/metal combinations allowing epitaxial interface matching in nanowires are discussed. We formulate the grain growth kinetics of the metal phase in general terms of continuum parameters and bicrystal symmetries. The method realizes the ultimate limit of uniform interfaces and seems to solve the soft-gap problem in superconducting hybrid structures.

  6. TaC-coated graphite prepared via a wet ceramic process: Application to CVD susceptors for epitaxial growth of wide-bandgap semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Daisuke; Kimura, Taishi; Narita, Tetsuo; Suzumura, Akitoshi; Kimoto, Tsunenobu; Nakashima, Kenji

    2017-11-01

    A novel sintered tantalum carbide coating (SinTaC) prepared via a wet ceramic process is proposed as an approach to reducing the production cost and improving the crystal quality of bulk-grown crystals and epitaxially grown films of wide-bandgap semiconductors. Here, we verify the applicability of the SinTaC components as susceptors for chemical vapor deposition (CVD)-SiC and metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD)-GaN epitaxial growth in terms of impurity incorporation from the SinTaC layers and also clarify the surface-roughness controllability of SinTaC layers and its advantage in CVD applications. The residual impurity elements in the SinTaC layers were confirmed to not severely incorporate into the CVD-SiC and MOCVD-GaN epilayers grown using the SinTaC susceptors. The quality of the epilayers was also confirmed to be equivalent to that of epilayers grown using conventional susceptors. Furthermore, the surface roughness of the SinTaC components was controllable over a wide range of average roughness (0.4 ≤ Ra ≤ 5 μm) and maximum height roughness (3 ≤ Rz ≤ 36 μm) through simple additional surface treatment procedures, and the surface-roughened SinTaC susceptor fabricated using these procedures was predicted to effectively reduce thermal stress on epi-wafers. These results confirm that SinTaC susceptors are applicable to epitaxial growth processes and are advantageous over conventional susceptor materials for reducing the epi-cost and improving the quality of epi-wafers.

  7. The Effects of Buoyancy and Dilution on the Structure and Lift-off of Coflow Laminar Diffusion Flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walsh, Kevin T.; Long, Marshall B.; Smooke, Mitchell D.

    1999-01-01

    The ability to predict the coupled effects of complex transport phenomena with detailed chemical kinetics in diffusion flames is critical in the modeling of turbulent reacting flows and in understanding the processes by which soot formation and radiative transfer take place. In addition, an understanding of the factors that affect flame extinction in diffusion flames is critical in the suppression of fires and in improving engine efficiency. The goal of our characterizations of coflow laminar diffusion flames is to bring to microgravity the multidimensional diagnostic tools available in normal gravity, and in so doing provide a broader understanding of the successes and limitations of current combustion models. This will lead to a more detailed understanding of the interaction of convection, diffusion and chemistry in both buoyant and nonbuoyant environments. As a sensitive marker of changes in the flame shape, the number densities of excited-state CH (A(exp 2)delta, denoted CH*), and excited-state OH (A(exp 2)Sigma, denoted OH*) are measured in mu-g and normal gravity. Two-dimensional CH* and OH* number densities are deconvoluted from line-of-sight chemiluminescence measurements made on the NASA KC-135 reduced-gravity aircraft. Measured signal levels are calibrated, post-flight, with Rayleigh scattering. Although CH* and OH* kinetics are not well understood, the CH*, OH*, and ground-state CH distributions are spatially coincident in the flame anchoring region. Therefore, the ground-state CH distribution, which is easily computed, and the readily measured CH*/OH* distributions can be used to provide a consistent and convenient way of measuring lift-off height and flame shape in the diffusion flame under investigation. Given that the fuel composition affects flame chemistry and that buoyancy influences the velocity profile of the flow, we have the opportunity to computationally and experimentally study the roles of fluids and chemistry. In performing this

  8. Scaling of Lift Degradation Due to Anti-Icing Fluids Based Upon the Aerodynamic Acceptance Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broeren, Andy; Riley, Jim

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, the FAA has worked with Transport Canada, National Research Council Canada (NRC) and APS Aviation, Inc. to develop allowance times for aircraft operations in ice-pellet precipitation. These allowance times are critical to ensure safety and efficient operation of commercial and cargo flights. Wind-tunnel testing with uncontaminated anti-icing fluids and fluids contaminated with simulated ice pellets had been carried out at the NRC Propulsion and Icing Wind Tunnel (PIWT) to better understand the flow-off characteristics and resulting aerodynamic effects. The percent lift loss on the thin, high-performance wing model tested in the PIWT was determined at 8 deg. angle of attack and used as one of the evaluation criteria in determining the allowance times. Because it was unclear as to how performance degradations measured on this model were relevant to an actual airplane configuration, some means of interpreting the wing model lift loss was deemed necessary. This paper describes how the lift loss was related to the loss in maximum lift of a Boeing 737-200ADV airplane through the Aerodynamic Acceptance Test (AAT) performed for fluids qualification. A loss in maximum lift coefficient of 5.24% on the B737-200ADV airplane (which was adopted as the threshold in the AAT) corresponds to a lift loss of 7.3% on the PIWT model at 8 deg. angle of attack. There is significant scatter in the data used to develop the correlation related to varying effects of the anti-icing fluids that were tested and other factors. A statistical analysis indicated the upper limit of lift loss on the PIWT model was 9.2%. Therefore, for cases resulting in PIWT model lift loss from 7.3% to 9.2%, extra scrutiny of the visual observations is required in evaluating fluid performance with contamination.

  9. Understanding Wing Lift

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, J.; Soares, A. A.

    2010-01-01

    The conventional explanation of aerodynamic lift based on Bernoulli's equation is one of the most common mistakes in presentations to school students and is found in children's science books. The fallacies in this explanation together with an alternative explanation for aerofoil lift have already been presented in an excellent article by Babinsky…

  10. Growth and Characterization of Epitaxial Piezoelectric and Semiconductor Films.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-07-01

    quality epitaxial films at low growth rates. This process is limited to films up to a few microns thickness. The aluminum chloride/ ammonia CVD process has... scrubber through a rotary Vacuum pump maintaining Reactions.-DEZ is an electron deficient compound a pressure of about 400 Torr inside the reaction chain

  11. LIFT a future atmospheric chemistry sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pailharey, E.; Châteauneuf, F.; Aminou, D.

    2017-11-01

    Natural and anthropogenic trace constituents play an important role for the ozone budget and climate as well as in other problems of the environment. In order to prevent the dramatic impact of any climate change, exchange processes between the stratosphere and troposphere as well as the distribution and deposition of tropospheric trace constituents are investigated. The Limb Infrared Fourier Transform spectrometer (LIFT) will globally provide calibrated spectra of the atmosphere as a function of the tangent altitude. LIFT field of view will be 30 km × 30 km. The resolution is 30 km in azimuth corresponding to the full field of view, and 2 km in elevation, obtained by using a matrix of 15×15 detectors. The instrument will cover the spectral domain 5.7-14.7 μm through 2 different bands respectively 13.0-9.5 μm, 9.5-5.7 μm. With a spectral resolution of 0.1 cm-1, LIFT is a high class Fourier Transform Spectrometer compliant with the challenging constraints of limb viewing and spaceborne implementation.

  12. Aerodynamic characteristics of a large-scale lift-engine fighter model with external swiveling lift-engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrack, J. P.; Kirk, J. V.

    1972-01-01

    The aerodynamic characteristics of a six-engine (four lift, two lift-cruise) lift-engine model obtained in the Ames 40- by 80-foot wind tunnel are presented. The model was an approximate one-half scale representation of a lift-engine VTOL fighter aircraft with a variable-sweep wing. The four lift-engines were housed in the aft fuselage with the inlets located above the wing. Longitudinal and lateral-directional force and moment data are presented for a range of exhaust gas momentum ratios (thrust coefficients). Wind tunnel forward speed was varied from 0 to 140 knots corresponding to a maximum Reynolds number of 6.7 million. The data are presented without analysis.

  13. Lift outs: how to acquire a high-functioning team.

    PubMed

    Groysberg, Boris; Abrahams, Robin

    2006-12-01

    More and more, expanding companies are hiring high-functioning groups of people who have been working together effectively within one company and can rapidly come up to speed in a new environment. These lifted-out teams don't need to get acquainted with one another or to establish shared values, mutual accountability, or group norms; their long-standing relationships and trust help them make an impact very quickly. Of course, the process is not without risks: A failed lift out can lead to loss of money, opportunity, credibility, and even native talent. Boris Groysberg and Robin Abrahams studied more than 40 high-profile moves and interviewed team leaders in multiple industries and countries to examine the risks and opportunities that lift outs present. They concluded that, regardless of industry, nationality, or size of the team, a successful lift out unfolds over four consecutive, interdependent stages that must be meticulously managed. In the courtship stage, the hiring company and the leader of the targeted team determine whether the proposed move is, in fact, a good idea, and then define their business goals and discuss strategies. At the same time, the team leader discusses the potential move with the other members of his or her group to assess their level of interest and prepare them for the change. The second stage involves the integration of the team leader with the new company's top leadership. This part of the process ensures the team's access to senior executives-the most important factor in a lift out's success. Operational integration is the focus of the third stage. Ideally, teams will start out working with the same or similar clients, vendors, and industry standards. The fourth stage entails full cultural integration. To succeed, the lifted-out team members must be willing to re-earn credibility by proving their value and winning their new colleagues' trust.

  14. Summary of the First AIAA CFD High Lift Prediction Workshop (invited)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rumsey, C. L.; Long, M.; Stuever, R. A.; Wayman, T. R.

    2011-01-01

    The 1st AIAA CFD High Lift Prediction Workshop was held in Chicago in June 2010. The goals of the workshop included an assessment of the numerical prediction capability of current-generation CFD technology/ codes for swept, medium/high-aspect ratio wings in landing/take-off (high lift) configurations. 21 participants from 8 countries and 18 organizations, submitted a total of 39 datasets of CFD results. A variety of grid systems (both structured and unstructured) were used. Trends due to flap angle were analyzed, and effects of grid family, grid density, solver, and turbulence model were addressed. Some participants also assessed the effects of support brackets used to attach the flap and slat to the main wing. This invited paper describes the combined results from all workshop participants. Comparisons with experimental data are made. A statistical summary of the CFD results is also included.

  15. Lunar Landing Research Vehicle (LLRV) in flight lifting off from ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1964-01-01

    This 1964 NASA Flight Reserch Center photograph shows the Lunar Landing Research Vehicle (LLRV) number 1 in flight at the south base of Edwards Air Force Base. When Apollo planning was underway in 1960, NASA was looking for a simulator to profile the descent to the moon's surface. Three concepts surfaced: an electronic simulator, a tethered device, and the ambitious Dryden contribution, a free-flying vehicle. All three became serious projects, but eventually the NASA Flight Research Center's (FRC) Landing Research Vehicle (LLRV) became the most significant one. Hubert M. Drake is credited with originating the idea, while Donald Bellman and Gene Matranga were senior engineers on the project, with Bellman, the project manager. Simultaneously, and independently, Bell Aerosystems Company, Buffalo, N.Y., a company with experience in vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) aircraft, had conceived a similar free-flying simulator and proposed their concept to NASA headquarters. NASA Headquarters put FRC and Bell together to collaborate. The challenge was; to allow a pilot to make a vertical landing on earth in a simulated moon environment, one sixth of the earth's gravity and with totally transparent aerodynamic forces in a 'free flight' vehicle with no tether forces acting on it. Built of tubular aluminum like a giant four-legged bedstead, the vehicle was to simulate a lunar landing profile from around 1500 feet to the moon's surface. To do this, the LLRV had a General Electric CF-700-2V turbofan engine mounted vertically in gimbals, with 4200 pounds of thrust. The engine, using JP-4 fuel, got the vehicle up to the test altitude and was then throttled back to support five-sixths of the vehicle's weight, simulating the reduced gravity of the moon. Two hydrogen-peroxide lift rockets with thrust that could be varied from 100 to 500 pounds handled the LLRV's rate of descent and horizontal translations. Sixteen smaller hydrogen-peroxide rockets, mounted in pairs, gave the pilot

  16. Epitaxial hexagonal materials on IBAD-textured substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Matias, Vladimir; Yung, Christopher

    2017-08-15

    A multilayer structure including a hexagonal epitaxial layer, such as GaN or other group III-nitride (III-N) semiconductors, a <111> oriented textured layer, and a non-single crystal substrate, and methods for making the same. The textured layer has a crystalline alignment preferably formed by the ion-beam assisted deposition (IBAD) texturing process and can be biaxially aligned. The in-plane crystalline texture of the textured layer is sufficiently low to allow growth of high quality hexagonal material, but can still be significantly greater than the required in-plane crystalline texture of the hexagonal material. The IBAD process enables low-cost, large-area, flexible metal foil substratesmore » to be used as potential alternatives to single-crystal sapphire and silicon for manufacture of electronic devices, enabling scaled-up roll-to-roll, sheet-to-sheet, or similar fabrication processes to be used. The user is able to choose a substrate for its mechanical and thermal properties, such as how well its coefficient of thermal expansion matches that of the hexagonal epitaxial layer, while choosing a textured layer that more closely lattice matches that layer.« less

  17. On the laser lift-off of lightly doped micrometer-thick n-GaN films from substrates via the absorption of IR radiation in sapphire

    SciTech Connect

    Voronenkov, V. V.; Virko, M. V.; Kogotkov, V. S.

    The intense absorption of CO{sub 2} laser radiation in sapphire is used to separate GaN films from GaN templates on sapphire. Scanning of the sapphire substrate by the laser leads to the thermal dissociation of GaN at the GaN/sapphire interface and to the detachment of GaN films from the sapphire. The threshold density of the laser energy at which n-GaN started to dissociate is 1.6 ± 0.5 J/cm{sup 2}. The mechanical-stress distribution and the surface morphology of GaN films and sapphire substrates before and after laser lift-off are studied by Raman spectroscopy, atomic-force microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. A verticalmore » Schottky diode with a forward current density of 100 A/cm{sup 2} at a voltage of 2 V and a maximum reverse voltage of 150 V is fabricated on the basis of a 9-μm-thick detached n-GaN film.« less

  18. Helicopter Toy and Lift Estimation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shakerin, Said

    2013-01-01

    A $1 plastic helicopter toy (called a Wacky Whirler) can be used to demonstrate lift. Students can make basic measurements of the toy, use reasonable assumptions and, with the lift formula, estimate the lift, and verify that it is sufficient to overcome the toy's weight. (Contains 1 figure.)

  19. Ultrathin IBAD MgO films for epitaxial growth on amorphous substrates and sub-50 nm membranes

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Siming; Antonakos, C.; Bordel, C.; ...

    2016-11-07

    Here, a fabrication process has been developed for high energy ion beam assisted deposition (IBAD) biaxial texturing of ultrathin (~1 nm) MgO films, using a high ion-to-atom ratio and post-deposition annealing instead of a homoepitaxial MgO layer. These films serve as the seed layer for epitaxial growth of materials on amorphous substrates such as electron/X-ray transparent membranes or nanocalorimetry devices. Stress measurements and atomic force microscopy of the MgO films reveal decreased stress and surface roughness, while X-ray diffraction of epitaxial overlayers demonstrates the improved crystal quality of films grown epitaxially on IBAD MgO. The process simplifies the synthesis ofmore » IBAD MgO, fundamentally solves the “wrinkle” issue induced by the homoepitaxial layer on sub-50 nm membranes, and enables studies of epitaxial materials in electron/X-ray transmission and nanocalorimetry.« less

  20. Nanoselective area growth of GaN by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy on 4H-SiC using epitaxial graphene as a mask

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puybaret, Renaud; Patriarche, Gilles; Jordan, Matthew B.; Sundaram, Suresh; El Gmili, Youssef; Salvestrini, Jean-Paul; Voss, Paul L.; de Heer, Walt A.; Berger, Claire; Ougazzaden, Abdallah

    2016-03-01

    We report the growth of high-quality triangular GaN nanomesas, 30-nm thick, on the C-face of 4H-SiC using nanoselective area growth (NSAG) with patterned epitaxial graphene grown on SiC as an embedded mask. NSAG alleviates the problems of defects in heteroepitaxy, and the high mobility graphene film could readily provide the back low-dissipative electrode in GaN-based optoelectronic devices. A 5-8 graphene-layer film is first grown on the C-face of 4H-SiC by confinement-controlled sublimation of silicon carbide. Graphene is then patterned and arrays of 75-nm-wide openings are etched in graphene revealing the SiC substrate. A 30-nm-thick GaN is subsequently grown by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy. GaN nanomesas grow epitaxially with perfect selectivity on SiC, in the openings patterned through graphene. The up-or-down orientation of the mesas on SiC, their triangular faceting, and cross-sectional scanning transmission electron microscopy show that they are biphasic. The core is a zinc blende monocrystal surrounded with single-crystal wurtzite. The GaN crystalline nanomesas have no threading dislocations or V-pits. This NSAG process potentially leads to integration of high-quality III-nitrides on the wafer scalable epitaxial graphene/silicon carbide platform.

  1. Nanoselective area growth of GaN by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy on 4H-SiC using epitaxial graphene as a mask

    SciTech Connect

    Puybaret, Renaud; Jordan, Matthew B.; Voss, Paul L.

    We report the growth of high-quality triangular GaN nanomesas, 30-nm thick, on the C-face of 4H-SiC using nanoselective area growth (NSAG) with patterned epitaxial graphene grown on SiC as an embedded mask. NSAG alleviates the problems of defects in heteroepitaxy, and the high mobility graphene film could readily provide the back low-dissipative electrode in GaN-based optoelectronic devices. A 5–8 graphene-layer film is first grown on the C-face of 4H-SiC by confinement-controlled sublimation of silicon carbide. Graphene is then patterned and arrays of 75-nm-wide openings are etched in graphene revealing the SiC substrate. A 30-nm-thick GaN is subsequently grown by metalmore » organic vapor phase epitaxy. GaN nanomesas grow epitaxially with perfect selectivity on SiC, in the openings patterned through graphene. The up-or-down orientation of the mesas on SiC, their triangular faceting, and cross-sectional scanning transmission electron microscopy show that they are biphasic. The core is a zinc blende monocrystal surrounded with single-crystal wurtzite. The GaN crystalline nanomesas have no threading dislocations or V-pits. This NSAG process potentially leads to integration of high-quality III-nitrides on the wafer scalable epitaxial graphene/silicon carbide platform.« less

  2. Selective Epitaxial Graphene Growth on SiC via AlN Capping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaman, Farhana; Rubio-Roy, Miguel; Moseley, Michael; Lowder, Jonathan; Doolittle, William; Berger, Claire; Dong, Rui; Meindl, James; de Heer, Walt; Georgia Institute of Technology Team

    2011-03-01

    Electronic-quality graphene is epitaxially grown by graphitization of carbon-face silicon carbide (SiC) by the sublimation of silicon atoms from selected regions uncapped by aluminum nitride (AlN). AlN (deposited by molecular beam epitaxy) withstands high graphitization temperatures of 1420o C, hence acting as an effective capping layer preventing the growth of graphene under it. The AlN is patterned and etched to open up windows onto the SiC surface for subsequent graphitization. Such selective epitaxial growth leads to the formation of high-quality graphene in desired patterns without the need for etching and lithographic patterning of graphene itself. No detrimental contact of the graphene with external chemicals occurs throughout the fabrication-process. The impact of process-conditions on the mobility of graphene is investigated. Graphene hall-bars were fabricated and characterized by scanning Raman spectroscopy, ellipsometry, and transport measurements. This controlled growth of graphene in selected regions represents a viable approach to fabrication of high-mobility graphene as the channel material for fast-switching field-effect transistors.

  3. Systematic characterization of structural, dynamical and electrical properties of dust devils and implications for dust lifting processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franzese, Gabriele; Esposito, Francesca; Lorenz, Ralph D.; Popa, Ciprian; Silvestro, Simone; Deniskina, Natalia; Cozzolino, Fabio

    2017-04-01

    Dust devils are convective vortices able to lift sand and dust grains from the soil surface, even in conditions of low wind speed environment. They have been observed not only on Earth but also on other planets of the solar system; in particular, they are largely studied on Mars. Indeed, the contribution of the dust devils to the Martian climate is a highly debated question. In order to investigate this topic, it is important to understand the nature of the dust lifting mechanism by the vortex and characterize the induced electric field. As part of the development process of DREAMS, the meteorological station on board the Schiapparelli lander of the ExoMars 2016 mission, and of the Dust complex package of the ExoMars 2020 mission, we performed various field campaigns in the Sahara desert (Tafilalt region, Morocco). We deployed a fully equipped meteorological station and, during the 2014 summer, we observed three months of dust devils activity, collecting almost six hundreds events. For each dust devil, we monitored the horizontal wind speed and direction, the vertical wind speed, the pressure drop due to the vortex core, the temperature, the induced electric field and the concentration of dust lifted. This data set is unique in literature and represents up to now the most comprehensive one available for the dusty convective vortices. Here we will present the analysis of the Moroccan data with particular emphasis on the study of the atmospheric electric field variations due to the passage of the vortices. The distribution of the vortex parameters (wind speed and direction, pressure, E-field and dust lifted) are showed and compared, when possible, to the ones observed by the Martian surveys. The connection between the E-field and the other parameters will be presented. In the terrestrial environment, the development of the convective vortices is restricted by the presence of the vegetation and of the urban areas, hence dust devils can impact the climate only on local

  4. Low-back electromyography (EMG) data-driven load classification for dynamic lifting tasks

    PubMed Central

    Ojeda, Lauro; Johnson, Daniel D.; Gates, Deanna; Mower Provost, Emily; Barton, Kira

    2018-01-01

    Objective Numerous devices have been designed to support the back during lifting tasks. To improve the utility of such devices, this research explores the use of preparatory muscle activity to classify muscle loading and initiate appropriate device activation. The goal of this study was to determine the earliest time window that enabled accurate load classification during a dynamic lifting task. Methods Nine subjects performed thirty symmetrical lifts, split evenly across three weight conditions (no-weight, 10-lbs and 24-lbs), while low-back muscle activity data was collected. Seven descriptive statistics features were extracted from 100 ms windows of data. A multinomial logistic regression (MLR) classifier was trained and tested, employing leave-one subject out cross-validation, to classify lifted load values. Dimensionality reduction was achieved through feature cross-correlation analysis and greedy feedforward selection. The time of full load support by the subject was defined as load-onset. Results Regions of highest average classification accuracy started at 200 ms before until 200 ms after load-onset with average accuracies ranging from 80% (±10%) to 81% (±7%). The average recall for each class ranged from 69–92%. Conclusion These inter-subject classification results indicate that preparatory muscle activity can be leveraged to identify the intent to lift a weight up to 100 ms prior to load-onset. The high accuracies shown indicate the potential to utilize intent classification for assistive device applications. Significance Active assistive devices, e.g. exoskeletons, could prevent back injury by off-loading low-back muscles. Early intent classification allows more time for actuators to respond and integrate seamlessly with the user. PMID:29447252

  5. Analysis of offshore platforms lifting with fixed pile structure type (fixed platform) based on ASD89

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugianto, Agus; Indriani, Andi Marini

    2017-11-01

    Platform construction GTS (Gathering Testing Sattelite) is offshore construction platform with fix pile structure type/fixed platform functioning to support the mining of petroleum exploitation. After construction fabrication process platform was moved to barges, then shipped to the installation site. Moving process is generally done by pull or push based on construction design determined when planning. But at the time of lifting equipment/cranes available in the work area then the moving process can be done by lifting so that moving activity can be implemented more quickly of work. This analysis moving process of GTS platform in a different way that is generally done to GTS platform types by lifting using problem is construction reinforcement required, so the construction can be moved by lifting with analyzing and checking structure working stress that occurs due to construction moving process by lifting AISC code standard and analysis using the SAP2000 structure analysis program. The analysis result showed that existing condition cannot be moved by lifting because stress ratio is above maximum allowable value that is 0.950 (AISC-ASD89). Overstress occurs on the member 295 and 324 with stress ratio value 0.97 and 0.95 so that it is required structural reinforcement. Box plate aplication at both members so that it produces stress ratio values 0.78 at the member 295 and stress ratio of 0.77 at the member 324. These results indicate that the construction have qualified structural reinforcement for being moved by lifting.

  6. Electronic Degeneracy and Intrinsic Magnetic Properties of EpitaxialNb : SrTiO3 Thin Films Controlled by Defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarantopoulos, A.; Ferreiro-Vila, E.; Pardo, V.; Magén, C.; Aguirre, M. H.; Rivadulla, F.

    2015-10-01

    We report thermoelectric power experiments in e -doped thin films of SrTiO3 (STO) which demonstrate that the electronic band degeneracy can be lifted through defect management during growth. We show that even small amounts of cationic vacancies, combined with epitaxial stress, produce a homogeneous tetragonal distortion of the films, resulting in a Kondo-like resistance upturn at low temperature, large anisotropic magnetoresistance, and nonlinear Hall effect. Ab initio calculations confirm a different occupation of each band depending on the degree of tetragonal distortion. The phenomenology reported in this Letter for tetragonally distorted e -doped STO thin films, is similar to that observed in LaAlO3 /STO interfaces and magnetic STO quantum wells.

  7. Epitaxial Electrodeposition of Methylammonium Lead Iodide Perovskites

    DOE PAGES

    Koza, Jakub A.; Hill, James C.; Demster, Ashley C.; ...

    2015-12-16

    Here, an electrochemical/chemical route is introduced to deposit both textured and epitaxial films of methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI 3) perovskites. The perovskite films are produced by chemical conversion of lead dioxide films that have been electrodeposited as either textured or epitaxial films onto [111]-textured Au and [100] and [111] single-crystal Au substrates. The epitaxial relationships for the MAPbI 3 films are MAPbI 3(001)[010]∥PbO 2(100)<001> and MAPbI 3(110)[111]∥PbO 2(100)<001> regardless of the Au substrate orientation, because the in-plane order of the converted film is controlled by the epitaxial PbO 2 precursor film. The textured and epitaxial MAPbI 3 films both havemore » trap densities lower than and photoluminescence intensities higher than those of polycrystalline films produced by spin coating.« less

  8. Real-Time Radiographic In-Situ Characterization Of Ply Lift In Composite Aerospace Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beshears, Ronald D.; Doering, Edward R.

    2006-01-01

    The problem of ply lifting in composite materials is a significant issue for various aerospace and military applications. A fundamental element in the prevention or mitigation of ply lift is determination of the timing of the ply lifting event during exposure of the composite material to flight conditions. The Marshall Space Flight Center s Nondestructive Evaluation Team developed a real-time radiographic technique for the detection of ply lift in carbon phenolic ablative materials in situ during live firings of subscale test motors in support of NASA s Reusable Solid Rocket Motor program, using amorphous silicon detector panels. The radiographic method has successfully detected ply lifting in seven consecutive carbon phenolic converging cones attached to solid fuel torches, providing the time of ply lift initiation in each test. Post-processing of the radiographic images improved the accuracy of timing measurements and allowed measurement of the ply lifting height as a function of time. Radiographic data correlated well with independent pressure and temperature measurements that indicate the onset of ply lift in the nozzle material.

  9. Electroless epitaxial etching for semiconductor applications

    DOEpatents

    McCarthy, Anthony M.

    2002-01-01

    A method for fabricating thin-film single-crystal silicon on insulator substrates using electroless etching for achieving efficient etch stopping on epitaxial silicon substrates. Microelectric circuits and devices are prepared on epitaxial silicon wafers in a standard fabrication facility. The wafers are bonded to a holding substrate. The silicon bulk is removed using electroless etching leaving the circuit contained within the epitaxial layer remaining on the holding substrate. A photolithographic operation is then performed to define streets and wire bond pad areas for electrical access to the circuit.

  10. 75 FR 31803 - Notice of Issuance of Final Determination Concerning a Lift Unit for an Overhead Patient Lift System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-04

    ... Determination Concerning a Lift Unit for an Overhead Patient Lift System AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border... concerning the country of origin of a lift unit for an overhead patient lift system. Based upon the facts presented, CBP has concluded in the final determination that Sweden is the country of origin of the lift...

  11. GOES-R Lift to Stand

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-08-23

    An overhead crane lifts the GOES-R spacecraft to move it into its work stand inside the Astrotech payload processing facility in Titusville, Florida near NASA’s Kennedy Space Center. GOES-R will be the first satellite in a series of next-generation NOAA Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites. The spacecraft is to launch aboard a United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket in November.

  12. Epitaxial growth of silicon for layer transfer

    DOEpatents

    Teplin, Charles; Branz, Howard M

    2015-03-24

    Methods of preparing a thin crystalline silicon film for transfer and devices utilizing a transferred crystalline silicon film are disclosed. The methods include preparing a silicon growth substrate which has an interface defining substance associated with an exterior surface. The methods further include depositing an epitaxial layer of silicon on the silicon growth substrate at the surface and separating the epitaxial layer from the substrate substantially along the plane or other surface defined by the interface defining substance. The epitaxial layer may be utilized as a thin film of crystalline silicon in any type of semiconductor device which requires a crystalline silicon layer. In use, the epitaxial transfer layer may be associated with a secondary substrate.

  13. DNA Profiles from Fingerprint Lifts-Enhancing the Evidential Value of Fingermarks Through Successful DNA Typing.

    PubMed

    Subhani, Zuhaib; Daniel, Barbara; Frascione, Nunzianda

    2018-05-25

    This study evaluated the compatibility of the most common enhancement methods and lifting techniques with DNA profiling. Emphasis is placed on modern lifting techniques (i.e., gelatin lifters and Isomark™) and historical fingerprint lifts for which limited research has been previously conducted. A total of 180 fingerprints were deposited on a glass surface, enhanced, lifted, and processed for DNA typing. DNA could be extracted and profiled for all the powders and lifts tested and from both groomed fingerprints and natural prints with no significant difference in the percentage of profile recovered. DNA profiles could also be obtained from historical fingerprint lifts (79.2% of 72 lifts) with one or more alleles detected. These results demonstrate the compatibility between different powder/lift combinations and DNA profiling therefore augmenting the evidential value of fingerprints in forensic casework. © 2018 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  14. Room-temperature bonding of epitaxial layer to carbon-cluster ion-implanted silicon wafers for CMOS image sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koga, Yoshihiro; Kadono, Takeshi; Shigematsu, Satoshi; Hirose, Ryo; Onaka-Masada, Ayumi; Okuyama, Ryousuke; Okuda, Hidehiko; Kurita, Kazunari

    2018-06-01

    We propose a fabrication process for silicon wafers by combining carbon-cluster ion implantation and room-temperature bonding for advanced CMOS image sensors. These carbon-cluster ions are made of carbon and hydrogen, which can passivate process-induced defects. We demonstrated that this combination process can be used to form an epitaxial layer on a carbon-cluster ion-implanted Czochralski (CZ)-grown silicon substrate with a high dose of 1 × 1016 atoms/cm2. This implantation condition transforms the top-surface region of the CZ-grown silicon substrate into a thin amorphous layer. Thus, an epitaxial layer cannot be grown on this implanted CZ-grown silicon substrate. However, this combination process can be used to form an epitaxial layer on the amorphous layer of this implanted CZ-grown silicon substrate surface. This bonding wafer has strong gettering capability in both the wafer-bonding region and the carbon-cluster ion-implanted projection range. Furthermore, this wafer inhibits oxygen out-diffusion to the epitaxial layer from the CZ-grown silicon substrate after device fabrication. Therefore, we believe that this bonding wafer is effective in decreasing the dark current and white-spot defect density for advanced CMOS image sensors.

  15. The effect of process conditions on the performance of epitaxial InP solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borrego, J. M.; Ghandi, S. K.

    1991-01-01

    Indium phosphide solar cells have a higher resistance to electron irradiation than Si or GaAs cells of comparable junction depth. As a result, there is much interest in the use of this material for space applications. Cells of this material were made in bulk InP by a number of techniques, including ion implantation, direct diffusion in sealed ampoules, and by open tube diffusion. However, it is generally considered that the epitaxial approach will be superior to all of these techniques. The epitaxy of InP is considerably more difficult than that of gallium arsenide, for a number of reasons. Perhaps the most important is the fact that the native oxides of Indium are extremely difficult to remove, as compared to that of Gallium. In addition, thermal treatments for the desorption of these oxides often result in the formation of phosphorus vacancies and free indium on the surface. Thus, inadequate sample preparation before epitaxy, poor reactor cleaning procedures, or poor transition procedures between the growth of successive layers, all give rise to trap phenomena and to high interface recombination velocities. Moreover, the lifetime of the grown material is dominated by the occurrence of native defects, so that it is a strong function of growth parameters. These problems are of special interest to the fabrication of solar cells, where long life-time, combined with the absence of traps, is highly desirable. A study of this problem is described using a non-invasive diagnostic technique which was developed.

  16. Electronic Degeneracy and Intrinsic Magnetic Properties of EpitaxialNb: SrTiO3 Thin Films Controlled by Defects.

    PubMed

    Sarantopoulos, A; Ferreiro-Vila, E; Pardo, V; Magén, C; Aguirre, M H; Rivadulla, F

    2015-10-16

    We report thermoelectric power experiments in e-doped thin films of SrTiO3 (STO) which demonstrate that the electronic band degeneracy can be lifted through defect management during growth. We show that even small amounts of cationic vacancies, combined with epitaxial stress, produce a homogeneous tetragonal distortion of the films, resulting in a Kondo-like resistance upturn at low temperature, large anisotropic magnetoresistance, and nonlinear Hall effect. Ab initio calculations confirm a different occupation of each band depending on the degree of tetragonal distortion. The phenomenology reported in this Letter for tetragonally distorted e-doped STO thin films, is similar to that observed in LaAlO3/STO interfaces and magnetic STO quantum wells.

  17. Effects of epitaxial structure and processing on electrical characteristics of InAs-based nBn infrared detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, X.; Savich, G. R.; Marozas, B. T.; Wicks, G. W.

    2017-02-01

    The conventional processing of the III-V nBn photodetectors defines mesa devices by etching the contact n-layer and stopping immediately above the barrier, i.e., a shallow etch. This processing enables great suppression of surface leakage currents without having to explore surface passivation techniques. However, devices that are made with this processing scheme are subject to lateral diffusion currents. To address the lateral diffusion current, we compare the effects of different processing approaches and epitaxial structures of nBn detectors. The conventional solution for eliminating lateral diffusion current, a deep etch through the barrier and the absorber, creates increased dark currents and an increased device failure rate. To avoid deep etch processing, a new device structure is proposed, the inverted-nBn structure. By comparing with the conventional nBn structure, the results show that the lateral diffusion current is effectively eliminated in the inverted-nBn structure without elevating the dark currents.

  18. Electromigration in epitaxial Cu(001) lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramanath, G.; Kim, H.; Goindi, H. S.; Frederick, M. J.; Shin, C.-S.; Goswami, R.; Petrov, I.; Greene, J. E.

    2002-04-01

    We report the electromigration (EM) response of single-domain epitaxial Cu(001) lines on layers of Ta, TaN, and TiN. Epitaxial Cu(001) lines on nitride layers exhibit nearly two orders of magnitude higher mean-time-to-failure (MTTF) values than those on Ta, indicating the strong influence of the underlayer. The activation energy of EM for Cu on the nitrides is ˜0.8-1.2 eV, and that of Cu on Ta is ˜0.2 eV, for 200-300 °C. Our results also indicate that the MTTF values correlate inversely to the crystal quality of the Cu layers measured by X-ray diffraction. The EM resistance of epitaxial Cu lines with different crystal quality on TaN were measured to separate the effects of interface chemistry and crystal quality. While higher quality epitaxial films reveal a higher EM resistance, the magnitude of the change is smaller than that obtained by changing the interface chemistry. Epitaxial lines exhibit more than 3-4 orders of magnitude higher MTTF than polycrystalline lines on the same underlayer. Based upon our results, we propose that the Cu/underlayer interface chemistry and presence of grain boundary diffusion play important roles in unpassivated Cu films.

  19. The surprising dynamics of a chain on a pulley: lift off and snapping

    PubMed Central

    Audoly, Basile

    2016-01-01

    The motion of weights attached to a chain or string moving on a frictionless pulley is a classic problem of introductory physics used to understand the relationship between force and acceleration. Here, we consider the dynamics of the chain when one of the weights is removed and, thus, one end is pulled with constant acceleration. This simple change has dramatic consequences for the ensuing motion: at a finite time, the chain ‘lifts off’ from the pulley, and the free end subsequently accelerates faster than the end that is pulled. Eventually, the chain undergoes a dramatic reversal of curvature reminiscent of the crack or snap, of a whip. We combine experiments, numerical simulations and theoretical arguments to explain key aspects of this dynamical problem. PMID:27436987

  20. Ground and Range Operations for a Heavy-Lift Vehicle: Preliminary Thoughts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rabelo, Luis; Zhu, Yanshen; Compton, Jeppie; Bardina, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the ground and range operations for a Shuttle derived Heavy-Lift Vehicle being launched from the Kennedy Space Center on the Eastern range. Comparisons will be made between the Shuttle and a heavy lift configuration (SLS-ETF MPCV April 2011) by contrasting their subsystems. The analysis will also describe a simulation configuration with the potential to be utilized for heavy lift vehicle processing/range simulation modeling and the development of decision-making systems utilized by the range. In addition, a simple simulation model is used to provide the required critical thinking foundations for this preliminary analysis.

  1. Understanding road surface pollutant wash-off and underlying physical processes using simulated rainfall.

    PubMed

    Egodawatta, Prasanna; Goonetilleke, Ashantha

    2008-01-01

    Pollutant wash-off is one of the key pollutant processes that detailed knowledge is required in order to develop successful treatment design strategies for urban stormwater. Unfortunately, current knowledge relating to pollutant wash-off is limited. This paper presents the outcomes of a detailed investigation into pollutant wash-off on residential road surfaces. The investigations consisted of research methodologies formulated to overcome the physical constraints due to the heterogeneity of urban paved surfaces and the dependency on naturally occurring rainfall. This entailed the use of small road surface plots and artificially simulated rainfall. Road surfaces were selected due to its critical importance as an urban stormwater pollutant source. The study results showed that the influence of initially available pollutants on the wash-off process was limited. Furthermore, pollutant wash-off from road surfaces can be replicated using an exponential equation. However, the typical version of the exponential wash-off equation needs to be modified by introducing a non dimensional factor referred to as 'capacity factor' CF. Three rainfall intensity ranges were identified where the variation of CF can be defined. Furthermore, it was found that particulate density rather than size is the critical parameter that influences the process of pollutant wash-off. (c) IWA Publishing 2008.

  2. Lift production through asymmetric flapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalikop, Shreyas; Sreenivas, K. R.

    2009-11-01

    At present, there is a strong interest in developing Micro Air Vehicles (MAV) for applications like disaster management and aerial surveys. At these small length scales, the flight of insects and small birds suggests that unsteady aerodynamics of flapping wings can offer many advantages over fixed wing flight, such as hovering-flight, high maneuverability and high lift at large angles of attack. Various lift generating mechanims such as delayed stall, wake capture and wing rotation contribute towards our understanding of insect flight. We address the effect of asymmetric flapping of wings on lift production. By visualising the flow around a pair of rectangular wings flapping in a water tank and numerically computing the flow using a discrete vortex method, we demonstrate that net lift can be produced by introducing an asymmetry in the upstroke-to-downstroke velocity profile of the flapping wings. The competition between generation of upstroke and downstroke tip vortices appears to hold the key to understanding this lift generation mechanism.

  3. Epitaxial Garnet Investigation; Technical Report, Foreign Travel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-10-25

    Pure yttrium iron garnet (YIG) films are grown on GGG substrates by * liquid phase epitaxy ( LPE ) in production lots. In addition, one or two...epitaxial garnet films for Philips Dr. Krumme * Dr. Doormann 3-6-87 Thomson - CSF Research Center, Orsay, France Dr. J. P. Castera Dr. P. L. Meunier all...research physicists who grow, characterize, Dr. J. Y. Beguin or use epitaxial garnet films for Thomson CSF. Dr. J. L. Rolland Dr. P. Friez The

  4. Advanced underwater lift device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flanagan, David T.; Hopkins, Robert C.

    1993-01-01

    Flexible underwater lift devices ('lift bags') are used in underwater operations to provide buoyancy to submerged objects. Commercially available designs are heavy, bulky, and awkward to handle, and thus are limited in size and useful lifting capacity. An underwater lift device having less than 20 percent of the bulk and less than 10 percent of the weight of commercially available models was developed. The design features a dual membrane envelope, a nearly homogeneous envelope membrane stress distribution, and a minimum surface-to-volume ratio. A proof-of-concept model of 50 kg capacity was built and tested. Originally designed to provide buoyancy to mock-ups submerged in NASA's weightlessness simulators, the device may have application to water-landed spacecraft which must deploy flotation upon impact, and where launch weight and volume penalties are significant. The device may also be useful for the automated recovery of ocean floor probes or in marine salvage applications.

  5. Wind tower service lift

    DOEpatents

    Oliphant, David; Quilter, Jared; Andersen, Todd; Conroy, Thomas

    2011-09-13

    An apparatus used for maintaining a wind tower structure wherein the wind tower structure may have a plurality of legs and may be configured to support a wind turbine above the ground in a better position to interface with winds. The lift structure may be configured for carrying objects and have a guide system and drive system for mechanically communicating with a primary cable, rail or other first elongate member attached to the wind tower structure. The drive system and guide system may transmit forces that move the lift relative to the cable and thereby relative to the wind tower structure. A control interface may be included for controlling the amount and direction of the power into the guide system and drive system thereby causing the guide system and drive system to move the lift relative to said first elongate member such that said lift moves relative to said wind tower structure.

  6. JWST Lifting System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tolleson, William

    2012-01-01

    A document describes designing, building, testing, and certifying a customized crane (Lifting Device LD) with a strong back (cradle) to facilitate the installation of long wall panels and short door panels for the GHe phase of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). The LD controls are variable-frequency drive controls designed to be adjustable for very slow and very-short-distance movements throughout the installation. The LD has a lift beam with an electric actuator attached at the end. The actuator attaches to a rectangular strong back (cradle) for lifting the long wall panels and short door panels from a lower angle into the vertical position inside the chamber, and then rotating around the chamber for installation onto the existing ceiling and floor. The LD rotates 360 (in very small increments) in both clockwise and counterclockwise directions. Eight lifting pads are on the top ring with 2-in. (.5-cm) eye holes spaced evenly around the ring to allow for the device to be suspended by three crane hoists from the top of the chamber. The LD is operated by remote controls that allow for a single, slow mode for booming the load in and out, with slow and very slow modes for rotating the load.

  7. LCL: (Locked Cheek Lift) Three-Dimensional Cheek Lift and Inferior Palpebral Rejuvenation.

    PubMed

    Divaris, Marc; Sabri, Ebaa; Cancemi, Gianfranco; Daury, Richard

    2018-06-01

    Many recent advances in face lift techniques have been made to reverse the aging process of the mid-face. In this study, we present a new technique by which mid-face rejuvenation can be achieved in double-angle vectors and allows adaption to the underlying bony structure. The locked cheek lift (LCL) allows effective, simple and rapid lifting of the malar fat pad in two planes. Correction of the curvature of the face and reduction of the height of lid cheek junction distance can be achieved without an incision at the lower eyelid. In total, 115 patients (77 females and 38 males) have been operated on using the LCL technique by a single surgeon; patient ages ranged between 37 and 71 years old (average = 51). Follow-up was performed by the same team for a year postoperatively. The facial expression and lid cheek distance have been evaluated during this period. After a year from the operation, the lid cheek distance correction was maintained in 95.7% of the cases, with stable position of the ascended malar fat pad. Postoperative edema and ecchymosis were limited. LCL is an effective, simple and rapid surgical technique, which is capable of correcting the cheek gravitational migration, reducing the lid cheek distance (LCD), maintaining the ascended stable malar fat pad for a long time with a short recovery period and minimal risk of complications. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  8. Hydraulic lift as a determinant of tree-grass coexistence on savannas.

    PubMed

    Yu, Kailiang; D'Odorico, Paolo

    2015-09-01

    The coexistence of woody plants and grasses in savannas is determined by a complex set of interacting factors that determine access to resources and demographic dynamics, under the control of external drivers and vegetation feedbacks with the physical environment. Existing theories explain coexistence mainly as an effect of competitive relations and/or disturbances. However, theoretical studies on the way facilitative interactions resulting from hydraulic lift affect tree-grass coexistence and the range of environmental conditions in which savannas are stable are still lacking. We investigated the role of hydraulic lift in the stability of tree-grass coexistence in savannas. To that end, we developed a new mechanistic model that accounts for both competition for soil water in the shallow soil and fire-induced disturbance. We found that hydraulic lift favors grasses, which scavenge the water lifted by woody plants. Thus, hydraulic lift expands (at the expenses of woodlands) the range of environmental conditions in which savannas are stable. These results indicate that hydraulic lift can be an important mechanism responsible for the coexistence of woody plants and grasses in savannas. Grass facilitation by trees through the process of hydraulic lift could allow savannas to persist stably in mesic regions that would otherwise exhibit a forest cover. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  9. A Gradient-Field Pulsed Eddy Current Probe for Evaluation of Hidden Material Degradation in Conductive Structures Based on Lift-Off Invariance

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yong; Jing, Haoqing; Zainal Abidin, Ilham Mukriz; Yan, Bei

    2017-01-01

    Coated conductive structures are widely adopted in such engineering fields as aerospace, nuclear energy, etc. The hostile and corrosive environment leaves in-service coated conductive structures vulnerable to Hidden Material Degradation (HMD) occurring under the protection coating. It is highly demanded that HMD can be non-intrusively assessed using non-destructive evaluation techniques. In light of the advantages of Gradient-field Pulsed Eddy Current technique (GPEC) over other non-destructive evaluation methods in corrosion evaluation, in this paper the GPEC probe for quantitative evaluation of HMD is intensively investigated. Closed-form expressions of GPEC responses to HMD are formulated via analytical modeling. The Lift-off Invariance (LOI) in GPEC signals, which makes the HMD evaluation immune to the variation in thickness of the protection coating, is introduced and analyzed through simulations involving HMD with variable depths and conductivities. A fast inverse method employing magnitude and time of the LOI point in GPEC signals for simultaneously evaluating the conductivity and thickness of HMD region is proposed, and subsequently verified by finite element modeling and experiments. It has been found from the results that along with the proposed inverse method the GPEC probe is applicable to evaluation of HMD in coated conductive structures without much loss in accuracy. PMID:28441328

  10. A Gradient-Field Pulsed Eddy Current Probe for Evaluation of Hidden Material Degradation in Conductive Structures Based on Lift-Off Invariance.

    PubMed

    Li, Yong; Jing, Haoqing; Zainal Abidin, Ilham Mukriz; Yan, Bei

    2017-04-25

    Coated conductive structures are widely adopted in such engineering fields as aerospace, nuclear energy, etc. The hostile and corrosive environment leaves in-service coated conductive structures vulnerable to Hidden Material Degradation (HMD) occurring under the protection coating. It is highly demanded that HMD can be non-intrusively assessed using non-destructive evaluation techniques. In light of the advantages of Gradient-field Pulsed Eddy Current technique (GPEC) over other non-destructive evaluation methods in corrosion evaluation, in this paper the GPEC probe for quantitative evaluation of HMD is intensively investigated. Closed-form expressions of GPEC responses to HMD are formulated via analytical modeling. The Lift-off Invariance (LOI) in GPEC signals, which makes the HMD evaluation immune to the variation in thickness of the protection coating, is introduced and analyzed through simulations involving HMD with variable depths and conductivities. A fast inverse method employing magnitude and time of the LOI point in GPEC signals for simultaneously evaluating the conductivity and thickness of HMD region is proposed, and subsequently verified by finite element modeling and experiments. It has been found from the results that along with the proposed inverse method the GPEC probe is applicable to evaluation of HMD in coated conductive structures without much loss in accuracy.

  11. Business Profile of Boat Lift Net and Stationary Lift Net Fishing Gear in Morodemak Waters Central Java

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hapsari, Trisnani D.; Jayanto, Bogi B.; Fitri, Aristi D. P.; Triarso, I.

    2018-02-01

    Lift net is one of the fishing gears that is used widely in the Morodemak coastal fishing port (PPP) for catching pelagic fish. The yield of fish captured by these fishing gear has high economic value, such as fish belt (Trichiurus sp), squids (Loligo sp) and anchovies (Stelophorus sp). The aims of this research were to determine the technical aspects of boat lift net and stationary lift net fishing gear in Morodemak Waters Demak Regency; to find out the financial aspect of those fishing gears and to analyze the financial feasibility by counting PP, NPV, IRR, and B/C ratio criteria. This research used case study method with descriptive analysis. The sampling method was purposive sampling with 22 fishermen as respondents. The result of the research showed that the average of boat lift net acceptance was Rp 388,580,000. The financial analysis of fisheries boat lift net with the result of NPV Rp 836,149,272, PP 2.44 years, IRR value 54%, and B/C ratio 1.73. The average of stationary lift net acceptance was Rp 27,750,000. The financial analysis lift net with the result of NPV Rp 37,937,601; PP 1.96 years, IRR value 86%, and B/C ratio 1.32. This research had a positive NPV value, B/C ratio >1, and IRR > discount rate (12 %). This study concluded that the fishery business of boat lift net and stationary lift net in Morodemak coastal fishing port (PPP) was worth running.

  12. Electronic and transformation properties of a metastable defect introduced in epitaxially grown boron-doped p-type Si by alpha particle irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamor, M.; Auret, F. D.; Goodman, S. A.; Meyer, W. E.; Myburg, G.

    1998-06-01

    Titanium (Ti) Schottky barrier diodes on epitaxially grown boron-doped p-type Si films with a free carrier density of 6-8×1016cm-3 were irradiated with alpha particles at room temperature using an americium-241 (Am-241) radio nuclide. We report the electronic and transformation characteristics of an α-particle irradiation-induced defect Hα2 in epitaxially grown p-Si with metastable properties. The energy level and apparent capture cross section, as determined by deep-level transient spectroscopy, are Ev+0.43 eV and 1.4×10-15 cm2, respectively. This defect can be removed and re-introduced using a conventional bias-on/off cooling technique.

  13. One-step Ge/Si epitaxial growth.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hung-Chi; Lin, Bi-Hsuan; Chen, Huang-Chin; Chen, Po-Chin; Sheu, Hwo-Shuenn; Lin, I-Nan; Chiu, Hsin-Tien; Lee, Chi-Young

    2011-07-01

    Fabricating a low-cost virtual germanium (Ge) template by epitaxial growth of Ge films on silicon wafer with a Ge(x)Si(1-x) (0 < x < 1) graded buffer layer was demonstrated through a facile chemical vapor deposition method in one step by decomposing a hazardousless GeO(2) powder under hydrogen atmosphere without ultra-high vacuum condition and then depositing in a low-temperature region. X-ray diffraction analysis shows that the Ge film with an epitaxial relationship is along the in-plane direction of Si. The successful growth of epitaxial Ge films on Si substrate demonstrates the feasibility of integrating various functional devices on the Ge/Si substrates.

  14. Arch-bridge Lift Process Monitoring by Using Packaged Optical Fibre Strain Sensors with Temperature Compensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokhtar, M. R.; Sun, T.; Grattan, K. T. V.; Owens, K.; Kwasny, J.; Taylor, S. E.; Basheer, P. A. M.; Cleland, D.; Bai, Y.; Sonebi, M.; Davis, G.; Gupta, A.; Hogg, I.; Bell, B.; Doherty, W.; McKeague, S.; Moore, D.; Greeves, K.

    2011-08-01

    This paper presents a novel sensor design and packaging, specifically developed to allow fibre grating-based sensors to be used in harsh, in-the-field measurement conditions for accurate strain measurement, with full temperature compensation. After these sensors are carefully packaged and calibrated in the laboratory, they are installed onto the paragrid of a set of flat-packed concrete units, created specifically for forming a small-scale, lightweight and inexpensive flexi-arch bridge. During the arch-bridge lifting process, the sensors are used for real-time strain measurements to ensure the quality of the construction. During the work done, the sensors have demonstrated enhanced resilience when embedded in concrete structures, providing accurate and consistent strain measurements during the whole installation process and beyond into monitoring the integrity and use of the structure.

  15. Lift Off for first pair of Cluster II spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-07-01

    At 14.39 CEST, a Soyuz-Fregat launch vehicle provided by the French-Russian Starsem consortium lifted off with FM 6 and FM 7, the first pair of Cluster II satellites. Approximately 90 minutes into the mission, the rocket's Fregat fourth stage fired for a second time to insert the spacecraft into a 240 km - 18,000 km parking orbit. A few minutes later, the ground station in Kiruna, Sweden, acquired the two spacecraft and started to receive telemetry, confirming that the satellites had sucessfully separated from the Fregat and that they were now flying independently. "This has been an excellent start and we look forward to the second launch next month," said Professor Roger-Maurice Bonnet, ESA Director of Science. "Cluster is one of the key Cornerstone missions in our Horizons 2000 long-term scientific programme and it will provide unique insights that will revolutionise our understanding of near-Earth space." ESA's Cluster II project manager, Dr John Ellwood, paid tribute to the hundreds of scientists and engineers in many countries who have worked so hard to rebuild the four Cluster satellites since the tragic loss of the first group in 1996. "Without the dedication and teamwork of these people, today's success would not have been possible," he said. "Only three years after we began the Cluster II programme, we are already starting to see the fruits of all our efforts." Cluster II deputy project manager, Alberto Gianolio, also expressed his full satisfaction for the successful launch. "This launch marks a milestone in the cooperation between the European Space Agency and our Russian partners. We are looking forward to the continuation of this fruitful joint effort in the years to come". UK Winner For Cluster Competition - Rumba, Salsa, Samba, Tango into space! The winner of ESA's "Name The Cluster Quartet" competition was announced today, during a special launch event for the media at the European Space Operations Centre (ESOC) in Darmstadt, Germany. After an

  16. In silico carbon molecular beam epitaxial growth of graphene on the h-BN substrate: carbon source effect on van der Waals epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jonghoon; Varshney, Vikas; Park, Jeongho; Farmer, Barry L.; Roy, Ajit K.

    2016-05-01

    Against the presumption that hexagonal boron-nitride (h-BN) should provide an ideal substrate for van der Waals (vdW) epitaxy to grow high quality graphene films, carbon molecular beam epitaxy (CMBE) techniques using solid carbon sublimation have reported relatively poor quality of the graphene. In this article, the CMBE growth of graphene on the h-BN substrate is numerically studied in order to identify the effect of the carbon source on the quality of the graphene film. The carbon molecular beam generated by the sublimation of solid carbon source materials such as graphite and glassy carbon is mostly composed of atomic carbon, carbon dimers and carbon trimers. Therefore, the graphene film growth becomes a complex process involving various deposition characteristics of a multitude of carbon entities. Based on the study of surface adsorption and film growth characteristics of these three major carbon entities comprising graphite vapour, we report that carbon trimers convey strong traits of vdW epitaxy prone to high quality graphene growth, while atomic carbon deposition is a surface-reaction limited process accompanied by strong chemisorption. The vdW epitaxial behaviour of carbon trimers is found to be substantial enough to nucleate and develop into graphene like planar films within a nanosecond of high flux growth simulation, while reactive atomic carbons tend to impair the structural integrity of the crystalline h-BN substrate upon deposition to form an amorphous interface between the substrate and the growing carbon film. The content of reactive atomic carbons in the molecular beam is suspected to be the primary cause of low quality graphene reported in the literature. A possible optimization of the molecular beam composition towards the synthesis of better quality graphene films is suggested.Against the presumption that hexagonal boron-nitride (h-BN) should provide an ideal substrate for van der Waals (vdW) epitaxy to grow high quality graphene films, carbon

  17. Low temperature laser molecular beam epitaxy and characterization of AlGaN epitaxial layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyagi, Prashant; Ch., Ramesh; Kushvaha, S. S.; Kumar, M. Senthil

    2017-05-01

    We have grown AlGaN (0001) epitaxial layers on sapphire (0001) by using laser molecular beam epitaxy (LMBE) technique. The growth was carried out using laser ablation of AlxGa1-x liquid metal alloy under r.f. nitrogen plasma ambient. Before epilayer growth, the sapphire nitradation was performed at 700 °C using r.f nitrogen plasma followed by AlGaN layer growth. The in-situ reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED) was employed to monitor the substrate nitridation and AlGaN epitaxial growth. High resolution x-ray diffraction showed wurtzite hexagonal growth of AlGaN layer along c-axis. An absorption bandgap of 3.97 eV is obtained for the grown AlGaN layer indicating an Al composition of more than 20 %. Using ellipsometry, a refractive index (n) value of about 2.19 is obtained in the visible region.

  18. Ordered arrays of multiferroic epitaxial nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Vrejoiu, Ionela; Morelli, Alessio; Biggemann, Daniel; Pippel, Eckhard

    2011-01-01

    Epitaxial heterostructures combining ferroelectric (FE) and ferromagnetic (FiM) oxides are a possible route to explore coupling mechanisms between the two independent order parameters, polarization and magnetization of the component phases. We report on the fabrication and properties of arrays of hybrid epitaxial nanostructures of FiM NiFe(2)O(4) (NFO) and FE PbZr(0.52)Ti(0.48)O(3) or PbZr(0.2)Ti(0.8)O(3), with large range order and lateral dimensions from 200 nm to 1 micron. The structures were fabricated by pulsed-laser deposition. High resolution transmission electron microscopy and high angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy were employed to investigate the microstructure and the epitaxial growth of the structures. Room temperature ferroelectric and ferrimagnetic domains of the heterostructures were imaged by piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) and magnetic force microscopy (MFM), respectively. PFM and MFM investigations proved that the hybrid epitaxial nanostructures show ferroelectric and magnetic order at room temperature. Dielectric effects occurring after repeated switching of the polarization in large planar capacitors, comprising ferrimagnetic NiFe2O4 dots embedded in ferroelectric PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3 matrix, were studied. These hybrid multiferroic structures with clean and well defined epitaxial interfaces hold promise for reliable investigations of magnetoelectric coupling between the ferrimagnetic / magnetostrictive and ferroelectric / piezoelectric phases.

  19. Initial growth processes in the epitaxy of Ge with GeH{sub 4} on oxidized Si substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Angermeier, D.; Kuhn, W.S.; Druihle, R.

    1997-02-01

    The heteroepitaxial growth of Ge on (100) Si in a horizontal, atmospheric pressure metallorganic vapor-phase epitaxy reactor is reported using germane GeH{sub 4} (0.1% in H{sub 2}). A particularly crucial parameter for germanium deposition on silicon is the time for the onset of epitaxial growth, the incubation time. The time was measured at substrate temperatures between 450 and 600{degree}C. At a substrate temperature of 450{degree}C an incubation time of 520 s was found and for the subsequent epitaxy growth rates of 50 nm/min were determined by Nomarski microscopy and electron diffraction. The existence of residual oxide in the reactor chambermore » forming an in situ SiO{sub 2} layer was evaluated by x-ray photoemission spectroscopy. To obtain a more thorough understanding of the gas- and solid-phase composition of Ge, Si, and oxygen the Gibbs energy of the system was calculated for various growth temperatures. It was concluded that SiO{sub 2} molecules are reduced by GeH{sub 4} molecules during the incubation period.« less

  20. The Selective Epitaxy of Silicon at Low Temperatures.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lou, Jen-Chung

    1991-01-01

    This dissertation has developed a process for the selective epitaxial growth (SEG) of silicon at low temperatures using a dichlorosilane-hydrogen mixture in a hot-wall low pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) reactor. Some basic issues concerning the quality of epilayers --substrate preparation, ex-situ and in-situ cleaning, and deposition cycle, have been studied. We find it necessary to use a plasma etch to open epitaxial windows for the SEG of Si. A cycled plasma etch, a thin sacrificial oxide growth, and an oxide etching step can completely remove plasma-etch-induced surface damage and contaminants, which result in high quality epilayers. A practical wafer cleaning step is developed for low temperature Si epitaxial growth. An ex-situ HF vapor treatment can completely remove chemical oxide from the silicon surface and retard the reoxidation of the silicon surface. An in-situ low-concentration DCS cycle can aid in decomposition of surface oxide during a 900 ^circC H_2 prebake step. An HF vapor treatment combined with a low-concentration of DCS cycle consistently achieves defect-free epilayers at 850^circC and lower temperatures. We also show that a BF_sp{2}{+ } or F^+ ion implantation is a potential ex-situ wafer cleaning process for SEG of Si at low temperatures. The mechanism for the formation of surface features on Si epilayers is also discussed. Based on O ^+ ion implantation, we showed that the oxygen incorporation in silicon epilayers suppresses the Si growth rate. Therefore, we attribute the formation of surface features to the local reduction of the Si growth rate due to the dissolution of oxide islands at the epi/substrate interface. Finally, with this developed process for the SEG of silicon, defect-free overgrown epilayers are also obtained. This achievement demonstrates the feasibility for the future silicon-on-oxide (SOI) manufacturing technology.

  1. Load-embedded inertial measurement unit reveals lifting performance.

    PubMed

    Tammana, Aditya; McKay, Cody; Cain, Stephen M; Davidson, Steven P; Vitali, Rachel V; Ojeda, Lauro; Stirling, Leia; Perkins, Noel C

    2018-07-01

    Manual lifting of loads arises in many occupations as well as in activities of daily living. Prior studies explore lifting biomechanics and conditions implicated in lifting-induced injuries through laboratory-based experimental methods. This study introduces a new measurement method using load-embedded inertial measurement units (IMUs) to evaluate lifting tasks in varied environments outside of the laboratory. An example vertical load lifting task is considered that is included in an outdoor obstacle course. The IMU data, in the form of the load acceleration and angular velocity, is used to estimate load vertical velocity and three lifting performance metrics: the lifting time (speed), power, and motion smoothness. Large qualitative differences in these parameters distinguish exemplar high and low performance trials. These differences are further supported by subsequent statistical analyses of twenty three trials (including a total of 115 total lift/lower cycles) from fourteen healthy participants. Results reveal that lifting time is strongly correlated with lifting power (as expected) but also correlated with motion smoothness. Thus, participants who lift rapidly do so with significantly greater power using motions that minimize motion jerk. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. 49 CFR 37.203 - Lift maintenance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... DISABILITIES (ADA) Over-the-Road Buses (OTRBs) § 37.203 Lift maintenance. (a) The entity shall establish a system of regular and frequent maintenance checks of lifts sufficient to determine if they are operative... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lift maintenance. 37.203 Section 37.203...

  3. 49 CFR 37.203 - Lift maintenance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Lift maintenance. 37.203 Section 37.203... DISABILITIES (ADA) Over-the-Road Buses (OTRBs) § 37.203 Lift maintenance. (a) The entity shall establish a system of regular and frequent maintenance checks of lifts sufficient to determine if they are operative...

  4. Lift enhancement by bats' dynamically changing wingspan

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shizhao; Zhang, Xing; He, Guowei; Liu, Tianshu

    2015-01-01

    This paper elucidates the aerodynamic role of the dynamically changing wingspan in bat flight. Based on direct numerical simulations of the flow over a slow-flying bat, it is found that the dynamically changing wingspan can significantly enhance the lift. Further, an analysis of flow structures and lift decomposition reveal that the elevated vortex lift associated with the leading-edge vortices intensified by the dynamically changing wingspan considerably contributed to enhancement of the time-averaged lift. The nonlinear interaction between the dynamically changing wing and the vortical structures plays an important role in the lift enhancement of a flying bat in addition to the geometrical effect of changing the lifting-surface area in a flapping cycle. In addition, the dynamically changing wingspan leads to the higher efficiency in terms of generating lift for a given amount of the mechanical energy consumed in flight. PMID:26701882

  5. Phase transition and epitaxies between hydrated orthorhombic and anhydrous monoclinic uric acid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boistelle, R.; Rinaudo, C.

    1981-05-01

    Anhydrous monoclinic and hydrated orthorhombic uric acid crystals can be nucleated and grown from pure water solutions either separately or together with epitaxial relationships. When crystals of one modification exist in the solution they can act as nucleation substrate for the crystals of the other modification. In both cases the new phase grows epitaxially on the substrate; the mutual orientations are the same but the contact planes are different. In addition, the anhydrous modification grows into the hydrated one which undergoes a phase transition by a dissolution-recrystallization process. It is likely that the same processes occur in human stones made up of uric acids.

  6. Lift-Enhancing Tabs on Multielement Airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, James C.; Storms, Bruce L.; Carrannanto, Paul G.

    1995-01-01

    The use of flat-plate tabs (similar to Gurney flaps) to enhance the lift of multielement airfoils is extended here by placing them on the pressure side and near the trailing edge of the main element rather than just on the furthest downstream wing element. The tabs studied range in height from 0.125 to 1.25% of the airfoil reference chord. In practice, such tabs would be retracted when the high-lift system is stowed. The effectiveness of the concept was demonstrated experimentally and computationally on a two-dimensional NACA 63(sub 2)-215 Mod B airfoil with a single-slotted, 30%-chord flap. Both the experiments and computations showed that the tabs significantly increase the lift at a given angle of attack and the maximum lift coefficient of the airfoil. The computational results showed that the increased lift was a result of additional turning of the flow by the tab that reduced or eliminated now separation on the flap. The best configuration tested, a 0.5%-chord tab placed 0.5% chord upstream of the trailing edge of the main element, increased the maximum lift coefficient of the airfoil by 12% and the maximum lift-to-drag ratio by 40%.

  7. 30 CFR 56.16016 - Lift trucks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lift trucks. 56.16016 Section 56.16016 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND....16016 Lift trucks. Fork and other similar types of lift trucks shall be operated with the— (a) Upright...

  8. 30 CFR 57.16016 - Lift trucks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lift trucks. 57.16016 Section 57.16016 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... § 57.16016 Lift trucks. Fork and other similar types of lift trucks shall be operated with the: (a...

  9. 30 CFR 56.16016 - Lift trucks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lift trucks. 56.16016 Section 56.16016 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND....16016 Lift trucks. Fork and other similar types of lift trucks shall be operated with the— (a) Upright...

  10. 30 CFR 57.16016 - Lift trucks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lift trucks. 57.16016 Section 57.16016 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... § 57.16016 Lift trucks. Fork and other similar types of lift trucks shall be operated with the: (a...

  11. A comparative analysis of lumbar spine mechanics during barbell- and crate-lifting: implications for occupational lifting task assessments.

    PubMed

    Zehr, Jackie D; Carnegie, Danielle R; Welsh, Timothy N; Beach, Tyson A C

    2018-03-19

    To compare the effects of object handled and handgrip used on lumbar spine motion and loading during occupational lifting task simulations. Eight male and eight female volunteers performed barbell and crate lifts with a pronated (barbell) and a neutral (crate) handgrip. The mass of barbells/crates lifted was identical across the objects and fixed at 11.6 and 9.3 kg for men and women, respectively. The initial heights of barbells/crates were individualized to mid-shank level. Body segment kinematics and foot-ground reaction kinetics were collected, and then input into an electromyography-assisted dynamic biomechanical model to quantify lumbar spine motion and loading. Lumbar compression and net lumbosacral moment magnitudes were 416 N and 17 Nm lower when lifting a barbell than when lifting a crate (p < 0.001), respectively. There were no between-condition differences in lumbar flexion displacements (p > 0.392) or flexion/extension velocities (p > 0.085). Crate- and barbell-lifting tasks can be used interchangeably if assessing lifting mechanics based on peak spine motion variables. If assessments are based on the spine loading responses to task demands, however, then crate- and barbell-lifting tasks cannot be used interchangeably.

  12. Catwalk grate lifting tool

    DOEpatents

    Gunter, L.W.

    1992-08-11

    A device is described for lifting catwalk grates comprising an elongated bent member with a handle at one end and a pair of notched braces and a hook at the opposite end that act in conjunction with each other to lock onto the grate and give mechanical advantage in lifting the grate. 10 figs.

  13. Strained-layer epitaxy of germanium-silicon alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bean, J. C.

    1985-10-01

    Strained-layer epitaxy is presented as a developing technique for combining Si with other materials in order to obtain semiconductors with enhanced electronic properties. The method involves applying layers sufficiently thin so that the atoms deposited match the bonding configurations of the substrate crystal. When deposited on Si, a four-fold bonding pattern is retained, with a lowered interfacial energy and augmented stored strain energy in the epitaxial layer. The main problem which remains is building an epitaxial layer thick enough to yield desired epitaxial properties while avoiding a reversion to an unstrained structure. The application of a Ge layer to Si using MBE is described, along with the formation of heterojunction multi-layer superlattices, which can reduce the dislocation effects in some homojunctions. The technique shows promise for developing materials of use as bipolar transistors, optical detectors and fiber optic transmission devices.

  14. Epitaxial-graphene/graphene-oxide junction: an essential step towards epitaxial graphene electronics.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaosong; Sprinkle, Mike; Li, Xuebin; Ming, Fan; Berger, Claire; de Heer, Walt A

    2008-07-11

    Graphene-oxide (GO) flakes have been deposited to bridge the gap between two epitaxial-graphene electrodes to produce all-graphene devices. Electrical measurements indicate the presence of Schottky barriers at the graphene/graphene-oxide junctions, as a consequence of the band gap in GO. The barrier height is found to be about 0.7 eV, and is reduced after annealing at 180 degrees C, implying that the gap can be tuned by changing the degree of oxidation. A lower limit of the GO mobility was found to be 850 cm2/V s, rivaling silicon. In situ local oxidation of patterned epitaxial graphene has been achieved.

  15. FinalTechRep_DE_EE0007363_15

    SciTech Connect

    Ahrenkiel, Phil

    The primary objective of the project was to develop Ga0.82In0.18As (GaInAs) solar cells grown on epilayers of elemental Al. At this composition, GaInAs has a nearly optimal bandgap (1.16 eV) for a single-junction photovoltaic device. However, GaInAs lacks a convenient, lattice-matched substrate, restricting most investigations to metamorphic structures. The metal Al is, in fact, precisely lattice-matched to GaInAs in the orientation GaInAs (001)[100]||Al(001)[110]. At present, however, epi-ready Al substrates are not readily available commercially and are subject to oxidation. However, epitaxial Al buffer layers could enable control of defect generation, thermal and light management, and rapid epitaxial lift-off for ultrathinmore » devices.« less

  16. VANDENBERG AIR FORCE BASE, CALIF.- The cover is being lifted off SciSat-1 spacecraft at Vandenberg Air Force Base, Calif. Sci-Sat, which will undergo instrument checkout and spacecraft functional testing, weighs approximately 330 pounds and after launch will be placed in a 400-mile-high polar orbit to investigate processes that control the distribution of ozone in the upper atmosphere. The data from the satellite will provide Canadian and international scientists with improved measurements relating to global ozone processes and help policymakers assess existing environmental policy and develop protective measures for improving the health of our atmosphere, preventing further ozone depletion. The mission is designed to last two years.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-06-26

    VANDENBERG AIR FORCE BASE, CALIF.- The cover is being lifted off SciSat-1 spacecraft at Vandenberg Air Force Base, Calif. Sci-Sat, which will undergo instrument checkout and spacecraft functional testing, weighs approximately 330 pounds and after launch will be placed in a 400-mile-high polar orbit to investigate processes that control the distribution of ozone in the upper atmosphere. The data from the satellite will provide Canadian and international scientists with improved measurements relating to global ozone processes and help policymakers assess existing environmental policy and develop protective measures for improving the health of our atmosphere, preventing further ozone depletion. The mission is designed to last two years.

  17. The lift-fan aircraft: Lessons learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deckert, Wallace H.

    1995-01-01

    This report summarizes the highlights and results of a workshop held at NASA Ames Research Center in October 1992. The objective of the workshop was a thorough review of the lessons learned from past research on lift fans, and lift-fan aircraft, models, designs, and components. The scope included conceptual design studies, wind tunnel investigations, propulsion systems components, piloted simulation, flight of aircraft such as the SV-5A and SV-5B and a recent lift-fan aircraft development project. The report includes a brief summary of five technical presentations that addressed the subject The Lift-Fan Aircraft: Lessons Learned.

  18. High-Lift Systems on Commercial Subsonic Airliners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudolph, Peter K. C.

    1996-01-01

    The early breed of slow commercial airliners did not require high-lift systems because their wing loadings were low and their speed ratios between cruise and low speed (takeoff and landing) were about 2:1. However, even in those days the benefit of high-lift devices was recognized. Simple trailing-edge flaps were in use, not so much to reduce landing speeds, but to provide better glide-slope control without sideslipping the airplane and to improve pilot vision over the nose by reducing attitude during low-speed flight. As commercial-airplane cruise speeds increased with the development of more powerful engines, wing loadings increased and a real need for high-lift devices emerged to keep takeoff and landing speeds within reasonable limits. The high-lift devices of that era were generally trailing-edge flaps. When jet engines matured sufficiently in military service and were introduced commercially, airplane speed capability had to be increased to best take advantage of jet engine characteristics. This speed increase was accomplished by introducing the wing sweep and by further increasing wing loading. Whereas increased wing loading called for higher lift coefficients at low speeds, wing sweep actually decreased wing lift at low speeds. Takeoff and landing speeds increased on early jet airplanes, and, as a consequence, runways worldwide had to be lengthened. There are economical limits to the length of runways; there are safety limits to takeoff and landing speeds; and there are speed limits for tires. So, in order to hold takeoff and landing speeds within reasonable limits, more powerful high-lift devices were required. Wing trailing-edge devices evolved from plain flaps to Fowler flaps with single, double, and even triple slots. Wing leading edges evolved from fixed leading edges to a simple Krueger flap, and from fixed, slotted leading edges to two- and three-position slats and variable-camber (VC) Krueger flaps. The complexity of high-lift systems probably

  19. Numerical simulation of a powered-lift landing, tracking flow features using overset grids, and simulation of high lift devices on a fighter-lift-and-control wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chawla, Kalpana

    1993-01-01

    Attached as appendices to this report are documents describing work performed on the simulation of a landing powered-lift delta wing, the tracking of flow features using overset grids, and the simulation of flaps on the Wright Patterson Lab's fighter-lift-and-control (FLAC) wing. Numerical simulation of a powered-lift landing includes the computation of flow about a delta wing at four fixed heights as well as a simulated landing, in which the delta wing descends toward the ground. Comparison of computed and experimental lift coefficients indicates that the simulations capture the qualitative trends in lift-loss encountered by thrust-vectoring aircraft operating in ground effect. Power spectra of temporal variations of pressure indicate computed vortex shedding frequencies close to the jet exit are in the experimentally observed frequency range; the power spectra of pressure also provide insights into the mechanisms of lift oscillations. Also, a method for using overset grids to track dynamic flow features is described and the method is validated by tracking a moving shock and vortices shed behind a circular cylinder. Finally, Chimera gridding strategies were used to develop pressure coefficient contours for the FLAC wing for a Mach no. of 0.18 and Reynolds no. of 2.5 million.

  20. Wingless Flight: The Lifting Body Story

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, R. Dale; Lister, Darlene (Editor); Huntley, J. D. (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    Wingless Flight tells the story of the most unusual flying machines ever flown, the lifting bodies. It is my story about my friends and colleagues who committed a significant part of their lives in the 1960s and 1970s to prove that the concept was a viable one for use in spacecraft of the future. This story, filled with drama and adventure, is about the twelve-year period from 1963 to 1975 in which eight different lifting-body configurations flew. It is appropriate for me to write the story, since I was the engineer who first presented the idea of flight-testing the concept to others at the NASA Flight Research Center. Over those twelve years, I experienced the story as it unfolded day by day at that remote NASA facility northeast of los Angeles in the bleak Mojave Desert. Benefits from this effort immediately influenced the design and operational concepts of the winged NASA Shuttle Orbiter. However, the full benefits would not be realized until the 1990s when new spacecraft such as the X-33 and X-38 would fully employ the lifting-body concept. A lifting body is basically a wingless vehicle that flies due to the lift generated by the shape of its fuselage. Although both a lifting reentry vehicle and a ballistic capsule had been considered as options during the early stages of NASA's space program, NASA initially opted to go with the capsule. A number of individuals were not content to close the book on the lifting-body concept. Researchers including Alfred Eggers at the NASA Ames Research Center conducted early wind-tunnel experiments, finding that half of a rounded nose-cone shape that was flat on top and rounded on the bottom could generate a lift-to-drag ratio of about 1.5 to 1. Eggers' preliminary design sketch later resembled the basic M2 lifting-body design. At the NASA Langley Research Center, other researchers toyed with their own lifting-body shapes. Meanwhile, some of us aircraft-oriented researchers at the, NASA Flight Research Center at Edwards Air

  1. Epitaxial Garnets and Hexagonal Ferrites.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-01

    operating at frequencies between 1 GHz and 25 GHz. 2. Investigate LPE growth of lithium ferrite with the objective of preparing low-loss, large area films ...and hexagonal ferrites when the series of contracts began in 1975. At that time the liquid phase epitaxy method for growth of magnetic garnet films ...principal interest in epitaxial garnets was for magnetic bubble memories. For this Uapplication the films had to be about 3pm thick with low defect density

  2. Epitaxial Garnets and Hexagonal Ferrites.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-02-28

    shaped LPE garnet samples with 31.5um film thickness. We were informed that initial evalu- ation showed acceptably low insertion loss and that the material...frequencies above 25 GHz. c. Furnish up to eight (8) liquid phase epitaxy yttrium iron garnet films to RADC/EEA for testing and evaluation. These tasks...a "Method for Controlling Resonance Frequency of Yttrium Iron Garnet Films ." A patent, "Epitaxial Growth of M-type Hexagonal Ferrite Films on Spinel

  3. Face lift.

    PubMed

    Warren, Richard J; Aston, Sherrell J; Mendelson, Bryan C

    2011-12-01

    After reading this article, the participant should be able to: 1. Identify and describe the anatomy of and changes to the aging face, including changes in bone mass and structure and changes to the skin, tissue, and muscles. 2. Assess each individual's unique anatomy before embarking on face-lift surgery and incorporate various surgical techniques, including fat grafting and other corrective procedures in addition to shifting existing fat to a higher position on the face, into discussions with patients. 3. Identify risk factors and potential complications in prospective patients. 4. Describe the benefits and risks of various techniques. The ability to surgically rejuvenate the aging face has progressed in parallel with plastic surgeons' understanding of facial anatomy. In turn, a more clear explanation now exists for the visible changes seen in the aging face. This article and its associated video content review the current understanding of facial anatomy as it relates to facial aging. The standard face-lift techniques are explained and their various features, both good and bad, are reviewed. The objective is for surgeons to make a better aesthetic diagnosis before embarking on face-lift surgery, and to have the ability to use the appropriate technique depending on the clinical situation.

  4. Measurement of the Shear Lift Force on a Bubble in a Channel Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nahra, Henry K.; Motil, Brian; Skor, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Two-phase flow systems play vital roles in the design of some current and anticipated space applications of two-phase systems which include: thermal management systems, transfer line flow in cryogenic storage, space nuclear power facilities, design and operation of thermal bus, life support systems, propulsion systems, In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU), and space processes for pharmaceutical applications. The design of two-phase flow systems for space applications requires a clear knowledge of the behaviors of the dispersed phase (bubble), its interaction with the continuous phase (liquid) and its effect on heat and mass transfer processes, The need to understand the bubble generation process arises from the fact that for all space applications, the size and distribution of bubbles are extremely crucial for heat and mass transfer control. One important force in two-phase flow systems is the lift force on a bubble or particle in a liquid shear flow. The shear lift is usually overwhelmed by buoyancy in normal gravity, but it becomes an important force in reduced gravity. Since the liquid flow is usually sheared because of the confining wall, the trajectories of bubbles and particles injected into the liquid flow are affected by the shear lift in reduced gravity. A series of experiments are performed to investigate the lift force on a bubble in a liquid shear flow and its effect on the detachment of a bubble from a wall under low gravity conditions. Experiments are executed in a Poiseuille flow in a channel. An air-water system is used in these experiments that are performed in the 2.2 second drop tower. A bubble is injected into the shear flow from a small injector and the shear lift is measured while the bubble is held stationary relative to the fluid. The trajectory of the bubble prior, during and after its detachment from the injector is investigated. The measured shear lift force is calculated from the trajectory of the bubble at the detachment point. These

  5. Molecular Beam Epitaxial Regrowth of Antimonide-Based Semiconductors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    Molecular Beam Epitaxial Regrowth of Antimonide-Based Semiconductors MATTHEW REASON,1 BRIAN R. BENNETT,1,2 RICHARD MAGNO,1 and J. BRAD BOOS1 1...2010 to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Molecular Beam Epitaxial Regrowth of Antimonide-Based Semiconductors 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT...Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES The samples reported in this work were grown by solid-source molecular - beam epitaxy (MBE) with

  6. Method for calculating lift distributions for unswept wings with flaps or ailerons by use of nonlinear section lift data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sivells, James C; Westrick, Gertrude C

    1952-01-01

    A method is presented which allows the use of nonlinear section lift data in the calculation of the spanwise lift distribution of unswept wings with flaps or ailerons. This method is based upon lifting line theory and is an extension to the method described in NACA rep. 865. The mathematical treatment of the discontinuity in absolute angle of attack at the end of the flap or aileron involves the use of a correction factor which accounts for the inability of a limited trigonometric series to represent adequately the spanwise lift distribution. A treatment of the apparent discontinuity in maximum section lift coefficient is also described. Simplified computing forms containing detailed examples are given for both symmetrical and asymmetrical lift distributions. A few comparisons of calculated characteristics with those obtained experimentally are also presented.

  7. Analysis of particulates on tape lift samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moision, Robert M.; Chaney, John A.; Panetta, Chris J.; Liu, De-Ling

    2014-09-01

    Particle counts on tape lift samples taken from a hardware surface exceeded threshold requirements in six successive tests despite repeated cleaning of the surface. Subsequent analysis of the particle size distributions of the failed tests revealed that the handling and processing of the tape lift samples may have played a role in the test failures. In order to explore plausible causes for the observed size distribution anomalies, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) were employed to perform chemical analysis on collected particulates. SEM/EDX identified Na and S containing particles on the hardware samples in a size range identified as being responsible for the test failures. ToF-SIMS was employed to further examine the Na and S containing particulates and identified the molecular signature of sodium alkylbenzene sulfonates, a common surfactant used in industrial detergent. The root cause investigation suggests that the tape lift test failures originated from detergent residue left behind on the glass slides used to mount and transport the tape following sampling and not from the hardware surface.

  8. Method of deposition by molecular beam epitaxy

    DOEpatents

    Chalmers, Scott A.; Killeen, Kevin P.; Lear, Kevin L.

    1995-01-01

    A method is described for reproducibly controlling layer thickness and varying layer composition in an MBE deposition process. In particular, the present invention includes epitaxially depositing a plurality of layers of material on a substrate with a plurality of growth cycles whereby the average of the instantaneous growth rates for each growth cycle and from one growth cycle to the next remains substantially constant as a function of time.

  9. Method of deposition by molecular beam epitaxy

    DOEpatents

    Chalmers, S.A.; Killeen, K.P.; Lear, K.L.

    1995-01-10

    A method is described for reproducibly controlling layer thickness and varying layer composition in an MBE deposition process. In particular, the present invention includes epitaxially depositing a plurality of layers of material on a substrate with a plurality of growth cycles whereby the average of the instantaneous growth rates for each growth cycle and from one growth cycle to the next remains substantially constant as a function of time. 9 figures.

  10. Survey of lift-fan aerodynamic technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hickey, David H.; Kirk, Jerry V.

    1993-01-01

    Representatives of NASA Ames Research Center asked that a summary of technology appropriate for lift-fan powered short takeoff/vertical landing (STOVL) aircraft be prepared so that new programs could more easily benefit from past research efforts. This paper represents one of six prepared for that purpose. The authors have conducted or supervised the conduct of research on lift-fan powered STOVL designs and some of their important components for decades. This paper will first address aerodynamic modeling requirements for experimental programs to assure realistic, trustworthy results. It will next summarize the results or efforts to develop satisfactory specialized STOVL components such as inlets and flow deflectors. It will also discuss problems with operation near the ground, aerodynamics while under lift-fan power, and aerodynamic prediction techniques. Finally, results of studies to reduce lift-fan noise will be presented. The paper will emphasize results from large scale experiments, where available, for reasons that will be brought out in the discussion. Some work with lift-engine powered STOVL aircraft is also applicable to lift-fan technology and will be presented herein. Small-scale data will be used where necessary to fill gaps.

  11. High-Lift Propeller Noise Prediction for a Distributed Electric Propulsion Flight Demonstrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nark, Douglas M.; Buning, Pieter G.; Jones, William T.; Derlaga, Joseph M.

    2017-01-01

    Over the past several years, the use of electric propulsion technologies within aircraft design has received increased attention. The characteristics of electric propulsion systems open up new areas of the aircraft design space, such as the use of distributed electric propulsion (DEP). In this approach, electric motors are placed in many different locations to achieve increased efficiency through integration of the propulsion system with the airframe. Under a project called Scalable Convergent Electric Propulsion Technology Operations Research (SCEPTOR), NASA is designing a flight demonstrator aircraft that employs many "high-lift propellers" distributed upstream of the wing leading edge and two cruise propellers (one at each wingtip). As the high-lift propellers are operational at low flight speeds (take-off/approach flight conditions), the impact of the DEP configuration on the aircraft noise signature is also an important design consideration. This paper describes efforts toward the development of a mulit-fidelity aerodynamic and acoustic methodology for DEP high-lift propeller aeroacoustic modeling. Specifically, the PAS, OVERFLOW 2, and FUN3D codes are used to predict the aerodynamic performance of a baseline high-lift propeller blade set. Blade surface pressure results from the aerodynamic predictions are then used with PSU-WOPWOP and the F1A module of the NASA second generation Aircraft NOise Prediction Program to predict the isolated high-lift propeller noise source. Comparisons of predictions indicate that general trends related to angle of attack effects at the blade passage frequency are captured well with the various codes. Results for higher harmonics of the blade passage frequency appear consistent for the CFD based methods. Conversely, evidence of the need for a study of the effects of increased azimuthal grid resolution on the PAS based results is indicated and will be pursued in future work. Overall, the results indicate that the computational

  12. Software design to calculate and simulate the mechanical response of electromechanical lifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrera, I.; Romero, E.

    2016-05-01

    Lift engineers and lift companies which are involved in the design process of new products or in the research and development of improved components demand a predictive tool of the lift slender system response before testing expensive prototypes. A method for solving the movement of any specified lift system by means of a computer program is presented. The mechanical response of the lift operating in a user defined installation and configuration, for a given excitation and other configuration parameters of real electric motors and its control system, is derived. A mechanical model with 6 degrees of freedom is used. The governing equations are integrated step by step through the Meden-Kutta algorithm in the MATLAB platform. Input data consists on the set point speed for a standard trip and the control parameters of a number of controllers and lift drive machines. The computer program computes and plots very accurately the vertical displacement, velocity, instantaneous acceleration and jerk time histories of the car, counterweight, frame, passengers/loads and lift drive in a standard trip between any two floors of the desired installation. The resulting torque, rope tension and deviation of the velocity plot with respect to the setpoint speed are shown. The software design is implemented in a demo release of the computer program called ElevaCAD. Further on, the program offers the possibility to select the configuration of the lift system and the performance parameters of each component. In addition to the overall system response, detailed information of transients, vibrations of the lift components, ride quality levels, modal analysis and frequency spectrum (FFT) are plotted.

  13. Epitaxial solar-cell fabrication, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daiello, R. V.; Robinson, P. H.; Kressel, H.

    1977-01-01

    Dichlorosilane (SiH2Cl2) was used as the silicon source material in all of the epitaxial growths. Both n/p/p(+) and p/n/n(+) structures were studied. Correlations were made between the measured profiles and the solar cell parameters, especially cell open-circuit voltage. It was found that in order to obtain consistently high open-circuit voltage, the epitaxial techniques used to grow the surface layer must be altered to obtain very abrupt doping profiles in the vicinity of the junction. With these techniques, it was possible to grow reproducibly both p/n/n(+) and n/p/p(+) solar cell structures having open-circuit voltages in the 610- to 630-mV range, with fill-factors in excess of 0.80 and AM-1 efficiencies of about 13%. Combinations and comparisons of epitaxial and diffused surface layers were also made. Using such surface layers, we found that the blue response of epitaxial cells could be improved, resulting in AM-1 short-circuit current densities of about 30 mA/cm sq. The best cells fabricated in this manner had AM-1 efficiency of 14.1%.

  14. Refined AFC-Enabled High-Lift System Integration Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartwich, Peter M.; Shmilovich, Arvin; Lacy, Douglas S.; Dickey, Eric D.; Scalafani, Anthony J.; Sundaram, P.; Yadlin, Yoram

    2016-01-01

    A prior trade study established the effectiveness of using Active Flow Control (AFC) for reducing the mechanical complexities associated with a modern high-lift system without sacrificing aerodynamic performance at low-speed flight conditions representative of takeoff and landing. The current technical report expands on this prior work in two ways: (1) a refined conventional high-lift system based on the NASA Common Research Model (CRM) is presented that is more representative of modern commercial transport aircraft in terms of stall characteristics and maximum Lift/Drag (L/D) ratios at takeoff and landing-approach flight conditions; and (2) the design trade space for AFC-enabled high-lift systems is expanded to explore a wider range of options for improving their efficiency. The refined conventional high-lift CRM (HL-CRM) concept features leading edge slats and slotted trailing edge flaps with Fowler motion. For the current AFC-enhanced high lift system trade study, the refined conventional high-lift system is simplified by substituting simply-hinged trailing edge flaps for the slotted single-element flaps with Fowler motion. The high-lift performance of these two high-lift CRM variants is established using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) solutions to the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations. These CFD assessments identify the high-lift performance that needs to be recovered through AFC to have the CRM variant with the lighter and mechanically simpler high-lift system match the performance of the conventional high-lift system. In parallel to the conventional high-lift concept development, parametric studies using CFD guided the development of an effective and efficient AFC-enabled simplified high-lift system. This included parametric trailing edge flap geometry studies addressing the effects of flap chord length and flap deflection. As for the AFC implementation, scaling effects (i.e., wind-tunnel versus full-scale flight conditions) are addressed

  15. Epitaxial Graphene: A New Material for Electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Heer, Walt A.

    2007-10-01

    Graphene multilayers are grown epitaxially on single crystal silicon carbide. This system is composed of several graphene layers of which the first layer is electron doped due to the built-in electric field and the other layers are essentially undoped. Unlike graphite the charge carriers show Dirac particle properties (i.e. an anomalous Berry's phase, weak anti-localization and square root field dependence of the Landau level energies). Epitaxial graphene shows quasi-ballistic transport and long coherence lengths; properties that may persists above cryogenic temperatures. Paradoxically, in contrast to exfoliated graphene, the quantum Hall effect is not observed in high mobility epitaxial graphene. It appears that the effect is suppressed due to absence of localized states in the bulk of the material. Epitaxial graphene can be patterned using standard lithography methods and characterized using a wide array of techniques. These favorable features indicate that interconnected room temperature ballistic devices may be feasible for low dissipation high-speed nano-electronics.

  16. Influence of Lift Offset on Rotorcraft Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Wayne

    2009-01-01

    The influence of lift offset on the performance of several rotorcraft configurations is explored. A lift-offset rotor, or advancing blade concept, is a hingeless rotor that can attain good efficiency at high speed by operating with more lift on the advancing side than on the retreating side of the rotor disk. The calculated performance capability of modern-technology coaxial rotors utilizing a lift offset is examined, including rotor performance optimized for hover and high-speed cruise. The ideal induced power loss of coaxial rotors in hover and twin rotors in forward flight is presented. The aerodynamic modeling requirements for performance calculations are evaluated, including wake and drag models for the high-speed flight condition. The influence of configuration on the performance of rotorcraft with lift-offset rotors is explored, considering tandem and side-by-side rotorcraft as well as wing-rotor lift share.

  17. Influence of Lift Offset on Rotorcraft Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Wayne

    2008-01-01

    The influence of lift offset on the performance of several rotorcraft configurations is explored. A lift-offset rotor, or advancing blade concept, is a hingeless rotor that can attain good efficiency at high speed, by operating with more lift on the advancing side than on the retreating side of the rotor disk. The calculated performance capability of modern-technology coaxial rotors utilizing a lift offset is examined, including rotor performance optimized for hover and high-speed cruise. The ideal induced power loss of coaxial rotors in hover and twin rotors in forward flight is presented. The aerodynamic modeling requirements for performance calculations are evaluated, including wake and drag models for the high speed flight condition. The influence of configuration on the performance of rotorcraft with lift-offset rotors is explored, considering tandem and side-by-side rotorcraft as well as wing-rotor lift share.

  18. Generalised Eisenhart lift of the Toda chain

    SciTech Connect

    Cariglia, Marco, E-mail: marco@iceb.ufop.br; Gibbons, Gary, E-mail: g.w.gibbons@damtp.cam.ac.uk

    The Toda chain of nearest neighbour interacting particles on a line can be described both in terms of geodesic motion on a manifold with one extra dimension, the Eisenhart lift, or in terms of geodesic motion in a symmetric space with several extra dimensions. We examine the relationship between these two realisations and discover that the symmetric space is a generalised, multi-particle Eisenhart lift of the original problem that reduces to the standard Eisenhart lift. Such generalised Eisenhart lift acts as an inverse Kaluza-Klein reduction, promoting coupling constants to momenta in higher dimension. In particular, isometries of the generalised liftmore » metric correspond to energy preserving transformations that mix coordinates and coupling constants. A by-product of the analysis is that the lift of the Toda Lax pair can be used to construct higher rank Killing tensors for both the standard and generalised lift metrics.« less

  19. Mechanical lifting energy consumption in work activities designed by means of the "revised NIOSH lifting equation".

    PubMed

    Ranavolo, Alberto; Varrecchia, Tiwana; Rinaldi, Martina; Silvetti, Alessio; Serrao, Mariano; Conforto, Silvia; Draicchio, Francesco

    2017-10-07

    The aims of the present work were: to calculate lifting energy consumption (LEC) in work activities designed to have a growing lifting index (LI) by means of revised NIOSH lifting equation; to evaluate the relationship between LEC and forces at the L 5 -S 1 joint. The kinematic and kinetic data of 20 workers were recorded during the execution of lifting tasks in three conditions. We computed kinetic, potential and mechanical energy and the corresponding LEC by considering three different centers of mass of: 1) the load (CoM L ); 2) the multi-segment upper body model and load together (CoM Upp+L ); 3) the whole body and load together (CoM Tot ). We also estimated compression and shear forces. Results shows that LEC calculated for CoM Upp+L and CoM Tot grew significantly with the LI and that all the lifting condition pairs are discriminated. The correlation analysis highlighted a relationship between LEC and forces that determine injuries at the L 5 -S 1 joint.

  20. Electrical properties of solid-solution SrZrxTi1-xO3 grown epitaxially on Ge by molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moghadam, Reza; Ahmadi, Kamyar; Xiao, Z.-Y.; Hong, Xia; Ngai, Joseph

    The epitaxial growth of crystalline oxides on semiconductors enables new functionalities to be introduced to semiconductor devices. In particular, dielectric and ferroelectric oxides grown epitaxially on semiconductors provide a pathway to realize ultra-low power logic and memory devices. Here we present electrical characterization of solid-solution SrZrxTi1-xO3 grown epitaxially on Ge through oxide molecular beam epitaxy. SrZrxTi1-xO3 is of particular interest since the band offset with respect to the semiconductor can be tuned through Zr content x. We will present current-voltage, capacitance-voltage and piezoforce microscopy characterization of SrZrxTi1-xO3 -Ge heterojunctions. In particular, we will discuss how the electrical characteristics of SrZrxTi1-xO3 -Ge heterojunctions evolve with respect to composition, annealing and film thickness.

  1. Efficient Interlayer Relaxation and Transition of Excitons in Epitaxial and Non-epitaxial MoS2/WS2 Heterostructures

    DOE PAGES

    Yu, Yifei; Hu, Shi; Su, Liqin; ...

    2014-12-03

    Semiconductor heterostructurs provide a powerful platform for the engineering of excitons. Here we report on the excitonic properties of two-dimensional (2D) heterostructures that consist of monolayer MoS2 and WS2 stacked epitaxially or non-epitaxially in the vertical direction. We find similarly efficient interlayer relaxation and transition of excitons in both the epitaxial and non-epitaxial heterostructures. This is manifested by a two orders of magnitude decrease in the photoluminescence and an extra absorption peak at low energy region of both heterostructures. The MoS2/WS2 heterostructures show weak interlayer coupling and essentially act as an atomic-scale heterojunction with the intrinsic band structures of themore » two monolayers largely preserved. They are particularly promising for the applications that request efficient dissociation of excitons and strong light absorption, including photovoltaics, solar fuels, photodetectors, and optical modulators. Our results also indicate that 2D heterostructures promise to provide capabilities to engineer excitons from the atomic level without concerns of interfacial imperfection.« less

  2. Transition from leg to wing forces during take-off in birds.

    PubMed

    Provini, Pauline; Tobalske, Bret W; Crandell, Kristen E; Abourachid, Anick

    2012-12-01

    Take-off mechanics are fundamental to the ecology and evolution of flying animals. Recent research has revealed that initial take-off velocity in birds is driven mostly by hindlimb forces. However, the contribution of the wings during the transition to air is unknown. To investigate this transition, we integrated measurements of both leg and wing forces during take-off and the first three wingbeats in zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata, body mass 15 g, N=7) and diamond dove (Geopelia cuneata, body mass 50 g, N=3). We measured ground reaction forces produced by the hindlimbs using a perch mounted on a force plate, whole-body and wing kinematics using high-speed video, and aerodynamic forces using particle image velocimetry (PIV). Take-off performance was generally similar between species. When birds were perched, an acceleration peak produced by the legs contributed to 85±1% of the whole-body resultant acceleration in finch and 77±6% in dove. At lift-off, coincident with the start of the first downstroke, the percentage of hindlimb contribution to initial flight velocity was 93.6±0.6% in finch and 95.2±0.4% in dove. In finch, the first wingbeat produced 57.9±3.4% of the lift created during subsequent wingbeats compared with 62.5±2.2% in dove. Advance ratios were <0.5 in both species, even when taking self-convection of shed vortices into account, so it was likely that wing-wake interactions dominated aerodynamics during wingbeats 2 and 3. These results underscore the relatively low contribution of the wings to initial take-off, and reveal a novel transitional role for the first wingbeat in terms of force production.

  3. AFC-Enabled Simplified High-Lift System Integration Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartwich, Peter M.; Dickey, Eric D.; Sclafani, Anthony J.; Camacho, Peter; Gonzales, Antonio B.; Lawson, Edward L.; Mairs, Ron Y.; Shmilovich, Arvin

    2014-01-01

    The primary objective of this trade study report is to explore the potential of using Active Flow Control (AFC) for achieving lighter and mechanically simpler high-lift systems for transonic commercial transport aircraft. This assessment was conducted in four steps. First, based on the Common Research Model (CRM) outer mold line (OML) definition, two high-lift concepts were developed. One concept, representative of current production-type commercial transonic transports, features leading edge slats and slotted trailing edge flaps with Fowler motion. The other CRM-based design relies on drooped leading edges and simply hinged trailing edge flaps for high-lift generation. The relative high-lift performance of these two high-lift CRM variants is established using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) solutions to the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations for steady flow. These CFD assessments identify the high-lift performance that needs to be recovered through AFC to have the CRM variant with the lighter and mechanically simpler high-lift system match the performance of the conventional high-lift system. Conceptual design integration studies for the AFC-enhanced high-lift systems were conducted with a NASA Environmentally Responsible Aircraft (ERA) reference configuration, the so-called ERA-0003 concept. These design trades identify AFC performance targets that need to be met to produce economically feasible ERA-0003-like concepts with lighter and mechanically simpler high-lift designs that match the performance of conventional high-lift systems. Finally, technical challenges are identified associated with the application of AFC-enabled highlift systems to modern transonic commercial transports for future technology maturation efforts.

  4. Mechanical lifting energy consumption in work activities designed by means of the “revised NIOSH lifting equation”

    PubMed Central

    RANAVOLO, Alberto; VARRECCHIA, Tiwana; RINALDI, Martina; SILVETTI, Alessio; SERRAO, Mariano; CONFORTO, Silvia; DRAICCHIO, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    The aims of the present work were: to calculate lifting energy consumption (LEC) in work activities designed to have a growing lifting index (LI) by means of revised NIOSH lifting equation; to evaluate the relationship between LEC and forces at the L5-S1 joint. The kinematic and kinetic data of 20 workers were recorded during the execution of lifting tasks in three conditions. We computed kinetic, potential and mechanical energy and the corresponding LEC by considering three different centers of mass of: 1) the load (CoML); 2) the multi-segment upper body model and load together (CoMUpp+L); 3) the whole body and load together (CoMTot). We also estimated compression and shear forces. Results shows that LEC calculated for CoMUpp+L and CoMTot grew significantly with the LI and that all the lifting condition pairs are discriminated. The correlation analysis highlighted a relationship between LEC and forces that determine injuries at the L5-S1 joint. PMID:28781290

  5. 21 CFR 880.5500 - AC-powered patient lift.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false AC-powered patient lift. 880.5500 Section 880.5500... Devices § 880.5500 AC-powered patient lift. (a) Identification. An AC-powered lift is an electrically powered device either fixed or mobile, used to lift and transport patients in the horizontal or other...

  6. 21 CFR 880.5500 - AC-powered patient lift.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false AC-powered patient lift. 880.5500 Section 880.5500... Devices § 880.5500 AC-powered patient lift. (a) Identification. An AC-powered lift is an electrically powered device either fixed or mobile, used to lift and transport patients in the horizontal or other...

  7. Do submesoscale frontal processes ventilate the oxygen minimum zone off Peru?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomsen, S.; Kanzow, T.; Colas, F.; Echevin, V.; Krahmann, G.; Engel, A.

    2016-02-01

    The Peruvian upwelling region shows pronounced near-surface submesoscale variability including filaments and sharp density fronts. Submesoscale frontal processes can drive large vertical velocities and enhance vertical tracer fluxes in the upper ocean. The associated high temporal and spatial variability poses a large challenge to observational approaches targeting these processes. In this study the role of submesoscale processes for the ventilation of the near-coastal oxygen minimum zone off Peru is investigated. We use satellite based sea surface temperature measurements and multiple high-resolution glider observations of temperature, salinity, oxygen and chlorophyll fluorescence carried out in January and February 2013 off Peru near 14°S during active upwelling. Additionally, high-resolution regional ocean circulation model outputs (ROMS) outputs are analysed. At the beginning of our observational survey a previously upwelled, productive and highly oxygenated water body is found in the mixed layer. Subsequently, a cold filament forms and the waters are moved offshore. After the decay of the filament and the relaxation of the upwelling front, the oxygen enriched surface water is found in the previously less oxygenated thermocline suggesting the occurrence of frontal subduction. A numerical model simulation is used to analyse the evolution of Lagrangian numerical floats in several upwelling filaments, whose vertical structure and hydrographic properties agree well with the observations. The floats trajectories support our interpretation that the subduction of previously upwelled water occurs in filaments off Peru. We find that 40 - 60 % of the floats seeded in the newly upwelled water is subducted within a time period of 5 days. This hightlights the importance of this process in ventilating the oxycline off Peru.

  8. Maximum acceptable weight of lift reflects peak lumbosacral extension moments in a functional capacity evaluation test using free style, stoop and squat lifting.

    PubMed

    Kuijer, P P F M; van Oostrom, S H; Duijzer, K; van Dieën, J H

    2012-01-01

    It is unclear whether the maximum acceptable weight of lift (MAWL), a common psychophysical method, reflects joint kinetics when different lifting techniques are employed. In a within-participants study (n = 12), participants performed three lifting techniques--free style, stoop and squat lifting from knee to waist level--using the same dynamic functional capacity evaluation lifting test to assess MAWL and to calculate low back and knee kinetics. We assessed which knee and back kinetic parameters increased with the load mass lifted, and whether the magnitudes of the kinetic parameters were consistent across techniques when lifting MAWL. MAWL was significantly different between techniques (p = 0.03). The peak lumbosacral extension moment met both criteria: it had the highest association with the load masses lifted (r > 0.9) and was most consistent between the three techniques when lifting MAWL (ICC = 0.87). In conclusion, MAWL reflects the lumbosacral extension moment across free style, stoop and squat lifting in healthy young males, but the relation between the load mass lifted and lumbosacral extension moment is different between techniques. Tests of maximum acceptable weight of lift (MAWL) from knee to waist height are used to assess work capacity of individuals with low-back disorders. This article shows that the MAWL reflects the lumbosacral extension moment across free style, stoop and squat lifting in healthy young males, but the relation between the load mass lifted and lumbosacral extension moment is different between techniques. This suggests that standardisation of lifting technique used in tests of the MAWL would be indicated if the aim is to assess the capacity of the low back.

  9. Vertical Lift - Not Just For Terrestrial Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Larry A

    2000-01-01

    Autonomous vertical lift vehicles hold considerable potential for supporting planetary science and exploration missions. This paper discusses several technical aspects of vertical lift planetary aerial vehicles in general, and specifically addresses technical challenges and work to date examining notional vertical lift vehicles for Mars, Titan, and Venus exploration.

  10. Cyan laser diode grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Turski, H., E-mail: henryk@unipress.waw.pl; Muziol, G.; Wolny, P.

    We demonstrate AlGaN-cladding-free laser diodes (LDs), operating in continuous wave (CW) mode at 482 nm grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PAMBE). The maximum CW output power was 230 mW. LDs were grown on c-plane GaN substrates obtained by hydride vapor phase epitaxy. The PAMBE process was carried out in metal-rich conditions, supplying high nitrogen flux (Φ{sub N}) during quantum wells (QWs) growth. We found that high Φ{sub N} improves quality of high In content InGaN QWs. The role of nitrogen in the growth of InGaN on (0001) GaN surface as well as the influence of LDs design on threshold currentmore » density are discussed.« less

  11. Insulation Test Cryostat with Lift Mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dokos, Adam G. (Inventor); Fesmire, James E. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A multi-purpose, cylindrical thermal insulation test apparatus is used for testing insulation materials and systems of materials using a liquid boil-off calorimeter system for absolute measurement of the effective thermal conductivity (k-value) and heat flux of a specimen material at a fixed environmental condition (cold-side temperature, warm-side temperature, vacuum pressure level, and residual gas composition). The apparatus includes an inner vessel for receiving a liquid with a normal boiling point below ambient temperature, such as liquid nitrogen, enclosed within a vacuum chamber. A cold mass assembly, including the upper and lower guard chambers and a middle test vessel, is suspended from a lid of the vacuum canister. Each of the three chambers is filled and vented through a single feedthrough. All fluid and instrumentation feedthroughs are mounted and suspended from a top domed lid to allow easy removal of the cold mass. A lift mechanism allows manipulation of the cold mass assembly and insulation test article.

  12. Insulation Test Cryostat with Lift Mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fesmire, James E. (Inventor); Dokos, Adam G. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A multi-purpose, cylindrical thermal insulation test apparatus is used for testing insulation materials and systems of materials using a liquid boil-off calorimeter system for absolute measurement of the effective thermal conductivity (k-value) and heat flux of a specimen material at a fixed environmental condition (cold-side temperature, warm-side temperature, vacuum pressure level, and residual gas composition). An inner vessel receives liquid with a normal boiling point below ambient temperature, such as liquid nitrogen, enclosed within a vacuum chamber. A cold mass assembly, including upper and lower guard chambers and middle test vessel, is suspended from a lid of the vacuum canister. Each of the three chambers is filled and vented through a single feedthrough. All fluid and instrumentation feedthroughs are mounted and suspended from a top domed lid allowing easy removal of the cold mass. A lift mechanism allows manipulation of the cold mass assembly and insulation test article.

  13. Using the surface charge profiler for in-line monitoring of doping concentration in silicon epitaxial wafer manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tower, Joshua P.; Kamieniecki, Emil; Nguyen, M. C.; Danel, Adrien

    1999-08-01

    The Surface Charge Profiler (SCP) has been introduced for monitoring and development of silicon epitaxial processes. The SCP measures the near-surface doping concentration and offers advantages that lead to yield enhancement in several ways. First, non-destructive measurement technology enables in-line process monitoring, eliminating the need to sacrifice production wafers for resistivity measurements. Additionally, the full-wafer mapping capability helps in development of improved epitaxial growth processes and early detection of reactor problems. As examples, we present the use of SCP to study the effects of susceptor degradation in barrel reactors and to study autodoping for development of improved dopant uniformity.

  14. 33 CFR 118.85 - Lights on vertical lift bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lights on vertical lift bridges... BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.85 Lights on vertical lift bridges. (a) Lift span lights. The vertical lift span of every vertical lift bridge shall be lighted so that the center of the...

  15. 33 CFR 118.85 - Lights on vertical lift bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lights on vertical lift bridges... BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.85 Lights on vertical lift bridges. (a) Lift span lights. The vertical lift span of every vertical lift bridge shall be lighted so that the center of the...

  16. Hanford Low-Activity Waste Processing: Demonstration of the Off-Gas Recycle Flowsheet - 13443

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsey, William G.; Esparza, Brian P.

    2013-07-01

    Vitrification of Hanford Low-Activity Waste (LAW) is nominally the thermal conversion and incorporation of sodium salts and radionuclides into borosilicate glass. One key radionuclide present in LAW is technetium-99. Technetium-99 is a low energy, long-lived beta emitting radionuclide present in the waste feed in concentrations on the order of 1-10 ppm. The long half-life combined with a high solubility in groundwater results in technetium-99 having considerable impact on performance modeling (as potential release to the environment) of both the waste glass and associated secondary waste products. The current Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) process flowsheet calls formore » the recycle of vitrification process off-gas condensates to maximize the portion of technetium ultimately immobilized in the waste glass. This is required as technetium acts as a semi-volatile specie, i.e. considerable loss of the radionuclide to the process off-gas stream can occur during the vitrification process. To test the process flowsheet assumptions, a prototypic off-gas system with recycle capability was added to a laboratory melter (on the order of 1/200 scale) and testing performed. Key test goals included determination of the process mass balance for technetium, a non-radioactive surrogate (rhenium), and other soluble species (sulfate, halides, etc.) which are concentrated by recycling off-gas condensates. The studies performed are the initial demonstrations of process recycle for this type of liquid-fed melter system. This paper describes the process recycle system, the waste feeds processed, and experimental results. Comparisons between data gathered using process recycle and previous single pass melter testing as well as mathematical modeling simulations are also provided. (authors)« less

  17. Physiological, Biomechanical, and Medical Aspects of Lifting and Repetitive Lifting: A Review

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-11-01

    charateristics of the object lifted. Four major variables have been investigated: 1) box length or dimension of the box in the transverse plane, 2) box...The Department of Labour of Great Britian found that accident rates due to lifting, carrying, pushing and pulling in 1940 was 7.9 per 1000 persons ...employed (25% of the total injuries). In 1956 rates were 6.3 per 1000 persons or 27.7% of the total injuries. In England in 1962 "manual handling

  18. Protect Your Back: Guidelines for Safer Lifting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantu, Carolyn O.

    2002-01-01

    Examines back injury in teachers and child care providers; includes statistics, common causes of back pain (improper alignment, improper posture, improper lifting, and carrying), and types of back pain (acute and chronic). Focuses on preventing back injury, body mechanics for lifting and carrying, and proper lifting and carrying of children. (SD)

  19. 14 CFR 23.369 - Rear lift truss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Rear lift truss. 23.369 Section 23.369 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... lift truss. (a) If a rear lift truss is used, it must be designed to withstand conditions of reversed...

  20. 14 CFR 23.369 - Rear lift truss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rear lift truss. 23.369 Section 23.369 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... lift truss. (a) If a rear lift truss is used, it must be designed to withstand conditions of reversed...

  1. 14 CFR 23.345 - High lift devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false High lift devices. 23.345 Section 23.345 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... lift devices. (a) If flaps or similar high lift devices are to be used for takeoff, approach or landing...

  2. 14 CFR 23.345 - High lift devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false High lift devices. 23.345 Section 23.345 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... lift devices. (a) If flaps or similar high lift devices are to be used for takeoff, approach or landing...

  3. iLift: A health behavior change support system for lifting and transfer techniques to prevent lower-back injuries in healthcare.

    PubMed

    Kuipers, Derek A; Wartena, Bard O; Dijkstra, Boudewijn H; Terlouw, Gijs; van T Veer, Job T B; van Dijk, Hylke W; Prins, Jelle T; Pierie, Jean Pierre E N

    2016-12-01

    , auditory and visual feedback, overall playability and perceived immersiveness. This design process also addressed the behavior shaping capacities of the game and its place within the health behavior change support system. An expert panel on lifting and transferring techniques validated the provoked in-game activities as being authentic. (c) Regression analysis showed an increase of the game score and dashboard score when more sessions were played, indicating an in-game training effect. A post-hoc test revealed that from an average of 10 playing sessions or more, the dashboard score and the game score align, which indicates behavioral change towards executing appropriate static lifting and transferring techniques. Data gathered in the final field test shows an in-game training effect, causing players to exhibit correct techniques for static lifting and transferring techniques but also revealed the necessity for future social system development and especially regarding intervention acceptance. Social system factors showed a strong impact on the games persuasive capacities and its autogenous intent. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Method for treating a nuclear process off-gas stream

    DOEpatents

    Pence, Dallas T.; Chou, Chun-Chao

    1984-01-01

    Disclosed is a method for selectively removing and recovering the noble gas and other gaseous components typically emitted during nuclear process operations. The method is adaptable and useful for treating dissolver off-gas effluents released during reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels whereby to permit radioactive contaminant recovery prior to releasing the remaining off-gases to the atmosphere. Briefly, the method sequentially comprises treating the off-gas stream to preliminarily remove NO.sub.x, hydrogen and carbon-containing organic compounds, and semivolatile fission product metal oxide components therefrom; adsorbing iodine components on silver-exchanged mordenite; removing water vapor carried by said stream by means of a molecular sieve; selectively removing the carbon dioxide components of said off-gas stream by means of a molecular sieve; selectively removing xenon in gas phase by passing said stream through a molecular sieve comprising silver-exchanged mordenite; selectively separating krypton from oxygen by means of a molecular sieve comprising silver-exchanged mordenite; selectively separating krypton from the bulk nitrogen stream using a molecular sieve comprising silver-exchanged mordenite cooled to about -140.degree. to -160.degree. C.; concentrating the desorbed krypton upon a molecular sieve comprising silver-exchange mordenite cooled to about -140.degree. to -160.degree. C.; and further cryogenically concentrating, and the recovering for storage, the desorbed krypton.

  5. Optical effects induced by epitaxial tension in lead titanate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dejneka, A.; Chvostova, D.; Pacherova, O.; Kocourek, T.; Jelinek, M.; Tyunina, M.

    2018-01-01

    Single-crystal-type epitaxial films of perovskite oxide ferroelectrics are attractive for integrated photonic applications because of the remarkable optical properties and effects in ferroelectrics. The properties of the films may be influenced by epitaxial strain arising from the film-substrate mismatch. Here, dramatic strain-induced changes of the absorption and refraction are experimentally detected by spectroscopic ellipsometry in epitaxial films of archetypical ferroelectric PbTiO3. Comparison of the properties of a tensile-strained film with those of reference films and crystals reveals that epitaxial tension produces blueshifts of the primary above-bandgap absorption peaks by 1 eV and a decrease in the refractive index by 0.5 in the transparent spectral range. The obtained quadratic electrooptic and effective elastooptic coefficients exceed the bulk values by orders of magnitude. The experimental observations prove that epitaxy is a powerful tool for engineering unprecedented optical properties that may enable future photonics innovations.

  6. Deposition of hydrogenated silicon clusters for efficient epitaxial growth.

    PubMed

    Le, Ha-Linh Thi; Jardali, Fatme; Vach, Holger

    2018-06-13

    Epitaxial silicon thin films grown from the deposition of plasma-born hydrogenated silicon nanoparticles using plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition have widely been investigated due to their potential applications in photovoltaic and nanoelectronic device technologies. However, the optimal experimental conditions and the underlying growth mechanisms leading to the high-speed epitaxial growth of thin silicon films from hydrogenated silicon nanoparticles remain far from being understood. In the present work, extensive molecular dynamics simulations were performed to study the epitaxial growth of silicon thin films resulting from the deposition of plasma-born hydrogenated silicon clusters at low substrate temperatures under realistic reactor conditions. There is strong evidence that a temporary phase transition of the substrate area around the cluster impact site to the liquid state is necessary for the epitaxial growth to take place. We predict further that a non-normal incidence angle for the cluster impact significantly facilitates the epitaxial growth of thin crystalline silicon films.

  7. Vacancies in epitaxial graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Davydov, S. Yu., E-mail: Sergei-Davydov@mail.ru

    The coherent-potential method is used to consider the problem of the influence of a finite concentration of randomly arranged vacancies on the density of states of epitaxial graphene. To describe the density of states of the substrate, simple models (the Anderson model, Haldane-Anderson model, and parabolic model) are used. The electronic spectrum of free single-sheet graphene is considered in the low-energy approximation. Charge transfer in the graphene-substrate system is discussed. It is shown that, in all cases, the density of states of epitaxial graphene decreases proportionally to the vacancy concentration. At the same time, the average charge transferred from graphenemore » to the substrate increases.« less

  8. Project LIFT: Year Two Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, Michael; Piccinino, Kelly

    2014-01-01

    Research for Action (RFA) has completed its second year of a five-year external evaluation of the Project Leadership and Investment for Transformation (LIFT) Initiative in the Charlotte-Mecklenburg School District (CMS). Project LIFT is a public-private partnership between CMS and the local philanthropic and business communities in Charlotte,…

  9. Buttock Lift

    MedlinePlus

    ... after surgery using a needle and syringe. Poor wound healing. Sometimes areas along the incision line heal poorly ... might be given antibiotics if there is a wound healing problem. Scarring. Incision scars from a buttock lift ...

  10. Columnar and subsurface silicide growth with novel molecular beam epitaxy techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fathauer, R. W.; George, T.; Pike, W. T.

    1992-01-01

    We have found novel growth modes for epitaxial CoSi2 at high temperatures coupled with Si-rich flux ratios or low deposition rates. In the first of these modes, codeposition of metal and Si at 600-800 C with excess Si leads to the formation of epitaxial silicide columns surrounded by single-crystal Si. During the initial stages of the deposition, the excess Si grows homoepitaxially in between the silicide, which forms islands, so that the lateral growth of the islands is confined. Once a template layer is established by this process, columns of silicide form as a result of selective epitaxy of silicide on silicide and Si on Si. This growth process allows nanometer control over silicide particles in three dimensions. In the second of these modes, a columnar silicide seed layer is used as a template to nucleate subsurface growth of CoSi2. With a 100 nm Si layer covering CoSi2 seeds, Co deposited at 800C and 0.01 nm/s diffuses down to grow on the buried seeds rather than nucleating surface silicide islands. For thicker Si caps or higher deposition rates, the surface concentration of Co exceeds the critical concentration for nucleation of islands, preventing this subsurface growth mode from occurring. Using this technique, single-crystal layers of CoSi2 buried under single-crystal Si caps have been grown.

  11. Using verbal instructions to influence lifting mechanics - Does the directive "lift with your legs, not your back" attenuate spinal flexion?

    PubMed

    Beach, Tyson A C; Stankovic, Tatjana; Carnegie, Danielle R; Micay, Rachel; Frost, David M

    2018-02-01

    "Use your legs" is commonly perceived as sound advice to prevent lifting-related low-back pain and injuries, but there is limited evidence that this directive attenuates the concomitant biomechanical risk factors. Body segment kinematic data were collected from 12 men and 12 women who performed a laboratory lifting/lowering task after being provided with different verbal instructions. The main finding was that instructing participants to lift "without rounding your lower back" had a greater effect on the amount of spine flexion they exhibited when lifting/lowering than instructing them to lift "with your legs instead of your back" and "bend your knees and hips". It was concluded that if using verbal instructions to discourage spine flexion when lifting, the instructions should be spine- rather than leg-focused. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. 77 FR 20558 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Platform Lifts for Motor Vehicles; Platform Lift...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-05

    ... amendments to the Federal motor vehicle safety standards on platform lift systems for motor vehicles. The... [email protected] . For legal issues, you may contact David Jasinski, Office of the Chief Counsel, NCC... in the Federal Register a final rule establishing FMVSS No. 403, Platform lift systems for motor...

  13. Aerodynamics of High-Lift Configuration Civil Aircraft Model in JAXA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokokawa, Yuzuru; Murayama, Mitsuhiro; Ito, Takeshi; Yamamoto, Kazuomi

    This paper presents basic aerodynamics and stall characteristics of the high-lift configuration aircraft model JSM (JAXA Standard Model). During research process of developing high-lift system design method, wind tunnel testing at JAXA 6.5m by 5.5m low-speed wind tunnel and Navier-Stokes computation on unstructured hybrid mesh were performed for a realistic configuration aircraft model equipped with high-lift devices, fuselage, nacelle-pylon, slat tracks and Flap Track Fairings (FTF), which was assumed 100 passenger class modern commercial transport aircraft. The testing and the computation aimed to understand flow physics and then to obtain some guidelines for designing a high performance high-lift system. As a result of the testing, Reynolds number effects within linear region and stall region were observed. Analysis of static pressure distribution and flow visualization gave the knowledge to understand the aerodynamic performance. CFD could capture the whole characteristics of basic aerodynamics and clarify flow mechanism which governs stall characteristics even for complicated geometry and its flow field. This collaborative work between wind tunnel testing and CFD is advantageous for improving or has improved the aerodynamic performance.

  14. The comparison between intradermal injection of abobotulinumtoxinA and normal saline for face-lifting: a split-face randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Wanitphakdeedecha, Rungsima; Ungaksornpairote, Chanida; Kaewkes, Arisa; Rojanavanich, Viboon; Phothong, Weeranut; Manuskiatti, Woraphong

    2016-12-01

    Botulinum toxin type A (BTA) has been approved for the treatment of strabismus, blepharospasm, muscle spasm, cervical dystonia, pain syndrome, glabella wrinkles, and severe primary axillary hyperhidrosis. Intradermal injection of BTA has been used off-label by many clinicians for the purpose of face-lifting effect. Few studies on onabotulinumtoxinA (ONA) demonstrated no clinical efficacy on face-lifting effect when comparing to normal saline solution (NSS). So far, there is no split-face comparison study on face-lifting effect of abobotulinumtoxinA (ABO). To determine the face-lifting effect of ABO intradermal injection and NSS. Twenty-two subjects with symmetrical faces on both facial expression and expressionless were randomly injected with ABO at 1:7 cc dilution (500 unit or one vial in 7 cc of NSS) on one side and NSS on the other side using intradermal injection technique. Standardized photographic documentation was obtained at baseline, and at 2 weeks after treatment. The face-lifting effect was graded by two blinded dermatologists using photographic comparison and rated by the patients. Side effects were also recorded at the end of the study. Face-lifting effect was demonstrated in 40.9% and 4.5% of patients with ABO and NSS, respectively. There was a statistically significant difference in face-lifting effect when comparing between ABO and NSS (P = 0.021). The face-lifting was reported in 50.0% of patients receiving ABO injection. The patients with oval-face shape tended to respond better with ABO (P = 0.046). The odd of face-lifting effect for patients aged younger than 32 was higher than patients aged older than 32 with the odds ratio of 7.9 and 95% confidence interval of 1.1-56.1. Facial asymmetry was found in 22.7% of subjects. This study demonstrated the face-lifting effect of ABO intradermal injection. Patients with oval-face shape and aged younger than 32 tended to respond better. Therefore, patient selection should be emphasized to improve efficacy

  15. Quasi van der Waals epitaxy of copper thin film on single-crystal graphene monolayer buffer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Zonghuan; Sun, Xin; Washington, Morris A.; Lu, Toh-Ming

    2018-03-01

    Quasi van der Waals epitaxial growth of face-centered cubic Cu (~100 nm) thin films on single-crystal monolayer graphene is demonstrated using thermal evaporation at an elevated substrate temperature of 250 °C. The single-crystal graphene was transferred to amorphous (glass) and crystalline (quartz) SiO2 substrates for epitaxy study. Raman analysis showed that the thermal evaporation method had minimal damage to the graphene lattice during the Cu deposition. X-ray diffraction and electron backscatter diffraction analyses revealed that both Cu films are single-crystal with (1 1 1) out-of-plane orientation and in-plane Σ3 twin domains of 60° rotation. The crystallinity of the SiO2 substrates has a negligible effect on the Cu crystal orientation during the epitaxial growth, implying the strong screening effect of graphene. We also demonstrate the epitaxial growth of polycrystalline Cu on a commercial polycrystalline monolayer graphene consisting of two orientation domains offset 30° to each other. It confirms that the crystal orientation of the epitaxial Cu film follows that of graphene, i.e. the Cu film consists of two orientation domains offset 30° to each other when deposited on polycrystalline graphene. Finally, on the contrary to the report in the literature, we show that the direct current and radio frequency flip sputtering method causes significant damage to the graphene lattice during the Cu deposition process, and therefore neither is a suitable method for Cu epitaxial growth on graphene.

  16. Thermoelectric properties of epitaxial β-FeSi2 thin films grown on Si(111) substrates with various film qualities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Kentaro; Taniguchi, Tatsuhiko; Sakane, Shunya; Aoki, Shunsuke; Suzuki, Takeyuki; Fujita, Takeshi; Nakamura, Yoshiaki

    2017-05-01

    Si-based epitaxial β-FeSi2 thin films are attractive as materials for on-chip thermoelectric power generators. We investigated the structure, crystallinity, and thermoelectric properties of β-FeSi2 thin films epitaxially grown on Si(111) substrates by using three different techniques: conventional reactive deposition epitaxy followed by molecular beam epitaxy (RDE+MBE), solid phase epitaxy (SPE) based on codeposition of Fe and Si presented previously, and SPE followed by MBE (SPE+MBE) presented newly by this work. Their epitaxial growth temperatures were fixed at 530 °C for comparison. RDE+MBE thin films exhibited high crystalline quality, but rough surfaces and rugged β-FeSi2/Si(111) interfaces. On the other hand, SPE thin films showed flat surfaces and abrupt β-FeSi2/Si(111) interfaces but low crystallinity. We found that SPE+MBE thin films realized crystallinity higher than SPE thin films, and also had flatter surfaces and sharper interfaces than RDE+MBE thin films. In SPE+MBE thin film growth, due to the initial SPE process with low temperature codeposition, thermal interdiffusion of Fe and Si was suppressed, resulting in the surface flatness and abrupt interface. Second high temperature MBE process improved the crystallinity. We also investigated thermoelectric properties of these β-FeSi2 thin films. Structural factors affecting the thermoelectric properties of RDE+MBE, SPE, and SPE+MBE thin films were investigated.

  17. Visual perception of fatigued lifting actions.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Steven L; Albert, Wayne J; McGarry, Tim

    2012-12-01

    Fatigue-related changes in lifting kinematics may expose workers to undue injury risks. Early detection of accumulating fatigue offers the prospect of intervention strategies to mitigate such fatigue-related risks. In a first step towards this objective, this study investigated whether fatigue detection was accessible to visual perception and, if so, what was the key visual information required for successful fatigue discrimination. Eighteen participants were tasked with identifying fatigued lifts when viewing 24 trials presented using both video and point-light representations. Each trial comprised a pair of lifting actions containing a fresh and a fatigued lift from the same individual presented in counter-balanced sequence. Confidence intervals demonstrated that the frequency of correct responses for both sexes exceeded chance expectations (50%) for both video (68%±12%) and point-light representations (67%±10%), demonstrating that fatigued lifting kinematics are open to visual perception. There were no significant differences between sexes or viewing condition, the latter result indicating kinematic dynamics as providing sufficient information for successful fatigue discrimination. Moreover, results from single viewer investigation reported fatigue detection (75%) from point-light information describing only the kinematics of the box lifted. These preliminary findings may have important workplace applications if fatigue discrimination rates can be improved upon through future research. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Forearm Torque and Lifting Strength: Normative Data.

    PubMed

    Axelsson, Peter; Fredrikson, Per; Nilsson, Anders; Andersson, Jonny K; Kärrholm, Johan

    2018-02-10

    To establish reference values for new methods designed to quantitatively measure forearm torque and lifting strength and to compare these values with grip strength. A total of 499 volunteers, 262 males and 237 females, aged 15 to 85 (mean, 44) years, were tested for lifting strength and forearm torque with the Kern and Baseline dynamometers. These individuals were also tested for grip strength with a Jamar dynamometer. Standardized procedures were used and information about sex, height, weight, hand dominance, and whether their work involved high or low manual strain was collected. Men had approximately 70% higher forearm torque and lifting strength compared with females. Male subjects aged 26 to 35 years and female subjects aged 36 to 45 years showed highest strength values. In patients with dominant right side, 61% to 78% had a higher or equal strength on this side in the different tests performed. In patients with dominant left side, the corresponding proportions varied between 41% and 65%. There was a high correlation between grip strength and forearm torque and lifting strength. Sex, body height, body weight, and age showed a significant correlation to the strength measurements. In a multiple regression model sex, age (entered as linear and squared) could explain 51% to 63% of the total variances of forearm torque strength and 30% to 36% of lifting strength. Reference values for lifting strength and forearm torque to be used in clinical practice were acquired. Grip strength has a high correlation to forearm torque and lifting strength. Sex, age, and height can be used to predict forearm torque and lifting strength. Prediction equations using these variables were generated. Normative data of forearm torque and lifting strength might improve the quality of assessment of wrist and forearm disorders as well as their treatments. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Project LIFT: Year Three Student Outcomes Memo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, Michael; Kim, Dae Y.; Long, Daniel A.

    2016-01-01

    Research for Action (RFA) was commissioned to evaluate changes in student outcomes during the first three years of the Project Leadership and Investment for Transformation (LIFT). This report focuses on two questions: (1) how do LIFT students' behavioral and academic performance compare to those of a matched set of non-LIFT comparison students?;…

  20. Project LIFT: Year 1 Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, Michael; Piccinino, Kelly

    2014-01-01

    Research for Action (RFA) is currently in the second year of a five-year external evaluation of the Project Leadership and Investment for Transformation (LIFT) Initiative in the Charlotte-Mecklenburg School District (CMS). Project LIFT is a public-private partnership between CMS and the local philanthropic and business communities in Charlotte,…

  1. Reduced Boil-Off System Sizing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guzik, Monica C.; Plachta, David W.; Feller, Jeffrey R.

    2015-01-01

    NASA is currently developing cryogenic propellant storage and transfer systems for future space exploration and scientific discovery missions by addressing the need to raise the technology readiness level of cryogenic fluid management technologies. Cryogenic propellants are baselined in many propulsion systems due to their inherently high specific impulse; however, their low boiling points can cause substantial boil-off losses over time. Recent efforts such as the Reduced Boil-off Testing and the Active Thermal Control Scaling Study provide important information on the benefit of an active cooling system applied to LH2 propellant storage. Findings show that zero-boil off technologies can reduce overall mass in LH2 storage systems when low Earth orbit loiter periods extend beyond two months. A significant part of this mass reduction is realized by integrating two stages of cooling: a 20 K stage to intercept heat at the tank surface, and a 90 K stage to reduce the heat entering the less efficient 20 K stage. A missing element in previous studies, which is addressed in this paper, is the development of a direct method for sizing the 90 K cooling stage. Such a method requires calculation of the heat entering both the 90 K and 20 K stages as compared to the overall system masses, and is reliant upon the temperature distribution, performance, and unique design characteristics of the system in question. By utilizing the known conductance of a system without active thermal control, the heat being intercepted by a 90 K stage can be calculated to find the resultant lift and mass of each active thermal control stage. Integral to this is the thermal conductance of the cooling straps and the broad area cooling shield, key parts of the 90 K stage. Additionally, a trade study is performed to show the ability of the 90 K cooling stage to reduce the lift on the 20 K cryocooler stage, which is considerably less developed and efficient than 90 K cryocoolers.

  2. An improved numerical model suggests potential differences of wind-blown sand between on Earth and Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bo, T. L.; Fu, L. T.; Liu, L.; Zheng, X. J.

    2017-06-01

    The studies on wind-blown sand are crucial for understanding the change of climate and landscape on Mars. However, the disadvantages of the saltation models may result in unreliable predictions. In this paper, the saltation model has been improved from two main aspects, the aerodynamic surface roughness and the lift-off parameters. The aerodynamic surface roughness is expressed as function of particle size, wind strength, air density, and air dynamic viscosity. The lift-off parameters are improved through including the dependence of restitution coefficient on incident parameters and the correlation between saltating speed and angle. The improved model proved to be capable of reproducing the observed data well in both stable stage and evolution process. The modeling of wind-blown sand is promoted by all improved aspects, and the dependence of restitution coefficient on incident parameters could not be ignored. The constant restitution coefficient and uncorrelated lift-off parameter distributions would lead to both the overestimation of the sand transport rate and apparent surface roughness and the delay of evolution process. The distribution of lift-off speed and the evolution of lift-off parameters on Mars are found to be different from those on Earth. This may thus suggest that it is inappropriate to predict the evolution of wind-blown sand by using the lift-off velocity obtained in steady state saltation. And it also may be problematic to predict the wind-blown sand on Mars through applying the lift-off velocity obtained upon terrestrial conditions directly.

  3. 14 CFR 25.345 - High lift devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false High lift devices. 25.345 Section 25.345... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Flight Maneuver and Gust Conditions § 25.345 High lift...) A head-on gust of 25 feet per second velocity (EAS). (c) If flaps or other high lift devices are to...

  4. 14 CFR 25.345 - High lift devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false High lift devices. 25.345 Section 25.345... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Flight Maneuver and Gust Conditions § 25.345 High lift...) A head-on gust of 25 feet per second velocity (EAS). (c) If flaps or other high lift devices are to...

  5. Flight-Determined Subsonic Lift and Drag Characteristics of Seven Lifting-Body and Wing-Body Reentry Vehicle Configurations With Truncated Bases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saltzman, Edwin J.; Wang, K. Charles; Iliff, Kenneth W.

    1999-01-01

    This paper examines flight-measured subsonic lift and drag characteristics of seven lifting-body and wing-body reentry vehicle configurations with truncated bases. The seven vehicles are the full-scale M2-F1, M2-F2, HL-10, X-24A, X-24B, and X-15 vehicles and the Space Shuttle prototype. Lift and drag data of the various vehicles are assembled under aerodynamic performance parameters and presented in several analytical and graphical formats. These formats unify the data and allow a greater understanding than studying the vehicles individually allows. Lift-curve slope data are studied with respect to aspect ratio and related to generic wind-tunnel model data and to theory for low-aspect-ratio planforms. The proper definition of reference area was critical for understanding and comparing the lift data. The drag components studied include minimum drag coefficient, lift-related drag, maximum lift-to-drag ratio, and, where available, base pressure coefficients. The effects of fineness ratio on forebody drag were also considered. The influence of forebody drag on afterbody (base) drag at low lift is shown to be related to Hoerner's compilation for body, airfoil, nacelle, and canopy drag. These analyses are intended to provide a useful analytical framework with which to compare and evaluate new vehicle configurations of the same generic family.

  6. Diesel Fuel Property Effects on In-Cylinder Liquid Penetration Length: Impact on Smoke Emissions and Equivalence Ratio Estimates at the Flame Lift-Off Length

    SciTech Connect

    Dumitrescu, Cosmin E.; Polonowski, Christopher J.; Fisher, Brian T.

    Here in this study, elastic scattering was employed to investigate diesel fuel property effects on the liquid length (i.e., the maximum extent of in-cylinder liquid-phase fuel penetration) using select research fuels: an ultralow-sulfur #2 diesel emissions-certification fuel (CF) and four of the Coordinating Research Council (CRC) Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines (FACE) diesel fuels (F1, F2, F6, and F8). The experiments were performed in a single-cylinder heavy-duty optical compression-ignition engine under time-varying, noncombusting conditions to minimize the influence of chemical heat release on the liquid-length measurement. The FACE diesel fuel and CF liquid lengths under combusting conditions were also predicted using Siebers’ scaling law and pressure data from previous work using the same fuels at similar in-cylinder conditions. The objective was to observe if the liquid length under noncombusting or combusting conditions provides additional insights into the relationships among the main fuel properties (i.e., cetane number (CN), the 90 vol % distillation recovery temperature (T90), and aromatic content) and smoke emissions. Results suggest that liquid-length values are best correlated to fuel distillation characteristics measured with ASTM D2887 (simulated distillation method). This work also studied the relationship between liquid length and lift-off length, H (i.e., distance from the fuel-injector orifice exit to the position where the standing premixed autoignition zone stabilizes during mixing-controlled combustion). Two possible cases were identified based on the relative magnitudes of liquid length under combusting conditions (Lc) and H. The low-CN fuels are representative of the first case, L c < H, in which the fuel is always fully vaporized at H. The high-CN fuels are mostly representative of the second case, L c ≥ H, in which there is still liquid fuel at H. Lc ≥ H would suggest higher smoke emissions, but there is not enough evidence

  7. Diesel Fuel Property Effects on In-Cylinder Liquid Penetration Length: Impact on Smoke Emissions and Equivalence Ratio Estimates at the Flame Lift-Off Length

    DOE PAGES

    Dumitrescu, Cosmin E.; Polonowski, Christopher J.; Fisher, Brian T.; ...

    2015-10-05

    Here in this study, elastic scattering was employed to investigate diesel fuel property effects on the liquid length (i.e., the maximum extent of in-cylinder liquid-phase fuel penetration) using select research fuels: an ultralow-sulfur #2 diesel emissions-certification fuel (CF) and four of the Coordinating Research Council (CRC) Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines (FACE) diesel fuels (F1, F2, F6, and F8). The experiments were performed in a single-cylinder heavy-duty optical compression-ignition engine under time-varying, noncombusting conditions to minimize the influence of chemical heat release on the liquid-length measurement. The FACE diesel fuel and CF liquid lengths under combusting conditions were also predicted using Siebers’ scaling law and pressure data from previous work using the same fuels at similar in-cylinder conditions. The objective was to observe if the liquid length under noncombusting or combusting conditions provides additional insights into the relationships among the main fuel properties (i.e., cetane number (CN), the 90 vol % distillation recovery temperature (T90), and aromatic content) and smoke emissions. Results suggest that liquid-length values are best correlated to fuel distillation characteristics measured with ASTM D2887 (simulated distillation method). This work also studied the relationship between liquid length and lift-off length, H (i.e., distance from the fuel-injector orifice exit to the position where the standing premixed autoignition zone stabilizes during mixing-controlled combustion). Two possible cases were identified based on the relative magnitudes of liquid length under combusting conditions (Lc) and H. The low-CN fuels are representative of the first case, L c < H, in which the fuel is always fully vaporized at H. The high-CN fuels are mostly representative of the second case, L c ≥ H, in which there is still liquid fuel at H. Lc ≥ H would suggest higher smoke emissions, but there is not enough evidence

  8. Electrical Properties of the V-Defects of Epitaxial HgCdTe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novikov, V. A.; Grigoryev, D. V.; Bezrodnyy, D. A.; Voitsekhovskii, A. V.; Dvoretsky, S. A.; Mikhailov, N. N.

    2017-07-01

    The manufacturing process of wide-band-gap matrix photodetector devices and miniaturization of their individual pixels gave rise to increased demands on the material quality and research methods. In the present paper we propose using the methods of atomic-force microscopy to study the local distribution of electrical properties of the V-defects that form in epitaxial films of HgCdTe during their growth process via molecular beam epitaxy. We demonstrate that a complex approach to studying the electrical properties of a predefined region of a V-defect allows one to obtain more detailed information on its properties. Using scanning spreading resistance microscopy, we show that, for a V-defect when the applied bias is increased, the surface area that participates in the process of charge carrier transfer also increases almost linearly. The presence of a potential barrier on the periphery of individual crystal grains that form the V-defect interferes with the flow of current and also affects the distribution of surface potential and capacitive contrast.

  9. Droplet Epitaxy Image Contrast in Mirror Electron Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, S. M.; Zheng, C. X.; Jesson, D. E.

    2017-01-01

    Image simulation methods are applied to interpret mirror electron microscopy (MEM) images obtained from a movie of GaAs droplet epitaxy. Cylindrical symmetry of structures grown by droplet epitaxy is assumed in the simulations which reproduce the main features of the experimental MEM image contrast, demonstrating that droplet epitaxy can be studied in real-time. It is therefore confirmed that an inner ring forms at the droplet contact line and an outer ring (or skirt) occurs outside the droplet periphery. We believe that MEM combined with image simulations will be increasingly used to study the formation and growth of quantum structures.

  10. Powered-Lift Aerodynamics and Acoustics. [conferences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Powered lift technology is reviewed. Topics covered include: (1) high lift aerodynamics; (2) high speed and cruise aerodynamics; (3) acoustics; (4) propulsion aerodynamics and acoustics; (5) aerodynamic and acoustic loads; and (6) full-scale and flight research.

  11. VAB Platform K(2) Lift & Install into Highbay 3

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-03-07

    Preparations are underway to lift the second half of the K-level work platforms for NASA’s Space Launch System (SLS) rocket up from High Bay 4 inside the Vehicle Assembly Building at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The platform will be lifted up and over the transfer aisle and then lowered into High Bay 3 for installation. It will be secured about 86 feet above the VAB floor, on tower E of the high bay. The K work platforms will provide access to the SLS core stage and solid rocket boosters during processing and stacking operations on the mobile launcher. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is overseeing upgrades and modifications to High Bay 3 to support processing of the SLS and Orion spacecraft. A total of 10 levels of new platforms, 20 platform halves altogether, will surround the SLS rocket and Orion spacecraft.

  12. VAB Platform K(2) Lift & Install into Highbay 3

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-03-07

    A 250-ton crane is used to lift the second half of the K-level work platforms for NASA’s Space Launch System (SLS) rocket high above the transfer aisle inside the Vehicle Assembly Building at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The platform is being lifted up for transfer into High Bay 3 for installation. The platform will be secured about 86 feet above the VAB floor, on tower E of the high bay. The K work platforms will provide access to the SLS core stage and solid rocket boosters during processing and stacking operations on the mobile launcher. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is overseeing upgrades and modifications to High Bay 3 to support processing of the SLS and Orion spacecraft. A total of 10 levels of new platforms, 20 platform halves altogether, will surround the SLS rocket and Orion spacecraft.

  13. VAB Platform K(2) Lift & Install into Highbay 3

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-03-07

    A 250-ton crane is used to lift the second half of the K-level work platforms for NASA’s Space Launch System (SLS) rocket up from High Bay 4 inside the Vehicle Assembly Building at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The platform will be lifted up and over the transfer aisle and then lowered into High Bay 3 for installation. It will be secured about 86 feet above the VAB floor, on tower E of the high bay. The K work platforms will provide access to the SLS core stage and solid rocket boosters during processing and stacking operations on the mobile launcher. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is overseeing upgrades and modifications to High Bay 3 to support processing of the SLS and Orion spacecraft. A total of 10 levels of new platforms, 20 platform halves altogether, will surround the SLS rocket and Orion spacecraft.

  14. VAB Platform K(2) Lift & Install into Highbay 3

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-03-07

    A 250-ton crane is used to lift the second half of the K-level work platforms for NASA’s Space Launch System (SLS) rocket up from High Bay 4 inside the Vehicle Assembly Building at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The platform is being lifted up and over the transfer aisle and will be lowered into High Bay 3 for installation. It will be secured about 86 feet above the VAB floor, on tower E of the high bay. The K work platforms will provide access to the SLS core stage and solid rocket boosters during processing and stacking operations on the mobile launcher. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is overseeing upgrades and modifications to High Bay 3 to support processing of the SLS and Orion spacecraft. A total of 10 levels of new platforms, 20 platform halves altogether, will surround the SLS rocket and Orion spacecraft.

  15. Performance of epitaxial back surface field cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandhorst, H. W., Jr.; Baraona, C. R.; Swartz, C. K.

    1973-01-01

    Epitaxial back surface field structures were formed by depositing a 10 micron thick 10 Omega-cm epitaxial silicon layer onto substrates with resistivities of 0.01, 0.1, 1.0 and 10 Omega-cm. A correlation between cell open-circuit voltage and substrate resistivity was observed and was compared to theory. The cells were also irradiated with 1 MeV electrons to a fluence of 5 X 10 to the 15th power e/cm2. The decrease of cell open-circuit voltage was in excellent agreement with theoretical predictions and the measured short circuit currents were within 2% of the prediction. Calculations are presented of optimum cell performance as functions of epitaxial layer thickness, radiation fluence and substrate diffusion length.

  16. Development of Facial Rejuvenation Procedures: Thirty Years of Clinical Experience with Face Lifts

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Byung Jun; Choi, Jun Ho

    2015-01-01

    Facial rejuvenation procedures can be roughly divided into face lift surgery and nonoperative, less invasive procedures, such as fat grafts, fillers, botulinum toxin injections, thread lifts, or laserbrasion. Face lift surgery or rhytidectomy is the procedure most directly associated with rejuvenation, due to its fundamental ability to restore the anatomical changes caused by aging. Various methods of face lift surgery have been developed over the last hundred years, thanks to advances in the understanding of facial anatomy and the mechanisms of aging, as well as the dedication of innovative surgeons. However, no generally applicable standard method exists, because the condition of each patient is different, and each operative method has advantages and disadvantages. Specific characteristics of the skin of Asians and their skeletal anatomy should be considered when determining the operative method to be used on Asian patients. Plastic surgeons should improve their ability to analyze the original aesthetic properties and problem areas of each patient, drawing on scientific knowledge about the aging process, and they should develop the skills necessary to perform various rejuvenative techniques. In the present article, we reviewed various face lift procedures and the current methods of modified double plane face lift, based on our clinical experience of over 30 years. PMID:26430622

  17. Cantilever epitaxial process

    DOEpatents

    Ashby, Carol I.; Follstaedt, David M.; Mitchell, Christine C.; Han, Jung

    2003-07-29

    A process of growing a material on a substrate, particularly growing a Group II-VI or Group III-V material, by a vapor-phase growth technique where the growth process eliminates the need for utilization of a mask or removal of the substrate from the reactor at any time during the processing. A nucleation layer is first grown upon which a middle layer is grown to provide surfaces for subsequent lateral cantilever growth. The lateral growth rate is controlled by altering the reactor temperature, pressure, reactant concentrations or reactant flow rates. Semiconductor materials, such as GaN, can be produced with dislocation densities less than 10.sup.7 /cm.sup.2.

  18. Lifting Safety: Tips To Help Prevent Back Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... injury from lifting? How can I improve my environment to reduce my risk of back injuries? Resources National Safety Council, Lift and Carry U.S. Department of Labor: Occupational Safety and Health Administration, Heavy Lifting Last Updated: March 15, 2017 ...

  19. Relative importance of expertise, lifting height and weight lifted on posture and lumbar external loading during a transfer task in manual material handling.

    PubMed

    Plamondon, André; Larivière, Christian; Delisle, Alain; Denis, Denys; Gagnon, Denis

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to measure the effect size of three important factors in manual material handling, namely expertise, lifting height and weight lifted. The effect of expertise was evaluated by contrasting 15 expert and 15 novice handlers, the effect of the weight lifted with a 15-kg box and a 23-kg box and the effect of lifting height with two different box heights: ground level and a 32 cm height. The task consisted of transferring a series of boxes from a conveyor to a hand trolley. Lifting height and weight lifted had more effect size than expertise on external back loading variables (moments) while expertise had low impact. On the other hand, expertise showed a significant effect of posture variables on the lumbar spine and knees. All three factors are important, but for a reduction of external back loading, the focus should be on the lifting height and weight lifted. The objective was to measure the effect size of three important factors in a transfer of boxes from a conveyor to a hand trolley. Lifting height and weight lifted had more effect size than expertise on external back loading variables but expertise was a major determinant in back posture.

  20. Simultaneous Laser Raman-rayleigh-lif Measurements and Numerical Modeling Results of a Lifted Turbulent H2/N2 Jet Flame in a Vitiated Coflow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cabra, R.; Chen, J. Y.; Dibble, R. W.; Myhrvold, T.; Karpetis, A. N.; Barlow, R. S.

    2002-01-01

    An experiment and numerical investigation is presented of a lifted turbulent H2/N2 jet flame in a coflow of hot, vitiated gases. The vitiated coflow burner emulates the coupling of turbulent mixing and chemical kinetics exemplary of the reacting flow in the recirculation region of advanced combustors. It also simplifies numerical investigation of this coupled problem by removing the complexity of recirculating flow. Scalar measurements are reported for a lifted turbulent jet flame of H2/N2 (Re = 23,600, H/d = 10) in a coflow of hot combustion products from a lean H2/Air flame ((empty set) = 0.25, T = 1,045 K). The combination of Rayleigh scattering, Raman scattering, and laser-induced fluorescence is used to obtain simultaneous measurements of temperature and concentrations of the major species, OH, and NO. The data attest to the success of the experimental design in providing a uniform vitiated coflow throughout the entire test region. Two combustion models (PDF: joint scalar Probability Density Function and EDC: Eddy Dissipation Concept) are used in conjunction with various turbulence models to predict the lift-off height (H(sub PDF)/d = 7,H(sub EDC)/d = 8.5). Kalghatgi's classic phenomenological theory, which is based on scaling arguments, yields a reasonably accurate prediction (H(sub K)/d = 11.4) of the lift-off height for the present flame. The vitiated coflow admits the possibility of auto-ignition of mixed fluid, and the success of the present parabolic implementation of the PDF model in predicting a stable lifted flame is attributable to such ignition. The measurements indicate a thickened turbulent reaction zone at the flame base. Experimental results and numerical investigations support the plausibility of turbulent premixed flame propagation by small scale (on the order of the flame thickness) recirculation and mixing of hot products into reactants and subsequent rapid ignition of the mixture.

  1. Secondary lift for magnetically levitated vehicles

    DOEpatents

    Cooper, Richard K.

    1976-01-01

    A high-speed terrestrial vehicle that is magnetically levitated by means of magnets which are used to induce eddy currents in a continuous electrically conductive nonferromagnetic track to produce magnetic images that repel the inducing magnet to provide primary lift for the vehicle. The magnets are arranged so that adjacent ones have their fields in opposite directions and the magnets are spaced apart a distance that provides a secondary lift between each magnet and the adjacent magnet's image, the secondary lift being maximized by optimal spacing of the magnets.

  2. Dislocations limited electronic transport in hydride vapour phase epitaxy grown GaN templates: A word of caution for the epitaxial growers

    SciTech Connect

    Chatterjee, Abhishek, E-mail: cabhishek@rrcat.gov.in; Khamari, Shailesh K.; Kumar, R.

    2015-01-12

    GaN templates grown by hydride vapour phase epitaxy (HVPE) and metal organic vapour phase epitaxy (MOVPE) techniques are compared through electronic transport measurements. Carrier concentration measured by Hall technique is about two orders larger than the values estimated by capacitance voltage method for HVPE templates. It is learnt that there exists a critical thickness of HVPE templates below which the transport properties of epitaxial layers grown on top of them are going to be severely limited by the density of charged dislocations lying at layer-substrate interface. On the contrary MOVPE grown templates are found to be free from such limitations.

  3. Power and Performance Trade-offs for Space Time Adaptive Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Gawande, Nitin A.; Manzano Franco, Joseph B.; Tumeo, Antonino

    Computational efficiency – performance relative to power or energy – is one of the most important concerns when designing RADAR processing systems. This paper analyzes power and performance trade-offs for a typical Space Time Adaptive Processing (STAP) application. We study STAP implementations for CUDA and OpenMP on two computationally efficient architectures, Intel Haswell Core I7-4770TE and NVIDIA Kayla with a GK208 GPU. We analyze the power and performance of STAP’s computationally intensive kernels across the two hardware testbeds. We also show the impact and trade-offs of GPU optimization techniques. We show that data parallelism can be exploited for efficient implementationmore » on the Haswell CPU architecture. The GPU architecture is able to process large size data sets without increase in power requirement. The use of shared memory has a significant impact on the power requirement for the GPU. A balance between the use of shared memory and main memory access leads to an improved performance in a typical STAP application.« less

  4. Scalable solution-phase epitaxial growth of symmetry-mismatched heterostructures on two-dimensional crystal soft template.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zhaoyang; Yin, Anxiang; Mao, Jun; Xia, Yi; Kempf, Nicholas; He, Qiyuan; Wang, Yiliu; Chen, Chih-Yen; Zhang, Yanliang; Ozolins, Vidvuds; Ren, Zhifeng; Huang, Yu; Duan, Xiangfeng

    2016-10-01

    Epitaxial heterostructures with precisely controlled composition and electronic modulation are of central importance for electronics, optoelectronics, thermoelectrics, and catalysis. In general, epitaxial material growth requires identical or nearly identical crystal structures with small misfit in lattice symmetry and parameters and is typically achieved by vapor-phase depositions in vacuum. We report a scalable solution-phase growth of symmetry-mismatched PbSe/Bi 2 Se 3 epitaxial heterostructures by using two-dimensional (2D) Bi 2 Se 3 nanoplates as soft templates. The dangling bond-free surface of 2D Bi 2 Se 3 nanoplates guides the growth of PbSe crystal without requiring a one-to-one match in the atomic structure, which exerts minimal restriction on the epitaxial layer. With a layered structure and weak van der Waals interlayer interaction, the interface layer in the 2D Bi 2 Se 3 nanoplates can deform to accommodate incoming layer, thus functioning as a soft template for symmetry-mismatched epitaxial growth of cubic PbSe crystal on rhombohedral Bi 2 Se 3 nanoplates. We show that a solution chemistry approach can be readily used for the synthesis of gram-scale PbSe/Bi 2 Se 3 epitaxial heterostructures, in which the square PbSe (001) layer forms on the trigonal/hexagonal (0001) plane of Bi 2 Se 3 nanoplates. We further show that the resulted PbSe/Bi 2 Se 3 heterostructures can be readily processed into bulk pellet with considerably suppressed thermal conductivity (0.30 W/m·K at room temperature) while retaining respectable electrical conductivity, together delivering a thermoelectric figure of merit ZT three times higher than that of the pristine Bi 2 Se 3 nanoplates at 575 K. Our study demonstrates a unique epitaxy mode enabled by the 2D nanocrystal soft template via an affordable and scalable solution chemistry approach. It opens up new opportunities for the creation of diverse epitaxial heterostructures with highly disparate structures and functions.

  5. Scalable solution-phase epitaxial growth of symmetry-mismatched heterostructures on two-dimensional crystal soft template

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Zhaoyang; Yin, Anxiang; Mao, Jun; Xia, Yi; Kempf, Nicholas; He, Qiyuan; Wang, Yiliu; Chen, Chih-Yen; Zhang, Yanliang; Ozolins, Vidvuds; Ren, Zhifeng; Huang, Yu; Duan, Xiangfeng

    2016-01-01

    Epitaxial heterostructures with precisely controlled composition and electronic modulation are of central importance for electronics, optoelectronics, thermoelectrics, and catalysis. In general, epitaxial material growth requires identical or nearly identical crystal structures with small misfit in lattice symmetry and parameters and is typically achieved by vapor-phase depositions in vacuum. We report a scalable solution-phase growth of symmetry-mismatched PbSe/Bi2Se3 epitaxial heterostructures by using two-dimensional (2D) Bi2Se3 nanoplates as soft templates. The dangling bond–free surface of 2D Bi2Se3 nanoplates guides the growth of PbSe crystal without requiring a one-to-one match in the atomic structure, which exerts minimal restriction on the epitaxial layer. With a layered structure and weak van der Waals interlayer interaction, the interface layer in the 2D Bi2Se3 nanoplates can deform to accommodate incoming layer, thus functioning as a soft template for symmetry-mismatched epitaxial growth of cubic PbSe crystal on rhombohedral Bi2Se3 nanoplates. We show that a solution chemistry approach can be readily used for the synthesis of gram-scale PbSe/Bi2Se3 epitaxial heterostructures, in which the square PbSe (001) layer forms on the trigonal/hexagonal (0001) plane of Bi2Se3 nanoplates. We further show that the resulted PbSe/Bi2Se3 heterostructures can be readily processed into bulk pellet with considerably suppressed thermal conductivity (0.30 W/m·K at room temperature) while retaining respectable electrical conductivity, together delivering a thermoelectric figure of merit ZT three times higher than that of the pristine Bi2Se3 nanoplates at 575 K. Our study demonstrates a unique epitaxy mode enabled by the 2D nanocrystal soft template via an affordable and scalable solution chemistry approach. It opens up new opportunities for the creation of diverse epitaxial heterostructures with highly disparate structures and functions. PMID:27730211

  6. Linearized Lifting-Surface and Lifting-line Evaluations of Sidewash Behind Rolling Triangular Wings at Supersonic Speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bobbitt, Percy J

    1957-01-01

    The lifting-surface sidewash behind rolling triangular wings has been derived for a range of supersonic Mach numbers for which the wing leading edges remain swept behind the mark cone emanating from the wing apex. Variations of the sidewash with longitudinal distance in the vertical plane of symmetry are presented in graphical form. An approximate expression for the sidewash has been developed by means of an approach using a horseshoe-vortex approximate-lifting-line theory. By use of this approximate expression, sidewash may be computed for wings of arbitrary plan form and span loading. A comparison of the sidewash computed by lifting-surface and lifting-line expressions for the triangular wing showed good agreement except in the vicinity of the trailing edge when the leading edge approached the sonic condition. An illustrative calculation has been made of the force induced by the wing sidewash on a vertical tail located in various longitudinal positions.

  7. Aerodynamic Assessment of Flight-Determined Subsonic Lift and Drag Characteristics of Seven Lifting-Body and Wing-Body Reentry Vehicle Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saltzman, Edwin J.; Wang, K. Charles; Iliff, Kenneth W.

    2002-01-01

    This report examines subsonic flight-measured lift and drag characteristics of seven lifting-body and wing-body reentry vehicle configurations with truncated bases. The seven vehicles are the full-scale M2-F1, M2-F2, HL-10, X-24A, X-24B, and X-15 vehicles and the Space Shuttle Enterprise. Subsonic flight lift and drag data of the various vehicles are assembled under aerodynamic performance parameters and presented in several analytical and graphical formats. These formats are intended to unify the data and allow a greater understanding than individually studying the vehicles allows. Lift-curve slope data are studied with respect to aspect ratio and related to generic wind-tunnel model data and to theory for low-aspect-ratio platforms. The definition of reference area is critical for understanding and comparing the lift data. The drag components studied include minimum drag coefficient, lift-related drag, maximum lift-to drag ratio, and, where available, base pressure coefficients. The influence of forebody drag on afterbody and base drag at low lift is shown to be related to Hoerner's compilation for body, airfoil, nacelle, and canopy drag. This feature may result in a reduced need of surface smoothness for vehicles with a large ratio of base area to wetted area. These analyses are intended to provide a useful analytical framework with which to compare and evaluate new vehicle configurations of the same generic family.

  8. Lift enhancing tabs for airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, James C. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A tab deployable from the trailing edge of a main airfoil element forces flow onto a following airfoil element, such as a flap, to keep the flow attached and thus enhance lift. For aircraft wings with high lift systems that include leading edge slats, the slats may also be provided with tabs to turn the flow onto the following main element.

  9. A Real-Time Lift Detection Strategy for a Hip Exoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Chen, Baojun; Grazi, Lorenzo; Lanotte, Francesco; Vitiello, Nicola; Crea, Simona

    2018-01-01

    Repetitive lifting of heavy loads increases the risk of back pain and even lumbar vertebral injuries to workers. Active exoskeletons can help workers lift loads by providing power assistance, and therefore reduce the moment and force applied on L5/S1 joint of human body when performing lifting tasks. However, most existing active exoskeletons for lifting assistance are unable to automatically detect user's lift movement, which limits the wide application of active exoskeletons in factories. In this paper, we propose a simple but effective lift detection strategy for exoskeleton control. This strategy uses only exoskeleton integrated sensors, without any extra sensors to capture human motion intentions. This makes the lift detection system more practical for applications in manufacturing environments. Seven healthy subjects participated in this research. Three different sessions were carried out, two for training and one for testing the algorithm. In the two training sessions, subjects were asked to wear a hip exoskeleton, controlled in transparent mode, and perform repetitive lifting and a locomotion circuit; lifting was executed with different techniques. The collected data were used to train the lift detection model. In the testing session, the exoskeleton was controlled in order to deliver torque to assist the lifting action, based on the lift detection made by the trained algorithm. The across-subject average accuracy of lift detection during online test was 97.97 ± 1.39% with subject-dependent model. Offline, the algorithm was trained with data acquired from all subjects to verify its performance for subject-independent detection, and an accuracy of 97.48 ± 1.53% was achieved. In addition, timeliness of the algorithm was quantitatively evaluated and the time delay was <160 ms across different lifting speeds. Surface electromyography was also measured to assess the efficacy of the exoskeleton in assisting subjects in performing load lifting tasks. These

  10. A Real-Time Lift Detection Strategy for a Hip Exoskeleton

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Baojun; Grazi, Lorenzo; Lanotte, Francesco; Vitiello, Nicola; Crea, Simona

    2018-01-01

    Repetitive lifting of heavy loads increases the risk of back pain and even lumbar vertebral injuries to workers. Active exoskeletons can help workers lift loads by providing power assistance, and therefore reduce the moment and force applied on L5/S1 joint of human body when performing lifting tasks. However, most existing active exoskeletons for lifting assistance are unable to automatically detect user's lift movement, which limits the wide application of active exoskeletons in factories. In this paper, we propose a simple but effective lift detection strategy for exoskeleton control. This strategy uses only exoskeleton integrated sensors, without any extra sensors to capture human motion intentions. This makes the lift detection system more practical for applications in manufacturing environments. Seven healthy subjects participated in this research. Three different sessions were carried out, two for training and one for testing the algorithm. In the two training sessions, subjects were asked to wear a hip exoskeleton, controlled in transparent mode, and perform repetitive lifting and a locomotion circuit; lifting was executed with different techniques. The collected data were used to train the lift detection model. In the testing session, the exoskeleton was controlled in order to deliver torque to assist the lifting action, based on the lift detection made by the trained algorithm. The across-subject average accuracy of lift detection during online test was 97.97 ± 1.39% with subject-dependent model. Offline, the algorithm was trained with data acquired from all subjects to verify its performance for subject-independent detection, and an accuracy of 97.48 ± 1.53% was achieved. In addition, timeliness of the algorithm was quantitatively evaluated and the time delay was <160 ms across different lifting speeds. Surface electromyography was also measured to assess the efficacy of the exoskeleton in assisting subjects in performing load lifting tasks. These

  11. The Selection of a Van Lift or a Scooter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, John H.

    1990-01-01

    This newsletter issue describes 3-wheeled scooters and van lifts that can assist a person with a disability to drive independently or have access to transportation. The section on van lifts compares hydraulic lifts and electric lifts, lists manufacturers, and offers an "assessment quiz" outlining factors to consider in selecting a van…

  12. Effects of high source flow and high pumping speed on gas source molecular beam epitaxy / chemical beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCollum, M. J.; Jackson, S. L.; Szafranek, I.; Stillman, G. E.

    1990-10-01

    We report the growth of GaAs by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), gas source molecular beam epitaxy (GSMBE), and chemical beam epitaxy (CBE) in an epitaxial III-V reactor which features high pumping speed. The system is comprised of a modified Perkin-Elmer 430P molecular beam epitaxy system and a custom gas source panel from Emcore. The growth chamber is pumped with a 7000 1/s (He) diffusion pump (Varian VHS-10 with Monsanto Santovac 5 oil). The gas source panel includes pressure based flow controllers (MKS 1150) allowing triethylaluminum (TEA), triethylgallium (TEG), and trimethylindium (TMI) to be supplied without the use of hydrogen. All source lines, including arsine and phosphine, are maintained below atmospheric pressure. The high pumping speed allows total system flow rates as high as 100 SCCM and V/III ratios as high as 100. The purity of GaAs grown by MBE in this system increases with pumping speed. GaAs layers grown by GSMBE with arsine flows of 10 and 20 SCCM have electron concentrations of 1 × 10 15 cm -3 (μ 77=48,000 cm 2/V·) and 2 × 10 14 cm -3 (μ 77=78,000 cm 2/V·s) respectively. El ectron concentration varies with hydride injector temperature such that the minimum in electron concentration occurs for less than complete cracking. The effect of V/III ratio and the use of a metal eutectic bubbler on residual carrier concentration in GaAs grown by CBE is presented. Intentional Si and Be doping of CBE grown GaAs is demonstrated at a high growth rate of 5.4 μm/h.

  13. Preparation of a silicon surface for subsequent growth of dilute nitride alloys by molecular-beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazarenko, A. A.; Berezovskaya, T. N.; Denisov, D. V.; Sobolev, M. S.; Pirogov, E. V.; Nikitina, E. V.

    2017-11-01

    This article discusses the process of preparation of a silicon surface for subsequent growth of dilute nitride alloys by molecular-beam epitaxy. The method of preparation of Si (100) and Si (111) substrates was developed. This method provides reproducible high-quality silicon surface for molecular-beam epitaxy of Si-GaP heterostructures. As a result, it managed to reduce the eviction oxide temperature below 800 °C, which is an important parameter for the MBE technology.

  14. Noise impact of advanced high lift systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elmer, Kevin R.; Joshi, Mahendra C.

    1995-01-01

    The impact of advanced high lift systems on aircraft size, performance, direct operating cost and noise were evaluated for short-to-medium and medium-to-long range aircraft with high bypass ratio and very high bypass ratio engines. The benefit of advanced high lift systems in reducing noise was found to be less than 1 effective-perceived-noise decibel level (EPNdB) when the aircraft were sized to minimize takeoff gross weight. These aircraft did, however, have smaller wings and lower engine thrusts for the same mission than aircraft with conventional high lift systems. When the advanced high lift system was implemented without reducing wing size and simultaneously using lower flap angles that provide higher L/D at approach a cumulative noise reduction of as much as 4 EPNdB was obtained. Comparison of aircraft configurations that have similar approach speeds showed cumulative noise reduction of 2.6 EPNdB that is purely the result of incorporating advanced high lift system in the aircraft design.

  15. Investigation of Maximum Blade Loading Capability of Lift-Offset Rotors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeo, Hyeonsoo; Johnson, Wayne

    2013-01-01

    Maximum blade loading capability of a coaxial, lift-offset rotor is investigated using a rotorcraft configuration designed in the context of short-haul, medium-size civil and military missions. The aircraft was sized for a 6600-lb payload and a range of 300 nm. The rotor planform and twist were optimized for hover and cruise performance. For the present rotor performance calculations, the collective pitch angle is progressively increased up to and through stall with the shaft angle set to zero. The effects of lift offset on rotor lift, power, controls, and blade airloads and structural loads are examined. The maximum lift capability of the coaxial rotor increases as lift offset increases and extends well beyond the McHugh lift boundary as the lift potential of the advancing blades are fully realized. A parametric study is conducted to examine the differences between the present coaxial rotor and the McHugh rotor in terms of maximum lift capabilities and to identify important design parameters that define the maximum lift capability of the rotor. The effects of lift offset on rotor blade airloads and structural loads are also investigated. Flap bending moment increases substantially as lift offset increases to carry the hub roll moment even at low collective values. The magnitude of flap bending moment is dictated by the lift-offset value (hub roll moment) but is less sensitive to collective and speed.

  16. 21 CFR 880.5510 - Non-AC-powered patient lift.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Non-AC-powered patient lift. 880.5510 Section 880... Devices § 880.5510 Non-AC-powered patient lift. (a) Identification. A non-AC-powered patient lift is a hydraulic, battery, or mechanically powered device, either fixed or mobile, used to lift and transport a...

  17. 21 CFR 880.5510 - Non-AC-powered patient lift.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Non-AC-powered patient lift. 880.5510 Section 880... Devices § 880.5510 Non-AC-powered patient lift. (a) Identification. A non-AC-powered patient lift is a hydraulic, battery, or mechanically powered device, either fixed or mobile, used to lift and transport a...

  18. XB-70A during take-off

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-08-17

    Viewed from the front the #1 XB-70A (62-0001) is shown climbing out during take-off. Most flights were scheduled during the morning hours to take advantage of the cooler ambient air temperatures for improved propulsion efficiencies. The wing tips are extended straight out to provide a maximum lifting wing surface. The XB-70A, capable of flying three times the speed of sound, was the world's largest experimental aircraft in the 1960s. Two XB-70A aircraft were built. Ship #1 was flown by NASA in a high speed flight research program.

  19. The Cumulative Lifting Index (CULI) for the Revised NIOSH Lifting Equation: Quantifying Risk for Workers With Job Rotation.

    PubMed

    Garg, Arun; Kapellusch, Jay M

    2016-08-01

    The objectives were to: (a) develop a continuous frequency multiplier (FM) for the Revised NIOSH Lifting Equation (RNLE) as a function of lifting frequency and duration of a lifting task, and (b) describe the Cumulative Lifting Index (CULI), a methodology for estimating physical exposure to workers with job rotation. The existing FM for the RNLE (FME) does not differentiate between task duration >2 hr and <8 hr, which makes quantifying physical exposure to workers with job rotation difficult and presents challenges to job designers. Using the existing FMs for 1, 2, and 8 hr of task durations, we developed a continuous FM (FMP) that extends to 12 hr per day. We simulated 157,500 jobs consisting of two tasks each and, using different combinations of Frequency Independent Lifting Index, lifting frequency and duration of lifting. Biomechanical stresses were estimated using the CULI, time-weighted average (TWA), and peak exposure. The median difference between FME and FMP was ±1% (range: 0%-15%). Compared to CULI, TWA underestimated risk of low-back pain (LBP) for 18% to 30% of jobs, and peak exposure for an assumed 8-hr work shift overestimated risk of LBP for 20% to 25% of jobs. Peak task exposure showed 90% agreement with CULI but ignored one of two tasks. The CULI partially addressed the underestimation of physical exposure using the TWA approach and overestimation of exposure using the peak-exposure approach. The proposed FM and CULI may provide more accurate physical exposure estimates, and therefore estimated risk of LBP, for workers with job rotation. © 2016, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  20. High-precision processing and detection of the high-caliber off-axis aspheric mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Chen; Li, Ang; Xu, Lingdi; Zhang, Yingjie

    2017-10-01

    To achieve the efficient, controllable, digital processing and high-precision detection of the high-caliber off-axis aspheric mirror, meeting the high-level development needs of the modern high-resolution, large field of space optical remote sensing camera, we carried out the research on high precision machining and testing technology of off-axis aspheric mirror. First, we forming the off-axis aspheric sample with diameter of 574mm × 302mm by milling it with milling machine, and then the intelligent robot equipment was used for off-axis aspheric high precision polishing. Surface detection of the sample will be proceed with the off-axis aspheric contact contour detection technology and offaxis non-spherical surface interference detection technology after its fine polishing using ion beam equipment. The final surface accuracy RMS is 12nm.

  1. Effects of a Belt on Intra-Abdominal Pressure during Weight Lifting.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-03-01

    potentially injurious b compressive forces on spinal discs during lifting. To investigate the effects of a standard lifting belt on lAP and lifting mechanics... injurious compressive forces on spinal discs during lifting. To investigate the effects of a standard lifting belt on IAP and lifting ! mechanics... weightlifting (7,9). Both olympic and power lifters have used lifting belts for many years, yet virtually no research has been reported which examines

  2. van der Waals epitaxy of Ge films on mica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Littlejohn, A. J.; Xiang, Y.; Rauch, E.; Lu, T.-M.; Wang, G.-C.

    2017-11-01

    To date, many materials have been successfully grown on substrates through van der Waals epitaxy without adhering to the constraint of lattice matching as is required for traditional chemical epitaxy. However, for elemental semiconductors such as Ge, this has been challenging and therefore it has not been achieved thus far. In this paper, we report the observation of Ge epitaxially grown on mica at a narrow substrate temperature range around 425 °C. Despite the large lattice mismatch (23%) and the lack of high in-plane symmetry in the mica surface, an epitaxial Ge film with [111] out-of-plane orientation is observed. Crystallinity and electrical properties degrade upon deviation from the ideal growth temperature, as shown by Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Hall effect measurements. X-ray pole figure analysis reveals that there exist multiple rotational domains in the epitaxial Ge film with dominant in-plane orientations between Ge [" separators="|1 ¯10 ] and mica[100] of (20 n )°, where n = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5. A superlattice area mismatch model was used to account for the likelihood of the in-plane orientation formation and was found to be qualitatively consistent with the observed dominant orientations. Our observation of Ge epitaxy with one out-of-plane growth direction through van der Waals forces is a step toward the growth of single crystal Ge films without the constraint in the lattice and symmetry matches with the substrates.

  3. Epitaxial Deposition Of Germanium Doped With Gallium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huffman, James E.

    1994-01-01

    Epitaxial layers of germanium doped with gallium made by chemical vapor deposition. Method involves combination of techniques and materials used in chemical vapor deposition with GeH4 or GeCl4 as source of germanium and GaCl3 as source of gallium. Resulting epitaxial layers of germanium doped with gallium expected to be highly pure, with high crystalline quality. High-quality material useful in infrared sensors.

  4. Space Shuttle Discovery lifts off successfully

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Tree branches on the Space Coast frame Space Shuttle Discovery's liftoff from Launch Pad 39B at 2:19 p.m. EST Oct. 29 on mission STS-95. Making his second voyage into space after 36 years is Payload Specialist John H. Glenn Jr., senator from Ohio. Other crew members are Mission Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., Pilot Steven W. Lindsey, Payload Specialist Chiaki Mukai, (M.D., Ph.D.), with the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA), Mission Specialist Stephen K. Robinson, Mission Specialist Pedro Duque of Spain, representing the European Space Agency (ESA), and Mission Specialist Scott E. Parazynski. The STS-95 mission includes research payloads such as the Spartan solar-observing deployable spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Test Platform, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker, as well as the SPACEHAB single module with experiments on space flight and the aging process. Discovery is expected to return to KSC at 11:49 a.m. EST on Nov. 7.

  5. Stabilization of weak ferromagnetism by strong magnetic response to epitaxial strain in multiferroic BiFeO 3

    DOE PAGES

    Cooper, Valentino R.; Lee, Jun Hee; Krogel, Jaron T.; ...

    2015-08-06

    Multiferroic BiFeO 3 exhibits excellent magnetoelectric coupling critical for magnetic information processing with minimal power consumption. Thus, the degenerate nature of the easy spin axis in the (111) plane presents roadblocks for real world applications. Here, we explore the stabilization and switchability of the weak ferromagnetic moments under applied epitaxial strain using a combination of first-principles calculations and group-theoretic analyses. We demonstrate that the antiferromagnetic moment vector can be stabilized along unique crystallographic directions ([110] and [-110]) under compressive and tensile strains. A direct coupling between the anisotropic antiferrodistortive rotations and Dzyaloshinskii-Moria interactions drives the stabilization of weak ferromagnetism. Furthermore,more » energetically competing C- and G-type magnetic orderings are observed at high compressive strains, suggesting that it may be possible to switch the weak ferromagnetism on and off under application of strain. These findings emphasize the importance of strain and antiferrodistortive rotations as routes to enhancing induced weak ferromagnetism in multiferroic oxides.« less

  6. Effect of training and lifting equipment for preventing back pain in lifting and handling: systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether advice and training on working techniques and lifting equipment prevent back pain in jobs that involve heavy lifting. Data sources Medline, Embase, CENTRAL, Cochrane Back Group’s specialised register, CINAHL, Nioshtic, CISdoc, Science Citation Index, and PsychLIT were searched up to September-November 2005. Review methods The primary search focused on randomised controlled trials and the secondary search on cohort studies with a concurrent control group. Interventions aimed to modify techniques for lifting and handling heavy objects or patients and including measurements for back pain, consequent disability, or sick leave as the main outcome were considered for the review. Two authors independently assessed eligibility of the studies and methodological quality of those included. For data synthesis, we summarised the results of studies comparing similar interventions. We used odds ratios and effect sizes to combine the results in a meta-analysis. Finally, we compared the conclusions of the primary and secondary analyses. Results Six randomised trials and five cohort studies met the inclusion criteria. Two randomised trials and all cohort studies were labelled as high quality. Eight studies looked at lifting and moving patients, and three studies were conducted among baggage handlers or postal workers. Those in control groups received no intervention or minimal training, physical exercise, or use of back belts. None of the comparisons in randomised trials (17 720 participants) yielded significant differences. In the secondary analysis, none of the cohort studies (772 participants) had significant results, which supports the results of the randomised trials. Conclusions There is no evidence to support use of advice or training in working techniques with or without lifting equipment for preventing back pain or consequent disability. The findings challenge current widespread practice of advising workers on correct lifting technique

  7. Measurements of Shear Lift Force on a Bubble in Channel Flow in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nahra, Henry K.; Motil, Brian J.; Skor, Mark

    2003-01-01

    Under microgravity conditions, the shear lift force acting on bubbles, droplets or solid particles in multiphase flows becomes important because under normal gravity, this hydrodynamic force is masked by buoyancy. This force plays an important role in furnishing the detachment process of bubbles in a setting where a bubble suspension is needed in microgravity. In this work, measurements of the shear lift force acting on a bubble in channel flow are performed. The shear lift force is deduced from the bubble kinematics using scaling and then compared with predictions from models in literature that address different asymptotic and numerical solutions. Basic trajectory calculations are then performed and the results are compared with experimental data of position of the bubble in the channel. A direct comparison of the lateral velocity of the bubbles is also made with the lateral velocity prediction from investigators, whose work addressed the shear lift on a sphere in different two-dimensional shear flows including Poiseuille flow.

  8. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - At the Astrotech Space Operations processing facilities, NASA’s MESSENGER spacecraft is lifted off the pallet for transfer to a work stand. There employees of the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, builders of the spacecraft, will perform an initial state-of-health check. Then processing for launch can begin, including checkout of the power systems, communications systems and control systems. The thermal blankets will also be attached for flight. MESSENGER - short for MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry and Ranging - will be launched May 11 on a six-year mission aboard a Boeing Delta II rocket. Liftoff is targeted for 2:26 a.m. EDT on Tuesday, May 11.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-03-10

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - At the Astrotech Space Operations processing facilities, NASA’s MESSENGER spacecraft is lifted off the pallet for transfer to a work stand. There employees of the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, builders of the spacecraft, will perform an initial state-of-health check. Then processing for launch can begin, including checkout of the power systems, communications systems and control systems. The thermal blankets will also be attached for flight. MESSENGER - short for MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry and Ranging - will be launched May 11 on a six-year mission aboard a Boeing Delta II rocket. Liftoff is targeted for 2:26 a.m. EDT on Tuesday, May 11.

  9. Estimates of nitric oxide production for lifting spacecraft reentry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, C.

    1971-01-01

    The amount of nitric oxide which may be produced by heating of air during an atmospheric reentry of a lifting spacecraft is estimated by three different methods. Two assume nitrogen fixation by the process of sudden freezing, and the third is a computer calculation using chemical rate equations.

  10. Argon–germane in situ plasma clean for reduced temperature Ge on Si epitaxy by high density plasma chemical vapor deposition

    DOE PAGES

    Douglas, Erica A.; Sheng, Josephine J.; Verley, Jason C.; ...

    2015-06-04

    We found that the demand for integration of near infrared optoelectronic functionality with silicon complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology has for many years motivated the investigation of low temperature germanium on silicon deposition processes. Our work describes the development of a high density plasma chemical vapor deposition process that uses a low temperature (<460 °C) in situ germane/argon plasma surface preparation step for epitaxial growth of germanium on silicon. It is shown that the germane/argon plasma treatment sufficiently removes SiO x and carbon at the surface to enable germanium epitaxy. Finally, the use of this surface preparation step demonstratesmore » an alternative way to produce germanium epitaxy at reduced temperatures, a key enabler for increased flexibility of integration with CMOS back-end-of-line fabrication.« less

  11. Assessment of Navy Heavy-Lift Aircraft Options

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    and reduced rotor RPM – High risk advanced-control system for cyclic control and collective control of lift mixing – RVR not best suited for HL...transition to provide forward thrust once out of hover. These multiple lifting surfaces would have to be mixed together by some software-controlled lift...mistakes not repeated - Could add a decade to IOC estimates – Note Marine defintion of IOC is different from DoD’s • Marines — actual deployment

  12. From Lift-Off to Light-Off

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Shuttle's propellant measurement system is produced by Simmonds Precision. Company has extensive experience in fuel management systems and other equipment for military and commercial aircraft. A separate corporate entity, Industrial Controls Division was formed due to a number of non-aerospace spinoffs. One example is a "custody transfer" system for measuring and monitoring liquefied natural gas (LNG). LNG is transported aboard large tankers at minus 260 degrees Fahrenheit. Value of a single shipload may reach $15 million. Precision's LNG measurement and monitoring system aids accurate financial accounting and enhances crew safety. Custody transfer systems have been provided for 10 LNG tankers, built by Owing Shipbuilding. Simmonds also provided measurement systems for several liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) production and storage installations. Another spinoff developed by Simmonds Precision is an advanced ignition system for industrial boilers that offers savings of millions of gallons of fuel, and a computer based monitoring and control system for improving safety and reliability in electrical utility applications. Simmonds produces a line of safety systems for nuclear and non-nuclear electrical power plants.

  13. 49 CFR 37.165 - Lift and securement use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lift and securement use. 37.165 Section 37.165... DISABILITIES (ADA) Provision of Service § 37.165 Lift and securement use. (a) This section applies to public... with disabilities with the use of securement systems, ramps and lifts. If it is necessary for the...

  14. Design of a portable powered seat lift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weddendorf, Bruce

    1993-01-01

    People suffering from degenerative hip or knee joints find sitting and rising from a seated position very difficult. These people can rely on large stationary chairs at home, but must ask others for assistance when rising from any other chair. An orthopedic surgeon identified to the MSFC Technology Utilization Office the need for development of a portable device that could perform a similar function to the stationary lift chairs. The MSFC Structural Development Branch answered the Technology Utilization Office's request for design of a portable powered seat lift. The device is a seat cushion that opens under power, lifting the user to near-standing positions. The largest challenge was developing a mechanism to provide a stable lift over the large range of motion needed, and fold flat enough to be comfortable to sit on. CAD 3-D modeling was used to generate complete drawings for the prototype, and a full-scale working model of the Seat lift was made based on the drawings. The working model is of low strength, but proves the function of the mechanism and the concept.

  15. Aerodynamic characteristics of a propeller-powered high-lift semispan wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gentry, Garl L., Jr.; Takallu, M. A.; Applin, Zachary T.

    1994-01-01

    A small-scale semispan high-lift wing-flap system equipped under the wing with a turboprop engine assembly was tested in the LaRC 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel. Experimental data were obtained for various propeller rotational speeds, nacelle locations, and nacelle inclinations. To isolate the effects of the high lift system, data were obtained with and without the flaps and leading-edge device. The effects of the propeller slipstream on the overall longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of the wing-propeller assembly were examined. Test results indicated that the lift coefficient of the wing could be increased by the propeller slipstream when the rotational speed was increased and high-lift devices were deployed. Decreasing the nacelle inclination (increased pitch down) enhanced the lift performance of the system much more than varying the vertical or horizontal location of the nacelle. Furthermore, decreasing the nacelle inclination led to higher lift curve slope values, which indicated that the powered wing could sustain higher angles of attack near maximum lift performance. Any lift augmentation was accompanied by a drag penalty due to the increased wing lift.

  16. Approach Considerations in Aircraft with High-Lift Propeller Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Michael D.; Borer, Nicholas K.

    2017-01-01

    NASA's research into distributed electric propulsion (DEP) includes the design and development of the X-57 Maxwell aircraft. This aircraft has two distinct types of DEP: wingtip propellers and high-lift propellers. This paper focuses on the unique opportunities and challenges that the high-lift propellers--i.e., the small diameter propellers distributed upstream of the wing leading edge to augment lift at low speeds--bring to the aircraft performance in approach conditions. Recent changes to the regulations related to certifying small aircraft (14 CFR x23) and these new regulations' implications on the certification of aircraft with high-lift propellers are discussed. Recommendations about control systems for high-lift propeller systems are made, and performance estimates for the X-57 aircraft with high-lift propellers operating are presented.

  17. Atomic layer epitaxy of YBaCuO for optoelectronic applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skogman, R. A.; Khan, M. A.; Van Hove, J. M.; Bhattarai, A.; Boord, W. T.

    1992-01-01

    An MOCVD-based atomic-layer epitaxy process is being developed as a potential solution to the problems of film-thickness and interface-abruptness control which are encountered when fabricating superconductor-insulator-superconductor devices using YBa2Cu3O(7-x). In initial studies, the atomic-layer MOCVD process yields superconducting YBa2Cu3O(7-x) films with substrate temperatures of 605 C during film growth, and no postdeposition anneal. The low temperature process yields a smooth film surface and can reduce interface degradation due to diffusion.

  18. Epitaxial nickel disilicide with low resistivity and excellent reliability.

    PubMed

    Hsin, Cheng-Lun; Deng, Shiu-Sheng

    2016-02-12

    Ultra-thin epitaxial NiSi2 was formed, and its structure was examined by electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction. Compared with previous reports, the measured resistivity of the epitaxial NiSi2 was unprecedentedly low, reaching 7 μΩ cm in the experimental results and up to 14.93 μΩ cm after modification. The reliability, which was investigated under different temperatures and current densities to understand its electronic characteristics, was 1.5 times better than that of the conventional polycrystalline counterpart. Black's equation and the measured mean-time-to-failure (MTTF) were used to obtain the reliability characteristics of epitaxial and poly-NiSi2. Confidence intervals at 95% for each MTTF confirmed the single failure mode. The electromigration phenomenon was observed to be the failure mechanism. Our results provide evidence that epitaxial NiSi2 is a promising contact material for future electronics.

  19. Epitaxial nickel disilicide with low resistivity and excellent reliability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsin, Cheng-Lun; Deng, Shiu-Sheng

    2016-02-01

    Ultra-thin epitaxial NiSi2 was formed, and its structure was examined by electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction. Compared with previous reports, the measured resistivity of the epitaxial NiSi2 was unprecedentedly low, reaching 7 μΩ cm in the experimental results and up to 14.93 μΩ cm after modification. The reliability, which was investigated under different temperatures and current densities to understand its electronic characteristics, was 1.5 times better than that of the conventional polycrystalline counterpart. Black’s equation and the measured mean-time-to-failure (MTTF) were used to obtain the reliability characteristics of epitaxial and poly-NiSi2. Confidence intervals at 95% for each MTTF confirmed the single failure mode. The electromigration phenomenon was observed to be the failure mechanism. Our results provide evidence that epitaxial NiSi2 is a promising contact material for future electronics.

  20. 29 CFR 1926.453 - Aerial lifts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... provided the modification has been certified in writing by the manufacturer or by any other equivalent... articulating boom platforms. (i) Lift controls shall be tested each day prior to use to determine that such controls are in safe working condition. (ii) Only authorized persons shall operate an aerial lift. (iii...

  1. 29 CFR 1926.453 - Aerial lifts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... provided the modification has been certified in writing by the manufacturer or by any other equivalent... articulating boom platforms. (i) Lift controls shall be tested each day prior to use to determine that such controls are in safe working condition. (ii) Only authorized persons shall operate an aerial lift. (iii...

  2. 29 CFR 1926.453 - Aerial lifts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... provided the modification has been certified in writing by the manufacturer or by any other equivalent... articulating boom platforms. (i) Lift controls shall be tested each day prior to use to determine that such controls are in safe working condition. (ii) Only authorized persons shall operate an aerial lift. (iii...

  3. 29 CFR 1926.453 - Aerial lifts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... provided the modification has been certified in writing by the manufacturer or by any other equivalent... articulating boom platforms. (i) Lift controls shall be tested each day prior to use to determine that such controls are in safe working condition. (ii) Only authorized persons shall operate an aerial lift. (iii...

  4. 29 CFR 1926.453 - Aerial lifts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... provided the modification has been certified in writing by the manufacturer or by any other equivalent... articulating boom platforms. (i) Lift controls shall be tested each day prior to use to determine that such controls are in safe working condition. (ii) Only authorized persons shall operate an aerial lift. (iii...

  5. Hydraulic lift in a neotropical savanna.

    Treesearch

    M.Z. Moreira; F.G. Scholz; S.J. Bucci; L.S. Sternberg; G. Goldstein; F.C. Meinzer; A.C. Franco

    2003-01-01

    We report hydraulic lift in the sawmlia vegetation of central Brazil (Cerrado). Both heat-pulse measurements and isotopic (deuterium) labelling were used to determine whether hydraulic lift occurred in two common species, and whether neighbouring small shrubs and trees were utilizing this water.Both techniques showed water uptake by tap-...

  6. Structural Sizing of a Horizontal Take-Off Launch Vehicle with an Air Collection and Enrichment System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCurdy, David R.; Roche, Joseph M.

    2004-01-01

    In support of NASA's Next Generation Launch Technology (NGLT) program, the Andrews Gryphon booster was studied. The Andrews Gryphon concept is a horizontal lift-off, two-stage-to-orbit, reusable launch vehicle that uses an air collection and enrichment system (ACES). The purpose of the ACES is to collect atmospheric oxygen during a subsonic flight loiter phase and cool it to cryogenic temperature, ultimately resulting in a reduced initial take-off weight To study the performance and size of an air-collection based booster, an initial airplane like shape was established as a baseline and modeled in a vehicle sizing code. The code, SIZER, contains a general series of volume, surface area, and fuel fraction relationships that tie engine and ACES performance with propellant requirements and volumetric constraints in order to establish vehicle closure for the given mission. A key element of system level weight optimization is the use of the SIZER program that provides rapid convergence and a great deal of flexibility for different tank architectures and material suites in order to study their impact on gross lift-off weight. This paper discusses important elements of the sizing code architecture followed by highlights of the baseline booster study.

  7. Microwave off-gas treatment apparatus and process

    DOEpatents

    Schulz, Rebecca L.; Clark, David E.; Wicks, George G.

    2003-01-01

    The invention discloses a microwave off-gas system in which microwave energy is used to treat gaseous waste. A treatment chamber is used to remediate off-gases from an emission source by passing the off-gases through a susceptor matrix, the matrix being exposed to microwave radiation. The microwave radiation and elevated temperatures within the combustion chamber provide for significant reductions in the qualitative and quantitative emissions of the gas waste stream.

  8. 49 CFR 37.165 - Lift and securement use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Lift and securement use. 37.165 Section 37.165... DISABILITIES (ADA) Provision of Service § 37.165 Lift and securement use. Link to an amendment published at 76..., ramps and lifts. If it is necessary for the personnel to leave their seats to provide this assistance...

  9. Van der Waals Epitaxial Growth of Atomic Layered HfS2 Crystals for Ultrasensitive Near-Infrared Phototransistors.

    PubMed

    Fu, Lei; Wang, Feng; Wu, Bin; Wu, Nian; Huang, Wei; Wang, Hanlin; Jin, Chuanhong; Zhuang, Lin; He, Jun; Fu, Lei; Liu, Yunqi

    2017-08-01

    As a member of the group IVB transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) family, hafnium disulfide (HfS 2 ) is recently predicted to exhibit higher carrier mobility and higher tunneling current density than group VIB (Mo and W) TMDs. However, the synthesis of high-quality HfS 2 crystals, sparsely reported, has greatly hindered the development of this new field. Here, a facile strategy for controlled synthesis of high-quality atomic layered HfS 2 crystals by van der Waals epitaxy is reported. Density functional theory calculations are applied to elucidate the systematic epitaxial growth process of the S-edge and Hf-edge. Impressively, the HfS 2 back-gate field-effect transistors display a competitive mobility of 7.6 cm 2 V -1 s -1 and an ultrahigh on/off ratio exceeding 10 8 . Meanwhile, ultrasensitive near-infrared phototransistors based on the HfS 2 crystals (indirect bandgap ≈1.45 eV) exhibit an ultrahigh responsivity exceeding 3.08 × 10 5 A W -1 , which is 10 9 -fold higher than 9 × 10 -5 A W -1 obtained from the multilayer MoS 2 in near-infrared photodetection. Moreover, an ultrahigh photogain exceeding 4.72 × 10 5 and an ultrahigh detectivity exceeding 4.01 × 10 12 Jones, superior to the vast majority of the reported 2D-materials-based phototransistors, imply a great promise in TMD-based 2D electronic and optoelectronic applications. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. In Situ Observation of Oxygen Vacancy Dynamics and Ordering in the Epitaxial LaCoO3 System.

    PubMed

    Jang, Jae Hyuck; Kim, Young-Min; He, Qian; Mishra, Rohan; Qiao, Liang; Biegalski, Michael D; Lupini, Andrew R; Pantelides, Sokrates T; Pennycook, Stephen J; Kalinin, Sergei V; Borisevich, Albina Y

    2017-07-25

    Vacancy dynamics and ordering underpin the electrochemical functionality of complex oxides and strongly couple to their physical properties. In the field of the epitaxial thin films, where connection between chemistry and film properties can be most clearly revealed, the effects related to oxygen vacancies are attracting increasing attention. In this article, we report a direct, real-time, atomic level observation of the formation of oxygen vacancies in the epitaxial LaCoO 3 thin films and heterostructures under the influence of the electron beam utilizing scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). In the case of LaCoO 3 /SrTiO 3 superlattice, the formation of the oxygen vacancies is shown to produce quantifiable changes in the interatomic distances, as well as qualitative changes in the symmetry of the Co sites manifested as off-center displacements. The onset of these changes was observed in both the [100] pc and [110] pc orientations in real time. Additionally, annular bright field images directly show the formation of oxygen vacancy channels along [110]pc direction. In the case of 15 u.c. LaCoO 3 thin film, we observe the sequence of events during beam-induced formation of oxygen vacancy ordered phases and find them consistent with similar processes in the bulk. Moreover, we record the dynamics of the nucleation, growth, and defect interaction at the atomic scale as these transformations happen. These results demonstrate that we can track dynamic oxygen vacancy behavior with STEM, generating atomic-level quantitative information on phase transformation and oxygen diffusion.

  11. Improved radiation tolerance of MAPS using a depleted epitaxial layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorokhov, A.; Bertolone, G.; Baudot, J.; Brogna, A. S.; Colledani, C.; Claus, G.; De Masi, R.; Deveaux, M.; Dozière, G.; Dulinski, W.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Goffe, M.; Himmi, A.; Hu-Guo, Ch.; Jaaskelainen, K.; Koziel, M.; Morel, F.; Santos, C.; Specht, M.; Valin, I.; Voutsinas, G.; Wagner, F. M.; Winter, M.

    2010-12-01

    Tracking performance of Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) developed at IPHC (Turchetta, et al., 2001) [1] have been extensively studied (Winter, et al., 2001; Gornushkin, et al., 2002) [2,3]. Numerous sensor prototypes, called MIMOSA, were fabricated and tested since 1999 in order to optimise the charge collection efficiency and power dissipation, to minimise the noise and to increase the readout speed. The radiation tolerance was also investigated. The highest fluence tolerable for a 10 μm pitch device was found to be ˜1013 neq/cm2, while it was only 2×1012 neq/cm2 for a 20 μm pitch device. The purpose of this paper is to show that the tolerance to non-ionising radiation may be extended up to O(10 14) n eq/cm 2. This goal relies on a fabrication process featuring a 15 μm thin, high resistivity ( ˜1 kΩ cm) epitaxial layer. A sensor prototype (MIMOSA-25) was fabricated in this process to explore its detection performance. The depletion depth of the epitaxial layer at standard CMOS voltages ( <5 V) is similar to the layer thickness. Measurements with m.i.p.s show that the charge collected in the seed pixel is at least twice larger for the depleted epitaxial layer than for the undepleted one, translating into a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of ˜50. Tests after irradiation have shown that this excellent performance is maintained up to the highest fluence considered ( 3×1013 neq/cm2), making evidence of a significant extension of the radiation tolerance limits of MAPS. Standing for minimum ionising particle.

  12. Null lifts and projective dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Cariglia, Marco, E-mail: marco@iceb.ufop.br

    2015-11-15

    We describe natural Hamiltonian systems using projective geometry. The null lift procedure endows the tangent bundle with a projective structure where the null Hamiltonian is identified with a projective conic and induces a Weyl geometry. Projective transformations generate a set of known and new dualities between Hamiltonian systems, as for example the phenomenon of coupling-constant metamorphosis. We conclude outlining how this construction can be extended to the quantum case for Eisenhart–Duval lifts.

  13. Nanostructured Origami (Trademark) 3D Fabrication and Self Assembly Process for Soldier Combat Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-12-01

    the Japanese art of “ origami ”) involves patterning adjacent 2D membranes that can be lifted off (using methods we have developed) of a silicon...innovative process holds immense potential for the Army’s Objective Force Warrior. Nanostructured Origami enables many practical and promising...Nanostructured Origami allows such devices to be formed from a single, micro/nanofabricated layer. In addition, nanoarchitecture can be added

  14. Microstructures and Microhardness Properties of CMSX-4® Additively Fabricated Through Scanning Laser Epitaxy (SLE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basak, Amrita; Holenarasipura Raghu, Shashank; Das, Suman

    2017-12-01

    Epitaxial CMSX-4® deposition is achieved on CMSX-4® substrates through the scanning laser epitaxy (SLE) process. A thorough analysis is performed using various advanced material characterization techniques, namely high-resolution optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, and Vickers microhardness measurements, to characterize and compare the quality of the SLE-fabricated CMSX-4® deposits to the CMSX-4® substrates. The results show that the CMSX-4® deposits have smaller primary dendritic arm spacing, finer γ/ γ' size, weaker elemental segregation, and higher microhardness compared to the investment cast CMSX-4® substrates. The results presented here demonstrate that CMSX-4® is an attractive material for laser-based AM processing and, therefore, can be used in the fabrication of gas turbine hot-section components through AM processing.

  15. Schottky barrier detection devices having a 4H-SiC n-type epitaxial layer

    DOEpatents

    Mandal, Krishna C.; Terry, J. Russell

    2016-12-06

    A detection device, along with methods of its manufacture and use, is provided. The detection device can include: a SiC substrate defining a substrate surface cut from planar to about 12.degree.; a buffer epitaxial layer on the substrate surface; a n-type epitaxial layer on the buffer epitaxial layer; and a top contact on the n-type epitaxial layer. The buffer epitaxial layer can include a n-type 4H--SiC epitaxial layer doped at a concentration of about 1.times.10.sup.15 cm.sup.-3 to about 5.times.10.sup.18 cm.sup.-3 with nitrogen, boron, aluminum, or a mixture thereof. The n-type epitaxial layer can include a n-type 4H--SiC epitaxial layer doped at a concentration of about 1.times.10.sup.13 cm.sup.-3 to about 5.times.10.sup.15 cm.sup.-3 with nitrogen. The top contact can have a thickness of about 8 nm to about 15 nm.

  16. Plasma-assisted MBE growth kinetics and characterization studies of wide bandgap III-V epitaxial materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Steen, Mark Lee

    2000-10-01

    Scope and method of study. The purpose of this research was to understand the physics of RF plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxial growth of GaN epitaxial films and InGaN/GaN superlattice structures grown on Al2O3 (0001) substrates. The techniques used to characterize the RF-MBE grown samples include in situ reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED) and optical pyrometry, and ex situ spatially-resolved high resolution X-ray diffraction, spatially-resolved reflectance spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and low-temperature photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. Findings and conclusions. RF plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (RF-MBE) has been used to grow GaN epitaxial films and InGaN/GaN superlattice structures. The most important growth parameters in the growth of GaN epitaxial films were identified as the substrate temperature, incident N*/Ga flux ratio, and GaN growth rate. The effect of these growth parameters on GaN growth and quality of GaN epitaxial films is discussed. Additionally, an interpretation of the effects of growth conditions on the underlying microscopic growth processes occurring is presented. All of the observed GaN growth results may be understood in terms of these microscopic growth processes. InGaN/GaN superlattice samples are grown to identify and quantitatively access the InGaN growth phenomenology. It is inferred that InN requires a higher N*/III flux ratio than does GaN for stoichiometric growth. At substrate temperatures below 590°C, the In composition of the superlattice samples is nominally constant. However, in the narrow temperature range 590--670°C, the In composition decreases by more than an order-or-magnitude at the lowest N*/III flux ratio of this study. Additionally, the incident N*/III flux ratio is found to strongly influence the In composition as well. Nearly an order-of-magnitude increase in In composition is observed despite only a 20% increase in the N*/III flux ratio at the highest temperature of this

  17. Training Guidelines: Fork Lift Truck Driving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ceramics, Glass, and Mineral Products Industry Training Board, Harrow (England).

    This manual of operative training guidelines for fork lift truck driving has been developed by the Ceramics, Glass and Mineral Products Industry Training Board (Great Britain) in consultation with a number of firms which manufacture fork lift trucks or which already have training--programs for their use. The purpose of the guidelines is to assist…

  18. Experiments on the flow field physics of confluent boundary layers for high-lift systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Robert C.; Thomas, F. O.; Chu, H. C.

    1994-01-01

    The use of sub-scale wind tunnel test data to predict the behavior of commercial transport high lift systems at in-flight Reynolds number is limited by the so-called 'inverse Reynolds number effect'. This involves an actual deterioration in the performance of a high lift device with increasing Reynolds number. A lack of understanding of the relevant flow field physics associated with numerous complicated viscous flow interactions that characterize flow over high-lift devices prohibits computational fluid dynamics from addressing Reynolds number effects. Clearly there is a need for research that has as its objective the clarification of the fundamental flow field physics associated with viscous effects in high lift systems. In this investigation, a detailed experimental investigation is being performed to study the interaction between the slat wake and the boundary layer on the primary airfoil which is known as a confluent boundary layer. This little-studied aspect of the multi-element airfoil problem deserves special attention due to its importance in the lift augmentation process. The goal of this research is is to provide an improved understanding of the flow physics associated with high lift generation. This process report will discuss the status of the research being conducted at the Hessert Center for Aerospace Research at the University of Notre Dame. The research is sponsored by NASA Ames Research Center under NASA grant NAG2-905. The report will include a discussion of the models that have been built or that are under construction, a description of the planned experiments, a description of a flow visualization apparatus that has been developed for generating colored smoke for confluent boundary layer studies and some preliminary measurements made using our new 3-component fiber optic LDV system.

  19. Ordered structure of FeGe2 formed during solid-phase epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenichen, B.; Hanke, M.; Gaucher, S.; Trampert, A.; Herfort, J.; Kirmse, H.; Haas, B.; Willinger, E.; Huang, X.; Erwin, S. C.

    2018-05-01

    Fe3Si /Ge (Fe ,Si ) /Fe3Si thin-film stacks were grown by a combination of molecular beam epitaxy and solid-phase epitaxy (Ge on Fe3Si ). The stacks were analyzed using electron microscopy, electron diffraction, and synchrotron x-ray diffraction. The Ge(Fe,Si) films crystallize in the well-oriented, layered tetragonal structure FeGe2 with space group P 4 m m . This kind of structure does not exist as a bulk material and is stabilized by the solid-phase epitaxy of Ge on Fe3Si . We interpret this as an ordering phenomenon induced by minimization of the elastic energy of the epitaxial film.

  20. Molecular-beam epitaxy of (Zn,Mn)Se on Si(100)

    SciTech Connect

    Slobodskyy, T.; Ruester, C.; Fiederling, R.

    2004-12-20

    We have investigated the growth by molecular-beam epitaxy of the II-VI diluted magnetic semiconductor (Zn,Mn)Se on As-passivated Si(100) substrates. The growth start has been optimized by using low-temperature epitaxy. Surface properties were assessed by Nomarski and scanning electron microscopy. Optical properties of (Zn,Mn)Se have been studied by photoluminescence and a giant Zeeman splitting of up to 30 meV has been observed. Our observations indicate a high crystalline quality of the epitaxial films.