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Sample records for epitelio conjuntival normal

  1. [SUNCT syndrome (short-lasting unilateral neuralgiform headache with conjuntival injection and tearing): a rare case in a paediatric patient with favourable response to topiramate].

    PubMed

    Martino, Gabriel H

    2008-02-01

    SUNCT Syndrome (short-lasting unilateral neuralgiform headache with conjuntival injection and tearing) combines neuralgic, migraineus and autonomic headaches, three of four primary ones described in the International Classification of the IHS (International Headache Society). This work describes a paediatric case evaluated under MIDAS score in which a new therapeutic approach with topiramate (TPM) was used.

  2. Desgarros del epitelio pigmentario de la retina: factores de riesgo, mecanismo y control terapéutico.

    PubMed

    Clemens, Christoph R; Eter, Nicole

    2017-07-11

    Los desgarros del epitelio pigmentario de la retina (EPR) se asocian en la mayoría de los casos con los desprendimientos vascularizados del EPR debido a una degeneración macular asociada a la edad (DMAE), y normalmente implican una pérdida adversa de la agudeza visual. Estudios recientes indican que ha habido un aumento en la incidencia de desgarros del EPR desde la introducción de fármacos anti-factor de crecimiento del endotelio vascular (anti-VEGF) así como una asociación temporal entre el desgarro y la inyección intravítrea. Dado que el número de pacientes con DMAE y el número de inyecciones anti-VEGF va en aumento, tanto la dificultad de prevenir desgarros del EPR como el tratamiento tras la formación de los desgarros han adquirido una mayor relevancia. De forma paralela, la evolución de la imagenología de la retina ha contribuido de manera significativa a comprender mejor el desarrollo de los desgarros del EPR en los últimos años. Esta revisión resume los conocimientos que se poseen actualmente sobre el desarrollo, los factores pronósticos y las estrategias terapéuticas de los desgarros del EPR antes y después de que estos se formen. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Normal clotting.

    PubMed

    Moran, Theresa A; Viele, Carol S

    2005-11-01

    To review the normal coagulation process and the mechanisms that lead to abnormal clotting. Primary and tertiary literature and the authors' clinical experience. The process of coagulation is complex and can be easily misunderstood. It is important to be familiar with normal coagulation before one can comprehend the coagulopathies associated with malignancies. A thorough understanding of the coagulation process is a critical prerequisite to caring for patients with clotting disorders. Once the normal clotting process is understood, the abnormal becomes easier to recognize and the cancer-associated dysfunctions more readily identified.

  4. Multivariate normality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crutcher, H. L.; Falls, L. W.

    1976-01-01

    Sets of experimentally determined or routinely observed data provide information about the past, present and, hopefully, future sets of similarly produced data. An infinite set of statistical models exists which may be used to describe the data sets. The normal distribution is one model. If it serves at all, it serves well. If a data set, or a transformation of the set, representative of a larger population can be described by the normal distribution, then valid statistical inferences can be drawn. There are several tests which may be applied to a data set to determine whether the univariate normal model adequately describes the set. The chi-square test based on Pearson's work in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries is often used. Like all tests, it has some weaknesses which are discussed in elementary texts. Extension of the chi-square test to the multivariate normal model is provided. Tables and graphs permit easier application of the test in the higher dimensions. Several examples, using recorded data, illustrate the procedures. Tests of maximum absolute differences, mean sum of squares of residuals, runs and changes of sign are included in these tests. Dimensions one through five with selected sample sizes 11 to 101 are used to illustrate the statistical tests developed.

  5. Advocating for Normal Birth With Normal Clothes

    PubMed Central

    Waller-Wise, Renece

    2007-01-01

    Childbirth educators need to be aware that the clothes they wear when teaching classes send a nonverbal message to class participants. Regardless of who wears the clothing or what is worn, clothes send a message; thus, both the advantages and disadvantages related to clothing choice should be considered. Ultimately, the message should reflect the values of supporting normal birth. For childbirth educators who are allowed to choose their own apparel to wear in their classes, street clothes may be the benchmark for which to strive. This article discusses the many nonverbal messages that clothes convey and provides support for the choice of street clothes as the dress for the professional childbirth educator; thus, “normal clothes to promote normal birth.” PMID:18408807

  6. [Modification of the conjuntival flora with cleaning palpebral solutions].

    PubMed

    Hueso Abancens, J R; Mengual Verdú, E; Schargel Palacios, K; García Sánchez, J; Placeres Daban, J; García Conca, V; Zorraquino Marti, A

    2004-12-01

    The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effectiveness of a solution of palpebral hygiene during the preoperative stage of cataract surgery. We studied 286 patients divided in 5 groups. One control group that did not use the product, and the remaining 4, that used the product during 3, 4, 5 and 6 days. The design of the study was prospective, randomize and masked. We took a sample of the conjunctival fundus in the morning of the day of the surgery, before commencing treatment with eye drops. This sample was sown according to microbiological techniques and analyzed by the microbiology department. The best time for using palpebral hygiene solutions prior to cataract surgery is four to five days. If it is used at less than three days, it does not decrease the rate of positive cultures and if the solution is applied more than six days, microorganisms that are not part of the common conjunctival flora may appear. Palpebral hygiene products should not be used more than five consecutive days previous to surgery.

  7. Normal Shock Vortex Interaction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-03-01

    Figure 9: Breakdown map for normal-shock vortex-interaction. References [1] O. Thomer, W. Schroder and M. Meinke , Numerical Simulation of Normal...and Oblique-Shock Vortex Interaction, ZAMM Band 80, Sub. 1, pp. 181-184, 2000. [2] O. Thomer, E. Krause, W. Schroder and M. Meinke , Computational

  8. Normalized medical information visualization.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-de-Madariaga, Ricardo; Muñoz, Adolfo; Somolinos, Roberto; Castro, Antonio; Velázquez, Iker; Moreno, Oscar; García-Pacheco, José L; Pascual, Mario; Salvador, Carlos H

    2015-01-01

    A new mark-up programming language is introduced in order to facilitate and improve the visualization of ISO/EN 13606 dual model-based normalized medical information. This is the first time that visualization of normalized medical information is addressed and the programming language is intended to be used by medical non-IT professionals.

  9. Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus

    MedlinePlus

    ... can be absorbed as part of the normal circulatory process. This allows the brain ventricles to return to their normal size. Regular follow-up care by a physician is important in order to identify subtle changes that might indicate problems with the shunt. × Treatment Treatment for NPH involves ...

  10. Normality in Analytical Psychology

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Although C.G. Jung’s interest in normality wavered throughout his career, it was one of the areas he identified in later life as worthy of further research. He began his career using a definition of normality which would have been the target of Foucault’s criticism, had Foucault chosen to review Jung’s work. However, Jung then evolved his thinking to a standpoint that was more aligned to Foucault’s own. Thereafter, the post Jungian concept of normality has remained relatively undeveloped by comparison with psychoanalysis and mainstream psychology. Jung’s disjecta membra on the subject suggest that, in contemporary analytical psychology, too much focus is placed on the process of individuation to the neglect of applications that consider collective processes. Also, there is potential for useful research and development into the nature of conflict between individuals and societies, and how normal people typically develop in relation to the spectrum between individuation and collectivity. PMID:25379262

  11. Normal Functioning Family

    MedlinePlus

    ... Spread the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Normal Functioning Family Page Content Article Body Is there any way ...

  12. Normal, Functional, and Unhealthy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Donald A.

    1979-01-01

    Reviews the various meanings of the words "normal,""functional," and "healthy," and suggests greater caution and guidelines for the use of these words to avoid ambiguity and erroneous implications. (Author)

  13. Glossary of normal faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peacock, D. C. P.; Knipe, R. J.; Sanderson, D. J.

    2000-03-01

    Increased interest in normal faults and extended terranes has led to the development of an increasingly complex terminology. The most important terms are defined in this paper, with original references being given wherever possible, along with examples of current usage.

  14. Apparent diffusion coefficient normalization of normal liver

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jie; Zhang, Jie; Gao, Jia-Yin; Li, Jin-Ning; Yang, Da-Wei; Chen, Min; Zhou, Cheng; Yang, Zheng-Han

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurement in diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) has been reported to be a helpful biomarker for detection and characterization of lesion. In view of the importance of ADC measurement reproducibility, the aim of this study was to probe the variability of the healthy hepatic ADC values measured at 3 MR scanners from different vendors and with different field strengths, and to investigate the reproducibility of normalized ADC (nADC) value with the spleen as the reference organ. Thirty enrolled healthy volunteers received DWI with GE 1.5T, Siemens 1.5T, and Philips 3.0T magnetic resonance (MR) systems on liver and spleen (session 1) and were imaged again after 10 to 14 days using only GE 1.5T MR and Philips 3.0T MR systems (session 2). Interscan agreement and reproducibility of ADC measurements of liver and the calculated nADC values (ADCliver/ADCspleen) were statistically evaluated between 2 sessions. In session 1, ADC and nADC values of liver were evaluated for the scanner-related variability by 2-way analysis of variance and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs). Coefficients of variation (CVs) of ADCs and nADCs of liver were calculated for both 1.5 and 3.0-T MR system. Interscan agreement and reproducibility of ADC measurements of liver and related nADCs between 2 sessions were found to be satisfactory with ICC values of 0.773 to 0.905. In session 1, the liver nADCs obtained from different scanners were consistent (P = 0.112) without any significant difference in multiple comparison (P = 0.117 to >0.99) by using 2-way analysis of variance with post-hoc analysis of Bonferroni method, although the liver ADCs varied significantly (P < 0.001). nADCs measured by 3 scanners were in good interscanner agreements with ICCs of 0.685 to 0.776. The mean CV of nADCs of both 1.5T MR scanners (9.6%) was similar to that of 3.0T MR scanner (8.9%). ADCs measured at 3 MR scanners with different field strengths and vendors

  15. Vowel posture normalization.

    PubMed

    Hashi, M; Westbury, J R; Honda, K

    1998-10-01

    A simple normalization procedure was applied to point-parametrized articulatory data to yield quantitative speaker-general descriptions of "average" vowel postures. Articulatory data from 20 English and 8 Japanese speakers, drawn from existing x-ray microbeam database corpora, were included in the analysis. The purpose of the normalization procedure was to minimize the effects of differences in vocal tract size and shape on average postures derived from the raw data. The procedure resulted in a general reduction of cross-speaker variance in the y dimension of the normalized space, within both language groups. This result can be traced to a systematic source of variance in the y dimension of the raw data (i.e., palatal height) "successfully removed" from the normalized data. The procedure did not result in a comparable, general reduction in cross-speaker variance in the x dimension. This negative result can be traced partly to the new observation that some speakers within the English sample habitually placed their tongues in a fronted position for all vowels, whereas other speakers habitually placed their tongues in a rearward position. Methods for evaluating articulatory normalization schemes, and possible sources of interspeaker variability in vowel postures, are discussed.

  16. Quantifying surface normal estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, Robert B.; Oxley, Mark E.; Eismann, Michael T.; Goda, Matthew E.

    2006-05-01

    An inverse algorithm for surface normal estimation from thermal polarimetric imagery was developed and used to quantify the requirements on a priori information. Building on existing knowledge that calculates the degree of linear polarization (DOLP) and the angle of polarization (AOP) for a given surface normal in a forward model (from an object's characteristics to calculation of the DOLP and AOP), this research quantifies the impact of a priori information with the development of an inverse algorithm to estimate surface normals from thermal polarimetric emissions in long-wave infrared (LWIR). The inverse algorithm assumes a polarized infrared focal plane array capturing LWIR intensity images which are then converted to Stokes vectors. Next, the DOLP and AOP are calculated from the Stokes vectors. Last, the viewing angles, θ v, to the surface normals are estimated assuming perfect material information about the imaged scene. A sensitivity analysis is presented to quantitatively describe the a priori information's impact on the amount of error in the estimation of surface normals, and a bound is determined given perfect information about an object. Simulations explored the impact of surface roughness (σ) and the real component (n) of a dielectric's complex index of refraction across a range of viewing angles (θ v) for a given wavelength of observation.

  17. Are Children "Normal"?

    PubMed

    Black, Dan A; Kolesnikova, Natalia; Sanders, Seth G; Taylor, Lowell J

    2013-03-01

    We examine Becker's (1960) contention that children are "normal." For the cross section of non-Hispanic white married couples in the U.S., we show that when we restrict comparisons to similarly-educated women living in similarly-expensive locations, completed fertility is positively correlated with the husband's income. The empirical evidence is consistent with children being "normal." In an effort to show causal effects, we analyze the localized impact on fertility of the mid-1970s increase in world energy prices - an exogenous shock that substantially increased men's incomes in the Appalachian coal-mining region. Empirical evidence for that population indicates that fertility increases in men's income.

  18. Normals to a Parabola

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Srinivasan, V. K.

    2013-01-01

    Given a parabola in the standard form y[superscript 2] = 4ax, corresponding to three points on the parabola, such that the normals at these three points P, Q, R concur at a point M = (h, k), the equation of the circumscribing circle through the three points P, Q, and R provides a tremendous opportunity to illustrate "The Art of Algebraic…

  19. Normal Birth: Two Stories

    PubMed Central

    Scaer, Roberta M.

    2002-01-01

    The author shares two stories: one of a normal birth that took place in a hospital with a nurse-midwife in attendance and another of a home birth unexpectedly shared by many colleagues. Both are told with the goal to inform, inspire, and educate. PMID:17273292

  20. Normals to a Parabola

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Srinivasan, V. K.

    2013-01-01

    Given a parabola in the standard form y[superscript 2] = 4ax, corresponding to three points on the parabola, such that the normals at these three points P, Q, R concur at a point M = (h, k), the equation of the circumscribing circle through the three points P, Q, and R provides a tremendous opportunity to illustrate "The Art of Algebraic…

  1. Statokinesigram normalization method.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, José Magalhães

    2017-02-01

    Stabilometry is a technique that aims to study the body sway of human subjects, employing a force platform. The signal obtained from this technique refers to the position of the foot base ground-reaction vector, known as the center of pressure (CoP). The parameters calculated from the signal are used to quantify the displacement of the CoP over time; there is a large variability, both between and within subjects, which prevents the definition of normative values. The intersubject variability is related to differences between subjects in terms of their anthropometry, in conjunction with their muscle activation patterns (biomechanics); and the intrasubject variability can be caused by a learning effect or fatigue. Age and foot placement on the platform are also known to influence variability. Normalization is the main method used to decrease this variability and to bring distributions of adjusted values into alignment. In 1996, O'Malley proposed three normalization techniques to eliminate the effect of age and anthropometric factors from temporal-distance parameters of gait. These techniques were adopted to normalize the stabilometric signal by some authors. This paper proposes a new method of normalization of stabilometric signals to be applied in balance studies. The method was applied to a data set collected in a previous study, and the results of normalized and nonnormalized signals were compared. The results showed that the new method, if used in a well-designed experiment, can eliminate undesirable correlations between the analyzed parameters and the subjects' characteristics and show only the experimental conditions' effects.

  2. Normal-reflection image

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, L.; Fehler, Michael C.

    2003-01-01

    Common-angle wave-equation migration using the double-square-root is generally less accurate than the common-shot migration because the wavefield continuation equation for thc former involves additional approximations compared to that for the latter. We present a common-angle wave-equation migration that has the same accuracy as common-shot wave-equation migration. An image obtained from common-angle migration is a four- to five-dimensional output volume for 3D cases. We propose a normal-reflection imaging condition for common-angle migration to produce a 3D output volume for 3D migration. The image is closely related to the normal-reflection coefficients at interfaces. This imaging condition will allow amplitude-preserving migration to generate an image with clear physical meaning.

  3. Idiopathic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus

    PubMed Central

    Nassar, Basant R.; Lippa, Carol F.

    2016-01-01

    Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) is a potentially reversible neurodegenerative disease commonly characterized by a triad of dementia, gait, and urinary disturbance. Advancements in diagnosis and treatment have aided in properly identifying and improving symptoms in patients. However, a large proportion of iNPH patients remain either undiagnosed or misdiagnosed. Using PubMed search engine of keywords “normal pressure hydrocephalus,” “diagnosis,” “shunt treatment,” “biomarkers,” “gait disturbances,” “cognitive function,” “neuropsychology,” “imaging,” and “pathogenesis,” articles were obtained for this review. The majority of the articles were retrieved from the past 10 years. The purpose of this review article is to aid general practitioners in further understanding current findings on the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of iNPH. PMID:28138494

  4. Studies of normal hearing.

    PubMed

    Catlin, F I

    1984-01-01

    Auditory function changes continually from birth to old age. A variety of methods to assess hearing have evolved since the invention of the audiometer. Types of measurement include: electrical response in the central nervous system, cochlear acuity and speech responses. While some of these tests correlate fairly well with each other, their ability to represent overall hearing function is questionable. Other attempts to improve the assessment of hearing have been made in the area of self-appraisal, but these, too, have significant limitations. Most self-report and peer appraisal questionnaires have been established by studies of hearing-impaired populations. Norms for these techniques in normal-hearing populations need to be established. There is still room for valid tests of everyday communication. What we have in measurement procedures does not achieve this goal. Research studies of today will hopefully produce better definition of normal auditory function.

  5. Teaching Normal Birth Interactively

    PubMed Central

    Hotelling, Barbara A.

    2004-01-01

    In this column, the author provides examples of teaching strategies that childbirth educators may utilize to illustrate each of the six care practices supported by Lamaze International to promote normal birth: labor begins on its own, freedom of movement throughout labor, continuous labor support, no routine interventions, non-supine (e.g., upright or side-lying) positions for birth, and no separation of mother and baby with unlimited opportunity for breastfeeding. PMID:17273389

  6. Neuroethics beyond Normal.

    PubMed

    Shook, John R; Giordano, James

    2016-01-01

    An integrated and principled neuroethics offers ethical guidelines able to transcend conventional and medical reliance on normality standards. Elsewhere we have proposed four principles for wise guidance on human transformations. Principles like these are already urgently needed, as bio- and cyberenhancements are rapidly emerging. Context matters. Neither "treatments" nor "enhancements" are objectively identifiable apart from performance expectations, social contexts, and civic orders. Lessons learned from disability studies about enablement and inclusion suggest a fresh way to categorize modifications to the body and its performance. The term "enhancement" should be broken apart to permit recognition of enablements and augmentations, and kinds of radical augmentation for specialized performance. Augmentations affecting the self, self-worth, and self-identity of persons require heightened ethical scrutiny. Reversibility becomes the core problem, not the easy answer, as augmented persons may not cooperate with either decommissioning or displacement into unaccommodating societies. We conclude by indicating how our four principles of self-creativity, nonobsolescence, empowerment, and citizenship establish a neuroethics beyond normal that is better prepared for a future in which humans and their societies are going so far beyond normal.

  7. [Normal and disordered sleep].

    PubMed

    Arnulf, I

    2007-07-01

    Normal sleep is a complex and reversible state of brain functioning, including reduced inputs and outputs, blunted reflexes, and metabolic and cognitive changes. Evidence supports a role for sleep in the consolidation of an array of learning and memory tasks. Sleep deprivation and fragmentation result in executive dysfunction, increased appetite/weight and cellular stress. Sleep is a vital, complex but plastic function that can be modulated depending on individual heritage and motivation. The major role of sleep in attention and memory raises about concern the reduction in sleep duration recently pointed in teenagers and young adults. Sleep disorders are numerous and various. Their mechanism is not always identified, but may result from a central dysfunction in sleep-wake (e.g. narcolepsy) or circadian (e.g. advanced sleep phase syndrome) systems, from the sleep-related loss of compensation of reflexes normally effective during wakefulness (breathing is the most vulnerable function during sleep), or from other diseases preventing sleep (e.g. psychiatric insomnia, restless legs syndrome).

  8. Normal Untreated Jurkat Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Biomedical research offers hope for a variety of medical problems, from diabetes to the replacement of damaged bone and tissues. Bioreactors, which are used to grow cells and tissue cultures, play a major role in such research and production efforts. The objective of the research was to define a way to differentiate between effects due to microgravity and those due to possible stress from non-optimal spaceflight conditions. These Jurkat cells, a human acute T-cell leukemia was obtained to evaluate three types of potential experimental stressors: a) Temperature elevation; b) Serum starvation; and c) Centrifugal force. The data from previous spaceflight experiments showed that actin filaments and cell shape are significantly different for the control. These normal cells serve as the baseline for future spaceflight experiments.

  9. Pornography, normalization, and empowerment.

    PubMed

    Weinberg, Martin S; Williams, Colin J; Kleiner, Sibyl; Irizarry, Yasmiyn

    2010-12-01

    Opponents and proponents of erotic representations (referred to hereafter as "pornography") have described the effects of pornography from their perspective. Little, however, has been done in the way of research to investigate these claims from the consumer's point of view. This especially has been so regarding the positive impact of such consumption on a person's sex life. Using a study group of 245 college students, we examined this question in a framework of scripting theory. We wanted to see whether viewing pornography appeared to expand sexual horizons through normalization and facilitate a willingness to explore new sexual behaviors and sexual relationships through empowerment. The data supported this viewpoint and further showed the effects to be mediated by gender and sexual preference identity. They suggested, however, that established scripts were extended rather than abandoned. We conclude with connections between our findings and the widespread viewing of pornography in contemporary society.

  10. Normal Untreated Jurkat Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Biomedical research offers hope for a variety of medical problems, from diabetes to the replacement of damaged bone and tissues. Bioreactors, which are used to grow cells and tissue cultures, play a major role in such research and production efforts. The objective of the research was to define a way to differentiate between effects due to microgravity and those due to possible stress from non-optimal spaceflight conditions. These Jurkat cells, a human acute T-cell leukemia was obtained to evaluate three types of potential experimental stressors: a) Temperature elevation; b) Serum starvation; and c) Centrifugal force. The data from previous spaceflight experiments showed that actin filaments and cell shape are significantly different for the control. These normal cells serve as the baseline for future spaceflight experiments.

  11. Normal osteoid tissue

    PubMed Central

    Raina, Vinita

    1972-01-01

    The results of a histological study of normal osteoid tissue in man, the monkey, the dog, and the rat, using thin microtome sections of plastic-embedded undecalcified bone, are described. Osteoid tissue covers the entire bone surface, except for areas of active resorption, although the thickness of the layer of osteoid tissue varies at different sites and in different species of animals. The histological features of osteoid tissue, apart from its amount, are the same in the different species studied. Distinct bands or zones are recognizable in some layers of osteoid tissue, particularly those of greatest thickness, and their significance is discussed. Some of the histological features of the calcification front are described. Images PMID:4111820

  12. [Normal aging and cognition].

    PubMed

    Ska, Bernadette; Joanette, Yves

    2006-03-01

    It is now well documented that normal aging modifies the cognitive functioning and most observations suggest that cognition evolves in the direction of deterioration. The more frequently impaired functions are memory, attention and visual-spatial abilities. On the other hand, some abilities seem to increase, such as vocabulary. Considering the aging effect on cognition, questions remain regarding directionality, universality and reversibility. A great variability in aged related impacts is observed among subjects and among cognitive domains. Some individuals evolved more rapidly than others. Some cognitive functions are more affected by aging than others. General and specific factors are hypothesized to explain the aged related cognitive decline. Among them, educational level, health, cognitive style, life style, personality, are likely to modulate the aged related cognitive evolution by influencing attentional resources and cerebral plasticity. Cognitive resources are essential to develop adaptative strategies. During the life span, resources are activated and increased by learning and training. Considering the role of cognitive resources, successful aging is dependent on several conditions : absence of disease leading to a loss of autonomy, maintenance of cognitive and physical activities, and active and social engaged lifestyle.

  13. Normal Conducting CLIC Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, Erk

    2006-01-03

    The CLIC (Compact Linear Collider) multi-lateral study group based at CERN is studying the technology for an electron-positron linear collider with a centre-of-mass energy up to 5 TeV. In contrast to the International Linear Collider (ILC) study which has chosen to use super-conducting cavities with accelerating gradients in the range of 30-40 MV/m to obtain centre-of-mass collision energies of 0.5-1 TeV, the CLIC study aims to use a normal-conducting system based on two-beam technology with gradients of 150 MV/m. It is generally accepted that this change in technology is not only necessary but the only viable choice for a cost-effective multi-TeV collider. The CLIC study group is studying the technology issues of such a machine, and is in particular developing state-of-the-art 30 GHz molybdenum-iris accelerating structures and power extraction and transfer structures (PETS). The accelerating structure has a new geometry which includes fully-profiled RF surfaces optimised to minimize surface fields, and hybrid damping using both iris slots and radial waveguides. A newly-developed structure-optimisation procedure has been used to simultaneously balance surface fields, power flow, short and long-range transverse wakefields, RF-to-beam efficiency and the ratio of luminosity to input power. The slotted irises allow a simple structure fabrication by high-precision high-speed 3D milling of just four pieces, and an even easier bolted assembly in a vacuum chamber.

  14. Normal Conducting CLIC Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, Erk

    2006-01-01

    The CLIC (Compact Linear Collider) multi-lateral study group based at CERN is studying the technology for an electron-positron linear collider with a centre-of-mass energy up to 5 TeV. In contrast to the International Linear Collider (ILC) study which has chosen to use super-conducting cavities with accelerating gradients in the range of 30-40 MV/m to obtain centre-of-mass collision energies of 0.5-1 TeV, the CLIC study aims to use a normal-conducting system based on two-beam technology with gradients of 150 MV/m. It is generally accepted that this change in technology is not only necessary but the only viable choice for a cost-effective multi-TeV collider. The CLIC study group is studying the technology issues of such a machine, and is in particular developing state-of-the-art 30 GHz molybdenum-iris accelerating structures and power extraction and transfer structures (PETS). The accelerating structure has a new geometry which includes fully-profiled RF surfaces optimised to minimize surface fields, and hybrid damping using both iris slots and radial waveguides. A newly-developed structure-optimisation procedure has been used to simultaneously balance surface fields, power flow, short and long-range transverse wakefields, RF-to-beam efficiency and the ratio of luminosity to input power. The slotted irises allow a simple structure fabrication by high-precision high-speed 3D milling of just four pieces, and an even easier bolted assembly in a vacuum chamber.

  15. WMAP normalization of inflationary cosmologies

    SciTech Connect

    Liddle, Andrew R.; Parkinson, David; Mukherjee, Pia; Leach, Samuel M.

    2006-10-15

    We use the three-year WMAP observations to determine the normalization of the matter power spectrum in inflationary cosmologies. In this context, the quantity of interest is not the normalization marginalized over all parameters, but rather the normalization as a function of the inflationary parameters n{sub S} and r with marginalization over the remaining cosmological parameters. We compute this normalization and provide an accurate fitting function. The statistical uncertainty in the normalization is 3%, roughly half that achieved by COBE. We use the k-l relation for the standard cosmological model to identify the pivot scale for the WMAP normalization. We also quote the inflationary energy scale corresponding to the WMAP normalization.

  16. There Are Infinitely Many Normal Distributions: Not All Normal Distributions Are Standard Normal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeder, Carolyn M.

    Many researchers and students assume that the univariate distribution has a single, ubiquitous "bell" shape, perhaps because most books only portray the "standard normal" or normal z-score distribution. This paper shows that the normal curve can have infinitely many appearances. It illustrates that the width to height ratio can…

  17. Normalizing Catastrophe: An Educational Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jickling, Bob

    2013-01-01

    Processes of normalizing assumptions and values have been the subjects of theoretical framing and critique for several decades now. Critique has often been tied to issues of environmental sustainability and social justice. Now, in an era of global warming, there is a rising concern that the results of normalizing of present values could be…

  18. Normal matter storage of antiprotons

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, L.J.

    1987-01-01

    Various simple issues connected with the possible storage of anti p in relative proximity to normal matter are discussed. Although equilibrium storage looks to be impossible, condensed matter systems are sufficiently rich and controllable that nonequilibrium storage is well worth pursuing. Experiments to elucidate the anti p interactions with normal matter are suggested. 32 refs.

  19. Normalizing Catastrophe: An Educational Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jickling, Bob

    2013-01-01

    Processes of normalizing assumptions and values have been the subjects of theoretical framing and critique for several decades now. Critique has often been tied to issues of environmental sustainability and social justice. Now, in an era of global warming, there is a rising concern that the results of normalizing of present values could be…

  20. Rational Normalization of Concentration Measures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonckaert, P.; Egghe, L.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses normalization features of good concentration measures and extends the range of values of concentration measures that are population-size-independent. Rational normalization is described, and mathematical formulas for the coefficient of variation, Pratt's measure, the Gini index, Theil's measure, and Atkinson's indices are explained. (14…

  1. Managing incontinence: women's normalizing strategies.

    PubMed

    Skoner, M M; Haylor, M J

    1993-01-01

    Women's strategies for managing urinary incontinence were examined in a grounded-theory study. The women's basic social concern was dealing with incontinence in a manner that enabled them to feel normal. Feeling normal meant being able to do what they wanted to do and needed to do to have a normal life-style as they perceived it. This goal was accomplished by normalizing incontinence and its management. Normalization was achieved by directing its course through self-management, accounting for it in terms of personal history and life experiences, and delaying medical counsel. These strategies are described. The findings provide fresh insights about women's response to incontinence and their practice of self-managing its consequences.

  2. Is My Child's Appetite Normal?

    MedlinePlus

    ... HEALTH 17 Nutrition Newsletters for Parents of Young Children, USDA, Food and Nutrition Service Is My Child’s Appetite Normal? ... HEALTH 17 Nutrition Newsletters for Parents of Young Children, USDA, Food and Nutrition Service

  3. Diverse Topics Advance Normal Birth

    PubMed Central

    Humenick, Sharron S.

    2006-01-01

    The editor of The Journal of Perinatal Education describes the contents of this issue, which offer a broad range of resources, research, and inspiration for childbirth educators in their efforts to promote normal birth.

  4. Beam normal spin asymmetries: Theory

    SciTech Connect

    M. Vanderhaeghen

    2007-06-01

    The beam normal spin asymmetry in elastic electron-nucleon scattering is discussed. This beam normal spin asymmetry depends on the imaginary part of two-photon exchange processes between electron and nucleon, and measures the non-forward structure functions of the nucleon. After briefly reviewing the theoretical formalism, we discuss calculations in the threshold region, in the resonance region, as well as in the diffractive region, corresponding with high energy and forward angles.

  5. Normal stresses in elastic networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cioroianu, Adrian R.; Storm, Cornelis

    2013-11-01

    When loaded in simple shear deformation, polymeric materials may develop so-called normal stresses: stresses perpendicular to the direction of the applied shear. These normal stresses are intrinsically nonlinear: basic symmetry considerations dictate they may only enter at O(γ2), with γ the dimensionless shear strain. There is no fundamental restriction on their sign, and normal stresses may be positive (pushing outward) or negative (pulling inward). Most materials tend to dilate in the normal direction, but a wide variety of biopolymer networks including fibrin and actin gels have been reported to present anomalously large, negative normal stresses—a feature which has been ascribed to the intrinsic elastic nonlinearity of semiflexible fibers. In this work, we present analytical results on a model nonlinear network, which we expand to the required nonlinear order to show that due to geometric, rather than elastic, nonlinearities (negative) normal stresses generically arise in filamentous networks—even in networks composed of linear, Hookean springs. We investigate analytically and numerically how the subsequent addition of elastic nonlinearities, nonaffine deformations, and filament persistence through cross-linkers augment this basic behavior.

  6. Cell proliferation in normal epidermis

    SciTech Connect

    Weinstein, G.D.; McCullough, J.L.; Ross, P.

    1984-06-01

    A detailed examination of cell proliferation kinetics in normal human epidermis is presented. Using tritiated thymidine with autoradiographic techniques, proliferative and differentiated cell kinetics are defined and interrelated. The proliferative compartment of normal epidermis has a cell cycle duration (Tc) of 311 h derived from 3 components: the germinative labeling index (LI), the duration of DNA synthesis (ts), and the growth fraction (GF). The germinative LI is 2.7% +/- 1.2 and ts is 14 h, the latter obtained from a composite fraction of labeled mitoses curve obtained from 11 normal subjects. The GF obtained from the literature and from human skin xenografts to nude mice is estimated to be 60%. Normal-appearing epidermis from patients with psoriasis appears to have a higher proliferation rate. The mean LI is 4.2% +/- 0.9, approximately 50% greater than in normal epidermis. Absolute cell kinetic values for this tissue, however, cannot yet be calculated for lack of other information on ts and GF. A kinetic model for epidermal cell renewal in normal epidermis is described that interrelates the rate of birth/entry, transit, and/or loss of keratinocytes in the 3 epidermal compartments: proliferative, viable differentiated (stratum malpighii), and stratum corneum. Expected kinetic homeostasis in the epidermis is confirmed by the very similar ''turnover'' rates in each of the compartments that are, respectively, 1246, 1417, and 1490 cells/day/mm2 surface area. The mean epidermal turnover time of the entire tissue is 39 days. The Tc of 311 h in normal cells in 8-fold longer than the psoriatic Tc of 36 h and is necessary for understanding the hyperproliferative pathophysiologic process in psoriasis.

  7. Normal probability plots with confidence.

    PubMed

    Chantarangsi, Wanpen; Liu, Wei; Bretz, Frank; Kiatsupaibul, Seksan; Hayter, Anthony J; Wan, Fang

    2015-01-01

    Normal probability plots are widely used as a statistical tool for assessing whether an observed simple random sample is drawn from a normally distributed population. The users, however, have to judge subjectively, if no objective rule is provided, whether the plotted points fall close to a straight line. In this paper, we focus on how a normal probability plot can be augmented by intervals for all the points so that, if the population distribution is normal, then all the points should fall into the corresponding intervals simultaneously with probability 1-α. These simultaneous 1-α probability intervals provide therefore an objective mean to judge whether the plotted points fall close to the straight line: the plotted points fall close to the straight line if and only if all the points fall into the corresponding intervals. The powers of several normal probability plot based (graphical) tests and the most popular nongraphical Anderson-Darling and Shapiro-Wilk tests are compared by simulation. Based on this comparison, recommendations are given in Section 3 on which graphical tests should be used in what circumstances. An example is provided to illustrate the methods.

  8. 3j Symbols: To Normalize or Not to Normalize?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Veenendaal, Michel

    2011-01-01

    The systematic use of alternative normalization constants for 3j symbols can lead to a more natural expression of quantities, such as vector products and spherical tensor operators. The redefined coupling constants directly equate tensor products to the inner and outer products without any additional square roots. The approach is extended to…

  9. Conductivity Modulation in a gated Normal-CDW-Normal configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, Saumya; Lake, Roger

    There is considerable interest in switching by exploiting a voltage controlled phase transition, and one such phase is the charge density wave phase that occurs in a number of quasi one dimensional and two dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides. Voltage controlled switching of the charge density wave transition in 1T-TaS2 has recently been demonstrated. We consider a transistor geometry with normal metal contacts and a channel of CDW material. The interaction is modeled with a negative U Hubbard term. Normal-CDW-temperature-U phase diagrams show the regime of the CDW in the ideal lattice. The wavelength of the CDW in the transistor channel is determined by both the conditions of Fermi surface nesting and also the condition of commensurability with the channel length between the two normal leads. Moving the Fermi level of the channel first results in phase boundaries within the CDW as the conditions of commensurability and Fermi surface nesting become incompatible. Moving the Fermi level from half filling by few tens of meV causes a collapsing of the CDW gap and an effective CDW-normal transition, leaving vestiges of the CDW in the channel. The transition is accompanied by one to two orders of magnitude increase in the conductivity. This work is supported by the National Science Foundation (NSF) Grant No. 1124733 and the Semiconductor Research Corporation (SRC) Nanoelectronic Research Initiative as a part of the Nanoelectronics for 2020 and Beyond (NEB-2020) program.

  10. 3j Symbols: To Normalize or Not to Normalize?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Veenendaal, Michel

    2011-01-01

    The systematic use of alternative normalization constants for 3j symbols can lead to a more natural expression of quantities, such as vector products and spherical tensor operators. The redefined coupling constants directly equate tensor products to the inner and outer products without any additional square roots. The approach is extended to…

  11. Mechanical stratigraphy and normal faulting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrill, David A.; Morris, Alan P.; McGinnis, Ronald N.; Smart, Kevin J.; Wigginton, Sarah S.; Hill, Nicola J.

    2017-01-01

    Mechanical stratigraphy encompasses the mechanical properties, thicknesses, and interface properties of rock units. Although mechanical stratigraphy often relates directly to lithostratigraphy, lithologic description alone does not adequately describe mechanical behavior. Analyses of normal faults with displacements of millimeters to 10's of kilometers in mechanically layered rocks reveal that mechanical stratigraphy influences nucleation, failure mode, fault geometry, displacement gradient, displacement distribution, fault core and damage zone characteristics, and fault zone deformation processes. The relationship between normal faulting and mechanical stratigraphy can be used either to predict structural style using knowledge of mechanical stratigraphy, or conversely to interpret mechanical stratigraphy based on characterization of the structural style. This review paper explores a range of mechanical stratigraphic controls on normal faulting illustrated by natural and modeled examples.

  12. Asymptotic Normality of Quadratic Estimators.

    PubMed

    Robins, James; Li, Lingling; Tchetgen, Eric; van der Vaart, Aad

    2016-12-01

    We prove conditional asymptotic normality of a class of quadratic U-statistics that are dominated by their degenerate second order part and have kernels that change with the number of observations. These statistics arise in the construction of estimators in high-dimensional semi- and non-parametric models, and in the construction of nonparametric confidence sets. This is illustrated by estimation of the integral of a square of a density or regression function, and estimation of the mean response with missing data. We show that estimators are asymptotically normal even in the case that the rate is slower than the square root of the observations.

  13. Social Support in Normal Aging

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Anne Martin

    1984-01-01

    The role of social support in helping elderly people deal with stressful life events is quite complex. This complexity exists because it is difficult to define exactly what social support is, and because the experiences of `normal' aging vary. This article uses the example of adaptation to widowhood to examine the relationship between normal aging and sources, types, and patterns of social support. These factors influence the extent to which support lessens the impact of age-related stressful events. The physician has a role in primary social support, and also in facilitating the supportive functions of family and others. PMID:21279087

  14. Sensitization of hypoxic normal tissue.

    PubMed Central

    Hendry, J. H.

    1978-01-01

    The radiosensitization by misonidazole of three normal tissues in the unanaeshtetized mouse (femoral marrow, intestinal crypts and the target tissue for tail necrosis) has been studied. At 1 mg/g body weight, no sensitization was observed for the former two tissues, and no cytotoxicity for marrow was demonstrated. Sensitization of fully anoxic marrow or tail shown, by a factor of 1.8--1.9, in comparison with normal tails (factor 1.5). Clamping experiments revealed the homogenous nature of the natural hypoxia in the tissue responsible for tail necrosis, and an effective increase in the oxygenation was seen at Day 7 after a large priming dose. PMID:277235

  15. Normalized cDNA libraries

    DOEpatents

    Soares, M.B.; Efstratiadis, A.

    1997-06-10

    This invention provides a method to normalize a directional cDNA library constructed in a vector that allows propagation in single-stranded circle form comprising: (a) propagating the directional cDNA library in single-stranded circles; (b) generating fragments complementary to the 3{prime} noncoding sequence of the single-stranded circles in the library to produce partial duplexes; (c) purifying the partial duplexes; (d) melting and reassociating the purified partial duplexes to moderate Cot; and (e) purifying the unassociated single-stranded circles, thereby generating a normalized cDNA library. 4 figs.

  16. Normalized cDNA libraries

    DOEpatents

    Soares, Marcelo B.; Efstratiadis, Argiris

    1997-01-01

    This invention provides a method to normalize a directional cDNA library constructed in a vector that allows propagation in single-stranded circle form comprising: (a) propagating the directional cDNA library in single-stranded circles; (b) generating fragments complementary to the 3' noncoding sequence of the single-stranded circles in the library to produce partial duplexes; (c) purifying the partial duplexes; (d) melting and reassociating the purified partial duplexes to moderate Cot; and (e) purifying the unassociated single-stranded circles, thereby generating a normalized cDNA library.

  17. Normalizing Catastrophe: Sustainability and Scientism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonnett, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Making an adequate response to our deteriorating environmental situation is a matter of ever increasing urgency. It is argued that a central obstacle to achieving this is the way that scientism has become normalized in our thinking about environmental issues. This is taken to reflect on an underlying "metaphysics of mastery" that vitiates proper…

  18. Normalizing Catastrophe: Sustainability and Scientism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonnett, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Making an adequate response to our deteriorating environmental situation is a matter of ever increasing urgency. It is argued that a central obstacle to achieving this is the way that scientism has become normalized in our thinking about environmental issues. This is taken to reflect on an underlying "metaphysics of mastery" that vitiates proper…

  19. Complete normal ordering 1: Foundations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, John; Mavromatos, Nick E.; Skliros, Dimitri P.

    2016-08-01

    We introduce a new prescription for quantising scalar field theories (in generic spacetime dimension and background) perturbatively around a true minimum of the full quantum effective action, which is to 'complete normal order' the bare action of interest. When the true vacuum of the theory is located at zero field value, the key property of this prescription is the automatic cancellation, to any finite order in perturbation theory, of all tadpole and, more generally, all 'cephalopod' Feynman diagrams. The latter are connected diagrams that can be disconnected into two pieces by cutting one internal vertex, with either one or both pieces free from external lines. In addition, this procedure of 'complete normal ordering' (which is an extension of the standard field theory definition of normal ordering) reduces by a substantial factor the number of Feynman diagrams to be calculated at any given loop order. We illustrate explicitly the complete normal ordering procedure and the cancellation of cephalopod diagrams in scalar field theories with non-derivative interactions, and by using a point splitting 'trick' we extend this result to theories with derivative interactions, such as those appearing as non-linear σ-models in the world-sheet formulation of string theory. We focus here on theories with trivial vacua, generalising the discussion to non-trivial vacua in a follow-up paper.

  20. Hemimegalencephaly and normal intellectual development.

    PubMed Central

    Fusco, L; Ferracuti, S; Fariello, G; Manfredi, M; Vigevano, F

    1992-01-01

    Hemimegalencephaly is a rare congenital malformation characterised by overgrowth of one hemisphere. Although it is commonly thought to be associated with neurological deficits, developmental delay, and intractable epilepsy, the clinical expression of hemimegalencephaly, can vary widely. This patient was neurologically and neuropsychologically normal apart from rare partial seizures. Images PMID:1326602

  1. 3j symbols : to normalize or not to normalize.

    SciTech Connect

    van Veenendaal, M.

    2011-07-01

    The systematic use of alternative normalization constants for 3j symbols can lead to a more natural expression of quantities, such as vector products and spherical tensor operators. The redefined coupling constants directly equate tensor products to the inner and outer products without any additional square roots. The approach is extended to tesseral harmonics. The methodology developed here leads to a significantly clearer presentation, which is of interest, not only for textbooks but also for researchers using spherical tensors.

  2. The Bivariate Central Normal Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratikno, B.; Jajang; Putri, A. C. C.; Haryono, Y. W. W.

    2017-04-01

    The research studied Probability Density Function (pdf), Cumulative Distribution Function (CDF) and graphical analysis of the bivariate central normal distribution. The CDF of this distribution is then used to compute power of the test Pre-Test-Test (PTT) in the testing intercept. The tables and graphs of the pdf (and CDF) of the bivariate central normal distribution (BCND) and power of the test in testing intercept are produced using R-code. The results showed that the mean and coefficient correlation have a significant affect on the curve, but the variance is not. The curves tend to be leptokurtic for small coefficient correlation, and they will be mesocurtic for large coefficient correlation. The power of the PTT increases as the CDF of the BCND increases.

  3. Pressure test in normal subjects.

    PubMed

    Kitahara, M; Kodama, A; Ozawa, H; Izukura, H

    1994-01-01

    The application of pressure to the middle ear changes the normal inner ear pressure in animal experiments. In this study we tested the effect of exposure to under- or overpressure on hearing in a total of 78 normal ears (40 subjects) in a soundproof pressure chamber. [After exposure to underpressure, a 10 dB or more gain in 3 ears and loss in 2 ears for at least one of the test frequencies was observed in 38 ears. After exposure to overpressure, a 10 dB or more gain in 5 ears and loss in 1 ear for at least one of the test frequencies was observed in 40 ears.] The characteristics of transferred inner ear pressure during a series of exposures to underpressure seemed to be similar to those during exposures to overpressure.

  4. Normalization method for video images

    SciTech Connect

    Donohoe, G.W.; Hush, D.R.

    1992-12-31

    The present invention relates to a method and apparatus for automatically and adaptively normalizing analog signals representative of video images in object detection systems. Such normalization maximizes the average information content of the video images and, thereby, provides optimal digitized images for object detection and identification. The present invention manipulates two system control signals -- gain control signal and offset control signal -- to convert an analog image signal into a transformed analog image signal, such that the corresponding digitized image contains the maximum amount of information achievable with a conventional object detection system. In some embodiments of the present invention, information content is measured using parameters selected from image entropy, image mean, and image variance.

  5. Research Summaries for Normal Birth

    PubMed Central

    Romano, Amy M.; Goer, Henci

    2007-01-01

    In this column, the authors summarize four research studies that further support the benefits of normal birth. The topics of the studies include the association of cesarean birth with an increased risk of neonatal death; the use of acupuncture and self-hypnosis as effective pain-management strategies; factors associated with amniotic-fluid embolism; and the positive influence of continuous support by lay doulas on obstetric outcomes for low-income women. PMID:18408810

  6. Normalizing difference in inclusive teaching.

    PubMed

    Baglieri, Susan; Knopf, Janice H

    2004-01-01

    Inclusion practices and special education can be transformed by using a disability studies perspective, which constructs differences as natural, acceptable, and ordinary. Although inclusion is a moral imperative in promoting social justice, some inclusive practices continue to marginalize students with disabilities. A truly inclusive school reflects a democratic philosophy whereby all students are valued, educators normalize difference through differentiated instruction, and the school culture reflects an ethic of caring and community.

  7. Succeeding in the New Normal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffhauser, Dian

    2012-01-01

    Being a college CIO these days must feel a bit like juggling chain saws with one hand while holding a donation cup in the other. It's unlikely to end well, yet it represents the new normal in IT. While campus clients--from administrators to faculty and students--expect the usual raft of tech services, the IT budget simply can't deliver. In this…

  8. Succeeding in the New Normal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffhauser, Dian

    2012-01-01

    Being a college CIO these days must feel a bit like juggling chain saws with one hand while holding a donation cup in the other. It's unlikely to end well, yet it represents the new normal in IT. While campus clients--from administrators to faculty and students--expect the usual raft of tech services, the IT budget simply can't deliver. In this…

  9. Research Summaries for Normal Birth

    PubMed Central

    Romano, Amy M.

    2006-01-01

    In this column, the author presents summaries of four current research studies that further support the benefits of normal birth. The topics of the studies address the benefits of the hands-and-knees position in labor, postmenopausal urinary incontinence, the impact on perinatal outcomes of coached versus uncoached pushing during the second stage of labor, and the impact of the duration of breastfeeding on the likelihood of developing type-2 diabetes later in life.

  10. [The normal and the pathological].

    PubMed

    Hofmann, B

    1995-12-10

    The main problem of modern health care is to express its goals and its limits. To do this it is necessary to answer the fundamental question: what is normal and what is pathological? The French physician and philosopher Georges Canguilhem has tried to answer this question. He claims that for medicine, the difference between these fundamentals is determined by normativity and not by science. In doing this he wishes to save the autonomy of the individual patient and to delimit medicine from science.

  11. [Dynamic posturography in normal subjects].

    PubMed

    Salami, A; Guglielmetti, G; Bindi, G F; Dellepiane, M

    1990-01-01

    The relative lack of data on the dynamic posturography led us to start a study in order to give our contributions to the standardization of M1, M2, M3, response parameters in normal subjects. Our research was carried out on 35 normal subjects aged 21 to 50. All of them were standing in Romberg's position on a Tönnies model board in a normally lit and ventilated room. We performed two tests: the first one open-eyed staring at no point, the second, 5 minutes later, closed-eyed. The EMG signals were obtained by surface electrodes on triceps sural and front tibial muscles. The EMG recording was determined by a "tilt" movement of the board at a steady speed of 50 per sec. and 4 wide. We use a XT 286 IBM computer with "T POST" software for checking and testing the data. Our results showed a significant variation in the value of the duration parameter in open-eyed and closed-eyed tests. Latency and area values were inferior to those obtained by other authors, except for Diener and Dichgans (3) whose results differ in latency value only.

  12. Normalization in human somatosensory cortex.

    PubMed

    Brouwer, Gijs Joost; Arnedo, Vanessa; Offen, Shani; Heeger, David J; Grant, Arthur C

    2015-11-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to measure activity in human somatosensory cortex and to test for cross-digit suppression. Subjects received stimulation (vibration of varying amplitudes) to the right thumb (target) with or without concurrent stimulation of the right middle finger (mask). Subjects were less sensitive to target stimulation (psychophysical detection thresholds were higher) when target and mask digits were stimulated concurrently compared with when the target was stimulated in isolation. fMRI voxels in a region of the left postcentral gyrus each responded when either digit was stimulated. A regression model (called a forward model) was used to separate the fMRI measurements from these voxels into two hypothetical channels, each of which responded selectively to only one of the two digits. For the channel tuned to the target digit, responses in the left postcentral gyrus increased with target stimulus amplitude but were suppressed by concurrent stimulation to the mask digit, evident as a shift in the gain of the response functions. For the channel tuned to the mask digit, a constant baseline response was evoked for all target amplitudes when the mask was absent and responses decreased with increasing target amplitude when the mask was concurrently presented. A computational model based on divisive normalization provided a good fit to the measurements for both mask-absent and target + mask stimulation. We conclude that the normalization model can explain cross-digit suppression in human somatosensory cortex, supporting the hypothesis that normalization is a canonical neural computation.

  13. Normalization of Gravitational Acceleration Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckman, Randy A.; Brown, Aaron J.; Adamo, Daniel R.

    2011-01-01

    Unlike the uniform density spherical shell approximations of Newton, the con- sequence of spaceflight in the real universe is that gravitational fields are sensitive to the nonsphericity of their generating central bodies. The gravitational potential of a nonspherical central body is typically resolved using spherical harmonic approximations. However, attempting to directly calculate the spherical harmonic approximations results in at least two singularities which must be removed in order to generalize the method and solve for any possible orbit, including polar orbits. Three unique algorithms have been developed to eliminate these singularities by Samuel Pines [1], Bill Lear [2], and Robert Gottlieb [3]. This paper documents the methodical normalization of two1 of the three known formulations for singularity-free gravitational acceleration (namely, the Lear [2] and Gottlieb [3] algorithms) and formulates a general method for defining normalization parameters used to generate normalized Legendre Polynomials and ALFs for any algorithm. A treatment of the conventional formulation of the gravitational potential and acceleration is also provided, in addition to a brief overview of the philosophical differences between the three known singularity-free algorithms.

  14. A normalized Levenshtein distance metric.

    PubMed

    Yujian, Li; Bo, Liu

    2007-06-01

    Although a number of normalized edit distances presented so far may offer good performance in some applications, none of them can be regarded as a genuine metric between strings because they do not satisfy the triangle inequality. Given two strings X and Y over a finite alphabet, this paper defines a new normalized edit distance between X and Y as a simple function of their lengths (|X| and |Y|) and the Generalized Levenshtein Distance (GLD) between them. The new distance can be easily computed through GLD with a complexity of O(|X|.|Y|) and it is a metric valued in [0, 1] under the condition that the weight function is a metric over the set of elementary edit operations with all costs of insertions/deletions having the same weight. Experiments using the AESA algorithm in handwritten digit recognition show that the new distance can generally provide similar results to some other normalized edit distances and may perform slightly better if the triangle inequality is violated in a particular data set.

  15. Normal fault earthquakes or graviquakes.

    PubMed

    Doglioni, C; Carminati, E; Petricca, P; Riguzzi, F

    2015-07-14

    Earthquakes are dissipation of energy throughout elastic waves. Canonically is the elastic energy accumulated during the interseismic period. However, in crustal extensional settings, gravity is the main energy source for hangingwall fault collapsing. Gravitational potential is about 100 times larger than the observed magnitude, far more than enough to explain the earthquake. Therefore, normal faults have a different mechanism of energy accumulation and dissipation (graviquakes) with respect to other tectonic settings (strike-slip and contractional), where elastic energy allows motion even against gravity. The bigger the involved volume, the larger is their magnitude. The steeper the normal fault, the larger is the vertical displacement and the larger is the seismic energy released. Normal faults activate preferentially at about 60° but they can be shallower in low friction rocks. In low static friction rocks, the fault may partly creep dissipating gravitational energy without releasing great amount of seismic energy. The maximum volume involved by graviquakes is smaller than the other tectonic settings, being the activated fault at most about three times the hypocentre depth, explaining their higher b-value and the lower magnitude of the largest recorded events. Having different phenomenology, graviquakes show peculiar precursors.

  16. Normal fault earthquakes or graviquakes

    PubMed Central

    Doglioni, C.; Carminati, E.; Petricca, P.; Riguzzi, F.

    2015-01-01

    Earthquakes are dissipation of energy throughout elastic waves. Canonically is the elastic energy accumulated during the interseismic period. However, in crustal extensional settings, gravity is the main energy source for hangingwall fault collapsing. Gravitational potential is about 100 times larger than the observed magnitude, far more than enough to explain the earthquake. Therefore, normal faults have a different mechanism of energy accumulation and dissipation (graviquakes) with respect to other tectonic settings (strike-slip and contractional), where elastic energy allows motion even against gravity. The bigger the involved volume, the larger is their magnitude. The steeper the normal fault, the larger is the vertical displacement and the larger is the seismic energy released. Normal faults activate preferentially at about 60° but they can be shallower in low friction rocks. In low static friction rocks, the fault may partly creep dissipating gravitational energy without releasing great amount of seismic energy. The maximum volume involved by graviquakes is smaller than the other tectonic settings, being the activated fault at most about three times the hypocentre depth, explaining their higher b-value and the lower magnitude of the largest recorded events. Having different phenomenology, graviquakes show peculiar precursors. PMID:26169163

  17. Normal saline wound dressing--is it really normal?

    PubMed

    Lim, J K; Saliba, L; Smith, M J; McTavish, J; Raine, C; Curtin, P

    2000-01-01

    Gauze swabs soaked in normal saline are frequently used as dressing on open wounds. Their exact mechanism of action is not known. This study was designed to assess the hypothesis that normal saline dressings act in part as an osmotic dressing. Ten patients had skin ulcers (n = 10) dressed with normal saline soaked sponges. Acting as controls (n = 10) identical sponges were placed upon intact skin. The sponge fluid osmolarity and electrolyte concentrations were serially assayed to test our hypothesis. In the control group, the osmolarity, sodium and chloride concentrations increased with time as a result of evaporation, altering it from an isotonic to a hypertonic dressing. However, in the ulcer group, the osmolarity, sodium and chloride concentrations in the sponge fluid remained relatively isotonic with time. This result is statistically significant (P< 0.05). We postulate that, as a result of evaporation, the sponge dressing increases its tonicity. This draws fluid from the wound into the dressing so that a dynamic equilibrium occurs and the sponge dressing regains isotonicity. The dressing remains functional provided that the wound fluid is absorbed freely from the wound. This process is terminated when either the dressing completely absorbs the wound fluid or the dressing dries out. The latter often occurs prematurely in a contaminated wound or in a wound where exudate forms a non-permeable barrier which prevents osmosis and allows the remaining water in the dressing to evaporate completely. This correlates with the observation in clinical practice that for maximum efficacy the dressing should be changed regularly. Copyright 2000 The British Association of Plastic Surgeons.

  18. Quantiles for Finite Mixtures of Normal Distributions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahman, Mezbahur; Rahman, Rumanur; Pearson, Larry M.

    2006-01-01

    Quantiles for finite mixtures of normal distributions are computed. The difference between a linear combination of independent normal random variables and a linear combination of independent normal densities is emphasized. (Contains 3 tables and 1 figure.)

  19. Understanding a Normal Distribution of Data.

    PubMed

    Maltenfort, Mitchell G

    2015-12-01

    Assuming data follow a normal distribution is essential for many common statistical tests. However, what are normal data and when can we assume that a data set follows this distribution? What can be done to analyze non-normal data?

  20. Research Summaries for Normal Birth

    PubMed Central

    Romano, Amy M.

    2007-01-01

    In this column, the author summarizes four research studies that contribute to the body of literature on the benefits and physiology of normal childbirth. The topics of the studies include the effect of digital rotation of the baby in occipito-posterior position on position at birth and birth outcomes; temperature disturbances during skin-to-skin contact among babies exposed to epidural analgesia and exogenous oxytocin during labor; the prevalence of and motivations for “maternal request” cesarean surgery; and the benefits of delayed clamping of the umbilical cord after birth. PMID:18566646

  1. Normal coordinate analysis of acycloguanosine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavira, J. M.; de la Fuente, M.; Navarro, R.; Hernanz, A.

    1997-06-01

    A normal coordinate analysis of the acyclovir (9-[(2-hydroxyethoxy)methyl]guanine, acycloguanosine) molecule has been carried out in two ways based on the Wilson GF method: one by constructing a force field transferred from similar molecules; the other based on molecular orbital (MO) calculations by the PM3 semiempirical method. Both analyses have been compared with the experimental IR and Raman spectra of acyclovir and one of its tetradeuterated isotopomers, and with the IR spectra of guanine and 2-methoxyethanol to assign the observed bands.

  2. Normal language in abnormal brains.

    PubMed

    Piattelli-Palmarini, Massimo

    2017-02-27

    There is little doubt that, in the adult, specific brain lesions cause specific language deficits. Yet, brain localizations of linguistic functions are made problematic by several reported cases of normal language in spite of major brain anomalies, mostly, but not exclusively, occurring early in life. The signal cases are hydrocephaly, spina bifida and hemispherectomy. These cases are discussed and possible solutions are suggested: namely a vast redundancy of neurons and/or the role of microtubules as neuron-internal processors and key factors in signaling and guiding the growth and reconfiguration of the brain.

  3. Writing errors by normal subjects.

    PubMed

    Moretti, Rita; Torre, Paola; Antonello, Rodolfo M; Fabbro, Franco; Cazzato, Giuseppe; Bava, Antonio

    2003-08-01

    Writing is a complex process requiring visual memory, attention, phonological and semantic operations, and motor performance. For that reason, it can easily be disturbed by interfering with attention, memory, by interfering subvocalization, and so on. With 16 female third-year students (23.4 +/- 0.8 yr.) from the University of Trieste, we investigated the production of errors in three experimental conditions (control, articulatory suppression, and tapping). In the articulatory suppression condition, the participants produced significantly more linguistic impairments (such as agrammatism, unrelated substitutions, sentence omissions, and semantically deviant sentences), which are similar to linguistic impairments found in aphasia. On the tapping condition there were more perseverations, deletions, and substitutions of both letters and words. These data suggest that writing is not an automatic skill. Only after many years of experience and practice of processing information (through cortical to subcortical channels) can writing be considered an automatic skill. Limited experimental conditions can disrupt the writing system of normal subjects, probably interfering with the cortical to subcortical loops, and link normality to pathology.

  4. Update on Normal Tension Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Mallick, Jyotiranjan; Devi, Lily; Malik, Pradeep K.; Mallick, Jogamaya

    2016-01-01

    Normal tension glaucoma (NTG) is labelled when typical glaucomatous disc changes, visual field defects and open anterior chamber angles are associated with intraocular pressure (IOP) constantly below 21 mmHg. Chronic low vascular perfusion, Raynaud's phenomenon, migraine, nocturnal systemic hypotension and over-treated systemic hypertension are the main causes of normal tension glaucoma. Goldmann applanation tonometry, gonioscopy, slit lamp biomicroscopy, optical coherence tomography and visual field analysis are the main tools of investigation for the diagnosis of NTG. Management follows the same principles of treatment for other chronic glaucomas: To reduce IOP by a substantial amount, sufficient to prevent disabling visual loss. Treatment is generally aimed to lower IOP by 30% from pre-existing levels to 12-14 mmHg. Betaxolol, brimonidine, prostaglandin analogues, trabeculectomy (in refractory cases), systemic calcium channel blockers (such as nifedipine) and 24-hour monitoring of blood pressure are considered in the management of NTG. The present review summarises risk factors, causes, pathogenesis, diagnosis and management of NTG. PMID:27413503

  5. Normal and abnormal lid function.

    PubMed

    Rucker, Janet C

    2011-01-01

    This chapter on lid function is comprised of two primary sections, the first on normal eyelid anatomy, neurological innervation, and physiology, and the second on abnormal eyelid function in disease states. The eyelids serve several important ocular functions, the primary objectives of which are protection of the anterior globe from injury and maintenance of the ocular tear film. Typical eyelid behaviors to perform these functions include blinking (voluntary, spontaneous, or reflexive), voluntary eye closure (gentle or forced), partial lid lowering during squinting, normal lid retraction during emotional states such as surprise or fear (startle reflex), and coordination of lid movements with vertical eye movements for maximal eye protection. Detailed description of the neurological innervation patterns and neurophysiology of each of these lid behaviors is provided. Abnormal lid function is divided by conditions resulting in excessive lid closure (cerebral ptosis, apraxia of lid opening, blepharospasm, oculomotor palsy, Horner's syndrome, myasthenia gravis, and mechanical) and those resulting in excessive lid opening (midbrain lid retraction, facial nerve palsy, and lid retraction due to orbital disease).

  6. Is My Penis Normal? (For Teens)

    MedlinePlus

    ... A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Is My Penis Normal? KidsHealth > For Teens > Is My Penis Normal? A A A en español ¿Es normal ... any guy who's ever worried about whether his penis is a normal size. There's a fairly wide ...

  7. Chapter 1: Direct Normal Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Myer, Daryl R.

    2016-04-15

    This chapter addresses the quantitative and qualitative aspects of the solar resource, the direct solar radiation. It discusses the total or integrated broadband direct beam extraterrestrial radiation (ETR). This total integrated irradiance is comprised of photons of electromagnetic radiation. The chapter also discusses the impact of the atmosphere and its effect upon the direct normal irradiance (DNI) beam radiation. The gases and particulates present in the atmosphere traversed by the direct beam reflect, absorb, and scatter differing spectral regions and proportions of the direct beam, and act as a variable filter. Knowledge of the available broadband DNI beam radiation resource data is essential in designing a concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) system. Spectral variations in the DNI beam radiation affect the performance of a CPV system depending on the solar cell technology used. The chapter describes propagation and scattering processes of circumsolar radiation (CSR), which includes the Mie scattering from large particles.

  8. [Normal and abnormal skin color].

    PubMed

    Ortonne, J-P

    2012-11-01

    The varieties of normal skin color in humans range from people of "no color" (pale white) to "people of color" (light brown, dark brown, and black). Skin color is a blend resulting from the skin chromophores red (oxyhaemoglobin), blue (deoxygenated haemoglobin), yellow-orange (carotene, an exogenous pigment), and brown (melanin). Melanin, however, is the major component of skin color ; it is the presence or absence of melanin in the melanosomes in melanocytes and melanin in keratinocytes that is responsible for epidermal pigmentation, and the presence of melanin in macrophages or melanocytes in the dermis that is responsible for dermal pigmentation. Two groups of pigmentary disorders are commonly distinguished: the disorders of the quantitative and qualitative distribution of normal pigment and the abnormal presence of exogenous or endogenous pigments in the skin. The first group includes hyperpigmentations, which clinically manifest by darkening of the skin color, and leukodermia, which is characterized by lightening of the skin. Hypermelanosis corresponds to an overload of melanin or an abnormal distribution of melanin in the skin. Depending on the color, melanodermia (brown/black) and ceruloderma (blue/grey) are distinguished. Melanodermia correspond to epidermal hypermelanocytosis (an increased number of melanocytes) or epidermal hypermelanosis (an increase in the quantity of melanin in the epidermis with no modification of the number of melanocytes). Ceruloderma correspond to dermal hypermelanocytosis (abnormal presence in the dermis of cells synthesizing melanins) ; leakage in the dermis of epidermal melanin also exists, a form of dermal hypermelanosis called pigmentary incontinence. Finally, dyschromia can be related to the abnormal presence in the skin of a pigment of exogenous or endogenous origin. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Stability of Ampicillin in Normal Saline and Buffered Normal Saline.

    PubMed

    Maher, Moureddine; Jensen, Kara J; Lee, David; Nix, David E

    2016-01-01

    Ampicillin is reported to be stable for only 8 hours in 0.9% sodium chloride with concentrations up to 30 g/L. The purpose of this study was to evaluate if the stability of ampicillin in 0.9% sodium chloride could be extended by adding sodium phosphate for injection using modern highperformance liquid chromatographic methods. Ampicillin was prepared at concentrations of 12 g/L with and without 10 mM sodium phosphate for injection. Stability was assessed under room temperature using a validated, stability- indicating high-performance liquid chromatography assay. The admixtures with added buffer were studied under refrigerated storage as well. Ampicillin 12 g in 1 L normal saline intravenous bags, without buffer addition, was stable for at least 24 hours when stored at room temperature. The time to 90% potency (T90) ranged from 32.0 hours to 41.7 hours. The addition of 10 mM sodium phosphate buffer extended the stability to at least 48 hours with a T90 of 57.6 hours. Ampicillin 12 g/L stored under refrigeration was stable for at least 72 hours. Considering cumulative loss during refrigerated storage and subsequent use at room temperature, the data supports up to 48 hours storage under refrigeration and then up to 24 hours during use at room temperature. Using a stabilityindicating high-performance liquid chromatographic assay, ampicillin 12 g/L in 0.9% sodium chloride is stable for at least 24 hours at room temperature. The addition of 10 mM sodium phosphate for injection extends the stability to at least 48 hours at room temperature. Copyright© by International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding, Inc.

  10. [Atopic keratoconjunctivitis: probably a risk factor for the development of conjuntival carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Kallen, C; Reinhard, T; Schilgen, G; Cartsburg, O; Böcking, A; Auw-Hädrich, C; Sundmacher, R

    2003-10-01

    Almost half of the patients with atopic dermatitis experience chronic inflammation of the eyelids, the conjunctiva and the cornea. Chronic inflammation is a possible cause for the development of malignancies, especially if associated with some kind of immunological defect as in atopic patients. So far, a correlation between atopic conjunctivitis and conjunctival malignancies has not yet been reported. Here, we present 7 atopic patients with conjunctival carcinoma or carcinoma in situ detected between February 2000 and August 2001. All 7 patients had a long history of atopic dermatitis and chronic of inflammation of the conjunctiva and cornea. In all patients smears were examined by cytology and DNA cytometry. Furthermore, in 6 of the 7 patients a histopathological examination of conjunctival biopsies was performed. In 4 of the 7 patients invasive conjunctival carcinoma and in 2 carcinoma in situ were detected. Cytology and cytometry revealed conjunctival carcinoma or carcinoma in situ in the remaining patient. Histopathological examination could not be performed since the patient refused to have a conjunctival biopsy. These results suggest that atopic keratoconjunctivitis might be a risk factor for the development of conjunctival carcinoma.

  11. [Pseudo-tumoral lesions of dense conjuntival tissue. Attempt at pathogenic interpretation].

    PubMed

    Bonenfani, J L; Lagacé, R

    1975-01-01

    The histogenesis of pseudotumors of dense connective tissue has been studied. These lesions may be classified as mucoid (synovial cyst and periungueal myxoma), collagenous (desmoid tumor, desmoid fibroblastoma and fibromatosis colli), elastic (elastofibroma dorsi), cellular (fibroblastic: fibromatosis, fasciitis and myositis; histiocytic: giant-cell tumor of tendon sheath, fibrous histiocytoma and atypical fibroxanthoma), metaplastic (ossifying fasciitis, ossifying myositis and juvenile chondroid fibroma) and hamartomatous nature (fibrous hamartoma). It must be emphasized that these lesions show a variable and polymorphouse cellular composition and then can simulate sarcoma.

  12. [Efficacy of fibrin tissue adhesive in the attachment of autogenous conjuntival graft on primary pterygium surgery].

    PubMed

    Rubin, Michel Risnic; Dantas, Paulo Elias C; Nishiwaki-Dantas, M Cristina; Felberg, Sergio

    2011-01-01

    To compare the efficacy of conjunctival autograft surgery with the attachment to the scleral bed using fibrin tissue adhesive or mononylon 10-0 suture after resection of primary pterygium. A comparative, prospective and randomized clinical trial was performed in 47 eyes of 47 patients with primary medial located pterygium. Group 1 (adhesive) was composed by 21 patients that underwent conjunctival autograft closure with fibrin tissue adhesive (Quixil™) and Group 2 (suture) was composed by 26 patients that underwent pterygium surgery with mononylon 10-0 (Ethicon(®)) suture (suture group) after pterygium excision. All surgeries were performed by the same surgeon. Patients were assessed on the preoperative period and on the 1(st), 14(th) and 21(st) postoperative days. They were followed-up with a questionnaire of ocular discomfort and by the surgical time spent, ocular hyperemia, complications and recurrence signals, being the recurrence also evaluated at the 6th postoperative month. Data were submitted to statistical analysis. A value of p<0.005 was considered statistically significant. The average surgical time was 19.05 ± 6.12 minutes in group 1 (glue) and 48.15 ± 7.13 minutes in the group 2 (suture) (p<0.001). The ocular discomfort scale analysis showed a lower score in the 1(st) (p<0.005), 7(th) (p<0.001) and 21(th) (p<0.001) postoperative days in group 1. Ocular hyperemia was less intense in all periods of this study in group 1 (p<0.001). Complications were one in each group and both were managed with clinical treatment until the 21(th) postoperative day. There was one recurrence in group 1 and two in group 2 until the 6(th) postoperative month. In the surgical management of primary pterygium, fibrin tissue adhesive attached the conjunctival autograft, decreased the surgical time and diminished the conjunctival hyperemia and ocular discomfort with similar recurrences on the postoperative period, compared to fixation with mononylon 10.0 suture, proving to be an excellent option for conjunctival autograft attachment in primary pterygium surgery.

  13. Analysis of normal discourse patterns.

    PubMed

    Smith, Rebecca; Heuerman, Maranda; Wilson, Brenda M; Proctor, Adele

    2003-11-01

    Twenty-five normal young adult college students provided speaking and writing samples using two elicitation procedures: picture description and personal narrative. Patterns of productivity, efficiency, and coherence were investigated while considering the demands imposed by mode of expression, task elicitation, cognitive distance, and verbal working memory. Samples were divided into top (S1) and bottom (S2) halves. Within group (S1/S2) and between group (pictured activity description/personal narrative) comparisons were made for oral vs. written samples, and performance measures were correlated with verbal working memory scores. Results indicated that the productivity measure was influenced by the type of elicitation task and was not related to verbal working memory scores. Efficiency was influenced by mode of expression and demonstrated a low correlation with verbal working memory scores. Coherence ratings were not influenced by type of elicitation task, mode of expression, or length of sample, and were not related to verbal working memory scores. Results are discussed in terms of the clinical utility of these discourse measures.

  14. Familial idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus.

    PubMed

    Huovinen, Joel; Kastinen, Sami; Komulainen, Simo; Oinas, Minna; Avellan, Cecilia; Frantzen, Janek; Rinne, Jaakko; Ronkainen, Antti; Kauppinen, Mikko; Lönnrot, Kimmo; Perola, Markus; Pyykkö, Okko T; Koivisto, Anne M; Remes, Anne M; Soininen, Hilkka; Hiltunen, Mikko; Helisalmi, Seppo; Kurki, Mitja; Jääskeläinen, Juha E; Leinonen, Ville

    2016-09-15

    Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) is a late-onset surgically alleviated, progressive disease. We characterize a potential familial subgroup of iNPH in a nation-wide Finnish cohort of 375 shunt-operated iNPH-patients. The patients were questionnaired and phone-interviewed, whether they have relatives with either diagnosed iNPH or disease-related symptomatology. Then pedigrees of all families with more than one iNPH-case were drawn. Eighteen patients (4.8%) from 12 separate pedigrees had at least one shunt-operated relative whereas 42 patients (11%) had relatives with two or more triad symptoms. According to multivariate logistic regression analysis, familial iNPH-patients had up to 3-fold risk of clinical dementia compared to sporadic iNPH patients. This risk was independent from diagnosed Alzheimer's disease and APOE ε4 genotype. This study describes a familial entity of iNPH offering a novel approach to discover the potential genetic characteristics of iNPH. Discovered pedigrees offer an intriguing opportunity to conduct longitudinal studies targeting potential preclinical signs of iNPH. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Continuing With Life As Normal:

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, H.C.; ClinPsy, D; Kennedy, P.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Research into the psychological sequelae of spinal cord injury (SCI) has focused on reports of psychological distress, despite the low prevalence rates of mental health difficulties. Positive psychological frameworks have begun to explore how some individuals do not report psychological distress, while appraisals have been posited as possible mediators of psychological outcome. Research into positive psychological outcomes in people with SCI is still in its infancy. Objective: To provide a description of the positive psychological outcomes experienced by people reporting low levels of psychological distress, to generate an understanding of how these individuals explain their positive outcomes, and to consider the implications for research, theory, and practice. Method: Six participants (2 female, 4 male) reporting low levels of psychological distress were interviewed using a semi-structured interview schedule exploring their experiences. Interpretative phenomenological analysis was used to analyze data. Results: Three superordinate themes were identified: “living a normal life, just doing things differently,” “overcoming challenges: determination to succeed,” and “using the resources available to me.” The description and explanation of a positive psychological outcome was complex. For participants, positive psychological outcomes did not exclude experiencing psychological difficulty; moreover, they described an ability to overcome difficulty. Challenge-focused appraisals, social support, and meaningful activity were identified by participants as being important to psychological outcome. Conclusions: Positive psychological outcomes following SCI are complex, and research and theory need to better understand the experience of individuals following SCI in order to inform clinical practice. PMID:23459265

  16. Monitoring of international normalized ratios

    PubMed Central

    Levine, Max A.; Shao, Wei; Klein, Douglas

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine whether community-based, nurse-led monitoring of the international normalized ratio (INR) in patients requiring long-term warfarin therapy was comparable to traditional physician monitoring. Design A retrospective cohort analysis of patients taking long-term warfarin therapy. Setting The study used data gathered from 3 family medicine clinics in a primary care network in Edmonton, Alta. Participants Medical records of patients currently taking warfarin were examined. Intervention Implementation of nurse-led monitoring in a primary care network in place of standard family physician INR monitoring. Main outcome measures The degree of INR control before and after the implementation of nurse-run INR monitoring was assessed. The average proportion of time spent outside of therapeutic INR ranges, as well as the average number of days between successive INR readings, was calculated and compared. The degree of control placed patients into either a good-control group (out of range ≤ 25% of the time) or a moderate-control group (out of range > 25% of the time) and these groups were compared. Results Before nurse monitoring, INR values were out of range 20.4% of the time; after nurse monitoring they were out of range 19.2% of the time (P = .115); the time between sequential INR readings also did not differ before and after implementation of nurse monitoring (23.9 vs 21.6 days, P = .789). Conclusion Nurse-led monitoring of INR is as effective as traditional physician monitoring. Advantages of nurse-led monitoring might include freeing family physicians to see more patients or to spend less time at work. It might also represent potential cost savings. PMID:22893349

  17. Newtonian normal shift in multidimensional Riemannian geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Sharipov, Ruslan A

    2001-06-30

    An explicit description of all Newtonian dynamical systems admitting normal shift in Riemannian manifolds of dimension n{>=}3 is obtained. On this basis the kinematics of the normal shift of hypersurfaces along trajectories of such dynamical systems is studied.

  18. Normal anatomy of the skull base.

    PubMed

    Lustrin, E S; Robertson, R L; Tilak, S

    1994-08-01

    CT and MR imaging increasingly are being used for the evaluation of the skull base. New innovative techniques have revolutionized radiologic understanding of normal skull base anatomy. Thus, normal anatomic relationships with radiographic correlation are vital for accurate pathologic assessment.

  19. 18 CFR 154.305 - Tax normalization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tax normalization. 154... Changes § 154.305 Tax normalization. (a) Applicability. An interstate pipeline must compute the income tax component of its cost-of-service by using tax normalization for all transactions. (b) Definitions. (1)...

  20. 18 CFR 154.305 - Tax normalization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Tax normalization. 154... Changes § 154.305 Tax normalization. (a) Applicability. An interstate pipeline must compute the income tax component of its cost-of-service by using tax normalization for all transactions. (b) Definitions. (1)...

  1. 18 CFR 154.305 - Tax normalization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tax normalization. 154... Changes § 154.305 Tax normalization. (a) Applicability. An interstate pipeline must compute the income tax component of its cost-of-service by using tax normalization for all transactions. (b) Definitions. (1) Tax...

  2. 18 CFR 154.305 - Tax normalization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tax normalization. 154... Changes § 154.305 Tax normalization. (a) Applicability. An interstate pipeline must compute the income tax component of its cost-of-service by using tax normalization for all transactions. (b) Definitions. (1) Tax...

  3. The Relationship of Development and Normalization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pieper, Elizabeth J.

    1979-01-01

    The author concludes that, without changing practice to reflect both the philosophical concepts of normalization and the psychological concepts of development, such handicapped people will continue to suffer the traditional trade-offs of normalization at the sacrifice of development, or development at the cost of normalization. (DLS)

  4. Normal Weight Obesity: A Hidden Health Risk?

    MedlinePlus

    Diseases and Conditions Obesity Can you be considered obese if you have a normal body weight? Answers from Katherine Zeratsky, R.D., L. ... considered obese — a condition known as normal weight obesity. Normal weight obesity means you may have the ...

  5. Longitudinal normals for piezoelectric elastic media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duda, A.; Paszkiewicz, T.; Wolski, S.

    2006-02-01

    We show that the problem of finding components of longitudinal normals for all piezoelectric classes is equivalent to the problem of solving two sets of two polynomial equations up to 6th degree. It is proved that the number of longitudinal normals for triclinic media cannot exceed 36. If the number of longitudinal normals contained in any plane is finite, then it cannot be larger than 6. Directions of longitudinal normals are found for quartz, LiGaO2, and Ba2NaNb5O15. For these compounds we numerically studied how piezoelectric terms of the propagation matrix influence the number and directions of the longitudinal normals.

  6. Anomalous normal mode oscillations in semiconductor microcavities

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, H.; Hou, H.Q.; Hammons, B.E.

    1997-04-01

    Semiconductor microcavities as a composite exciton-cavity system can be characterized by two normal modes. Under an impulsive excitation by a short laser pulse, optical polarizations associated with the two normal modes have a {pi} phase difference. The total induced optical polarization is then expected to exhibit a sin{sup 2}({Omega}t)-like oscillation where 2{Omega} is the normal mode splitting, reflecting a coherent energy exchange between the exciton and cavity. In this paper the authors present experimental studies of normal mode oscillations using three-pulse transient four wave mixing (FWM). The result reveals surprisingly that when the cavity is tuned far below the exciton resonance, normal mode oscillation in the polarization is cos{sup 2}({Omega}t)-like, in contrast to what is expected form the simple normal mode model. This anomalous normal mode oscillation reflects the important role of virtual excitation of electronic states in semiconductor microcavities.

  7. New book discusses normal geomagnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Pochtarev, V.I.

    1984-07-01

    Material on the normal geomagnetic field and its gradients over the Earth's surface at different elevations is presented. Methods are developed for plotting the normal geomagnetic field and mathematical approximations of the geomagnetic field are presented. The nature of the Earth's normal magnetic field is investigated on the basis of an analysis of geophysical, geological and geochemical data and data on the internal structure of the Earth.

  8. Mechanisms of Normal Tissue Injury From Irradiation.

    PubMed

    Citrin, Deborah E; Mitchell, James B

    2017-10-01

    Normal tissue injury from irradiation is an unfortunate consequence of radiotherapy. Technologic improvements have reduced the risk of normal tissue injury; however, toxicity causing treatment breaks or long-term side effects continues to occur in a subset of patients. The molecular events that lead to normal tissue injury are complex and span a variety of biologic processes, including oxidative stress, inflammation, depletion of injured cells, senescence, and elaboration of proinflammatory and profibrogenic cytokines. This article describes selected recent advances in normal tissue radiobiology. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Cultured normal mammalian tissue and process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodwin, Thomas J. (Inventor); Prewett, Tacey L. (Inventor); Wolf, David A. (Inventor); Spaulding, Glenn F. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Normal mammalian tissue and the culturing process has been developed for the three groups of organ, structural and blood tissue. The cells are grown in vitro under microgravity culture conditions and form three dimensional cell aggregates with normal cell function. The microgravity culture conditions may be microgravity or simulated microgravity created in a horizontal rotating wall culture vessel.

  10. Normalization in sustainability assessment: Methods and implications

    SciTech Connect

    Pollesch, N. L.; Dale, Virginia H.

    2016-08-08

    One approach to assessing progress towards sustainability makes use of diverse indicators spanning the environmental, social, and economic dimensions of the system being studied. Given the use of multiple indicators and the inherent complexity entailed in interpreting several metrics, aggregation of sustainability indicators is a common step after indicator measures are quantified. Diverse indicators have different units of measurement, and normalization is the procedure employed to transform differing indicator measures onto similar scales or to unit-free measures. It is often difficult for stakeholders to make clear connections between specific indicator measurements and resulting aggregate scores of sustainability. Normalization can also create implicit weightings of indicator measures that are independent of actual stakeholder preference or explicit weighting. This paper explores normalization methods utilized in sustainability assessment including ratio normalization, target normalization, Z-score normalization, and unit equivalence normalization. A mathematical analysis of the impact of changes in raw indicator data measurements on an aggregate sustainability score is developed. Theoretical results are clarified through a case study of data used in assessment of progress towards bioenergy sustainability. Advantages and drawbacks associated with different normalization schemes are discussed within the context of sustainability assessment.

  11. Normalization in sustainability assessment: Methods and implications

    DOE PAGES

    Pollesch, N. L.; Dale, Virginia H.

    2016-08-08

    One approach to assessing progress towards sustainability makes use of diverse indicators spanning the environmental, social, and economic dimensions of the system being studied. Given the use of multiple indicators and the inherent complexity entailed in interpreting several metrics, aggregation of sustainability indicators is a common step after indicator measures are quantified. Diverse indicators have different units of measurement, and normalization is the procedure employed to transform differing indicator measures onto similar scales or to unit-free measures. It is often difficult for stakeholders to make clear connections between specific indicator measurements and resulting aggregate scores of sustainability. Normalization can alsomore » create implicit weightings of indicator measures that are independent of actual stakeholder preference or explicit weighting. This paper explores normalization methods utilized in sustainability assessment including ratio normalization, target normalization, Z-score normalization, and unit equivalence normalization. A mathematical analysis of the impact of changes in raw indicator data measurements on an aggregate sustainability score is developed. Theoretical results are clarified through a case study of data used in assessment of progress towards bioenergy sustainability. Advantages and drawbacks associated with different normalization schemes are discussed within the context of sustainability assessment.« less

  12. Normalization of First Year Law School Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tunick, David C.; Schechter, Dan S.

    1983-01-01

    Loyola Law School's plan to normalize grading in sections of a given course involves separate calculations for students with and without statistical background. Examples of class and section distributions are provided, alternative normalization methods are discussed, and the reasons they were not used are noted. (MSE)

  13. A Skew-Normal Mixture Regression Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Min; Lin, Tsung-I

    2014-01-01

    A challenge associated with traditional mixture regression models (MRMs), which rest on the assumption of normally distributed errors, is determining the number of unobserved groups. Specifically, even slight deviations from normality can lead to the detection of spurious classes. The current work aims to (a) examine how sensitive the commonly…

  14. FORCED NORMALIZATION: Epilepsy and Psychosis Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Loganathan, Muruga A.; Enja, Manasa

    2015-01-01

    Forced normalization is the emergence of psychoses following the establishment of seizure control in an uncontrolled epilepsy patient. Two illustrative clinical vignettes are provided about people with epilepsy that was newly controlled and followed by emergence of a psychosis; symptoms appeared only after attaining ictal control. For recognition and differential diagnosis purposes, understanding forced normalization is important in clinical practice. PMID:26155377

  15. The Genius of the Principle of Normalization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, John

    This paper discusses the genius of the principle of normalization in the development of better services for socially devalued people. It argues that the definition of normalization sets a direction for learning-through-action which is clear and convincing, as well as indefinite and conditional, and rests on a deep appreciation of the everyday…

  16. A Skew-Normal Mixture Regression Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Min; Lin, Tsung-I

    2014-01-01

    A challenge associated with traditional mixture regression models (MRMs), which rest on the assumption of normally distributed errors, is determining the number of unobserved groups. Specifically, even slight deviations from normality can lead to the detection of spurious classes. The current work aims to (a) examine how sensitive the commonly…

  17. Vortices in normal part of proximity system

    DOE PAGES

    Kogan, V. G.

    2015-05-26

    It is shown that the order parameter Δ induced in the normal part of superconductor-normal-superconductor proximity system is modulated in the magnetic field differently from vortices in bulk superconductors. Whereas Δ turns zero at vortex centers, the magnetic structure of these vortices differs from that of Abrikosov's.

  18. Hemispheric Specialization in Normal and Disabled Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newell, David; Rugel, Robert P.

    1981-01-01

    Degree of hemispheric specialization in 32 normal and 32 disabled readers (9 to 12 years old) was evaluated using a linguistic task and a musical task. While normals demonstrated hemispheric specialization on these tasks in the expected directions, disabled readers showed a right hemisphere deficit. (Author)

  19. Correcting the Normalized Gain for Guessing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, John; Stewart, Gay

    2010-01-01

    The normalized gain, "g", has been an important tool for the characterization of conceptual improvement in physics courses since its use in Hake's extensive study on conceptual learning in introductory physics. The normalized gain is calculated from the score on a pre-test administered before instruction and a post-test administered…

  20. Correcting the Normalized Gain for Guessing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, John; Stewart, Gay

    2010-01-01

    The normalized gain, "g", has been an important tool for the characterization of conceptual improvement in physics courses since its use in Hake's extensive study on conceptual learning in introductory physics. The normalized gain is calculated from the score on a pre-test administered before instruction and a post-test administered…

  1. Vortices in normal part of proximity system

    SciTech Connect

    Kogan, V. G.

    2015-05-26

    It is shown that the order parameter Δ induced in the normal part of superconductor-normal-superconductor proximity system is modulated in the magnetic field differently from vortices in bulk superconductors. Whereas Δ turns zero at vortex centers, the magnetic structure of these vortices differs from that of Abrikosov's.

  2. Normal peer models and autistic children's learning.

    PubMed Central

    Egel, A L; Richman, G S; Koegel, R L

    1981-01-01

    Present research and legislation regarding mainstreaming autistic children into normal classrooms have raised the importance of studying whether autistic children can benefit from observing normal peer models. The present investigation systematically assessed whether autistic children's learning of discrimination tasks could be improved if they observed normal children perform the tasks correctly. In the context of a multiple baseline design, four autistic children worked on five discrimination tasks that their teachers reported were posing difficulty. Throughout the baseline condition the children evidenced very low levels of correct responding on all five tasks. In the subsequent treatment condition, when normal peers modeled correct responses, the autistic children's correct responding increased dramatically. In each case, the peer modeling procedure produced rapid achievement of the acquisition which was maintained after the peer models were removed. These results are discussed in relation to issues concerning observational learning and in relation to the implications for mainstreaming autistic children into normal classrooms. PMID:7216930

  3. A zoo of computable binary normal sequences

    PubMed Central

    Pincus, Steve; Singer, Burton H.

    2012-01-01

    Historically there has been a virtual absence of constructive methods to produce broad classes of “certifiably random” infinite sequences, despite considerable interest in this endeavor. Previously, we proved a theorem that yielded explicit algorithms to produce diverse sets of normal numbers, reasonable candidates for random sequences, given their limiting equidistribution of subblocks of all lengths. Herein, we develop this algorithmic approach much further, systematizing the normal number generation process in several ways. We construct delineated, distinct sets of normal numbers (classified by the extent to which initial segments deviate from maximal irregularity), with virtually any allowable specified rate of convergence to 0 of this deviation, encompassing arbitrarily fast and slow rates, and accommodating asymmetric behavior above or below a centered median. As a corollary, we provide an explicit construction of a normal number that satisfies the Law of the Iterated Logarithm. We also produce distinct families of “biased” normal numbers, with virtually any specified rate of convergence of the bias (to 0). This latter theory is in part motivated by the remarkable observation that the binary version of Champernowne’s number, which is also normal, is biased—any initial segment has more 1s than 0s. Finally, we construct an interesting normal sequence with arbitrarily fast convergence to equidistribution of singleton blocks, yet arbitrarily slow convergence of pairs, which has profound implications both for probability theory, and for metrics to evaluate the “near-randomness” of sequences. PMID:23125196

  4. Testing against "normal" with environmental data.

    PubMed

    Kilgour, Bruce W; Somers, Keith M; Barrett, Timothy J; Munkittrick, Kelly R; Francis, Anthony P

    2017-01-01

    Normal ranges are some fraction of a reference distribution deemed to represent an expected condition, typically 95%. They are frequently used as the basis for generic criteria for monitoring programs designed to test whether a sample is outside of "normal," as in reference-condition approach studies. Normal ranges are also the basis for criteria for more classic environmental effects monitoring programs designed to detect differences in mean responses between reference and exposure areas. Limits on normal ranges are estimated with error that varies depending largely on sample size. Direct comparison of a sample or a mean to estimated limits of a normal range will, with some frequency, lead to incorrect conclusions about whether a sample or a mean is inside or outside the normal range when the sample or the mean is near the limit. Those errors can have significant costs and risk implications. This article describes tests based on noncentral distributions that are appropriate for quantifying the likelihood that samples or means are outside a normal range. These noncentral tests reverse the burden of evidence (assuming that the sample or mean is at or outside normal), and thereby encourage proponents to collect more robust sample sizes that will demonstrate that the sample or mean is not at the limits or beyond the normal range. These noncentral equivalence and interval tests can be applied to uni- and multivariate responses, and to simple (e.g., upstream vs downstream) or more complex (e.g., before vs after, or upstream vs downstream) study designs. Statistical procedures for the various tests are illustrated with benthic invertebrate community data collected as part of the Regional Aquatics Monitoring Program (RAMP) in the vicinity of oil sands operations in northern Alberta, Canada. An Excel workbook with functions and calculations to carry out the various tests is provided in the online Supplemental Data. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;13:188-197. © 2016 SETAC.

  5. Computed tomography of the normal mesentery

    SciTech Connect

    Silverman, P.M.; Kelvin, F.M.; Korobkin, M.; Dunnick, N.R.

    1984-11-01

    Thirty patients were studied to evaluate the CT appearance of the normal mesentery and its vasculature. Mesenteric vessels were identified by determining their relations to segments of the small bowel and colon in the 30 patients. Jejunal and ileal branches supplying small bowel were identified in all patients. The ileocolic and right colic branches of the ascending colon were identified in 27 and 26 patients, respectively; middle colic vessels were identified in 29 patients. The vessels showed a characteristic wavy appearance as they coursed through mesenteric fat. Normal lymph nodes were not routinely identified within the mesentery. Various pathologic processes altered the normal appearance of the components of the mesentery.

  6. The concept of normal weight obesity.

    PubMed

    Oliveros, Estefania; Somers, Virend K; Sochor, Ondrej; Goel, Kashish; Lopez-Jimenez, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with normal body weight by body mass index (BMI) and high body fat percentage show a high degree of metabolic dysregulation. This phenomenon, defined as normal weight obesity, is associated with a significantly higher risk of developing metabolic syndrome, cardiometabolic dysfunction and with higher mortality. Recently, we have also shown that coronary artery disease patients with normal BMI and central obesity have the highest mortality risk as compared to other adiposity patterns. Therefore, it is important to recognize these high-risk groups for better adiposity-based risk stratification. There is a need for an updated definition of obesity based on adiposity, not on body weight.

  7. Resonance Raman of BCC and normal skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Cheng-hui; Sriramoju, Vidyasagar; Boydston-White, Susie; Wu, Binlin; Zhang, Chunyuan; Pei, Zhe; Sordillo, Laura; Beckman, Hugh; Alfano, Robert R.

    2017-02-01

    The Resonance Raman (RR) spectra of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and normal human skin tissues were analyzed using 532nm laser excitation. RR spectral differences in vibrational fingerprints revealed skin normal and cancerous states tissues. The standard diagnosis criterion for BCC tissues are created by native RR biomarkers and its changes at peak intensity. The diagnostic algorithms for the classification of BCC and normal were generated based on SVM classifier and PCA statistical method. These statistical methods were used to analyze the RR spectral data collected from skin tissues, yielding a diagnostic sensitivity of 98.7% and specificity of 79% compared with pathological reports.

  8. Natural effector T lymphocytes in normal mice.

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, P; Larsson, E L; Forni, L; Bandeira, A; Coutinho, A

    1985-01-01

    The "natural" T-cell activity in normal unimmunized mice was studied. By double-parameter fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis, it was found that 5-10% of all splenic Lyt-2+ and L3T4+ lymphocytes are large, of which more than half are in mitotic cycle. In contrast with small resting cells of the same phenotype, activated (large) T cells isolated from normal mice are functional effector cells: L3T4+ large cells induce normal B lymphocytes into proliferation and antibody secretion, while large Lyt-2+ cells efficiently suppress B-lymphocyte responses. No effector cell cytolytic activity could be detected among naturally activated T cells. The significance of these findings for the internal activity in the normal immune system is discussed. PMID:2933744

  9. Retarded Children at Camp with Normal Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flax, Norman; Peters, Edward N.

    1969-01-01

    Statistical analysis of data from written forms and scales (designed to measure children's behavior in groups), observations, and interviews indicated that many educalble mentally retarded children can participate successfully in camp activities with normal children. (DR)

  10. Ultrasound, normal placenta - Braxton Hicks (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... performed at 17 weeks gestation. It shows the placenta during a normal (Braxton Hicks) contraction. Throughout the ... contracts to facilitate better blood flow through the placenta and the fetus. In this ultrasound, the placenta ...

  11. The method of minimal normal forms

    SciTech Connect

    Mane, S.R.; Weng, W.T.

    1992-01-01

    Normal form methods for solving nonlinear differential equations are reviewed and the comparative merits of three methods are evaluated. The concept of the minimal normal form is explained and is shown to be superior to other choices. The method is then extended to apply to the evaluation of discrete maps of an accelerator or storage ring. Such an extension, as suggested in this paper, is more suited for accelerator-based applications than a formulation utilizing continuous differential equations. A computer code has been generated to systematically implement various normal form formulations for maps in two-dimensional phase space. Specific examples of quadratic and cubic nonlinear fields were used and solved by the method developed. The minimal normal form method shown here gives good results using relatively low order expansions.

  12. The method of minimal normal forms

    SciTech Connect

    Mane, S.R.; Weng, W.T.

    1992-12-31

    Normal form methods for solving nonlinear differential equations are reviewed and the comparative merits of three methods are evaluated. The concept of the minimal normal form is explained and is shown to be superior to other choices. The method is then extended to apply to the evaluation of discrete maps of an accelerator or storage ring. Such an extension, as suggested in this paper, is more suited for accelerator-based applications than a formulation utilizing continuous differential equations. A computer code has been generated to systematically implement various normal form formulations for maps in two-dimensional phase space. Specific examples of quadratic and cubic nonlinear fields were used and solved by the method developed. The minimal normal form method shown here gives good results using relatively low order expansions.

  13. Developmental pragmatics in normal and abnormal children.

    PubMed

    Bara, B G; Bosco, F M; Bucciarelli, M

    1999-07-01

    We propose a critical review of current theories of developmental pragmatics. The underlying assumption is that such a theory ought to account for both normal and abnormal development. From a clinical point of view, we are concerned with the effects of brain damage on the emergence of pragmatic competence. In particular, the paper deals with direct speech acts, indirect speech acts, irony, and deceit in children with head injury, closed head injury, hydrocephalus, focal brain damage, and autism. Since no single theory covers systematically the emergence of pragmatic capacity in normal children, it is not surprising that we have not found a systematic account of deficits in the communicative performance of brain injured children. In our view, the challenge for a pragmatic theory is the determination of the normal developmental pattern within which different pragmatic phenomena may find a precise role. Such a framework of normal behavior would then permit the systematic study of abnormal pragmatic development. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  14. Vaginal Discharge: What's Normal, What's Not

    MedlinePlus

    ... amount of vaginal fluids to vary throughout a girl's menstrual cycle , some changes in discharge may indicate a problem. First, it helps to learn some of the differences between normal and abnormal ...

  15. Ultrasound, color - normal umbilical cord (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... is a normal color Doppler ultrasound of the umbilical cord performed at 30 weeks gestation. The cord is ... the cord, two arteries and one vein. The umbilical cord is connected to the placenta, located in the ...

  16. Actinic damage in histopathologically normal skin.

    PubMed

    Bartels, Peter H; Krouse, Robert S; Prasad, Anil R; Yozwiak, Michael; Liu, Yun; Bartels, Hubert G; Alberts, David S

    2008-12-01

    To establish measures of sun damage in histopathologically normal skin. Biopsies were taken from the upper inner arm, representing skin with presumably minimum sun exposure, from skin of the forearm with no visible sun damage, from skin of the forearm with visible sun damage and from normal-appearing skin from the forearm of individuals who had sun exposure that had resulted in actinic keratosis (AK) lesions. In addition, a data set of nuclei from AKs was recorded. In histopathologically normal skin, monotonically increasing damage was observed in individuals with increased exposure to solar radiation. Karyometry can detect and statistically secure changes in skin due to solar exposure at a stage at which the skin is histopathologically determined to be normal.

  17. Real fluid properties of normal and parahydrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, F. N.; Haferd, A. M.

    1968-01-01

    Computer program calculates the real fluid properties of normal or parahydrogen using a library of single function calls without initial estimates. Accurate transport and thermodynamic properties of molecular hydrogen are needed for advanced propulsion systems.

  18. Normalizing records data for relational databases

    SciTech Connect

    Seesing, P.R.

    1991-09-01

    When relational database management systems (RDBMS) replace traditionally programmed computer systems, managers and users are often confronted with a barrage of strange terminology and concepts. It is the intent of this paper (and workshop) to demystify some of the ideals surrounding RDBMS technology. After all, these systems were marketed to the computer community as tools for end-user'' development of computer applications. This paper describes how to manipulate RDBMS structures to create concise, linkable tables of unique facts, events, or concepts via a process called normalization. The three primary rules of normalization are covered in considerable detail. Additional rules of normalization are also briefly presented because they are sometimes necessary for certain groupings of information. Some of the more technical details of the process of normalization have been simplified or excluded in order to provide the essential concepts to a wide audience. 7 refs., 1 figs.

  19. Normalizing records data for relational databases

    SciTech Connect

    Seesing, P.R.

    1991-09-01

    When relational database management systems (RDBMS) replace traditionally programmed computer systems, managers and users are often confronted with a barrage of strange terminology and concepts. It is the intent of this paper (and workshop) to demystify some of the ideals surrounding RDBMS technology. After all, these systems were marketed to the computer community as tools for ``end-user`` development of computer applications. This paper describes how to manipulate RDBMS structures to create concise, linkable tables of unique facts, events, or concepts via a process called normalization. The three primary rules of normalization are covered in considerable detail. Additional rules of normalization are also briefly presented because they are sometimes necessary for certain groupings of information. Some of the more technical details of the process of normalization have been simplified or excluded in order to provide the essential concepts to a wide audience. 7 refs., 1 figs.

  20. Stimulus Generalization in Autistic and Normal Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fein, Deborah; And Others

    1979-01-01

    A comparative assessment of eight normal and eight psychotic children in a stimulus generalization paradigm using simple and complex figures. Six of the subjects fulfilled the criteria for infantile autism. (CM)

  1. Divisive normalization in olfactory population codes

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, Shawn R; Bhandawat, Vikas; Wilson, Rachel Irene

    2010-01-01

    In many regions of the visual system, the activity of a neuron is normalized by the activity of other neurons in the same region. Here we show that a similar normalization occurs during olfactory processing in the Drosophila antennal lobe. We exploit the orderly anatomy of this circuit to independently manipulate feedforward and lateral input to second-order projection neurons (PNs). Lateral inhibition increases the level of feedforward input needed to drive PNs to saturation, and this normalization scales with the total activity of the olfactory receptor neuron (ORN) population. Increasing total ORN activity also makes PN responses more transient. Strikingly, a model with just two variables (feedforward and total ORN activity) accurately predicts PN odor responses. Finally, we show that discrimination by a linear decoder is facilitated by two complementary transformations: the saturating transformation intrinsic to each processing channel boosts weak signals, while normalization helps equalize responses to different stimuli. PMID:20435004

  2. [Normal and abnormal meningeal enhancement: MRI features].

    PubMed

    Dietemann, J L; Correia Bernardo, R; Bogorin, A; Abu Eid, M; Koob, M; Nogueira, Th; Vargas, M I; Fakhoury, W; Zöllner, G

    2005-11-01

    The authors describe normal imaging of the meninges and meningeal spaces and MR (magnetic resonance) imaging findings in tumoral and nontumoral diseases. Dural or/and pial enhancement may be related to tumoral, infectious or granulomatous diseases.

  3. Oxford shoulder score in a normal population

    PubMed Central

    Clement, Nicholas David; Court-Brown, Charles M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The function of the asymptomatic normal shoulder may differ according to gender and could also deteriorate with age. This may result in a disparity in the normal Oxford shoulder score (OSS) according to these variables. If a difference were to exist an adjusted OSS, for age and gender, could be calculated from the raw score using the expected normal score. Aim: The aim of this study was to define a normal OSS in an asymptomatic population according to age and gender. Materials and Methods: During the study period 202 patients aged from 20 years to 99 years with subjectively asymptomatic shoulders completed an OSS. These patients presented to the study center during a 1 week period for management of disorders out with their shoulder girdle. Patients with a known prior shoulder pathology, injury, or polyarthropathy were excluded. Results: The mean OSS varied according age and gender. There was a significant correlation between age and the OSS, with an increasing score (worse) being associated with older age (r = 0.62, P < 0.0001). The mean OSS for females was 18.8 (12-42, SD 5.4) and for males was 16.3 (12-30, SD 4.5), this difference was significant (P = 0.0001). We propose that a normalized OSS could be calculated as a percentage by the using the expected normal for that patient's age and gender as demonstrated in this study ((raw score/normal score) × 100). Conclusion: Our study provides normal data for an urban population presenting to orthopedic services and allows for a relative OSS to be calculated from the raw score. PMID:24926158

  4. Progeria, rapamycin and normal aging: recent breakthrough.

    PubMed

    Blagosklonny, Mikhail V

    2011-07-01

    A recent discovery that rapamycin suppresses a pro-senescent phenotype in progeric cells not only suggests a non-toxic therapy for progeria but also implies its similarity with normal aging. For one, rapamycin is also known to suppress aging of regular human cells. Here I discuss four potential scenarios, comparing progeria with both normal and accelerated aging. This reveals further indications of rapamycin both for accelerated aging in obese and for progeria.

  5. Trends in normalized US hurricane damages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grinsted, Aslak; Ditlevsen, Peter; Madsen, Bo

    2015-04-01

    The lack of linear trend in hurricane damages after normalization have often been used to argue that observed loss trends can be explained entirely by socioeconomic factors. However, the loss data have an extremely skewed distribution, and least squares fitting is simply an inappropriate tool. Here we analyze normalized hurricane damage estimates and find a strong climatic trend in the data. The sensitivity implies that expected annual damages double for a one degree warming in the region.

  6. Normal conus medullaris: CT criteria for recognition

    SciTech Connect

    Grogan, J.P.; Daniels, D.L.; Williams, I.L.; Rauschning, W.; Haughton, V.M.

    1984-06-01

    The normal CT configuration and dimension of the conus medullaris and adjacent spinal cord were determined in 30 patients who had no clinical evidence of conus compression. CT studies were also correlated with anatomic sections in cadavers. The normal conus on CT has a distinctive oval configuration, an arterior sulcus, and a posterior promontory. The anteroposterior diameter ranged from 5 to 8 mm; the transverse diameter from 8 to 11 mm. Intramedullary processes altered both the dimensions and configuration of the conus.

  7. New normal limits for the paediatric electrocardiogram.

    PubMed

    Rijnbeek, P R; Witsenburg, M; Schrama, E; Hess, J; Kors, J A

    2001-04-01

    Previous studies that determined the normal limits for the paediatric ECG had their imperfections: ECGs were recorded at a relatively low sampling rate, ECG measurements were conducted manually, or normal limits were presented for only a limited set of parameters. The aim of this study was to establish an up-to-date and complete set of clinically relevant normal limits for the paediatric ECG. ECGs from 1912 healthy Dutch children (age 11 days to 16 years) were recorded at a sampling rate of 1200 Hz. The digitally stored ECGs were analysed using a well-validated ECG computer program. The normal limits of all clinically relevant ECG measurements were determined for nine age groups. Clinically significant differences were shown to exist, compared with previously established normal limits. Sex differences could be demonstrated for QRS duration and several amplitude measurements. These new normal limits differ substantially from those commonly used and suggest that diagnostic criteria for the paediatric ECG should be adjusted. Copyright 2001 The European Society of Cardiology.

  8. Cortical Thinning in Network-Associated Regions in Cognitively Normal and Below-Normal Range Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Pinnock, Farena; Parlar, Melissa; Hawco, Colin; Hanford, Lindsay; Hall, Geoffrey B.

    2017-01-01

    This study assessed whether cortical thickness across the brain and regionally in terms of the default mode, salience, and central executive networks differentiates schizophrenia patients and healthy controls with normal range or below-normal range cognitive performance. Cognitive normality was defined using the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB) composite score (T = 50 ± 10) and structural magnetic resonance imaging was used to generate cortical thickness data. Whole brain analysis revealed that cognitively normal range controls (n = 39) had greater cortical thickness than both cognitively normal (n = 17) and below-normal range (n = 49) patients. Cognitively normal controls also demonstrated greater thickness than patients in regions associated with the default mode and salience, but not central executive networks. No differences on any thickness measure were found between cognitively normal range and below-normal range controls (n = 24) or between cognitively normal and below-normal range patients. In addition, structural covariance between network regions was high and similar across subgroups. Positive and negative symptom severity did not correlate with thickness values. Cortical thinning across the brain and regionally in relation to the default and salience networks may index shared aspects of the psychotic psychopathology that defines schizophrenia with no relation to cognitive impairment. PMID:28348889

  9. Economic values under inappropriate normal distribution assumptions.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi-Sefidmazgi, A; Nejati-Javaremi, A; Moradi-Shahrbabak, M; Miraei-Ashtiani, S R; Amer, P R

    2012-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to quantify the errors in economic values (EVs) for traits affected by cost or price thresholds when skewed or kurtotic distributions of varying degree are assumed to be normal and when data with a normal distribution is subject to censoring. EVs were estimated for a continuous trait with dichotomous economic implications because of a price premium or penalty arising from a threshold ranging between -4 and 4 standard deviations from the mean. In order to evaluate the impacts of skewness, positive and negative excess kurtosis, standard skew normal, Pearson and the raised cosine distributions were used, respectively. For the various evaluable levels of skewness and kurtosis, the results showed that EVs can be underestimated or overestimated by more than 100% when price determining thresholds fall within a range from the mean that might be expected in practice. Estimates of EVs were very sensitive to censoring or missing data. In contrast to practical genetic evaluation, economic evaluation is very sensitive to lack of normality and missing data. Although in some special situations, the presence of multiple thresholds may attenuate the combined effect of errors at each threshold point, in practical situations there is a tendency for a few key thresholds to dominate the EV, and there are many situations where errors could be compounded across multiple thresholds. In the development of breeding objectives for non-normal continuous traits influenced by value thresholds, it is necessary to select a transformation that will resolve problems of non-normality or consider alternative methods that are less sensitive to non-normality.

  10. [Normal aging of frontal lobe functions].

    PubMed

    Calso, Cristina; Besnard, Jérémy; Allain, Philippe

    2016-03-01

    Normal aging in individuals is often associated with morphological, metabolic and cognitive changes, which particularly concern the cerebral frontal regions. Starting from the "frontal lobe hypothesis of cognitive aging" (West, 1996), the present review is based on the neuroanatomical model developed by Stuss (2008), introducing four categories of frontal lobe functions: executive control, behavioural and emotional self-regulation and decision-making, energization and meta-cognitive functions. The selected studies only address the changes of one at least of these functions. The results suggest a deterioration of several cognitive frontal abilities in normal aging: flexibility, inhibition, planning, verbal fluency, implicit decision-making, second-order and affective theory of mind. Normal aging seems also to be characterised by a general reduction in processing speed observed during neuropsychological assessment (Salthouse, 1996). Nevertheless many cognitive functions remain preserved such as automatic or non-conscious inhibition, specific capacities of flexibility and first-order theory of mind. Therefore normal aging doesn't seem to be associated with a global cognitive decline but rather with a selective change in some frontal systems, conclusion which should be taken into account for designing caring programs in normal aging.

  11. Motion analysis of normal patellar tendon reflex.

    PubMed

    Tham, Lai Kuan; Abu Osman, Noor Azuan; Wan Abas, Wan Abu Bakar; Lim, Kheng Seang

    2013-11-01

    Reflex assessment, an essential element in the investigation of the motor system, is currently assessed through qualitative description, which lacks of normal values in the healthy population. This study quantified the amplitude and latency of patellar tendon reflex in normal subjects using motion analysis to determine the factors affecting the reflex amplitude. 100 healthy volunteers were recruited for patellar tendon reflex assessments which were recorded using a motion analysis system. Different levels of input strength were exerted during the experiments. A linear relationship was found between reflex input and reflex amplitude (r = 0.50, P <0.001). The left knee was found to exhibit 26.3% higher reflex amplitude than the right (P <0.001). The Jendrassik manoeuvre significantly increased reflex amplitude by 34.3% (P = 0.001); the effect was especially prominent in subjects with weak reflex response. Reflex latency normality data were established, which showed a gradual reduction with increasing input strength. The quantitative normality data and findings showed that the present method has great potential to objectively quantify deep tendon reflexes. Analyse du mouvement du réflexe rotulien normal.

  12. Detrusor pressure rise in a normal bladder.

    PubMed

    Wahl, Edward F; Churchill, Bernard M

    2004-10-01

    To determine the detrusor pressure rise of a normal bladder (P(cap,NL)) when filled to capacity. Twenty-four patients with an apparently normal bladder, i.e. with symptoms but whose cystometrogram (CMG) showed no pathology of any kind and a near-normal pressure vs volume plot, were selected from 218 clinical CMGs. A straight line was fitted to the PV plot of these CMGs and then the P(cap,NL) calculated, e.g. by a straight line extending to the point of the normal expected cystometric bladder capacity (V(cap.NL)). Published data relative to P(cap,NL) were evaluated and compared with the values obtained. The mean (range) P(cap,NL) was 6 (4.5-7) cmH2O for patients with apparently normal bladders infused at the maximum physiological diuresis (MPD). This value was substantiated by three other studies of published values. The P(cap,NL) was 6 cmH2O at infusion rates of 10% of glomerular filtration rate (GFR), 10 cmH2O at 20% of GFR and 7-15 cmH2O for 3-10 times the infusion rate of 10% of GFR. P(cap,NL) is independent of age, size and sex and, at constant infusion rates of approximately MPD, will be 6. For infusion rates up to 35 mL/min, it is in the range of 6-15 cmH2O.

  13. Nonuniform speaker normalization using affine transformation.

    PubMed

    Bharath Kumar, S V; Umesh, S

    2008-09-01

    In this paper, a well-motivated nonuniform speaker normalization model that affinely relates the formant frequencies of speakers enunciating the same sound is proposed. Using the proposed affine model, the corresponding universal-warping function that is required for normalization is shown to have the same parametric form as the mel scale formula. The parameters of this universal-warping function are estimated from the vowel formant data and are shown to be close to the commonly used formula for the mel scale. This shows an interesting connection between nonuniform speaker normalization and the psychoacoustics based mel scale. In addition, the affine model fits the vowel formant data better than commonly used ad hoc normalization models. This work is motivated by a desire to improve the performance of speaker-independent speech recognition systems, where speaker normalization is conventionally done by assuming a linear-scaling relationship between spectra of speakers. The proposed affine relation is extended to describe the relationship between spectra of speakers enunciating the same sound. On a telephone-based connected digit recognition task, the proposed model provides improved recognition performance over the linear-scaling model.

  14. Normal people working in normal organizations with normal equipment: system safety and cognition in a mid-air collision.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, Paulo Victor Rodrigues; Gomes, José Orlando; Huber, Gilbert Jacob; Vidal, Mario Cesar

    2009-05-01

    A fundamental challenge in improving the safety of complex systems is to understand how accidents emerge in normal working situations, with equipment functioning normally in normally structured organizations. We present a field study of the en route mid-air collision between a commercial carrier and an executive jet, in the clear afternoon Amazon sky in which 154 people lost their lives, that illustrates one response to this challenge. Our focus was on how and why the several safety barriers of a well structured air traffic system melted down enabling the occurrence of this tragedy, without any catastrophic component failure, and in a situation where everything was functioning normally. We identify strong consistencies and feedbacks regarding factors of system day-to-day functioning that made monitoring and awareness difficult, and the cognitive strategies that operators have developed to deal with overall system behavior. These findings emphasize the active problem-solving behavior needed in air traffic control work, and highlight how the day-to-day functioning of the system can jeopardize such behavior. An immediate consequence is that safety managers and engineers should review their traditional safety approach and accident models based on equipment failure probability, linear combinations of failures, rules and procedures, and human errors, to deal with complex patterns of coincidence possibilities, unexpected links, resonance among system functions and activities, and system cognition.

  15. Normal modes of a small gamelan gong.

    PubMed

    Perrin, Robert; Elford, Daniel P; Chalmers, Luke; Swallowe, Gerry M; Moore, Thomas R; Hamdan, Sinin; Halkon, Benjamin J

    2014-10-01

    Studies have been made of the normal modes of a 20.7 cm diameter steel gamelan gong. A finite-element model has been constructed and its predictions for normal modes compared with experimental results obtained using electronic speckle pattern interferometry. Agreement was reasonable in view of the lack of precision in the manufacture of the instrument. The results agree with expectations for an axially symmetric system subject to small symmetry breaking. The extent to which the results obey Chladni's law is discussed. Comparison with vibrational and acoustical spectra enabled the identification of the small number of modes responsible for the sound output when played normally. Evidence of non-linear behavior was found, mainly in the form of subharmonics of true modes. Experiments using scanning laser Doppler vibrometry gave satisfactory agreement with the other methods.

  16. Normal keratinized mucosa transplants in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Holmstrup, P; Dabelsteen, E; Reibel, J; Harder, F

    1981-01-01

    Two types of normal keratinized mucosa were transplanted to subcutaneous sites of nude mice of two different strains. 24 intact specimens of clinically normal human palatal mucosa were transplanted to nude mice of the strain nu/nu NC. The transplants were recovered after 42 d with a recovery rate of 96%. Moreover, 22 intact specimens of normal rat forestomach mucosa were transplanted to nude mice of the strain nu/nu BALB/c/BOM. These transplants were recovered after 21 d with a recovery rate of 63%. The histologic features of the transplants were essentially the same as those of the original tissues. However, epithelial outgrowths from the transplants differed with respect to the pattern of keratinization. The outgrowths of human palatal mucosa transplants were essentially unkeratinized, while the outgrowths of the rat forestomach transplants showed continued keratinization.

  17. Masturbation, sexuality, and adaptation: normalization in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Theodore

    2008-03-01

    During adolescence the central masturbation fantasy that is formulated during childhood takes its final form and paradoxically must now be directed outward for appropriate object finding and pair matching in the service of procreative aims. This is a step in adaptation that requires a further developmental landmark that I have called normalization. The path toward airing these private fantasies is facilitated by chumship relationships as a step toward further exposure to the social surround. Hartmann's structuring application of adaptation within psychoanalysis is used as a framework for understanding the process that simultaneously serves intrapsychic and social demands and permits goals that follow evolutionary principles. Variations in the normalization process from masturbatory isolation to a variety of forms of sexual socialization are examined in sociological data concerning current adolescent sexual behavior and in case examples that indicate some routes to normalized experience and practice.

  18. Constructing Involutive Tableaux with Guillemin Normal Form

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Abraham D.

    2015-07-01

    Involutivity is the algebraic property that guarantees solutions to an analytic and torsion-free exterior differential system or partial differential equation via the Cartan-Kähler theorem. Guillemin normal form establishes that the prolonged symbol of an involutive system admits a commutativity property on certain subspaces of the prolonged tableau. This article examines Guillemin normal form in detail, aiming at a more systematic approach to classifying involutive systems. The main result is an explicit quadratic condition for involutivity of the type suggested but not completed in Chapter IV, § 5 of the book Exterior Differential Systems by Bryant, Chern, Gardner, Goldschmidt, and Griffiths. This condition enhances Guillemin normal form and characterizes involutive tableaux.

  19. Immunohistochemical characteristics of normal canine eyes.

    PubMed

    Labelle, P; Reilly, C M; Naydan, D K; Labelle, A L

    2012-09-01

    Immunohistochemistry is widely utilized in diagnostic laboratories to study neoplastic and nonneoplastic diseases. Knowledge of the immunohistochemical characteristics of normal tissue is essential for interpretation of immunoreactivity in pathologic conditions. In this study, immunohistochemistry was performed with a broad panel of diagnostically relevant antibodies on 4 normal canine globes--namely, vimentin, pan-cytokeratin (AE1/AE3), cytokeratin 7, cytokeratin 8/18, cytokeratin 20, α-smooth muscle actin, muscle specific actin, desmin, Melan-A, microphthalmia transcription factor, S-100, glial fibrillary acidic protein, triple neurofilaments, neuron-specific enolase, chromogranin A, synaptophysin, laminin and CD31. Results include cytokeratin immunoreactivity limited to the conjunctival epithelium, corneal epithelium, and retinal pigment epithelium; distinct patterns of immunopositivity of muscle markers; and widespread immunoreactivity for vimentin and most neural/neuroendocrine markers. These findings in normal eyes provide the basis for interpretation of ocular immunohistochemistry in dogs. Published immunophenotypes of primary ocular neoplasms are also reviewed.

  20. Porosity Governs Normal Stresses in Polymer Gels.

    PubMed

    de Cagny, Henri C G; Vos, Bart E; Vahabi, Mahsa; Kurniawan, Nicholas A; Doi, Masao; Koenderink, Gijsje H; MacKintosh, F C; Bonn, Daniel

    2016-11-18

    When sheared, most elastic solids including metals, rubbers, and polymer gels dilate perpendicularly to the shear plane. This behavior, known as the Poynting effect, is characterized by a positive normal stress. Surprisingly, fibrous biopolymer gels exhibit a negative normal stress under shear. Here we show that this anomalous behavior originates from the open-network structure of biopolymer gels. Using fibrin networks with a controllable pore size as a model system, we show that the normal-stress response to an applied shear is positive at short times, but decreases to negative values with a characteristic time scale set by pore size. Using a two-fluid model, we develop a quantitative theory that unifies the opposite behaviors encountered in synthetic and biopolymer gels.

  1. Porosity Governs Normal Stresses in Polymer Gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Cagny, Henri C. G.; Vos, Bart E.; Vahabi, Mahsa; Kurniawan, Nicholas A.; Doi, Masao; Koenderink, Gijsje H.; MacKintosh, F. C.; Bonn, Daniel

    2016-11-01

    When sheared, most elastic solids including metals, rubbers, and polymer gels dilate perpendicularly to the shear plane. This behavior, known as the Poynting effect, is characterized by a positive normal stress. Surprisingly, fibrous biopolymer gels exhibit a negative normal stress under shear. Here we show that this anomalous behavior originates from the open-network structure of biopolymer gels. Using fibrin networks with a controllable pore size as a model system, we show that the normal-stress response to an applied shear is positive at short times, but decreases to negative values with a characteristic time scale set by pore size. Using a two-fluid model, we develop a quantitative theory that unifies the opposite behaviors encountered in synthetic and biopolymer gels.

  2. NEUROINFLAMMATION IN THE NORMAL AGING HIPPOCAMPUS

    PubMed Central

    BARRIENTOS, R. M.; KITT, M. M.; WATKINS, L. R.; MAIER, S. F.

    2015-01-01

    A consequence of normal aging is a greater susceptibility to memory impairments following an immune challenge such as infection, surgery, or traumatic brain injury. The neuroinflammatory response, produced by these challenges results in increased and prolonged production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the otherwise healthy aged brain. Here we discuss the mechanisms by which long-lasting elevations in pro-inflammatory cytokines in the hippocampus produce memory impairments. Sensitized microglia are a primary source of this exaggerated neuroinflammatory response and appear to be a hallmark of the normal aging brain. We review the current understanding of the causes and effects of normal aging-induced microglial sensitization, including dysregulations of the neuroendocrine system, potentiation of neuroinflammatory responses following an immune challenge, and the impairment of memories. We end with a discussion of therapeutic approaches to prevent these deleterious effects. PMID:25772789

  3. [Normal bone marrow and common reactive alterations].

    PubMed

    Tzankov, A; Dirnhofer, S; Beham-Schmid, C

    2012-11-01

    Histological examination of bone marrow biopsies is an important and powerful diagnostic tool to assess various hematological and non-hematological disorders. Morphological examination of such biopsies requires knowledge of the composition of normal bone marrow and its variations, such as age-related changes. Diagnostic problems may arise due to poor specimen quality, insufficient sections or stainings and insufficient experience with reactive bone marrow changes which occasionally resemble neoplastic disorders. Reactive bone marrow processes can affect one or more hematopoietic cell lines, lead to disruption of the normal architecture and specifically affect the bone marrow stroma. Optimal bone marrow diagnosis requires adequately stained slides and, when needed, immunophenotyping and molecular examinations. Furthermore, rather than biopsy interpretation of other organs, pathologists routinely need clinical history information for correct interpretation and diagnosis of bone marrow changes. In this article, the normal features of bone marrow as well as the most frequent reactive bone marrow alterations are described.

  4. Metabolomics data normalization with EigenMS.

    PubMed

    Karpievitch, Yuliya V; Nikolic, Sonja B; Wilson, Richard; Sharman, James E; Edwards, Lindsay M

    2014-01-01

    Liquid chromatography mass spectrometry has become one of the analytical platforms of choice for metabolomics studies. However, LC-MS metabolomics data can suffer from the effects of various systematic biases. These include batch effects, day-to-day variations in instrument performance, signal intensity loss due to time-dependent effects of the LC column performance, accumulation of contaminants in the MS ion source and MS sensitivity among others. In this study we aimed to test a singular value decomposition-based method, called EigenMS, for normalization of metabolomics data. We analyzed a clinical human dataset where LC-MS serum metabolomics data and physiological measurements were collected from thirty nine healthy subjects and forty with type 2 diabetes and applied EigenMS to detect and correct for any systematic bias. EigenMS works in several stages. First, EigenMS preserves the treatment group differences in the metabolomics data by estimating treatment effects with an ANOVA model (multiple fixed effects can be estimated). Singular value decomposition of the residuals matrix is then used to determine bias trends in the data. The number of bias trends is then estimated via a permutation test and the effects of the bias trends are eliminated. EigenMS removed bias of unknown complexity from the LC-MS metabolomics data, allowing for increased sensitivity in differential analysis. Moreover, normalized samples better correlated with both other normalized samples and corresponding physiological data, such as blood glucose level, glycated haemoglobin, exercise central augmentation pressure normalized to heart rate of 75, and total cholesterol. We were able to report 2578 discriminatory metabolite peaks in the normalized data (p<0.05) as compared to only 1840 metabolite signals in the raw data. Our results support the use of singular value decomposition-based normalization for metabolomics data.

  5. New approach for anti-normally and normally ordering bosonic-operator functions in quantum optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Shi-Min; Zhang, Yun-Hai; Xu, Xing-Lei; Li, Hong-Qi; Wang, Ji-Suo

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, we provide a new kind of operator formula for anti-normally and normally ordering bosonic-operator functions in quantum optics, which can help us arrange a bosonic-operator function f(λQ̂ + νP̂) in its anti-normal and normal ordering conveniently. Furthermore, mutual transformation formulas between anti-normal ordering and normal ordering, which have good universality, are derived too. Based on these operator formulas, some new differential relations and some useful mathematical integral formulas are easily derived without really performing these integrations. Project supported by the Natural Science Foundation of Shandong Province, China (Grant No. ZR2015AM025) and the Natural Science Foundation of Heze University, China (Grant No. XY14PY02).

  6. Ultraviolet Spectra of Normal Spiral Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinney, Anne

    1997-01-01

    The data related to this grant on the Ultraviolet Spectra of Normal Spiral Galaxies have been entirely reduced and analyzed. It is incorporated into templates of Spiral galaxies used in the calculation of K corrections towards the understanding of high redshift galaxies. The main paper was published in the Astrophysical Journal, August 1996, Volume 467, page 38. The data was also used in another publication, The Spectral Energy Distribution of Normal Starburst and Active Galaxies, June 1997, preprint series No. 1158. Copies of both have been attached.

  7. Normal and abnormal human vestibular ocular function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterka, R. J.; Black, F. O.

    1986-01-01

    The major motivation of this research is to understand the role the vestibular system plays in sensorimotor interactions which result in spatial disorientation and motion sickness. A second goal was to explore the range of abnormality as it is reflected in quantitative measures of vestibular reflex responses. The results of a study of vestibular reflex measurements in normal subjects and preliminary results in abnormal subjects are presented in this report. Statistical methods were used to define the range of normal responses, and determine age related changes in function.

  8. Computing Instantaneous Frequency by normalizing Hilbert Transform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Norden E. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    This invention presents Normalized Amplitude Hilbert Transform (NAHT) and Normalized Hilbert Transform(NHT), both of which are new methods for computing Instantaneous Frequency. This method is designed specifically to circumvent the limitation set by the Bedorsian and Nuttal Theorems, and to provide a sharp local measure of error when the quadrature and the Hilbert Transform do not agree. Motivation for this method is that straightforward application of the Hilbert Transform followed by taking the derivative of the phase-angle as the Instantaneous Frequency (IF) leads to a common mistake made up to this date. In order to make the Hilbert Transform method work, the data has to obey certain restrictions.

  9. Evaluation of CT-based SUV normalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devriese, Joke; Beels, Laurence; Maes, Alex; Van de Wiele, Christophe; Pottel, Hans

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine patients’ lean body mass (LBM) and lean tissue (LT) mass using a computed tomography (CT)-based method, and to compare standardized uptake value (SUV) normalized by these parameters to conventionally normalized SUVs. Head-to-toe positron emission tomography (PET)/CT examinations were retrospectively retrieved and semi-automatically segmented into tissue types based on thresholding of CT Hounsfield units (HU). The following HU ranges were used for determination of CT-estimated LBM and LT (LBMCT and LTCT):  -180 to  -7 for adipose tissue (AT), -6 to 142 for LT, and 143 to 3010 for bone tissue (BT). Formula-estimated LBMs were calculated using formulas of James (1976 Research on Obesity: a Report of the DHSS/MRC Group (London: HMSO)) and Janmahasatian et al (2005 Clin. Pharmacokinet. 44 1051-65), and body surface area (BSA) was calculated using the DuBois formula (Dubois and Dubois 1989 Nutrition 5 303-11). The CT segmentation method was validated by comparing total patient body weight (BW) to CT-estimated BW (BWCT). LBMCT was compared to formula-based estimates (LBMJames and LBMJanma). SUVs in two healthy reference tissues, liver and mediastinum, were normalized for the aforementioned parameters and compared to each other in terms of variability and dependence on normalization factors and BW. Comparison of actual BW to BWCT shows a non-significant difference of 0.8 kg. LBMJames estimates are significantly higher than LBMJanma with differences of 4.7 kg for female and 1.0 kg for male patients. Formula-based LBM estimates do not significantly differ from LBMCT, neither for men nor for women. The coefficient of variation (CV) of SUV normalized for LBMJames (SUVLBM-James) (12.3%) was significantly reduced in liver compared to SUVBW (15.4%). All SUV variances in mediastinum were significantly reduced (CVs were 11.1-12.2%) compared to SUVBW (15.5%), except SUVBSA (15.2%). Only SUVBW and SUVLBM-James show

  10. [Normal confidence interval for a summary measure].

    PubMed

    Bernard, P M

    2000-10-01

    This paper proposes an approach for calculating the normal confidence interval of a weighted summary measure which requires a particular continuous transformation for its variance estimation. By using the transformation properties and applying the delta method, the variance of transformed measure is easily expressed in terms of the transformed specific measure variances and the squared weights. The confidence limits of the summary measure are easily deduced by inverse transformation of those of transformed measure. The method is illustrated by applying it to some well known epidemiological measures. It seems appropriate for application in stratified analysis context where size allows normal approximation.

  11. Computing Instantaneous Frequency by normalizing Hilbert Transform

    DOEpatents

    Huang, Norden E.

    2005-05-31

    This invention presents Normalized Amplitude Hilbert Transform (NAHT) and Normalized Hilbert Transform(NHT), both of which are new methods for computing Instantaneous Frequency. This method is designed specifically to circumvent the limitation set by the Bedorsian and Nuttal Theorems, and to provide a sharp local measure of error when the quadrature and the Hilbert Transform do not agree. Motivation for this method is that straightforward application of the Hilbert Transform followed by taking the derivative of the phase-angle as the Instantaneous Frequency (IF) leads to a common mistake made up to this date. In order to make the Hilbert Transform method work, the data has to obey certain restrictions.

  12. The normalization of deviance in healthcare delivery

    PubMed Central

    Banja, John

    2009-01-01

    Many serious medical errors result from violations of recognized standards of practice. Over time, even egregious violations of standards of practice may become “normalized” in healthcare delivery systems. This article describes what leads to this normalization and explains why flagrant practice deviations can persist for years, despite the importance of the standards at issue. This article also provides recommendations to aid healthcare organizations in identifying and managing unsafe practice deviations before they become normalized and pose genuine risks to patient safety, quality care, and employee morale. PMID:20161685

  13. Dirac operator normality and chiral properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerler, W.

    Normality and γ5-hermiticity are what gives rise to chiral properties and rules. The Ginsparg-Wilson (GW) relation is only one of the possible spectral constraints. The sum rule for chiral differences of real modes has important consequences. The alternative transformation of Lüscher gives the same Ward identity as the usual chiral one (if zero modes are properly treated). Imposing normality on a general function of the hermitean Wilson-Dirac operator H leads at same time to the GW relation and to the Neuberger operator.

  14. A SAS program to assess the sensitivity of normality tests on non-normal data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teh, Sin Yin; Ahad, Nor Aishah; Othman, Abdul Rahman

    2013-04-01

    In many statistical analyses, the data is usually assumed to be approximately normal or normally distributed. Unfortunately, not all data can be assumed normal in real life. To assess the normality of the data, there are four statistical tests, i.e. the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, the Anderson-Darling test, the Cramer-von Mises test, and the Shapiro-Wilk test that are extensively used by practitioners. The general purpose of this article is to provide a demonstration of Base SAS programming codes of DATA STEP, PROC UNIVARIATE, PROC MEANS and SAS functions to evaluate the performance of the above mentioned tests, under various spectrums of non-normal distributions and different sample sizes. Another important goal is to help researchers adapt these codes to perform similar analyses for other non-normal distributions or other normality tests. This is to encourage the researchers to check the sensitivity of the normality tests before they implement any test that requires assumption of normality.

  15. Normal Vulvar Histology: Variation by Site.

    PubMed

    Day, Tania; Holland, Seán M; Scurry, James

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the histology of normal vulvar skin with attention to anatomic location and epithelium type. We performed a retrospective histologic review of 118 vulvar biopsies and excisions obtained between 2010 and 2014 with adjacent normal skin or mucosa. Exclusions included age younger than 18 years, vestibulectomy, labiaplasty, inflammatory dermatoses, and insufficient normal tissue for assessment. Stratum corneum morphology was assessed as basket weave, compact, or intermediate. Stratum granulosum cell layer number and epithelial thickness were recorded. Dermal lymphocytic infiltrate was described as nil, sparse, moderate, or dense. Fischer exact test, Pearson χ, and Student t test were used for statistical analysis. There were 7 cases from mons pubis, 11 from perineum, 83 from labia, and 17 from vestibule. In the skin, the stratum corneum morphology was basket weave in 31%, compact in 35%, and intermediate in 34%. Stratum corneum at the mons pubis was uniformly basket weave, whereas at perineum, it was either compact or intermediate (7/7 vs 0/11; p < .001); the labia demonstrated all 3 morphologies. Parakeratosis (PK) was identified at the specimen edge in 4 cases of hairless skin and 7 cases of squamous mucosa. Mean epithelial thickness and dermal lymphocytic infiltration were similar in specimens with and without PK. Compact stratum corneum of vulvar skin and a zone of PK at the mucocutaneous junction may be normal histological findings. Pathologists need to be aware of site-related differences of the vulvar epithelium to avoid overdiagnosis of pathological conditions.

  16. Kernel MAD Algorithm for Relative Radiometric Normalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Yang; Tang, Ping; Hu, Changmiao

    2016-06-01

    The multivariate alteration detection (MAD) algorithm is commonly used in relative radiometric normalization. This algorithm is based on linear canonical correlation analysis (CCA) which can analyze only linear relationships among bands. Therefore, we first introduce a new version of MAD in this study based on the established method known as kernel canonical correlation analysis (KCCA). The proposed method effectively extracts the non-linear and complex relationships among variables. We then conduct relative radiometric normalization experiments on both the linear CCA and KCCA version of the MAD algorithm with the use of Landsat-8 data of Beijing, China, and Gaofen-1(GF-1) data derived from South China. Finally, we analyze the difference between the two methods. Results show that the KCCA-based MAD can be satisfactorily applied to relative radiometric normalization, this algorithm can well describe the nonlinear relationship between multi-temporal images. This work is the first attempt to apply a KCCA-based MAD algorithm to relative radiometric normalization.

  17. 7 CFR 1794.50 - Normal sequence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Normal sequence. 1794.50 Section 1794.50 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Procedure for Environmental Assessments With Scoping § 1794...

  18. Challenging the Ideology of Normal in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annamma, Subini A.; Boelé, Amy L.; Moore, Brooke A.; Klingner, Janette

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we build on Brantlinger's work to critique the binary of normal and abnormal applied in US schools that create inequities in education. Operating from a critical perspective, we draw from Critical Race Theory, Disability Studies in Education, and Cultural/Historical Activity Theory to build a conceptual framework for…

  19. Exceptional Infant. Volume 1: The Normal Infant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellmuth, Jerome, Ed.

    This book contains a collection of papers that focus on normal infant development, particularly from the standpoint of learning. Written by leading experts from a member of disciplines, these papers deal with topics such as: the examination and observation of infants, including neurological, neuropsychological, and neurobehavioral aspects;…

  20. Exceptional Infant. Volume 1: The Normal Infant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellmuth, Jerome, Ed.

    This book contains a collection of papers that focus on normal infant development, particularly from the standpoint of learning. Written by leading experts from a member of disciplines, these papers deal with topics such as: the examination and observation of infants, including neurological, neuropsychological, and neurobehavioral aspects;…

  1. Physical Development: What's Normal? What's Not?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Normal? What’s Not? Page Content Article Body ​Two boys or girls exactly the same age can start or end ... in Girls: What to Expect . Growth in both boys and girls slows considerably soon after puberty is complete. Having ...

  2. Computerized axial tomography: the normal EMI scan.

    PubMed Central

    Gawler, J; Bull, J D; Du Boulay, G H; Marshall, J

    1975-01-01

    Computerized axial tomography using the EMI scanner as a new method of using x-rays in diagnosis. The technique displays intracranial and orbital structures in the transverse plane. The appearances of normal EMI Scans are described and correlated with cerebral and orbital anatomy seen in transverse section. Images PMID:1081587

  3. 18 CFR 154.305 - Tax normalization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... an addition or reduction to rate base, any deficiency or excess attributable to prior flow-through or... of, and addition to, Rate Base. (1) The rate base of an interstate pipeline using tax normalization... addition to rate base. Include, as an addition or reduction, as appropriate, amounts in Account...

  4. Normal pressure hydrocephalus presenting as delusional disorder.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Shruti; Bhatia, Manjeet Singh; Gautam, Priyanka

    2015-01-01

    Normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) is caused by aqueductal stenosis resulting in syndrome of gait disturbance, cognitive impairment, and urinary incontinence. Late onset psychosis should be evaluated thoroughly to rule out any organic cause. We present the case of a female patient presenting with delusions, gait disturbances, urinary incontinence in her 50s.

  5. Role of the normal gut microbiota.

    PubMed

    Jandhyala, Sai Manasa; Talukdar, Rupjyoti; Subramanyam, Chivkula; Vuyyuru, Harish; Sasikala, Mitnala; Nageshwar Reddy, D

    2015-08-07

    Relation between the gut microbiota and human health is being increasingly recognised. It is now well established that a healthy gut flora is largely responsible for overall health of the host. The normal human gut microbiota comprises of two major phyla, namely Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes. Though the gut microbiota in an infant appears haphazard, it starts resembling the adult flora by the age of 3 years. Nevertheless, there exist temporal and spatial variations in the microbial distribution from esophagus to the rectum all along the individual's life span. Developments in genome sequencing technologies and bioinformatics have now enabled scientists to study these microorganisms and their function and microbe-host interactions in an elaborate manner both in health and disease. The normal gut microbiota imparts specific function in host nutrient metabolism, xenobiotic and drug metabolism, maintenance of structural integrity of the gut mucosal barrier, immunomodulation, and protection against pathogens. Several factors play a role in shaping the normal gut microbiota. They include (1) the mode of delivery (vaginal or caesarean); (2) diet during infancy (breast milk or formula feeds) and adulthood (vegan based or meat based); and (3) use of antibiotics or antibiotic like molecules that are derived from the environment or the gut commensal community. A major concern of antibiotic use is the long-term alteration of the normal healthy gut microbiota and horizontal transfer of resistance genes that could result in reservoir of organisms with a multidrug resistant gene pool.

  6. SPERMATOZOAL RNA PROFILES OF NORMAL FERTILE MEN

    EPA Science Inventory

    What Constitutes the Normal Fertile Male?

    G. Charles Ostermeier1, David J. Dix2, David Miller3, Purvesh Khatri4, and Stephen A. Krawetz1.

    1Departments of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Center for Molecular Medicine and Genetics, & Institute for Scientific Computing, Wa...

  7. Hemoglobin levels in normal Filipino pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Kuizon, M D; Natera, M G; Ancheta, L P; Platon, T P; Reyes, G D; Macapinlac, M P

    1981-09-01

    The hemoglobin concentrations during pregnancy in Filipinos belonging to the upper income group, who were prescribed 105 mg elemental iron daily, and who had acceptable levels of transferrin saturation, were examined in an attempt to define normal levels. The hemoglobin concentrations for each trimester followed a Gaussian distribution. The hemoglobin values equal to the mean minus one standard deviation were 11.4 gm/dl for the first trimester and 10.4 gm/dl for the second and third trimesters. Using these values as the lower limits of normal, in one group of pregnant women the prevalence of anemia during the last two trimesters was found lower than that obtained when WHO levels for normal were used. Groups of women with hemoglobin of 10.4 to 10.9 gm/dl (classified anemic by WHO criteria but normal in the present study) and those with 11.0 gm/dl and above could not be distinguished on the basis of their serum ferritin levels nor on the degree of decrease in their hemoglobin concentration during pregnancy. Many subjects in both groups, however, had serum ferritin levels less than 12 ng/ml which indicate poor iron stores. It might be desirable in future studies to determine the hemoglobin cut-off point that will delineate subjects who are both non-anemic and adequate in iron stores using serum ferritin levels as criterion for the latter.

  8. Survival After Early and Normal Retirement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haynes, Suzanne G.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Describes an epidemiological study of the patterns and correlates of survival after early (age 62 to 64) and normal retirement (age 65). Death rates were significantly elevated during the first, fourth, and fifth years after early retirement. Pre-retirement health status was the only significant predictor of survival after early retirement.…

  9. Visual attention and flexible normalization pools

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Odelia; Coen-Cagli, Ruben

    2013-01-01

    Attention to a spatial location or feature in a visual scene can modulate the responses of cortical neurons and affect perceptual biases in illusions. We add attention to a cortical model of spatial context based on a well-founded account of natural scene statistics. The cortical model amounts to a generalized form of divisive normalization, in which the surround is in the normalization pool of the center target only if they are considered statistically dependent. Here we propose that attention influences this computation by accentuating the neural unit activations at the attended location, and that the amount of attentional influence of the surround on the center thus depends on whether center and surround are deemed in the same normalization pool. The resulting form of model extends a recent divisive normalization model of attention (Reynolds & Heeger, 2009). We simulate cortical surround orientation experiments with attention and show that the flexible model is suitable for capturing additional data and makes nontrivial testable predictions. PMID:23345413

  10. Challenging the Ideology of Normal in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annamma, Subini A.; Boelé, Amy L.; Moore, Brooke A.; Klingner, Janette

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we build on Brantlinger's work to critique the binary of normal and abnormal applied in US schools that create inequities in education. Operating from a critical perspective, we draw from Critical Race Theory, Disability Studies in Education, and Cultural/Historical Activity Theory to build a conceptual framework for…

  11. SPERMATOZOAL RNA PROFILES OF NORMAL FERTILE MEN

    EPA Science Inventory

    What Constitutes the Normal Fertile Male?

    G. Charles Ostermeier1, David J. Dix2, David Miller3, Purvesh Khatri4, and Stephen A. Krawetz1.

    1Departments of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Center for Molecular Medicine and Genetics, & Institute for Scientific Computing, Wa...

  12. The Battle of "The Normal Heart."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rottman, Larry

    1990-01-01

    The history of the controversy over Southwest Missouri State University's production of "The Normal Heart," a play about acquired immune deficiency syndrome, is chronicled and concern is expressed about the resurgence of bitterness and hatred in the debate over academic freedom, even within the academic community. (MSE)

  13. COMS normal operation for Earth Observation mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Young-Min

    2012-09-01

    Communication Ocean Meteorological Satellite (COMS) for the hybrid mission of meteorological observation, ocean monitoring, and telecommunication service was launched onto Geostationary Earth Orbit on June 27, 2010 and it is currently under normal operation service since April 2011. The COMS is located on 128.2° East of the geostationary orbit. In order to perform the three missions, the COMS has 3 separate payloads, the meteorological imager (MI), the Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI), and the Ka-band antenna. Each payload is dedicated to one of the three missions, respectively. The MI and GOCI perform the Earth observation mission of meteorological observation and ocean monitoring, respectively. For this Earth observation mission the COMS requires daily mission commands from the satellite control ground station and daily mission is affected by the satellite control activities. For this reason daily mission planning is required. The Earth observation mission operation of COMS is described in aspects of mission operation characteristics and mission planning for the normal operation services of meteorological observation and ocean monitoring. And the first year normal operation results after the In-Orbit-Test (IOT) are investigated through statistical approach to provide the achieved COMS normal operation status for the Earth observation mission.

  14. Role of the normal gut microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Jandhyala, Sai Manasa; Talukdar, Rupjyoti; Subramanyam, Chivkula; Vuyyuru, Harish; Sasikala, Mitnala; Reddy, D Nageshwar

    2015-01-01

    Relation between the gut microbiota and human health is being increasingly recognised. It is now well established that a healthy gut flora is largely responsible for overall health of the host. The normal human gut microbiota comprises of two major phyla, namely Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes. Though the gut microbiota in an infant appears haphazard, it starts resembling the adult flora by the age of 3 years. Nevertheless, there exist temporal and spatial variations in the microbial distribution from esophagus to the rectum all along the individual’s life span. Developments in genome sequencing technologies and bioinformatics have now enabled scientists to study these microorganisms and their function and microbe-host interactions in an elaborate manner both in health and disease. The normal gut microbiota imparts specific function in host nutrient metabolism, xenobiotic and drug metabolism, maintenance of structural integrity of the gut mucosal barrier, immunomodulation, and protection against pathogens. Several factors play a role in shaping the normal gut microbiota. They include (1) the mode of delivery (vaginal or caesarean); (2) diet during infancy (breast milk or formula feeds) and adulthood (vegan based or meat based); and (3) use of antibiotics or antibiotic like molecules that are derived from the environment or the gut commensal community. A major concern of antibiotic use is the long-term alteration of the normal healthy gut microbiota and horizontal transfer of resistance genes that could result in reservoir of organisms with a multidrug resistant gene pool. PMID:26269668

  15. Bender Gestalt Performance of Normal Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacks, Patricia; Storandt, Martha

    1982-01-01

    Provides normative data on the Bender Gestalt Test (BGT) with a sample of 334 normal older adults. Showed that these older adults do not perform on the BGT in a manner that can be called brain damaged. Use of the cut-off score developed with younger persons appears appropriate. (Author)

  16. Clinical Judgments of Normal Childhood Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCoy, Sally Ann

    1976-01-01

    Decisions regarding normality of childhood behaviors are necessary when clinicians attempt to discriminate which children require psychiatric treatment. Elements affecting clinical judgments include the influence of direct observation of the child and the parents' report of the child's behavior. Results show that judgments depended almost entirely…

  17. Computing normative ranges without recruiting normal subjects.

    PubMed

    Yaar, I

    1997-12-01

    Computing normative data by recruiting normal subjects is extremely difficult. However, many who are examined in a typical clinical neurophysiology lab are normal. In this study we show how to use this abundance of referred subjects to compute normative distal latency statistics from the values themselves. If all latencies are displayed on a frequency distribution, the very left side, the shorter latencies, belong to the left side of the Gaussian "bell" of normal subjects. By curve-fitting that side one can compute the coefficients of the latter. We started with an initial range of 2.0-3.6 ms and then recursively added data points until a "goodness-of-fit" criterion maximized. We computed these coefficients from 982 median motor distal latencies, showing highly significant fit (P < 0.00001): mean at 3.76 ms and SD of 0.45 ms. The data analyzed in this study are only an example of the technique. The results are unique in that they were derived mathematically, without using normal subjects.

  18. Bender Gestalt Performance of Normal Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacks, Patricia; Storandt, Martha

    1982-01-01

    Provides normative data on the Bender Gestalt Test (BGT) with a sample of 334 normal older adults. Showed that these older adults do not perform on the BGT in a manner that can be called brain damaged. Use of the cut-off score developed with younger persons appears appropriate. (Author)

  19. Normal-Pressure Tests of Rectangular Plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramberg, Walter; Mcpherson, Albert E; Levy, Samuel

    1942-01-01

    Report presents the results of normal-pressure tests made of 56 rectangular plates with clamped edges and of 5 plates with freely supported edges. Pressure was applied and the center deflection and the permanent set at the center were measured. For some of the plates, in addition, strains and contours were measured.

  20. Communication Patterns in Normal and Disturbed Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angermeyer, Matthias C.; Hecker, Hartmut

    A study of formal communication in 30 families each with a schizophrenic son and 28 families, each with a "normal" son was conducted in Germany. By means of factor analysis four types of formal speech behavior were identified using musical terminology: "staccato," a highly fragmented flow of conversation with high turnover rate; "solo" in which…

  1. Cognitive Similarity in Normal and Schizogenic Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leibowitz, Gerald

    The basic purpose of this study was to measure cognitive similarity, and to test the hypothesis that the cognitive organization of a child (normal or schizophrenic) is more like that of his own parents than it is like that of randomly chosen, unrelated adults. Thirty-six matched family triads, half with sons hospitalized for a schizophrenic…

  2. Normal variation of radionuclide esophageal transit

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, H.A.; Wald, A.

    1985-05-01

    The authors have extended their investigation of normal esophageal transit of aqueous Tc-99m sulfur colloid to determine range and reproducibility using previously described methods. They studied 5 males and 11 females, ages 21 to 67 (mean 35), with no symptoms of esophageal disease. Eight had repeat studies after a 48 day mean interval. The rapid component mean transit time through the esophagus in the 1st swallow (MTT), residual fraction after the 1st and 4th swallows (RF(1), RF(4)), and retrograde index quantifying retrograde motion in the 1st swallow (RI) are presented for the 16 initial studies. CV/sub i/ = intersubject coefficient of variation. CV/sub r/=mean intrasubject coefficient of variation of the 8 repeat pairs. Marked skewness of the distribution to the right, as well as high inter- and intrasubject variation, are noted for RF(1) and RI. Condensed images having a spatial and a temporal dimension show related variable qualitative features. In contrast, MTT distribution is somewhat symmetrical with lower variation, and RF(4) is intermediate. The authors conclude that the normal 1st swallow is subject to sporadic variation. Though all the measured indices may have diagnostic utility, certain of those having a lesser degree of normal variation, notably the residual fractions of swallows beyond the 1st, may discriminate better between normal and abnormal than do RF(1) and RI.

  3. Normal brain ageing: models and mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Toescu, Emil C

    2005-01-01

    Normal ageing is associated with a degree of decline in a number of cognitive functions. Apart from the issues raised by the current attempts to expand the lifespan, understanding the mechanisms and the detailed metabolic interactions involved in the process of normal neuronal ageing continues to be a challenge. One model, supported by a significant amount of experimental evidence, views the cellular ageing as a metabolic state characterized by an altered function of the metabolic triad: mitochondria–reactive oxygen species (ROS)–intracellular Ca2+. The perturbation in the relationship between the members of this metabolic triad generate a state of decreased homeostatic reserve, in which the aged neurons could maintain adequate function during normal activity, as demonstrated by the fact that normal ageing is not associated with widespread neuronal loss, but become increasingly vulnerable to the effects of excessive metabolic loads, usually associated with trauma, ischaemia or neurodegenerative processes. This review will concentrate on some of the evidence showing altered mitochondrial function with ageing and also discuss some of the functional consequences that would result from such events, such as alterations in mitochondrial Ca2+ homeostasis, ATP production and generation of ROS. PMID:16321805

  4. 7 CFR 1794.50 - Normal sequence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Normal sequence. 1794.50 Section 1794.50 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Procedure for Environmental Assessments With Scoping § 1794...

  5. 7 CFR 1794.50 - Normal sequence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Normal sequence. 1794.50 Section 1794.50 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Procedure for Environmental Assessments With Scoping § 1794...

  6. 7 CFR 1794.50 - Normal sequence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Normal sequence. 1794.50 Section 1794.50 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Procedure for Environmental Assessments With Scoping § 1794...

  7. 7 CFR 1794.50 - Normal sequence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Normal sequence. 1794.50 Section 1794.50 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Procedure for Environmental Assessments With Scoping § 1794...

  8. Normal pressure hydrocephalus presenting as delusional disorder

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Shruti; Bhatia, Manjeet Singh; Gautam, Priyanka

    2015-01-01

    Normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) is caused by aqueductal stenosis resulting in syndrome of gait disturbance, cognitive impairment, and urinary incontinence. Late onset psychosis should be evaluated thoroughly to rule out any organic cause. We present the case of a female patient presenting with delusions, gait disturbances, urinary incontinence in her 50s. PMID:26257493

  9. Accounting for the Benefits of Database Normalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Ting J.; Du, Hui; Lehmann, Constance M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes a teaching approach to reinforce accounting students' understanding of the concept of database normalization. Unlike a conceptual approach shown in most of the AIS textbooks, this approach involves with calculations and reconciliations with which accounting students are familiar because the methods are frequently used in…

  10. Quaternion normalization in spacecraft attitude determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deutschmann, J.; Markley, F. L.; Bar-Itzhack, Itzhack Y.

    1993-01-01

    Attitude determination of spacecraft usually utilizes vector measurements such as Sun, center of Earth, star, and magnetic field direction to update the quaternion which determines the spacecraft orientation with respect to some reference coordinates in the three dimensional space. These measurements are usually processed by an extended Kalman filter (EKF) which yields an estimate of the attitude quaternion. Two EKF versions for quaternion estimation were presented in the literature; namely, the multiplicative EKF (MEKF) and the additive EKF (AEKF). In the multiplicative EKF, it is assumed that the error between the correct quaternion and its a-priori estimate is, by itself, a quaternion that represents the rotation necessary to bring the attitude which corresponds to the a-priori estimate of the quaternion into coincidence with the correct attitude. The EKF basically estimates this quotient quaternion and then the updated quaternion estimate is obtained by the product of the a-priori quaternion estimate and the estimate of the difference quaternion. In the additive EKF, it is assumed that the error between the a-priori quaternion estimate and the correct one is an algebraic difference between two four-tuple elements and thus the EKF is set to estimate this difference. The updated quaternion is then computed by adding the estimate of the difference to the a-priori quaternion estimate. If the quaternion estimate converges to the correct quaternion, then, naturally, the quaternion estimate has unity norm. This fact was utilized in the past to obtain superior filter performance by applying normalization to the filter measurement update of the quaternion. It was observed for the AEKF that when the attitude changed very slowly between measurements, normalization merely resulted in a faster convergence; however, when the attitude changed considerably between measurements, without filter tuning or normalization, the quaternion estimate diverged. However, when the

  11. On almost regularity and π-normality of topological spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saad Thabit, Sadeq Ali; Kamarulhaili, Hailiza

    2012-05-01

    π-Normality is a weaker version of normality. It was introduced by Kalantan in 2008. π-Normality lies between normality and almost normality (resp. quasi-normality). The importance of this topological property is that it behaves slightly different from normality and almost normality (quasi-normality). π-Normality is neither a productive nor a hereditary property in general. In this paper, some properties of almost regular spaces are presented. In particular, a few results on almost regular spaces are improved. Some relationships between almost regularity and π-normality are presented. π-Generalized closed sets are used to obtain a characterization and preservation theorems of π-normal spaces. Also, we investigate that an almost regular Lindelöf space (resp. with σ-locally finite base) is not necessarily π-normal by giving two counterexamples. An almost normality of the Rational Sequence topology is proved.

  12. Transformation and normalization of oligonucleotide microarray data.

    PubMed

    Geller, Sue C; Gregg, Jeff P; Hagerman, Paul; Rocke, David M

    2003-09-22

    Most methods of analyzing microarray data or doing power calculations have an underlying assumption of constant variance across all levels of gene expression. The most common transformation, the logarithm, results in data that have constant variance at high levels but not at low levels. Rocke and Durbin showed that data from spotted arrays fit a two-component model and Durbin, Hardin, Hawkins, and Rocke, Huber et al. and Munson provided a transformation that stabilizes the variance as well as symmetrizes and normalizes the error structure. We wish to evaluate the applicability of this transformation to the error structure of GeneChip microarrays. We demonstrate in an example study a simple way to use the two-component model of Rocke and Durbin and the data transformation of Durbin, Hardin, Hawkins and Rocke, Huber et al. and Munson on Affymetrix GeneChip data. In addition we provide a method for normalization of Affymetrix GeneChips simultaneous with the determination of the transformation, producing a data set without chip or slide effects but with constant variance and with symmetric errors. This transformation/normalization process can be thought of as a machine calibration in that it requires a few biologically constant replicates of one sample to determine the constant needed to specify the transformation and normalize. It is hypothesized that this constant needs to be found only once for a given technology in a lab, perhaps with periodic updates. It does not require extensive replication in each study. Furthermore, the variance of the transformed pilot data can be used to do power calculations using standard power analysis programs. SPLUS code for the transformation/normalization for four replicates is available from the first author upon request. A program written in C is available from the last author.

  13. Is Hong Kong experiencing normalization of adolescent drug use? Some reflections on the normalization thesis.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Nicole W T; Cheung, Yuet W

    2006-01-01

    The upsurge of consumption of party drugs among adolescents in recent years in Hong Kong has been part of the global trend of adolescent recreational use of drugs at rave parties, discos and similar party settings. Scholars in Western societies have recently proposed the thesis of "normalization of adolescent drug use" to describe such a trend. The normalization thesis points at three major aspects of the normalization phenomenon, namely, a rapid increase of the prevalence of drug use in young people, the widespread popularity of recreational drug use that is closely linked with the recent arrival of dance club culture, and a receptive attitude towards drug use as a normal part of leisure. This article aims to examine whether the normalization thesis can be applied to analyze the situation of adolescent drug use in Hong Kong. Data are drawn from official statistics and a recent survey conducted in 2002-2004 of drug use of Hong Kong marginal youths (N = 504). The case of Hong Kong only partially supports the thesis. Our findings show that the normalization of drug use among young people has occurred in Hong Kong, but the extent of normalization is smaller than those in Western societies like the United Kingdom. They also suggest that a recognition of possible cultural differences may be complementary to the normalization thesis. Limitations of the study are also noted.

  14. Inheritance of Properties of Normal and Non-Normal Distributions after Transformation of Scores to Ranks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Donald W.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated how population parameters representing heterogeneity of variance, skewness, kurtosis, bimodality, and outlier-proneness, drawn from normal and eleven non-normal distributions, also characterized the ranks corresponding to independent samples of scores. When the parameters of population distributions from which samples were…

  15. Metabolic Cost, Mechanical Work, and Efficiency during Normal Walking in Obese and Normal-Weight Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Liang; Chen, Peijie; Zhuang, Jie; Zhang, Yanxin; Walt, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to investigate the influence of childhood obesity on energetic cost during normal walking and to determine if obese children choose a walking strategy optimizing their gait pattern. Method: Sixteen obese children with no functional abnormalities were matched by age and gender with 16 normal-weight children. All…

  16. 'I just want to be normal': An analysis of discourses of normality among recovering heroin users.

    PubMed

    Nettleton, Sarah; Neale, Joanne; Pickering, Lucy

    2013-03-01

    Research that has explored the lives of men and women recovering from heroin addiction has reported that users often claim that they 'just want to be normal'. Working within a Foucauldian tradition, we argue in this article that the notions of 'governmentality' and the 'norm' are especially apposite to understanding the ubiquity of this aspiration. Here we focus not on the formal institutions of governance that encourage individuals to adhere to social, cultural and political norms, but rather seek to explore recovering users' accounts of normality as they are envisaged and expressed. The reported empirical data were generated from interviews with 40 men and women in England at various stages of recovery from heroin use. The analytic focus is upon the accounts of normality articulated during the interviews in order to identify the ways in which being normal is presented by the participants. In keeping with the methodological tradition of discourse analysis we identify six discursive repertoires of 'normality talk' that transcend the accounts. It is concluded that the negotiation of normality is a precarious route for this social group. Articulations of a desire to be normal are replete with tensions; there are expressions of both resistance and resignation. Despite claims by some contemporary social theorists that diversity is the 'new normality', the accepted bounds of 'difference' are limited for those who have been addicted to heroin.

  17. There Is More Than One Univariate Normal Distribution: What Is the Normal Distribution, Really?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Team, Rachel M.

    Many univariate statistical methods, such as the analysis of variance, t-test, and regression, assume that the dependent variable data have a univariate normal distribution (Hinkle, Weirsma, and Jurs, 1998). Various other statistical methods assume that the error scores are normally distributed (Thompson, 1992). Violating this assumption can be…

  18. Metabolic Cost, Mechanical Work, and Efficiency during Normal Walking in Obese and Normal-Weight Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Liang; Chen, Peijie; Zhuang, Jie; Zhang, Yanxin; Walt, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to investigate the influence of childhood obesity on energetic cost during normal walking and to determine if obese children choose a walking strategy optimizing their gait pattern. Method: Sixteen obese children with no functional abnormalities were matched by age and gender with 16 normal-weight children. All…

  19. Pre Normal Science and the Transition to Post-Normal Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halpern, J. B.

    2015-12-01

    Post-Normal Science as formulated by Funtowicz and Ravetz describes cases where "facts are uncertain, values in dispute, stakes high, and decisions urgent". However Post-Normal Science is better described as Pre-Normal Science, the stage at which something has been observed, but no one quite knows where it came from, what it means (science) or what to do about it (policy). The initial flailing about to reach a useful understanding is later used by those who oppose action to obfuscate by insisting that still nothing is known, what is known is wrong, or at best that more research is needed. Consider AIDS/HIV, stratospheric ozone, tobacco, acid rain, climate change, etc. As these issues gained attention, we entered the Pre-Normal Science stage. What was the cause? How could they be dealt with? Every idea could be proposed and was. Normal science sorted through them. Many proposers of the discarded theories still clutched them strongly, but mostly they are dismissed within the scientific community. Post-Normal Policy ensues when normal science has reached a consensus and it is clear that action is needed but it is economically or philosophically impossible for some to accept that. The response is to deny the utility of science and scientific judgment, thus the attacks on scientists and scientific panels that provide policy makers with their best scientific advice. Recognizing the division between Pre-Normal Science and Post-Normal Policy and the uses of the former to block action by the later is useful for understanding the course of controversies that require normal science to influence policy.

  20. Does normal thyroid gland by ultrasonography match with normal serum thyroid hormones and negative thyroid antibodies?

    PubMed

    Trimboli, P; Rossi, F; Condorelli, E; Laurenti, O; Ventura, C; Nigri, G; Romanelli, F; Guarino, M; Valabrega, S

    2010-10-01

    Few papers have shown that a hypoechoic appearance of the thyroid gland at ultrasonography (US) is related to a hypofunction and serum positivity of thyroid antibodies (T-Ab). However, it is not ascertained if normal thyroid appearance at US correspond to normal thyroid laboratory tests. The aim of this study was to assess the value of normal thyroid at US in predicting normal thyroid hormones and negative T-Ab in a cohort of 48 adult patients. All patients (37 females and 11 males) were referred to our hospital to undergo their first thyroid US examination, followed by a thyroid function evaluation. All subjects had normal thyroid gland at US. As a control group 65 patients with hypoechoic and inhomogeneous thyroid gland were enrolled. All 48 patients had normal free-T (3) and free-T (4) levels. While 41 patients (85.4%) showed normal TSH, in 7 subjects (14.6%) TSH was elevated and a significant (p < 0.001) difference was recorded between the two groups in mean TSH value. Positive T-Ab value was found in 5 patients (10.4%) and the remaining 43 patients (89.6%) had negative T-Ab. TSH was not significantly correlated with age, thyroid volume or BMI. The multivariate model showed that only BMI was significantly correlated to thyroid volume (p < 0.01, r(2)=0.31). These results showed that normal thyroid recorded by US matches with normal thyroid laboratory assessment to a large degree. These preliminary data need to be confirmed in a prospective study and in a larger series and should suggest the evaluation of thyrotropin and thyroid antibodies in subjects with normal thyroid gland as assessed by US.

  1. Accurate Thermal Stresses for Beams: Normal Stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Theodore F.; Pilkey, Walter D.

    2003-01-01

    Formulations for a general theory of thermoelasticity to generate accurate thermal stresses for structural members of aeronautical vehicles were developed in 1954 by Boley. The formulation also provides three normal stresses and a shear stress along the entire length of the beam. The Poisson effect of the lateral and transverse normal stresses on a thermally loaded beam is taken into account in this theory by employing an Airy stress function. The Airy stress function enables the reduction of the three-dimensional thermal stress problem to a two-dimensional one. Numerical results from the general theory of thermoelasticity are compared to those obtained from strength of materials. It is concluded that the theory of thermoelasticity for prismatic beams proposed in this paper can be used instead of strength of materials when precise stress results are desired.

  2. Accurate Thermal Stresses for Beams: Normal Stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Theodore F.; Pilkey, Walter D.

    2002-01-01

    Formulations for a general theory of thermoelasticity to generate accurate thermal stresses for structural members of aeronautical vehicles were developed in 1954 by Boley. The formulation also provides three normal stresses and a shear stress along the entire length of the beam. The Poisson effect of the lateral and transverse normal stresses on a thermally loaded beam is taken into account in this theory by employing an Airy stress function. The Airy stress function enables the reduction of the three-dimensional thermal stress problem to a two-dimensional one. Numerical results from the general theory of thermoelasticity are compared to those obtained from strength of materials. It is concluded that the theory of thermoelasticity for prismatic beams proposed in this paper can be used instead of strength of materials when precise stress results are desired.

  3. Pancreastatin molecular forms in normal human plasma.

    PubMed

    Kitayama, N; Tateishi, K; Funakoshi, A; Miyasaka, K; Shimazoe, T; Kono, A; Iwamoto, N; Matsuoka, Y

    1994-01-01

    Circulating molecular forms with pancreastatin (PST)-like immunoreactivity in plasma from normal subjects were examined. An immunoreactive form corresponding to a human PST-like sequence [human chromogranin-A-(250-301)] (hPST-52) and a larger form (mol wt 15-21 kDa) were detected by gel filtration of plasma from normal subjects. On high performance liquid chromatography, predominant immunoreactive forms coeluted with the three larger forms which were purified from the xenograft of human pancreatic islet cell carcinoma cell line QGP-1N cells and with synthetic hPST-52. The fraction containing larger forms purified from xenograft of QGP-1N cells had biological activity equivalent to that of hPST-52 on the inhibition of pancreatic exocrine secretion. These results suggest that the larger molecular forms as well as hPST-52 may be physiologically important circulating forms of PST in human.

  4. Dynamic mapping of normal human hippocampal development.

    PubMed

    Gogtay, Nitin; Nugent, Tom F; Herman, David H; Ordonez, Anna; Greenstein, Deanna; Hayashi, Kiralee M; Clasen, Liv; Toga, Arthur W; Giedd, Jay N; Rapoport, Judith L; Thompson, Paul M

    2006-01-01

    The hippocampus, which plays an important role in memory functions and emotional responses, has distinct subregions subserving different functions. Because the volume and shape of the hippocampus are altered in many neuropsychiatric disorders, it is important to understand the trajectory of normal hippocampal development. We present the first dynamic maps to reveal the anatomical sequence of normal human hippocampal development. A novel hippocampal mapping technique was applied to a database of prospectively obtained brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans (100 scans in 31 children and adolescents), scanned every 2 yr for 6-10 yr between ages 4 and 25. Our results establish that the structural development of the human hippocampus is remarkably heterogeneous, with significant differences between posterior (increase over time) and anterior (loss over time) subregions. These distinct developmental trajectories of hippocampal subregions may parallel differences in their functional development.

  5. Chromosome imbalance, normal phenotype, and imprinting.

    PubMed Central

    Bortotto, L; Piovan, E; Furlan, R; Rivera, H; Zuffardi, O

    1990-01-01

    A duplication of the sub-bands 1q42.11 and 1q42.12 was found in a boy and his mother. The proband has short stature (around the 10th centile) but a normal phenotype and psychomotor development. His mother is also asymptomatic. We found 30 published cases of normal subjects with an imbalance of autosomal euchromatic material. In these cases the imbalance involved either only one G positive band or a G positive and a G negative band. Thus the absence of a phenotypic effect cannot always be ascribed to the deficiency in the G positive bands of coding DNA. Moreover, in some cases, the method of transmission of the chromosome abnormality was such that an imprinting effect could be postulated. Images PMID:2231652

  6. NORMAL HUMAN VARIATION: REFOCUSSING THE ENHANCEMENT DEBATE

    PubMed Central

    Kahane, Guy; Savulescu, Julian

    2015-01-01

    This article draws attention to several common mistakes in thinking about biomedical enhancement, mistakes that are made even by some supporters of enhancement. We illustrate these mistakes by examining objections that John Harris has recently raised against the use of pharmacological interventions to directly modulate moral decision-making. We then apply these lessons to other influential figures in the debate about enhancement. One upshot of our argument is that many considerations presented as powerful objections to enhancement are really strong considerations in favour of biomedical enhancement, just in a different direction. Another upshot is that it is unfortunate that much of the current debate focuses on interventions that will radically transform normal human capacities. Such interventions are unlikely to be available in the near future, and may not even be feasible. But our argument shows that the enhancement project can still have a radical impact on human life even if biomedical enhancement operated entirely within the normal human range. PMID:23906367

  7. [Normal abdominal ultrasound anatomy. Examination procedure].

    PubMed

    Salcedo Joven, I; Segura Grau, A; Rodríguez Lorenzo, A; Segura Cabral, J M

    2014-01-01

    To carry out an abdominal ultrasound examination with the highest degree of accuracy and thoroughness, it is essential to have a good knowledge of the anatomy and the normal measurements of the different organs. In this way, we can determine their normal condition and identify the pathology and its location more easily. It is very important to adopt a correct examination procedure, systematically sweeping the scan in the same direction and not leaving any organ unexamined. We suggest a procedure consisting of longitudinal, cross-sectional and oblique scans to view all the abdominal organs, starting the examination in the epigastric region, scanning first the right upper quadrant, then the left upper quadrant, both iliac fossa, and lastly the hypogastric region. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  8. A diffusionless transition in a normal alkane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nene, Shailesh; Karhu, Eric; Flemming, Roberta L.; Hutter, Jeffrey L.

    2009-12-01

    The normal alkanes are an interesting class of material, both in terms of their intrinsic properties and because many biological materials contain hydrocarbon domains. The normal alkanes often exhibit complicated phase behavior, with phase diagrams containing multiple solid phases. We report here a study of a curious pattern of twinned domains seen in one phase of tricosane (C 23H 48), which we have studied by X-ray diffraction, as well as by optical and atomic force microscopy. This pattern is seen in the rotator R V phase, a monoclinic arrangement of tricosane molecules without orientational order. Transitions between this polymorph and the orthorhombic R I rotator phase lying at higher temperatures preserve features at the molecular level, and thus represent a diffusionless, martensitic-like transformation.

  9. Normalizing the causality between time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, X. San

    2015-08-01

    Recently, a rigorous yet concise formula was derived to evaluate information flow, and hence the causality in a quantitative sense, between time series. To assess the importance of a resulting causality, it needs to be normalized. The normalization is achieved through distinguishing a Lyapunov exponent-like, one-dimensional phase-space stretching rate and a noise-to-signal ratio from the rate of information flow in the balance of the marginal entropy evolution of the flow recipient. It is verified with autoregressive models and applied to a real financial analysis problem. An unusually strong one-way causality is identified from IBM (International Business Machines Corporation) to GE (General Electric Company) in their early era, revealing to us an old story, which has almost faded into oblivion, about "Seven Dwarfs" competing with a giant for the mainframe computer market.

  10. Normal human variation: refocussing the enhancement debate.

    PubMed

    Kahane, Guy; Savulescu, Julian

    2015-02-01

    This article draws attention to several common mistakes in thinking about biomedical enhancement, mistakes that are made even by some supporters of enhancement. We illustrate these mistakes by examining objections that John Harris has recently raised against the use of pharmacological interventions to directly modulate moral decision-making. We then apply these lessons to other influential figures in the debate about enhancement. One upshot of our argument is that many considerations presented as powerful objections to enhancement are really strong considerations in favour of biomedical enhancement, just in a different direction. Another upshot is that it is unfortunate that much of the current debate focuses on interventions that will radically transform normal human capacities. Such interventions are unlikely to be available in the near future, and may not even be feasible. But our argument shows that the enhancement project can still have a radical impact on human life even if biomedical enhancement operated entirely within the normal human range.

  11. Divisive normalization in channelized Hotelling observer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Tao; Mou, Xuanqin

    2010-02-01

    Channelized Hotelling observers have been evaluated in signal detection in medical images. However, these model observers fall short of overestimate of detection performance compared with human observers. Here, we present a modified channelized Hotelling observer with divisive normalization mechanism. In this model, images first traverse a series of Gabor filters of different orientations, phases and spatial frequencies. Then, the channels outputs pass through a nonlinear process and pool in several channels. Finally, these channels responses are normalized through a divisive operation. Human performances of nodule detection in chest radiography are evaluated by 2AFC experiments. The same detection tasks are performed by the model observers. The results show that the modified channelized Hotelling observer can well predict the human performances.

  12. Birkhoff Normal Form for Some Nonlinear PDEs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bambusi, Dario

    We consider the problem of extending to PDEs Birkhoff normal form theorem on Hamiltonian systems close to nonresonant elliptic equilibria. As a model problem we take the nonlinear wave equation with Dirichlet boundary conditions on [0,π] g is an analytic skewsymmetric function which vanishes for u=0 and is periodic with period 2π in the x variable. We prove, under a nonresonance condition which is fulfilled for most g's, that for any integer M there exists a canonical transformation that puts the Hamiltonian in Birkhoff normal form up to a reminder of order M. The canonical transformation is well defined in a neighbourhood of the origin of a Sobolev type phase space of sufficiently high order. Some dynamical consequences are obtained. The technique of proof is applicable to quite general semilinear equations in one space dimension.

  13. Normal vibration frequencies of the vocal ligament

    PubMed Central

    Titze, Ingo R.; Hunter, Eric J.

    2006-01-01

    The vocal ligament is the tension-bearing element in the vocal folds at high pitches. It has traditionally been treated as a vibrating string, with only length and longitudinal stress governing its normal mode frequencies. Results of this investigation show that, when bending stiffness and variable cross section are included, the lowest normal mode frequency can more than double, depending on the strain of the ligament. This suggests that much higher phonation frequencies may be achievable than heretofore thought for a given vocal fold length (e.g., nearly 1000 Hz at 50% elongation over cadaveric resting length). It also brings back into the discussion the concept of “damping,” an old misnomer for a reduction of the effective length of vibration of the vocal folds by relatively stiff boundary segments known as macula flavae. A formula is given for correcting the ideal string equation for the lowest mode frequency to include bending stiffness and macula flavae effects. PMID:15139637

  14. Normal Modes Expose Active Sites in Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Glantz-Gashai, Yitav; Samson, Abraham O.

    2016-01-01

    Accurate prediction of active sites is an important tool in bioinformatics. Here we present an improved structure based technique to expose active sites that is based on large changes of solvent accessibility accompanying normal mode dynamics. The technique which detects EXPOsure of active SITes through normal modEs is named EXPOSITE. The technique is trained using a small 133 enzyme dataset and tested using a large 845 enzyme dataset, both with known active site residues. EXPOSITE is also tested in a benchmark protein ligand dataset (PLD) comprising 48 proteins with and without bound ligands. EXPOSITE is shown to successfully locate the active site in most instances, and is found to be more accurate than other structure-based techniques. Interestingly, in several instances, the active site does not correspond to the largest pocket. EXPOSITE is advantageous due to its high precision and paves the way for structure based prediction of active site in enzymes. PMID:28002427

  15. [Myocardial infarction with normal coronary arteries].

    PubMed

    Espinosa, R; Badui, E; Narvaez, M G; Hurtado, R

    1986-01-01

    We retrospectively studied 36 cases of myocardial Infarction (MI) with normal coronary arteries, which had been obtained from a total of 538 patients with MI admitted to our Hospital in the last 3 years. All patients had coronary angiogram and left ventriculogram. The following data was reviewed: age, sex, coronary risk factors, clinical picture, short and long term follow up. The angiography findings were correlated. The average age of the patients was 42 years, 75% were male and 25% female. The 36 cases represent 7% of the total MI. Cigarette smoking was the only important risk factor. MI was the first manifestation of ischemic heart disease in 94% of the cases. The ejection fraction was normal in 94%; 27.6% presented some complication during the acute event. In the long term follow; up to 88% of the patients are asymptomatic. The physiopathologic mechanisms are analyzed.

  16. Psychiatric aspects of normal and pathological lying.

    PubMed

    Muzinic, Lana; Kozaric-Kovacic, Dragica; Marinic, Igor

    2016-01-01

    The paper outlines the difference between the so-called normal (common) lying and pathological lying. Pathological lying is an intriguing topic, still lacking any strong professional consensus, clear etiology, treatment options and prognoses. The paper explores some possible psychological mechanisms of pathological lying, reviews biological factors in pathological lying, and considers forensic significance of normal and pathological lying. The relationship between pathological lying and mental disorders is also discussed. The authors suggest that lying should be considered as a heterogenic and multidimensional behavioral pattern. The paper highlights how important it is to assess the patient's control over lying, the function of lying, insight into and awareness of lying, as well as the effect of lying on everyday functioning. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Normalizing the causality between time series.

    PubMed

    Liang, X San

    2015-08-01

    Recently, a rigorous yet concise formula was derived to evaluate information flow, and hence the causality in a quantitative sense, between time series. To assess the importance of a resulting causality, it needs to be normalized. The normalization is achieved through distinguishing a Lyapunov exponent-like, one-dimensional phase-space stretching rate and a noise-to-signal ratio from the rate of information flow in the balance of the marginal entropy evolution of the flow recipient. It is verified with autoregressive models and applied to a real financial analysis problem. An unusually strong one-way causality is identified from IBM (International Business Machines Corporation) to GE (General Electric Company) in their early era, revealing to us an old story, which has almost faded into oblivion, about "Seven Dwarfs" competing with a giant for the mainframe computer market.

  18. Normal vibration frequencies of the vocal ligament

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titze, Ingo R.; Hunter, Eric J.

    2004-05-01

    The vocal ligament is the tension-bearing element in the vocal folds at high pitches. It has traditionally been treated as a vibrating string, with only length and longitudinal stress governing its normal mode frequencies. Results of this investigation show that, when bending stiffness and variable cross section are included, the lowest normal mode frequency can more than double, depending on the strain of the ligament. This suggests that much higher phonation frequencies may be achievable than heretofore thought for a given vocal fold length (e.g., nearly 1000 Hz at 50% elongation over cadaveric resting length). It also brings back into the discussion the concept of ``damping,'' an old misnomer for a reduction of the effective length of vibration of the vocal folds by relatively stiff boundary segments known as macula flavae. A formula is given for correcting the ideal string equation for the lowest mode frequency to include bending stiffness and macula flavae effects.

  19. Discussion of medical x ray picture normalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dezong; Xiong, Yingen; Cheng, Liping

    1996-01-01

    There is great significance in comparing medical x-ray pictures, which are taken in different periods. For the orthopaedics surgeon comparing the density of bone is one important way of clinical diagnosis. Some persons think that if these orthopaedics pictures are processed by histogram normalization their gray level and pseudo color can be compared directly. But for one picture we know that the gray distribution is different between the original picture and the processed picture. Comparing these pictures is not authentic. In this paper we discuss that subject and describe the basis of histogram normalization. The distribution on original x-ray pictures and processed pictures is provided. The methods to compare different pictures are mentioned.

  20. Online Normalization Algorithm for Engine Turbofan Monitoring

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-02

    Online Normalization Algorithm for Engine Turbofan Monitoring Jérôme Lacaille 1 , Anastasios Bellas 2 1 Snecma, 77550 Moissy-Cramayel, France...understand the behavior of a turbofan engine, one first needs to deal with the variety of data acquisition contexts. Each time a set of measurements is...it auto-adapts itself with piecewise linear models. 1. INTRODUCTION Turbofan engine abnormality diagnosis uses three steps: reduction of

  1. Gene expression during normal and malignant differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Andersson, L.C.; Gahmberg, C.G.; Ekblom, P.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains 18 selections. Some of the titles are: Exploring Carcinogenesis with Retroviral and Cellular Oncogenes; Retroviruses, Oncogenes and Evolution; HTLV and Human Neoplasi; Modes of Activation of cMyc Oncogene in B and T Lymphoid Tumors; The Structure and Function of the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor: Its Relationship to the Protein Product of the V-ERB-B Oncogene; and Expression of Human Retrovirus Genes in Normal and Neoplastic Epithelial Cells.

  2. [Normal pregnancy after severe acute hepatic steatosis].

    PubMed

    Queval, A; Vix, O; Dufossé, M; Augris, P P; Deswarte, S

    1994-01-01

    With regard to a case of acute fatty liver disease of pregnancy, concerning a primigravida patient, during a twin pregnancy, having survived to a severe form and with two-fetus death in utero. Extreme blood hypocoagulability induced cataclysmic bleeding and threatened the life of the patient who had survived only after the ligature of internal iliac arteries. Nevertheless, one year later, another normal pregnancy was uneventful.

  3. Identical'' bands in normally-deformed nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Garrett, J.D.; Baktash, C. ); Yu, C.H. . Dept. of Physics and Astronomy)

    1990-01-01

    Gamma-ray transitions energies in neighboring odd- and even-mass nuclei for normally-deformed nuclear configurations are analyzed in a manner similar to recent analyses for superdeformed states. The moment of inertia is shown to depend on pair correlations and the aligned angular momentum of the odd nucleon. The implications of this analysis for identical'' super-deformed bands are discussed. 26 refs., 9 figs.

  4. Normal anatomy and biomechanics of the knee.

    PubMed

    Flandry, Fred; Hommel, Gabriel

    2011-06-01

    Functionally, the knee comprises 2 articulations-the patellofemoral and tibiofemoral. Stability of the joint is governed by a combination of static ligaments, dynamic muscular forces, meniscocapsular aponeurosis, bony topography, and joint load. The surgeon is ill equipped to undertake surgical treatment of a dislocated knee without a sound footing in the anatomic complexities of this joint. We review the normal anatomy of the knee, emphasizing connective tissue structures and common injury patterns.

  5. Umbilical cord insertion: normal location in neonates.

    PubMed

    Salgado, L; Paz, J E

    1992-12-01

    The distances between the xyphoid appendix and the insertion point of the umbilical cord (XU) and between the xyphoid appendix and upper edge of the pubic symphysis (XP) were measured in 201 newborn infants. The mean ratio XU/XP was 0.62 (S.D. 0.044) with no differences between sexes nor correlations with weight or length. Ratios lying between 0.53 and 0.71 can be considered as within the normal range.

  6. Tubular reabsorption in normal renal function.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, W J

    1984-01-01

    The purpose here is to examine in relation to normal renal function three factors which might affect tubular reabsorption: (1) The reabsorption of SO4, PO4, K, Cl, HCO3 and water are all linked to the reabsorption of Na. This would amount to the reabsorption by the tubules of a net reabsorbate of a composition similar to Locke's fluid. Fixed linkage of the reabsorption of a substance to the reabsorption of Na would be a very effective way of maintaining its plasma concentration within a narrow range. The substance would be retained unless its plasma concentration exceeds a threshold value and then small increase in plasma concentration determines its excretion. (2) The rate of reabsorption of Na and substances linked to it is increased when the volume of the intraluminal fluid is increased. This would explain why there is only a small increase in the excretion of Na and other electrolytes when glomerular filtration rate is increased after a meal of meat. (3) Plasma protein concentration affects tubular reabsorption. This would explain why fall in plasma protein is a main agent determining Na excretion in normal animals. Trying to see 'how far the observed facts can be brought into accord with a theory' reveals the difficulty of applying critical tests. On the one hand, the theories are not stated quantitatively in reference to the small changes of normal life; rather the evidence is from experiments with large changes. On the other hand, the small changes within the range of normal function, while themselves statistically significant, are too small for effective investigation of circumstances which may modify them. In the examples discussed here, we cannot say more than that the theories could explain the facts and their participation cannot be excluded.

  7. Normal Forms for Nonautonomous Differential Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegmund, Stefan

    2002-01-01

    We extend Henry Poincarés normal form theory for autonomous differential equations x=f(x) to nonautonomous differential equations x=f(t, x). Poincarés nonresonance condition λj-∑ni=1 ℓiλi≠0 for eigenvalues is generalized to the new nonresonance condition λj∩∑ni=1 ℓiλi=∅ for spectral intervals.

  8. Arthroscopy in cattle: technique and normal anatomy.

    PubMed

    Lardé, Hélène; Nichols, Sylvain

    2014-03-01

    Arthroscopy has all the advantages of minimally invasive surgery in cattle. Specialized equipment and knowledge of normal joint anatomy of cattle are mandatory for successful arthroscopy. The surgical technique is different in cattle compared with the horse. Thick skin and joint capsules complicate movement of the arthroscope within the joints. In cattle, septic arthritis and osteochondrosis are the most frequent disorders suitable for arthroscopic treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The classification of normal screening mammograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ang, Zoey Z. Y.; Rawashdeh, Mohammad A.; Heard, Robert; Brennan, Patrick C.; Lee, Warwick; Lewis, Sarah J.

    2016-03-01

    Rationale and objectives: To understand how breast screen readers classify the difficulty of normal screening mammograms using common lexicon describing normal appearances. Cases were also assessed on their suitability for a single reader strategy. Materials and Methods: 15 breast readers were asked to interpret a test set of 29 normal screening mammogram cases and classify them by rating the difficulty of the case on a five-point Likert scale, identifying the salient features and assessing their suitability for single reading. Using the False Positive Fractions from a previous study, the 29 cases were classified into 10 "low", 10 "medium" and nine "high" difficulties. Data was analyzed with descriptive statistics. Spearman's correlation was used to test the strength of association between the difficulty of the cases and the readers' recommendation for single reading strategy. Results: The ratings from readers in this study corresponded to the known difficulty level of cases for the 'low' and 'high' difficulty cases. Uniform ductal pattern and density, symmetrical mammographic features and the absence of micro-calcifications were the main reasons associated with 'low' difficulty cases. The 'high' difficulty cases were described as having `dense breasts'. There was a statistically significant negative correlation between the difficulty of the cases and readers' recommendation for single reading (r = -0.475, P = 0.009). Conclusion: The findings demonstrated potential relationships between certain mammographic features and the difficulty for readers to classify mammograms as 'normal'. The standard Australian practice of double reading was deemed more suitable for most cases. There was an inverse moderate association between the difficulty of the cases and the recommendations for single reading.

  10. Improved gait recognition by gait dynamics normalization.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zongyi; Sarkar, Sudeep

    2006-06-01

    Potential sources for gait biometrics can be seen to derive from two aspects: gait shape and gait dynamics. We show that improved gait recognition can be achieved after normalization of dynamics and focusing on the shape information. We normalize for gait dynamics using a generic walking model, as captured by a population Hidden Markov Model (pHMM) defined for a set of individuals. The states of this pHMM represent gait stances over one gait cycle and the observations are the silhouettes of the corresponding gait stances. For each sequence, we first use Viterbi decoding of the gait dynamics to arrive at one dynamics-normalized, averaged, gait cycle of fixed length. The distance between two sequences is the distance between the two corresponding dynamics-normalized gait cycles, which we quantify by the sum of the distances between the corresponding gait stances. Distances between two silhouettes from the same generic gait stance are computed in the linear discriminant analysis space so as to maximize the discrimination between persons, while minimizing the variations of the same subject under different conditions. The distance computation is constructed so that it is invariant to dilations and erosions of the silhouettes. This helps us handle variations in silhouette shape that can occur with changing imaging conditions. We present results on three different, publicly available, data sets. First, we consider the HumanlD Gait Challenge data set, which is the largest gait benchmarking data set that is available (122 subjects), exercising five different factors, i.e., viewpoint, shoe, surface, carrying condition, and time. We significantly improve the performance across the hard experiments involving surface change and briefcase carrying conditions. Second, we also show improved performance on the UMD gait data set that exercises time variations for 55 subjects. Third, on the CMU Mobo data set, we show results for matching across different walking speeds. It is worth

  11. Borel functional calculus for quaternionic normal operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    G, Ramesh; P, Santhosh Kumar

    2017-05-01

    In this article, we give an approach to Borel functional calculus for quaternionic normal operators, which are not necessarily bounded. First, we establish the definition of functional calculus for a subclass of quaternion valued Borel functions, and then we extend the same to the class of quaternion valued Borel functions as well as L∞-functions. We also prove spectral mapping theorem as a consequence.

  12. Normal Conducting RF Cavity for MICE

    SciTech Connect

    Li, D.; DeMello, A.; Virostek, S.; Zisman, M.; Summers, D.

    2010-05-23

    Normal conducting RF cavities must be used for the cooling section of the international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE), currently under construction at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL) in the UK. Eight 201-MHz cavities are needed for the MICE cooling section; fabrication of the first five cavities is complete. We report the cavity fabrication status including cavity design, fabrication techniques and preliminary low power RF measurements.

  13. Spatial normalization of brain images and beyond.

    PubMed

    Mangin, J-F; Lebenberg, J; Lefranc, S; Labra, N; Auzias, G; Labit, M; Guevara, M; Mohlberg, H; Roca, P; Guevara, P; Dubois, J; Leroy, F; Dehaene-Lambertz, G; Cachia, A; Dickscheid, T; Coulon, O; Poupon, C; Rivière, D; Amunts, K; Sun, Z Y

    2016-10-01

    The deformable atlas paradigm has been at the core of computational anatomy during the last two decades. Spatial normalization is the variant endowing the atlas with a coordinate system used for voxel-based aggregation of images across subjects and studies. This framework has largely contributed to the success of brain mapping. Brain spatial normalization, however, is still ill-posed because of the complexity of the human brain architecture and the lack of architectural landmarks in standard morphological MRI. Multi-atlas strategies have been developed during the last decade to overcome some difficulties in the context of segmentation. A new generation of registration algorithms embedding architectural features inferred for instance from diffusion or functional MRI is on the verge to improve the architectural value of spatial normalization. A better understanding of the architectural meaning of the cortical folding pattern will lead to use some sulci as complementary constraints. Improving the architectural compliance of spatial normalization may impose to relax the diffeomorphic constraint usually underlying atlas warping. A two-level strategy could be designed: in each region, a dictionary of templates of incompatible folding patterns would be collected and matched in a way or another using rare architectural information, while individual subjects would be aligned using diffeomorphisms to the closest template. Manifold learning could help to aggregate subjects according to their morphology. Connectivity-based strategies could emerge as an alternative to deformation-based alignment leading to match the connectomes of the subjects rather than images. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Should Japan Become a Normal Country

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-01

    Defense Forces to be sent to Iraq. Today, the ruling coalition is formed by the conservative LDP and also the New Clean Government Party ( Shin ...Takashi Inoguchi, “Japans Ambition for Normal Statehood,” in Jorge I. Dominguez and Byung -kook Kim, eds., Between Compliance And Conflict: East Asia...Dominguez and Byung -kook Kim, eds., Between Compliance And Conflict: East Asia, Latin America and The “New” Pax Americana, (London and New York

  15. Normal and Time-Compressed Speech

    PubMed Central

    Lemke, Ulrike; Kollmeier, Birger; Holube, Inga

    2016-01-01

    Short-term and long-term learning effects were investigated for the German Oldenburg sentence test (OLSA) using original and time-compressed fast speech in noise. Normal-hearing and hearing-impaired participants completed six lists of the OLSA in five sessions. Two groups of normal-hearing listeners (24 and 12 listeners) and two groups of hearing-impaired listeners (9 listeners each) performed the test with original or time-compressed speech. In general, original speech resulted in better speech recognition thresholds than time-compressed speech. Thresholds decreased with repetition for both speech materials. Confirming earlier results, the largest improvements were observed within the first measurements of the first session, indicating a rapid initial adaptation phase. The improvements were larger for time-compressed than for original speech. The novel results on long-term learning effects when using the OLSA indicate a longer phase of ongoing learning, especially for time-compressed speech, which seems to be limited by a floor effect. In addition, for normal-hearing participants, no complete transfer of learning benefits from time-compressed to original speech was observed. These effects should be borne in mind when inviting listeners repeatedly, for example, in research settings.

  16. Ultrasound appearance of the normal Lisfranc ligament.

    PubMed

    Kaicker, Jatin; Zajac, Mercedes; Shergill, Ravi; Choudur, Hema N

    2016-12-01

    This study aims to prospectively evaluate the ultrasound appearance of the normal Lisfranc's ligament in 50 patients (100 ft) with no prior or current ligament injury. Fifty normal asymptomatic patients between the ages of 18 and 80 years were assessed. Three key features were recorded: ultrasound appearance, thickness, and length of the Lisfranc's ligament. Patients excluded from this study included pediatric patients and those with history of injury or symptoms related to the foot. The mean right- and left-sided ligament (RT) thickness were 0.096 (0.021) and 0.104 (0.023), respectively. The mean right- and left-sided ligament RT length was 0.54 (0.11) and 0.57 (0.11), respectively. The appearance of the ligament was similar in all patients with a central thin band of hypoechogenicity lined by hyperechoic lines on either side. Understanding the normal appearance, thickness, and length of the Lisfranc's ligament in a large sample is imperative to diagnose abnormal appearances of this ligament including sprains and tears by ultrasound. Ultrasound, with its easy accessibility, can be used in the emergency department to rapidly exclude injury of the ligament. Increased understanding and awareness of the Lisfranc's ligament on ultrasound can allow for more accurate diagnosis and treatment.

  17. Normalized entropy measure for multimodality image alignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Studholme, Colin; Hawkes, David J.; Hill, Derek L.

    1998-06-01

    Automated multi-modality 3D medical image alignment has been an active area of research for many years. There have been a number of recent papers proposing and investigating the use of entropy derived measures of brain image alignment. Any registration measure must allow us to choose between transformation estimates based on the similarity of images within their volume of overlap. Since 3D medical images often have a limited extent and overlap, the similarity measure for the two transformation estimates may be derived from two very different regions within the images. Direct measures of information such as the joint entropy and mutual information will therefore be a function of, not only image similarity in the region of overlap, but also of the local image content within the overlap. In this paper we present a new measure, normalized mutual information, which is simply the ratio of the sum of the marginal entropies and the joint entropy. The effect of changing overlap on current entropy measures and this normalized measure are compared using a simple image model and experiments on clinical MR-PET and MR-CT image data. Results indicate that the normalized entropy measure provides significantly improved behavior over a range of imaged fields of view.

  18. Scintigraphic variations of normal biliary physiology

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, W.; Krishnamurthy, G.T.; Brar, H.S.; Bobba, V.R.

    1984-02-01

    The authors studied 115 healthy adult volunteers, fasting overnight, to establish the normal scintigraphic variability. Five Tc-99m IDA agents with liver excretion half-times ranging from 18 to 108 min were used. The time of appearance of the common bile duct correlated directly with the liver's excretion half-time. The appearance of the gallbladder and the small intestine were independent of the excretion half-time and showed a reciprocal relationship suggesting a major role for the sphincter of Oddi. In 22% of the subjects, the sphincter tonus was tight enough to divert all of the hepatic bile into the gallbladder, allowing none into the intestine. All of such subjects showed normal dynamic response to intravenous cholecystokinin. The pattern of the bile drainage from the two lobes differed, resulting in asymmetry of the right and left hepatic ducts. It is concluded that the selection of a Tc-99m IDA agent should be based on the clinical problem at hand and that a clinician's understanding of the scintigraphic variability in normal subjects is critical before attempting diagnosis.

  19. Mast cell distribution in normal adult skin.

    PubMed

    Janssens, A S; Heide, R; den Hollander, J C; Mulder, P G M; Tank, B; Oranje, A P

    2005-03-01

    To investigate mast cell distribution in normal adult skin to provide a reference range for comparison with mastocytosis. Mast cells (MCs) were counted in uninvolved skin adjacent to basal cell carcinomas and other dermatological disorders in adults. There was an uneven distribution of MCs in different body sites using the anti-tryptase monoclonal antibody technique. Numbers of MCs on the trunk, upper arm, and upper leg were similar, but were significantly different from those found on the lower leg and forearm. Two distinct groups were formed--proximal and distal. There were 77.0 MCs/mm2 at proximal body sites and 108.2 MCs/mm2 at distal sites. Adjusted for the adjacent diagnosis and age, this difference was consistent. The numbers of MCs in uninvolved skin adjacent to basal cell carcinomas and other dermatological disorders were not different from those in the control group. Differences in the numbers of MCs between the distal and the proximal body sites must be considered when MCs are counted for a reliable diagnosis of mastocytosis. A pilot study in patients with mastocytosis underlined the variation in the numbers of MCs in mastocytosis and normal skin, but showed a considerable overlap. The observed numbers of MCs in adults cannot be extrapolated to children. MC numbers varied significantly between proximal and distal body sites and these differences must be considered when MCs are counted for a reliable diagnosis of mastocytosis. There was a considerable overlap between the numbers of MCs in mastocytosis and normal skin.

  20. Clock drawing performance in cognitively normal elderly.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, Emily J; Santini, Veronica; Blankevoort, Christiaan G; Volkers, Karin M; Barrup, Melissa S; Byerly, Laura; Chaisson, Christine; Jefferson, Angela L; Kaplan, Edith; Green, Robert C; Stern, Robert A

    2008-05-01

    The Clock Drawing Test (CDT) is a common neuropsychological measure sensitive to cognitive changes and functional skills (e.g., driving test performance) among older adults. However, normative data have not been adequately developed. We report the distribution of CDT scores using three common scoring systems [Mendez, M. F., Ala, T., & Underwood, K. L. (1992). Development of scoring criteria for the Clock Drawing Task in Alzheimer's Disease. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 40, 1095-1099; Cahn, D. A., Salmon, D. P., Monsch, A. U., Butters, N., Wiederholt, W. C., & Corey-Bloom, J. (1996). Screening for dementia of the Alzheimer type in the community: The utility of the Clock Drawing Test. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 11(6), 529-539], among 207 cognitively normal elderly. The systems were well correlated, took little time to use, and had high inter-rater reliability. We found statistically significant differences in CDT scores based on age and WRAT-3 Reading score, a marker of education quality. We present means, standard deviations, and t- and z-scores based on these subgroups. We found that "normal" CDT performance includes a wider distribution of scores than previously reported. Our results may serve as useful comparisons for clinicians wishing to know whether their patients perform in the general range of cognitively normal elderly.

  1. Cephalometric comparison of cesarean and normal births.

    PubMed

    Goymen, Merve; Topcuoglu, Tolga; Aktan, Ali Murat; Isman, Ozlem

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare cephalometric variables of subjects with normal and cesarean births. Ninety age- and gender-matched patients, who were treated in Gaziantep University, Faculty of Dentistry Orthodontics Department were equally divided into normal and cesarean groups according to the birth methods reported by their mothers. To eliminate the negative effects of being different in terms of age and gender among parameters, control, and patient groups were matched in the present study. Pretreatment cephalometrics radiographs were used. Six measurements representing sagittal and vertical relationships were evaluated from pretreatment cephalograms using Dolphin Imaging Orthodontics Software was used in this issue by an orthodontist. Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, Student's t-test, and Mann-Whitney U-test were used for statistical comparisons. A point-nasion-B point angle (ANB) and Wits values were higher in the normal group, while sella-nasion-A point angle, sella-nasion-B point angle, Frankfort horizontal-mandibular plane angle, and gonion-gnathion-SN plane angle values were higher in the cesarean group. However, the groups showed no significant differences (P > 0.05). ANB angle and Wits values showed high correlation. Within the study limitations, the results suggest that the birth method may not have a considerable effect on the development of the craniofacial skeletal system.

  2. Cephalometric comparison of cesarean and normal births

    PubMed Central

    Goymen, Merve; Topcuoglu, Tolga; Aktan, Ali Murat; Isman, Ozlem

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to compare cephalometric variables of subjects with normal and cesarean births. Materials and Methods: Ninety age- and gender-matched patients, who were treated in Gaziantep University, Faculty of Dentistry Orthodontics Department were equally divided into normal and cesarean groups according to the birth methods reported by their mothers. To eliminate the negative effects of being different in terms of age and gender among parameters, control, and patient groups were matched in the present study. Pretreatment cephalometrics radiographs were used. Six measurements representing sagittal and vertical relationships were evaluated from pretreatment cephalograms using Dolphin Imaging Orthodontics Software was used in this issue by an orthodontist. Kolmogorov–Smirnov test, Student's t-test, and Mann–Whitney U-test were used for statistical comparisons. Results: A point-nasion-B point angle (ANB) and Wits values were higher in the normal group, while sella-nasion-A point angle, sella-nasion-B point angle, Frankfort horizontal-mandibular plane angle, and gonion-gnathion-SN plane angle values were higher in the cesarean group. However, the groups showed no significant differences (P > 0.05). ANB angle and Wits values showed high correlation. Conclusions: Within the study limitations, the results suggest that the birth method may not have a considerable effect on the development of the craniofacial skeletal system. PMID:27095896

  3. Proteoglycans in Normal and Healing Skin

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Margaret Mary; Melrose, James

    2015-01-01

    Significance: Proteoglycans have a distinct spatial localization in normal skin and are essential for the correct structural development, organization, hydration, and functional properties of this tissue. The extracellular matrix (ECM) is no longer considered to be just an inert supportive material but is a source of directive, spatial and temporal, contextual information to the cells via components such as the proteoglycans. There is a pressing need to improve our understanding of how these important molecules functionally interact with other matrix structures, cells and cellular mediators in normal skin and during wound healing. Recent Advances: New antibodies to glycosaminoglycan side chain components of skin proteoglycans have facilitated the elucidation of detailed localization patterns within skin. Other studies have revealed important proliferative activities of proteinase-generated fragments of proteoglycans and other ECM components (matricryptins). Knockout mice have further established the functional importance of skin proteoglycans in the assembly and homeostasis of the normal skin ECM. Critical Issues: Our comprehension of the molecular and structural complexity of skin as a complex, dynamic, constantly renewing, layered connective tissue is incomplete. The impact of changes in proteoglycans on skin pathology and the wound healing process is recognized as an important area of pathobiology and is an area of intense investigation. Future Directions: Advanced technology is allowing the development of new artificial skins. Recent knowledge on skin proteoglycans can be used to incorporate these molecules into useful adjunct therapies for wound healing and for maintenance of optimal tissue homeostasis in aging skin. PMID:25785238

  4. Wavelength independent normal incident quantum cascade detectors.

    PubMed

    Ravikumar, Arvind P; Sivco, Deborah; Gmachl, Claire F

    2016-10-31

    We demonstrate a novel technique for normal-incident absorption in intersubband infrared detectors by taking advantage of light scattering from the side-walls of a wet-etched mesa. We fabricate 'spiral' and 'hairpin' shaped quantum cascade detector at a peak wavelength of 6.6 μm, and compare their performance with a standard rectangular mesa. We achieve a peak responsivity of 6 mA/W for the spiral and 12 mA/W for the hairpin detectors at normal incidence, comparable to the 8.8 mA/W obtained for the mesa at 45 degree incidence. We obtain a background limited detectivity of about 3×1010 cmHz/W for the spiral and hairpin detectors at 80 K, compared to 3×108 cmHz/W for the standard mesa. This method to achieve normal incidence absorption is wavelength independent, and does not involve complicated fabrication procedures, paving the way for widespread use of intersubband detectors in sensor applications.

  5. Microbial flora of the normal esophagus.

    PubMed

    Gagliardi, D; Makihara, S; Corsi, P R; Viana, A de T; Wiczer, M V; Nakakubo, S; Mimica, L M

    1998-10-01

    The endogenous flora of the skin and some mucous membranes are well known, however, we were unable to find descriptions about normal esophageal flora in literature. We believe that knowledge about normal esophageal flora is important for therapeutic implications. We compiled data on 30 patients without infection of the oropharynx or esophagus who were admitted for an endoscopy of the upper digestive tract to determine normal esophageal flora. The samples were collected by injecting 10 ml of 0.9% physiological solution into the esophagus and oropharynx and removing it by suction. Esophageal samples from 30 patients and oropharingeal samples from 10 of these patients were collected. We identified mixed flora being Streptococcus viridans the most frequent microorganism found. Where samples from both the esophagus and oropharynx were collected, three occurrences of this same microorganism were found. We concluded that the isolation frequency of germs in the esophagus by the method used was high and the most frequently found germ was S. viridans. There is therefore a possible correlation between the flora from the oropharynx and the esophagus.

  6. Normalized methodology for medical infrared imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargas, J. V. C.; Brioschi, M. L.; Dias, F. G.; Parolin, M. B.; Mulinari-Brenner, F. A.; Ordonez, J. C.; Colman, D.

    2009-01-01

    A normalized procedure for medical infrared imaging is suggested, and illustrated by a leprosy and hepatitis C treatment follow-up, in order to investigate the effect of concurrent treatment which has not been reported before. A 50-year-old man with indeterminate leprosy and a 20-year history of hepatitis C was monitored for 587 days, starting from the day the patient received treatment for leprosy. Standard therapy for hepatitis C started 30 days later. Both visual observations and normalized infrared imaging were conducted periodically to assess the response to leprosy treatment. The primary end points were effectiveness of the method under different boundary conditions over the period, and rapid assessment of the response to leprosy treatment. The patient achieved sustained hepatitis C virological response 6 months after the end of the treatment. The normalized infrared results demonstrate the leprosy treatment success in spite of the concurrent hepatitis C treatment, since day 87, whereas repigmentation was visually assessed only after day 182, and corroborated with a skin biopsy on day 390. The method detected the effectiveness of the leprosy treatment in 87 days, whereas repigmentation started only in 182 days. Hepatitis C and leprosy treatment did not affect each other.

  7. HYPERVASCULAR LIVER LESIONS IN RADIOLOGICALLY NORMAL LIVER.

    PubMed

    Amico, Enio Campos; Alves, José Roberto; Souza, Dyego Leandro Bezerra de; Salviano, Fellipe Alexandre Macena; João, Samir Assi; Liguori, Adriano de Araújo Lima

    2017-01-01

    The hypervascular liver lesions represent a diagnostic challenge. To identify risk factors for cancer in patients with non-hemangiomatous hypervascular hepatic lesions in radiologically normal liver. This prospective study included patients with hypervascular liver lesions in radiologically normal liver. The diagnosis was made by biopsy or was presumed on the basis of radiologic stability in follow-up period of one year. Cirrhosis or patients with typical imaging characteristics of haemangioma were excluded. Eighty-eight patients were included. The average age was 42.4. The lesions were unique and were between 2-5 cm in size in most cases. Liver biopsy was performed in approximately 1/3 of cases. The lesions were benign or most likely benign in 81.8%, while cancer was diagnosed in 12.5% of cases. Univariate analysis showed that age >45 years (p< 0.001), personal history of cancer (p=0.020), presence of >3 nodules (p=0.003) and elevated alkaline phosphatase (p=0.013) were significant risk factors for cancer. It is safe to observe hypervascular liver lesions in normal liver in patients up to 45 years, normal alanine aminotransaminase, up to three nodules and no personal history of cancer. Lesion biopsies are safe in patients with atypical lesions and define the treatment to be established for most of these patients. As lesões hepáticas hipervasculares representam um desafio diagnóstico. Identificar fatores de risco para câncer em pacientes portadores de lesão hepática hipervascular não-hemangiomatosa em fígado radiologicamente normal. Estudo prospectivo que incluiu pacientes com lesões hepáticas hipervasculares em que o diagnóstico final foi obtido por exame anatomopatológico ou, presumido a partir de seguimento mínimo de um ano. Diagnóstico prévio de cirrose ou radiológico de hemangioma foram considerados critérios de exclusão. Oitenta e oito pacientes foram incluídos. A relação mulher/homem foi de 5,3/1. A idade média foi de 42,4 anos. Na

  8. Genetics Home Reference: cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... normal acute myeloid leukemia cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... expand/collapse boxes. Description Cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia (CN-AML) is one form of a cancer ...

  9. ALG13-CDG in a male with seizures, normal cognitive development, and normal transferrin isoelectric focusing.

    PubMed

    Gadomski, Therese E; Bolton, Melody; Alfadhel, Majid; Dvorak, Chris; Ogunsakin, Olalekan A; Nelson, Stephen L; Morava, Eva

    2017-10-01

    ALG13-CDG has been recently discovered as a disorder of severe developmental, intellectual and speech disability, microcephaly, visual abnormalities, seizures, hepatomegaly, coagulation abnormalities, and abnormal serumtransferrin isoelectric focusing in serum. A male with seizures, delayed motor, and speech development, but normal cognition carried a hemizygous, predicted pathogenic ALG13 variant (p.E463G). N-glycosylation studies in plasma were normal. ICAM-1 expression was decreased in patient fibroblasts, supporting the variant's pathogenicity. Adding D-galactose to the patient's fibroblast culture increased ICAM-1 expression in vitro, offering a potential treatment option in ALG13-CDG. The present report is a new example for an N-glycosylation disorder, that may present with normal transferrin isoform analysis, and also demonstrates, that CDG type I patients can have normal cognitive development. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. CT of Normal Developmental and Variant Anatomy of the Pediatric Skull: Distinguishing Trauma from Normality.

    PubMed

    Idriz, Sanjin; Patel, Jaymin H; Ameli Renani, Seyed; Allan, Rosemary; Vlahos, Ioannis

    2015-01-01

    The use of computed tomography (CT) in clinical practice has been increasing rapidly, with the number of CT examinations performed in adults and children rising by 10% per year in England. Because the radiology community strives to reduce the radiation dose associated with pediatric examinations, external factors, including guidelines for pediatric head injury, are raising expectations for use of cranial CT in the pediatric population. Thus, radiologists are increasingly likely to encounter pediatric head CT examinations in daily practice. The variable appearance of cranial sutures at different ages can be confusing for inexperienced readers of radiologic images. The evolution of multidetector CT with thin-section acquisition increases the clarity of some of these sutures, which may be misinterpreted as fractures. Familiarity with the normal anatomy of the pediatric skull, how it changes with age, and normal variants can assist in translating the increased resolution of multidetector CT into more accurate detection of fractures and confident determination of normality, thereby reducing prolonged hospitalization of children with normal developmental structures that have been misinterpreted as fractures. More important, the potential morbidity and mortality related to false-negative interpretation of fractures as normal sutures may be avoided. The authors describe the normal anatomy of all standard pediatric sutures, common variants, and sutural mimics, thereby providing an accurate and safe framework for CT evaluation of skull trauma in pediatric patients.

  11. Speckle Tracking Imaging in Normal Stress Echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Leitman, Marina; Tyomkin, Vladimir; Peleg, Eli; Zyssman, Izhak; Rosenblatt, Simcha; Sucher, Edgar; Gercenshtein, Vered; Vered, Zvi

    2017-04-01

    Exercise stress echocardiography is a widely used modality for the diagnosis and follow-up of patients with coronary artery disease. During the last decade, speckle tracking imaging has been used increasingly for accurate evaluation of cardiac function. This work aimed to assess speckle-tracking imaging parameters during nonischemic exercise stress echocardiography. During 2011 to 2014 we studied 46 patients without history of coronary artery disease, who completed exercise stress echocardiography protocol, had normal left ventricular function, a nonischemic response, and satisfactory image quality. These exams were analyzed with speckle-tracking imaging software at rest and at peak exercise. Peak strain and time-to-peak strain were measured at rest and after exercise. Clinical follow-up included a telephone contact 1 to 3 years after stress echo exam, confirming freedom from coronary events during this time. Global and regional peak strain increased following exercise. Time-to-peak global and regional strain and time-to-peak strain adjusted to the heart rate were significantly shorter in all segments after exercise. Rest-to-stress ratio of time-to-peak strain adjusted to the heart rate was 2.0 to 2.8. Global and regional peak strain rise during normal exercise echocardiography. Peak global and regional strain occur before or shortly after aortic valve closure at rest and after exercise, and the delay is more apparent at the basal segments. Time-to-peak strain normally shortens significantly during exercise; after adjustment to heart rate it shortens by a ratio of 2.0 to 2.8. These data may be useful for interpretation of future exercise stress speckle-tracking echocardiography studies. © 2016 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  12. Exercises in anatomy: the normal heart.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Robert H; Sarwark, Anne; Spicer, Diane E; Backer, Carl L

    2014-01-01

    In the first of our exercises in anatomy, created for the Multimedia Manual of the European Association of Cardiothoracic Surgery, we emphasized that thorough knowledge of intracardiac anatomy was an essential part of the training for all budding cardiac surgeons, explaining how we had used the archive of congenitally malformed hearts maintained at Lurie Children's Hospital in Chicago to prepare a series of videoclips, demonstrating the salient features of tetralogy of Fallot. In this series of videoclips, we extend our analysis of the normal heart, since for our initial exercise we had concentrated exclusively on the structure of the right ventricular outflow tract. We begin our overview of normal anatomy by emphasizing the need, in the current era, to describe the heart in attitudinally appropriate fashion. Increasingly, clinicians are demonstrating the features of the heart as it is located within the body. It is no longer satisfactory, therefore, to describe these components in a 'Valentine' fashion, as continues to be the case in most textbooks of normal or cardiac anatomy. We then emphasize the importance of the so-called morphological method, which states that structures within the heart should be defined on the basis of their own intrinsic morphology, and not according to other parts, which are themselves variable. We continue by using this concept to show how it is the appendages that serve to distinguish between the atrial chambers, while the apical trabecular components provide the features to distinguish the ventricles. We then return to the cardiac chambers, emphasizing features of surgical significance, in particular the locations of the cardiac conduction tissues. We proceed by examining the cardiac valves, and conclude by providing a detailed analysis of the septal structures. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  13. Microscopic examination of normal nail clippings.

    PubMed

    Werner, Betina; Antunes, Andre

    2013-01-01

    Nail clipping analysis for diagnosing causes of onychodystrophy other than onychomycosis is investigated to a very small extent. In order to achieve acceptance as a diagnostic method for any kind of nail abnormalities, normal microscopic parameters have to be established first. In most reported cases, nail plates were fixed in formalin with processing of the specimens with routine automated histotechnique. Fifteen pairs of normal nails were studied. One nail fragment was placed in a container with formalin, and the other was kept dry in a proper receptacle. Fixed specimens were submitted to standard automated tissue processing (formalin group) and dry specimens were directly embedded in paraffin (dry group). Several microscopic parameters were analyzed. Nail plate thickness ranged from 0.25 to 0.50 mm (mean 0.36 mm) and subungual region from 0 to 0.31 mm (mean 0.11 mm). Forty-one percent of cases presented onychokaryosis, and hypereosinophilic nuclear shadows were detected in 63%, statistically more frequent in the dry group (p=0.002). Parakeratosis was present in 86% of nails varying from 1 to 13 layers (mean 5.6). None of the nails presented fungi, neutrophils, and blood or serum collections. Bacteria were seen in 60% of specimens. Both groups yielded adequate microscopic preparations for analysis with no statistical difference in the dryness or hardness of specimens or difficulty in cutting the paraffin blocks (p=1). These microscopic findings of a normal population can be used as parameters for evaluating any cause of onychodystrophy. The dry method is faster and cheaper and yields adequate slide preparations for microscopic analysis of nail clippings.

  14. Power flow in normal human voice production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krane, Michael

    2016-11-01

    The principal mechanisms of energy utilization in voicing are quantified using a simplified model, in order to better define voice efficiency. A control volume analysis of energy utilization in phonation is presented to identify the energy transfer mechanisms in terms of their function. Conversion of subglottal airstream potential energy into useful work done (vocal fold vibration, flow work, sound radiation), and into heat (sound radiation absorbed by the lungs, glottal jet dissipation) are described. An approximate numerical model is used to compute the contributions of each of these mechanisms, as a function of subglottal pressure, for normal phonation. Acknowledge support of NIH Grant 2R01DC005642-10A1.

  15. MRI appearance of normal articular cartilage.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, Douglas W

    2011-05-01

    At each joint, the extracellular matrix of cartilage is arranged in a complex and characteristic organization that is specific for that joint. This structure exerts a strong influence on the appearance of magnetic resonance (MR) images through orientation-related alterations in T2 decay. As a result, the MR appearance of cartilage at each joint is predictable and specific for that joint. The diagnostic utility of MR imaging for evaluating cartilage is enhanced when the acquisition and review of the images is informed by an understanding of this relationship between normal structure and the MR appearance of cartilage. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Renal-vertebral index in normal children.

    PubMed Central

    Bacopoulos, C; Papahatzi-Kalmadi, M; Karpathios, T; Thomaidis, T; Matsaniotis, N

    1981-01-01

    The renal-vertebral index is a simple method of evaluating the renal length in children and is convenient for everyday clinical work. The results of 822 normal children aged between 3 days and 14 years are reported. Infants of up to 1 year were found to have an index of about 4 to 5, pre-school children are an index of 3 1/2 to 4 1/2, and schoolchildren an index of 3 1/2 to 4. There was no significant difference in renal-vertebral index between boys and girls. Images Fig. 1 PMID:7259261

  17. Normal Modes of Black Hole Accretion Disks

    SciTech Connect

    Ortega-Rodriguez, Manuel; Silbergleit, Alexander S.; Wagoner, Robert V.; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /KIPAC, Menlo Park

    2006-11-07

    This paper studies the hydrodynamical problem of normal modes of small adiabatic oscillations of relativistic barotropic thin accretion disks around black holes (and compact weakly magnetic neutron stars). Employing WKB techniques, we obtain the eigen frequencies and eigenfunctions of the modes for different values of the mass and angular momentum of the central black hole. We discuss the properties of the various types of modes and examine the role of viscosity, as it appears to render some of the modes unstable to rapid growth.

  18. Minimal normal measurement models of quantum instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellonpää, Juha-Pekka; Tukiainen, Mikko

    2017-06-01

    In this work we study the minimal normal measurement models of quantum instruments. We show that usually the apparatus' Hilbert space in such a model is unitarily isomorphic to the minimal Stinespring dilation space of the instrument. However, if the Hilbert space of the system is infinite-dimensional and the multiplicities of the outcomes of the associated observable (POVM) are all infinite then this may not be the case. In these pathological cases the minimal apparatus' Hilbert space is shown to be unitarily isomorphic to the instrument's minimal dilation space augmented by one extra dimension.

  19. Renal malignancies with normal excretory urograms

    SciTech Connect

    Kass, D.A.; Hricak, H.; Davidson, A.J.

    1983-10-01

    Four patients with malignant renal masses showed no abnormality of excretory urograms with tomography. Of the four lesions, two were primary renal cell carcinomas, one was a metastatic focus from a contralateral renal cell carcinoma, and one was a metastatic lesion from rectal adenocarcinoma. A normal excretory urogram should not be considered sufficient to exclude a clinically suspected malignant renal mass. In such an instance, diagnostic evaluation should be pursued using a method capable of topographic anatomic display, such as computed tomography or sonography.

  20. Normal pressure hydrocephalus: did publications alter management?

    PubMed Central

    Vanneste, J; van Acker, R

    1990-01-01

    Forty six Dutch neurologists and neurosurgeons were interviewed to evaluate the clinical value of research articles on normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH). From this survey it appears that most clinicians still limit investigations to psychometry, CSF-tap test(s), and cisternography. The main reasons for not using other techniques were: their invasiveness, technical complexity, poor availability, lack of time and doubt on their additional predictive value. There is an obvious discrepancy between the quantity of publications on NPH and their impact and their ability to assist clinicians in selecting potential NPH patients for a shunt. PMID:2391518

  1. Normalized Compression Distance of Multisets with Applications

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Andrew R.; Vitányi, Paul M.B.

    2015-01-01

    Pairwise normalized compression distance (NCD) is a parameter-free, feature-free, alignment-free, similarity metric based on compression. We propose an NCD of multisets that is also metric. Previously, attempts to obtain such an NCD failed. For classification purposes it is superior to the pairwise NCD in accuracy and implementation complexity. We cover the entire trajectory from theoretical underpinning to feasible practice. It is applied to biological (stem cell, organelle transport) and OCR classification questions that were earlier treated with the pairwise NCD. With the new method we achieved significantly better results. The theoretic foundation is Kolmogorov complexity. PMID:26352998

  2. Advances in target normal sheath acceleration theory

    SciTech Connect

    Passoni, M.; Sgattoni, A.; Perego, C.; Batani, D.

    2013-06-15

    A theoretical model of the Target Normal Sheath Acceleration (TNSA) process, able to go beyond the limits of available descriptions, is developed. It allows to achieve a more satisfactory interpretation of TNSA. The theory, also supported by two dimensional particle-in-cell simulations, elucidates the role played by the main laser and target parameters. Comparison between model predictions and experimental data related to the target thickness dependence of the maximum ion energy is discussed, showing satisfactory agreement. The model can be used as a simple but effective tool to guide the design of future experiments.

  3. Normal mode behaviours in solar prominence plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gohain, M.; Karmakar, P. K.

    2017-05-01

    The evolutionary dynamics of normal modes, non-adiabatic magneto-hydro-dynamic (MHD) waves, in the prominence plasmas in the presence of kinematic viscosity and inertia-dependent species stratification is herein explored. It judiciously implements a new energy equation devised to describe optically thin radiation losses, thermal conduction, viscosity, heating mechanisms, and so forth. The dispersion analysis demonstrates that the thermal conduction plays as a primary sink for both the wave classes of fast and slow spectral groups. Finally, asynoptic indication to further refinements and scopes is concisely stressed.

  4. Pelvic Radiation and Normal Tissue Toxicity.

    PubMed

    Nicholas, Sarah; Chen, Linda; Choflet, Amanda; Fader, Amanda; Guss, Zachary; Hazell, Sarah; Song, Daniel Y; Tran, Phuoc T; Viswanathan, Akila N

    2017-10-01

    Radiation is a component of treatment for many pelvic malignancies, most often originating in the gynecologic, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary systems. Therefore, the management of acute and long-term side effects is an important part of practice as a radiation oncologist, and limiting morbidity is a primary goal. Toxicities vary and are dependent on treatment techniques. Advances in radiation delivery, imaging, and knowledge of underlying biologic determinants of radiation-induced normal tissue toxicity can guide treatment of acute and long-term side effects from pelvic radiation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Acoustics measurements in normal jet impingement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleis, S. J.

    1977-01-01

    The dependence of far field acoustic measurements for a uniform jet on nozzle to plate spacing for small dimensionless spacings (h/d - 0.75 to 3.0) was investigated. Spectra from a real time analyzer were read and processed by an HP 2116 minicomputer in on-line mode. Similar data was generated for a fully developed pipe flow exit condition jet to compare with other investigations. The data base for normal jet impingement was extended to smaller values of nozzle to plate spacing. The effects of slight noise heating (30 deg rise) of the jet on the far field noise produced by the impinging jet are demonstrated.

  6. [Differential diagnosis of juvenile normal pressure glaucoma].

    PubMed

    Geidel, K; Wiedemann, P; Unterlauft, J D

    2016-12-05

    The case of a 50-year-old female patient with autosomal dominant optic atrophy is described, which was initially misinterpreted and treated as normal pressure glaucoma. Bilateral partial optic atrophy can be diagnosed by chance with mild manifestation of symptoms and can initially be misinterpreted as glaucoma. Taking a detailed medical history and performing a thorough optic nerve head examination can raise the suspicion of hereditary optic atrophy. The reliable detection of autosomal dominant optic atrophy by genetic investigations should be strived for in such cases.

  7. Hereditary angioedema with normal C1 inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Bork, Konrad

    2013-11-01

    Until recently it was assumed that hereditary angioedema was a disease that results exclusively from a genetic deficiency of the C1 inhibitor. In 2000, families with hereditary angioedema, normal C1 inhibitor activity, and protein in plasma were described. Since then, numerous patients and families with that condition have been reported. Most of the patients were women. In many of the affected women, oral contraceptives, hormone replacement therapy containing estrogens, and pregnancies triggered the clinical symptoms. In some families mutations in the coagulation factor XII (Hageman factor) gene were detected.

  8. Normal modes of a compound drop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saffren, M.; Elleman, D. D.; Rhim, W. K.

    1982-01-01

    The modes are characterized by their frequency, the attendant displacement of fluid boundaries, and the flow pressure fields within the fluids. The drops consist of three fluids; a core fluid, a fluid shell surrounding the core, and a host fluid surrounding the shell. These fluids are assumed to be inviscid and incompressible, and the core and the shell to be concentric. The theory is obtained by linearization of the equations of fluid motion to the lowest order of nonlinearity that yields the normal modes. Numerical values of mode frequencies and the associated relative displacements of the fluid boundaries are presented for several specific systems, and the results compared with observations.

  9. Normal conducting transfer coil for SQUID NDE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondo, Tadayuki; Itozaki, Hideo

    2004-03-01

    We have investigated the performance of a normal conducting transfer coil (n-coil) for nondestructive evaluation with a SQUID. The transfer efficiency, which depends on frequency and wire impedance, has been calculated for several coil designs to determine the performance of the n-coil. We have fabricated a 30 mm diameter n-coil and examined its performance with a high-TC SQUID. If both the pick-up coil and the input coil have 50 turns, then at high frequencies the magnetic field produced by the input coil becomes 50% of the magnetic field at the pick-up coil, with a low cut-off frequency of 2 kHz. The experimental result agrees well with a numerical calculation, which suggests a magnitude of magnetic field detected by our SQUID equal to the magnitude of the quasi-uniform magnetic field produced by the input coil. We also confirmed that the thermal noise of the n-coil, produced by its normal resistance, does not become higher than the intrinsic magnetic field noise of the SQUID.

  10. Permeability of normal versus carious dentin.

    PubMed

    Pashley, E L; Talman, R; Horner, J A; Pashley, D H

    1991-10-01

    Although a number of reports have been published demonstrating that carious dentin is less permeable than normal dentin, these reports have been qualitative rather than quantitative. The purpose of this in vitro study was to apply a quantitative technique to the study of the permeability of carious human teeth before and after excavation, before and after removal of the smear layer and before and after preparation of a control cavity of similar size and depth in normal dentin subjected to the same measurements, for comparative purposes. Dentin permeability was measured as a hydraulic conductance. The permeability values measured at each step in the protocol were expressed as a percent of the maximum permeability of both cavities, permitting each tooth the serve as its own control. Carious lesions exhibited a slight degree of permeability (2.3 +/- 0.6% of controls) which remained unchanged after excavation of the lesions. Removal of the smear layer in the excavated carious lesions increased the permeability significantly to 6.9 +/- 3.2%. Preparation of a control cavity of the same area and depth increased the permeability slightly. Removal of its smear layer increased the permeability of the dentin 91%. These results confirm previous qualitative studies that carious dentin, even after excavation and removal of the smear layer has a very low permeability.

  11. Pitch strength of normal and dysphonic voices

    PubMed Central

    Shrivastav, Rahul; Eddins, David A.; Anand, Supraja

    2012-01-01

    Two sounds with the same pitch may vary from each other based on saliency of their pitch sensation. This perceptual attribute is called “pitch strength.” The study of voice pitch strength may be important in quantifying of normal and pathological qualities. The present study investigated how pitch strength varies across normal and dysphonic voices. A set of voices (vowel /a/) selected from the Kay Elemetrics Disordered Voice Database served as the stimuli. These stimuli demonstrated a wide range of voice quality. Ten listeners judged the pitch strength of these stimuli in an anchored magnitude estimation task. On a given trial, listeners heard three different stimuli. The first stimulus represented very low pitch strength (wide-band noise), the second stimulus consisted of the target voice and the third stimulus represented very high pitch strength (pure tone). Listeners estimated pitch strength of the target voice by positioning a continuous slider labeled with values between 0 and 1, reflecting the two anchor stimuli. Results revealed that listeners can judge pitch strength reliably in dysphonic voices. Moderate to high correlations with perceptual judgments of voice quality suggest that pitch strength may contribute to voice quality judgments. PMID:22423721

  12. A Normalization Framework for Emotional Attention.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xilin; Japee, Shruti; Safiullah, Zaid; Mlynaryk, Nicole; Ungerleider, Leslie G

    2016-11-01

    The normalization model of attention proposes that attention can affect performance by response- or contrast-gain changes, depending on the size of the stimulus and attention field. Here, we manipulated the attention field by emotional valence, negative faces versus positive faces, while holding stimulus size constant in a spatial cueing task. We observed changes in the cueing effect consonant with changes in response gain for negative faces and contrast gain for positive faces. Neuroimaging experiments confirmed that subjects' attention fields were narrowed for negative faces and broadened for positive faces. Importantly, across subjects, the self-reported emotional strength of negative faces and positive faces correlated, respectively, both with response- and contrast-gain changes and with primary visual cortex (V1) narrowed and broadened attention fields. Effective connectivity analysis showed that the emotional valence-dependent attention field was closely associated with feedback from the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) to V1. These findings indicate a crucial involvement of DLPFC in the normalization processes of emotional attention.

  13. Gaze aversion in autistic and normal children.

    PubMed

    Richer, J M; Coss, R G

    1976-03-01

    Autistic children rarely engage in eye contact, and whilst observation suggests this is due to a specific avoidance of eye contact, some experimental studies have challenged this. In this study the effects on autistic and normal children of an adult looking at them with both eyes, with one eye covered, or apparently not looking at them (both eyes covered) were investigated. As expected, autistic children looked more at the adult with his eyes covered, and also engaged in less flight behaviour. They looked less when two eyes were exposed than one, confirming the potency of the two-eye pattern in provoking gaze aversion. Normal children engaged in much more eye contact than the autistic children, with fewer flight behaviours and stereotypies, supporting the hypothesis that autistic children are predominatly flight motivated. Other, sometimes conflicting, results of previous studies are discussed. Teachers and nurses are recommened not to make efforts to engage autistic children even in friendly eye contact as this provokes more flight behaviour.

  14. Not Normal: the uncertainties of scientific measurements

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Judging the significance and reproducibility of quantitative research requires a good understanding of relevant uncertainties, but it is often unclear how well these have been evaluated and what they imply. Reported scientific uncertainties were studied by analysing 41 000 measurements of 3200 quantities from medicine, nuclear and particle physics, and interlaboratory comparisons ranging from chemistry to toxicology. Outliers are common, with 5σ disagreements up to five orders of magnitude more frequent than naively expected. Uncertainty-normalized differences between multiple measurements of the same quantity are consistent with heavy-tailed Student’s t-distributions that are often almost Cauchy, far from a Gaussian Normal bell curve. Medical research uncertainties are generally as well evaluated as those in physics, but physics uncertainty improves more rapidly, making feasible simple significance criteria such as the 5σ discovery convention in particle physics. Contributions to measurement uncertainty from mistakes and unknown problems are not completely unpredictable. Such errors appear to have power-law distributions consistent with how designed complex systems fail, and how unknown systematic errors are constrained by researchers. This better understanding may help improve analysis and meta-analysis of data, and help scientists and the public have more realistic expectations of what scientific results imply. PMID:28280557

  15. Terahertz normal mode relaxation in pentaerythritol tetranitrate.

    PubMed

    Pereverzev, Andrey; Sewell, Thomas D

    2011-01-07

    Normal vibrational modes for a three-dimensional defect-free crystal of the high explosive pentaerythritol tetranitrate were obtained in the framework of classical mechanics using a previously published unreactive potential-energy surface [J. Phys. Chem. B 112, 734 (2008)]. Using these results the vibrational density of states was obtained for the entire vibrational frequency range. Relaxation of selectively excited terahertz-active modes was studied using isochoric-isoergic (NVE) molecular dynamics simulations for energy and density conditions corresponding to room temperature and atmospheric pressure. Dependence of the relaxation time on the initial modal excitation was considered for five excitation energies between 10 and 500 kT and shown to be relatively weak. The terahertz absorption spectrum was constructed directly using linewidths obtained from the relaxation times of the excited modes for the case of 10 kT excitation. The spectrum shows reasonably good agreement with experimental results. Dynamics of redistribution of the excited mode energy among the other normal modes was also studied. The results indicate that, for the four terahertz-active initially excited modes considered, there is a small subset of zero wave vector (k = 0) modes that preferentially absorb the energy on a few-picosecond time scale. The majority of the excitation energy, however, is transferred nonspecifically to the bath modes of the system.

  16. Proximity effect between superconductivity and normal metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meissner, H.

    1972-01-01

    The SNS junctions were limited to having gold (n) layers of less than 3000 A in order to avoid having the tin (S) films become normal under the influence of the signal current in the gold. The gold layer was alloyed with 10 wt% copper to shorten its electronic mean free path, increasing the tin layer critical current while decreasing the Josephson critical current. It was also found that a previously reported anomalous voltage shift in the presence of I2 is caused by the tin being driven normal. After deposition, the samples were transferred to a conventional cryostat to provide better thermal contact to the films. This reduction of heating in the films produced more linear I-V characteristics and a change in the constant voltage current gain. In order to achieve power gain the SNS device must be operated at lower temperatures were the effects of fluctuations are less and be constructed such that the input resistance is much reduced and the dynamic output resistance increased. A geometry is proposed using a more sophisticated evaporator.

  17. The variability problem of normal human walking.

    PubMed

    Simonsen, Erik B; Alkjær, Tine

    2012-03-01

    Previous investigations have suggested considerable inter-individual variability in the time course pattern of net joint moments during normal human walking, although the limited sample sizes precluded statistical analyses. The purpose of the present study was to obtain joint moment patterns from a group of normal subjects and to test whether or not the expected differences would prove to be statistically significant. Fifteen healthy male subjects were recorded on video while they walked across two force platforms. Ten kinematic and kinetic parameters were selected and input to a statistical cluster analysis to determine whether or not the 15 subjects could be divided into different 'families' (clusters) of walking strategy. The net joint moments showed a variability corroborating earlier reports. The cluster analysis showed that the 15 subjects could be grouped into two clusters of 5 and 10 subjects, respectively. Five parameters differed significantly, so the group of 5 subjects was characterized by (1) a higher peak knee joint extensor moment, (2) more flexed knee joint angle at heel strike, (3) during the whole stance phase, (4) lower peak knee joint flexor moment and (5) lower ankle joint angle at flat foot position. Calculation of bone-on-bone forces in the knee joint showed a value of 64 N/kg body weight in the K+ group and 55 N/kg in the K- group (p<0.05). It is unknown if differences of similar magnitude contribute to early joint degeneration in some individuals while not in others.

  18. Normalization of experimental electron cross sections.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avdonina, N.; Felfli, Z.; Msezane, A. Z.

    1997-10-01

    Absolute experimental electron-impact differential cross sections (DCSs) can be obtained through an extrapolation of the relative generalized oscillator strength (GOS) values at some given impact energy E to zero momentum transfer squared K^2, the optical oscillator strength (OOS) [1]. We propose to normalize the relative experimental DCS data to the corresponding OOS value by extrapolating the GOS to K^2 = 0 without involving the nonphysical region. This is possible only by simultaneously increasing E and decreasing K^2 so that K^2 = 0 corresponds to E = ∞. Thus is avoided a divergence of fracd(GOS)d(K^2) at K^2 = 0 [2]. Another advantage of our method is that, over a wide range of small K^2 values the contribution of higher order terms of the Born series to the GOS function is negligible, contrary to the constant E case in which even order K^2 terms are non-Born [2]. Thus first Born approximation can be used to normalize relative experimental DCSs to the OOS. This method is applicable to both the excitation and ionization of atomic and molecular targets by electron impact. The latter case generalizes the method of ref. [3]. ^*Supported by AFOSR, NSF and DoE Div. of Chemical Sciences, OBES. ^1 E. N. Lassettre et al., J. Chem. Phys \\underline50, (1829) ^2 W. M. Huo, J. Chem. Phys \\underline71, 1593 (1979) ^3 A. Saenz, W Weyrich and P. Froelich, J. Phys. B \\underline29, 97 (1996)

  19. Mach bands explained by response normalization

    PubMed Central

    Kingdom, Frederick A. A.

    2014-01-01

    Mach bands are the illusory dark and bright bars seen at the foot and knee of a luminance trapezoid. First demonstrated by Ernst Mach in the latter part of the 19th century, Mach bands are a test bed not only for models of brightness illusions but of spatial vision in general. Up until 50 years ago the dominant explanation of Mach Bands was that they were caused by lateral inhibition among retinal neurons. More recently, the dominant idea has been that Mach bands are a consequence of a visual process that generates a sparse, binary description of the image in terms of “edges” and “bars”. Another recent explanation is that Mach bands result from learned expectations about the pattern of light typically found on sharply curved surfaces. In keeping with recent multi-scale filtering accounts of brightness illusions as well as current physiology, I show however that Mach bands are most simply explained by response normalization, whereby the gains of early visual channels are adjusted on a local basis to make their responses more equal. I show that a simple one-dimensional model of response normalization explains the range of conditions under which Mach bands occur, and as importantly, the conditions under which they do not occur. PMID:25408643

  20. Metals combustion in normal gravity and microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinberg, Theodore A.; Wilson, D. Bruce; Benz, Frank J.

    1993-01-01

    The study of the combustion characteristics of metallic materials has been an ongoing area of research at the NASA White Sands Test Facility (WSTF). This research has been in support of both government and industrial operations and deals not only with the combustion of specific metallic materials but also with the relative flammabilities of these materials under similar conditions. Since many of the metallic materials that are characterized at WSTF for aerospace applications are to be used in microgravity environments, it was apparent that the testing of these materials needed to proceed in a microgravity environment. It was believed that burning metallic materials in a microgravity environment would allow the evaluation of the validity of applying normal gravity combustion tests to characterize metallic materials to be used in microgravity environments. It was also anticipated that microgravity testing would provide insight into the general combustion process of metallic materials. The availability of the NASA Lewis Research Center's (LeRC) 2.2-second drop tower provided the necessary facility to accomplish the microgravity portion of the testing while the normal gravity testing was conducted at NASA WSTF. The tests, both at LeRC and WSTF, were conducted in the same instrumented system and utilized the standard metal flammability test of upward propagation burning of cylindrical rod samples.

  1. Water Collisions with Normal and Parahydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drouin, Brian J.; Pearson, John C.; Wiesenfeld, Laurent; Faure, Alexandre

    2011-06-01

    Previous pressure broadening results for the normal hydrogen/water system displayed a dramatic reduction in the broadening at low temperature. Theoretical predictions, the basis for which are calculated collisional excitation rates, indicated stronger excitation, with a steady increase in the broadening as the temperature drops. Due to this disagreement, concerns were raised about the stability of the the ortho/para hydrogen ratio (OPR) in the apparatus^1. The development of a modified injector, as well as improved optics and a parahydrogen generator, have enabled these concerns to be thoroughly investigated for the 556 GHz transition of water. The modified injector has been shown to eliminate the bias between gas and cell temperature. The improved optics allow much better signal-to-noise ratios with smaller amounts of water. Furthermore, a reduction of water injected into the system was found to be critical to stabilize the OPR, which was verified to be dependent upon several system variables. Preparation of parahydrogen in an exterior vessel was useful for testing the OPR stability and full data sets of both parahydrogen and normal hydrogen water broadening at 556 GHz have been collected. The newest results show good qualitative agreement with theory, with the dramatic decreases of broadening at low temperature no longer evident. Other water transitions near 1 THz are also under investigation. We will discuss the new experimental procedures, the experimental results and compare with recent theoretical work. ^1 A.F. Krupnov, Phys. Rev. A 82(3) 036703, 2010.

  2. Marginalization in neural circuits with divisive normalization

    PubMed Central

    Beck, J.M.; Latham, P.E.; Pouget, A.

    2011-01-01

    A wide range of computations performed by the nervous system involves a type of probabilistic inference known as marginalization. This computation comes up in seemingly unrelated tasks, including causal reasoning, odor recognition, motor control, visual tracking, coordinate transformations, visual search, decision making, and object recognition, to name just a few. The question we address here is: how could neural circuits implement such marginalizations? We show that when spike trains exhibit a particular type of statistics – associated with constant Fano factors and gain-invariant tuning curves, as is often reported in vivo – some of the more common marginalizations can be achieved with networks that implement a quadratic nonlinearity and divisive normalization, the latter being a type of nonlinear lateral inhibition that has been widely reported in neural circuits. Previous studies have implicated divisive normalization in contrast gain control and attentional modulation. Our results raise the possibility that it is involved in yet another, highly critical, computation: near optimal marginalization in a remarkably wide range of tasks. PMID:22031877

  3. Vortex Reconnection in Normal and Superfluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koplik, Joel

    An example of vortex reconnection is shown in a time sequence in Fig. 1, wherein two distinct vortex filaments in a fluid move together, merge, and then divide into two or more filaments moving away, with part of one initial filament connected to part of the other. The physics underlying this example [1] will be presented later, but the key feature is the evident change in the topology of the vortices. In this lecture, we will discuss vortex reconnection in both normal and superfluids, emphasizing the relevance of the process to their respective turbulent flows, the similarities between the two cases, and the computational issues. The lecture is aimed at a fairly general audience: no detailed knowledge of fluid mechanics is assumed beyond a nodding acquaintance with the Navier-Stokes equation, and nothing about superfluidity beyond the idea of a two-fluid system with an quantum-mechanically condensed component, and a willingness to accept the Gross-Pitaevskii model for the latter. My emp hasis will be on the superfluid case, and the reconnection process in normal fluids is discussed in more detail in the cited literature. My original work reviewed here was done in collaboration with Herbert Levine. Related and more recent work along these lines is described in the lectures by Adams and Roberts in this volume.

  4. Quasi-normal frequencies: key analytic results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boonserm, Petarpa; Visser, Matt

    2011-03-01

    The study of exact quasi-normal modes [QNMs], and their associated quasi-normal frequencies [QNFs], has had a long and convoluted history — replete with many rediscoveries of previously known results. In this article we shall collect and survey a number of known analytic results, and develop several new analytic results — specifically we shall provide several new QNF results and estimates, in a form amenable for comparison with the extant literature. Apart from their intrinsic interest, these exact and approximate results serve as a backdrop and a consistency check on ongoing efforts to find general model-independent estimates for QNFs, and general model-independent bounds on transmission probabilities. Our calculations also provide yet another physics application of the Lambert W function. These ideas have relevance to fields as diverse as black hole physics, (where they are related to the damped oscillations of astrophysical black holes, to greybody factors for the Hawking radiation, and to more speculative state-counting models for the Bekenstein entropy), to quantum field theory (where they are related to Casimir energies in unbounded systems), through to condensed matter physics, (where one may literally be interested in an electron tunnelling through a physical barrier).

  5. A Normalization Framework for Emotional Attention

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xilin; Japee, Shruti; Safiullah, Zaid; Ungerleider, Leslie G.

    2016-01-01

    The normalization model of attention proposes that attention can affect performance by response- or contrast-gain changes, depending on the size of the stimulus and attention field. Here, we manipulated the attention field by emotional valence, negative faces versus positive faces, while holding stimulus size constant in a spatial cueing task. We observed changes in the cueing effect consonant with changes in response gain for negative faces and contrast gain for positive faces. Neuroimaging experiments confirmed that subjects’ attention fields were narrowed for negative faces and broadened for positive faces. Importantly, across subjects, the self-reported emotional strength of negative faces and positive faces correlated, respectively, both with response- and contrast-gain changes and with primary visual cortex (V1) narrowed and broadened attention fields. Effective connectivity analysis showed that the emotional valence-dependent attention field was closely associated with feedback from the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) to V1. These findings indicate a crucial involvement of DLPFC in the normalization processes of emotional attention. PMID:27870851

  6. Normal and Pathologic Concentrations of Uremic Toxins

    PubMed Central

    Duranton, Flore; Cohen, Gerald; De Smet, Rita; Rodriguez, Mariano; Jankowski, Joachim; Vanholder, Raymond

    2012-01-01

    An updated review of the existing knowledge regarding uremic toxins facilitates the design of experimental studies. We performed a literature search and found 621 articles about uremic toxicity published after a 2003 review of this topic. Eighty-seven records provided serum or blood measurements of one or more solutes in patients with CKD. These records described 32 previously known uremic toxins and 56 newly reported solutes. The articles most frequently reported concentrations of β2-microglobulin, indoxyl sulfate, homocysteine, uric acid, and parathyroid hormone. We found most solutes (59%) in only one report. Compared with previous results, more recent articles reported higher uremic concentrations of many solutes, including carboxymethyllysine, cystatin C, and parathyroid hormone. However, five solutes had uremic concentrations less than 10% of the originally reported values. Furthermore, the uremic concentrations of four solutes did not exceed their respective normal concentrations, although they had been previously described as uremic retention solutes. In summary, this review extends the classification of uremic retention solutes and their normal and uremic concentrations, and it should aid the design of experiments to study the biologic effects of these solutes in CKD. PMID:22626821

  7. [Neuroethics (I): moral pathways in normal brain].

    PubMed

    Álvaro-González, Luis C

    2014-03-01

    Morality is made of rules and values that guide human behavior. They barely change among different cultures. Social accomplishments are the result of moral development, due to a taint of fairness which pervades any human activity. The moral functions are the consequence of evolution and have their own specific neural circuits. To describe their appearance, starting and underlying mechanisms in the normal brain. Moral responses are basically homogeneous. They are linked to the emotional development, as much basic and individual (fear, wrath) as social (compassion, justice). Their emergence is the result of the emotional dichotomies pleasure/pain and reward/punishment, which lead to the basic moral dichotomy good/bad. For their working it is required the running of the prefrontal cortex (ventromedian and dorsolateral), the anterior cingular cortex and the superior temporal sulcus, that asses and elaborate and utilitarian moral response; and also the insula, the amygdale and the hypothalamus, that perform a quicker and emotionally rooted response. In addition, the mirror neuronal system (fronto-parietal) enables motor learning and empathy, linking this factor to the theory of mind. Moral sense and its responses underlay the complex social development that humans have reached and enjoyed. Thus opens ways for improving benefits in human groups and individuals alike. In addition, the knowledge of the normal function of the moral circuits is permeating and influencing the many areas of neuroculture.

  8. Improved VCF normalization for accurate VCF comparison.

    PubMed

    Bayat, Arash; Gaëta, Bruno; Ignjatovic, Aleksandar; Parameswaran, Sri

    2017-04-01

    The Variant Call Format (VCF) is widely used to store data about genetic variation. Variant calling workflows detect potential variants in large numbers of short sequence reads generated by DNA sequencing and report them in VCF format. To evaluate the accuracy of variant callers, it is critical to correctly compare their output against a reference VCF file containing a gold standard set of variants. However, comparing VCF files is a complicated task as an individual genomic variant can be represented in several different ways and is therefore not necessarily reported in a unique way by different software. We introduce a VCF normalization method called Best Alignment Normalisation (BAN) that results in more accurate VCF file comparison. BAN applies all the variations in a VCF file to the reference genome to create a sample genome, and then recalls the variants by aligning this sample genome back with the reference genome. Since the purpose of BAN is to get an accurate result at the time of VCF comparison, we define a better normalization method as the one resulting in less disagreement between the outputs of different VCF comparators. The BAN Linux bash script along with required software are publicly available on https://sites.google.com/site/banadf16. A.Bayat@unsw.edu.au. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  9. Not Normal: the uncertainties of scientific measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, David C.

    2017-01-01

    Judging the significance and reproducibility of quantitative research requires a good understanding of relevant uncertainties, but it is often unclear how well these have been evaluated and what they imply. Reported scientific uncertainties were studied by analysing 41 000 measurements of 3200 quantities from medicine, nuclear and particle physics, and interlaboratory comparisons ranging from chemistry to toxicology. Outliers are common, with 5σ disagreements up to five orders of magnitude more frequent than naively expected. Uncertainty-normalized differences between multiple measurements of the same quantity are consistent with heavy-tailed Student's t-distributions that are often almost Cauchy, far from a Gaussian Normal bell curve. Medical research uncertainties are generally as well evaluated as those in physics, but physics uncertainty improves more rapidly, making feasible simple significance criteria such as the 5σ discovery convention in particle physics. Contributions to measurement uncertainty from mistakes and unknown problems are not completely unpredictable. Such errors appear to have power-law distributions consistent with how designed complex systems fail, and how unknown systematic errors are constrained by researchers. This better understanding may help improve analysis and meta-analysis of data, and help scientists and the public have more realistic expectations of what scientific results imply.

  10. Normal state of metallic hydrogen sulfide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudryashov, N. A.; Kutukov, A. A.; Mazur, E. A.

    2017-02-01

    A generalized theory of the normal properties of metals in the case of electron-phonon (EP) systems with a nonconstant density of electron states has been used to study the normal state of the SH3 and SH2 phases of hydrogen sulfide at different pressures. The frequency dependence of the real Re Σ (ω) and imaginary ImΣ (ω) parts of the self-energy Σ (ω) part (SEP) of the Green's function of the electron Σ (ω), real part Re Z (ω), and imaginary part Im Z (ω) of the complex renormalization of the mass of the electron; the real part Re χ (ω) and the imaginary part Imχ (ω) of the complex renormalization of the chemical potential; and the density of electron states N (ɛ) renormalized by strong electron-phonon interaction have been calculated. Calculations have been carried out for the stable orthorhombic structure (space group Im3¯ m) of the hydrogen sulfide SH3 for three values of the pressure P = 170, 180, and 225 GPa; and for an SH2 structure with a symmetry of I4/ mmm ( D4 h1¯7) for three values of pressure P = 150, 180, and 225 GP at temperature T = 200 K.

  11. Transfer zones in listric normal fault systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bose, Shamik

    Listric normal faults are common in passive margin settings where sedimentary units are detached above weaker lithological units, such as evaporites or are driven by basal structural and stratigraphic discontinuities. The geometries and styles of faulting vary with the types of detachment and form landward and basinward dipping fault systems. Complex transfer zones therefore develop along the terminations of adjacent faults where deformation is accommodated by secondary faults, often below seismic resolution. The rollover geometry and secondary faults within the hanging wall of the major faults also vary with the styles of faulting and contribute to the complexity of the transfer zones. This study tries to understand the controlling factors for the formation of the different styles of listric normal faults and the different transfer zones formed within them, by using analog clay experimental models. Detailed analyses with respect to fault orientation, density and connectivity have been performed on the experiments in order to gather insights on the structural controls and the resulting geometries. A new high resolution 3D laser scanning technology has been introduced to scan the surfaces of the clay experiments for accurate measurements and 3D visualizations. Numerous examples from the Gulf of Mexico have been included to demonstrate and geometrically compare the observations in experiments and real structures. A salt cored convergent transfer zone from the South Timbalier Block 54, offshore Louisiana has been analyzed in detail to understand the evolutionary history of the region, which helps in deciphering the kinematic growth of similar structures in the Gulf of Mexico. The dissertation is divided into three chapters, written in a journal article format, that deal with three different aspects in understanding the listric normal fault systems and the transfer zones so formed. The first chapter involves clay experimental models to understand the fault patterns in

  12. On determining the cluster abundance normalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierpaoli, Elena; Borgani, Stefano; Scott, Douglas; White, Martin

    2003-06-01

    Different determinations currently suggest scattered values for the power spectrum normalization on the scale of galaxy clusters, σ8. Here we concentrate on the constraints coming from the X-ray temperature and luminosity functions (XTF and XLF), and investigate several possible sources of discrepancies in the results. We conclude that the main source of error in both methods is the mass scaling relation involved, in particular the way its intrinsic scatter and systematic normalization are treated. For temperature-derived constraints, we use a sample adapted from the Highest X-ray Flux Galaxy Cluster Sample (HIFLUGCS), and test for several sources of systematic error. We parametrize the mass-temperature relation with an overall factor T*, which varies between approximately 1.5 and 1.9 in the literature, with simulations typically giving lower results than empirically derived estimates. After marginalizing over this range of T*, we obtain a 68 per cent confidence range of σ8= 0.77+0.05-0.04 for a standard Λ-cold dark matter (ΛCDM) model. Most other determinations have chosen a single value for T*, and hence have neglected an important source of uncertainty. For luminosity-derived constraints we use the XLF from the REFLEX survey and explore how sensitive the final results are to the details of the mass-luminosity, M-L, conversion. Assuming a uniform systematic uncertainty of +/-20 per cent in the amplitude of the mass-luminosity relation by Reiprich & Böhringer, we derive σ8= 0.79+0.06-0.07 for the same standard ΛCDM model. Although the XTF- and XLF-derived constraints agree very well with each other, we emphasize that such results can change by approximately 10-15 per cent, depending on how uncertainties in the L-T-M conversions are interpreted and included in the analysis. We point out that in order to achieve precision cosmology on σ8 using cluster abundance, it is first important to separate the uncertainty in the scaling relation into its intrinsic and

  13. Modeling seismic noise by normal mode summation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gualtieri, L.; Stutzmann, E.; Capdeville, Y.; Ardhuin, F.; Schimmel, M.; Mangeney, A.; Morelli, A.

    2012-12-01

    Cross-correlation of ambient seismic noise plays a fundamental role to extract and better understand seismic properties of the Earth. The knowledge of the distribution of noise sources and the theory behind the seismic noise generation turns out to be of fundamental importance in the study of seismic noise cross-correlation. To improve these knowledge, we model the secondary microseismic noise, i.e. the period band 5-12 s, using normal mode summation and focus our attention on the noise sources distribution varying both in space and in time. Longuet-Higgins (1950) showed that the sources of the secondary microseismic noise are due to the pressure fluctuations that are generated by the interaction of ocean waves either in deep ocean or close by the coast and due to coastal reflection. Considering a recent ocean wave model (Ardhuin et al., 2011) that takes into account coastal reflection, we compute the vertical force due to the pressure fluctuation that has to be applied at the surface of the ocean. Noise sources are discretized in a spherical grid with constant resolution of 50 km and they are used to compute synthetic seismograms and spectra by normal mode summation. We show that we retrieve the maximum force amplitude for periods of 6-7 s which is consistent with the position of the maximum peak in the spectra and that, for long period in the secondary microseismic band, i.e. around 12 s, mostly the sources generated by coastal reflection have a strong influence on the microseism generation. We also show that the displacement of the ground is amplified in relation with the ocean bathymetry in agreement with Longuet-Higgins' theory and that the ocean site amplification can be computed using normal modes. We investigate also the role of the attenuation considering sources at regional scale. We are able to reproduce seasonal variations and to identify the noise sources having the main contribution in the spectra. We obtain a good agreement between synthetic and real

  14. Normal intraabdominal pressure in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Cobb, William S; Burns, Justin M; Kercher, Kent W; Matthews, Brent D; James Norton, H; Todd Heniford, B

    2005-12-01

    Intraabdominal pressure (IAP) has been considered responsible for adverse effects in trauma and other abdominal catastrophes as well as in formation and recurrence of hernias. To date, little information is available concerning IAP in normal persons. Our purpose in this study was to measure the normal range of IAP in healthy, nonobese adults and correlate these measurements with sex and body mass index (BMI). After Institutional Review Board approval, 20 healthy young adults (< or =30 years old) with no prior history of abdominal surgery were enrolled. Pressure readings were obtained through a transurethral bladder (Foley) catheter. Each subject performed 13 different tasks including standing, sitting, bending at the waist, bending at the knees, performing abdominal crunches, jumping, climbing stairs, bench-pressing 25 pounds, arm curling 10 pounds, and performing a Valsalva and coughing while sitting and also while standing. Data were analyzed by Student's t-test and Pearson's correlation coefficients. Intraabdominal pressure was measured in 10 male and 10 female subjects. The mean age of the study group was 22.7 years (range, 18-30 years), and BMI averaged 24.6 kg/m(2) (range, 18.4-31.9 kg/m(2)). Mean IAP for sitting and standing were 16.7 and 20 mm Hg. Coughing and jumping generated the highest IAP (107.6 and 171 mm Hg, respectively). Lifting 10-pound weights and bending at the knees did not generate excessive levels of pressure with the maximum average of 25.5 mm Hg. The mean pressures were not different when comparing males and females during each maneuver. There was a significant correlation between higher BMI and increased IAP in 5 of 13 exercises. Normal IAP correlates with BMI but does not vary based on sex. The highest intraabdominal pressures in healthy patients are generated during coughing and jumping. Based on our observations, patients with higher BMI and chronic cough appear to generate significant elevation in IAP. Thus, this group of patients may

  15. Fetal interlens distance: normal values during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Kivilevitch, Z; Salomon, L J; Benoit, B; Achiron, R

    2010-08-01

    The aims of this study were to establish normal ranges of values for interlens distance (ILD) during gestation, and to assess the correlation between ILD and growth of the orbits and other fetal biometric parameters. A cross-sectional study of morphologically normal, singleton fetuses was carried out in low-risk pregnant women. We measured the distance between the centers of the fetal lenses from 12 to 37 completed weeks of gestation. An oblique anterior coronal section was used to measure the ILD. The biorbital diameter (BOD) was measured in the same plane. We analyzed the correlation between the ILD and gestational age (GA), BOD, biparietal diameter (BPD), head circumference (HC), femur length (FL) and abdominal circumference (AC). Fetal gender was assessed to evaluate possible significant differences. Four hundred and fifty normal fetuses were recruited for the study. In 427 fetuses appropriate ILD measurements were obtained, and complete evaluation of all parameters was accomplished in 377 of these. ILD demonstrated a high positive correlation with GA (r(2) = 0.969), BPD (r(2) = 0.959), HC (r(2) = 0.962), AC (r(2) = 0.949) and FL (r(2) = 0.956) as pregnancy advanced. The mean BOD : ILD ratio was 1.50 +/- 0.08, remaining constant throughout pregnancy (linear regression r(2) = 0.006). No statistically significant differences were found between genders for mean ILD and GA of the study population (P = 0.604 and 0.595, respectively). The results of this study confirm previous hypotheses regarding the close relationship between eyeball growth and growth of the surrounding bony structures. Measurement of fetal ILD, which can be used interchangeably with BOD measurement in either the axial or coronal plane, can be taken to reflect the expected development of the fetal orbits whilst simultaneously providing valuable information on eyeball development. It is likely that ILD could be used as a complementary tool in the elaboration of various severe abnormalities, mainly

  16. Voice acoustic analysis of normal Taiwanese adults.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chen-Chi; Huang, Hui-Tsu

    2004-04-01

    Because of advances in voice research, voice acoustic analysis including fundamental frequency (F0), sound pressure level (SPL), jitter, shimmer, harmonics-to-noise ratio (H/N ratio), and maximum phonation time (MPT) can now be easily recorded and analyzed with a computer. Because these systems are widely used in clinical practice, this study was designed to establish the normal acoustic analysis parameters in normal Taiwanese adults. From Mar. 2002 to Dec. 2002, 45 Taiwanese women and 45 Taiwanese men younger than 50 years old were recruited as subjects for this study. The commercially available Computer Speech Lab and Aerophone II system manufactured by Kay Elemetrics Corp. were used to record the aforementioned acoustic data under comfortable phonation. Each gender was separated equally into 3 age subgroups. Then differences between gender and age subgroups were investigated by statistics software SPSS 10.0. Our results were compared with data from previous reports. The value of F0 (counting; vowel /a/) was greater for females (203.2 +/- 21.7; 213.4 +/- 25.4 Hz) than for males (118.3 +/- 17.3; 121.3 +/- 16.4 Hz). Conversely, the value of MPT was greater for males (28.0 +/- 9.4 sec) than for females (22.6 +/- 7.6 sec). There were no significant differences in average SPL and jitter between female (77.8 +/- 5.5 dB; 0.66 +/- 0.27%) and male (77.5 +/- 5.5 dB; 0.56 +/- 0.23%) subgroups. Except for shimmer and H/N ratio in the male subgroup, there were no differences in parameters within both gender subgroups with respect to age. We have developed a body of normal data for various parameters of acoustic analysis in different age groups and genders. It seems that the majority of voice characteristics of adults were relatively stable and did not change with aging between 20 and 49. But the shimmer and H/N ratio were variable in different genders and age groups. However, the voice characteristics of adults older than 50 years old were not recorded in this study and

  17. Cellular Consequences of Telomere Shortening in Histologically Normal Breast Tissues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    undergoing reduction mammoplasty surgeries . (A) A normal breast TDLU with normal length telomeres in all cell types present. (B) A normal breast TDLU...to severe telomere shortening is highly prevalent within histologically normal TDLUs obtained from women undergoing reduction mammoplasty surgeries ...specialize in the research and treatment of breast cancer. The trainee has attended weekly journal clubs, Oncology translational research seminars , breast

  18. 20 CFR 336.2 - Duration of normal unemployment benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Duration of normal unemployment benefits. 336... UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT DURATION OF NORMAL AND EXTENDED BENEFITS Normal Benefits § 336.2 Duration of normal unemployment benefits. (a) 130 compensable day limitation. A qualified employee who has satisfied the...

  19. 20 CFR 336.2 - Duration of normal unemployment benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Duration of normal unemployment benefits. 336... UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT DURATION OF NORMAL AND EXTENDED BENEFITS Normal Benefits § 336.2 Duration of normal unemployment benefits. (a) 130 compensable day limitation. A qualified employee who has satisfied the...

  20. 20 CFR 336.2 - Duration of normal unemployment benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Duration of normal unemployment benefits. 336... UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT DURATION OF NORMAL AND EXTENDED BENEFITS Normal Benefits § 336.2 Duration of normal unemployment benefits. (a) 130 compensable day limitation. A qualified employee who has satisfied the...

  1. 20 CFR 336.2 - Duration of normal unemployment benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Duration of normal unemployment benefits. 336... UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT DURATION OF NORMAL AND EXTENDED BENEFITS Normal Benefits § 336.2 Duration of normal unemployment benefits. (a) 130 compensable day limitation. A qualified employee who has satisfied the...

  2. 20 CFR 336.2 - Duration of normal unemployment benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Duration of normal unemployment benefits. 336... UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT DURATION OF NORMAL AND EXTENDED BENEFITS Normal Benefits § 336.2 Duration of normal unemployment benefits. (a) 130 compensable day limitation. A qualified employee who has satisfied the waiting...

  3. [Labor duration: from normality to dystocia].

    PubMed

    Kayem, G

    2015-04-01

    "Normal" labor has been surprisingly little studied in the past 60 years even though it is a central axis in obstetrics. Standards were proposed 60 years ago by Emmanuel Friedman and adopted by many countries to become then, driven from Dublin school, the conditions allowing the management of labor: rupture of membranes and oxytocin with, in case of failure for dynamic dystocia, cesarean. Recent data have suggested that labor duration had changed since the 1960s. Changes in women's characteristics and in obstetric practice especially with the widespread use of oxytocin and realization of epidural may have an impact on labor duration. Current studies suggest that it may be possible to authorize longer labor duration without significant increase in maternal or neonatal morbidity. However, it is premature to change practices following the latest American recommendations without prior studies.

  4. CT measurments of cranial growth: normal subjects

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, F.J.; Chu, W.K.; Cheung, J.Y.

    1984-06-01

    Growth patterns of the cranium measured directly as head circumference have been well documented. With the availability of computed tomography (CT) , cranial dimensions can be obtained easily. The objective of this project was to establish the mean values and their normal variance of CT cranial area of subjects at different ages. Cranial area and its long and short axes were measured on CT scans for 215 neurologic patients of a wide age range who presented no evidence of abnormal growth of head size. Growth patterns of the cranial area as well as the numeric product of it linear dimensions were determined via a curve fitting process. The patterns resemble that of the head circumference growth chart, with the most rapid growth observed in the first 12 months of age and reaching full size during adolescence.

  5. Normal dispersion femtosecond fiber optical parametric oscillator.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, T N; Kieu, K; Maslov, A V; Miyawaki, M; Peyghambarian, N

    2013-09-15

    We propose and demonstrate a synchronously pumped fiber optical parametric oscillator (FOPO) operating in the normal dispersion regime. The FOPO generates chirped pulses at the output, allowing significant pulse energy scaling potential without pulse breaking. The output average power of the FOPO at 1600 nm was ∼60  mW (corresponding to 1.45 nJ pulse energy and ∼55% slope power conversion efficiency). The output pulses directly from the FOPO were highly chirped (∼3  ps duration), and they could be compressed outside of the cavity to 180 fs by using a standard optical fiber compressor. Detailed numerical simulation was also performed to understand the pulse evolution dynamics around the laser cavity. We believe that the proposed design concept is useful for scaling up the pulse energy in the FOPO using different pumping wavelengths.

  6. Normal modes of confined cold ionic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Schiffer, J.P.; Dubin, D.H.

    1995-08-01

    The normal modes of a cloud of confined ions forming a strongly-correlated plasma were investigated. The results of molecular-dynamics simulations were compared to predictions of a cold fluid mode. Mode frequencies are observed to shift slightly compared to the cold fluid predictions, and the modes are also observed to damp in time. Simulations also reveal a set of torsional oscillations which have no counterpart in cold fluid theory. The frequency shift, damping, and torsional effects are compared to a model that treats trapped plasmas as a visco-elastic spheroid. It may be possible to measure high-frequency bulk and shear moduli of a strongly-correlated plasma from mode excitation experiments on trapped non-neutral plasmas. An example of the results of the calculation is presented.

  7. Non-normal impact of earth penetrators

    SciTech Connect

    Duffey, T.A.; Macek, R.W.

    1996-12-31

    A brief literature review of the general subject of projectile penetration into soil media is presented. Particular emphasis is placed on projectiles impacting soil targets at other than normal incidence and/or at an angle of attack, for which lateral accelerations exist and can dominate the structural response. Comparisons of predicted lateral accelerations with recent earth penetrator experiments are then made using a 3 degree-of-freedom rigid-body approach developed elsewhere to determine the external penetrator loading. Agreement between experimental and calculated accelerations is favorable, but the need to include flexible-body response is indicated. Finally a scheme to incorporate a spherical-cavity-expansion analytical procedure into a detailed finite element model of the penetrator is developed to account for flexible-body response.

  8. Type 3 Pfeiffer syndrome with normal thumbs.

    PubMed

    Kerr, N C; Wilroy, R S; Kaufman, R A

    1996-12-11

    We report on a male infant with extremely shallow orbits, spontaneous luxation of the eyes out of the eyelids, hypoplastic midface, broad, medially rotated great toes, and respiratory distress due to severe bilateral posterior choanal stenosis. At 4 days he had open cranial sutures (both by palpation and radiological examination). Subsequent radiologic studies demonstrated: thickening of the skull base, vertebral anomalies, flattening of the olecranon fossae with dislocated radii, and triangular shape of the proximal phalanx of the first toes. Our patient had manifestations of type 3 Pfeiffer syndrome (PS). However, the finding of normal thumbs has not been reported in type 3 PS. Point mutations in fibroblast growth factor receptor-1 (FGFR1) and fibroblast growth factor receptor-2 (FGFR2) have been reported in familial and sporadic cases of PS, but were not found in this patient. Recognizing type 3 PS, despite variability in expression, is important for genetic counseling, prognosis, and decision-making regarding craniofacial surgery.

  9. Heterosis in normal versus dwarf laying hens.

    PubMed

    Merat, P; Minvielle, F; Bordas, A; Coquerelle, G

    1994-01-01

    The effect of genotype at the sex-linked dwarf locus on heterosis in crosses between a White Leghorn and a brown egg line for body weight, egg production, and related traits was studied. Heterozygous Dw/dw males were used to produce normal and dwarf pullets in each of the pure lines and their reciprocal crosses (eight genotype-line combinations). There were 54 pullets per combination. Line differences were significant for shank length, body weights at 8, 17, and 52 wk, age at first egg, egg number, clutch length, rate of lay, and egg weight. Heterosis was observed for all of these traits. Body weight as a covariate was not important in analyses of egg number, clutch length, and egg weight. The egg production reduction associated with the dw gene in pure lines was smaller in F1 hens. This discovery may be adequate to warrant use of dwarf crossbred hens for egg production.

  10. [Humanization and nursing assistance to normal childbirth].

    PubMed

    Moura, Fernanda Maria de Jesus S Pires; Crizostomo, Cilene Delgado; Nery, Inez Sampaio; Mendonça, Rita de Cássia Magalhães; de Araújo, Olívia Dias; da Rocha, Silvana Santiago

    2007-01-01

    Bibliographical study that sought to identify the scientific production about humanization and nursing assistance to normal childbirth. The sources were scientific articles from SCIELO-Brasil's database, from 2000 to 2007. We obtained 13 articles as result from the search, which were grouped in the following categories: childbirth medicalization, humanization of assistance to childbirth, companion during childbirth and performance of the obstetric nurse. The analysis pointed out that the current paradigm is centralized on childbirth intervention, despite of humanization movements defending the natural and physiological childbirth made by the nurse. We concluded that qualified and humanized assistance to childbirth and birth privileges women's respect, dignity and autonomy, regarding women's active role in the birth process.

  11. Do no harm--normal tissue effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, E. J.

    2001-01-01

    Radiation therapy confers enormous benefits that must be balanced against the possibilities for harm including late toxicity in normal tissues and radiation-induced second malignancies. A small percentage of patients experience severe late complications. The question is, do these late sequelae occur randomly, or are they confined to individuals who are genetically predisposed to radiosensitivity. Experiments with knockout mice and with patients demonstrate that individuals heterozygous for a number of genes appear to be radiosensitive. If radiosensitive patients were identified prospectively by genetic analysis, they could be spared the trauma of late sequelae. Several large studies have shown a statistically significant excess of radiation-induced malignancies in radiotherapy patients. Most second cancers are carcinomas, developing in the lining cells of the body often remote from the treatment site. Radiation-induced sarcomas appear only in the heavily irradiated areas. These are small in number but appear with a very high relative risk.

  12. Aerosol Behavior Log-Normal Distribution Model.

    SciTech Connect

    GIESEKE, J. A.

    2001-10-22

    HAARM3, an acronym for Heterogeneous Aerosol Agglomeration Revised Model 3, is the third program in the HAARM series developed to predict the time-dependent behavior of radioactive aerosols under postulated LMFBR accident conditions. HAARM3 was developed to include mechanisms of aerosol growth and removal which had not been accounted for in the earlier models. In addition, experimental measurements obtained on sodium oxide aerosols have been incorporated in the code. As in HAARM2, containment gas temperature, pressure, and temperature gradients normal to interior surfaces are permitted to vary with time. The effects of reduced density on sodium oxide agglomerate behavior and of nonspherical shape of particles on aerosol behavior mechanisms are taken into account, and aerosol agglomeration due to turbulent air motion is considered. Also included is a capability to calculate aerosol concentration attenuation factors and to restart problems requiring long computing times.

  13. Do no harm--normal tissue effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, E. J.

    2001-01-01

    Radiation therapy confers enormous benefits that must be balanced against the possibilities for harm including late toxicity in normal tissues and radiation-induced second malignancies. A small percentage of patients experience severe late complications. The question is, do these late sequelae occur randomly, or are they confined to individuals who are genetically predisposed to radiosensitivity. Experiments with knockout mice and with patients demonstrate that individuals heterozygous for a number of genes appear to be radiosensitive. If radiosensitive patients were identified prospectively by genetic analysis, they could be spared the trauma of late sequelae. Several large studies have shown a statistically significant excess of radiation-induced malignancies in radiotherapy patients. Most second cancers are carcinomas, developing in the lining cells of the body often remote from the treatment site. Radiation-induced sarcomas appear only in the heavily irradiated areas. These are small in number but appear with a very high relative risk.

  14. Photometric normalization of LROC WAC images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, H.; Denevi, B.; Robinson, M. S.; Hapke, B. W.; McEwen, A. S.; LROC Science Team

    2010-12-01

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) Wide Angle Camera (WAC) acquires near global coverage on a monthly basis. The WAC is a push frame sensor with a 90° field of view (FOV) in BW mode and 60° FOV in 7-color mode (320 nm to 689 nm). WAC images are acquired during each orbit in 10° latitude segments with cross track coverage of ~50 km. Before mosaicking, WAC images are radiometrically calibrated to remove instrumental artifacts and to convert at sensor radiance to I/F. Images are also photometrically normalized to common viewing and illumination angles (30° phase), a challenge due to the wide angle nature of the WAC where large differences in phase angle are observed in a single image line (±30°). During a single month the equatorial incidence angle drifts about 28° and over the course of ~1 year the lighting completes a 360° cycle. The light scattering properties of the lunar surface depend on incidence(i), emission(e), and phase(p) angles as well as soil properties such as single-scattering albedo and roughness that vary with terrain type and state of maturity [1]. We first tested a Lommel-Seeliger Correction (LSC) [cos(i)/(cos(i) + cos(e))] [2] with a phase function defined by an exponential decay plus 4th order polynomial term [3] which did not provide an adequate solution. Next we employed a LSC with an exponential 2nd order decay phase correction that was an improvement, but still exhibited unacceptable frame-to-frame residuals. In both cases we fitted the LSC I/F vs. phase angle to derive the phase corrections. To date, the best results are with a lunar-lambert function [4] with exponential 2nd order decay phase correction (LLEXP2) [(A1exp(B1p)+A2exp(B2p)+A3) * cos(i)/(cos(e) + cos(i)) + B3cos(i)]. We derived the parameters for the LLEXP2 from repeat imaging of a small region and then corrected that region with excellent results. When this correction was applied to the whole Moon the results were less than optimal - no surprise given the

  15. Normal limits of the electrocardiogram in Indians.

    PubMed

    Macfarlane, Peter W; Lloyd, Suzanne M; Singh, Dilbag; Hamde, Satish; Clark, Elaine; Devine, Brian; Francq, Bernard G; Kumar, Vinod

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study was to develop normal limits of the ECG in an apparently healthy population of South Asians living in India. Three centres contributed to recording 12 lead ECGs on identical digital electrocardiographs. Apparently healthy volunteers were recruited and ECGs were first transferred to a local database and then to Glasgow where all ECGs were analysed by the same University of Glasgow ECG Interpretation Program. A total of 963 individuals were recruited into the study (30.4% female) with an age range of 18-83 years. QRS duration was longer in males than females, QT interval was longer in females than males, and QRS voltages in general were higher in males than females and in younger compared to older individuals. Findings in general paralleled those in other populations and suggested that criteria for a white Caucasian population could be applied to a South Asian Indian population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Normalized Neural Representations of Complex Odors

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The olfactory system removes correlations in natural odors using a network of inhibitory neurons in the olfactory bulb. It has been proposed that this network integrates the response from all olfactory receptors and inhibits them equally. However, how such global inhibition influences the neural representations of odors is unclear. Here, we study a simple statistical model of the processing in the olfactory bulb, which leads to concentration-invariant, sparse representations of the odor composition. We show that the inhibition strength can be tuned to obtain sparse representations that are still useful to discriminate odors that vary in relative concentration, size, and composition. The model reveals two generic consequences of global inhibition: (i) odors with many molecular species are more difficult to discriminate and (ii) receptor arrays with heterogeneous sensitivities perform badly. Comparing these predictions to experiments will help us to understand the role of global inhibition in shaping normalized odor representations in the olfactory bulb. PMID:27835696

  17. AN INTERNET TOOL TO NORMALIZE GRIEF*

    PubMed Central

    DOMINICK, SALLY A.; IRVINE, A. BLAIR; BEAUCHAMP, NATASHA; SEELEY, JOHN R.; NOLEN-HOEKSEMA, SUSAN; DOKA, KENNETH J.; BONANNO, GEORGE A.

    2009-01-01

    This research evaluated the efficacy of a psycho-educational Internet self-help tool to educate and support recently (1–6 months) bereaved individuals. The goal of the website was to help users normalize their grief to enhance their adaptive adjustment. A randomized controlled trial evaluated the gains in social cognitive theory constructs and state anxiety. Compared to the control group (N = 34), treatment participants (N = 33) reported significant multivariate gains (eta-square = .191). Significant program effects were obtained on all three outcome measures: attitude (eta-square = .177), self-efficacy (eta-square = .106), and state anxiety (eta-square = .083). These findings suggest the potential efficacy of an Internet-based grief support tool to enhance adaptive adjustment of the bereaved. PMID:20039532

  18. Identifying the significance of nonlinear normal modes

    PubMed Central

    Cammarano, A.; Neild, S. A.; Barton, D. A. W.

    2017-01-01

    Nonlinear normal modes (NNMs) are widely used as a tool for understanding the forced responses of nonlinear systems. However, the contemporary definition of an NNM also encompasses a large number of dynamic behaviours which are not observed when a system is forced and damped. As such, only a few NNMs are required to understand the forced dynamics. This paper firstly demonstrates the complexity that may arise from the NNMs of a simple nonlinear system—highlighting the need for a method for identifying the significance of NNMs. An analytical investigation is used, alongside energy arguments, to develop an understanding of the mechanisms that relate the NNMs to the forced responses. This provides insight into which NNMs are pertinent to understanding the forced dynamics, and which may be disregarded. The NNMs are compared with simulated forced responses to verify these findings. PMID:28413342

  19. Normal pressure tests on unstiffened flat plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Head, Richard M; Sechler, Ernest J

    1944-01-01

    Flat sheet panels of aluminum alloy (all 17S-T except for two specimens of 24S-T) were tested under normal pressures with clamped edge supports in the structures laboratory of the Guggenheim Aeronautical Laboratory, California Institute of Technology. The thicknesses used ranged from 0.010 to 0.080 inch; the panel sizes ranged from 10 by 10 inches to 10 by 40 inches; and the pressure range was from 0 to 60-pounds-per-square-inch gage. Deflection patterns were measured and maximum tensile strains in the center of the panel were determined by electric strain gages. The experimental data are presented by pressure-strain, pressure-maximum-deflection, and pressure-deflection curves. The results of these tests have been compared with the corresponding strains and deflections as calculated by the simple membrane theory and by large deflection theories.

  20. [Normal cutaneous flora and secondary bacterial infection].

    PubMed

    Soria, X; Carrascosa, J M

    2007-09-01

    Normal skin microflora consists of those micro-organisms which are usually present on the skin, without causing infection. The infant's skin colonization starts during birth and after the first months of life the skin microbiota is composed of the same micro-organisms as in the adult. The skin microflora is composed of bacteria, mostly gram-positives Staphylococcus species, yeasts which the most prevalent is Malassezia, viruses and arthropods like Demodex folliculorum. In the last years, the development of molecular microbiology and specially techniques like amplification and comparison of 16S rRNA, have demonstrated that cutaneous microbiota is composed of a higher diversity of bacteria than the traditionally observed in culture methods. We also review the main secondary bacterial skin infections.

  1. Cerebral blood flow in normal pressure hydrocephalus

    SciTech Connect

    Mamo, H.L.; Meric, P.C.; Ponsin, J.C.; Rey, A.C.; Luft, A.G.; Seylaz, J.A.

    1987-11-01

    A xenon-133 method was used to measure cerebral blood flow (CBF) before and after cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) removal in patients with normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH). Preliminary results suggested that shunting should be performed on patients whose CBF increased after CSF removal. There was a significant increase in CBF in patients with NPH, which was confirmed by the favorable outcome of 88% of patients shunted. The majority of patients with senile and presenile dementia showed a decrease or no change in CBF after CSF removal. It is suggested that although changes in CBF and clinical symptoms of NPH may have the same cause, i.e., changes in the cerebral intraparenchymal pressure, there is no simple direct relation between these two events. The mechanism underlying the loss of autoregulation observed in NPH is also discussed.

  2. Normalized-Difference Snow Index (NDSI)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Riggs, George A.

    2010-01-01

    The Normalized-Difference Snow Index (NDSI) has a long history. 'The use of ratioing visible (VIS) and near-infrared (NIR) or short-wave infrared (SWIR) channels to separate snow and clouds was documented in the literature beginning in the mid-1970s. A considerable amount of work on this subject was conducted at, and published by, the Air Force Geophysics Laboratory (AFGL). The objective of the AFGL work was to discriminate snow cover from cloud cover using an automated algorithm to improve global cloud analyses. Later, automated methods that relied on the VIS/NIR ratio were refined substantially using satellite data In this section we provide a brief history of the use of the NDSI for mapping snow cover.

  3. Overview Report: Normal and Emergency Operation Visualization

    SciTech Connect

    Greitzer, Frank L.

    2011-05-01

    This is an overview report to document and illustrate methods used in a project entitled “Normal and Emergency Operations Visualization” for a utility company, conducted in 2009-2010 timeframe with funding from the utility company and the U.S. Department of Energy. The original final report (about 180 pages) for the project is not available for distribution because it alludes to findings that assessed the design of an operational system that contained proprietary information; this abridged version contains descriptions of methods and some findings to illustrate the approach used, while avoiding discussion of sensitive or proprietary information. The client has approved this abridged version of the report for unlimited distribution to give researchers and collaborators the benefit of reviewing the research concepts and methods that were applied in this study.

  4. Cataplexy with Normal Sleep Studies and Normal CSF Hypocretin: An Explanation?

    PubMed Central

    Drakatos, Panagis; Leschziner, Guy

    2016-01-01

    Patients with narcolepsy usually develop excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) before or coincide with the occurrence of cataplexy, with the latter most commonly associated with low cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) hypocretin-1 levels. Cataplexy preceding the development of other features of narcolepsy is a rare phenomenon. We describe a case of isolated cataplexy in the context of two non-diagnostic multiple sleep latency tests and normal CSF-hypocretin-1 levels (217 pg/mL) who gradually developed EDS and low CSF-hypocretin-1 (< 110 pg/mL). Citation: Drakatos P, Leschziner G. Cataplexy with normal sleep studies and normal csf hypocretin: an explanation? J Clin Sleep Med 2016;12(3):449–450. PMID:26564387

  5. Gastrointestinal ultrasonography in normal adult ponies.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Kira; Short, Diana; Parente, Eric; Reef, Virginia; Southwood, Louise

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the characteristics based on ultrasonographic examination of the stomach, duodenum, jejunum, cecum, and peritoneal fluid in normal adult ponies. Abdominal ultrasonographic examination was performed in nine unsedated standing ponies. The duodenum was examined at three sites and the jejunum in 12 regions. Wall thickness, contractility, distention, and luminal contents were recorded. Stomach wall thickness and location, cecal wall thickness, and peritoneal fluid location and character were recorded. Statistical analysis was performed. Wall thicknesses (in cm) were 0.431 +/- 0.069 for the stomach, 0.188 +/- 0.033 for the duodenum (at all sites), 0.195 +/- 0.031 for the jejunum (at all regions), and 0.179 +/- 0.031 for the cecum. Duodenal contractions per minute were 3.78 +/- 1.10. The stomach spanned 5.14 +/- 0.9 intercostal spaces, with the 8th intercostal space being the most cranial and the 15th intercostal space being the most caudal space through which the stomach was identified. It was possible to identify the jejunum in all ponies dorsal to the left dorsal colon and from the ventral abdominal wall. Peritoneal fluid was identified in six ponies. Peritoneal fluid was usually seen transiently and most commonly in the ventral aspect of the abdominal cavity or around the duodenum. Overall, the ponie's abdominal ultrasonographic examinations revealed wall thicknesses that were less than the published normal ranges for horses. It appears that ponies may have increased duodenal contractility than horses and that the conformation of ponies may change the locations for imaging the stomach.

  6. Relaxographic studies of aging normal human lenses.

    PubMed

    Bettelheim, Frederick A; Lizak, Martin J; Zigler, J Samuel

    2002-12-01

    Ten excised normal human lenses of various ages were studied. Seven sections of each lens, from anterior outer cortex to posterior outer cortex were imaged and the T(1) (spin-lattice) and T(2) (spin-spin) relaxation data on each section were collected. T(1) and T(2) relaxation were analysed by fitting pixel intensity to one term exponential expressions. Both T(1) and T(2) relaxation times showed minimal values in the nuclear region and maxima at the two outer cortexes. The pre-exponential terms of the fittings of both T(1) and T(2) relaxation,M(1) and M(2), were normalized in order to eliminate instrumental variations over a 2 year period. M(2) had a maximum in the nucleus and minima in the two cortexes. M(1) exhibited minimal value in the nucleus and maxima at the two cortexes. The positional dependence of T(2) relaxation times as well as that of M(2) indicated that they represent the behavior of the bound water in the lens. The positional dependence of M(1) suggests that this relaxation represents the total water that has a minimal value in the nucleus. The T(2) relaxation time decreases with increase in the age of the lens at each location. The slope of the change in T(2) relaxation time with age is greatest in the outer cortexes and diminishes as one proceeds to the nucleus. T(1) relaxation times and M(1) do not show significant change with age. This and the age dependence of the other relaxographic parameters imply that the aging of the lens involves major changes in its hydration properties that are more accentuated in the cortexes. The interpretation of these changes is in agreement with the syneretic theory of lens aging.

  7. Apparent diffusion coefficient of normal adrenal glands*

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, Sara Reis; Elias, Paula Condé Lamparelli; Leite, Andrea Farias de Melo; de Oliveira, Tatiane Mendes Gonçalves; Muglia, Valdair Francisco; Elias Junior, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the feasibility and reliability of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurements of normal adrenal glands. Materials and methods This was a retrospective study involving 32 healthy subjects, divided into two groups: prepubertal (PreP, n = 12), aged from 2 months to 12.5 years (4 males; 8 females); and postpubertal (PostP, n = 20), aged from 11.9 to 61 years (5 males; 15 females). Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) sequences were acquired at a 1.5 T scanner using b values of 0, 20, 500, and 1000 s/mm2. Two radiologists evaluated the images. ADC values were measured pixel-by-pixel on DW-MRI scans, and automatic co-registration with the ADC map was obtained. Results Mean ADC values for the right adrenal glands were 1.44 × 10-3 mm2/s for the PreP group and 1.23 × 10-3 mm2/s for the PostP group, whereas they were 1.58 × 10-3 mm2/s and 1.32 × 10-3 mm2/s, respectively, for the left glands. ADC values were higher in the PreP group than in the PostP group (p < 0.05). Agreement between readers was almost perfect (intraclass correlation coefficient, 0.84-0.94; p < 0.05). Conclusion Our results demonstrate the feasibility and reliability of performing DW-MRI measurements of normal adrenal glands. They could also support the feasibility of ADC measurements of small structures. PMID:28057963

  8. Apparent diffusion coefficient of normal adrenal glands.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Sara Reis; Elias, Paula Condé Lamparelli; Leite, Andrea Farias de Melo; de Oliveira, Tatiane Mendes Gonçalves; Muglia, Valdair Francisco; Elias Junior, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    To assess the feasibility and reliability of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurements of normal adrenal glands. This was a retrospective study involving 32 healthy subjects, divided into two groups: prepubertal (PreP, n = 12), aged from 2 months to 12.5 years (4 males; 8 females); and postpubertal (PostP, n = 20), aged from 11.9 to 61 years (5 males; 15 females). Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) sequences were acquired at a 1.5 T scanner using b values of 0, 20, 500, and 1000 s/mm(2). Two radiologists evaluated the images. ADC values were measured pixel-by-pixel on DW-MRI scans, and automatic co-registration with the ADC map was obtained. Mean ADC values for the right adrenal glands were 1.44 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s for the PreP group and 1.23 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s for the PostP group, whereas they were 1.58 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s and 1.32 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s, respectively, for the left glands. ADC values were higher in the PreP group than in the PostP group (p < 0.05). Agreement between readers was almost perfect (intraclass correlation coefficient, 0.84-0.94; p < 0.05). Our results demonstrate the feasibility and reliability of performing DW-MRI measurements of normal adrenal glands. They could also support the feasibility of ADC measurements of small structures.

  9. Forest resilience - Finding the new normal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creed, I. F.

    2016-12-01

    When the complex and unpredictable nature of climate change drivers interact with the equally complex structure of natural forest ecosystems, uncertainty is created and forests change in structure and function. Understanding the nature of this change is critical to the creation of a knowledge base and a projection of ecological services. Within a climate-modified forest, not all measurable ecological processes change in lockstep - some signals change quickly and have the possibility of initiating a cascading sequence of changes. Using historical records of hydrological and biogeochemical output, the following questions will be considered: is there any evidence of resilience in a forested catchment? and is it possible to manage this resilience? Using a sugar-maple dominated hardwood forested headwater catchment system in Ontario (the Turkey Lakes Watershed) as an example, we discuss observable sentinels of change. Statistical modelling techniques that are relatively new to ecosystem science will be applied to explore the effects of global change (climate drivers, atmospheric pollutions) on hydrological and biogeochemical (carbon and nitrogen) cycles and their diagnostic outcome on forest productivity. From these historical records, empirical evidence for forest resilience will be sought. Do forests show "engineering resilience" - returning to the historical normal ecohydrological state - or "ecological resilience" - driven to a stable but alternative ecohydrological state? Once natural forest ecosystems are considered, the same concepts and tools will be applied to human-modified forested systems (e.g., managed forests) to see if global change drivers act synergistically or antagonistically with local change drivers to increase (or decrease) forest resilience. Ultimately, the idea of a "new normal" when it comes to forests under pressures of multiple stressors will be challenged.

  10. Fatty acid uptake in normal human myocardium

    SciTech Connect

    Vyska, K.; Meyer, W.; Stremmel, W.; Notohamiprodjo, G.; Minami, K.; Machulla, H.J.; Gleichmann, U.; Meyer, H.; Koerfer, R. )

    1991-09-01

    Fatty acid binding protein has been found in rat aortic endothelial cell membrane. It has been identified to be a 40-kDa protein that corresponds to a 40-kDa fatty acid binding protein with high affinity for a variety of long chain fatty acids isolated from rat heart myocytes. It is proposed that this endothelial membrane fatty acid binding protein might mediate the myocardial uptake of fatty acids. For evaluation of this hypothesis in vivo, influx kinetics of tracer-labeled fatty acids was examined in 15 normal subjects by scintigraphic techniques. Variation of the plasma fatty acid concentration and plasma perfusion rate has been achieved by modulation of nutrition state and exercise conditions. The clinical results suggest that the myocardial fatty acid influx rate is saturable by increasing fatty acid plasma concentration as well as by increasing plasma flow. For analysis of these data, functional relations describing fatty acid transport from plasma into myocardial tissue in the presence and absence of an unstirred layer were developed. The fitting of these relations to experimental data indicate that the free fatty acid influx into myocardial tissue reveals the criteria of a reaction on a capillary surface in the vicinity of flowing plasma but not of a reaction in extravascular space or in an unstirred layer and that the fatty acid influx into normal myocardium is a saturable process that is characterized by the quantity corresponding to the Michaelis-Menten constant, Km, and the maximal velocity, Vmax, 0.24 {plus minus} 0.024 mumol/g and 0.37 {plus minus} 0.013 mumol/g(g.min), respectively. These data are compatible with a nondiffusional uptake process mediated by the initial interaction of fatty acids with the 40-kDa membrane fatty acid binding protein of cardiac endothelial cells.

  11. Pre-sleep behaviour in normal subjects.

    PubMed

    Ellis; Lemmens; Parkes

    1995-12-01

    Behaviour in the 2-h period before sleep onset was evaluated in 90 subjects with normal sleep/wake habits using an anonymous self-report questionnaire. This determined the timing of events from the initial preparation for sleep. The nature of the pre-sleep environment, the level of physical activity, and patterns of feeding behaviour were recorded together with self-ratings of tiredness, mood and security. Estimated sleep duration and sleep quality were determined. Ninety of 120 subjects responded. Sleep 'preparatory latency', from the time of initial sleep preparation to sleep onset, was 77 +/- 48 min; bed time to sleep onset time (sleep latency) was 41 +/- 42 min; lights out to sleep onset latency was 26 +/- 45 min. The estimated total sleep time was 7 +/- 1 h. In the pre-sleep period, mean noise and illumination levels were low and environmental temperature rating was at the median point on a very cold-very hot scale (mean scale scores: 23, 28 and 50, respectively). All subjects went to the bathroom before going to bed. Twenty-five percent of normal subjects had a snack or meal in the 2-h period before sleep onset. Sixty percentage recorded setting an alarm, 27% had a bath or shower, 23% checked door locks or windows and 49% read in bed. Nine percent of subjects slept with a cat on the bed. Humans, like other animal species, show a complex behavioural sequence in the 2-h period before falling asleep. A constant environment with limited metabolic activity may predispose to thermoregulatory changes prior to sleep onset.

  12. What is normal bladder neck anatomy?

    PubMed

    Naranjo-Ortiz, Cristina; Shek, Ka Lai; Martin, Andrew James; Dietz, Hans Peter

    2016-06-01

    Functional anatomy of the bladder neck and proximal urethra has been studied extensively because of the belief that it is important for urinary continence. The aim of this study was to explore the limits of normality for pelvic floor ultrasound parameters of bladder neck and urethral mobility associated with stress urinary incontinence (SUI) and urodynamic stress incontinence (USI). A retrospective study was conducted on 589 women seen for urodynamic testing in a tertiary urogynaecology clinic. All women were assessed following a protocol including interview, clinical examination, flowmetry, urodynamic testing and 4D pelvic floor ultrasound. Volume data sets were analysed offline to assess for bladder neck descent (BND), urethral rotation and the retrovesical angle (RVA) on maximal Valsalva. After excluding women with previous incontinence or prolapse surgery, 429 datasets were available. SI was significantly associated with the RVA (p = 0.033) and BND (p = 0.036); USI was associated with urethral rotation (p = 0.021) and BND (p < 0.001). On multivariate logistic regression analysis, controlling for confounders including age, BMI, parity, previous hysterectomy and maximal urethral pressure, the association between SUI and BND remained significant (OR [per 10 mm] = 1.23; 95 % CI: 1.01 to 1.51; p = 0.043), as did the association between USI and BND (OR [per 10 mm] = 1.58; 95 % CI: 1.3 to 1.91; p < 0.001). ROC statistics for BND suggested a cut-off of 25 mm in describing the limit of normality. Measures of functional bladder neck anatomy are weakly associated with SUI and USI (with association between BND and USI being the strongest). It is suggested that a BND of 25 mm or higher be defined as abnormal ("hypermobile") on the basis of its association with USI.

  13. Ventilation-perfusion distribution in normal subjects.

    PubMed

    Beck, Kenneth C; Johnson, Bruce D; Olson, Thomas P; Wilson, Theodore A

    2012-09-01

    Functional values of LogSD of the ventilation distribution (σ(V)) have been reported previously, but functional values of LogSD of the perfusion distribution (σ(q)) and the coefficient of correlation between ventilation and perfusion (ρ) have not been measured in humans. Here, we report values for σ(V), σ(q), and ρ obtained from wash-in data for three gases, helium and two soluble gases, acetylene and dimethyl ether. Normal subjects inspired gas containing the test gases, and the concentrations of the gases at end-expiration during the first 10 breaths were measured with the subjects at rest and at increasing levels of exercise. The regional distribution of ventilation and perfusion was described by a bivariate log-normal distribution with parameters σ(V), σ(q), and ρ, and these parameters were evaluated by matching the values of expired gas concentrations calculated for this distribution to the measured values. Values of cardiac output and LogSD ventilation/perfusion (Va/Q) were obtained. At rest, σ(q) is high (1.08 ± 0.12). With the onset of ventilation, σ(q) decreases to 0.85 ± 0.09 but remains higher than σ(V) (0.43 ± 0.09) at all exercise levels. Rho increases to 0.87 ± 0.07, and the value of LogSD Va/Q for light and moderate exercise is primarily the result of the difference between the magnitudes of σ(q) and σ(V). With known values for the parameters, the bivariate distribution describes the comprehensive distribution of ventilation and perfusion that underlies the distribution of the Va/Q ratio.

  14. Contact heat evoked potentials in normal subjects.

    PubMed

    Chen, I-An; Hung, Steven Wu; Chen, Yu-Hsien; Lim, Siew-Na; Tsai, Yu-Tai; Hsiao, Cheng-Lun; Hsieh, Hsiang-Yao; Wu, Tony

    2006-09-01

    Laser-evoked potentials are widely used to investigate nociceptive pathways. The newly developed contact heat stimulator for evoking brain response has the advantages of obtaining reliable scalp potentials and absence of cutaneous lesions. This study aimed to identify the most appropriate stimulation site with consistent cortical responses, and to correlate several parameters of the contact heat evoked potentials (CHEPs) with age, gender, and body height in normal subjects. CHEPs were recorded at Cz with a contact heat stimulator (Medoc, Israel) in 35 normal controls. The subjects were asked to keep eyes open and remain alert. The baseline temperature was 32 degrees C, and stimulation peak heat intensity of 51 degrees C was applied to five body sites: bilateral forearm, right dorsum hand, right peroneal area, and right dorsum foot. Reproducible CHEPs were recorded more frequently when stimulated at volar forearm (62.5%) than at the lower limbs (around 40%). The first negative peak latency (N1) was 370.1 +/- 20.3 ms, first positive peak latency (P1) was 502.4 +/- 33.0 ms, and peak to peak amplitude was 10.2 +/- 4.9 microV with stimulation of the forearm. Perceived pain intensity was not correlated with the presence or amplitude of CHEPs. No gender or inter-side differences were observed for N1 latency and N1-P1 amplitude. Also, no correlation was noted between N1 and age or body height. These results support future clinical access of CHEPs as a diagnostic tool.

  15. Metabolic cost, mechanical work, and efficiency during normal walking in obese and normal-weight children.

    PubMed

    Huang, Liang; Chen, Peijie; Zhuang, Jie; Walt, Sharon

    2013-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the influence of childhood obesity on energetic cost during normal walking and to determine if obese children choose a walking strategy optimizing their gait pattern. Sixteen obese children with no functional abnormalities were matched by age and gender with 16 normal-weight children. All participants were asked to walk along a nearly circular track 30 m in length at a self-selected speed. Spatiotemporal data, kinematics, and ground reaction force were collected during walking using a three-dimensional motion analysis system. Metabolic cost was collected by a portable gas analyzer simultaneously. The mechanical energy expenditure (MEE) was 72.7% higher in obese children than in normal-weight children. The net metabolic cost was 65.7% higher in obese children. No difference was found in the metabolic rate (J x kg(-1) x m(-1)), normalized MEE (J x kg(-1) x m(-1)) and mechanical efficiency between the obese and normal-weight groups. The obese children walked with a 0.15 m/s slower walking speed, 10.0% shorter cadence, and 30.9% longer double-support phase compared with normal-weight children. In addition, no differences were found in the mediolateral and vertical body center of mass displacement. Body mass played a dominant role in the total metabolic and mechanical cost per stride. Obese children may adopt a walking strategy to avoid an increase in the metabolic cost and the mechanical work required to move their excess body mass.

  16. Not Quite Normal: Consequences of Violating the Assumption of Normality in Regression Mixture Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Horn, M. Lee; Smith, Jessalyn; Fagan, Abigail A.; Jaki, Thomas; Feaster, Daniel J.; Masyn, Katherine; Hawkins, J. David; Howe, George

    2012-01-01

    Regression mixture models, which have only recently begun to be used in applied research, are a new approach for finding differential effects. This approach comes at the cost of the assumption that error terms are normally distributed within classes. This study uses Monte Carlo simulations to explore the effects of relatively minor violations of…

  17. Does cognitive function predict frequency compressed speech recognition in listeners with normal hearing and normal cognition?

    PubMed

    Ellis, Rachel J; Munro, Kevin J

    2013-01-01

    The aim was to investigate the relationship between cognitive ability and frequency compressed speech recognition in listeners with normal hearing and normal cognition. Speech-in-noise recognition was measured using Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers sentences presented over earphones at 65 dB SPL and a range of signal-to-noise ratios. There were three conditions: unprocessed, and at frequency compression ratios of 2:1 and 3:1 (cut-off frequency, 1.6 kHz). Working memory and cognitive ability were measured using the reading span test and the trail making test, respectively. Participants were 15 young normally-hearing adults with normal cognition. There was a statistically significant reduction in mean speech recognition from around 80% when unprocessed to 40% for 2:1 compression and 30% for 3:1 compression. There was a statistically significant relationship between speech recognition and cognition for the unprocessed condition but not for the frequency-compressed conditions. The relationship between cognitive functioning and recognition of frequency compressed speech-in-noise was not statistically significant. The findings may have been different if the participants had been provided with training and/or time to 'acclimatize' to the frequency-compressed conditions.

  18. Not Quite Normal: Consequences of Violating the Assumption of Normality in Regression Mixture Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Horn, M. Lee; Smith, Jessalyn; Fagan, Abigail A.; Jaki, Thomas; Feaster, Daniel J.; Masyn, Katherine; Hawkins, J. David; Howe, George

    2012-01-01

    Regression mixture models, which have only recently begun to be used in applied research, are a new approach for finding differential effects. This approach comes at the cost of the assumption that error terms are normally distributed within classes. This study uses Monte Carlo simulations to explore the effects of relatively minor violations of…

  19. Normal Language Skills and Normal Intelligence in a Child with de Lange Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Thomas H.; Kelly, Desmond P.

    1988-01-01

    The subject of this case report is a two-year, seven-month-old girl with de Lange syndrome, normal intelligence, and age-appropriate language skills. She demonstrated initial delays in gross motor skills and in receptive and expressive language but responded well to intensive speech and language intervention, as well as to physical therapy.…

  20. Placental exosomes in normal and complicated pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Murray D; Peiris, Hassendrini N; Kobayashi, Miharu; Koh, Yong Q; Duncombe, Gregory; Illanes, Sebastian E; Rice, Gregory E; Salomon, Carlos

    2015-10-01

    While there is considerable contemporary interest in elucidating the role of placenta-derived extracellular vesicles in normal and complicated pregnancies and their utility as biomarkers and therapeutic interventions, progress in the field is hindered by a lack of standardized extracellular vesicle taxonomy and isolation protocols. The term "extracellular vesicle" is nonspecific and refers to all membrane-bound vesicles from nanometer to micrometer diameters and of different biogenic origins. To meaningfully ascribe biological function and/or diagnostic and therapeutic utility to extracellular vesicles, and in particular exosomes, greater specificity and vesicle characterization is required. The current literature relating to exosome biology must be interpreted in this context. Exosomes are a subtype of extracellular vesicle that are specifically defined by an endosomal biogenesis and particle size (40-120 nm) and density (1.13-1.19 g/mL(-1)). Exosomes are specifically package with signaling molecules (including protein, messenger RNA, microRNA, and noncoding RNA) and are released by exocytosis into biofluid compartments. Exosomes regulate the activity of both proximal and distal target cells, including translational activity, angiogenesis, proliferation, metabolism, and apoptosis. As such, exosomal signaling represents an integral pathway mediating intercellular communication. During pregnancy, the placenta releases exosomes into the maternal circulation from as early as 6 weeks of gestation. Release is regulated by factors that include both oxygen tension and glucose concentration and correlates with placental mass and perfusion. The concentration of placenta-derived exosomes in maternal plasma increases progressively during gestation. Exosomes isolated from maternal plasma are bioactive in vitro and are incorporated into target cells by endocytosis. While the functional significance of placental exosomes in pregnancy remains to be fully elucidated, available

  1. Is normal or less than normal overall loudness preferred by first-time hearing aid users?

    PubMed

    Smeds, Karolina

    2004-04-01

    Most prescriptive methods for nonlinear, wide dynamic range compression (WDRC) hearing aids are based on the assumption that a hearing-impaired listener should perceive amplified sounds at the same overall loudness as would a normal-hearing listener without amplification. However, some previous research on linear amplification has indicated that subjects prefer less overall gain than prescribed by the most commonly used prescriptive method for linear hearing aids, NAL-R, a method that gives close to normal overall loudness for a mid-level input. The current study aims at comparing two prescriptive methods for WDRC hearing aids. The methods differ in the overall loudness they aim to give the hearing aid user. One method, called NormLoudn, is based on a generic method that prescribes gain so that the overall loudness is restored to normal. Another method, called LessLoudn, is based on a hearing aid specific prescription, and gives the hearing aid user less than normal overall loudness. Do first-time hearing aid users prefer the method that restores overall loudness to normal or the method that gives less than normal overall loudness? Twenty-one first-time hearing aid users with typical hearing losses for this group of clients participated in a crossover blinded field study where the two fitting methods were compared using a multi-programmable hearing aid, Danalogic 163D. Preference in the field was evaluated using interview, questionnaire, and diary. The field test was accompanied by laboratory tests, which included paired comparison judgments of preference and loudness and a speech recognition test. Loudness calculations were also used when interpreting the results, and a theoretical comparison with other prescriptive methods for WDRC hearing aids was made. After necessary adjustments, the measured gain for the two methods was similar in gain-frequency shape, but NormLoudn gave more overall gain than LessLoudn. Generally, NormLoudn fittings led to calculated overall

  2. Chest Pain with Normal Thallium-201 Myocardial Perfusion Image - Is It Really Normal?

    PubMed

    Liu, Pang-Yen; Lin, Wen-Yu; Lin, Li-Fan; Lin, Chin-Sheng; Lin, Wei-Shiang; Cheng, Shu-Meng; Yang, Shih-Ping; Liou, Jun-Ting

    2016-05-01

    Thallium-201 myocardial perfusion image (MPI) is commonly used to detect coronary artery disease in patients with chest pain. Although a normal thallium-201 MPI result is generally considered to be a good prognosis and further coronary angiogram is not recommended, there are still a few patients who suffer from unexpected acute coronary events. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical prognosis in patients with normal thallium-201 MPI. From January 2006 to August 2012, a total 22,003 patients undergoing thallium-201 MPI in one tertiary center were screened. Of these, 8092 patients had normal results and were investigated retrospectively. During follow-up, 54 patients underwent coronary angiogram because of refractory typical angina pectoris or unexpected acute coronary events. These 54 patients were divided into 2 groups: group I consisted of 26 (48.1%) patients with angiography-proven significant coronary artery stenosis, and group II consisted of 28 (51.9%) patients without significant stenosis. Patients in group I had a higher prevalence of prior coronary stenting and electrocardiographic features of ST depression compared with patients in group II. The multivariate analysis demonstrated that both prior coronary stenting and ST depression were risk predictors of unexpected acute coronary events in the patients with normal thallium-201 MPI [odds ratio (OR), 5.93; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03-34.06, p = 0.05 and OR, 7.10; 95% CI: 1.28-39.51, p = 0.03,respectively]. Although there is a low incidence of unexpected acute coronary events in patients with chest pain and normal thallium-201 MPI, physicians should be aware of the potentials risk in certain patients in this specific population.

  3. Chest Pain with Normal Thallium-201 Myocardial Perfusion Image – Is It Really Normal?

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Pang-Yen; Lin, Wen-Yu; Lin, Li-Fan; Lin, Chin-Sheng; Lin, Wei-Shiang; Cheng, Shu-Meng; Yang, Shih-Ping; Liou, Jun-Ting

    2016-01-01

    Background Thallium-201 myocardial perfusion image (MPI) is commonly used to detect coronary artery disease in patients with chest pain. Although a normal thallium-201 MPI result is generally considered to be a good prognosis and further coronary angiogram is not recommended, there are still a few patients who suffer from unexpected acute coronary events. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical prognosis in patients with normal thallium-201 MPI. Methods From January 2006 to August 2012, a total 22,003 patients undergoing thallium-201 MPI in one tertiary center were screened. Of these, 8092 patients had normal results and were investigated retrospectively. During follow-up, 54 patients underwent coronary angiogram because of refractory typical angina pectoris or unexpected acute coronary events. These 54 patients were divided into 2 groups: group I consisted of 26 (48.1%) patients with angiography-proven significant coronary artery stenosis, and group II consisted of 28 (51.9%) patients without significant stenosis. Results Patients in group I had a higher prevalence of prior coronary stenting and electrocardiographic features of ST depression compared with patients in group II. The multivariate analysis demonstrated that both prior coronary stenting and ST depression were risk predictors of unexpected acute coronary events in the patients with normal thallium-201 MPI [odds ratio (OR), 5.93; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03-34.06, p = 0.05 and OR, 7.10; 95% CI: 1.28-39.51, p = 0.03,respectively]. Conclusions Although there is a low incidence of unexpected acute coronary events in patients with chest pain and normal thallium-201 MPI, physicians should be aware of the potentials risk in certain patients in this specific population. PMID:27274174

  4. Pulsatile ocular blood flow investigation in asymmetric normal tension glaucoma and normal subjects.

    PubMed

    Fontana, L; Poinoosawmy, D; Bunce, C V; O'Brien, C; Hitchings, R A

    1998-07-01

    This study was designed to investigate pulsatile ocular blood flow (POBF) in normal tension glaucoma (NTG) patients and in normal controls. NTG patients with unilateral field loss were evaluated to compare POBF values between eyes with and without field loss. POBF measurements from more than 1500 subjects were collected during a period of 6 months from six optometric centres. Subjects with systemic vascular diseases (such as systemic hypertension and diabetes), ophthalmic diseases, a positive family history of glaucoma, and those individuals receiving treatment with systemic beta blockers were excluded on the basis of a questionnaire. For comparison, 95 NTG patients with unilateral field loss, selected from 403 consecutive patients with NTG, underwent POBF testing. For each individual age, sex, intraocular pressure, refraction, and pulse rate were entered into a database. Data from 777 subjects were included in the analysis. POBF measurements of patients and subjects were compared allowing for differences in age, sex, intraocular pressure, refraction, and pulse rate. POBF was significantly lower in eyes of NTG patients with and without field loss (p < 0.001 and p = 0.01 respectively). Eyes of NTG patients with field loss showed significantly lower POBF than the contralateral eyes with normal field (p < 0.001). POBF was significantly lower in eyes of NTG patients with and without field loss than in normal subjects, suggesting that differences in ocular blood perfusion are relevant to the development of NTG and are detectable from the early stage of the disease. Furthermore, the finding of lower POBF in NTG eyes with field loss than in the contralateral eyes with normal field suggests that haemodynamic differences between fellow eyes contribute to determine the side of onset of the disease.

  5. Three-word recall in normal aging.

    PubMed

    Chandler, Melanie J; Lacritz, Laura H; Cicerello, Antionette R; Chapman, Sandra B; Honig, Lawrence S; Weiner, Myron F; Cullum, C Munro

    2004-11-01

    Three-word recall tasks are widely used as brief measures of verbal memory function, although interpretation of performance is complicated by variations in test instructions and procedures. The purpose of this study was to examine 3-word recall performance in samples of healthy subjects aged 5275 (M age = 70) and age 7692 (M age = 82) compared to patients with Alzheimer's Disease (AD) when explicit prompts to remember the words were given. Those in the younger aging group remembered significantly more words than those in the older sample after a brief delay (M= 2.8 and 2.3, respectively). However, the majority of control subjects recalled 2 or 3 words after the delay, with only 3% of the 5075 year old group and 17% of the 76+ year old group recalling 0 or 1 word on delayed recall. This is in stark contrast to the 87% of individuals with AD who recalled 0 or 1 word. Even though 3-word recall performance decreases with age, good recall (2 or 3 words) can be expected in most cases of normal aging.

  6. Normal shoulder ultrasound: anatomy and technique.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Harun; Robinson, Philip

    2015-07-01

    Shoulder ultrasound (US) is one of the most common applications of musculoskeletal US due to the high incidence of rotator cuff disorders. It can be used effectively for the diagnosis of rotator cuff diseases, and several studies have shown very high sensitivity and specificity for rotator cuff tears comparable with that of MRI. Shoulder US has several advantages over MRI such as lower cost, comparatively easier availability, short examination duration, dynamic capability, and ability to perform guided injection at the same appointment. However, it depends on the skill of the operator and therefore requires a standardized detailed protocol to avoid errors in diagnosis. A symptomatic area-only focused examination should not be performed because it is not uncommon to have symptoms away from the actual site of pathology. Detailed understanding of what anatomy can be evaluated is required, and this article discusses the relevant anatomy covering the rotator cuff, subacromial bursa, and acromioclavicular joint. The equipment requirements and technique of examination of different anatomical structures with transducer positions and normal sonographic appearances are described. Pitfalls and artifacts associated with shoulder US are covered; understanding them is crucial to avoid misinterpretation of findings.

  7. [Dreams in normal and pathological aging].

    PubMed

    Guénolé, Fabian; Marcaggi, Geoffrey; Baleyte, Jean-Marc; Garma, Lucile

    2010-06-01

    Although most of scientific knowledge in dream research is based on young adult studies, this article provides a review of the effects of normal and pathological aging on dream psychology. It starts with preliminary comments about epistemological and methodological principles of dream research, its singularities in aged persons, and the modifications of sleep physiology with age. The whole literature agrees that dream recall progressively decreases from the beginning of adulthood - not in old age - and that dream reports become less intense, perceptually and emotionally. This evolution occurs faster in men than women, with gender differences in the content of dreams. The chronological modifications could be explained partly by changes in lifestyle and attitude towards dreams in early adulthood, but mainly by modifications of sleep physiology, particularly the decrease and qualitative changes of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Dreams have usually little subjective importance in the mental life of aged persons. However, working with dreams can be a valuable tool for psychotherapy in the aged. According to the few existing data, patients suffering degenerative dementia dream much less than healthy aged persons. In Alzheimer's disease, this could be linked to the decrease of REM sleep, and atrophy of associative sensory areas of the cerebral cortex. Most studied aspects of dreaming in degenerative cognitive disorders are REM sleep behavior disorders, and nightmares induced by cholinesterase inhibitors. More studies are needed to better characterize the evolution of dreams with age, particularly studies performed in sleep laboratory.

  8. Granular mechanics of normally consolidated fine soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanqui, Calixtro

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, duality is demonstrated to be one of the inherent properties of granular packings, by mapping the stress-strain curve into the diagram that relates the pore ratio and the localization of the contact point. In this way, it is demonstrated that critical state is not related to the maximum void ratio, but to a unique value related to two different angles of packing, one limiting the domain of the dense state, and other limiting the domain of the loose state. As a consequence, packings can be dilative or contractive, as mutually exclusive states, except by the critical state point, where equations for both granular packings are equally valid. Further analysis shows that stresses, in a dilative packing, are transmitted by chains of contact forces, and, in a contractive packing, by shear forces. So that, stresses, for the first case, depend on the initial void ratio, and, for the second case, are independent. As it is known, normally consolidated and lightly overconsolidated fine soils are in loose state, and, hence, their strength is constant, because it does not depend on their initial void ratio; except at the critical state, for which, the consolidated-drained angle of friction is related to the plasticity index or the liquid limit. In this fashion, experimental results reported by several authors around the world are confronted with the theory, showing a good agreement.

  9. Normalized GNSS interference pattern technique for altimetry.

    PubMed

    Ribot, Miguel Angel; Kucwaj, Jean-Christophe; Botteron, Cyril; Reboul, Serge; Stienne, Georges; Leclère, Jérôme; Choquel, Jean-Bernard; Farine, Pierre-André; Benjelloun, Mohammed

    2014-06-11

    It is well known that reflected signals from Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) can be used for altimetry applications, such as monitoring of water levels and determining snow height. Due to the interference of these reflected signals and the motion of satellites in space, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) measured at the receiver slowly oscillates. The oscillation rate is proportional to the change in the propagation path difference between the direct and reflected signals, which depends on the satellite elevation angle. Assuming a known receiver position, it is possible to compute the distance between the antenna and the surface of reflection from the measured oscillation rate. This technique is usually known as the interference pattern technique (IPT). In this paper, we propose to normalize the measurements in order to derive an alternative model of the SNR variations. From this model, we define a maximum likelihood estimate of the antenna height that reduces the estimation time to a fraction of one period of the SNR variation. We also derive the Cramér-Rao lower bound for the IPT and use it to assess the sensitivity of different parameters to the estimation of the antenna height. Finally, we propose an experimental framework, and we use it to assess our approach with real GPS L1 C/A signals.

  10. Supraorbital nerve conduction study in normal subjects.

    PubMed

    Therimadasamy, Aravindakannan; Wilder-Smith, Einar P; Lim, Aymeric Y T; Yap, Yan Lin; Yeo, Matthew; Naidu, Shenthilkumar; Lee, Shu Jin

    2012-04-01

    There is currently no examination technique that allows direct measurement of supraorbital nerve conduction velocity and amplitude. Therefore, in this study we describe a novel nerve conduction technique that allows measurement of the supraorbital sensory nerve action potential (SNAP) distal to the supraorbital foramen. Supraorbital SNAPs were recorded bilaterally from 17 healthy volunteers using an antidromic technique. The SNAPs were consistently recordable over the site 6 cm lateral to the midline point that was marked 10 cm above the nasion. Measured parameters included peak latency (mean 2.3 ms, SD 0.3), amplitude (mean 14.6 μV; SD 10.5), and velocity (mean 51.3 m/s, SD 6.8). The mean percentage of interside difference in amplitude was 25.6% (SD 17.3). Cut-off values (97th percentile) were 2.7 ms (peak latency), 3.3 μV (amplitude), 41.9 m/s (conduction velocity), and 54.9% (interside difference in amplitude). Supraorbital SNAPs can be recorded in all normal subjects and used as a quantitative measure of the functioning large fibers in the nerve. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Magnetic resonance imaging of the normal placenta.

    PubMed

    Blaicher, Wibke; Brugger, Peter C; Mittermayer, Christoph; Schwindt, Jens; Deutinger, Josef; Bernaschek, Gerhard; Prayer, Daniela

    2006-02-01

    The goal of this study was to provide a representative description of the normal placenta with contrast medium-free magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in order to determine a standard of reference. One hundred consecutive singleton pregnancies were investigated by MRI without application of a contrast medium. The mean gestational age (GA) at the time of investigation was 29.5 weeks (range 19-40). Patients with suspected utero-placental insufficiency (UPI) or placental anomalies were excluded. Signal intensities were assessed and correlated with the respective GA. Antenatal MRI without contrast medium was able to depict placental status and morphological changes during gestation. A regular homogeneous structure was found in weeks 19-23. Subsequently, sporadic, slightly marked lobules appeared, which increased in number and markedness with ongoing gestation. Stratification of the lobules was observed after 36 weeks. The ratio of placental and amniotic fluid signal intensities decreased significantly with higher GA and with placental grading. MRI is well suited as an imaging method for the placenta. Our data may be used as a reference in the assessment of the placenta on MRI, and may have further clinical impact with respect to the determination of UPI.

  12. EEG and ERP assessment of normal aging.

    PubMed

    Polich, J

    1997-05-01

    EEG was recorded from 120 normal adult subjects who ranged in age from 20 to 80+ years in separate eyes open/closed conditions. The P3(00) event-related brain potential (ERP) was elicited with auditory and visual stimuli in separate conditions in the same subjects. Spectral analysis indicated that overall EEG power decreased as subject age increased. P3 amplitude decreased and peak latency increased for both the auditory and visual stimulus conditions as subject age increased. Few age-related differences were observed for the N1, P2, or N2 components. Spectral power from the delta, theta, and alpha bands correlated positively with P3 amplitude across subject age, but mean band frequency demonstrated only weak associations with P3 latency. No strong relationships were found between EEG and the other ERP component variables. The results suggest that age contributes to EEG power shifts, and that such changes significantly affect age-related variability of the P3 ERP component.

  13. Ultrasonographic evaluation of normal canine iliopsoas muscle.

    PubMed

    Cannon, Matthew S; Puchalski, Sarah M

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the normal ultrasonographic appearance of the iliopsoas muscle and related landmarks. Hind limbs of five dog cadavers with no history of lameness were evaluated. The origin and mid-body of the psoas major and the common insertion of the iliacus and psoas major on the lesser trochanter of the femur were identified and evaluated. New methylene blue was injected under ultrasonographic guidance at the three sites. Dissection was performed to confirm placement of the dye. The L3 origin, mid-body, and insertion of the muscle were identified in all dogs and were consistent in appearance and compatible with the general appearance of muscle and tendons. The L2 origin was consistently difficult to image. The same ultrasound technique was subsequently applied to four healthy dogs, and consistent images of the iliopsoas muscle and associated landmarks were obtained. In this study, the major structures of the iliopsoas could be identified and in all dogs had a similar appearance. Ultrasound is an important tool for the diagnosis of musculotendinous injury and may be useful for identification of ilipsoas injury as a cause of lameness in the dog.

  14. Symptomatic pheochromocytoma with normal urinary catecholamine metabolites.

    PubMed

    Zianni, Dimitra; Tzanela, Marinella; Klimopoulos, Serafim; Thalassinos, N C

    2004-01-01

    A 61-year old female presented with paroxysmal hypertension and a 4.5cm left adrenal mass on CT scan. Repeated measurements of 24-hour urinary fractionated metanephrines, total catecholamines and vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) were within normal range. A further scintigraphic study with (131)I -metaiodobenzylguanidine ((131)I-MIBG) revealed selective concentration of the radiotracer, corresponding to the CT mass. After adequate preoperative treatment, successful surgical excision of the tumor was performed and the pathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of a cystic pheochromocytoma with a 2cm solid tumor. On reevaluation three months later using (131)I-MIBG, no evidence of remaining or recurrent disease was found. The patient, off any antihypertensive medication, reported mild recurrent hypertension and panic attacks that were adequately controlled with antidepressants. This is a rare case of a symptomatic pheochromocytoma without elevated urine catecholamines and metanephrines. According to the literature, plasma free metanephrines would be the ideal test for biochemical detection of the tumor. However, in the event that they are not available and there is a high clinical suspicion for the presence of pheochromocytoma, as in our patient, we suggest performance of a functional nuclear medicine study, such as (131)I-MIBG, to confirm the clinical diagnosis.

  15. Normalized GNSS Interference Pattern Technique for Altimetry

    PubMed Central

    Ribot, Miguel Angel; Kucwaj, Jean-Christophe; Botteron, Cyril; Reboul, Serge; Stienne, Georges; Leclère, Jérôme; Choquel, Jean-Bernard; Farine, Pierre-André; Benjelloun, Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that reflected signals from Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) can be used for altimetry applications, such as monitoring of water levels and determining snow height. Due to the interference of these reflected signals and the motion of satellites in space, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) measured at the receiver slowly oscillates. The oscillation rate is proportional to the change in the propagation path difference between the direct and reflected signals, which depends on the satellite elevation angle. Assuming a known receiver position, it is possible to compute the distance between the antenna and the surface of reflection from the measured oscillation rate. This technique is usually known as the interference pattern technique (IPT). In this paper, we propose to normalize the measurements in order to derive an alternative model of the SNR variations. From this model, we define a maximum likelihood estimate of the antenna height that reduces the estimation time to a fraction of one period of the SNR variation. We also derive the Cramér–Rao lower bound for the IPT and use it to assess the sensitivity of different parameters to the estimation of the antenna height. Finally, we propose an experimental framework, and we use it to assess our approach with real GPS L1 C/A signals. PMID:24922453

  16. Tonometry of normal eyes in raptors.

    PubMed

    Stiles, J; Buyukmihci, N C; Farver, T B

    1994-04-01

    An applanation tonometer was used to estimate intraocular pressure in normal eyes of several species of raptors. No bird had active injury or illness, though some were nonreleasable to the wild because of previous injury. Mean (+/- SD) intraocular pressure was 20.6 (+/- 3.4) mm of Hg in red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis, n = 10), 20.8 (+/- 2.3) mm of Hg in Swainson's hawks (Buteo swainsoni, n = 6), 21.5 (+/- 3.0) mm of Hg in golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos, n = 7), 20.6 (+/- 2.0) mm of Hg in bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus, n = 3), and 10.8 (+/- 3.6) mm of Hg in great horned owls (Bubo virginianus, n = 6). There was no significant difference in intraocular pressure between hawks and eagles. Mean pressure in great horned owls was significantly (P < 0.01) lower than pressure in hawks or eagles. Reliable intraocular pressure readings could not be obtained in barn owls (Tyto alba).

  17. Intrahospital correlation of the international normalized ratio.

    PubMed

    Lazo-Langner, Alejandro; Villa-Márquez, Rosario; Hernández-Hernández, Darinel; Rojas-Maya, Sonia; Piedras, Josefa

    2009-01-01

    Background. Monitoring of oral anticoagulant therapy (OAT) is usually accomplished by measuring prothrombin time and the international normalized ratio (INR). However, thromboplastins have different responsiveness and sensitivity to vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors depletion. Several studies have shown INR variation when low sensitive thromboplastins are used. This study compared INR variability between two laboratories using highly sensitive thromboplastins. Methods. A total of 237 plasmas were tested, half of them from patients under OAT. Samples were tested simultaneously in two laboratories: in laboratory A, a Behring Coagulation Timer instrument and a human recombinant thromboplastin (Innovin, Dade Behring) (ISI 1.01) were used. In laboratory B, a Thrombolyzer Compact (Behnk Elektronik) and a rabbit brain thromboplastin (Simplastin Excel S, Organon Teknika) with an ISI of 1.30 were used. Statistical analysis was carried out according to the method of Bland and Altman. Results. Even though high correlation coefficients were obtained when comparing both laboratories, Bland-Altman analysis showed a variation of INR between laboratories ranging from -0.77 to +1.07. After logarithmic transformation of data, these values yielded a variation of the INR either 25% below or 44% above. Conclusions. These results are clearly inadequate for clinical use because such a variation would most probably induce the clinician to make a change in warfarin dose. Standardization of instruments, reagents, and controls is warranted to decrease this variation.

  18. Imaging radiation-induced normal tissue injury.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Mike E; Brunso-Bechtold, Judy K; Peiffer, Ann M; Tsien, Christina I; Bailey, Janet E; Marks, Lawrence B

    2012-04-01

    Technological developments in radiation therapy and other cancer therapies have led to a progressive increase in five-year survival rates over the last few decades. Although acute effects have been largely minimized by both technical advances and medical interventions, late effects remain a concern. Indeed, the need to identify those individuals who will develop radiation-induced late effects, and to develop interventions to prevent or ameliorate these late effects is a critical area of radiobiology research. In the last two decades, preclinical studies have clearly established that late radiation injury can be prevented/ameliorated by pharmacological therapies aimed at modulating the cascade of events leading to the clinical expression of radiation-induced late effects. These insights have been accompanied by significant technological advances in imaging that are moving radiation oncology and normal tissue radiobiology from disciplines driven by anatomy and macrostructure to ones in which important quantitative functional, microstructural, and metabolic data can be noninvasively and serially determined. In the current article, we review use of positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission tomography (SPECT), magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and MR spectroscopy to generate pathophysiological and functional data in the central nervous system, lung, and heart that offer the promise of, (1) identifying individuals who are at risk of developing radiation-induced late effects, and (2) monitoring the efficacy of interventions to prevent/ameliorate them.

  19. Normal bone mass in bulimic women.

    PubMed

    Sundgot-Borgen, J; Bahr, R; Falch, J A; Schneider, L S

    1998-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship among exercise, menstrual function, and bone mineral density (BMD) in different groups of age-matched patients with eating disorders. Dieting and eating disorder history, physical activity history, and menstrual history were assessed by clinical interview in 43 bulimic and 13 anorectic young women as well as in 17 healthy control subjects (18-29 yr). BMD was assessed by dual x-ray absorptiometry. All the anorectics but only 30% of the bulimics exercised regularly from the onset of their eating disorder (P < 0.01), mainly using aerobic dancing and running. All of the anorectics had been amenorrheic since the start of their symptoms, and 68% of the bulimics had a history of menstrual dysfunction. Within the exercise subgroups of bulimic patients, there was no significant relationship between BMD and current or previous menstrual function. Anorectic patients had lower BMD than bulimics and controls in all skeletal regions studied (P < 0.01). Bulimic patients who had exercised regularly during their illness had higher total body BMD than bulimics classified as sedentary (P < 0.01). Bulimics who had exercised regularly or intermittently since the onset of their eating disorder had higher BMD than sedentary bulimics in the lumbar vertebrae, femoral neck, and legs (P < 0.05). It appears that weight-bearing exercise can prevent or attenuate bone loss at specific skeletal sites in normal weight bulimic patients, but not in anorectics.

  20. Gastrohepatic ligament: normal and pathologic CT anatomy

    SciTech Connect

    Balfe, D.M.; Mauro, M.A.; Koehler, R.E.; Lee, J.K.T.; Weyman, P.J.; Picus, D.; Peterson, R.R.

    1984-02-01

    In a review of 200 consecutive CT scans of the upper abdomen, the structures within the gastrohepatic ligament (GHL) were well seen in 182 (91%). In 85% of these 182 patients, the largest structure visible within the GHL was 6mm or smaller. A total of 27 patients had a structure larger than 6 mm within the GHL;this finding could be explained in 13 by the presence of a normal anatomic variant. Of the 14 others, 12 had known tumor arising in or known to have spread to the upper abdomen. Two patients had no obvious explanation. Fourteen patients with cancers of the stomach (9 patients), pancreas (3 patients), and esophagus (2 patients) had 57 intact nodes that were evaluated pathologically. Of these 40/40 benign nodes and 10/17 malignant nodes were less than or equal to 8 mm in size. When anatomic variants are excluded, the finding of rounded structures greater than 8 mm in the GHL is a reliable indicator of left gastric node involvement by carcinoma or lymphoma or of coronary venous dilatation.

  1. Recent skin injuries in normal children.

    PubMed

    Labbé, J; Caouette, G

    2001-08-01

    The objective of our study was to collect data on the totality of recent skin injuries in normal children and adolescents, and to determine the relationship between the number of injuries, the age of the child, and the time of year in a temperate climate. The participants in this study were children and adolescents seen successively for a reason other than trauma over a period of 1 year, by the first author (J.L.), in a university medical center in Québec City, Canada. The total body surface, with the exception of the anal-genital area, was examined systematically. The characteristics and location of all recent injuries (bruises, abrasions, scratches, cuts, burns, etc) were recorded. Scars from old injuries were ignored. The statistical method used for comparison was the Fisher's exact test. Two thousand forty examinations were done on 1467 youngsters from 0 to 17 years of age. Nine hundred thirty-one examinations were done on boys and 1109 on girls. The majority of children 9 months and older (76.6%) had at least 1 recent skin injury, without a significant difference between the sexes. Seventeen percent of the total sample of children had at least 5 injuries, whereas 4% had 10 or more, <1% had 15 or more, and 0.2% had 20 or more. The sites involved were mostly the lower limbs. Less than 2% of the total sample of children had injuries to the thorax, abdomen, pelvis, or buttocks, and <1% to the chin, ears, or neck. The majority of injuries observed were bruises, regardless of the time of year. There were, however, more skin injuries during the summer and the proportion of abrasions was higher at this time of the year. The 0- to 8-month age group was unique from all points of view. Skin injuries were rare in this age group (11.4%); they did not vary with the season, and they were mainly on the head and the face. Their injuries were mostly scratches. Bruises were found in only 1.2% of this group. The majority of normal children (after the age of 9 months) and

  2. Equine thoracoscopy: normal anatomy and surgical technique.

    PubMed

    Peroni, J F; Horner, N T; Robinson, N E; Stick, J A

    2001-05-01

    Six normal, healthy horses age 3-10 years underwent left and right thoracoscopic examination using a rigid telescope. A minimum of 30 days was allowed between procedures. Horses were restrained in stocks and sedated with a continuous detomidine infusion. After surgical preparation of the hemithorax elected for surgery, and administration of local or regional anaesthesia of the surgery sites, thoracoscopy was completed during two 15 min pneumothorax periods. During the procedures, the thoracic structures were viewed using a 57 cm, 10 mm diameter, 30 degrees rigid telescope connected to a digital camcorder to allow computer capture of digital images. The telescope was inserted into the thoracic cavity via 3 different intercostal spaces. The 8th, 10th and 12th intercostal spaces were randomly selected and used among horses. The exploration of each hemithorax started from the dorsal-caudal quadrant continued toward the cranial thorax and was completed by observing the diaphragmatic and caudal pulmonary region. Collapsed lung, aorta, oesophagus and diaphragm were viewed readily in either hemithorax. On exploration of the right hemithorax, the azygos vein, thoracic duct and pulmonary veins were also identified. Horses tolerated thoracoscopy well. Signs of discomfort, such as increased respiratory rate, coughing and decreased level of sedation, were associated with lung collapse in one horse, with pneumothorax on 2 occasions, and when the thorax was approached through the 8th intercostal space. Surgery performed via the 8th intercostal space was hindered by the rigidity of the 8th and 9th ribs, and by the presence of a greater musculature, which did not allow easy cranial and caudal movements of the telescope.

  3. Normal development, oncogenesis and programmed cell death.

    PubMed

    Liebermann, D A

    1998-09-10

    Meeting's Report -- June 2, 1998, Sugarload Estate Conference Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. A symposium on Normal Development, Oncogenesis and Programmed Cell Death, was held at the Sugarload Estate Conference Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA sponsored by the Fels Cancer Institute, Temple University School of Medicine, with the support of the Alliance Pharmaceutical Corporation. The symposium was organized by Drs Dan A Liebermann and Barbara Hoffman at the Fels. Invited speakers included: Dr Andrei V Gudkov (University of Illinois) who started the symposium talking about 'New cellular factors modulating the tumor suppressor function of p53'; Dr Yuri Lazebnik (Cold Spring Harbor Laboratories) spoke about 'Caspases considered as enemies within'; Dr E Premkumar Reddy (Fels Institute, Temple University) talked about recent exciting findings in his laboratory regarding 'JAK-STATs dedicated signaling pathways'; Dr Michael Greenberg (Harvard University) spoke about 'Signal transduction pathways that regulate differentiation and survival in the developing nervous system'; Dr Richard Kolesnick's (Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center) talk has been focused at 'Stress signals for apoptosis, including Ceramide and c-Jun Kinase/Stress-activated Protein Kinase'; Dr Barbara Hoffman (Fels Institute, Temple University) described research, conducted in collaboration with Dr Dan A Liebermann, aimed at deciphering the roles of 'myc, myb, and E2F as negative regulators of terminal differentiation', using hematopoietic cells as model system. Dr Daniel G Tenen (Harvard Medical School), described studies aimed at understanding the 'Regulation of hematopoietic cell development by lineage specific transcription regulators'. Dr George C Prendergast (The Wistar Institute) talked about the 'Myc-Bin1 signaling pathway in cell death and differentiation. Dr Ruth J Muschel (University of Pennsylvania) spoke about work, conducted in collaboration with Dr WG McKenna, aimed at

  4. Impedance characteristics of normal oesophageal motor function.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Huan N; Domingues, Gerson R; Winograd, Ron; Koppitz, Patrick; Lammert, Frank; Silny, Jiri; Matern, Siegfried

    2003-07-01

    To obtain detailed data about the correlation between oesophageal peristalsis and bolus transport for clinical oesophageal motility testing. Oesophageal motility testing was performed in 25 healthy subjects by using the newly developed technique of concurrent impedancometry and manometry. Parameters of oesophageal motility and bolus transport as well as the correlation between transit and motility were analysed after swallowing saline or yogurt. Detailed data about bolus transport and oesophageal motility could be obtained during a single investigation step. Air was observed in front of the bolus in 76% of the swallows. Resting baseline impedance was significantly higher in the oesophagus than in the stomach (2832+/-118 Omega vs 688+/-119 Omega). The deglutitive impedance gradient was 222+/-26 Omega for saline and 482+/-38 Omega for yogurt. Bolus propagation velocity and bolus transit time as impedance parameters of bolus transport discriminated fluid from semisolid bolus (4.0+/-0.1 cm/s vs 3.2+/-0.1 cm/s and 9.9+/-0.2 s vs 11.5+/-0.2 s, for saline vs yogurt), while contraction wave amplitude as a manometry parameter of oesophageal motor function did not (91.4+/-7.5 mmHg vs 80.7+/-9.4 mmHg, for saline vs yogurt). There was a poor correlation between bolus propagation velocity and contraction wave amplitude. Impedance parameters of normal oesophageal motor function have been characterized. Impedancometry and manometry provide different but complementary data about oesophageal motor function. Concurrent impedancometry and manometry allows detailed monitoring of oesophageal motility and bolus transit, which may open new perspectives for comprehensive oesophageal motility testing.

  5. A tutorial on Bayesian Normal linear regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klauenberg, Katy; Wübbeler, Gerd; Mickan, Bodo; Harris, Peter; Elster, Clemens

    2015-12-01

    Regression is a common task in metrology and often applied to calibrate instruments, evaluate inter-laboratory comparisons or determine fundamental constants, for example. Yet, a regression model cannot be uniquely formulated as a measurement function, and consequently the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM) and its supplements are not applicable directly. Bayesian inference, however, is well suited to regression tasks, and has the advantage of accounting for additional a priori information, which typically robustifies analyses. Furthermore, it is anticipated that future revisions of the GUM shall also embrace the Bayesian view. Guidance on Bayesian inference for regression tasks is largely lacking in metrology. For linear regression models with Gaussian measurement errors this tutorial gives explicit guidance. Divided into three steps, the tutorial first illustrates how a priori knowledge, which is available from previous experiments, can be translated into prior distributions from a specific class. These prior distributions have the advantage of yielding analytical, closed form results, thus avoiding the need to apply numerical methods such as Markov Chain Monte Carlo. Secondly, formulas for the posterior results are given, explained and illustrated, and software implementations are provided. In the third step, Bayesian tools are used to assess the assumptions behind the suggested approach. These three steps (prior elicitation, posterior calculation, and robustness to prior uncertainty and model adequacy) are critical to Bayesian inference. The general guidance given here for Normal linear regression tasks is accompanied by a simple, but real-world, metrological example. The calibration of a flow device serves as a running example and illustrates the three steps. It is shown that prior knowledge from previous calibrations of the same sonic nozzle enables robust predictions even for extrapolations.

  6. The psychoanalyst's normal and pathological superegos.

    PubMed

    Sedlak, Vic

    2016-12-01

    The first section of the paper explores a number of differing views regarding the concept of the superego, essentially in terms of its formation and its functions. Two broad theories of superego development, both of which were introduced by Freud, are described. The first takes the superego to be principally oedipal in origin; the second traces the superego to an earlier period. The controversy about the usefulness of the concept of the death instinct is also implicated in the different views. It is then suggested that it is worthwhile to distinguish between a normal superego and a pathological superego and that these two distinct models of the superego are implicit in the work of both Freud and Klein. Strachey's (1934) views on the nature of the mutative effect of psychoanalytic treatment are briefly reviewed in the light of this distinction. It is suggested that Strachey was hesitant in clarifying the full implications of his views, particularly regarding the reasons for the difficulty the psychoanalyst will experience in making a transference interpretation. It is argued that the difficulty will relate to the psychoanalyst's anxiety about having sufficiently worked through the countertransference, particularly in relation to superego functioning. Two brief clinical vignettes are considered in support of this view. The last section of the paper offers some comments on the emotional development of the psychoanalyst and the ways that maturing as a psychoanalyst will involve a certain mellowing of the analyst's stance and a greater tolerance of the patient's prerogative to bring the full range of his or her personality into the treatment. Copyright © 2016 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  7. Peripheral refraction in normal infant rhesus monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Li-Fang; Ramamirtham, Ramkumar; Huang, Juan; Qiao-Grider, Ying; Smith, Earl L.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To characterize peripheral refractions in infant monkeys. Methods Cross-sectional data for horizontal refractions were obtained from 58 normal rhesus monkeys at 3 weeks of age. Longitudinal data were obtained for both the vertical and horizontal meridians from 17 monkeys. Refractive errors were measured by retinoscopy along the pupillary axis and at eccentricities of 15, 30, and 45 degrees. Axial dimensions and corneal power were measured by ultrasonography and keratometry, respectively. Results In infant monkeys, the degree of radial astigmatism increased symmetrically with eccentricity in all meridians. There were, however, initial nasal-temporal and superior-inferior asymmetries in the spherical-equivalent refractive errors. Specifically, the refractions in the temporal and superior fields were similar to the central ametropia, but the refractions in the nasal and inferior fields were more myopic than the central ametropia and the relative nasal field myopia increased with the degree of central hyperopia. With age, the degree of radial astigmatism decreased in all meridians and the refractions became more symmetrical along both the horizontal and vertical meridians; small degrees of relative myopia were evident in all fields. Conclusions As in adult humans, refractive error varied as a function of eccentricity in infant monkeys and the pattern of peripheral refraction varied with the central refractive error. With age, emmetropization occurred for both central and peripheral refractive errors resulting in similar refractions across the central 45 degrees of the visual field, which may reflect the actions of vision-dependent, growth-control mechanisms operating over a wide area of the posterior globe. PMID:18487366

  8. Modeling seismic noise by normal mode summation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gualtieri, L.; Stutzmann, E.; Capdeville, Y.; Ardhuin, F.; Schimmel, M.; Mangeney, A.; Morelli, A.

    2012-04-01

    Microseismic noise is the continuous oscillation of the ground in the period band 5-20 s. We observe seasonal variations of this noise that are stable over the last 20 years. Microseism spectra display 2 peaks, and the strongest peak, in the period band 5-12 s, correspond to the so called secondary microseism. Longuet-Higgins (1950) showed that the corresponding sources are pressure fluctuations that are generated by the interaction of ocean waves either in deep ocean or due to coastal reflection. Considering an ocean wave model that takes into account coastal reflection, we compute the pressure fluctuation as a vertical force applied at the surface of the ocean. The sources are discretized in a spherical grid with constant grid spacing of 50 km. We then compute the synthetic spectra by normal mode summation in a realistic Earth model. We show that the maximum force amplitude is for periods 6-7 s which is consistent with the period of the seismic spectra maximum peak and that, for periods around 12 s, only the sources generated by coastal reflection have a strong influence for the microseism generation. We also show that the displacement of the ground is amplified in relation with the ocean bathymetry in agreement with Longuet-Higgins' theory. We obtain a good agreement between synthetic and real seismic spectra in the period band 5-12sec. Modeling seismic noise is a useful tool for selecting particular noise data such as the strongest peaks and further investigating the corresponding sources. These noise sources may then be used for tomography.

  9. Constraining Accreting Binary Populations in Normal Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehmer, Bret; Hornschemeier, A.; Basu-Zych, A.; Fragos, T.; Jenkins, L.; Kalogera, V.; Ptak, A.; Tzanavaris, P.; Zezas, A.

    2011-01-01

    X-ray emission from accreting binary systems (X-ray binaries) uniquely probe the binary phase of stellar evolution and the formation of compact objects such as neutron stars and black holes. A detailed understanding of X-ray binary systems is needed to provide physical insight into the formation and evolution of the stars involved, as well as the demographics of interesting binary remnants, such as millisecond pulsars and gravitational wave sources. Our program makes wide use of Chandra observations and complementary multiwavelength data sets (through, e.g., the Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey [SINGS] and the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey [GOODS]), as well as super-computing facilities, to provide: (1) improved calibrations for correlations between X-ray binary emission and physical properties (e.g., star-formation rate and stellar mass) for galaxies in the local Universe; (2) new physical constraints on accreting binary processes (e.g., common-envelope phase and mass transfer) through the fitting of X-ray binary synthesis models to observed local galaxy X-ray binary luminosity functions; (3) observational and model constraints on the X-ray evolution of normal galaxies over the last 90% of cosmic history (since z 4) from the Chandra Deep Field surveys and accreting binary synthesis models; and (4) predictions for deeper observations from forthcoming generations of X-ray telesopes (e.g., IXO, WFXT, and Gen-X) to provide a science driver for these missions. In this talk, we highlight the details of our program and discuss recent results.

  10. Vascular factors in suspected normal pressure hydrocephalus

    PubMed Central

    Agerskov, Simon; Rabiei, Katrin; Marlow, Thomas; Jensen, Christer; Guo, Xinxin; Kern, Silke; Wikkelsø, Carsten; Skoog, Ingmar

    2016-01-01

    Objective: We examined clinical and imaging findings of suspected idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) in relation to vascular risk factors and white matter lesions (WMLs), using a nested case-control design in a representative, population-based sample. Methods: From a population-based sample, 1,235 persons aged 70 years or older were examined with CT of the brain between 1986 and 2000. We identified 55 persons with hydrocephalic ventricular enlargement, i.e., radiologic findings consistent with iNPH. Among these, 26 had clinical signs that fulfilled international guideline criteria for probable iNPH. These cases were labeled suspected iNPH. Each case was matched to 5 controls from the same sample, based on age, sex, and study cohort. Data on risk factors were obtained from clinical examinations and the Swedish Hospital Discharge Register. History of hypertension, diabetes mellitus (DM), smoking, overweight, history of coronary artery disease, stroke/TIA, and WMLs on CT were examined. Risk factors associated with iNPH with a p value <0.1 in χ2 tests were included in conditional logistic regression models. Results: In the regression analyses, suspected iNPH was related to moderate to severe WMLs (odds ratio [OR] 5.2; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.5–17.6), while hydrocephalic ventricular enlargement was related to hypertension (OR 2.7; 95% CI: 1.1–6.8), moderate to severe WMLs (OR 6.5; 95% CI: 2.1–20.3), and DM (OR 4.3; 95% CI: 1.1–16.3). Conclusions: Hypertension, WMLs, and DM were related to clinical and imaging features of iNPH, suggesting that vascular mechanisms are involved in the pathophysiology. These findings might have implications for understanding disease mechanisms in iNPH and possibly prevention. PMID:26773072

  11. Diuretic renal scintigraphy in normal cats.

    PubMed

    Hecht, Silke; Lane, India F; Daniel, Gregory B; Morandi, Federica; Sharp, Dorothy E

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a protocol for diuretic renal scintigraphy (renography) in cats and describe normal findings. 99mTc-DTPA renal scintigraphy was performed twice in 10 healthy cats. Furosemide or saline were injected 4.5 min after radiopharmaceutical administration for the diuretic or control scan, respectively. A dynamic acquisition was performed for 8 min. The following parameters were evaluated: (1) global and individual glomerular filtration rate (GFR); (2) shape of the time-activity curve (TAC); (3) time of peak (TOP); (4) individual kidney excretion half-time (T1/2) of the radiopharmaceutical; (5) percentage of maximum activity measured at the end of the study. Global GFR in the control studies (2.79 +/- 0.83 ml/min/kg, mean +/- SD) did not differ significantly from the diuretic scans (2.34 +/- 0.51 ml/min/kg). The shape of most (16/ 20) TAC of diuretic renograms was similar to those of control renograms. The TOP of the diuretic renogram curves was 3.06 +/- 0.58 min, and did not differ from that of the control scans (3.01 +/- 0.61 min). T1/2 of the diuretic renograms was significantly shorter (5.15 +/- 0.83 min) than that of the control renograms (6.31 +/- 1.50 min). A significantly lower percentage of maximum activity was present at the end of the study in diuretic renograms (median: 47.25%; range: 33.60-59.60%) compared with control renograms (63.40%; 30.00-69.40%). Diuretic renal scintigraphy is a noninvasive and fast procedure to perform in cats. The applicability of this technique needs to be investigated in patients with significantly impaired renal function and obstructive uropathies.

  12. The "normal" elongation of river basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castelltort, Sebastien

    2013-04-01

    The spacing between major transverse rivers at the front of Earth's linear mountain belts consistently scales with about half of the mountain half-width [1], despite strong differences in climate and rock uplift rates. Like other empirical measures describing drainage network geometry this result seems to indicate that the form of river basins, among other properties of landscapes, is invariant. Paradoxically, in many current landscape evolution models, the patterns of drainage network organization, as seen for example in drainage density and channel spacing, seem to depend on both climate [2-4] and tectonics [5]. Hovius' observation [1] is one of several unexplained "laws" in geomorphology that still sheds mystery on how water, and rivers in particular, shape the Earth's landscapes. This narrow range of drainage network shapes found in the Earth's orogens is classicaly regarded as an optimal catchment geometry that embodies a "most probable state" in the uplift-erosion system of a linear mountain belt. River basins currently having an aspect away from this geometry are usually considered unstable and expected to re-equilibrate over geological time-scales. Here I show that the Length/Width~2 aspect ratio of drainage basins in linear mountain belts is the natural expectation of sampling a uniform or normal distribution of basin shapes, and bears no information on the geomorphic processes responsible for landscape development. This finding also applies to Hack's [6] law of river basins areas and lengths, a close parent of Hovius' law. [1]Hovius, N. Basin Res. 8, 29-44 (1996) [2]Simpson, G. & Schlunegger, F. J. Geophys. Res. 108, 2300 (2003) [3]Tucker, G. & Bras, R. Water Resour. Res. 34, 2751-2764 (1998) [4]Tucker, G. & Slingerland, R. Water Resour. Res. 33, 2031-2047 (1997) [5]Tucker, G. E. & Whipple, K. X. J. Geophys. Res. 107, 1-1 (2002) [6]Hack, J. US Geol. Surv. Prof. Pap. 294-B (1957)

  13. MRI of normal fetal brain development.

    PubMed

    Prayer, Daniela; Kasprian, Gregor; Krampl, Elisabeth; Ulm, Barbara; Witzani, Linde; Prayer, Lucas; Brugger, Peter C

    2006-02-01

    Normal fetal brain maturation can be studied by in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) from the 18th gestational week (GW) to term, and relies primarily on T2-weighted and diffusion-weighted (DW) sequences. These maturational changes must be interpreted with a knowledge of the histological background and the temporal course of the respective developmental steps. In addition, MR presentation of developing and transient structures must be considered. Signal changes associated with maturational processes can mainly be ascribed to the following changes in tissue composition and organization, which occur at the histological level: (1) a decrease in water content and increasing cell-density can be recognized as a shortening of T1- and T2-relaxation times, leading to increased T1-weighted and decreased T2-weighted intensity, respectively; (2) the arrangement of microanatomical structures to create a symmetrical or asymmetrical environment, leading to structural differences that may be demonstrated by DW-anisotropy; (3) changes in non-structural qualities, such as the onset of a membrane potential in premyelinating axons. The latter process also influences the appearance of a structure on DW sequences. Thus, we will review the in vivo MR appearance of different maturational states of the fetal brain and relate these maturational states to anatomical, histological, and in vitro MRI data. Then, the development of the cerebral cortex, white matter, temporal lobe, and cerebellum will be reviewed, and the MR appearance of transient structures of the fetal brain will be shown. Emphasis will be placed on the appearance of the different structures with the various sequences. In addition, the possible utility of dynamic fetal sequences in assessing spontaneous fetal movements is discussed.

  14. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus.

    PubMed

    Bradley, William G

    2016-04-01

    Normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) is a syndrome found in the elderly, which is characterized by ventriculomegaly and deep white matter ischemia (DWMI) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and the clinical triad of gait disturbance, dementia, and urinary incontinence. NPH has been estimated to account for up to 10% of cases of dementia and is significant because it is treatable by ventriculoperitoneal shunting. Patients with a known cause of chronic communicating hydrocephalus, that is, meningitis or hemorrhage, tend to respond better than patients with the so-called "idiopathic" form, most likely because of poor selection criteria in the past. Good response to shunting has been associated with hyperdynamic cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow through the aqueduct. In the early days of MRI, patients with a large CSF flow void extending from the foramen of Monro through the aqueduct to the fourth ventricle had an excellent chance of responding to ventriculoperitoneal shunting (P < 0.003). Today, we use phase-contrast MRI to measure the volume of CSF flowing through the aqueduct in either direction over a cardiac cycle. When this aqueductal CSF stroke volume is sufficiently elevated, there is an excellent chance of shunt responsiveness (100% positive predictive value in 1 study). Idiopathic NPH appears to be a "two-hit" disease-benign external hydrocephalus (BEH) in infancy followed by DWMI in late adulthood. As BEH occurs when the sutures are still open, these infants present with large heads, a finding also noted in patients with NPH. Although BEH has been attributed to immature arachnoidal granulations with decreased CSF resorptive capacity, this now appears to be permanent and may lead to a parallel pathway for CSF resorption via the extracellular space of the brain. With DWMI, the myelin lipid is lost, exposing the polar water molecules to myelin protein, increasing resistance to CSF outflow and leading to backing up of CSF and hydrocephalus.

  15. Reward learning in normal and mutant Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Tempel, Bruce L.; Bonini, Nancy; Dawson, Douglas R.; Quinn, William G.

    1983-01-01

    Hungry fruit flies can be trained by exposing them to two chemical odorants, one paired with the opportunity to feed on 1 M sucrose. On later testing, when given a choice between odorants the flies migrate specifically toward the sucrose-paired odor. This appetitively reinforced learning by the flies is similar in strength and character to previously demonstrated negatively reinforced learning, but it differs in several properties. Both memory consolidation and memory decay proceed relatively slowly after training with sucrose reward. Consolidation of learned information into anesthesia-resistant long-term memory requires about 100 min after training with sucrose compared to about 30 min after training with electric shock. Memory in wild-type flies persists for 24 hr after training with sucrose compared to 4-6 hr after training with electric shock. Memory in amnesiac mutants appears to be similarly lengthened, from 1 hr to 6 hr, by substituting sucrose reward for shock punishment. Two other mutants, dunce and rutabaga, which were isolated because they failed to learn the shock-avoidance task, learn normally in response to sucrose reward but forget rapidly afterward. One mutant, turnip, does not learn in either paradigm. Reward and punishment can be combined in olfactory discrimination training by pairing one odor to sucrose and the other to electric shock. In this situation, the expression of learning is approximately the sum of that obtained by using either reinforcement alone. After such training, memory decays at two distinct rates, each characteristic of one type of reinforcement. PMID:6572401

  16. Controllable spin and valley polarized current through a superlattice of normal/ferromagnetic/normal silicene junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashidian, Z.; Hajati, Y.; Rezaeipour, S.; Baher, S.

    2017-02-01

    The spin and valley transports in a superlattice of normal/ferromagnetic/normal silicene junction are studied theoretically. Transport properties in particular valley-resolved conductance, spin and valley polarization have been computed by the Landauer Buttiker formula. We achieve fully valley and spin polarized current in the superlattice N/F/N structure. Our findings also imply that by increasing the number of ferromagnetic barriers, the onset of fully spin and valley polarized current always occur for lower values of staggered potential(Δz/E) and length of the ferromagnetic region (Kf L) in the silicene supelattice structure as compared with N/F/N silicene junction. Fully spin and valley polarizations make silicene superlattice a suitable candidate for spin-valleytronics applications.

  17. Parental perceptions of the outcome and meaning of normalization.

    PubMed

    Knafl, Kathleen A; Darney, Blair G; Gallo, Agatha M; Angst, Denise B

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this secondary analysis was to identify the meaning of normalization for parents of a child with a chronic genetic condition. The sample was comprised of 28 families (48 parents), selected to reflect two groups: Normalization Present (NP) and Normalization Absent (NA). Constant comparison analysis was used to identify themes characterizing parents' perceptions of the meaning of normalization. The meanings parents attributed to normalization reflected their evaluation of condition management, parenting role, and condition impact, with parents in the NP and NA groups demonstrating distinct patterns of meaning. These meaning patterns are discussed as an outcome of normalization. Providers can play a pivotal role in helping families achieve normalization by providing guidance on how to balance condition management with normal family life. (c) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Normal Function of the Colon and Anorectal Area

    MedlinePlus

    ... What is Constipation Introduction: What is Constipation? Normal Function Common Questions & Mistaken Beliefs Signs & Symptoms Symptoms Overview ... What is Constipation Introduction: What is Constipation? Normal Function Common Questions & Mistaken Beliefs Signs & Symptoms Symptoms Overview ...

  19. Parental Perceptions of the Outcome and Meaning of Normalization

    PubMed Central

    Knafl, Kathleen A.; Darney, Blair G.; Gallo, Agatha M.; Angst, Denise B.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this secondary analysis was to identify the meaning of normalization for parents of a child with a chronic genetic condition. The sample was comprised of 28 families (48 parents), selected to reflect two groups: Normalization Present (NP) and Normalization Absent (NA). Constant comparison analysis was used to identify themes characterizing parents' perceptions of the meaning of normalization. The meanings parents attributed to normalization reflected their evaluation of condition management, parenting role, and condition impact, with parents in the NP and NA groups demonstrating distinct patterns of meaning. These meaning patterns are discussed as an outcome of normalization. Providers can play a pivotal role in helping families achieve normalization by providing guidance on how to balance condition management with normal family life. PMID:20108258

  20. Normal IQ is possible in Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome.

    PubMed

    Eroglu, Yasemen; Nguyen-Driver, Mina; Steiner, Robert D; Merkens, Louise; Merkens, Mark; Roullet, Jean-Baptiste; Elias, Ellen; Sarphare, Geeta; Porter, Forbes D; Li, Chumei; Tierney, Elaine; Nowaczyk, Małgorzata; Freeman, Kurt A

    2017-03-27

    Children with Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS) are typically reported to have moderate to severe intellectual disability. This study aims to determine whether normal cognitive function is possible in this population and to describe clinical, biochemical and molecular characteristics of children with SLOS and normal intelligent quotient (IQ). The study included children with SLOS who underwent cognitive testing in four centers. All children with at least one IQ composite score above 80 were included in the study. Six girls, three boys with SLOS were found to have normal or low-normal IQ in a cohort of 145 children with SLOS. Major/multiple organ anomalies and low serum cholesterol levels were uncommon. No correlation with IQ and genotype was evident and no specific developmental profile were observed. Thus, normal or low-normal cognitive function is possible in SLOS. Further studies are needed to elucidate factors contributing to normal or low-normal cognitive function in children with SLOS.

  1. 1 in 7 Obese People Has Normal Blood Pressure, Cholesterol

    MedlinePlus

    ... in 7 Obese People Has Normal Blood Pressure, Cholesterol But that doesn't mean the excess weight ... people studied, 14 percent had normal blood sugar, cholesterol and blood pressure readings, the study found. Doctors ...

  2. Anorexia nervosa at normal body weight!--The abnormal normal weight control syndrome.

    PubMed

    Crisp, A H

    1981-01-01

    Disgust with "fatness" and a consequent preoccupation with body weight, coupled with an inability to reduce it to or sustain it at the desired low level, characterizes the abnormal normal weight control syndrome. Individuals remain sexually active in a biological sense and often also socially. Indeed their sexual behaviour may be as impulse ridden as is their eating behaviour, which often comprises phases of massive bingeing coupled with vomiting and/or purgation. The syndrome is unlike frank anorexia nervosa in that the latter involves a regression to a position of phobic avoidance of normal body weight and consequent low body weight control with inhibition of both biological and social sexual activity. In abnormal normal weight control there is a strong and sometimes desperate hedonistic and extrovert element that will often not be denied so long as body weight does not get too low. Individuals nevertheless feel desperately "out of control" and insecure beneath their bravura. The syndrome is much more common in females than in males. There is a clinical overlap with anorexia nervosa and obesity in many cases as the disorder evolves. Depression, stealing, drug dependence (including alcohol) and acute self-poisoning and self-mutilation are common complications. Clinic cases probably only represent the tip of the iceberg of the much more widespread morbidity within the general population. Like anorexia nervosa and for the same reasons the disorder is probably more common than it used to be.

  3. "Having an ovary this big is not normal": physicians' use of normal to assess wellness and sickness during oncology interviews.

    PubMed

    Gutzmer, Kyle; Beach, Wayne A

    2015-01-01

    During oncology interviews, physicians and patients routinely employ the term normal to describe patients' condition and overall health status. Surprisingly prevalent but little understood, normal is recruited to achieve an array of social actions comprising a primal aspect of patient-provider interactions: determining, assessing, and treating patients' health status as well and/or sick. Utilizing conversation analysis (CA) to examine a collection of 136 normal references across 61 oncology interviews, this article draws from a subsample of 101 instances to examine how physicians use normal to perform four specific sets of social actions: (a) invoking normal as a preferred range, (b) utilizing normal as evidence that does not explicitly label patients' conditions, (c) treating the absence of normal as indicative of sickness, and (d) providing reassurance to patients in the presence of normal and not normal circumstances. Special attention is given to how oncologists make the case for wellness and/or sickness by identifying patients as normal or not normal/abnormal. Future research is needed to understand how patients employ normal to characterize their symptoms and negotiate health status, to explore how or if alternative orientations to normal are based on gender and/or varying ethnicities, and to develop a more precise understanding of alternative practices for describing and categorizing test results (e.g., common/uncommon).

  4. Normalization vs. Social Role Valorization: Similar or Different?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, Akhilesh; Singh, Rajani Ranjan; Thressiakutty, A. T.

    2015-01-01

    The radical changes towards services for persons with disabilities were brought by Principle of Normalization, originated in 1969. As a consequence of Normalization, disability as a whole, and intellectual disability in particular, received the attention of the masses and the intelligentsia began advocating normalization ideologies which became…

  5. 7 CFR 760.4 - Normal marketings of milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Normal marketings of milk. 760.4 Section 760.4... Farmers for Milk § 760.4 Normal marketings of milk. (a) The county committee shall determine the affected farmer's normal marketings which, for the purposes of this subpart, shall be the sum of the quantities of...

  6. 7 CFR 760.4 - Normal marketings of milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Normal marketings of milk. 760.4 Section 760.4... Farmers for Milk § 760.4 Normal marketings of milk. (a) The county committee shall determine the affected farmer's normal marketings which, for the purposes of this subpart, shall be the sum of the quantities of...

  7. 40 CFR 230.24 - Normal water fluctuations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Normal water fluctuations. 230.24... Impacts on Physical and Chemical Characteristics of the Aquatic Ecosystem § 230.24 Normal water fluctuations. (a) Normal water fluctuations in a natural aquatic system consist of daily, seasonal, and...

  8. Convexity conditions and normal structure of Banach spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saejung, Satit

    2008-08-01

    We prove that F-convexity, the property dual to P-convexity of Kottman, implies uniform normal structure. Moreover, in the presence of the WORTH property, normal structure follows from a weaker convexity condition than F-convexity. The latter result improves the known fact that every uniformly nonsquare space with the WORTH property has normal structure.

  9. 40 CFR 230.24 - Normal water fluctuations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Normal water fluctuations. 230.24... Impacts on Physical and Chemical Characteristics of the Aquatic Ecosystem § 230.24 Normal water fluctuations. (a) Normal water fluctuations in a natural aquatic system consist of daily, seasonal, and...

  10. Critical international normalized ratio results after hours

    PubMed Central

    Korn, Darlene; Sean McMurtry, M.; George-Phillips, Kirsten; Bungard, Tammy J.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine whether the timing of notification of critical international normalized ratio (INR) results (during or after clinic hours) altered the clinician’s ability to affect same-day patient care. Design Retrospective chart review. Setting The Anticoagulation Management Service at the University of Alberta Hospital in Edmonton. Participants A total of 276 patients with critical INR results (> 5.0) separated by at least 30 days were identified to have 200 critical INR results reported during clinic hours and 200 reported after hours. Main outcome measures Differences in the proportion of patients with critical INR results having same-day care altered (by changing warfarin dose, administering vitamin K, or referring for assessment) between those with results reported during clinic hours compared with those with results reported after clinic hours. Differences by highly critical INR results (> 9.0 vs ≤ 9.0) and whether patients experienced thromboembolism or bleeding within 30 days were also assessed. Results Same-day patient care was affected for 174 out of 200 (87.0%) critical INR results reported during clinic hours compared with 101 out of 200 (50.5%) reported after clinic hours (P < .001). The most common reason for not being able to intervene was that warfarin had already been taken. Warfarin dose alteration was the most frequent change (97.1% during clinic hours and 96.0% after hours). When patients with INRs greater than 9.0 were assessed separately, the ability to affect care increased for INRs reported both during and after clinic hours (92.9% and 63.6%, respectively), largely attributable to oral vitamin K use. Overall, thromboembolic and major bleeding event rates were low and were similar in both groups. Conclusion Same-day care was less likely to be affected by critical INR results communicated after hours, most commonly because the patient had already taken their daily warfarin dose. However, after-hours care was still

  11. Mesopic Functional Visual Acuity in Normal Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Hiraoka, Takahiro; Hoshi, Sujin; Okamoto, Yoshifumi; Okamoto, Fumiki; Oshika, Tetsuro

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate mesopic functional visual acuity (FVA) with a newly developed system in normal subjects and to compare the results with photopic FVA, sixty-eight healthy volunteers (24.03 ± 4.42 [mean ± standard deviation] years) were enrolled in this study. A commercially available FVA measurement system (AS-28; Kowa, Aichi, Japan) was modified to measure FVA under mesopic conditions as well as photopic conditions. Measurements were performed monocularly in photopic conditions during 60 seconds. After dark adaptation for 15 minutes, the same measurements were repeated in mesopic conditions. Outcomes included starting visual acuity (VA), FVA (the average of VAs), visual maintenance ratio (VMR), maximum VA, minimum VA, and numbers of blinks during the 60-second measurement session, and were compared between mesopic and photopic conditions. Starting VA was –0.11 ± 0.08 and 0.39 ± 0.12 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) in photopic and mesopic conditions, respectively. FVA was –0.06 ± 0.09 and 0.52 ± 0.14 logMAR, VMR was 0.98 ± 0.02 and 0.94 ± 0.04, maximum VA was –0.15 ± 0.06 and 0.33 ± 0.12 logMAR, the minimum VA was 0.05 ± 0.12 and 0.78 ± 0.20 logMAR, and the number of blinks was 8.23 ± 7.54 and 7.23 ± 6.20, respectively. All these parameters except the number of blinks were significantly different between the two conditions (P < 0.001). Besides, the difference between maximum and minimum VAs and standard deviation of VA were significantly larger in mesopic than in photopic conditions (P < 0.001). This study revealed that not only overall visual function decline but also instability of vision under mesopic conditions even in healthy subjects. PMID:26218066

  12. Electroretinography in the normal koala (Phascolarctos cinereus).

    PubMed

    Liddle, Vicki L

    2015-01-01

    To perform electroretinography on normal anesthetized koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus). Six hospitalized koalas. The koalas were anesthetized using alfaxalone intramuscularly and isoflurane via face mask, then maintained on isoflurane after endotracheal intubation. After 20 min of dark adaptation, electroretinograms were obtained using a handheld electroretinography (ERG) machine using a single flash protocol at three light intensities: 10 mcd s/m(2) , 3000 mcd s/m(2) , and 10,000 mcd s/m(2) . At 10 mcd s/m(2) , the mean b-wave amplitude and implicit time were 49.5 μV (SD ± 33.1 and 95% CI 29.9-69.0) and 87.4 ms (SD ± 6.5 and 95% CI 83.6-91.2). At 3000 mcd s/m(2) , the mean a-wave amplitude and implicit time were 70.5 μV (SD ± 30.7 and 95% CI 52.3-88.7) and 20.6 ms (SD ± 3.1 and 95% CI 18.7-22.4), and the mean b-wave amplitude and implicit time were 122.8 μV (SD ± 49.3 and 95% CI 93.7-151.9) and 63.1 ms (SD ± 13.2 and 95% CI 55.3-71.0). At 10,000 mcd sm(2) , the mean a-wave amplitude and implicit time were 90.8 μV (SD ± 37.2 and 95% CI 68.8-112.8) and 16.1 ms (SD ± 3.1 and 95% CI 14.3-18.0), and the mean b-wave amplitude and implicit time were 148.3 μV (SD ± 54.9 and 95% CI 115.9-180.8) and 67.4 ms (SD ± 8.4 and 95% CI 62.5-72.3). Electroretinography in koalas is practical using a portable ERG system and a DTL thread electrode and allows for rapid assessment of retinal function. © 2013 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  13. Generalized approach for using unbiased symmetric metrics with negative values: normalized mean bias factor and normalized mean absolute error factor

    EPA Science Inventory

    Unbiased symmetric metrics provide a useful measure to quickly compare two datasets, with similar interpretations for both under and overestimations. Two examples include the normalized mean bias factor and normalized mean absolute error factor. However, the original formulations...

  14. Antibodies to endogenous tear protein in normal human tears.

    PubMed

    Remington, Susann G; Crow, Jean M; Nelson, J Daniel

    2009-10-01

    To identify endogenous tear proteins immunoselected by antibodies from normal human ocular tears. Proteins were immunoselected from normal human tear samples without the addition of primary antibodies. Captured proteins were electrophoresed in polyacrylamide gels and silver stained. Human tears were also used as primary antibodies on immunoblots of tear proteins. Lysozyme, lipocalin-1, and lactoferrin were immunoselected from normal human tear samples without the addition of primary antibodies. Antibodies from normal tears recognized lysozyme on immunoblots of tear proteins. Normal human ocular tears contain antibodies to endogenous tear protein.

  15. A Normalized Direct Approach for Estimating the Parameters of the Normal Ogive Three-Parameter Model for Ability Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gugel, John F.

    A new method for estimating the parameters of the normal ogive three-parameter model for multiple-choice test items--the normalized direct (NDIR) procedure--is examined. The procedure is compared to a more commonly used estimation procedure, Lord's LOGIST, using computer simulations. The NDIR procedure uses the normalized (mid-percentile)…

  16. How Normal is Our Solar System?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-10-01

    To date, weve discovered nearly 2000 confirmed exoplanets, as well as thousands of additional candidates. Amidst this vast sea of solar systems, how special is our own? A new study explores the answer to this question.Analyzing DistributionsKnowing whether our solar system is unique among exoplanetary systems can help us to better understand future observations of exoplanets. Furthermore, if our solar system is typical, this allows us to be optimistic about the possibility of life existing elsewhere in the universe.In a recent study, Rebecca Martin (University of Nevada, Las Vegas) and Mario Livio (Space Telescope Science Institute) examine how normal our solar system is, by comparing the properties of our planets to the averages obtained from known exoplanets.Comparing PropertiesSo how do we measure up?Densities of planets as a function of their mass. Exoplanets (N=287) are shown in blue, planets in our solar system are shown in red. [MartinLivio 2015]Planet masses and densitiesThose of the gas giants in our solar system are pretty typical. The terrestrial planets are on the low side for mass, but thats probably a selection effect: its very difficult to detect low-mass planets.Age of the solar systemRoughly half the stars in the disk of our galaxy are younger than the Sun, and half are older. Were definitely not special in age.Orbital locations of the planetsThis is actually a little strange: our solar system is lacking close-in planets. All of our planets, in fact, orbit at a distance that is larger than the mean distance observed in exoplanetary systems. Again, however, this might be a selection effect at work: its easier to detect large planets orbiting very close to their stars.Eccentricities of the planets orbitsOur planets are on very circular orbits and that actually makes us somewhat special too, compared to typical exoplanet systems. There is a possible explanation though: eccentricity of orbits tends to decrease with more planets in the system. Because

  17. Not quite normal: Consequences of violating the assumption of normality in regression mixture models

    PubMed Central

    Lee Van Horn, M.; Smith, Jessalyn; Fagan, Abigail A.; Jaki, Thomas; Feaster, Daniel J.; Masyn, Katherine; Hawkins, J. David; Howe, George

    2012-01-01

    Regression mixture models are a new approach for finding differential effects which have only recently begun to be used in applied research. This approach comes at the cost of the assumption that error terms are normally distributed within classes. The current study uses Monte Carlo simulations to explore the effects of relatively minor violations of this assumption, the use of an ordered polytomous outcome is then examined as an alternative which makes somewhat weaker assumptions, and finally both approaches are demonstrated with an applied example looking at differences in the effects of family management on the highly skewed outcome of drug use. Results show that violating the assumption of normal errors results in systematic bias in both latent class enumeration and parameter estimates. Additional classes which reflect violations of distributional assumptions are found. Under some conditions it is possible to come to conclusions that are consistent with the effects in the population, but when errors are skewed in both classes the results typically no longer reflect even the pattern of effects in the population. The polytomous regression model performs better under all scenarios examined and comes to reasonable results with the highly skewed outcome in the applied example. We recommend that careful evaluation of model sensitivity to distributional assumptions be the norm when conducting regression mixture models. PMID:22754273

  18. Unit Root Testing and Estimation in Nonlinear ESTAR Models with Normal and Non-Normal Errors

    PubMed Central

    Alamgir; Ali, Amjad; Khan, Dost Muhammad; Khan, Sajjad Ahmad; Khan, Zardad

    2016-01-01

    Exponential Smooth Transition Autoregressive (ESTAR) models can capture non-linear adjustment of the deviations from equilibrium conditions which may explain the economic behavior of many variables that appear non stationary from a linear viewpoint. Many researchers employ the Kapetanios test which has a unit root as the null and a stationary nonlinear model as the alternative. However this test statistics is based on the assumption of normally distributed errors in the DGP. Cook has analyzed the size of the nonlinear unit root of this test in the presence of heavy-tailed innovation process and obtained the critical values for both finite variance and infinite variance cases. However the test statistics of Cook are oversized. It has been found by researchers that using conventional tests is dangerous though the best performance among these is a HCCME. The over sizing for LM tests can be reduced by employing fixed design wild bootstrap remedies which provide a valuable alternative to the conventional tests. In this paper the size of the Kapetanios test statistic employing hetroscedastic consistent covariance matrices has been derived and the results are reported for various sample sizes in which size distortion is reduced. The properties for estimates of ESTAR models have been investigated when errors are assumed non-normal. We compare the results obtained through the fitting of nonlinear least square with that of the quantile regression fitting in the presence of outliers and the error distribution was considered to be from t-distribution for various sample sizes. PMID:27898702

  19. Three-dimensional assessment of the normal Japanese glenoid and comparison with the normal French glenoid.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, N; Nonaka, S; Ozaki, R; Yoshida, M; Yoneda, M; Walch, G

    2017-09-28

    In 2014, reverse total shoulder arthroplasty was approved in Japan. We were concerned that the base plate might be incompatible with Japanese who were generally smaller than Westerners. Therefore we investigated the dimensions and morphology of the normal Japanese glenoid and compare with the normal French glenoid. One hundred Japanese shoulders without glenoid lesions (50 men and 50 women) were investigated and compared with 100 French shoulders (50 men and 50 women). Computed tomography was performed with 3-dimensional image reconstruction and images were analyzed using Glenosys software. Glenoid parameters (width, height, retroversion and inclination) were compared between Japanese and French subjects. In Japanese subjects, the meanglenoid width was 25.5mm, height was 33.3mm, retroversion was 2.3° and inclination was 11.6° superiorly. In French subjects, the meanglenoid width was 26.7mm, height was 35.4mm, retroversion was 6.0° and inclination was 10.4° superiorly. Glenoid width and height were significantly smaller in Japanese subjects than French subjects (P=0.001 and P<0.001), while retroversion was significantly greater in French subjects (P <0.001). There was no significant difference of inclination. These findings will help surgeons to identify suitable patients for RSA and perform the procedure with appropriate preoperative planning. IV: retrospective or historical series. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Cosmic shear covariance: the log-normal approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilbert, S.; Hartlap, J.; Schneider, P.

    2011-12-01

    Context. Accurate estimates of the errors on the cosmological parameters inferred from cosmic shear surveys require accurate estimates of the covariance of the cosmic shear correlation functions. Aims: We seek approximations to the cosmic shear covariance that are as easy to use as the common approximations based on normal (Gaussian) statistics, but yield more accurate covariance matrices and parameter errors. Methods: We derive expressions for the cosmic shear covariance under the assumption that the underlying convergence field follows log-normal statistics. We also derive a simplified version of this log-normal approximation by only retaining the most important terms beyond normal statistics. We use numerical simulations of weak lensing to study how well the normal, log-normal, and simplified log-normal approximations as well as empirical corrections to the normal approximation proposed in the literature reproduce shear covariances for cosmic shear surveys. We also investigate the resulting confidence regions for cosmological parameters inferred from such surveys. Results: We find that the normal approximation substantially underestimates the cosmic shear covariances and the inferred parameter confidence regions, in particular for surveys with small fields of view and large galaxy densities, but also for very wide surveys. In contrast, the log-normal approximation yields more realistic covariances and confidence regions, but also requires evaluating slightly more complicated expressions. However, the simplified log-normal approximation, although as simple as the normal approximation, yields confidence regions that are almost as accurate as those obtained from the log-normal approximation. The empirical corrections to the normal approximation do not yield more accurate covariances and confidence regions than the (simplified) log-normal approximation. Moreover, they fail to produce positive-semidefinite data covariance matrices in certain cases, rendering them

  1. Magnetic Susceptibility of Wet vs. Dry Sediment and Mass Normalized vs. Volume Normalized Magnetic Susceptibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kletetschka, G.; Hruba, J.; Nabelek, L.

    2015-12-01

    The measurement of magnetic susceptibility in sediments represents a fast and non-destructive technique that can be used to deduce the concentration of magnetic minerals [1, 2]. Magnetic minerals change their magnetic properties with temperature [3]. Heating (during a fire, laboratory, with the purpose of manufacturing a product, etc.) can modify a number of sediment properties [4, 5]. Heat-induced sediment mineralogical changes may cause irreversible changes in the sediment mineral structure and composition, and they occur at a wide range of temperature [6]. We provided measurements of magnetic susceptibility on samples from the Stara Jimka (SJ) paleo lacustrine site in the Bohemian Forest using magnetic susceptibility meter MS-30. Sediment samples of approximately 0.2 cm thickness were weighed and put into plastic containers. First, measurements of magnetic susceptibility were taken on wet samples. Then the containers were put into the oven and sediment was dried at temperature of 110°C. After drying and cooling to room temperature, measurements of magnetic susceptibility were repeated. Dry samples were also weighed. Comparison of magnetic susceptibility of dry versus wet samples showed higher values of magnetic susceptibility of dry samples. This enhancement was probably caused during oven-drying, when constituents of sediment (mainly clays) underwent heat-induced changes. We also compared volume normalized values of magnetic susceptibility with mass normalized values. Mass normalized magnetic susceptibility was burdened by greater noise. References: [1] QUIJANO, L. et al. 2001. Magnetic Susceptibilty in Topsoils and Bulk Cores of Cultivated Calcisols. [2] DEARING, J. A. 1994. Environmental Magnetic Susceptibility. [3] HANESCH, M. and SCHOLGER, R. 2005. The Influence of Soil Type on the Magnetic Susceptibility Measured throughout Soil Profiles. [4] FARWIG, V. J. et al. 2004. The Effects of Heating on Mineral Magnetic Enhancement of Soils. [5] KLETETSCHKA, G

  2. Normal mode sound field of a directional radiator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, R.; Zhu, B.

    1987-12-01

    In this paper, the sound field of a general type of directional radiator in a stratified medium is treated, and the concept of directivity is applied to calculation of the normal modes. The result shows that the normal mode field of a directional radiator can be obtained by supplementing the normal mode expression of an omnidirectional point source with the directional excitation function, which is dependent on the position and directivity of the radiator. In addition, the normal mode fields of radiators with vertical-symmetrical, vertical-antisymmetrical, single-sided and sharp directivities are calculated, respectively. For a vertical line array in a homogeneous water layer, if the source distribution is proportional to the eigenfunction of some normal mode, the zeros of the directional excitation function correspond precisely to the directions of the eigenrays of other normal modes.

  3. Methods of Assessing and Achieving Normality Applied to Environmental Data

    PubMed

    Mateu

    1997-09-01

    / It has been recognized for a long time that data transformation methods capable of achieving normality of distributions could have a crucial role in statistical analysis, especially towards an efficient application of techniques such as analysis of variance and multiple regression analysis. Normality is a basic assumption in many of the statistical methods used in the environmental sciences and is very often neglected. In this paper several techniques to test normality of distributions are proposed and analyzed. Confidence intervals and nonparametric tests are used and discussed. Basic and Box-Cox transformations are the suggested methods to achieve normal variables. Finally, we develop an application related to environmental data with atmospheric parameters and SO2 and particle concentrations. Results show that the analyzed transformations work well and are very useful to achieve normal distributions.KEY WORDS: Normal distribution; Kurtosis; Skewness; Confidence intervals; Box-Cox transformations; Nonparametric tests

  4. A method for normalization of X-ray absorption spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Weng, T.-C.; Waldo, G.S.; Penner-Hahn, J.E.

    2010-07-20

    Accurate normalization of X-ray absorption data is essential for quantitative analysis of near-edge features. A method, implemented as the program MBACK, to normalize X-ray absorption data to tabulated mass absorption coefficients is described. Comparison of conventional normalization methods with MBACK demonstrates that the new normalization method is not sensitive to the shape of the background function, thus allowing accurate comparison of data collected in transmission mode with data collected using fluorescence ion chambers or solid-state fluorescence detectors. The new method is shown to have better reliability and consistency and smaller errors than conventional normalization methods. The sensitivity of the new normalization method is illustrated by analysis of data collected during an equilibrium titration.

  5. Pursuit of a 'normal life': mood, anxiety, and their disordering.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, Stephanie; Moreau, Nicolas

    2011-11-01

    Throughout the process of being treated for mood and anxiety disorders, people dream of the "normal life" that awaits them. However, post-therapy, the distinctiveness of clinical normality (i.e., reduced symptomatology) and social normativity become more apparent. In this article we suggest that for people who have long felt socially excluded because of their psychiatric symptoms, being "normally shy" or "normally awkward" is not enough. Instead they aspire to an ideal life. This confusion between means and ends, between a nonsymptomatic self, a normative self, and an ideal self, leads these individuals to long-term self-doubt and confusion about how to reach their elusive goals. Yet, their never-ending pursuit of normative ideals applies to "normal" and "abnormal" people alike. An analysis of narratives of exclusion allows us to reflect the life-long search for social inclusion via a normal life.

  6. Fragmentation of DNA in morphologically normal human spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Avendaño, Conrado; Franchi, Anahí; Taylor, Steven; Morshedi, Mahmood; Bocca, Silvina; Oehninger, Sergio

    2009-04-01

    To evaluate DNA fragmentation in spermatozoa with normal morphological appearance. Prospective study. Academic tertiary center. Fertile, subfertile, and infertile men were studied. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate-fluorescein nick-end labeling assay and morphology assessment by phase contrast in the swim-up fractions. Simultaneous assessment of the percentage of normally shaped sperm and DNA fragmentation. No DNA fragmentation was found in spermatozoa with normal morphology in any of the samples from the fertile group. In only one sample from the subfertile group did we observed normally shaped sperm cells exhibiting DNA fragmentation. However, in all the samples from the infertile group, we observed normal spermatozoa with DNA fragmentation. Spermatozoa from this late group exhibited a high proportion of DNA damage. In infertile men with moderate and severe teratozoospermia, the spermatozoa with apparently normal morphology present in the motile fractions after swim-up may have DNA fragmentation.

  7. Normal and Feature Approximations from Noisy Point Clouds

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-02-01

    Normal and Feature Approximations from Noisy Point Clouds Tamal K. Dey Jian Sun Abstract We consider the problem of approximating normal and...normal and, in partic- ular, feature size approximations for noisy point clouds . In the noise-free case the choice of the Delaunay balls is not an issue...axis from noisy point clouds ex- ists [7]. This algorithm approximates the medial axis with Voronoi faces under a stringent uniform sampling

  8. Improved Root Normal Size Distributions for Liquid Atomization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-01

    Improved Root Normal Size Distributions for Liquid Atomization Distribution Statement A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited... Atomization Culbert B. Laney1 Engility Corp., 8211 Terminal Rd, Lorton, VA 22079 U.S.A. Abstract: This paper identifies two issues with traditional...root normal size distributions, which are commonly fitted to experimental results for liquid atomization and sprays. First, while root normal size

  9. Epigenetic Regulation of Normal and Transformed Breast Epithelial Cell Phenotype

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    of nine cell lines corresponding to two different normal breast cell types isolated from three different individuals ( BPE 2, HME2, BPE3, HME3, BPE4...normal breast cell subtypes a ( BPE and HME) and their transformed derivatives (BPLER and HMLER) The results in Figure 1 indicate that the...process. 5 Table1 Karyotype analysis of two different normal breast cell subtypes a ( BPE and HME) and their

  10. Fano factor for Dirac electrons in a supperlattice of normal/ferromagnetic/normal silicene junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorestaniweiss, Zeinab; Rashidian, Zeinab

    2017-06-01

    We investigate the electron transport in the presence of electric field and gate potential in a supperlattice of normal/ferromagnetic/normal silicene junction. We compute the total conductance and Fano factor using the transfer matrix method and Landauer-Buttiker formula. The total conductance and Fano factor of the silicene contain interesting information of the transport properties of the charge carriers. The dependence of the Fano factor behavior on the electric field strength, the gate potential, the thickness of the ferromagnetic region and more importantly the dependence on the number of barriers have been plotted. Our aim is to achieve a more accurate picture of the dependence of the Fano factor on parameters mentioned above. In this junction, Fano factor oscillates with the thickness of the ferromagnetic region, the electric field strength and the gate voltage in the ferromagnetic regions. Also we found that diffusive transport (F = 1 / 3) occurs by taking large enough length of the ferromagnetic regions and tiny electric field strength. Another remarkable point is that Fano factor attains the full Poissonian value (F = 1) , by controlling the electric field strength and the length of the ferromagnetic regions. We see that with remaining intact the conductance, we can change the transport from Poissonian to diffusive transport by controlling the length of the ferromagnetic regions. However, these findings occur exactly in the case of Δz/E = 0.5 when the number of barriers is large enough. Moreover, with considering dependence of the Fano factor on the electrostatic potential and electric field strength, we have proved that these parameters are controllable parameters on the kind of transport. It is said that Fano factor is very sensitive to the mentioned parameters and can be controlled by these parameters. In fact, we show that the value of Fano factor is a valuable tool for distinguishing the behavior of transport whereas this kind of information cannot

  11. Computed tomography of cervical and retropharyngeal lymph nodes: normal anatomy, variants of normal, and applications in staging head and neck cancer. Part 1. Normal anatomy

    SciTech Connect

    Mancuso, A.A.; Harnsberger, H.R.; Muraki, A.S.; Stevens, M.H.

    1983-09-01

    The retropharyngeal and cervical lymph-node-bearing areas in 30 patients were examined with computed tomography (CT) to determine the range of normal variation in these nodal groups. The data agree with those in the pathologic, anatomic, and surgical literature, and indicate that CT can very precisely determine the size and gross morphology of normal nodes in the retropharyngeal region and the neck. This should have important applications in the management of patients with head and neck cancer.

  12. Effects of Interaction Between Normal Shock and Boundary Layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donaldson, Coleman duP.

    1944-01-01

    A discussion of the interaction between normal shocks and boundary layers on the basis of experimental evidence obtained in studies of supersonic flows in passages is given. The investigation was made as a result of the inability of the existing normal-shock theory to explain phenomena involving normal shocks that occurred in the presence of boundary layers. Assumptions with regard to the character of the effects of interaction between boundary layer and normal shock are proposed; these assumptions seem to give good agreement with certain experimental results.

  13. Geodynamics of Bending-related Normal Faults in Subducting Plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Z.; Lin, J.

    2016-12-01

    We investigated bending-related normal faults in subducting plates along several subduction zones through analyzing high-resolution multibeam bathymetry data and geodynamic modeling. The investigated systems include the Tonga, Izu-Bonin-Mariana, Japan, Middle America, Chile, and Puerto Rico trenches. Investigation was focused on spatial variations in normal faulting patterns from trench axes to the outer rise regions. Results of analyses revealed several key observations: (1) Most bending-related normal faults are sub-parallel to the local and regional strikes of the trench axis, including regions of significant trench-axis curvatures. (2) For trenches of significant oblique subduction components, e.g., Tonga and Puerto Rico trenches, the strikes of normal faults still remain sub-parallel to the trench axes. (3) Normal faults could be identified near outer-rise region, but normal faults with relatively large throws are generally located much closer to the trench axis, in regions of relatively large topographic slope. (4) Normal faults can cut through most of the seamounts near trench axes. We speculate that near-trench normal faults are generated by extensional stress due to plate bending and gravity sliding. Geodynamic models are being developed to investigate how near-trench normal faults evolve subjected to various tectonic forces at subduction zones, including subduction-induced plate bending, slab pulling, gravity sliding, and seamount loading, etc.

  14. Color Vision Sensitivity in Normally Dichromatic Species and Humans

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    postre - ceptoral color processing. To test this, we determined color discrimination thresholds in normally occurring dichromats, including the chipmunk, the 13-lined ground squirrel, and the tree shrew.

  15. Normal modes and density of states of disordered colloidal solids.

    PubMed

    Kaya, D; Green, N L; Maloney, C E; Islam, M F

    2010-08-06

    The normal modes and the density of states (DOS) of any material provide a basis for understanding its thermal and mechanical transport properties. In perfect crystals, normal modes are plane waves, but they can be complex in disordered systems. We have experimentally measured normal modes and the DOS in a disordered colloidal crystal. The DOS shows Debye-like behavior at low energies and an excess of modes, or Boson peak, at higher energies. The normal modes take the form of plane waves hybridized with localized short wavelength features in the Debye regime but lose both longitudinal and transverse plane-wave character at a common energy near the Boson peak.

  16. Modelling non-normal data: The relationship between the skew-normal factor model and the quadratic factor model.

    PubMed

    Smits, Iris A M; Timmerman, Marieke E; Stegeman, Alwin

    2016-05-01

    Maximum likelihood estimation of the linear factor model for continuous items assumes normally distributed item scores. We consider deviations from normality by means of a skew-normally distributed factor model or a quadratic factor model. We show that the item distributions under a skew-normal factor are equivalent to those under a quadratic model up to third-order moments. The reverse only holds if the quadratic loadings are equal to each other and within certain bounds. We illustrate that observed data which follow any skew-normal factor model can be so well approximated with the quadratic factor model that the models are empirically indistinguishable, and that the reverse does not hold in general. The choice between the two models to account for deviations of normality is illustrated by an empirical example from clinical psychology.

  17. [Early cardiovascular changes in young people with normal and normal-high blood pressure].

    PubMed

    Ennis, I L; Pinilla, O A; Escudero, E M

    2016-01-01

    Increased cardiac mass, as well as reduced arterial distensibility, are well recognised independent cardiovascular risk factors. The aim of this study was to determine the existence of early structural and/or functional alterations of the left ventricle (LV) and the aortic root in young people with optimal (O), normal (N) or normal-high (HN) blood pressure (BP). BP was recorded, and LV mass (LVM), LV function, and aortic distensibility (AD) were evaluated by echocardiogram in medical students. The study included 754 students (271 males; 20.47±1.35 years old). According to their BP, 54% were classified as O, 32% N, and 14% HN. LVM index was higher in N (30.9±0.44g/m(2.7)), and HN (31.26±0.73g/m(2.7)) than O (28.39±0.29g/m(2.7), P<.01). Corrected mean ventricular shortening was similar between O (99.8±0.8%) and N (99.2±1.1%, ns), but smaller in HN (95.4±1.9%, P<.05). The e'/a' ratio used to evaluate LV diastolic function, was higher in O (2.18±0.03) compared to HN (2.03±0.06, P<.03). AD was lower in HN (1.41±0.05mmHg/cm(3)/m(2)) compared to N (1.22±0.02mmHg/cm(3)/m(2), P<.01) and O (1.14±0.01mmHg/cm(3)/m(2), P<.01). Those young individuals with an N and HN BP showed an increased LVM index with decreased LV function and AD; evidence that would probably allow us to early identify non-hypertensive subjects with an increased cardiovascular risk. Copyright © 2016 SEH-LELHA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. A Comparison of Laterality Between Normal and Dyslexic Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keefe, Barbara

    Examined with 38 right-handed boys who were either dyslexic or normal readers and matched for age and IQ (mean age both groups=10.6, mean IQ normal readers=106, mean IQ dyslexic readers=105) were the weak, strong, and equal lateralization theories of dyslexia. Cerebral lateralization was measured for linguistic material (digits) using the dichotic…

  19. Adolescents' Perceptions of Normal and Voice-Disordered Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lass, Norman J.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    This investigation compared 19 adolescents' perceptions of the nonspeech personality characteristics of voice-disordered and normal-speaking children. Listeners, who rated recorded speech samples, showed a significant tendency to judge the normal speakers more positively than the voice-disordered speakers. Results suggest developmental trends in…

  20. Pitfalls in normalization for intensity-modulated radiation therapy planning

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Greg . E-mail: greg.williams@hci.utah.edu; Tobler, Matt; Leavitt, Dennis

    2005-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) treatment planning often involves complex combinations of beam energies, treatment fields, and beam modifying devices. Even when a plan is devised that meets many treatment-planning objectives, limitations in the planner's ability to further adjust beam characteristics may require the radiation dose prescription to be normalized to an isodose level that best covers the target volume. While these normalizations help meet the volume coverage goals, they also result in adjustment of the dose delivered to the normal tissues and must be carefully evaluated. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment planning allows combinations of complex dose patterns, in order to achieve the desired treatment planning goals. These dose patterns are created by defining a set of treatment planning objectives and then allowing the treatment planning computer to create intensity patterns, through the use of moving multileaf collimation that will meet the requested goals. Often, when an IMRT treatment plan is created that meets many of the treatment planning goals but falls short of volume coverage requirements, the planner is tempted to apply normalization principles similar to those utilized with 3D treatment planning. Again, these normalizations help meet the volume coverage goals, but unlike 3D planning situations, may result in avoidable delivery of additional doses to the normal tissues. The focus of this study is to evaluate the effect of application of normalization for IMRT planning using multiple patient situations. Recommendations would favor re-optimization over normalization in most planning situations.

  1. 40 CFR 230.24 - Normal water fluctuations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... change salinity patterns, alter erosion or sedimentation rates, aggravate water temperature extremes, and... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Normal water fluctuations. 230.24... Impacts on Physical and Chemical Characteristics of the Aquatic Ecosystem § 230.24 Normal...

  2. 40 CFR 230.24 - Normal water fluctuations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... change salinity patterns, alter erosion or sedimentation rates, aggravate water temperature extremes, and... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Normal water fluctuations. 230.24... Impacts on Physical and Chemical Characteristics of the Aquatic Ecosystem § 230.24 Normal...

  3. 40 CFR 230.24 - Normal water fluctuations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... change salinity patterns, alter erosion or sedimentation rates, aggravate water temperature extremes, and... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Normal water fluctuations. 230.24... Impacts on Physical and Chemical Characteristics of the Aquatic Ecosystem § 230.24 Normal...

  4. Instrumental Dimensioning of Normal and Pathological Phonation Using Acoustic Measurements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putzer, Manfred; Barry, William J.

    2008-01-01

    The present study deals with the dimensions of normal and pathological phonation. Separation of normal voices from pathological voices is tested under different aspects. Using a new parametrization of voice-quality properties in the acoustic signal, the vowel productions of 534 speakers (267 M, 267 F) without any reported voice pathology and the…

  5. Rank and Normal Scores Alternatives to Hotelling's T Squared.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwick, Rebecca

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to investigate the relative performance of the parametric, rank, and normal scores procedures when the classical assumptions were met and under violations of these assumptions. This investigation included the normal scores as well as the rank test. (LMO)

  6. Instrumental Dimensioning of Normal and Pathological Phonation Using Acoustic Measurements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putzer, Manfred; Barry, William J.

    2008-01-01

    The present study deals with the dimensions of normal and pathological phonation. Separation of normal voices from pathological voices is tested under different aspects. Using a new parametrization of voice-quality properties in the acoustic signal, the vowel productions of 534 speakers (267 M, 267 F) without any reported voice pathology and the…

  7. Multivariate Models for Normal and Binary Responses in Intervention Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pituch, Keenan A.; Whittaker, Tiffany A.; Chang, Wanchen

    2016-01-01

    Use of multivariate analysis (e.g., multivariate analysis of variance) is common when normally distributed outcomes are collected in intervention research. However, when mixed responses--a set of normal and binary outcomes--are collected, standard multivariate analyses are no longer suitable. While mixed responses are often obtained in…

  8. Improved Algorithm For Finite-Field Normal-Basis Multipliers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, C. C.

    1989-01-01

    Improved algorithm reduces complexity of calculations that must precede design of Massey-Omura finite-field normal-basis multipliers, used in error-correcting-code equipment and cryptographic devices. Algorithm represents an extension of development reported in "Algorithm To Design Finite-Field Normal-Basis Multipliers" (NPO-17109), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 12, No. 5, page 82.

  9. According to Jim: The Flawed Normal Curve of Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, James J.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about the normal curve of intelligence which he thinks is flawed and contends that wrong conclusions have been drawn based on this spurious normal curve. An example is that of racial and ethnic differences wherein some authors maintain that some ethnic and racial groups are clearly superior to others based on…

  10. Gang Youth, Substance Use Patterns, and Drug Normalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Bill

    2012-01-01

    Gang membership is an indicator of chronic illicit substance use and such patterns of use may have a normalized character. Using epidemiological and qualitative data collected between 2006 and 2007, this manuscript examines the drug normalization thesis among a small sample (n=60) of gang youth aged 16-25 years from Los Angeles. Overall, while…

  11. Normal Databases for the Relative Quantification of Myocardial Perfusion

    PubMed Central

    Rubeaux, Mathieu; Xu, Yuan; Germano, Guido; Berman, Daniel S.; Slomka, Piotr J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review Myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) with SPECT is performed clinically worldwide to detect and monitor coronary artery disease (CAD). MPI allows an objective quantification of myocardial perfusion at stress and rest. This established technique relies on normal databases to compare patient scans against reference normal limits. In this review, we aim to introduce the process of MPI quantification with normal databases and describe the associated perfusion quantitative measures that are used. Recent findings New equipment and new software reconstruction algorithms have been introduced which require the development of new normal limits. The appearance and regional count variations of normal MPI scan may differ between these new scanners and standard Anger cameras. Therefore, these new systems may require the determination of new normal limits to achieve optimal accuracy in relative myocardial perfusion quantification. Accurate diagnostic and prognostic results rivaling those obtained by expert readers can be obtained by this widely used technique. Summary Throughout this review, we emphasize the importance of the different normal databases and the need for specific databases relative to distinct imaging procedures. use of appropriate normal limits allows optimal quantification of MPI by taking into account subtle image differences due to the hardware and software used, and the population studied. PMID:28138354

  12. Normal Databases for the Relative Quantification of Myocardial Perfusion.

    PubMed

    Rubeaux, Mathieu; Xu, Yuan; Germano, Guido; Berman, Daniel S; Slomka, Piotr J

    2016-08-01

    Myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) with SPECT is performed clinically worldwide to detect and monitor coronary artery disease (CAD). MPI allows an objective quantification of myocardial perfusion at stress and rest. This established technique relies on normal databases to compare patient scans against reference normal limits. In this review, we aim to introduce the process of MPI quantification with normal databases and describe the associated perfusion quantitative measures that are used. New equipment and new software reconstruction algorithms have been introduced which require the development of new normal limits. The appearance and regional count variations of normal MPI scan may differ between these new scanners and standard Anger cameras. Therefore, these new systems may require the determination of new normal limits to achieve optimal accuracy in relative myocardial perfusion quantification. Accurate diagnostic and prognostic results rivaling those obtained by expert readers can be obtained by this widely used technique. Throughout this review, we emphasize the importance of the different normal databases and the need for specific databases relative to distinct imaging procedures. use of appropriate normal limits allows optimal quantification of MPI by taking into account subtle image differences due to the hardware and software used, and the population studied.

  13. Insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome in normal-weight individuals.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shanying; Chen, Youming; Liu, Xinyu; Li, Mi; Wu, Bide; Li, Yongqiang; Liang, Yan; Shao, Xiaofei; Holthöfer, Harry; Zou, Hequn

    2014-08-01

    We performed this study to investigate the prevalences of insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in a Chinese population with normal weight. We also examined whether fat mass is associated with insulin resistance and MetS in normal-weight individuals. Data were drawn from a cross-sectional study in China. Subjects with diabetes were excluded. The prevalences of insulin resistance and MetS were calculated. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed repeated separately for body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) in both men and women. We also used the combination of BMI and WC to predict insulin resistance and MetS. 8.55 % of normal-weight men and 12.62 % of normal-weight women had insulin resistance. 7.41 % of normal-weight men and 10.24 % of normal-weight women had MetS. WC was associated with incident insulin resistance and MetS independent of BMI in both men and women. BMI was independently associated with incident MetS in women. Normal-weight individuals with insulin resistance and/or MetS are not rare in the Chinese population. Fat mass is associated with insulin resistance and MetS in normal-weight subjects. The current findings support using both BMI and WC in clinical practice.

  14. Linguistic Deterioration in Alzheimer's Senile Dementia and in Normal Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emery, Olga Beattie

    A study of language patterning as an indicator of higher cortical process focused on three matched comparison groups: normal pre-middle-aged, normal elderly, and elderly adults with senile dementia Alzheimer's type. In addition to tests of memory, level of cognitive function, and organic deficit, the formal aspects of language were analyzed in…

  15. Normalizing handgrip strength in older adults: An allometric approach.

    PubMed

    Maranhao Neto, Geraldo A; Oliveira, Aldair J; Pedreiro, Rodrigo Cunha de Melo; Pereira-Junior, Pedro Paulo; Machado, Sergio; Marques Neto, Silvio; Farinatti, Paulo T V

    Handgrip strength is an important variable to assess as part of any health intervention among older adults. Although the use of allometric normalization is the appropriate approach for removing the body size effect in handgrip performance, the best body size variable for this normalization is still unclear. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to compare the use of three body size variables (body mass, fat-free mass and body height) in allometric normalization for Handgrip strength among older adults. Data from individuals admitted to the Elderly Care Center of the Open University of the Third Age were used, the sample consisting of 263 individuals (140 women), aged between 60-87. The results provided allometric exponents for normalization of HGS in each body size variable (body mass: 0.31; fat-free mass: 0.11; body height: 0.46). The correlations between normalized HGS and body size variables were significant (p<0.05) when HGS were normalized by body mass or fat-free mass. On the contrary, no significant correlations were found when HGS were normalized by body height. Body height seems to be the best body size variable for performing allometric normalization of HGS among older adults. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Screening for Heart Murmurs. What's Normal and What's Not.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pflieger, Kurt L.; Strong, William B.

    1992-01-01

    A step-by-step guide to auscultating young athletes helps physicians identify normal heart murmurs as well as sounds that might signify underlying cardiac pathology. Rapid, thorough preparticipation screening can help differentiate athletes who may require treatment or activity restriction from those with normal murmurs who can remain active. (SM)

  17. Speaker normalization for chinese vowel recognition in cochlear implants.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xin; Fu, Qian-Jie

    2005-07-01

    Because of the limited spectra-temporal resolution associated with cochlear implants, implant patients often have greater difficulty with multitalker speech recognition. The present study investigated whether multitalker speech recognition can be improved by applying speaker normalization techniques to cochlear implant speech processing. Multitalker Chinese vowel recognition was tested with normal-hearing Chinese-speaking subjects listening to a 4-channel cochlear implant simulation, with and without speaker normalization. For each subject, speaker normalization was referenced to the speaker that produced the best recognition performance under conditions without speaker normalization. To match the remaining speakers to this "optimal" output pattern, the overall frequency range of the analysis filter bank was adjusted for each speaker according to the ratio of the mean third formant frequency values between the specific speaker and the reference speaker. Results showed that speaker normalization provided a small but significant improvement in subjects' overall recognition performance. After speaker normalization, subjects' patterns of recognition performance across speakers changed, demonstrating the potential for speaker-dependent effects with the proposed normalization technique.

  18. Developing Visualization Support System for Teaching/Learning Database Normalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Folorunso, Olusegun; Akinwale, AdioTaofeek

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: In tertiary institution, some students find it hard to learn database design theory, in particular, database normalization. The purpose of this paper is to develop a visualization tool to give students an interactive hands-on experience in database normalization process. Design/methodology/approach: The model-view-controller architecture…

  19. Evaluating Univariate, Bivariate, and Multivariate Normality Using Graphical Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burdenski, Thomas K., Jr.

    This paper reviews graphical and nongraphical procedures for evaluating multivariate normality by guiding the reader through univariate and bivariate procedures that are necessary, but insufficient, indications of a multivariate normal distribution. A data set using three dependent variables for two groups provided by D. George and P. Mallery…

  20. Normalizing Heterosexuality: Mothers' Assumptions, Talk, and Strategies with Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Karin A.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, social scientists have identified not just heterosexism and homophobia as social problems, but also heteronormativity--the mundane, everyday ways that heterosexuality is privileged and taken for granted as normal and natural. There is little empirical research, however, on how heterosexuality is reproduced and then normalized for…

  1. Tumor vessel normalization after aerobic exercise enhances chemotherapeutic efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Schadler, Keri L.; Thomas, Nicholas J.; Galie, Peter A.; Bhang, Dong Ha; Roby, Kerry C.; Addai, Prince; Till, Jacob E.; Sturgeon, Kathleen; Zaslavsky, Alexander; Chen, Christopher S.; Ryeom, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Targeted therapies aimed at tumor vasculature are utilized in combination with chemotherapy to improve drug delivery and efficacy after tumor vascular normalization. Tumor vessels are highly disorganized with disrupted blood flow impeding drug delivery to cancer cells. Although pharmacologic anti-angiogenic therapy can remodel and normalize tumor vessels, there is a limited window of efficacy and these drugs are associated with severe side effects necessitating alternatives for vascular normalization. Recently, moderate aerobic exercise has been shown to induce vascular normalization in mouse models. Here, we provide a mechanistic explanation for the tumor vascular normalization induced by exercise. Shear stress, the mechanical stimuli exerted on endothelial cells by blood flow, modulates vascular integrity. Increasing vascular shear stress through aerobic exercise can alter and remodel blood vessels in normal tissues. Our data in mouse models indicate that activation of calcineurin-NFAT-TSP1 signaling in endothelial cells plays a critical role in exercise-induced shear stress mediated tumor vessel remodeling. We show that moderate aerobic exercise with chemotherapy caused a significantly greater decrease in tumor growth than chemotherapy alone through improved chemotherapy delivery after tumor vascular normalization. Our work suggests that the vascular normalizing effects of aerobic exercise can be an effective chemotherapy adjuvant. PMID:27589843

  2. Gang Youth, Substance Use Patterns, and Drug Normalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Bill

    2012-01-01

    Gang membership is an indicator of chronic illicit substance use and such patterns of use may have a normalized character. Using epidemiological and qualitative data collected between 2006 and 2007, this manuscript examines the drug normalization thesis among a small sample (n=60) of gang youth aged 16-25 years from Los Angeles. Overall, while…

  3. Multivariate Models for Normal and Binary Responses in Intervention Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pituch, Keenan A.; Whittaker, Tiffany A.; Chang, Wanchen

    2016-01-01

    Use of multivariate analysis (e.g., multivariate analysis of variance) is common when normally distributed outcomes are collected in intervention research. However, when mixed responses--a set of normal and binary outcomes--are collected, standard multivariate analyses are no longer suitable. While mixed responses are often obtained in…

  4. Developing Visualization Support System for Teaching/Learning Database Normalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Folorunso, Olusegun; Akinwale, AdioTaofeek

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: In tertiary institution, some students find it hard to learn database design theory, in particular, database normalization. The purpose of this paper is to develop a visualization tool to give students an interactive hands-on experience in database normalization process. Design/methodology/approach: The model-view-controller architecture…

  5. Normalizing Heterosexuality: Mothers' Assumptions, Talk, and Strategies with Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Karin A.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, social scientists have identified not just heterosexism and homophobia as social problems, but also heteronormativity--the mundane, everyday ways that heterosexuality is privileged and taken for granted as normal and natural. There is little empirical research, however, on how heterosexuality is reproduced and then normalized for…

  6. Rhythm-based heartbeat duration normalization for atrial fibrillation detection.

    PubMed

    Islam, Md Saiful; Ammour, Nassim; Alajlan, Naif; Aboalsamh, Hatim

    2016-05-01

    Screening of atrial fibrillation (AF) for high-risk patients including all patients aged 65 years and older is important for prevention of risk of stroke. Different technologies such as modified blood pressure monitor, single lead ECG-based finger-probe, and smart phone using plethysmogram signal have been emerging for this purpose. All these technologies use irregularity of heartbeat duration as a feature for AF detection. We have investigated a normalization method of heartbeat duration for improved AF detection. AF is an arrhythmia in which heartbeat duration generally becomes irregularly irregular. From a window of heartbeat duration, we estimate the possible rhythm of the majority of heartbeats and normalize duration of all heartbeats in the window based on the rhythm so that we can measure the irregularity of heartbeats for both AF and non-AF rhythms in the same scale. Irregularity is measured by the entropy of distribution of the normalized duration. Then we classify a window of heartbeats as AF or non-AF by thresholding the measured irregularity. The effect of this normalization is evaluated by comparing AF detection performances using duration with the normalization, without normalization, and with other existing normalizations. Sensitivity and specificity of AF detection using normalized heartbeat duration were tested on two landmark databases available online and compared with results of other methods (with/without normalization) by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. ROC analysis showed that the normalization was able to improve the performance of AF detection and it was consistent for a wide range of sensitivity and specificity for use of different thresholds. Detection accuracy was also computed for equal rates of sensitivity and specificity for different methods. Using normalized heartbeat duration, we obtained 96.38% accuracy which is more than 4% improvement compared to AF detection without normalization. The proposed normalization

  7. Proposal: A Hybrid Dictionary Modelling Approach for Malay Tweet Normalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhamad, Nor Azlizawati Binti; Idris, Norisma; Arshi Saloot, Mohammad

    2017-02-01

    Malay Twitter message presents a special deviation from the original language. Malay Tweet widely used currently by Twitter users, especially at Malaya archipelago. Thus, it is important to make a normalization system which can translated Malay Tweet language into the standard Malay language. Some researchers have conducted in natural language processing which mainly focuses on normalizing English Twitter messages, while few studies have been done for normalize Malay Tweets. This paper proposes an approach to normalize Malay Twitter messages based on hybrid dictionary modelling methods. This approach normalizes noisy Malay twitter messages such as colloquially language, novel words, and interjections into standard Malay language. This research will be used Language Model and N-grams model.

  8. DNA amplification is rare in normal human cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, J.A.; Watt, F.M.; Hudson, D.L.; Stark, G.R. ); Smith, H.S.; Hancock, M.C. )

    1990-03-01

    Three types of normal human cells were selected in tissue culture with three drugs without observing a single amplification event from a total of 5 x 10{sup 8} cells. No drug-resistant colonies were observed when normal foreskin keratinocytes were selected with N-(phosphonacetyl)-L-aspartate or with hydroxyurea or when normal mammary epithelial cells were selected with methotrexate. Some slightly resistant colonies with limited potential for growth were obtained when normal diploid fibroblast cells derived from fetal lung were selected with methotrexate or hydroxyurea but careful copy-number analysis of the dihydrofolate reductase and ribonucleotide reductase genes revealed no evidence of amplification. The rarity of DNA amplification in normal human cells contrasts strongly with the situation in tumors and in established cell lines, where amplification of onogenes and of genes mediating drug resistance is frequent. The results suggest that tumors and cell lines have acquired the abnormal ability to amplify DNA with high frequency.

  9. Comparative analysis of nonverbal interpersonal communication of schizophrenics and normals.

    PubMed

    Hardin, S B

    1980-06-01

    The nonverbal communications of schizophrenics and normals in dyadic interactions were analyzed and compared. Twelve purposively selected women were videotaped in normal-normal, normal-schizophrenic, and schizophrenic-schizophrenic communication acts for 30 minutes. Using a PLATO IV computer program and a modified Kendon Kinesic Notation System, a priori sets of nonverbal behaviors were recorded at 1-second intervals. Frequency and duration scores for the sets of nonverbal behaviors with corresponding communication meanings were totaled. A nested analysis of variance showed that the three groups differed significantly (p less than .05) in engagement and defensiveness and that the normal interactors were the least imitative of the three groups. An analysis and description of the patterns of nonverbal communication also revealed differences, lending support to the theory of dysjunctive schizophrenic communication.

  10. Characterization of normal and waxy corn starch for bioethanol production.

    PubMed

    Yangcheng, Hanyu; Jiang, Hongxin; Blanco, Michael; Jane, Jay-lin

    2013-01-16

    Objectives of this study were to compare ethanol production between normal and waxy corn using a cold fermentation process and to understand effects of starch structures and properties on ethanol production. Ethanol yields positively correlated (p < 0.01) with starch contents of kernels of the normal and waxy corn. The average starch-ethanol conversion efficiency of waxy corn (93.0%) was substantially greater than that of normal corn (88.2%). Waxy corn starch consisted of very little amylose and mostly amylopectin that had a shorter average branch chain length than normal corn amylopectin. Regression analyses showed that average amylopectin branch chain lengths and percentage of long branch chains (DP > 37) of waxy corn starch negatively correlated with the starch hydrolysis rate and the ethanol yield. These results indicated that starch structures and properties of the normal and waxy corn had significant effects on the ethanol yield using a cold fermentation process.

  11. High-speed digital signal normalization for feature identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ortiz, J. A.; Meredith, B. D.

    1983-01-01

    A design approach for high speed normalization of digital signals was developed. A reciprocal look up table technique is employed, where a digital value is mapped to its reciprocal via a high speed memory. This reciprocal is then multiplied with an input signal to obtain the normalized result. Normalization improves considerably the accuracy of certain feature identification algorithms. By using the concept of pipelining the multispectral sensor data processing rate is limited only by the speed of the multiplier. The breadboard system was found to operate at an execution rate of five million normalizations per second. This design features high precision, a reduced hardware complexity, high flexibility, and expandability which are very important considerations for spaceborne applications. It also accomplishes a high speed normalization rate essential for real time data processing.

  12. Detection of Off-normal Images for NIF Automatic Alignment

    SciTech Connect

    Candy, J V; Awwal, A S; McClay, W A; Ferguson, S W; Burkhart, S C

    2005-07-11

    One of the major purposes of National Ignition Facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is to accurately focus 192 high energy laser beams on a nanoscale (mm) fusion target at the precise location and time. The automatic alignment system developed for NIF is used to align the beams in order to achieve the required focusing effect. However, if a distorted image is inadvertently created by a faulty camera shutter or some other opto-mechanical malfunction, the resulting image termed ''off-normal'' must be detected and rejected before further alignment processing occurs. Thus the off-normal processor acts as a preprocessor to automatic alignment image processing. In this work, we discuss the development of an ''off-normal'' pre-processor capable of rapidly detecting the off-normal images and performing the rejection. Wide variety of off-normal images for each loop is used to develop the criterion for rejections accurately.

  13. Skew-normal antedependence models for skewed longitudinal data.

    PubMed

    Chang, Shu-Ching; Zimmerman, Dale L

    2016-06-01

    Antedependence models, also known as transition models, have proven to be useful for longitudinal data exhibiting serial correlation, especially when the variances and/or same-lag correlations are time-varying. Statistical inference procedures associated with normal antedependence models are well-developed and have many nice properties, but they are not appropriate for longitudinal data that exhibit considerable skewness. We propose two direct extensions of normal antedependence models to skew-normal antedependence models. The first is obtained by imposing antedependence on a multivariate skew-normal distribution, and the second is a sequential autoregressive model with skew-normal innovations. For both models, necessary and sufficient conditions for [Formula: see text]th-order antedependence are established, and likelihood-based estimation and testing procedures for models satisfying those conditions are developed. The procedures are applied to simulated data and to real data from a study of cattle growth.

  14. The use of normal forms for analysing nonlinear mechanical vibrations

    PubMed Central

    Neild, Simon A.; Champneys, Alan R.; Wagg, David J.; Hill, Thomas L.; Cammarano, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    A historical introduction is given of the theory of normal forms for simplifying nonlinear dynamical systems close to resonances or bifurcation points. The specific focus is on mechanical vibration problems, described by finite degree-of-freedom second-order-in-time differential equations. A recent variant of the normal form method, that respects the specific structure of such models, is recalled. It is shown how this method can be placed within the context of the general theory of normal forms provided the damping and forcing terms are treated as unfolding parameters. The approach is contrasted to the alternative theory of nonlinear normal modes (NNMs) which is argued to be problematic in the presence of damping. The efficacy of the normal form method is illustrated on a model of the vibration of a taut cable, which is geometrically nonlinear. It is shown how the method is able to accurately predict NNM shapes and their bifurcations. PMID:26303917

  15. Laser-induced differential normalized fluorescence method for cancer diagnosis

    DOEpatents

    Vo-Dinh, T.; Panjehpour, M.; Overholt, B.F.

    1996-12-03

    An apparatus and method for cancer diagnosis are disclosed. The diagnostic method includes the steps of irradiating a tissue sample with monochromatic excitation light, producing a laser-induced fluorescence spectrum from emission radiation generated by interaction of the excitation light with the tissue sample, and dividing the intensity at each wavelength of the laser-induced fluorescence spectrum by the integrated area under the laser-induced fluorescence spectrum to produce a normalized spectrum. A mathematical difference between the normalized spectrum and an average value of a reference set of normalized spectra which correspond to normal tissues is calculated, which provides for amplifying small changes in weak signals from malignant tissues for improved analysis. The calculated differential normalized spectrum is correlated to a specific condition of a tissue sample. 5 figs.

  16. Laser-induced differential normalized fluorescence method for cancer diagnosis

    DOEpatents

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan; Panjehpour, Masoud; Overholt, Bergein F.

    1996-01-01

    An apparatus and method for cancer diagnosis are disclosed. The diagnostic method includes the steps of irradiating a tissue sample with monochromatic excitation light, producing a laser-induced fluorescence spectrum from emission radiation generated by interaction of the excitation light with the tissue sample, and dividing the intensity at each wavelength of the laser-induced fluorescence spectrum by the integrated area under the laser-induced fluorescence spectrum to produce a normalized spectrum. A mathematical difference between the normalized spectrum and an average value of a reference set of normalized spectra which correspond to normal tissues is calculated, which provides for amplifying small changes in weak signals from malignant tissues for improved analysis. The calculated differential normalized spectrum is correlated to a specific condition of a tissue sample.

  17. Spin current valve effect in normal metal/magnetic insulator/normal metal sandwiches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Junxue; Xu, Yadong; Aldosary, Mohammed; Tang, Chi; Lin, Zhisheng; Zhang, Shufeng; Lake, Roger; Shi, Jing; Shines Collaboration

    Pure spin current is generated in two common ways. One makes use of the spin Hall effect in normal metals (NM), the other utilizes spin waves with the quasi-particle excitations called magnons. A popular material for the latter is yttrium iron garnet (YIG), a magnetic insulator (MI). Here we demonstrate in NM/MI/NM sandwiches that these two types of spin current are interconvertible, which allows transmitting an electrical signal across the MI, predicted as the magnon-mediated current drag phenomenon. We show experimentally that the spin current can be switched ``on'' or ``off'' by controlling the magnetization orientation of MI, analogous to conventional spin valves for spin-polarized charge current. The transmitted current drag signal scales linearly with the driving current without any threshold and follows the power-law Tn with n ranging from 1.5 to 2.5. Our results indicate that the NM/MI/NM sandwich structure can serve as a scalable pure spin current valve device which is an essential ingredient in spintronics. As part of the SHINES, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences under Award # SC0012670.

  18. CT of the normal esophagus to define the normal air column and its extent and distribution.

    PubMed

    Schraufnagel, Dean E; Michel, Jon C; Sheppard, Todd J; Saffold, Patricia Cole; Kondos, George T

    2008-09-01

    This study was designed to quantify and characterize the air-containing thoracic esophagus on CT to help diagnose diseases and facilitate correlation with lung diseases that may be associated with aspiration. The maximal air-containing esophageal lumina on each section of standard CT scans of 110 subjects were measured. These subjects came from a cohort of 10,132 self-reported healthy individuals who underwent CT for measurement of coronary artery calcium. Measurements were interpolated to account for variation in the length of the thoraces. Greater than 60% of the esophageal segments contained no air. On average the maximum air column was 10.5 (SD, 5.0) mm. Only 7.9% of the lumina were > 10 mm. Only 2% were > 15 mm, and only 0.2% were > 20 mm. The average number of lumina > 10 mm as a proportion of the entire esophageal length was 8% (14%). The average size at the carina was 2.6 (4.1) mm. In the upper 30% and from 61% to 75% down the length of the esophagus, < 5% of the lumina were > 10 mm. Less than 3% of subjects had air in the lowest two sections, indicating that the normal lower esophageal sphincter was closed. Esophageal air of > 10 mm should be considered abnormal in all segments except between the cardiac ventricles and lower esophageal sphincter. In this area, > 15 mm should be considered abnormal. An air-fluid level is abnormal.

  19. Vitamin K antagonist therapy and liver transplantation: two cases managed without normalizing the international normalized ratio.

    PubMed

    Sabate, Antoni; Contreras, Laura; Aparicio, Idoia; Costa, Marta; Reyes, Raquel

    2016-12-01

    Guidelines for surgery in patients treated with vitamin K antagonist recommends to correct international normalized ratio (INR), although they do not focus on liver transplantation candidates. We report two patients treated with vitamin K antagonist, monitored by thromboelastometry during liver transplantation. Case 1: basal INR was 3.15. Extem coagulation time was 83 s and maxim clot firmness was 60 mm. The surgical procedure did not show bleeding. Two red blood cells were transfused and no other blood products were administered. Last INR was 3.17. Case 2: basal INR was 2.79. A thrombocytopenia of 58 000/mm was detected. Extem coagulation time was 176 s, and maxim clot firmness was 40 mm. Fibtem maxim clot firmness was 11 mm. The surgical procedure did not show bleeding. No blood product was administered. Last INR was 2.1. Although thromboelastometry did not correlate with INR, monitoring of the coagulation using thromboelastometry in combination with surgery helped to conduct hemostatic corrections.

  20. Ultrasonographic reference values for assessing normal radial nerve ultrasonography in the normal population

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jun; Wu, Shan; Ren, Jun

    2014-01-01

    High-resolution ultrasound has been used recently to characterize median and ulnar nerves, but is seldom used to characterize radial nerves. The radial nerve is more frequently involved in entrapment syndromes than the ulnar and median nerves. However, the reference standard for normal radial nerves has not been established. Thus, this study measured the cross-sectional areas of radial nerves of 200 healthy male or female volunteers, aged 18 to 75, using high-resolution ultrasound. The results showed that mean cross-sectional areas of radial nerves at 4 cm upon the lateral epicondyle of the humerus and mid-humerus (midpoint between the elbow crease and axilla) were 5.14 ± 1.24 and 5.08 ± 1.23 mm2, respectively. The age and the dominant side did not affect the results, but the above-mentioned cross-sectional areas were larger in males (5.31 ± 1.25 and 5.19 ± 1.23 mm2) than in females (4.93 ± 1.21 and 4.93 ± 1.23 mm2, respectively). In addition, the cross-sectional areas of radial nerves were positively correlated with height and weight (r = 0.38, 0.36, respectively, both P < 0.05). These data provide basic clinical data for the use of high-resolution ultrasound for the future diagnosis, treatment, and prognostic evaluation of peripheral neuropathies. PMID:25422648

  1. Genomic Changes in Normal Breast Tissue in Women at Normal Risk or at High Risk for Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Danforth, David N.

    2016-01-01

    Sporadic breast cancer develops through the accumulation of molecular abnormalities in normal breast tissue, resulting from exposure to estrogens and other carcinogens beginning at adolescence and continuing throughout life. These molecular changes may take a variety of forms, including numerical and structural chromosomal abnormalities, epigenetic changes, and gene expression alterations. To characterize these abnormalities, a review of the literature has been conducted to define the molecular changes in each of the above major genomic categories in normal breast tissue considered to be either at normal risk or at high risk for sporadic breast cancer. This review indicates that normal risk breast tissues (such as reduction mammoplasty) contain evidence of early breast carcinogenesis including loss of heterozygosity, DNA methylation of tumor suppressor and other genes, and telomere shortening. In normal tissues at high risk for breast cancer (such as normal breast tissue adjacent to breast cancer or the contralateral breast), these changes persist, and are increased and accompanied by aneuploidy, increased genomic instability, a wide range of gene expression differences, development of large cancerized fields, and increased proliferation. These changes are consistent with early and long-standing exposure to carcinogens, especially estrogens. A model for the breast carcinogenic pathway in normal risk and high-risk breast tissues is proposed. These findings should clarify our understanding of breast carcinogenesis in normal breast tissue and promote development of improved methods for risk assessment and breast cancer prevention in women. PMID:27559297

  2. Restoration of Normal Prothrombin Time/International Normalized Ratio With Fresh Frozen Plasma in Hypocoagulable Patients.

    PubMed

    Only, Arthur J; DeChristopher, Phillip J; Iqal, Omer; Fareed, Jawed

    2016-01-01

    Fresh frozen plasma (FFP) is an effective reversal agent for hypocoagulable patients. Its proven efficacy continues to prompt its usage as both a prophylactic and a therapeutic therapy. Although published guidelines encouraging the appropriate administration of FFP exist, overutilization continues. The purpose of these ex vivo studies was to determine the effects of succeeding volumes of FFP supplementation on hypocoagulable plasma prothrombin time/international normalized ratio (PT/INR). By analyzing the decline in PT/INR with varying volumes of FFP, a minimal required volume of FFP could be identified representing the optimal volume to administer while still providing therapeutic effect. A total of 497 plasma samples were screened for elevated PT/INR values and 50 samples were selected for inclusion in this experiment. The initial PTs/INRs ranged from 12.5 to 43.4 seconds/1.42 to 4.91. Subsequent declines in PT/INR values were analyzed following addition of 50, 100, and 150 µL of FFP to a fixed volume of 250 µL of plasma (26.4 ± 5.318 seconds/2.99 ± 0.603, 13.3 ± 1.077 seconds/1.51 ± 0.122, 11.2 ± 0.712 seconds/1.27 ± 0.081, and 10.3 ± 0.533 seconds/1.16 ± 0.06, respectively). A nonlinear relationship between decline in INR values and percentage of FFP supplementation was demonstrated. The greatest effect on INR was obtained after supplementation with 50 µL (49%). Doubling and tripling the volume of FFP lead to significantly lower declines in INR (16% and 8%, respectively). Analysis of variance indicated a statistical significance with subsequent volume supplementation of FFP, but marginal clinical benefits exist between the PTs/INRs obtainable with increased FFP volume administration. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer Normalized Difference Vegetation Index Composites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2005-01-01

    The Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) is a broad-band scanner with four to six bands, depending on the model. The AVHRR senses in the visible, near-, middle-, and thermal- infrared portions of the electromagnetic spectrum. This sensor is carried on a series of National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Polar Orbiting Environmental Satellites (POES), beginning with the Television InfraRed Observation Satellite (TIROS-N) in 1978. Since 1989, the United States Geological Survey (USGS) Center for Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) has been mapping the vegetation condition of the United States and Alaska using satellite information from the AVHRR sensor. The vegetation condition composites, more commonly called greenness maps, are produced every week using the latest information on the growth and condition of the vegetation. One of the most important aspects of USGS greenness mapping is the historical archive of information dating back to 1989. This historical stretch of information has allowed the USGS to determine a 'normal' vegetation condition. As a result, it is possible to compare the current week's vegetation condition with normal vegetation conditions. An above normal condition could indicate wetter or warmer than normal conditions, while a below normal condition could indicate colder or dryer than normal conditions. The interpretation of departure from normal will depend on the season and geography of a region.

  4. A Multiple Regression Approach to Normalization of Spatiotemporal Gait Features.

    PubMed

    Wahid, Ferdous; Begg, Rezaul; Lythgo, Noel; Hass, Chris J; Halgamuge, Saman; Ackland, David C

    2016-04-01

    Normalization of gait data is performed to reduce the effects of intersubject variations due to physical characteristics. This study reports a multiple regression normalization approach for spatiotemporal gait data that takes into account intersubject variations in self-selected walking speed and physical properties including age, height, body mass, and sex. Spatiotemporal gait data including stride length, cadence, stance time, double support time, and stride time were obtained from healthy subjects including 782 children, 71 adults, 29 elderly subjects, and 28 elderly Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. Data were normalized using standard dimensionless equations, a detrending method, and a multiple regression approach. After normalization using dimensionless equations and the detrending method, weak to moderate correlations between walking speed, physical properties, and spatiotemporal gait features were observed (0.01 < |r| < 0.88), whereas normalization using the multiple regression method reduced these correlations to weak values (|r| <0.29). Data normalization using dimensionless equations and detrending resulted in significant differences in stride length and double support time of PD patients; however the multiple regression approach revealed significant differences in these features as well as in cadence, stance time, and stride time. The proposed multiple regression normalization may be useful in machine learning, gait classification, and clinical evaluation of pathological gait patterns.

  5. Low-Normal Thyroid Function and Novel Cardiometabolic Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    van Tienhoven-Wind, Lynnda J.N.; Dullaart, Robin P.F.

    2015-01-01

    The concept is emerging that low-normal thyroid function, i.e., either higher thyroid-stimulating hormone or lower free thyroxine levels within the euthyroid reference range, could contribute to the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. It is possible that adverse effects of low-normal thyroid function on cardiovascular outcome may be particularly relevant for specific populations, such as younger people and subjects with high cardiovascular risk. Low-normal thyroid function probably relates to modest increases in plasma total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides and insulin resistance, but effects on high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease are inconsistent. Low-normal thyroid function may enhance plasma cholesteryl ester transfer, and contribute to an impaired ability of HDL to inhibit oxidative modification of LDL, reflecting pro-atherogenic alterations in lipoprotein metabolism and HDL function, respectively. Low-normal thyroid function also confers lower levels of bilirubin, a strong natural anti-oxidant. Remarkably, all these effects of low-normal thyroid functional status appear to be more outspoken in the context of chronic hyperglycemia and/or insulin resistance. Collectively, these data support the concept that low-normal thyroid function may adversely affect several processes which conceivably contribute to the pathogenesis of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, beyond effects on conventional lipoprotein measures. PMID:25690422

  6. Decorin and biglycan of normal and pathologic human corneas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Funderburgh, J. L.; Hevelone, N. D.; Roth, M. R.; Funderburgh, M. L.; Rodrigues, M. R.; Nirankari, V. S.; Conrad, G. W.

    1998-01-01

    PURPOSE: Corneas with scars and certain chronic pathologic conditions contain highly sulfated dermatan sulfate, but little is known of the core proteins that carry these atypical glycosaminoglycans. In this study the proteoglycan proteins attached to dermatan sulfate in normal and pathologic human corneas were examined to identify primary genes involved in the pathobiology of corneal scarring. METHODS: Proteoglycans from human corneas with chronic edema, bullous keratopathy, and keratoconus and from normal corneas were analyzed using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), quantitative immunoblotting, and immunohistology with peptide antibodies to decorin and biglycan. RESULTS: Proteoglycans from pathologic corneas exhibit increased size heterogeneity and binding of the cationic dye alcian blue compared with those in normal corneas. Decorin and biglycan extracted from normal and diseased corneas exhibited similar molecular size distribution patterns. In approximately half of the pathologic corneas, the level of biglycan was elevated an average of seven times above normal, and decorin was elevated approximately three times above normal. The increases were associated with highly charged molecular forms of decorin and biglycan, indicating modification of the proteins with dermatan sulfate chains of increased sulfation. Immunostaining of corneal sections showed an abnormal stromal localization of biglycan in pathologic corneas. CONCLUSIONS: The increased dermatan sulfate associated with chronic corneal pathologic conditions results from stromal accumulation of decorin and particularly of biglycan in the affected corneas. These proteins bear dermatan sulfate chains with increased sulfation compared with normal stromal proteoglycans.

  7. Adaptive Neural Network Nonparametric Identifier With Normalized Learning Laws.

    PubMed

    Chairez, Isaac

    2016-04-05

    This paper addresses the design of a normalized convergent learning law for neural networks (NNs) with continuous dynamics. The NN is used here to obtain a nonparametric model for uncertain systems described by a set of ordinary differential equations. The source of uncertainties is the presence of some external perturbations and poor knowledge of the nonlinear function describing the system dynamics. A new adaptive algorithm based on normalized algorithms was used to adjust the weights of the NN. The adaptive algorithm was derived by means of a nonstandard logarithmic Lyapunov function (LLF). Two identifiers were designed using two variations of LLFs leading to a normalized learning law for the first identifier and a variable gain normalized learning law. In the case of the second identifier, the inclusion of normalized learning laws yields to reduce the size of the convergence region obtained as solution of the practical stability analysis. On the other hand, the velocity of convergence for the learning laws depends on the norm of errors in inverse form. This fact avoids the peaking transient behavior in the time evolution of weights that accelerates the convergence of identification error. A numerical example demonstrates the improvements achieved by the algorithm introduced in this paper compared with classical schemes with no-normalized continuous learning methods. A comparison of the identification performance achieved by the no-normalized identifier and the ones developed in this paper shows the benefits of the learning law proposed in this paper.

  8. Attention and normalization circuits in macaque V1

    PubMed Central

    Sanayei, M; Herrero, J L; Distler, C; Thiele, A

    2015-01-01

    Attention affects neuronal processing and improves behavioural performance. In extrastriate visual cortex these effects have been explained by normalization models, which assume that attention influences the circuit that mediates surround suppression. While normalization models have been able to explain attentional effects, their validity has rarely been tested against alternative models. Here we investigate how attention and surround/mask stimuli affect neuronal firing rates and orientation tuning in macaque V1. Surround/mask stimuli provide an estimate to what extent V1 neurons are affected by normalization, which was compared against effects of spatial top down attention. For some attention/surround effect comparisons, the strength of attentional modulation was correlated with the strength of surround modulation, suggesting that attention and surround/mask stimulation (i.e. normalization) might use a common mechanism. To explore this in detail, we fitted multiplicative and additive models of attention to our data. In one class of models, attention contributed to normalization mechanisms, whereas in a different class of models it did not. Model selection based on Akaike's and on Bayesian information criteria demonstrated that in most cells the effects of attention were best described by models where attention did not contribute to normalization mechanisms. This demonstrates that attentional influences on neuronal responses in primary visual cortex often bypass normalization mechanisms. PMID:25757941

  9. Normal tissue dose conformality measures to guide radiotherapy fractionation decisions

    SciTech Connect

    Myerson, Robert J.

    2011-04-15

    Purpose: To determine conditions under which hypofractionation could be favorable for a normal tissue--even if tumor [{alpha}/{beta}] exceeds the normal tissue's [{alpha}/{beta}]. Methods: The hypofractionation sufficiency condition (HSC) for an organ is defined as a dose conformality constraint such that, if satisfied, a family of tumor control probability isoeffective fractionation schemes will show decreasing normal tissue complication probability with decreasing number of fractions. Results: In the extended equivalent uniform dose (EUD) model [obtained by replacing dose with linear quadratic (LQ) 2 Gy equivalent dose], the HSC for a normal organ is proven to be satisfied if a suitably weighted average of the relative dose [hypofractionation sufficiency index (HSI)] is less than the ratio of normal tissue to tumor [{alpha}/{beta}]. The HSI is determined solely by dose distribution and the normal tissue volume factor, ''a.'' If the HSC is satisfied for every normal tissue of concern, then there is a therapeutic gain with hypofractionation. The corresponding multifractionation sufficiency condition (therapeutic gain with increasing number of fractions) and multifractionation sufficiency index (MSI) are also derived. A sample clinical case is presented. Conclusions: Within the context of the LQ/EUD models, conformality measures (HSI and MSI) can be used to inform fractionation decisions.

  10. Decorin and biglycan of normal and pathologic human corneas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Funderburgh, J. L.; Hevelone, N. D.; Roth, M. R.; Funderburgh, M. L.; Rodrigues, M. R.; Nirankari, V. S.; Conrad, G. W.

    1998-01-01

    PURPOSE: Corneas with scars and certain chronic pathologic conditions contain highly sulfated dermatan sulfate, but little is known of the core proteins that carry these atypical glycosaminoglycans. In this study the proteoglycan proteins attached to dermatan sulfate in normal and pathologic human corneas were examined to identify primary genes involved in the pathobiology of corneal scarring. METHODS: Proteoglycans from human corneas with chronic edema, bullous keratopathy, and keratoconus and from normal corneas were analyzed using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), quantitative immunoblotting, and immunohistology with peptide antibodies to decorin and biglycan. RESULTS: Proteoglycans from pathologic corneas exhibit increased size heterogeneity and binding of the cationic dye alcian blue compared with those in normal corneas. Decorin and biglycan extracted from normal and diseased corneas exhibited similar molecular size distribution patterns. In approximately half of the pathologic corneas, the level of biglycan was elevated an average of seven times above normal, and decorin was elevated approximately three times above normal. The increases were associated with highly charged molecular forms of decorin and biglycan, indicating modification of the proteins with dermatan sulfate chains of increased sulfation. Immunostaining of corneal sections showed an abnormal stromal localization of biglycan in pathologic corneas. CONCLUSIONS: The increased dermatan sulfate associated with chronic corneal pathologic conditions results from stromal accumulation of decorin and particularly of biglycan in the affected corneas. These proteins bear dermatan sulfate chains with increased sulfation compared with normal stromal proteoglycans.

  11. Normalized Temperature Contrast Processing in Flash Infrared Thermography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koshti, Ajay M.

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents further development in normalized contrast processing of flash infrared thermography method by the author given in US 8,577,120 B1. The method of computing normalized image or pixel intensity contrast, and normalized temperature contrast are provided, including converting one from the other. Methods of assessing emissivity of the object, afterglow heat flux, reflection temperature change and temperature video imaging during flash thermography are provided. Temperature imaging and normalized temperature contrast imaging provide certain advantages over pixel intensity normalized contrast processing by reducing effect of reflected energy in images and measurements, providing better quantitative data. The subject matter for this paper mostly comes from US 9,066,028 B1 by the author. Examples of normalized image processing video images and normalized temperature processing video images are provided. Examples of surface temperature video images, surface temperature rise video images and simple contrast video images area also provided. Temperature video imaging in flash infrared thermography allows better comparison with flash thermography simulation using commercial software which provides temperature video as the output. Temperature imaging also allows easy comparison of surface temperature change to camera temperature sensitivity or noise equivalent temperature difference (NETD) to assess probability of detecting (POD) anomalies.

  12. Normalization of urinary drug concentrations with specific gravity and creatinine.

    PubMed

    Cone, Edward J; Caplan, Yale H; Moser, Frank; Robert, Tim; Shelby, Melinda K; Black, David L

    2009-01-01

    Excessive fluid intake can substantially dilute urinary drug concentrations and result in false-negative reports for drug users. Methods for correction ("normalization") of drug/metabolite concentrations in urine have been utilized by anti-doping laboratories, pain monitoring programs, and in environmental monitoring programs to compensate for excessive hydration, but such procedures have not been used routinely in workplace, legal, and treatment settings. We evaluated two drug normalization procedures based on specific gravity and creatinine. These corrections were applied to urine specimens collected from three distinct groups (pain patients, heroin users, and marijuana/ cocaine users). Each group was unique in characteristics, study design, and dosing conditions. The results of the two normalization procedures were highly correlated (r=0.94; range, 0.78-0.99). Increases in percent positives by specific gravity and creatinine normalization were small (0.3% and -1.0%, respectively) for heroin users (normally hydrated subjects), modest (4.2-9.8%) for pain patients (unknown hydration state), and substantial (2- to 38-fold increases) for marijuana/cocaine users (excessively hydrated subjects). Despite some limitations, these normalization procedures provide alternative means of dealing with highly dilute, dilute, and concentrated urine specimens. Drug/metabolite concentration normalization by these procedures is recommended for urine testing programs, especially as a means of coping with dilute specimens.

  13. Normalized Temperature Contrast Processing in Infrared Flash Thermography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koshti, Ajay M.

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents further development in normalized contrast processing used in flash infrared thermography method. Method of computing normalized image or pixel intensity contrast, and normalized temperature contrast are provided. Methods of converting image contrast to temperature contrast and vice versa are provided. Normalized contrast processing in flash thermography is useful in quantitative analysis of flash thermography data including flaw characterization and comparison of experimental results with simulation. Computation of normalized temperature contrast involves use of flash thermography data acquisition set-up with high reflectivity foil and high emissivity tape such that the foil, tape and test object are imaged simultaneously. Methods of assessing other quantitative parameters such as emissivity of object, afterglow heat flux, reflection temperature change and surface temperature during flash thermography are also provided. Temperature imaging and normalized temperature contrast processing provide certain advantages over normalized image contrast processing by reducing effect of reflected energy in images and measurements, therefore providing better quantitative data. Examples of incorporating afterglow heat-flux and reflection temperature evolution in flash thermography simulation are also discussed.

  14. Evaluating intensity normalization for multispectral classification of carotid atherosclerotic plaque

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Shan; van't Klooster, Ronald; van Wijk, Diederik F.; Nederveen, Aart J.; Lelieveldt, Boudewijn P. F.; van der Geest, Rob J.

    2015-03-01

    Intensity normalization is an important preprocessing step for automatic plaque analysis in MR images as most segmentation algorithms require the images to have a standardized intensity range. In this study, we derived several intensity normalization approaches with inspiration from expert manual analysis protocols, for classification of carotid vessel wall plaque from in vivo multispectral MRI. We investigated intensity normalization based on a circular region centered at lumen (nCircle); based on sternocleidomastoid muscle (nSCM); based on intensity scaling (nScaling); based on manually classified fibrous tissue (nManuFibrous) and based on automatic classified fibrous tissue (nAutoFibrous). The proposed normalization methods were evaluated using three metrics: (1) Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) between manual and automatic segmentation obtained by classifiers using different normalizations; (2) correlation between proposed normalizations and normalization used by expert; (3) Mahalanobis Distance between pairs of components. In the performed classification experiments, features of normalized image, smoothed, gradient magnitude and Laplacian images at multi-scales, distance to lumen, distance to outer wall, wall thickness were calculated for each vessel wall (VW) pixel. A supervised pattern recognition system, based on a linear discriminate classifier, was trained using the manual segmentation result to classify each VW pixel to be one of the four classes: fibrous tissue, lipid, calcification, and loose matrix according to the highest posterior probability. We evaluated our method on image data of 23 patients. Compared to the result of conventional square region based intensity normalizatio n, nScaling resulted in significant increase in DSC for lipid (p = 0.006) and nAutoFibrous resulted in significant increase in DSC for calcification (p = 0.004). In conclusion, it was demonstrated that the conventional region based normalization approach is not optimal and n

  15. Normal blood chemistry of the kori bustard (Ardeotis kori).

    PubMed

    D'aloia, M A; Samour, J H; Bailey, T A; Naldo, J; Howlett, J C

    1996-03-01

    Blood samples were obtained from clinically normal captive adult kori bustards (Ardeotis kori) in order to establish normal reference blood chemistry values for the species. Twenty-four different tests were conducted using a Kodak Ektachem DT II dry-chemistry system. A comparison of the values obtained was made with those of two sub-species of houbara bustard (Chlamydotis undulata macqueenii and Chlamydotis undulata undulata) and the great bustard (Otis tarda), and showed some similarities between the different species. The results obtained from this study provide the first set of published data for normal blood chemistry of the kori bustard.

  16. Cross Correlation versus Normalized Mutual Information on Image Registration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tan, Bin; Tilton, James C.; Lin, Guoqing

    2016-01-01

    This is the first study to quantitatively assess and compare cross correlation and normalized mutual information methods used to register images in subpixel scale. The study shows that the normalized mutual information method is less sensitive to unaligned edges due to the spectral response differences than is cross correlation. This characteristic makes the normalized image resolution a better candidate for band to band registration. Improved band-to-band registration in the data from satellite-borne instruments will result in improved retrievals of key science measurements such as cloud properties, vegetation, snow and fire.

  17. Intrinsic-cum-extrinsic normalization of formant data of vowels.

    PubMed

    T V, Ananthapadmanabha; A G, Ramakrishnan

    2016-11-01

    Using a known speaker-intrinsic normalization procedure, formant data are scaled by the reciprocal of the geometric mean of the first three formant frequencies. This reduces the influence of the talker but results in a distorted vowel space. The proposed speaker-extrinsic procedure re-scales the normalized values by the mean formant values of vowels. When tested on the formant data of vowels published by Peterson and Barney, the combined approach leads to well separated clusters by reducing the spread due to talkers. The proposed procedure performs better than two top-ranked normalization procedures based on the accuracy of vowel classification as the objective measure.

  18. Spectral and Total Normal Emittance of Reusable Surface Insulation Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kantsios, A. G.; Edwards, S. F.; Dicus, D. L.

    1973-01-01

    Measurements of spectral and total normal emittance have been made on three types of reusable external insulation materials proposed for space shuttles. Emittances were measured in the spectral range 1 to 15 micrometer at temperatures of 800 K and 1100 K using a radiometric measurement technique. Results indicated that the total normal emittance of these materials was less than 0.8 between 800 K and 1300 K. The total normal emittance decreased with increasing temperature. The three ceramic coating candidate materials exhibited a similar spectral emittance distribution.

  19. Dendrites of rod bipolar cells sprout in normal aging retina.

    PubMed

    Liets, Lauren C; Eliasieh, Kasra; van der List, Deborah A; Chalupa, Leo M

    2006-08-08

    The aging nervous system is known to manifest a variety of degenerative and regressive events. Here we report the unexpected growth of dendrites in the retinas of normal old mice. The dendrites of many rod bipolar cells in aging mice were observed to extend well beyond their normal strata within the outer plexiform layer to innervate the outer nuclear layer where they appeared to form contacts with the spherules of rod photoreceptors. Such dendritic sprouting increased with age and was evident at all retinal eccentricities. These results provide evidence of retinal plasticity associated with normal aging.

  20. Normal basis of finite field GF(2 super m)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pei, D. Y.; Wang, C. C.; Omura, J. K.

    1986-01-01

    Massey and Omura (1981) recently developed a new multiplication algorithm for Galois fields based on the normal basis representation. This algorithm shows a much simpler way to perform multiplication in finite field than the conventional method. The necessary and sufficient conditions are presented for an element to generate a normal basis in the field GF(2 super m), where m = 2 super k p super n and p super n has two as a primitive root. This result provides a way to find a normal basis in the field.