Science.gov

Sample records for epithelial cell culture

  1. Progress Towards Drosophila Epithelial Cell Culture

    PubMed Central

    Simcox, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    Drosophila epithelial research is at the forefront of the field; however, there are no well-characterized epithelial cell lines that could provide a complementary in vitro model for studies conducted in vivo. Here, a protocol is described that produces epithelial cell lines. The method uses genetic manipulation of oncogenes or tumor suppressors to induce embryonic primary culture cells to rapidly progress to permanent cell lines. It is, however, a general method and the type of cells that comprise a given line is not controlled experimentally. Indeed, only a small fraction of the lines produced are epithelial in character. For this reason, additional work needs to be done to develop a more robust epithelial cell-specific protocol. It is expected that Drosophila epithelial cell lines will have great utility for in vitro analysis of epithelial biology, particularly high-throughput analyses such as RNAi screens. PMID:23097097

  2. Growth requirements of human mammary epithelial cells in culture.

    PubMed

    Taylor-Papadimitriou, J; Shearer, M; Stoker, M G

    1977-12-15

    Colony-forming epithelial cells can be separated from the non-dividing "foam cells" in human milk by differential adhesion to glass and freezing. The growth of such partially purified mammary epithelial cells is stimulated by co-culture with non-dividing feeder cells. Foam cells, mitomycin-treated mouse fibroblast lines and human mammary fibroblasts and calf lens epithelial cells are all effective in promoting mammary epithelial cell growth. Contact between epithelial cells and feeders is not required for the growth-promoting effect. The mitogenic effect of epidermal growth factor on mammary epithelial cells also requires feeder cell activity.

  3. Cultured epithelial cells response to phototherapy with low intensity laser.

    PubMed

    Eduardo, Fernanda P; Mehnert, Dolores U; Monezi, Telma A; Zezell, Denise M; Schubert, Mark M; Eduardo, Carlos P; Marques, Márcia M

    2007-04-01

    Little is known about the intracellular response of epithelial cells to phototherapy. The aim of this in vitro study was to analyze the effect of phototherapy with low-energy lasers with different wavelengths and powers on cultured epithelial cell growth under different nutritional conditions. Epithelial cell cultures (Vero cell line) grown in nutritional deficit in culture medium supplemented with 2% fetal bovine serum (FBS) were irradiated with low-energy laser from one to three times with a GaAlAs laser (660 nm) and InGaAlP (780 nm), 40 and 70 mW, respectively, with 3 or 5 J/cm2. Cell growth was indirectly assessed by measuring the cell mitochondrial activity. Nonirradiated cell cultures grown in nutritional regular medium supplemented with 10% FBS produced higher cell growth than all cultures grown in nutritional deficit irradiated or not. The overall cell growth of cultures grown under nutritionally deficit conditions was significantly improved especially when irradiated with 780 nm for three times. Phototherapy with the laser parameters tested increases epithelial cell growth rate for cells stressed by growth under nutritionally deficient states. This cell growth improvement is directly proportional to the number of irradiations; however, was not enough to reach the full cell growth potential rate of Vero epithelial cell line observed when growing under nutritional regular condition. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. CHARACTERIZATION OF ALVEOLAR EPITHELIAL CELLS CULTURED IN SEMIPERMEABLE HOLLOW FIBERS

    PubMed Central

    Grek, Christina L.; Newton, Danforth A.; Qiu, Yonhzhi; Wen, Xuejun; Spyropoulos, Demetri D.; Baatz, John E.

    2012-01-01

    Cell culture methods commonly used to represent alveolar epithelial cells in vivo have lacked airflow, a 3-dimensional air-liquid interface, and dynamic stretching characteristics of native lung tissue—physiological parameters critical for normal phenotypic gene expression and cellular function. Here the authors report the development of a selectively semipermeable hollow fiber culture system that more accurately mimics the in vivo microenvironment experienced by mammalian distal airway cells than in conventional or standard air-liquid interface culture. Murine lung epithelial cells (MLE-15) were cultured within semipermeable polyurethane hollow fibers and introduced to controlled airflow through the microfiber interior. Under these conditions, MLE-15 cells formed confluent monolayers, demonstrated a cuboidal morphology, formed tight junctions, and produced and secreted surfactant proteins. Numerous lamellar bodies and microvilli were present in MLE-15 cells grown in hollow fiber culture. Conversely, these alveolar type II cell characteristics were reduced in MLE-15 cells cultured in conventional 2D static culture systems. These data support the hypothesis that MLE-15 cells grown within our microfiber culture system in the presence of airflow maintain the phenotypic characteristics of type II cells to a higher degree than those grown in standard in vitro cell culture models. Application of our novel model system may prove advantageous for future studies of specific gene and protein expression involving alveolar epithelial or bronchiolar epithelial cells. PMID:19263283

  5. Rabbit uterine epithelial cells: Co-culture with spermatozoa

    SciTech Connect

    Boice, M.L.

    1988-01-01

    A primary culture of rabbit uterine epithelial cells was established and their effects on sperm function were examined in vitro. Epithelial cells were isolated from uteri of estrous rabbits and cultured on floating collagen gels in phenol red-free medium supplemented with 5% fetal bovine serum. Light microscopy and keratin staining showed that the epithelial cell population established in culture had morphological characteristics similar to that seen in the intact endometrium. Cells were cultured with {sup 3}H-leucine and uptake of label by cells and its incorporation into cellular and secretory proteins determined. When compared to cells cultured for 24-48 h, incorporation of label into cellular protein was lower at 72-96 h, but secretion increased. Estradiol 17-{beta} did not affect label uptake or incorporation, but did enhance proliferation of cells as judged by total DNA content of the cell population. Analysis of proteins in media by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and fluorography suggested that epithelial and stromal cells synthesis proteins that may be secretory in nature during 72-96 h culture. Twenty-nine to thirty-one h after initiation of epithelial cultures, 1-2 {times} 10{sup 6} sperm were co-incubated with cells and sperm viability, motility, loss of acrosome and fertilizing ability determined.

  6. Cholera toxin stimulation of human mammary epithelial cells in culture

    SciTech Connect

    Stampfer, M.R.

    1982-06-01

    Addition of cholera toxin to human mammary epithelial cultures derived from reduction mammoplasties and primary carcinomas greatly stimulated cell growth and increased the number of times the cells could be successfully subcultured. Other agents known to increase intracellular cAMP levels were also growth stimulatory. The increased growth potential conferred by cholera toxin enhances the usefulness of this cell culture system.

  7. Cell density determines epithelial migration in culture.

    PubMed Central

    Rosen, P; Misfeldt, D S

    1980-01-01

    The dog kidney epithelial cell line (MDCK) has been shown to exhibit a density-correlated inhibition of growth at approxmately 6.6 X 10(5) cells per cm2. When a confluent monolayer at its maximal density was wounded by removal of a wide swath of cells, migration of the cell sheet into the denuded area occurred. Precise measurements of the rate of migration for 5 day showed that the cells accelerated at a uniform rate of 0.24 micrometer . hr-2 and, by extrapolation, possessed an apparent initial velocity of 2.8 micrometer . hr-1 at the time of wounding. The apparent initial velocity was considered to be the result of a brief (< 10 hr) and rapid acceleration dependent on cell density. To verify this, wounds were made at different densities below the maximum. In these experiments, the cells did not migrate until a "threshold" density of 2.0 X 10(5) cells per cm2 was reached regardless of the density at the time of wounding. At the threshold density, the cell sheet began to accelerate at the previously measured rate (0.24 micrometer . hr-2). Any increase in density by cell division was balanced by cell migration, so that the same threshold density was maintained by the migrating cells. Each migrating cell sustained the movement of the cell sheet at a constant rate of acceleration. It is proposed that an acceleration is, in general, characteristic of the vectorial movement of an epithelial cell sheet. Images PMID:6933523

  8. Culture, Immortalization, and Characterization of Human Meibomian Gland Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shaohui; Hatton, Mark P.; Khandelwal, Payal

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. Meibomian gland epithelial cells are essential in maintaining the health and integrity of the ocular surface. However, very little is known about their physiological regulation. In this study, the cellular control mechanisms were explored, first to establish a defined culture system for the maintenance of primary epithelial cells from human meibomian glands and, second, to immortalize these cells, thereby developing a preclinical model that could be used to identify factors that regulate cell activity. Methods. Human meibomian glands were removed from lid segments after surgery, enzymatically digested, and dissociated. Isolated epithelial cells were cultured in media with or without serum and/or 3T3 feeder layers. To attempt immortalization, the cells were exposed to retroviral human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) and/or SV40 large T antigen cDNA vectors, and antibiotic-resistant cells were selected, expanded, and subcultured. Analyses for possible biomarkers, cell proliferation and differentiation, lipid-related enzyme gene expression, and the cellular response to androgen were performed with biochemical, histologic, and molecular biological techniques. Results. It was possible to isolate viable human meibomian gland epithelial cells and to culture them in serum-free medium. These cells proliferated, survived through at least the fifth passage, and contained neutral lipids. Infection with hTERT immortalized these cells, which accumulated neutral lipids during differentiation, expressed multiple genes for lipogenic enzymes, responded to androgen, and continued to proliferate. Conclusions. The results show that human meibomian gland epithelial cells may be isolated, cultured, and immortalized. PMID:20335607

  9. Anatomical location and culture of equine corneal epithelial stem cells.

    PubMed

    Moriyama, Hidekazu; Kasashima, Yoshinori; Kuwano, Atsutoshi; Wada, Shinya

    2014-03-01

    To identify morphologically the locations of equine corneal epithelial stem cells (CESCs) and to culture these cells. We studied the eyes of 12 adult thoroughbred horses. Eye tissues were immunostained for two positive stem cell markers (p63, CK14) and one negative marker (CK3) to identify the locations of CESCs, so we could compare their immunostaining patterns with those of human stem cells previously reported. We compared the proliferation rates and morphological features of epithelial cells isolated from the corneal limbus and central cornea. Undifferentiated cells expressing the same immunostaining pattern as human CESCs were present in the equine corneal limbus. Cultured epithelial cells isolated from the limbus expressed the same immunostaining pattern that CESCs show histologically, but cells isolated from the central cornea did not proliferate and could not be evaluated. Equine CESCs were localized in the epithelial basal layer of the corneal limbus, where melanocytes reside. They could be cultured without loss of their undifferentiated nature. When collecting such stem cells, it may be useful to harvest and culture corneal epithelial tissues in the limbus where melanocytes serve as an indicator of the collecting area. © 2013 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  10. Microfluidic approaches for epithelial cell layer culture and characterisation

    PubMed Central

    Thuenauer, Roland; Rodriguez-Boulan, Enrique; Römer, Winfried

    2014-01-01

    In higher eukaryotes, epithelial cell layers line most body cavities and form selective barriers that regulate the exchange of solutes between compartments. In order to fulfil these functions, the cells assume a polarised architecture and maintain two distinct plasma membrane domains, the apical domain facing the lumen and the basolateral domain facing other cells and the extracellular matrix. Microfluidic biochips offer the unique opportunity to establish novel in vitro models of epithelia in which the in vivo microenvironment of epithelial cells is precisely reconstituted. In addition, analytical tools to monitor biologically relevant parameters can be directly integrated on-chip. In this review we summarise recently developed biochip designs for culturing epithelial cell layers. Since endothelial cell layers, which line blood vessels, have similar barrier functions and polar organisation as epithelial cell layers, we also discuss biochips for culturing endothelial cell layers. Furthermore, we review approaches to integrate tools to analyse and manipulate epithelia and endothelia in microfluidic biochips, including methods to perform electrical impedance spectroscopy, methods to detect substances undergoing trans-epithelial transport via fluorescence, spectrophotometry, and mass spectrometry, techniques to mechanically stimulate cells via stretching and fluid flow-induced shear stress, and methods to carry out high-resolution imaging of vesicular trafficking with light microscopy. Taken together, this versatile microfluidic toolbox enables novel experimental approaches to characterise epithelial monolayers. PMID:24668405

  11. Lingual Epithelial Stem Cells and Organoid Culture of Them

    PubMed Central

    Hisha, Hiroko; Tanaka, Toshihiro; Ueno, Hiroo

    2016-01-01

    As tongue cancer is one of the major malignant cancers in the world, understanding the mechanism of maintenance of lingual epithelial tissue, which is known to be the origin of tongue cancer, is unquestionably important. However, the actual stem cells that are responsible for the long-term maintenance of the lingual epithelium have not been identified. Moreover, a simple and convenient culture method for lingual epithelial stem cells has not yet been established. Recently, we have shown that Bmi1-positive cells, residing at the second or third layer of the epithelial cell layer at the base of the interpapillary pit (IPP), were slow-cycling and could supply keratinized epithelial cells for over one year, indicating that Bmi1-positive cells are long-term lingual epithelial stem cells. In addition, we have developed a novel lingual epithelium organoid culture system using a three-dimensional matrix and growth factors. Here, we discuss current progress in the identification of lingual stem cells and future applications of the lingual culture system for studying the regulatory mechanisms of the lingual epithelium and for regenerative medicine. PMID:26828484

  12. Type II alveolar epithelial cell in vitro culture in aerobiosis.

    PubMed

    Aerts, C; Voisin, C; Wallaert, B

    1988-08-01

    A method of Type II alveolar epithelial cell culture in aerobiosis has been developed. Isolation of Type II cells was performed by digesting guinea-pig lung tissue with crude trypsin and elastase and using discontinuous Percoll density gradients. The Type II cells, as identified by light and electron microscopy, were cultured in aerobiosis for up to six days, in direct contact with the atmosphere in conditions mimicking those present in the lower respiratory tract. Significant activities of cellular superoxide dismutase (SOD), manganese dependent superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD), catalase and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were found at the time of isolation. In contrast, cell glutathione content varied widely from one experiment to another. Changes of antioxidant enzymes were evaluated during cell culture in aerobiosis. SOD, Mn-SOD and catalase were significantly decreased after three days but were not significantly different between a three day and six day culture. Antioxidant changes did not influence the cell culture. In marked contrast, decrease in cell glutathione was associated with rapid cell death, whereas good cell survival was obtained at high levels of cell glutathione. Cell culture in aerobiosis will permit a precise evaluation of the effects of gases, particularly oxidant gases, on a primary culture of Type II alveolar epithelial cells.

  13. Fabrication of transplantable corneal epithelial and oral mucosal epithelial cell sheets using a novel temperature-responsive closed culture device.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Ryota; Kobayashi, Toyoshige; Kikuchi, Tetsutaro; Kitano, Yuriko; Watanabe, Hiroya; Mizutani, Manabu; Nozaki, Takayuki; Senda, Naoko; Saitoh, Kazuo; Takagi, Ryo; Yamato, Masayuki; Okano, Teruo; Takeda, Shizu

    2015-05-01

    Temperature-responsive culture surfaces make it possible to harvest transplantable carrier-free cell sheets. Here, we applied temperature-responsive polymer for polycarbonate surfaces with previously developed closed culture devices for an automated culture system in order to fabricate transplantable stratified epithelial cell sheets. Histological and immunohistochemical analyses and colony-forming assays revealed that corneal epithelial and oral mucosal epithelial cell sheets could be harvested with the temperature-responsive closed culture devices. The results were similar to those obtained using temperature-responsive culture inserts. These results indicate that the novel temperature-responsive closed culture device is useful for fabricating transplantable stratified epithelial cell sheets.

  14. Differentiation of cultured epithelial cells: Response to toxic agents

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, R.H.; LaMontagne, A.D.; Petito, C.T.; Rong, Xianhui )

    1989-03-01

    Cell culture systems are instrumental in elucidating regulation of normal function and mechanisms of its perturbation by toxic substances. To this end, three applications of epithelial cells cultured with 3T3 feeder layer support are described. First, treatment of the premalignant human epidermal keratinocyte line SCC-12F2 with the tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate suppressed cell growth and differentiation. This agent produced a biphasic growth response greatly inhibiting cell growth at 1 to 10 nM, but much less above 100 nM. Expression of the differentiated functions involucrin and transglutaminase was found to be inhibited markedly at concentrations above 10 nM. Second, 3-methylcholanthrene toxicity was surveyed in a variety of rat epithelial cell types. The two most sensitive to growth inhibition were epidermal and mammary epithelial cells, while those from bladder, prostate, thyroid, and endometrium were insensitive to growth inhibition. Finally, expression of estrogen receptors in rat endometrial cells was shown to be stimulated by the cAmP-elevating agent forskolin. Maximal stimulation of 3- to 6-fold occurred in 6 hr, compatible with a requirement for protein synthesis. Pursuit of such results will aid in understanding differences in response among cell types and species, in elucidating mechanisms of action of known toxic substances and, ultimately, in predicting toxicity of less well understood agents.

  15. In vitro methods to culture primary human breast epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Raouf, Afshin; Sun, Yu Jia

    2013-01-01

    Current evidence suggests that much like leukemia, breast tumors are maintained by a small subpopulation of tumor cells that have stem cell properties. These cancer stem cells are envisaged to be responsible for tumor formation and relapse. Therefore, knowledge about their nature will provide a platform to develop therapies to eliminate these breast cancer stem cells. This concept highlights the need to understand the mechanisms that regulate the normal functions of the breast stem cells and their immediate progeny as alterations to these same mechanisms can cause these primitive cells to act as cancer stem cells. The study of the primitive cell functions relies on the ability to isolate them from primary sources of breast tissue. This chapter describes processing of discarded tissue from reduction mammoplasty samples as sources of normal primary human breast epithelial cells and describes cell culture systems to grow single-cell suspensions prepared from these reduction samples in vitro.

  16. Transport Mechanism of Nicotine in Primary Cultured Alveolar Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Takano, Mikihisa; Nagahiro, Machi; Yumoto, Ryoko

    2016-02-01

    Nicotine is absorbed from the lungs into the systemic circulation during cigarette smoking. However, there is little information concerning the transport mechanism of nicotine in alveolar epithelial cells. In this study, we characterized the uptake of nicotine in rat primary cultured type II (TII) and transdifferentiated type I-like (TIL) epithelial cells. In both TIL and TII cells, [(3)H]nicotine uptake was time and temperature-dependent, and showed saturation kinetics. [(3)H]Nicotine uptake in these cells was not affected by Na(+), but was sensitive to extracellular and intracellular pH, suggesting the involvement of a nicotine/proton antiport system. The uptake of [(3)H]nicotine in these cells was potently inhibited by organic cations such as clonidine, diphenhydramine, and pyrilamine, but was not affected by substrates and/or inhibitors of known organic cation transporters such as carnitine, 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium, and tetraethylammonium. In addition, the uptake of [(3)H]nicotine in TIL cells was stimulated by preloading the cells with unlabeled nicotine, pyrilamine, and diphenhydramine, but not with tetraethylammonium. These results suggest that a novel proton-coupled antiporter is involved in the uptake of nicotine in alveolar epithelial cells and its absorption from the lungs into the systemic circulation.

  17. Human epithelial cell cultures from superficial limbal explants.

    PubMed

    Ghoubay-Benallaoua, D; Basli, E; Goldschmidt, P; Pecha, F; Chaumeil, C; Laroche, L; Borderie, V

    2011-02-01

    To study the kinetics of growth and the phenotype of cells cultured from human limbal explants in a cholera toxin-free medium with no feeder cell layer. Human organ-cultured corneas were used to prepare limbal explants (full-thickness and superficial limbal explants) and corneal stromal explants. Cell growth kinetics and phenotypes were assessed by cultivating explants in cholera toxin-free Green medium. Epithelial and progenitor cell markers were assessed by immunocytochemistry, flow cytometry, and Reverse Transcription and Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR). The successful epithelial cell growth rates from full thickness limbal explant and superficial limbal explant tissues were 41 and 86%, respectively (p=0.0001). The mean cell area and the percentage of small cells in superficial and full-thickness explant cultures were, respectively, 317 µm(2) and 429 µm(2), and 8.9% and 1.7% (p<0.001). The percentage of positive cells in superficial and full-thickness limbal explant cultures as assessed by immunocytochemistry were the following: broad spectrum cytokeratins (cytokeratins 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 13, and 18 [MNF116]), 82%/37% (p=0.01); cytokeratin 3 (CK3), 74%/25% (p=0.009); cytokeratin 19 (CK19), 46%/25% (p=0.19); vimentin, 56%/53% (p=0.48); delta N p63α, 54%/0% (p<0.001); and ABCG2, 5%/0% (p=0.1). Flow cytometry showed a higher percentage of small cells, a higher percentage of MNF116+ cells, and stronger expression of progenitor-associated markers in superficial than in full-thickness explant cultures. For superficial limbal explant cultures, analysis of the expression profiles for various mRNAs at the end of 21 days of culture showed high levels of expression of the mRNAs encoding CK3, vimentin, and CK19. The expression of mRNA of delta N p63α and ABCG2 was weaker. Cultures obtained from full-thickness limbal explants featured no expression of mRNA of CK19, delta N p63α, and ABCG2, whereas mRNAs encoding CK3 and vimentin were detected. Human corneal stromal

  18. Differentiation of cultured epithelial cells: response to toxic agents.

    PubMed Central

    Rice, R H; LaMontagne, A D; Petito, C T; Rong, X H

    1989-01-01

    Cell culture systems are instrumental in elucidating regulation of normal function and mechanisms of its perturbation by toxic substances. To this end, three applications of epithelial cells cultured with 3T3 feeder layer support are described. First, treatment of the premalignant human epidermal keratinocyte line SCC-12F2 with the tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate suppressed cell growth and differentiation. This agent produced a biphasic growth response greatly inhibiting cell growth at 1 to 10 nM, but much less above 100 nM. Expression of the differentiated functions involucrin and transglutaminase was found to be inhibited markedly at concentrations above 10 nM. Second, 3-methylcholanthrene toxicity was surveyed in a variety of rat epithelial cell types. The two most sensitive to growth inhibition were epidermal and mammary epithelial cells, while those from bladder, prostate, thyroid, and endometrium were insensitive to growth inhibition. Great differences were evident even among those cells derived from stratified squamous epithelia (epidermal, esophageal, vaginal, forestomach) despite their expression of aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase activities to similar degrees. Finally, expression of estrogen receptors in rat endometrial cells was shown to be stimulated by the cAMP-elevating agent forskolin. Maximal stimulation of 3- to 6-fold occurred in 6 hr, compatible with a requirement for protein synthesis. Although expressing keratinocyte character (transglutaminase activity and envelope forming ability), the cells thus retain some hormonal character that may be modulated by cAMP-dependent kinase activity. Pursuit of such results will aid in understanding differences in response among cell types and species, in elucidating mechanisms of action of known toxic substances and, ultimately, in predicting toxicity of less well understood agents. Images FIGURE 1. FIGURE 4. PMID:2466642

  19. Three-Dimensional Cultures of Mouse Mammary Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mroue, Rana; Bissell, Mina J.

    2013-01-01

    The mammary gland is an ideal “model organism” for studying tissue specificity and gene expression in mammals: it is one of the few organs that develop after birth and it undergoes multiple cycles of growth, differentiation and regression during the animal’s lifetime in preparation for the important function of lactation. The basic “functional differentiation” unit in the gland is the mammary acinus made up of a layer of polarized epithelial cells specialized for milk production surrounded by myoepithelial contractile cells, and the two-layered structure is surrounded by basement membrane. Much knowledge about the regulation of mammary gland development has been acquired from studying the physiology of the gland and of lactation in rodents. Culture studies, however, were hampered by the inability to maintain functional differentiation on conventional tissue culture plastic. We now know that the microenvironment, including the extracellular matrix and tissue architecture, plays a crucial role in directing functional differentiation of organs. Thus, in order for culture systems to be effective experimental models, they need to recapitulate the basic unit of differentiated function in the tissue or organ and to maintain its three-dimensional (3D) structure. Mouse mammary culture models evolved from basic monolayers of cells to an array of complex 3D systems that observe the importance of the microenvironment in dictating proper tissue function and structure. In this chapter, we focus on how 3D mouse mammary epithelial cultures have enabled investigators to gain a better understanding of the organization, development and function of the acinus, and to identify key molecular, structural, and mechanical cues important for maintaining mammary function and architecture. The accompanying chapter of Vidi et al. describes 3D models developed for human cells. Here, we describe how mouse primary epithelial cells and cell lines—essentially those we use in our

  20. Measuring antimicrobial peptide activity on epithelial surfaces in cell culture

    PubMed Central

    Diamond, Gill; Yim, Sunghan; Rigo, Isaura; McMahon, Laura

    2009-01-01

    To more accurately assess the activity and role of epithelial-cell derived antimicrobial peptides in their native settings, it is essential to perform assays at the surfaces under relevant conditions. In order to carry this out, we utilize 3-dimensional cultures of airway and gingival epithelium, which are grown at an air-liquid interface. Under these conditions, the cultures can be subjected to challenge with a variety of factors known to cause an increase in antimicrobial peptide gene expression. The functional relevance of this induction can then be assessed by quantifying antibacterial activity either directly on the surface of the cells or using the fluid secreted onto the apical surface of the cultures. The relative contribution of the peptides can also be measured by pre-incubation of the secreted fluid with specific inhibitory antibodies. Thus, a relatively inexpensive in vitro model can be used to evaluate the role of antimicrobial peptides in mucosal epithelium. PMID:20094876

  1. A novel closed cell culture device for fabrication of corneal epithelial cell sheets.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Ryota; Kobayashi, Toyoshige; Moriya, Noboru; Mizutani, Manabu; Kan, Kazutoshi; Nozaki, Takayuki; Saitoh, Kazuo; Yamato, Masayuki; Okano, Teruo; Takeda, Shizu

    2015-11-01

    Automation technology for cell sheet-based tissue engineering would need to optimize the cell sheet fabrication process, stabilize cell sheet quality and reduce biological contamination risks. Biological contamination must be avoided in clinical settings. A closed culture system provides a solution for this. In the present study, we developed a closed culture device called a cell cartridge, to be used in a closed cell culture system for fabricating corneal epithelial cell sheets. Rabbit limbal epithelial cells were cultured on the surface of a porous membrane with 3T3 feeder cells, which are separate from the epithelial cells in the cell cartridges and in the cell-culture inserts as a control. To fabricate the stratified cell sheets, five different thicknesses of the membranes which were welded to the cell cartridge, were examined. Multilayered corneal epithelial cell sheets were fabricated in cell cartridges that were welded to a 25 µm-thick gas-permeable membrane, which was similar to the results with the cell-culture inserts. However, stratification of corneal epithelial cell sheets did not occur with cell cartridges that were welded to 100-300 µm-thick gas-permeable membranes. The fabricated cell sheets were evaluated by histological analyses to examine the expression of corneal epithelial-specific markers. Immunohistochemical analyses showed that a putative stem cell marker, p63, a corneal epithelial differentiation maker, CK3, and a barrier function marker, Claudin-1, were expressed in the appropriate position in the cell sheets. These results suggest that the cell cartridge is effective for fabricating corneal epithelial cell sheets.

  2. In vitro co-culture of epithelial cells and smooth muscle cells on aligned nanofibrous scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Kuppan, Purushothaman; Sethuraman, Swaminathan; Krishnan, Uma Maheswari

    2017-12-01

    Esophagus is a complex, hollow organ consisting of epithelial cells in the inner mucosal layer and smooth muscle cells in the outer muscle layer. In the present study, we have evaluated the in vitro co-culture of epithelial cells and smooth muscle cells on the aligned nanofibrous scaffold made of PHBV, PHBV-gelatin, PCL and PCL-gelatin developed through electrospinning using rotating drum collector. Epithelial cells were labeled with cell tracker green while the smooth muscle cells were labeled with cell tracker red. Labeled cells were seeded on the aligned nanofibers matrices and tracked using laser scanning confocal microscopy. The results demonstrate that both epithelial and smooth muscle cells attach, extend, and proliferate over these nanofibrous matrices. Confocal z-sectioning shows that epithelial and smooth muscle cells tend to separate into two distinct layers on a single nanofiber system mimicking the in vivo anatomy. Cell viability assay showed that both types of cells are viable and also interact with each other. The functional gene expression of respective cell types demonstrates that both epithelial and smooth muscle cells are phenotypically as well as functionally active when they were co-cultured. Thus the study highlighted that aligned nanofibrous scaffolds could be potential alternative graft for esophageal tissue regeneration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Characterization of biomaterial-free cell sheets cultured from human oral mucosal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Dong Won; Kim, Yun Hee; Koh, Ah Young; Lee, Hyun Ju; Wee, Won Ryang; Jeon, Saewha; Kim, Mee Kum

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to report the characteristics of biomaterial-free sheets cultured from human oral mucosal epithelial cells without fibrin support, in vitro and after transplantation to limbal-deficient models. Human oral mucosal epithelial cells and limbal epithelial cells were cultured for 2 weeks, and the colony-forming efficiency (CFE) rates were compared. Markers of stem cells (p63), cell proliferation (Ki-67) and epithelial differentiation (cytokeratin; K1, K3, K4, K13) were observed in colonies and in biomaterial-free sheets. Biomaterial-free sheets which had been detached with 1% dispase or biomaterial-free sheets generated by fibrin support were transplanted to 12 limbal-deficient rabbit models. In vitro cell viability, in vivo stability and cytokeratin characteristics of biomaterial-free sheets were compared with those of sheets formed by fibrin-coated culture 1 week after transplantation. Mean CFE rate was significantly higher in human oral mucosal epithelial cells (44.8%) than in human limbal epithelial cells(17.7%). K3 and K4 were well expressed in both colonies and sheets. Biomaterial-free sheets had two to six layers of stratified cells and showed an average of 79.8% viable cells in the sheets after detachment. Cytokeratin expressions of biomaterial-free sheets were comparable to those of sheets cultured by fibrin support, in limbal-deficient models. Both p63 and Ki-67 were well expressed in colonies, isolated sheets and sheets transplanted to limbal-deficient models. Our results suggest that biomaterial-free sheets cultured from human oral mucosal epithelial cells without fibrin support can be an alternative option for cell therapy in use for the treatment of limbal-deficient diseases. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Hormonal regulation of Na -K -ATPase in cultured epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.P.; Jones, D.; Wiesmann, W.P.

    1986-08-01

    Aldosterone and insulin stimulate Na transport through mechanisms involving protein synthesis. Na -K -ATPase has been implicated in the action of both hormones. The authors examined the effect of aldosterone and insulin on Na -K -ATPase in epithelial cells in culture derived from toad urinary bladder (TB6C) and toad kidney (A6). Aldosterone, but not insulin, increases short-circuit current (I/sub sc/) in TB6C cells. Aldosterone increases Na -K -(TSP)ATPase activity after 18 h of incubation, but no effect can be seen at 3 and 6 h. Amiloride, which inhibits aldosterone-induced increases in I/sub sc/, has no effect on either basal or aldosterone stimulated enzyme activity. Both aldosterone and insulin increase I/sub sc/ in A6 cells and when added together are synergistic. Aldosterone stimulates enzyme activity in A6 cells, but insulin alone has no effect. However, aldosterone and insulin together stimulate enzyme activity more than aldosterone alone. It appears that stimulation of Na -K -ATPase activity is involved in aldosterone action in both cell lines but does not appear to be due to increased Na entry, since enhanced enzyme activity is not inhibited by amiloride. In contrast, insulin alone has no direct effect on Na -K -ATPase, although the increased enzyme activity following both agents in combination may explain their synergism on I/sub sc/.

  5. Interactions between airway epithelial cells and dendritic cells during viral infections using an in vitro co-culture model

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rationale: Historically, single cell culture models have been limited in pathological and physiological relevance. A co-culture model of dendritic cells (DCs) and differentiated human airway epithelial cells was developed to examine potential interactions between these two cell t...

  6. Interactions between airway epithelial cells and dendritic cells during viral infections using an in vitro co-culture model

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rationale: Historically, single cell culture models have been limited in pathological and physiological relevance. A co-culture model of dendritic cells (DCs) and differentiated human airway epithelial cells was developed to examine potential interactions between these two cell t...

  7. Culture of Oral Mucosal Epithelial Cells for the Purpose of Treating Limbal Stem Cell Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Utheim, Tor Paaske; Utheim, Øygunn Aass; Khan, Qalb-E-Saleem; Sehic, Amer

    2016-03-01

    The cornea is critical for normal vision as it allows allowing light transmission to the retina. The corneal epithelium is renewed by limbal epithelial cells (LEC), which are located in the periphery of the cornea, the limbus. Damage or disease involving LEC may lead to various clinical presentations of limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD). Both severe pain and blindness may result. Transplantation of cultured autologous oral mucosal epithelial cell sheet (CAOMECS) represents the first use of a cultured non-limbal autologous cell type to treat this disease. Among non-limbal cell types, CAOMECS and conjunctival epithelial cells are the only laboratory cultured cell sources that have been explored in humans. Thus far, the expression of p63 is the only predictor of clinical outcome following transplantation to correct LSCD. The optimal culture method and substrate for CAOMECS is not established. The present review focuses on cell culture methods, with particular emphasis on substrates. Most culture protocols for CAOMECS used amniotic membrane as a substrate and included the xenogeneic components fetal bovine serum and murine 3T3 fibroblasts. However, it has been demonstrated that tissue-engineered epithelial cell sheet grafts can be successfully fabricated using temperature-responsive culture surfaces and autologous serum. In the studies using different substrates for culture of CAOMECS, the quantitative expression of p63 was generally poorly reported; thus, more research is warranted with quantification of phenotypic data. Further research is required to develop a culture system for CAOMECS that mimics the natural environment of oral/limbal/corneal epithelial cells without the need for undefined foreign materials such as serum and feeder cells.

  8. Culture models of human mammary epithelial cell transformation

    SciTech Connect

    Stampfer, Martha R.; Yaswen, Paul

    2000-11-10

    Human pre-malignant breast diseases, particularly ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS)3 already display several of the aberrant phenotypes found in primary breast cancers, including chromosomal abnormalities, telomerase activity, inactivation of the p53 gene and overexpression of some oncogenes. Efforts to model early breast carcinogenesis in human cell cultures have largely involved studies in vitro transformation of normal finite lifespan human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) to immortality and malignancy. We present a model of HMEC immortal transformation consistent with the know in vivo data. This model includes a recently described, presumably epigenetic process, termed conversion, which occurs in cells that have overcome stringent replicative senescence and are thus able to maintain proliferation with critically short telomeres. The conversion process involves reactivation of telomerase activity, and acquisition of good uniform growth in the absence and presence of TFGB. We propose th at overcoming the proliferative constraints set by senescence, and undergoing conversion, represent key rate-limiting steps in human breast carcinogenesis, and occur during early stage breast cancer progression.

  9. Epithelial-mesenchymal transitions during cell culture of primary thyroid tumors?

    PubMed

    Herrmann, M E; Trevor, K T

    1993-04-01

    Fibroblast contamination of epithelial tumor cell cultures is of great concern when examining tumor cells in vitro for specific biochemical and cytogenetic changes. The observations of normal karyotypes in thyroid tumor cell cultures have raised the concern of whether residual tissue fibroblasts might obscure the cytogenetic analysis of transformed epithelial cells. We have characterized early passaged thyroid tumor cells to examine the proportions of epithelial and fibroblastic cell types. Cells were analyzed by immunocytology using antibodies recognizing the thyroid prohormone thyroglobulin, epithelial cytokeratins, and vimentin, a mesenchyme marker. Tumors consisted of one follicular adenoma and five papillary carcinomas. When examined by day 15 in culture, all cells contained filaments composed of vimentin, which most likely represents an adaptation to culture conditions. Double immunofluorescence staining for thyroglobulin and cytokeratin revealed the presence of not only epithelial but also spindle-like fibroblastoid cells possessing thyroid epithelial cell markers. The results suggest that in thyroid tumor cultures there is a unique cell type intermediate between epithelial and mesenchyme phenotypes that must be considered when performing cytogenetic analysis.

  10. Ultraviolet transmittance of human limbal epithelial cells cultured on human amniotic membranes.

    PubMed

    Mimura, Tatsuya; Yokoo, Seiichi; Kaji, Yuichi; Usui, Tomohiko; Yamagam, Satoru; Ono, Kyoko; Araie, Makoto; Amano, Shiro

    2005-07-01

    To evaluate ultraviolet (UV) A and B transmittance by human limbal epithelial cells cultured on human amniotic membranes. Human limbal epithelial cells were taken from the limbus of donor corneas and were cultured on human amniotic membranes with inactivated 3T3 fibroblasts for 2 to 4 weeks. Then, the cultured cells were examined histologically. Next, cells from different culture periods were irradiated with UV-A (365 nm) or UV-B (302 nm) at energy levels ranging from 50 to 800 microW/cm2, and UV transmittance was measured with a UV light meter. Histological examination revealed a monolayer of corneal epithelial cells on the amniotic membrane after 2 weeks of culture, and a layer of 3-4 cells was formed after 4 weeks. Transmittance of UV-A and UV-B was highest by the amniotic membrane alone, followed in decreasing order by limbal epithelial cells cultured on amniotic membranes for 2 weeks, 3 weeks, and 4 weeks. These results indicate that UV absorbance increases in proportion to the number of limbal epithelial cell layers in cultures on amniotic membranes. Limbal epithelial cells may need to be cultured until 3-4 layers are formed in order to prevent ocular damage by UV light after transplantation.

  11. A method for establishing human primary gastric epithelial cell culture from fresh surgical gastric tissues.

    PubMed

    Aziz, Faisal; Yang, Xuesong; Wen, Qingping; Yan, Qiu

    2015-08-01

    At present, biopsy specimens, cancer cell lines and tissues obtained by gastric surgery are used in the study and analysis of gastric cancer, including the molecular mechanisms and proteomics. However, fibroblasts and other tissue components may interfere with these techniques. Therefore, the present study aimed to develop a procedure for the isolation of viable human gastric epithelial cells from gastric surgical tissues. A method was developed to culture human gastric epithelial cells using fresh, surgically excised tissues and was evaluated using immunocytochemistry, periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) staining and cell viability assays. Low cell growth was observed surrounding the gastric tissue on the seventh day of tissue explant culture. Cell growth subsequently increased, and at 12 days post-explant a high number of pure epithelial cells were detected. The gastric cancer cells exhibited rapid growth with a doubling time of 13-52 h, as compared to normal cells, which had a doubling time of 20-53 h. Immunocytochemical analyses of primary gastric cells revealed positive staining for cytokeratin 18 and 19, which indicated that the culture was comprised of pure epithelial cells and contained no fibroblasts. Furthermore, PAS staining demonstrated that the cultured gastric cells produced neutral mucin. Granulin and carbohydrate antigen 724 staining confirmed the purity of gastric cancer and normal cells in culture. This method of cell culture indicated that the gastric cells in primary culture consisted of mucin-secreting gastric epithelial cells, which may be useful for the study of gastric infection with Helicobacter pylori and gastric cancer.

  12. Klebsiella pneumoniae Is Able to Trigger Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition Process in Cultured Airway Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Leone, Laura; Mazzetta, Francesca; Martinelli, Daniela; Valente, Sabatino; Alimandi, Maurizio; Raffa, Salvatore; Santino, Iolanda

    2016-01-01

    The ability of some bacterial pathogens to activate Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition normally is a consequence of the persistence of a local chronic inflammatory response or depends on a direct interaction of the pathogens with the host epithelial cells. In this study we monitored the abilities of the K. pneumoniae to activate the expression of genes related to EMT-like processes and the occurrence of phenotypic changes in airway epithelial cells during the early steps of cell infection. We describe changes in the production of intracellular reactive oxygen species and increased HIF-1α mRNA expression in cells exposed to K. pneumoniae infection. We also describe the upregulation of a set of transcription factors implicated in the EMT processes, such as Twist, Snail and ZEB, indicating that the morphological changes of epithelial cells already appreciable after few hours from the K. pneumoniae infection are tightly regulated by the activation of transcriptional pathways, driving epithelial cells to EMT. These effects appear to be effectively counteracted by resveratrol, an antioxidant that is able to exert a sustained scavenging of the intracellular ROS. This is the first report indicating that strains of K. pneumoniae may promote EMT-like programs through direct interaction with epithelial cells without the involvement of inflammatory cells. PMID:26812644

  13. Rapamycin Prolongs the Survival of Corneal Epithelial Cells in Culture

    PubMed Central

    Gidfar, Sanaz; Milani, Farnoud Y.; Milani, Behrad Y.; Shen, Xiang; Eslani, Medi; Putra, Ilham; Huvard, Michael J.; Sagha, Hossein; Djalilian, Ali R.

    2017-01-01

    Rapamycin has previously been shown to have anti-aging effects in cells and organisms. These studies were undertaken to investigate the effects of rapamycin on primary human corneal epithelial cells in vitro. Cell growth and viability were evaluated by bright field microscopy. Cell proliferation and cycle were evaluated by flow cytometry. The expression of differentiation markers was evaluated by quantitative PCR and Western blot. Senescence was evaluated by senescence-associated β-Galactosidase staining and by Western blot analysis of p16. Apoptosis was evaluated by a TUNEL assay. The results demonstrated that primary HCEC treated with rapamycin had lower proliferation but considerably longer survival in vitro. Rapamycin-treated cells maintained a higher capacity to proliferate after removal of rapamycin and expressed more keratin 14, N-Cadherin, DeltaNp63 and ABCG2, and less keratin 12, consistent with their less differentiated state. Rapamycin treated cells demonstrated less senescence by X-β-Gal SA staining and by lower expression of p16. Apoptosis was also lower in the rapamycin treated cells. These results indicate that rapamycin treatment of HCEC prevents the loss of corneal epithelial stem/progenitor cells to replicative senescence and apoptosis. Rapamycin may be a useful additive for ex vivo expansion of corneal epithelial cells. PMID:28054657

  14. Rapamycin Prolongs the Survival of Corneal Epithelial Cells in Culture.

    PubMed

    Gidfar, Sanaz; Milani, Farnoud Y; Milani, Behrad Y; Shen, Xiang; Eslani, Medi; Putra, Ilham; Huvard, Michael J; Sagha, Hossein; Djalilian, Ali R

    2017-01-05

    Rapamycin has previously been shown to have anti-aging effects in cells and organisms. These studies were undertaken to investigate the effects of rapamycin on primary human corneal epithelial cells in vitro. Cell growth and viability were evaluated by bright field microscopy. Cell proliferation and cycle were evaluated by flow cytometry. The expression of differentiation markers was evaluated by quantitative PCR and Western blot. Senescence was evaluated by senescence-associated β-Galactosidase staining and by Western blot analysis of p16. Apoptosis was evaluated by a TUNEL assay. The results demonstrated that primary HCEC treated with rapamycin had lower proliferation but considerably longer survival in vitro. Rapamycin-treated cells maintained a higher capacity to proliferate after removal of rapamycin and expressed more keratin 14, N-Cadherin, DeltaNp63 and ABCG2, and less keratin 12, consistent with their less differentiated state. Rapamycin treated cells demonstrated less senescence by X-β-Gal SA staining and by lower expression of p16. Apoptosis was also lower in the rapamycin treated cells. These results indicate that rapamycin treatment of HCEC prevents the loss of corneal epithelial stem/progenitor cells to replicative senescence and apoptosis. Rapamycin may be a useful additive for ex vivo expansion of corneal epithelial cells.

  15. Reactivity of alveolar epithelial cells in primary culture with type I cell monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Danto, S I; Zabski, S M; Crandall, E D

    1992-03-01

    An understanding of the process of alveolar epithelial cell growth and differentiation requires the ability to trace and analyze the phenotypic transitions that the cells undergo. This analysis demands specific phenotypic probes to type II and, especially, type I pneumocytes. To this end, monoclonal antibodies have been generated to type I alveolar epithelial cells using an approach designed to enhance production of lung-specific clones from a crude lung membrane preparation. The monoclonal antibodies were screened by a combination of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunohistochemical techniques, with the determination of type I cell specificity resting primarily on immunoelectron microscopic localization. Two of these new markers of the type I pneumocyte phenotype (II F1 and VIII B2) were used to analyze primary cultures of type II cells growing on standard tissue culture plastic and on a variety of substrata reported to affect the morphology of these cells in culture. On tissue culture plastic, the antibodies fail to react with early (days 1 to 3) type II cell cultures. The cells become progressively more reactive with time in culture to a plateau of approximately 6 times background by day 8, with a maximum rate of increase between days 3 and 5. This finding is consistent with the hypothesis that type II cells in primary culture undergo at least partial differentiation into type I cells. Type II cells grown on laminin, which reportedly delays the loss of type II cell appearance, and on fibronectin, which has been reported to facilitate cell spreading and loss of type II cell features, develop the type I cell markers during cultivation in vitro with kinetics similar to those on uncoated tissue culture plastic. Cells on type I collagen and on tissue culture-treated Nuclepore filters, which have been reported to support monolayers with type I cell-like morphology, also increase their expression of the II F1 and VIII B2 epitopes around days 3 to 5. Taken

  16. Nerve growth factor modulate proliferation of cultured rabbit corneal endothelial cells and epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinyu; Li, Zhongguo; Qiu, Liangxiu; Zhao, Changsong; Hu, Zhulin

    2005-01-01

    In order to investigate the effect of nerve growth factor (NGF) on the proliferation of rabbit corneal endothelial cells and epithelial cells, the in vitro cultured rabbit corneal endothelial cells and epithelial cells were treated with different concentrations of NGF. MTT assay was used to examine the clonal growth and proliferation of the cells by determining the absorbency values at 570 nm. The results showed that NGF with three concentrations ranging from 5 U/mL to 500 U/mL enhanced the proliferation of rabbit corneal endothelial cells in a concentration-dependent manner. 50 U/mL and 500 U/mL NGF got more increase of proliferation than that of 5 U/mL NGF did. Meanwhile, 50 U/mL and 500 U/mL NGF could promote the proliferation of the rabbit corneal epithelial cells significantly in a concentration-dependent manner. However, 5 U/mL NGF did not enhance the proliferation of epithelial cells. It was suggested that exogenous NGF can stimulate the proliferation of both rabbit corneal endothelial and epithelial cells, but the extent of modulation is different.

  17. Gremlin Activates the Smad Pathway Linked to Epithelial Mesenchymal Transdifferentiation in Cultured Tubular Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues-Diez, Raquel; Rodrigues-Diez, Raúl R.; Lavoz, Carolina; Carvajal, Gisselle; Droguett, Alejandra; Garcia-Redondo, Ana B.; Rodriguez, Isabel; Ortiz, Alberto; Egido, Jesús; Mezzano, Sergio; Ruiz-Ortega, Marta

    2014-01-01

    Gremlin is a developmental gene upregulated in human chronic kidney disease and in renal cells in response to transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β). Epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) is one process involved in renal fibrosis. In tubular epithelial cells we have recently described that Gremlin induces EMT and acts as a downstream TGF-β mediator. Our aim was to investigate whether Gremlin participates in EMT by the regulation of the Smad pathway. Stimulation of human tubular epithelial cells (HK2) with Gremlin caused an early activation of the Smad signaling pathway (Smad 2/3 phosphorylation, nuclear translocation, and Smad-dependent gene transcription). The blockade of TGF-β, by a neutralizing antibody against active TGF-β, did not modify Gremlin-induced early Smad activation. These data show that Gremlin directly, by a TGF-β independent process, activates the Smad pathway. In tubular epithelial cells long-term incubation with Gremlin increased TGF-β production and caused a sustained Smad activation and a phenotype conversion into myofibroblasts-like cells. Smad 7 overexpression, which blocks Smad 2/3 activation, diminished EMT changes observed in Gremlin-transfected tubuloepithelial cells. TGF-β neutralization also diminished Gremlin-induced EMT changes. In conclusion, we propose that Gremlin could participate in renal fibrosis by inducing EMT in tubular epithelial cells through activation of Smad pathway and induction of TGF-β. PMID:24949470

  18. Comparison of culture media for ex vivo cultivation of limbal epithelial progenitor cells

    PubMed Central

    Loureiro, Renata Ruoco; Cristovam, Priscila Cardoso; Martins, Caio Marques; Covre, Joyce Luciana; Sobrinho, Juliana Aparecida; Ricardo, José Reinaldo da Silva; Hazarbassanov, Rossen Myhailov; Höfling-Lima, Ana Luisa; Belfort, Rubens; Nishi, Mauro

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To compare the effectiveness of three culture media for growth, proliferation, differentiation, and viability of ex vivo cultured limbal epithelial progenitor cells. Methods Limbal epithelial progenitor cell cultures were established from ten human corneal rims and grew on plastic wells in three culture media: supplemental hormonal epithelial medium (SHEM), keratinocyte serum-free medium (KSFM), and Epilife. The performance of culturing limbal epithelial progenitor cells in each medium was evaluated according to the following parameters: growth area of epithelial migration; immunocytochemistry for adenosine 5′-triphosphate-binding cassette member 2 (ABCG2), p63, Ki67, cytokeratin 3 (CK3), and vimentin (VMT) and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT–PCR) for CK3, ABCG2, and p63, and cell viability using Hoechst staining. Results Limbal epithelial progenitor cells cultivated in SHEM showed a tendency to faster migration, compared to KSFM and Epilife. Immunocytochemical analysis showed that proliferated cells in the SHEM had lower expression for markers related to progenitor epithelial cells (ABCG2) and putative progenitor cells (p63), and a higher percentage of positive cells for differentiated epithelium (CK3) when compared to KSFM and Epilife. In PCR analysis, ABCG2 expression was statistically higher for Epilife compared to SHEM. Expression of p63 was statistically higher for Epilife compared to SHEM and KSFM. However, CK3 expression was statistically lower for KSFM compared to SHEM. Conclusions Based on our findings, we concluded that cells cultured in KSFM and Epilife media presented a higher percentage of limbal epithelial progenitor cells, compared to SHEM. PMID:23378720

  19. Comparison of culture media for ex vivo cultivation of limbal epithelial progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Loureiro, Renata Ruoco; Cristovam, Priscila Cardoso; Martins, Caio Marques; Covre, Joyce Luciana; Sobrinho, Juliana Aparecida; Ricardo, José Reinaldo da Silva; Hazarbassanov, Rossen Myhailov; Höfling-Lima, Ana Luisa; Belfort, Rubens; Nishi, Mauro; Gomes, José Álvaro Pereira

    2013-01-01

    To compare the effectiveness of three culture media for growth, proliferation, differentiation, and viability of ex vivo cultured limbal epithelial progenitor cells. Limbal epithelial progenitor cell cultures were established from ten human corneal rims and grew on plastic wells in three culture media: supplemental hormonal epithelial medium (SHEM), keratinocyte serum-free medium (KSFM), and Epilife. The performance of culturing limbal epithelial progenitor cells in each medium was evaluated according to the following parameters: growth area of epithelial migration; immunocytochemistry for adenosine 5'-triphosphate-binding cassette member 2 (ABCG2), p63, Ki67, cytokeratin 3 (CK3), and vimentin (VMT) and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for CK3, ABCG2, and p63, and cell viability using Hoechst staining. Limbal epithelial progenitor cells cultivated in SHEM showed a tendency to faster migration, compared to KSFM and Epilife. Immunocytochemical analysis showed that proliferated cells in the SHEM had lower expression for markers related to progenitor epithelial cells (ABCG2) and putative progenitor cells (p63), and a higher percentage of positive cells for differentiated epithelium (CK3) when compared to KSFM and Epilife. In PCR analysis, ABCG2 expression was statistically higher for Epilife compared to SHEM. Expression of p63 was statistically higher for Epilife compared to SHEM and KSFM. However, CK3 expression was statistically lower for KSFM compared to SHEM. Based on our findings, we concluded that cells cultured in KSFM and Epilife media presented a higher percentage of limbal epithelial progenitor cells, compared to SHEM.

  20. Comparison of human nasal epithelial cells grown as explant outgrowth cultures or dissociated tissue cultures in vitro.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Jian; Meng, Na; Wang, Hong; Zhang, Luo

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare cell growth characteristics, ciliated cell differentiation, and function of human nasal epithelial cells established as explant outgrowth cultures or dissociated tissue cultures. Human nasal mucosa of the uncinate process was obtained by endoscopy and epithelial cell cultures were established by explant outgrowth or dissociated tissue culture methods. Epithelial cell growth characteristics were observed by inverted phase contrast microscopy. Ciliated cell differentiation was detected by β-tubulin IVand ZO-1 immunocytochemistry. Basal and ATP-stimulated ciliary beat frequency (CBF) was measured using a highspeed digital microscopic imaging system. Both the explant and dissociated tissue cultures established as monolayers with tight junctions and differentiated cell composition, with both types of cultures comprising ciliated and non-ciliated epithelial cells. Fibroblasts were also frequently found in explant cultures but rarely seen in dissociated tissue cultures. In both culture systems, the highest ciliated cell density appeared at 7th-10th culture day and declined with time, with the lifespan of ciliated cells ranging from 14 to 21 days. Overall, 10% of the cells in explant cultures and 20% of the cells in the dissociated tissue cultures were ciliated. These two cultures demonstrated similar ciliary beat frequency values at baseline (7.78 ± 1.99 Hz and 7.91 ± 2.52 Hz, respectively) and reacted equivalently following stimulation with 100 μM ATP. The results of this study indicate that both the explant outgrowth and dissociated tissue culture techniques are suitable for growing well-differentiated nasal ciliated and non-ciliated cells, which have growth characteristics and ciliary activity similar to those of nasal epithelial cells in vivo.

  1. Epithelial monolayer culture system for real‐time single‐cell analyses

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Jong Bae; Moody, Mark; Koh, Duk‐Su

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Many epithelial cells form polarized monolayers under in vivo and in vitro conditions. Typically, epithelial cells are cultured for differentiation on insert systems where cells are plated on a porous filter membrane. Although the cultured monolayers have been a standard system to study epithelial physiology, there are some limits: The epithelial cells growing inside the commercial inserts are not optimal to visualize directly through lenses on inverted microscopes. The cell images are optically distorted and background fluorescence is bright due to the filter membrane positioned between the cells and the lens. In addition, the cells are not easily accessible by electrodes due to the presence of tall side walls. Here, we present the design, fabrication, and practical applications of an improved system for analysis of polarized epithelial monolayers. This new system allows (1) direct imaging of cells without an interfering filter membrane, (2) electrophysiological measurements, and (3) detection of apical secretion with minimal dilution. Therefore, our culture method is optimized to study differentiated epithelial cells at the single‐cell and subcellular levels, and can be extended to other cell types with minor modifications. PMID:24771696

  2. Epithelial monolayer culture system for real-time single-cell analyses.

    PubMed

    Seo, Jong Bae; Moody, Mark; Koh, Duk-Su

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Many epithelial cells form polarized monolayers under in vivo and in vitro conditions. Typically, epithelial cells are cultured for differentiation on insert systems where cells are plated on a porous filter membrane. Although the cultured monolayers have been a standard system to study epithelial physiology, there are some limits: The epithelial cells growing inside the commercial inserts are not optimal to visualize directly through lenses on inverted microscopes. The cell images are optically distorted and background fluorescence is bright due to the filter membrane positioned between the cells and the lens. In addition, the cells are not easily accessible by electrodes due to the presence of tall side walls. Here, we present the design, fabrication, and practical applications of an improved system for analysis of polarized epithelial monolayers. This new system allows (1) direct imaging of cells without an interfering filter membrane, (2) electrophysiological measurements, and (3) detection of apical secretion with minimal dilution. Therefore, our culture method is optimized to study differentiated epithelial cells at the single-cell and subcellular levels, and can be extended to other cell types with minor modifications.

  3. Culture of Airway Epithelial Cells from Neonates Sampled within 48-Hours of Birth

    PubMed Central

    Miller, David; Turner, Steve W.; Spiteri-Cornish, Daniella; McInnes, Neil; Scaife, Alison; Danielian, Peter J.; Devereux, Graham; Walsh, Garry M.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Little is known about how neonatal airway epithelial cell phenotype impacts on respiratory disease in later life. This study aimed to establish a methodology to culture and characterise neonatal nasal epithelial cells sampled from healthy, non-sedated infants within 48 hours of delivery. Methods Nasal epithelial cells were sampled by brushing both nostrils with an interdental brush, grown to confluence and sub-cultured. Cultured cells were characterised morphologically by light and electron microscopy and by immunocytochemistry. As an exemplar pro-inflammatory chemokine, IL-8 concentrations were measured in supernatants from unstimulated monolayers and after exposure to IL-1β/TNF-α or house dust mite extract. Results Primary cultures were successfully established in 135 (91%) of 149 neonatal samples seeded, with 79% (n  =  117) successfully cultured to passage 3. The epithelial lineage of the cells was confirmed by morphological analysis and immunostaining. Constitutive IL-8 secretion was observed and was upregulated by IL-1β/TNF-α or house dust mite extract in a dose dependent manner. Conclusion We describe a safe, minimally invasive method of culturing nasal epithelial cells from neonates suitable for functional cell analysis offering an opportunity to study “naïve” cells that may prove useful in elucidating the role of the epithelium in the early origins of asthma and/or allergic rhinitis. PMID:24223790

  4. Short-term primary culture of epithelial cells derived from human breast tumours.

    PubMed Central

    Speirs, V.; Green, A. R.; Walton, D. S.; Kerin, M. J.; Fox, J. N.; Carleton, P. J.; Desai, S. B.; Atkin, S. L.

    1998-01-01

    As experimental models for breast cancer, most studies rely on established human breast cancer cell lines. However, many of these lines were established over 20 years ago, many from pleural effusions rather than the primary tumour, so the validity of using them as representative models is questionable. This paper describes our experiences, over a 3-year period, in establishing short-term epithelial-cell-enriched preparations from primary breast tumours based on differential centrifugation followed by culture in selective media. Epithelial cells were successfully cultured from 55% of samples, but culture success did not appear to be correlated with tumour histology, stage, grade or node status. Epithelial cell-enriched cultures were immunopositive for broad-spectrum cytokeratin and epithelial membrane antigen (EMA). Positivity for keratin 19 confirmed that the cultures contained tumour-derived cells, which additionally showed significantly higher activity of the reductive pathway of the steroid-converting enzyme 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type I. That the cultures contained tumour and not normal epithelial cells was further substantiated by the complete absence of the calmodulin-like gene NB-1 in tumour-derived cultures; this is only associated with normal breast epithelia. Eighty-five per cent of cultures established from oestrogen receptor (ER)-positive tumours expressed ER in vitro; this was functional in 66% of cultures, although ER-positive phenotype was gradually lost over time. In conclusion, epithelial cells can be isolated and maintained as short-term cultures from primary breast tumours irrespective of histopathological or clinical details, providing a model system with a greater biological and clinical relevance than breast cancer cell lines. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 5 Figure 7 PMID:9836473

  5. Isolation of mammary epithelial cells from three-dimensional mixed-cell spheroid co-culture.

    PubMed

    Xu, Kun; Buchsbaum, Rachel J

    2012-04-30

    While enormous efforts have gone into identifying signaling pathways and molecules involved in normal and malignant cell behaviors(1-2), much of this work has been done using classical two-dimensional cell culture models, which allow for easy cell manipulation. It has become clear that intracellular signaling pathways are affected by extracellular forces, including dimensionality and cell surface tension(3-4). Multiple approaches have been taken to develop three-dimensional models that more accurately represent biologic tissue architecture(3). While these models incorporate multi-dimensionality and architectural stresses, study of the consequent effects on cells is less facile than in two-dimensional tissue culture due to the limitations of the models and the difficulty in extracting cells for subsequent analysis. The important role of the microenvironment around tumors in tumorigenesis and tumor behavior is becoming increasingly recognized(4). Tumor stroma is composed of multiple cell types and extracellular molecules. During tumor development there are bidirectional signals between tumor cells and stromal cells(5). Although some factors participating in tumor-stroma co-evolution have been identified, there is still a need to develop simple techniques to systematically identify and study the full array of these signals(6). Fibroblasts are the most abundant cell type in normal or tumor-associated stromal tissues, and contribute to deposition and maintenance of basement membrane and paracrine growth factors(7). Many groups have used three dimensional culture systems to study the role of fibroblasts on various cellular functions, including tumor response to therapies, recruitment of immune cells, signaling molecules, proliferation, apoptosis, angiogenesis, and invasion(8-15). We have optimized a simple method for assessing the effects of mammary fibroblasts on mammary epithelial cells using a commercially available extracellular matrix model to create three

  6. Establishment of a primary culture method for mouse intestinal epithelial cells by organ culture of fetal small intestine.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Kiyoshi; Sato, Kanako; Morishita, Satoru; Kaminogawa, Shuichi; Totsuka, Mamoru

    2009-08-01

    Studies of the physiological functions of intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) have been limited by the difficulty of primary culture of IEC. We established a method for primary culture of mouse IEC by culturing fragments of fetal small intestines pretreated with EDTA. This method reproducibly resulted in the expansion of cytokeratin-positive epithelial cells, and vigorous expansion of the epithelial cells was observed only from intestinal fragments of embryonic days 15-16. These cells expressed alkaline phosphatase activity and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules, indicating the mature phenotype of IEC in a small intestine. The cells also presented antigens to CD4(+) T cells. Furthermore, the cells expressed various cytokines and chemokines, and the expression was enhanced by bacterial stimulation. These results indicate that the primary-cultured mouse IEC prepared by the method established here can be a beneficial tool in study of the functions of IECs, especially in mucosal immunity.

  7. Automatic detection of cellular necrosis in epithelial cell cultures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Andres; Ramiro, Cristina; Desco, Manuel; Malpica, Norberto; Tejedor, Alberto; Torres, Ana; Ledesma-Carbayo, Maria J.; Castilla, Manuela; Garcia-Barreno, Pedro

    2001-07-01

    Automatic discrimination and quantification of alive and dead cells in phase contrast microscopy images allows in vivo analysis of the viability of cultured cells without staining. Unsupervised segmentation, based on texture analysis, classifies each image region into three groups: live cells, necrotic cells and background. The segmentation is based on three discriminant functions, built using a total of 12 parameters derived from the histogram and the co-occurrence matrix. These parameters were selected performing a discriminant analysis on a training set that included images from three different cultures. Once images are automatically segmented, the approximate number of live and dead cells is obtained by dividing each area by the average size of each cell type. The number and percentage of live and necrotic cells have been obtained for primary cellular cultures in intervals of 48 hr. during two weeks. The results have been compared with the figures given by an experienced human observer, showing a very good correlation (Pearson's coefficient 0.95, kappa 0.87). A reliable and easy-to-use tool has been developed. It provides quantitative results on phase contrast microscopy images of cell cultures, with preliminary results showing accuracy similar to that provided by an expert, allowing to count a higher number of fields.

  8. A Three-Dimensional Cell Culture Model To Study Enterovirus Infection of Polarized Intestinal Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Drummond, Coyne G.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Despite serving as the primary entry portal for coxsackievirus B (CVB), little is known about CVB infection of the intestinal epithelium, owing at least in part to the lack of suitable in vivo models and the inability of cultured cells to recapitulate the complexity and structure associated with the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Here, we report on the development of a three-dimensional (3-D) organotypic cell culture model of Caco-2 cells to model CVB infection of the gastrointestinal epithelium. We show that Caco-2 cells grown in 3-D using the rotating wall vessel (RWV) bioreactor recapitulate many of the properties of the intestinal epithelium, including the formation of well-developed tight junctions, apical-basolateral polarity, brush borders, and multicellular complexity. In addition, transcriptome analyses using transcriptome sequencing (RNA-Seq) revealed the induction of a number of genes associated with intestinal epithelial differentiation and/or intestinal processes in vivo when Caco-2 cells were cultured in 3-D. Applying this model to CVB infection, we found that although the levels of intracellular virus production were similar in two-dimensional (2-D) and 3-D Caco-2 cell cultures, the release of infectious CVB was enhanced in 3-D cultures at early stages of infection. Unlike CVB, the replication of poliovirus (PV) was significantly reduced in 3-D Caco-2 cell cultures. Collectively, our studies show that Caco-2 cells grown in 3-D using the RWV bioreactor provide a cell culture model that structurally and transcriptionally represents key aspects of cells in the human GI tract and can thus be used to expand our understanding of enterovirus-host interactions in intestinal epithelial cells. IMPORTANCE Coxsackievirus B (CVB), a member of the enterovirus family of RNA viruses, is associated with meningitis, pericarditis, diabetes, dilated cardiomyopathy, and myocarditis, among other pathologies. CVB is transmitted via the fecal-oral route and

  9. A Three-Dimensional Cell Culture Model To Study Enterovirus Infection of Polarized Intestinal Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Drummond, Coyne G; Nickerson, Cheryl A; Coyne, Carolyn B

    2016-01-01

    Despite serving as the primary entry portal for coxsackievirus B (CVB), little is known about CVB infection of the intestinal epithelium, owing at least in part to the lack of suitable in vivo models and the inability of cultured cells to recapitulate the complexity and structure associated with the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Here, we report on the development of a three-dimensional (3-D) organotypic cell culture model of Caco-2 cells to model CVB infection of the gastrointestinal epithelium. We show that Caco-2 cells grown in 3-D using the rotating wall vessel (RWV) bioreactor recapitulate many of the properties of the intestinal epithelium, including the formation of well-developed tight junctions, apical-basolateral polarity, brush borders, and multicellular complexity. In addition, transcriptome analyses using transcriptome sequencing (RNA-Seq) revealed the induction of a number of genes associated with intestinal epithelial differentiation and/or intestinal processes in vivo when Caco-2 cells were cultured in 3-D. Applying this model to CVB infection, we found that although the levels of intracellular virus production were similar in two-dimensional (2-D) and 3-D Caco-2 cell cultures, the release of infectious CVB was enhanced in 3-D cultures at early stages of infection. Unlike CVB, the replication of poliovirus (PV) was significantly reduced in 3-D Caco-2 cell cultures. Collectively, our studies show that Caco-2 cells grown in 3-D using the RWV bioreactor provide a cell culture model that structurally and transcriptionally represents key aspects of cells in the human GI tract and can thus be used to expand our understanding of enterovirus-host interactions in intestinal epithelial cells. IMPORTANCE Coxsackievirus B (CVB), a member of the enterovirus family of RNA viruses, is associated with meningitis, pericarditis, diabetes, dilated cardiomyopathy, and myocarditis, among other pathologies. CVB is transmitted via the fecal-oral route and encounters the

  10. Differentiated swine airway epithelial cell cultures for the investigation of influenza A virus infection and replication

    PubMed Central

    Bateman, Allen C.; Karasin, Alexander I.; Olsen, Christopher W.

    2013-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Bateman et al. (2013) Differentiated swine airway epithelial cell cultures for the investigation of influenza A virus infection and replication. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses 7(2) 139–150. Background  Differentiated human airway epithelial cell cultures have been utilized to investigate cystic fibrosis, wound healing, and characteristics of viral infections. These cultures, grown at an air–liquid interface (ALI) in media with defined hormones and growth factors, recapitulate many aspects of the in vivo respiratory tract and allow for experimental studies at the cellular level. Objectives  To optimize growth conditions for differentiated swine airway epithelial cultures and to use these cultures to examine influenza virus infection and replication. Methods  Primary swine respiratory epithelial cells were grown at an air–liquid interface with varying amounts of retinoic acid and epidermal growth factor. Cells grown with optimized concentrations of these factors for 4 weeks differentiated into multilayer epithelial cell cultures resembling the lining of the swine respiratory tract. Influenza virus infection and replication were examined in these cultures. Results/Conclusions  Retinoic acid promoted ciliogenesis, whereas epidermal growth factor controlled the thickness of the pseudoepithelium. The optimal concentrations for differentiated swine cell cultures were 1·5 ng/ml epidermal growth factor and 100 nm retinoic acid. Influenza A viruses infected and productively replicated in these cultures in the absence of exogenous trypsin, suggesting that the cultures express a protease capable of activating influenza virus hemagglutinin. Differences in virus infection and replication characteristics found previously in pigs in vivo were recapitulated in the swine cultures. This system could be a useful tool for a range of applications, including investigating influenza virus species specificity, defining cell tropism

  11. Primary Cultures of Glomerular Parietal Epithelial Cells or Podocytes with Proven Origin

    PubMed Central

    Schulte, Kevin; Sechi, Antonio; Sauer-Lehnen, Sibille; Tag, Carmen; Boor, Peter; Kuppe, Christoph; Warsow, Gregor; Schordan, Sandra; Mostertz, Jörg; Chilukoti, Ravi Kumar; Homuth, Georg; Endlich, Nicole; Tacke, Frank; Weiskirchen, Ralf; Fuellen, Georg; Endlich, Karlhans; Floege, Jürgen; Smeets, Bart; Moeller, Marcus J.

    2012-01-01

    Parietal epithelial cells (PECs) are crucially involved in the pathogenesis of rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis (RPGN) as well as in focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). In this study, transgenic mouse lines were used to isolate pure, genetically tagged primary cultures of PECs or podocytes using FACsorting. By this approach, the morphology of primary glomerular epithelial cells in culture could be resolved: Primary podocytes formed either large cells with intracytoplasmatic extensions or smaller spindle shaped cells, depending on specific culture conditions. Primary PECs were small and exhibited a spindle-shaped or polygonal morphology. In the very early phases of primary culture, rapid changes in gene expression (e.g. of WT-1 and Pax-2) were observed. However, after prolonged culture primary PECs and podocytes still segregated clearly in a transcriptome analysis - demonstrating that the origin of primary cell cultures is important. Of the classical markers, synaptopodin and podoplanin expression were differentially regulated the most in primary PEC and podocyte cultures. However, no expression of any endogenous gene allowed to differentiate between the two cell types in culture. Finally, we show that the transcription factor WT1 is also expressed by PECs. In summary, genetic tagging of PECs and podocytes is a novel and necessary tool to derive pure primary cultures with proven origin. These cultures will be a powerful tool for the emerging field of parietal epithelial cell biology. PMID:22529955

  12. Organotypic culture of fetal lung type II alveolar epithelial cells: applications to pulmonary toxicology.

    PubMed Central

    Shami, S G; Aghajanian, J D; Sanders, R L

    1984-01-01

    Techniques for isolation and culture of fetal Type II alveolar epithelial cells, as well as the morphologic and biochemical characteristics of these histotypic cultures, are described. Type II alveolar epithelial cells can be isolated from fetal rat lungs and grown in an organotypic culture system as described in this review. The fetal Type II cells resemble differentiated rat Type II cells in morphology, biochemistry, and karyotype as they grow in culture for up to 5 weeks. The cells of the mature organotypic cultures form alveolarlike structures while growing on a gelatin sponge matrix. The Type II cells also synthesize and secrete pulmonary surfactant similar in biochemical composition to that produced in vivo. This system has been used to study the effects of hormones on surfactant production and composition. The organotypic model has many potential applications to the study of pulmonary toxicology. Images FIGURE 1. FIGURE 2. PMID:6548184

  13. CHANGES IN GENE EXPRESSION DURING DIFFERENTIATION OF CULTURED HUMAN PRIMARY BRONCHIAL EPITHELIAL CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Primary airway epithelial cell cultures are a useful tool for the in vitro study of normal bronchial cell differentiation and function, airway disease mechanisms, and pathogens and toxin response. Growth of these cells at an air-liquid interface for several days results in the f...

  14. CHANGES IN GENE EXPRESSION DURING DIFFERENTIATION OF CULTURED HUMAN PRIMARY BRONCHIAL EPITHELIAL CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Primary airway epithelial cell cultures are a useful tool for the in vitro study of normal bronchial cell differentiation and function, airway disease mechanisms, and pathogens and toxin response. Growth of these cells at an air-liquid interface for several days results in the f...

  15. A comparative evaluation of corneal epithelial cell cultures for assessing ocular permeability.

    PubMed

    Becker, Ulrich; Ehrhardt, Carsten; Schneider, Marc; Muys, Leon; Gross, Dorothea; Eschmann, Klaus; Schaefer, Ulrich F; Lehr, Claus-Michael

    2008-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential value of different epithelial cell culture systems as in vitro models for studying corneal permeability. Transformed human corneal epithelial (HCE-T) cells and Statens Serum Institut rabbit corneal (SIRC) cells were cultured on permeable filters. SkinEthic human corneal epithelium (S-HCE) and Clonetics human corneal epithelium (C-HCE) were received as ready-to-use systems. Excised rabbit corneas (ERCs) and human corneas (EHCs) were mounted in Ussing chambers, and used as references. Barrier properties were assessed by measuring transepithelial electrical resistance, and by determining the apparent permeability of markers with different physico-chemical properties, namely, fluorescein, sodium salt; propranolol hydrochloride; moxaverine hydrochloride; timolol hydrogenmaleate; and rhodamine 123. SIRC cells and the S-HCE failed to develop epithelial barrier properties, and hence were unable to distinguish between the permeation markers. Barrier function and the power to differentiate compound permeabilities were evident with HCE-T cells, and were even more pronounced in the case of C-HCE, corresponding very well with data from ERCs and EHCs. A net secretion of rhodamine 123 was not observed with any of the models, suggesting that P-glycoprotein or similar efflux systems have no significant effects on corneal permeability. Currently available corneal epithelial cell culture systems show differences in epithelial barrier function. Systems lacking functional cell-cell contacts are of limited value for assessing corneal permeability, and should be critically evaluated for other purposes.

  16. Effect of cord blood serum on ex vivo human limbal epithelial cell culture.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Anindita; Dutta, Jayanta; Das, Sumantra; Datta, Himadri

    2012-12-01

    Limbal cell transplantation is an efficacious procedure for rehabilitation of visual acuity in patients with severe ocular surface disorders. Cultivation of limbal epithelial stem cell with fetal bovine serum for transplantation has been a promising treatment for reconstructing the ocular surface in severe limbal stem cell deficiency caused by Steven Johnson syndrome, chemical or thermal injury. This technique of "cell therapy" has been accepted worldwide but the cost of cultivating the cells for transplantation is high. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of cord blood serum in place of fetal bovine serum on the growth of human limbal epithelial cell culture. Our group has experimented with human cord blood serum which was obtained free of cost from willing donors. The use of human cord blood serum in place of fetal bovine serum for ex vivo culture of limbal stem cell has helped us in reducing the cost of culture. Fresh human limbal tissues from donor cadavers were cultured on intact and denuded amniotic membrane. Cells were proliferated in vitro with cell culture media containing human cord blood serum. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and immunofluorescence cytochemistry of cultured human limbal epithelial stem cell was done for characterization of the cells.

  17. An Optimised Human Cell Culture Model for Alveolar Epithelial Transport.

    PubMed

    Ren, Hui; Birch, Nigel P; Suresh, Vinod

    2016-01-01

    Robust and reproducible in vitro models are required for investigating the pathways involved in fluid homeostasis in the human alveolar epithelium. We performed functional and phenotypic characterisation of ion transport in the human pulmonary epithelial cell lines NCI-H441 and A549 to determine their similarity to primary human alveolar type II cells. NCI-H441 cells exhibited high expression of junctional proteins ZO-1, and E-cadherin, seal-forming claudin-3, -4, -5 and Na+-K+-ATPase while A549 cells exhibited high expression of pore-forming claudin-2. Consistent with this phenotype NCI-H441, but not A549, cells formed a functional barrier with active ion transport characterised by higher electrical resistance (529 ± 178 Ω cm2 vs 28 ± 4 Ω cm2), lower paracellular permeability ((176 ± 42) ×10-8 cm/s vs (738 ± 190) ×10-8 cm/s) and higher transepithelial potential difference (11.9 ± 4 mV vs 0 mV). Phenotypic and functional properties of NCI-H441 cells were tuned by varying cell seeding density and supplement concentrations. The cells formed a polarised monolayer typical of in vivo epithelium at seeding densities of 100,000 cells per 12-well insert while higher densities resulted in multiple cell layers. Dexamethasone and insulin-transferrin-selenium supplements were required for the development of high levels of electrical resistance, potential difference and expression of claudin-3 and Na+-K+-ATPase. Treatment of NCI-H441 cells with inhibitors and agonists of sodium and chloride channels indicated sodium absorption through ENaC under baseline and forskolin-stimulated conditions. Chloride transport was not sensitive to inhibitors of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) under either condition. Channels inhibited by 5-nitro-1-(3-phenylpropylamino) benzoic acid (NPPB) contributed to chloride secretion following forskolin stimulation, but not at baseline. These data precisely define experimental conditions for the application of NCI

  18. An Optimised Human Cell Culture Model for Alveolar Epithelial Transport

    PubMed Central

    Birch, Nigel P.; Suresh, Vinod

    2016-01-01

    Robust and reproducible in vitro models are required for investigating the pathways involved in fluid homeostasis in the human alveolar epithelium. We performed functional and phenotypic characterisation of ion transport in the human pulmonary epithelial cell lines NCI-H441 and A549 to determine their similarity to primary human alveolar type II cells. NCI-H441 cells exhibited high expression of junctional proteins ZO-1, and E-cadherin, seal-forming claudin-3, -4, -5 and Na+-K+-ATPase while A549 cells exhibited high expression of pore-forming claudin-2. Consistent with this phenotype NCI-H441, but not A549, cells formed a functional barrier with active ion transport characterised by higher electrical resistance (529 ± 178 Ω cm2 vs 28 ± 4 Ω cm2), lower paracellular permeability ((176 ± 42) ×10−8 cm/s vs (738 ± 190) ×10−8 cm/s) and higher transepithelial potential difference (11.9 ± 4 mV vs 0 mV). Phenotypic and functional properties of NCI-H441 cells were tuned by varying cell seeding density and supplement concentrations. The cells formed a polarised monolayer typical of in vivo epithelium at seeding densities of 100,000 cells per 12-well insert while higher densities resulted in multiple cell layers. Dexamethasone and insulin-transferrin-selenium supplements were required for the development of high levels of electrical resistance, potential difference and expression of claudin-3 and Na+-K+-ATPase. Treatment of NCI-H441 cells with inhibitors and agonists of sodium and chloride channels indicated sodium absorption through ENaC under baseline and forskolin-stimulated conditions. Chloride transport was not sensitive to inhibitors of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) under either condition. Channels inhibited by 5-nitro-1-(3-phenylpropylamino) benzoic acid (NPPB) contributed to chloride secretion following forskolin stimulation, but not at baseline. These data precisely define experimental conditions for the application of NCI

  19. Response of a co-culture model of epithelial cells and gingival fibroblasts to zoledronic acid.

    PubMed

    Basso, Fernanda Gonçalves; Soares, Diana Gabriela; Pansani, Taisa Nogueira; Turrioni, Ana Paula Silveira; Scheffel, Débora Lopes; Hebling, Josimeri; Costa, Carlos Alberto de Souza

    2016-11-28

    Osteonecrosis of the jaw is an adverse effect of bisphosphonates. While the etiopathogenesis of this condition has been investigated, the interactions and effects of bisphosphonates on oral mucosa cells remain unclear. It is hypothesized that cell culture models, such as co-culture or three-dimensional cell culture models, can provide valuable insight. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of zoledronic acid (ZA) on epithelial cells and gingival fibroblasts in a co-culture model. Briefly, epithelial cells were seeded on transwell inserts and gingival fibroblasts were seeded in the lower well of 24-well plates. The latter were treated with ZA (5 μM) for 24 or 48 h. Cell viability and synthesis of the inflammatory chemokine, CCL2, were subsequently assessed. Data were subjected to statistical analysis with a 5% significance level. In the presence of ZA, the epithelial cells exhibited significant toxicity in both cell culture models and at both time points. However, greater cytotoxicity was observed in the co-culture model. Greater viability for the gingival fibroblasts was also associated with the co-culture model, and ZA-mediated toxicity was observed for the 48 h time point. ZA promoted a significant increase in CCL2 synthesis in both sets of cells, with greater CCL2 synthesis detected in the gingival fibroblasts. However, this effect was diminished in the co-culture model. Taken together, these results confirm the specific response patterns of the cells seeded in the co-culture model and also demonstrate the protective mechanism that is mediated by epithelial/mesenchymal cell interactions upon exposure to ZA.

  20. Neurons Self-Organize Around Salivary Epithelial Cells in Novel Co-Culture Model

    PubMed Central

    Sommakia, Salah; Baker, Olga J.

    2016-01-01

    Salivary gland bioengineering requires understanding the interaction between salivary epithelium and surrounding tissues. An important component of salivary glands is the presence of neurons. No previous studies have investigated how neurons and salivary epithelial cells interact in an in vitro co-culture model. In this study, we describe the self-organization of neurons around salivary epithelial cells in co-culture, in a similar fashion to what occurs in native tissue. We cultured primary mouse cortical neurons (m-CN) with a salivary epithelial cell line (Par-C10) on growth factor-reduced Matrigel (GFR-MG) for 4 days. After this time, co-cultures were compared with native salivary glands using confocal microscopy. Our findings indicate that m-CN were able to self-organize basolaterally to salivary epithelial cell clusters in a similar manner to what occurs in native tissue. These results indicate that this model can be developed as a potential platform for studying neuron-salivary epithelial cell interactions for bioengineering purposes. PMID:27833941

  1. Clonal analysis of morphological phenotype in cultured mammary epithelial cells from human milk.

    PubMed

    Stoker, M; Perryman, M; Eeles, R

    1982-05-22

    Three main types of colony forming epithelial cell, termed elongated, cuboidal and open, are found in cultures of human milk. Subculture of identified colonies, and cloning from single cells shows that each cell type can maintain its morphological phenotype, but in addition the cuboidal and open cell types can give rise to the elongated type. The results, which suggest a differentiation pathway starting with open cell types, are discussed in relation to differentiation studies on mammary cancer cells.

  2. Cytoskeleton remodelling of confluent epithelial cells cultured on porous substrates

    PubMed Central

    Rother, Jan; Büchsenschütz-Göbeler, Matthias; Nöding, Helen; Steltenkamp, Siegfried; Samwer, Konrad; Janshoff, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    The impact of substrate topography on the morphological and mechanical properties of confluent MDCK-II cells cultured on porous substrates was scrutinized by means of various imaging techniques as well as atomic force microscopy comprising force volume and microrheology measurements. Regardless of the pore size, ranging from 450 to 5500 nm in diameter, cells were able to span the pores. They did not crawl into the holes or grow around the pores. Generally, we found that cells cultured on non-porous surfaces are stiffer, i.e. cortical tension rises from 0.1 to 0.3 mN m−1, and less fluid than cells grown over pores. The mechanical data are corroborated by electron microscopy imaging showing more cytoskeletal filaments on flat samples in comparison to porous ones. By contrast, cellular compliance increases with pore size and cells display a more fluid-like behaviour on larger pores. Interestingly, cells on pores larger than 3500 nm produce thick actin bundles that bridge the pores and thereby strengthen the contact zone of the cells. PMID:25566882

  3. Epithelial cell volume regulation in hypotonic fluids: studies using a model tissue culture renal epithelial cell system.

    PubMed

    Simmons, N L

    1984-01-01

    The cultured renal epithelial cell line MDCK has been used in a study of cell volume regulation, emphasis being placed upon cell swelling in hypotonic media. MDCK cell volume was measured directly by electronic cell sizing using a Coulter counter in MDCK cell suspensions; this method gave comparable values for cell water when compared with those obtained using an intracellular space marker [14C]3-O-methyl glucose. MDCK cells behaved as perfect osmometers when suspended in hypertonic fluid (cell shrinkage). Cellular swelling in hypotonic media, in certain conditions, was found to be less than expected for an ideal osmometer. Non-ideal swelling was found to be the result of a substantial loss of intracellular K+ (Cl-) due to a specific increase in membrane K+ permeability. The membrane channel mediating the increased net K+ loss was separate, by pharmacological identity, from the Na+-K+ pump, the diuretic-sensitive co-transport system and a Gardos-type channel inhibited by quinine. A role for increased Ca2+ influx mediating the increased K+ permeability is suggested by results from hypotonic exposure in nominally Ca2+-free solutions.

  4. Cell and Molecular Biology of Ataxia Telangiectasia Heterozygous Human Mammary Epithelial Cells Irradiated in Culture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richmond, Robert C.

    2001-01-01

    Autologous isolates of cell types from obligate heterozygotes with the autosomal disorder ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T)were used to begin a tissue culture model for assessing pathways of radiation-induced cancer formation in this target tissue. This was done by establishing cultures of stromal fibroblasts and long-term growth human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) in standard 2-dimensional tissue culture in order to establish expression of markers detailing early steps of carcinogenesis. The presumptive breast cancer susceptibility of A-T heterozygotes as a sequel to damage caused by ionizing radiation provided reason to study expression of markers in irradiated HMEC. Findings from our study with HMEC have included determination of differences in specific protein expression amongst growth phase (e.g., log vs stationary) and growth progression (e.g., pass 7 vs pass 9), as well as differences in morphologic markers within populations of irradiated HMEC (e.g., development of multinucleated cells).

  5. Cell and Molecular Biology of Ataxia Telangiectasia Heterozygous Human Mammary Epithelial Cells Irradiated in Culture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richmond, Robert C.

    2001-01-01

    Autologous isolates of cell types from obligate heterozygotes with the autosomal disorder ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T)were used to begin a tissue culture model for assessing pathways of radiation-induced cancer formation in this target tissue. This was done by establishing cultures of stromal fibroblasts and long-term growth human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) in standard 2-dimensional tissue culture in order to establish expression of markers detailing early steps of carcinogenesis. The presumptive breast cancer susceptibility of A-T heterozygotes as a sequel to damage caused by ionizing radiation provided reason to study expression of markers in irradiated HMEC. Findings from our study with HMEC have included determination of differences in specific protein expression amongst growth phase (e.g., log vs stationary) and growth progression (e.g., pass 7 vs pass 9), as well as differences in morphologic markers within populations of irradiated HMEC (e.g., development of multinucleated cells).

  6. A differentiated porcine bronchial epithelial cell culture model for studying human adenovirus tropism and virulence.

    PubMed

    Lam, E; Ramke, M; Groos, S; Warnecke, G; Heim, A

    2011-12-01

    The species specificity of human adenoviruses (HAdV) almost precludes studying virulence and tropism in animal models, e.g. rodent models, or derived tissue and cell culture models. However, replication of HAdV type 5 (HAdV-C5) has been shown after intravenous injection in swine. In order to study adenovirus replication in airway tissue propagation of bronchial epithelial cells from porcine lungs was established. These primary cells proved to be fully permissive for HAdV-C5 infection in submerged culture, demonstrating efficient HAdV genome replication, infectious viral particle release (1.07×10(8) TCID(50)/ml±6.63×10(7)) and development of cytopathic effect (CPE). Differentiation of porcine bronchial epithelial cells was achieved at the air-liquid interface on collagen I coated 0.4μm polyester membranes. Morphology, expression of tubulin and occludin, the development of tight-junctions and cilia were similar to human bronchial epithelial cells. Infection with HAdV-C5 from the basolateral side resulted in release of infectious virus progeny (2.05×10(7) TCID(50)/ml±2.39×10(7)) to the apical surface as described recently in human bronchial epithelial cells, although complete CPE was not observed. Differentiated porcine bronchial epithelial cells hold promise as a novel method for studying the virulence and pathophysiology of pneumonia associated HAdV types.

  7. Estrogen inhibits cell cycle progression and retinoblastoma phosphorylation in rhesus ovarian surface epithelial cell culture

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, Jay W.; Stouffer, Richard L.; Rodland, Karin D.

    2003-10-31

    Estrogen promotes the growth of some ovarian cancer cells at nanomolar concentrations, but has been shown to inhibit growth of normal ovarian surface epithelial (OSE) cells at micromolar concentrations (1μg/ml). OSE cells express the estrogen receptor (ER)-α, and are the source of 90% of various cancers. The potential sensitivity of OSE cells to estrogen stresses the importance of understanding the estrogen-dependent mechanisms at play in OSE proliferation and transformation, as well as in anticancer treatment. We investigated the effects of estradiol on cell proliferation in vitro, and demonstrate an intracellular locus of action of estradiol in cultured rhesus ovarian surface epithelial (RhOSE) cells. We show that ovarian and breast cells are growth-inhibited by micromolar concentration of estradiol and that this inhibition correlates with estrogen receptor expression. We further show that normal rhesus OSE cells do not activate ERK or Akt in response to estradiol nor does estradiol block the ability of serum to stimulate ERK or induce cyclin D expression. Contrarily, estradiol inhibits serum-dependent retinoblastoma protein (Rb) phosphorylation and blocks DNA synthesis. This inhibition does not formally arrest cells and is reversible within hours of estrogen withdrawal. Our data are consistent with growth inhibition by activation of Rb and indicate that sensitivity to hormone therapy in anticancer treatment can be modulated by cell cycle regulators downstream of the estrogen receptor.

  8. IL-10 release by bovine epithelial cells cultured with Trichomonas vaginalis and Tritrichomonas foetus.

    PubMed

    Vilela, Ricardo Chaves; Benchimol, Marlene

    2013-02-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis and Tritrichomonas foetus are parasitic protists of the human and bovine urogenital tracts, respectively. Several studies have described the cytotoxic effects of trichomonads on urogenital tract epithelial cells. However, little is known about the host cell response against trichomonads. The aim of this study was to determine whether T. foetus and T. vaginalis stimulated the release of the cytokine interleukin (IL)-10 from cultured bovine epithelial cells. To characterise the inflammatory response induced by these parasites, primary cultures of bovine oviduct epithelial cells were exposed to either T. vaginalis or T. foetus. Within 12 h after parasite challenge, supernatants were collected and cytokine production was analysed. Large amounts of IL-10 were detected in the supernatants of cultures that had been stimulated with T. foetus. Interestingly, T. vaginalis induced only a small increase in the release of IL-10 upon exposure to the same bovine cells. Thus, the inflammatory response of the host cell is species-specific. Only T. foetus and not T. vaginalis induced the release of IL-10 by bovine oviduct epithelial cells.

  9. Bovine oviductal epithelial cells: long term culture characterization and impact of insulin on cell morphology.

    PubMed

    Palma-Vera, S; Einspanier, R; Schoen, J

    2014-09-01

    In vitro models that resemble cell function in vivo are needed to understand oviduct physiology. This study aimed to assess cell functions and insulin effects on bovine oviductal epithelial cells (BOECs) cultured in an air-liquid interface. BOECs (n=6) were grown in conditioned Ham's F12, DMEM or Ham's F12/DMEM with 10% fetal calf serum (FCS) for 3 weeks. After selecting the most suitable medium (Ham's F12), increasing insulin concentrations (1 ng/mL, 20 ng/mL and 5 μg/mL) were applied, and cell morphology and trans-epithelial electrical resistance (TEER; n=4) were evaluated after 3 and 6 weeks. Keratin immunohistochemistry and mRNA expression of oviductal glycoprotein 1 (OVGP1) and progesterone receptor (PGR) were conducted (n=4) to assess cell differentiation. BOECs grown without insulin supplementation or with 1 ng/mL of insulin displayed polarization and secretory activity. However, cells exhibited only 50% of the height of their in vivo counterparts. Cultures supplemented with 20 ng/mL insulin showed the highest quality, but the 5 μg/mL concentration induced massive growth. TEER correlated negatively with insulin concentration (r=-0.459; p=0.009). OVGP1 and PGR transcripts were still detectable after 3 and 6 weeks. Cellular localization of keratins closely resembled that of BOECs in vivo. Cultures showed heterogeneous expression of PGR and OVGP1 in response to estradiol (10 pg/mL). In summary, BOECs grown for long term in an air-liquid interface expressed markers of cell differentiation. Additionally, insulin supplementation (20 ng/mL) improved the cell morphology in vitro.

  10. Culturing and applications of rotating wall vessel bioreactor derived 3D epithelial cell models.

    PubMed

    Radtke, Andrea L; Herbst-Kralovetz, Melissa M

    2012-04-03

    Cells and tissues in the body experience environmental conditions that influence their architecture, intercellular communications, and overall functions. For in vitro cell culture models to accurately mimic the tissue of interest, the growth environment of the culture is a critical aspect to consider. Commonly used conventional cell culture systems propagate epithelial cells on flat two-dimensional (2-D) impermeable surfaces. Although much has been learned from conventional cell culture systems, many findings are not reproducible in human clinical trials or tissue explants, potentially as a result of the lack of a physiologically relevant microenvironment. Here, we describe a culture system that overcomes many of the culture condition boundaries of 2-D cell cultures, by using the innovative rotating wall vessel (RWV) bioreactor technology. We and others have shown that organotypic RWV-derived models can recapitulate structure, function, and authentic human responses to external stimuli similarly to human explant tissues (1-6). The RWV bioreactor is a suspension culture system that allows for the growth of epithelial cells under low physiological fluid shear conditions. The bioreactors come in two different formats, a high-aspect rotating vessel (HARV) or a slow-turning lateral vessel (STLV), in which they differ by their aeration source. Epithelial cells are added to the bioreactor of choice in combination with porous, collagen-coated microcarrier beads (Figure 1A). The cells utilize the beads as a growth scaffold during the constant free fall in the bioreactor (Figure 1B). The microenvironment provided by the bioreactor allows the cells to form three-dimensional (3-D) aggregates displaying in vivo-like characteristics often not observed under standard 2-D culture conditions (Figure 1D). These characteristics include tight junctions, mucus production, apical/basal orientation, in vivo protein localization, and additional epithelial cell-type specific properties

  11. Establishment of three-dimensional cultures of human pancreatic duct epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Gutierrez-Barrera, Angelica M.; Menter, David G.; Abbruzzese, James L.; Reddy, Shrikanth A.G. . E-mail: sa08366@wotan.mdacc.tmc.edu

    2007-07-06

    Three-dimensional (3D) cultures of epithelial cells offer singular advantages for studies of morphogenesis or the role of cancer genes in oncogenesis. In this study, as part of establishing a 3D culture system of pancreatic duct epithelial cells, we compared human pancreatic duct epithelial cells (HPDE-E6E7) with pancreatic cancer cell lines. Our results show, that in contrast to cancer cells, HPDE-E6E7 organized into spheroids with what appeared to be apical and basal membranes and a luminal space. Immunostaining experiments indicated that protein kinase Akt was phosphorylated (Ser473) and CTMP, a negative Akt regulator, was expressed in both HPDE-E6E7 and cancer cells. However, a nuclear pool of CTMP was detectable in HPDE-E6E7 cells that showed a dynamic concentrated expression pattern, a feature that further distinguished HPDE-E637 cells from cancer cells. Collectively, these data suggest that 3D cultures of HPDE-E6E7 cells are useful for investigating signaling and morphological abnormalities in pancreatic cancer cells.

  12. Kinetics of expansion of human limbal epithelial progenitor cells in primary culture of explants without feeders.

    PubMed

    Ghoubay-Benallaoua, Djida; Sandali, Otman; Goldschmidt, Pablo; Borderie, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    The aims of this study were to determine whether human limbal explant cultures without feeder cells result in expansion of epithelial progenitors and to estimate the optimal expansion time for progenitor cells. Limbal explants from ten human corneas were cultured for 7, 9, 11, 14, 18, and 21 days. Limbal explants from two corneas were enzymatically dissociated or directly cultured for 14 days. Progenitor cells were characterized by their ability to form colonies, by immunocytochemistry, and by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Colonies were identified after 9, 11, 14, and 18 days of culture, but not after 21 days. The number of colonies per explant was significantly higher after 14 days than after 9 and 21 days. The mean percentage of seeded cells giving rise to clones was 4.03% after 14 days of culture and 0.36% for non-cultured dissociated limbal epithelial cells. The number of cells giving rise to clones per cornea significantly increased from an average of 2275 for non-cultured cells to 24266 for cells cultured for 14 days. Immunocytochemical analysis detected positive staining for cytokeratin (CK) 3, CK5/6/8/10/13/18, CK19, vimentin, p63, and p63α, in both cultures and clones. CK3 expression increased significantly with culture time. Transcript expression was observed for CK3, CK19, vimentin, and Delta N p63α at each culture time point, both in cultures and clones. The optimal culture time for limbal explants in cholera toxin-free Green medium without feeder cells was 14 days leading to the expansion of progenitors.

  13. Establishment and characterization of a differentiated epithelial cell culture model derived from the porcine cervix uteri

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cervical uterine epithelial cells maintain a physiological and pathogen-free milieu in the female mammalian reproductive tract and are involved in sperm-epithelium interaction. Easily accessible, differentiated model systems of the cervical epithelium are not yet available to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms within these highly specialized cells. Therefore, the aim of the study was to establish a cell culture of the porcine cervical epithelium representing in vivo-like properties of the tissue. Results We tested different isolation methods and culture conditions and validated purity of the cultured cells by immunohistochemistry against keratins. We could reproducibly culture pure epithelial cells from cervical tissue explants. Based on a morphology score and the WST-1 Proliferation Assay, we optimized the growth medium composition. Primary porcine cervical cells performed best in conditioned Ham's F-12, containing 10% FCS, EGF and insulin. After cultivation in an air-liquid interface for three weeks, the cells showed a discontinuously multilayered phenotype. Finally, differentiation was validated via immunohistochemistry against beta catenin. Mucopolysaccharide production could be shown via alcian blue staining. Conclusions We provide the first suitable protocol to establish a differentiated porcine epithelial model of the cervix uteri, based on easily accessible cells using slaughterhouse material. PMID:22429795

  14. Long-term culture and partial characterization of dog gallbladder epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Oda, D.; Lee, S.P.; Hayashi, A. )

    1991-05-01

    We describe the successful isolation and maintenance of primary cultures of dog gallbladder epithelial cells. The surgically removed gallbladder was treated with trypsin/EDTA for 45 minutes and epithelial cells were collected and resuspended in Eagle's minimum essential medium with 10% fetal calf serum, and plated on Vitrogen-coated culture dishes. Each gallbladder yielded approximately 12 to 15 x 10{sup 6} columnar epithelial cells, greater than 95% of which were viable by trypan blue exclusion. In culture, cells maintained their polarity. They were arranged and grew in small and tight clusters that coalesced at confluency. When examined using transmission electron microscopy, prominent and numerous microville were identified on the apical portion of the plasma membrane. Cells were connected by well-formed desmosomes. Scanning electron microscopy revealed clusters of polyhedral cells with numerous papillary projections. Immunohistochemical studies demonstrated uniform staining of cells to keratin 35BH11 and AE1. Histochemical studies were positive for gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase and negative for glucose-6-phosphatase and albumin. Cells incorporated ({sup 3}H)uridine into intracellular proteins and ({sup 14}C)glucosamine into tissue and secreted mucous glycoproteins linearly over 2 to 24 hours. Flow cytometry studies demonstrated a consistent and reproducible number of cells (10 to 12%) at S-phase. However, the number of cells at S-phase was dramatically reduced to almost negligible as cells reached confluency. This method of culturing primary dog gallbladder epithelial cells is highly reproducible and reliable. These cells preserve their state of differentiation, polarity, histochemical and immunohistochemical profile, morphologic, and metabolic integrity with repeated passaging or after being frozen.

  15. Ultrasonic differentiation of normal versus malignant breast epithelial cells in monolayer cultures

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, Timothy E.; Goodrich, Jeffrey B.; Ambrose, Brady J.; Patel, Hemang; Kwon, Soonjo; Pearson, Lee H.

    2010-01-01

    Normal and malignant mammary epithelial cells were studied using laboratory measurements, wavelet analysis, and numerical simulations of monolayer cell cultures to determine whether microscopic breast cancer can be detected in vitro with high-frequency ultrasound. Pulse-echo waveforms were acquired by immersing a broadband, unfocused 50-MHz transducer in the growth media of cell culture well plates and collecting the first reflection from the well bottoms. The simulations included a multilayer pulse-reflection model and a model of two-dimensional arrays of spherical cells and nuclei. The results show that normal and malignant cells produce time-domain signals and spectral features that are significantly different. PMID:21110531

  16. Histochemical study of apoptotic epithelial cells depending on testosterone in primary cultured rat prostatic tissues.

    PubMed

    Furuya, T; Kubo, M; Ueno, A; Fujii, Y; Baba, T; Ohno, S

    2000-04-01

    To clarify whether apoptosis can be induced in cultured rat prostatic epithelial cells, they were investigated at various time points, depending on different concentrations of testosterone. Ventral lobes of rat prostates were cultured as small pieces of tissues up to 14 days. They were examined by anti-Fas antibody immunostaining and also compared to findings revealed by in situ end-labelling (ISEL) technique. To clarify apoptotic nuclei at high resolution, the quick-freezing and deep-etching (QF-DE) method was also used, as reported before. The localization and appearance of Fas-positive cells were detected more widely and earlier than those of ISEL-positive cells, but both label-positive localizations were closely related to each other. In addition, they were detected more often in epithelial cells cultured with low testosterone concentrations. By the QF-DE method, chromatin fibers were found to be broken in spotty parts of apoptotic nuclei. We could control the concentration of testosterone in culture medium and detect the appearance of Fas antigen in cultured prostatic epithelial cells, followed by apoptotic changes. So, Fas and Fas-ligand system is one candidate for apoptosis in the prostate glands, depending on removal of hormonal testosterone.

  17. Mammary epithelial cell transformation: insights from cell culture and mouse models.

    PubMed

    Dimri, Goberdhan; Band, Hamid; Band, Vimla

    2005-01-01

    Normal human mammary epithelial cells (HMECs) have a finite life span and do not undergo spontaneous immortalization in culture. Critical to oncogenic transformation is the ability of cells to overcome the senescence checkpoints that define their replicative life span and to multiply indefinitely -- a phenomenon referred to as immortalization. HMECs can be immortalized by exposing them to chemicals or radiation, or by causing them to overexpress certain cellular genes or viral oncogenes. However, the most efficient and reproducible model of HMEC immortalization remains expression of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) oncogenes E6 and E7. Cell culture models have defined the role of tumor suppressor proteins (pRb and p53), inhibitors of cyclin-dependent kinases (p16INK4a, p21, p27 and p57), p14ARF, telomerase, and small G proteins Rap, Rho and Ras in immortalization and transformation of HMECs. These cell culture models have also provided evidence that multiple epithelial cell subtypes with distinct patterns of susceptibility to oncogenesis exist in the normal mammary tissue. Coupled with information from distinct molecular portraits of primary breast cancers, these findings suggest that various subtypes of mammary cells may be precursors of different subtypes of breast cancers. Full oncogenic transformation of HMECs in culture requires the expression of multiple gene products, such as SV40 large T and small t, hTERT (catalytic subunit of human telomerase), Raf, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, and Ral-GEFs (Ral guanine nucleotide exchange factors). However, when implanted into nude mice these transformed cells typically produce poorly differentiated carcinomas and not adenocarcinomas. On the other hand, transgenic mouse models using ErbB2/neu, Ras, Myc, SV40 T or polyomavirus T develop adenocarcinomas, raising the possibility that the parental normal cell subtype may determine the pathological type of breast tumors. Availability of three-dimensional and mammosphere

  18. Enhanced growth medium and method for culturing human mammary epithelial cells

    DOEpatents

    Stampfer, Martha R.; Smith, Helene S.; Hackett, Adeline J.

    1983-01-01

    Methods are disclosed for isolating and culturing human mammary epithelial cells of both normal and malignant origin. Tissue samples are digested with a mixture including the enzymes collagenase and hyaluronidase to produce clumps of cells substantially free from stroma and other undesired cellular material. Growing the clumps of cells in mass culture in an enriched medium containing particular growth factors allows for active cell proliferation and subculture. Clonal culture having plating efficiencies of up to 40% or greater may be obtained using individual cells derived from the mass culture by plating the cells on appropriate substrates in the enriched media. The clonal growth of cells so obtained is suitable for a quantitative assessment of the cytotoxicity of particular treatment. An exemplary assay for assessing the cytotoxicity of the drug adriamycin is presented.

  19. Novel 3D co-culture model for epithelial-stromal cells interaction in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Fang, Xiaolan; Sittadjody, Sivanandane; Gyabaah, Kenneth; Opara, Emmanuel C; Balaji, Kethandapatti C

    2013-01-01

    Paracrine function is a major mechanism of cell-cell communication within tissue microenvironment in normal development and disease. In vitro cell culture models simulating tissue or tumor microenvironment are necessary tools to delineate epithelial-stromal interactions including paracrine function, yet an ideal three-dimensional (3D) tumor model specifically studying paracrine function is currently lacking. In order to fill this void we developed a novel 3D co-culture model in double-layered alginate hydrogel microspheres, incorporating prostate cancer epithelial and stromal cells in separate compartments of the microspheres. The cells remained confined and viable within their respective spheres for over 30 days. As a proof of principle regarding paracrine function of the model, we measured shedded component of E-cadherin (sE-cad) in the conditioned media, a major membrane bound cell adhesive molecule that is highly dysregulated in cancers including prostate cancer. In addition to demonstrating that sE-cad can be reliably quantified in the conditioned media, the time course experiments also demonstrated that the amount of sE-cad is influenced by epithelial-stromal interaction. In conclusion, the study establishes a novel 3D in vitro co-culture model that can be used to study cell-cell paracrine interaction.

  20. Ultrathin Alumina Membranes as Scaffold for Epithelial Cell Culture from the Intestine of Rainbow Trout.

    PubMed

    Drieschner, Carolin; Minghetti, Matteo; Wu, Songmei; Renaud, Philippe; Schirmer, Kristin

    2017-03-22

    Permeable membranes are indispensable for in vitro epithelial barrier models. However, currently available polymer-based membranes are low in porosity and relatively thick, resulting in a limited permeability and unrealistic culture conditions. In this study, we developed an ultrathin, nanoporous alumina membrane as novel cell culture interface for vertebrate cells, with focus on the rainbow trout (Onchorynchus mykiss) intestinal cell line RTgutGC. The new type of membrane is framed in a silicon chip for physical support and has a thickness of only 1 μm, with a porosity of 15% and homogeneous nanopores (Ø = 73 ± 21 nm). Permeability rates for small molecules, namely lucifer yellow, dextran 40, and bovine serum albumin, exceeded those of standard polyethylene terephthalate (PET) membranes by up to 27 fold. With the final goal to establish a representative model of the fish intestine for environmental toxicology, we engineered a simple culture setup, capable of testing the cellular response toward chemical exposure. Herein, cells were cultured in a monolayer on the alumina membranes and formed a polarized epithelium with apical expression of the tight junction protein ZO-1 within 14 days. Impedance spectroscopy, a noninvasive and real time electrical measurement, was used to determine cellular resistance during epithelial layer formation and chemical exposure to evaluate barrier functionality. Resistance values during epithelial development revealed different stages of epithelial maturity and were comparable with the in vivo situation. During chemical exposure, cellular resistance changed immediately when barrier tightness or cell viability was affected. Thus, our study demonstrates nanoporous alumina membranes as promising novel interface for alternative in vitro approaches, capable of allowing cell culture in a physiologically realistic manner and enabling high quality microscopy and sensitive measurement of cellular resistance.

  1. Epithelial ciliated beating cells essential for ex vivo ALI culture growth.

    PubMed

    Gras, Delphine; Petit, Aurélie; Charriot, Jérémy; Knabe, Lucie; Alagha, Khuder; Gamez, Anne Sophie; Garulli, Céline; Bourdin, Arnaud; Chanez, Pascal; Molinari, Nicolas; Vachier, Isabelle

    2017-05-03

    Bronchial epithelium plays a key role in orchestrating innate and adaptive immunity. The fate of ex vivo airway epithelial cultures growing at the air liquid interface (ALI) derived from human endobronchial biopsies or brushings is not easy to predict. Calibrating and differentiating these cells is a long and expensive process requiring rigorous expertise. Pinpointing factors associated with ALI culture success would help researchers gain further insight into epithelial progenitor behavior. A successful ALI culture was defined as one in which a pseudostratified epithelium has formed after 28 days in the presence of all differentiated epithelial cell types. A 4-year prospective bi-center study was conducted with adult subjects enrolled in different approved research protocols. 463 consecutive endobronchial biopsies were obtained from normal healthy volunteers, healthy smokers, asthmatic patients and smokers with COPD. All demographic variables, the different fiber optic centers and culture operators, numbers of endo-bronchial biopsies and the presence of ciliated cells were carefully recorded. Univariate and multivariate models were developed. A stepwise procedure was used to select the final logistic regression model. ALI culture success was independently associated with the presence of living ciliated cells within the initial biopsy (OR = 2.18 [1.50-3.16], p < 0.001). This finding highlights the properties of the cells derived from the epithelium dedifferentiation process. The preferential selection of samples with ciliated beating cells would probably save time and money. It is still unknown whether successful ALI culture is related to indicators of general cell viability or a purported stem cell state specifically associated with ciliated beating cells.

  2. Human Airway Primary Epithelial Cells Show Distinct Architectures on Membrane Supports Under Different Culture Conditions.

    PubMed

    Min, Kyoung Ah; Rosania, Gus R; Shin, Meong Cheol

    2016-06-01

    To facilitate drug development for lung delivery, it is highly demanding to establish appropriate airway epithelial cell models as transport barriers to evaluate pharmacokinetic profiles of drug molecules. Besides the cancer-derived cell lines, as the primary cell model, normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells have been used for drug screenings because of physiological relevance to in vivo. Therefore, to accurately interpret drug transport data in NHBE measured by different laboratories, it is important to know biophysical characteristics of NHBE grown on membranes in different culture conditions. In this study, NHBE was grown on the polyester membrane in a different medium and its transport barrier properties as well as cell architectures were fully characterized by functional assays and confocal imaging throughout the days of cultures. Moreover, NHBE cells on inserts in a different medium were subject to either of air-interfaced culture (AIC) or liquid-covered culture (LCC) condition. Cells in the AIC condition were cultivated on the membrane with medium in the basolateral side only, whereas cells with medium in apical and basolateral sides under the LCC condition. Quantitative microscopic imaging with biophysical examination revealed distinct multilayered architectures of differentiated NHBE cells, suggesting NHBE as functional cell barriers for the lung-targeting drug transport.

  3. Isolation and identification of epithelial-like cells in culture by a collagenase-separation technique.

    PubMed

    Kanoza, R J; Brunette, D M; Purdon, A D; Sodek, J

    1978-09-01

    An operational criterion for the identification and isolation of epithelial-like (E) cells, based on their ability to cover and protect a collagen gel from the action of collagenase, has been developed. The E cells isolated by this collagenase-separation technique (CST) exhibited the ultrastructural features, including desmosomes and abundant tonofilaments, that are considered characteristic of this cell type. Unlike confluent cultures of fibroblast-like (F) cells, E cells were not found to have large external transformation-sensitive (LETS) protein on their surface membranes. The CST provides a nondestructive and efficient means of identifying and isolating E cells from mixed populations.

  4. Stromal-epithelial interaction study: The effect of corneal epithelial cells on growth factor expression in stromal cells using organotypic culture model.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Takeshi; Shiraishi, Atsushi; Hara, Yuko; Kadota, Yuko; Yang, Lujun; Inoue, Tomoyuki; Shirakata, Yuji; Ohashi, Yuichi

    2015-06-01

    Interactions between stromal and epithelial cells play important roles in the development, homeostasis, and pathological conditions of the cornea. Soluble cytokines are critical factors in stromal-epithelial interactions, and growth factors secreted from corneal stromal cells contribute to the regulation of proliferation and differentiation of corneal epithelial cells (CECs). However, the manner in which the expression of growth factors is regulated in stromal cells has not been completely determined. To study stromal-epithelial cell interactions, we used an organotypic culture model. Human or rabbit CECs (HCECs or RCECs) were cultured on amniotic membranes placed on human corneal fibroblasts (HCFs) embedded in a collagen gel. The properties of the organotypic culture were examined by hematoxylin-eosin staining and immunofluorescence. In the organotypic culture, HCECs or RCECs were stratified into two-three layers after five days and five-seven layers after nine days. However, stratification was not observed when the HCECs were seeded on a collagen gel without fibroblasts. K3/K12 were expressed on day 9. The HCF-embedded collagen gels were collected on days 3, 5, or 9 after seeding the RCECs, and mRNA expression of growth factors FGF7, HGF, NGF, EGF, TGF-α, SCF, TGF-β1, TGF-β2, and TGF-β3 were quantified by real-time PCR. mRNA expression of the growth factors in HCFs cultured with RCECs were compared with those cultured without RCECs, as well as in monolayer cultures. mRNA expression of TGF-α was markedly increased in HCFs cultured with RCECs. However, mRNA expression of the TGF-β family was suppressed in HCFs cultured with RCECs. Principal component analysis revealed that mRNA expression of the growth factors in HCFs were generally similar when they were cultured with RCECs. In organotypic cultures, the morphological changes in the CECs and the expression patterns of the growth factors in the stromal cells clearly demonstrated stromal-epithelial cell

  5. MCP-1 expression by rat type II alveolar epithelial cells in primary culture.

    PubMed

    Paine, R; Rolfe, M W; Standiford, T J; Burdick, M D; Rollins, B J; Strieter, R M

    1993-05-15

    Recruitment and activation of mononuclear phagocytes are potentially critical regulatory events for control of pulmonary inflammation. Located at the boundary between the alveolar airspace and the interstitium, alveolar epithelial cells are ideally situated to regulate the recruitment and activation of mononuclear phagocytes through the production of cytokines in response to inflammatory stimulation from the alveolar space. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the production of monocyte chemotactic polypeptide-1 (MCP-1), a protein that is chemotactic for and that activates monocytes, by rat type II alveolar epithelial cells in primary culture. Immunocytochemical staining using anti-murine JE, an antibody recognizing rat MCP-1, demonstrated cell-associated MCP-1 Ag throughout the monolayer. The intensity of staining was increased in response to IL-1 beta. When type II epithelial cells formed a tight monolayer on a filter support, there was polar secretion of MCP-1 Ag into the apical compartment by both control and IL-1-stimulated cells as measured by specific MCP-1 ELISA. Northern blot analysis revealed that IL-1 and TNF-alpha stimulated MCP-1 mRNA expression in a dose-dependent manner, whereas dexamethasone blocked MCP-1 expression by cells stimulated with IL-1. In contrast to previous results using transformed epithelial cell lines, MCP-1 mRNA was induced in these primary cultures directly by stimulation with LPS. These data suggest that alveolar epithelial cells may have an important and previously unrecognized role in the initiation and maintenance of inflammatory processes in the lung by recruiting and activating circulating monocytes through the production of MCP-1.

  6. Establishment of primary bovine intestinal epithelial cell culture and clone method.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Kang; Lin, Miao; Liu, Ming-Mei; Sui, Yang-Nan; Zhao, Guo-Qi

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish bovine intestinal epithelial cell (BIEC) line and provide a novel clone cell method. Although various strategies of bovine cell culture and clone techniques have been reported, these methods remain not established. Here, we culture successfully primary BIECs and establish a novel clone cell method. Our result showed that BIECs could be successfully cultured and passaged about generation 5. These cellular aggregates and clusters were adherent loosely at day 2 of culture. Cell aggregates and clusters start to proliferate after approximately 4 d. The BIECs showed positive reaction against cytokeratin 18, E-cadherin, and characteristics of epithelial-like morphology. In addition, the fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs), villin, and intestinal peptidase (IP) band were positive in BIECs. Our results suggest that the establishment of culturing and clone BIEC methods will apply to isolate and clone other primary cells. These BIECs could therefore contribute to the study of bovine intestinal nutrient absorption and regulation, immune regulation, and the pathogenesis of the bovine intestinal disease, which will provide intestinal cell model in vitro.

  7. Methods for culturing retinal pigment epithelial cells: a review of current protocols and future recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Fronk, Aaron H; Vargis, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    The retinal pigment epithelium is an important part of the vertebrate eye, particularly in studying the causes and possible treatment of age-related macular degeneration. The retinal pigment epithelium is difficult to access in vivo due to its location at the back of the eye, making experimentation with age-related macular degeneration treatments problematic. An alternative to in vivo experimentation is cultivating the retinal pigment epithelium in vitro, a practice that has been going on since the 1970s, providing a wide range of retinal pigment epithelial culture protocols, each producing cells and tissue of varying degrees of similarity to natural retinal pigment epithelium. The purpose of this review is to provide researchers with a ready list of retinal pigment epithelial protocols, their effects on cultured tissue, and their specific possible applications. Protocols using human and animal retinal pigment epithelium cells, derived from tissue or cell lines, are discussed, and recommendations for future researchers included. PMID:27493715

  8. Autologous Transplantation of Oral Mucosal Epithelial Cell Sheets Cultured on an Amniotic Membrane Substrate for Intraoral Mucosal Defects

    PubMed Central

    Amemiya, Takeshi; Nakamura, Takahiro; Yamamoto, Toshiro; Kinoshita, Shigeru; Kanamura, Narisato

    2015-01-01

    The human amniotic membrane (AM) is a thin intrauterine placental membrane that is highly biocompatible and possesses anti-inflammatory and anti-scarring properties. Using AM, we developed a novel method for cultivating oral mucosal epithelial cell sheets. We investigated the autologous transplantation of oral mucosal epithelial cells cultured on AM in patients undergoing oral surgeries. We obtained specimens of AM from women undergoing cesarean sections. This study included five patients without any history of a medical disorder who underwent autologous cultured oral epithelial transplantation following oral surgical procedures. Using oral mucosal biopsy specimens obtained from these patients, we cultured oral epithelial cells on an AM carrier. We transplanted the resultant cell sheets onto the oral mucosal defects. Patients were followed-up for at least 12 months after transplantation. After 2–3 weeks of being cultured on AM, epithelial cells were well differentiated and had stratified into five to seven layers. Immunohistochemistry revealed that the cultured cells expressed highly specific mucosal epithelial cell markers and basement membrane proteins. After the surgical procedures, no infection, bleeding, rejection, or sheet detachment occurred at the reconstructed sites, at which new oral mucous membranes were evident. No recurrence was observed in the long-term follow-up, and the postoperative course was excellent. Our results suggest that AM-cultured oral mucosal epithelial cell sheets represent a useful biomaterial and feasible method for oral mucosal reconstruction. However, our primary clinical study only evaluated their effects on a limited number of small oral mucosal defects. PMID:25915046

  9. The biomedical aspects of oral mucosal epithelial cell culture in mammals.

    PubMed

    Bryja, A; Dyszkiewicz-Konwińska, M; Budna, J; Kranc, W; Chachuła, A; Borys, S; Ciesiółka, S; Sokalski, J; Prylinski, M; Bukowska, D; Antosik, P; Bruska, M; Nowicki, M; Zabel, M; Kempisty, B

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a growing interest in epithelial cell tissue culture, particularly oral mucosa and its application utilizing in vitro cell culture in medicine. This involves tests using animal models to better understand oral mucosa function, and the differences in its construction in various animal models. The use of buccal pouch mucosal cell culture provides insight into the processes of trans mucosal transport and regeneration of the oral epithelium. The processes associated with epithelium regeneration is the base for stem cell research and/or oral cancer investigation. These artificially cultured tissue equivalents are used in transplant surgery for the treatment of a variety of tissue dysfunctions, i.e. eye, esophagus, or urethra. In this review, the most recent results from studies carried out on in animal models, which may be applied in areas such as regenerative medicine and reconstructive surgery, were explored.

  10. Corneal regeneration by transplantation of corneal epithelial cell sheets fabricated with automated cell culture system in rabbit model.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Toyoshige; Kan, Kazutoshi; Nishida, Kohji; Yamato, Masayuki; Okano, Teruo

    2013-12-01

    We have performed clinical applications of cell sheet-based regenerative medicine with human patients in several fields. In order to achieve the mass production of transplantable cell sheets, we have developed automated cell culture systems. Here, we report an automated robotic system utilizing a cell culture vessel, cell cartridge. The cell cartridge had two rooms for epithelial cells and feeder layer cells separating by porous membrane on which a temperature-responsive polymer was covalently immobilized. After pouring cells into this robotic system, cell seeding, medium change, and microscopic examination during culture were automatically performed according to the computer program. Transplantable corneal epithelial cell sheets were successfully fabricated in cell cartridges with this robotic system. Then, fabricated cell sheets were transplanted onto ocular surfaces of rabbit limbal epithelial stem cell deficiency model after 6-h transportation using a portable homothermal container to keep inner temperature at 36 °C. Within one week after transplantation, normal corneal epithelium was successfully regenerated. This automatic cell culture system would be useful for industrialization of tissue-engineered products for regenerative medicine.

  11. Bovine mammary epithelial cells retain stem-like phenotype in long-term cultures.

    PubMed

    Cravero, Diego; Diego, Cravero; Martignani, Eugenio; Eugenio, Martignani; Miretti, Silvia; Silvia, Miretti; Macchi, Elisabetta; Elisabetta, Macchi; Accornero, Paolo; Paolo, Accornero; Baratta, Mario; Mario, Baratta

    2014-10-01

    The detection and characterization of bovine mammary stem cells may give a better understanding of the cyclic characteristic of mammary gland development. In turn, this could potentially offer techniques to manipulate lactation yield and for regenerative medicine. We previously demonstrated that adult stem cells reside in the bovine mammary gland and possess an intrinsic regenerative potential. In vitro maintenance and expansion of this primitive population is a challenging task that could make easier the study of adult mammary stem cells. The aim of this study is to investigate this possibility. Different subpopulations of mammary epithelial cells emerge when they are cultured in two defined culture conditions. Specific cell differentiation markers as cytokeratin 18 (CK18) and cytokeratin 14 (CK14) were expressed with significant differences according to culture conditions. Vimentin, a well-known fibroblast marker was observed to increase significantly (P < 0.5) only after day 20. In both conditions, after prolonged culture (25 days) a subset of cells still retained regenerative capabilities. These cells were able to form organized pseudo-alveoli when transplanted in immunodeficient mice as shown by the expression of cytokeratin 14 (CK14), cytokeratin 18 (CK18), p63 (a mammary basal cell layer marker) and Epithelial Cell Adhesion Molecule (EpCAM). We also were able to observe the presence of milk proteins signal in these regenerated structures, which is a specific marker of functional mammary alveoli. Progenitor content was also analyzed in vitro through Colony-Forming Cell (CFC) assays with no substantial differences among culture conditions and time points. These results demonstrate that long-term culture of a multipotent cell subpopulation with intrinsic regenerative potential is possible.

  12. Organotypic culture in three dimensions prevents radiation-induced transformation in human lung epithelial cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Ashmawy, Mariam; Coquelin, Melissa; Luitel, Krishna; Batten, Kimberly; Shay, Jerry W.

    2016-08-01

    The effects of radiation in two-dimensional (2D) cell culture conditions may not recapitulate tissue responses as modeled in three-dimensional (3D) organotypic culture. In this study, we determined if the frequency of radiation-induced transformation and cancer progression differed in 3D compared to 2D culture. Telomerase immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs) with shTP53 and mutant KRas expression were exposed to various types of radiation (gamma, +H, 56Fe) in either 2D or 3D culture. After irradiation, 3D structures were dissociated and passaged as a monolayer followed by measurement of transformation, cell growth and expression analysis. Cells irradiated in 3D produced significantly fewer and smaller colonies in soft agar than their 2D-irradiated counterparts (gamma P = 0.0004 +H P = 0.049 56Fe P < 0.0001). The cell culture conditions did not affect cell killing, the ability of cells to survive in a colony formation assay, and proliferation rates after radiation—implying there was no selection against cells in or dissociated from 3D conditions. However, DNA damage repair and apoptosis markers were increased in 2D cells compared to 3D cells after radiation. Ideally, expanding the utility of 3D culture will allow for a better understanding of the biological consequences of radiation exposure.

  13. Organotypic culture in three dimensions prevents radiation-induced transformation in human lung epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    El-Ashmawy, Mariam; Coquelin, Melissa; Luitel, Krishna; Batten, Kimberly; Shay, Jerry W.

    2016-01-01

    The effects of radiation in two-dimensional (2D) cell culture conditions may not recapitulate tissue responses as modeled in three-dimensional (3D) organotypic culture. In this study, we determined if the frequency of radiation-induced transformation and cancer progression differed in 3D compared to 2D culture. Telomerase immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs) with shTP53 and mutant KRas expression were exposed to various types of radiation (gamma, +H, 56Fe) in either 2D or 3D culture. After irradiation, 3D structures were dissociated and passaged as a monolayer followed by measurement of transformation, cell growth and expression analysis. Cells irradiated in 3D produced significantly fewer and smaller colonies in soft agar than their 2D-irradiated counterparts (gamma P = 0.0004; +H P = 0.049; 56Fe P < 0.0001). The cell culture conditions did not affect cell killing, the ability of cells to survive in a colony formation assay, and proliferation rates after radiation—implying there was no selection against cells in or dissociated from 3D conditions. However, DNA damage repair and apoptosis markers were increased in 2D cells compared to 3D cells after radiation. Ideally, expanding the utility of 3D culture will allow for a better understanding of the biological consequences of radiation exposure. PMID:27539227

  14. Three-dimensional culture system can induce expression of casein in immortalized bovine mammary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Kang; Lin, Miao; Liu, MingMei; Sui, YangNan; Babekir, Haitham Mohammed; Zhao, GuoQi

    2017-05-01

    Primary bovine mammary epithelial cells (BMECs) are not ideal models for long-term studies of lactation mechanisms because these cells in a monolayer culture system cannot be polarized to simulate the physiological functions in vitro. We investigate the effects of different culture models and karyotypes on casein expression in a three-dimensional (3D) culture system. The immortalized cells' karyotypes were analyzed at passages 10, 20, 30 and 40 to detect the effects of chromosome stability. Western blotting examined that whether or not the immortalized cells at passages 5, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 could induce expression of casein in a 3D culture system. The proper polarization of the acinar structures was monitored. BMECs were successfully immortalized. The cell karyotype at passage 30 remained at 60 chromosomes and the average value was 57.1 ± 0.40 after passage 40. The polarized protein's levels were up-regulated in 3D culture compared to 2D culture. Expression of αs1, β and κ-casein could be detectable in a passage range in 3D culture. Expression of αs2-casein was undetectable in all experimental groups. However, all casein expressions were barely detectable in traditional 2D culture system. Therefore, 3D culture system is an important tool for the long-term study of lactation mechanisms in vitro. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  15. Splitting culture medium by air-jet and rewetting for the assessment of the wettability of cultured epithelial cell surfaces.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Kondo, Makoto; Uchida, Ryohei; Kaneko, Makoto; Sugiyama, Hiroaki; Yamato, Masayuki; Okano, Teruo

    2013-12-01

    This study found that the phenomenon of rewetting after squeezing culture medium varied in different culture conditions for rat oral mucosal epithelial cells. When culture medium covering over cultured cells was squeezed by an air-jet application, the motion of squeezed culture medium was able to be observed by using a commercially available movie camera. Squeezed width on cells cultured in keratinocyte culture medium (KCM), which contained with fetal bovine serum, was one-sixth of that in FBS-free KCM. This result corresponded to the mucous layer staining statuses of cultured cells in both cases; positive in KCM and negative in FBS-free medium. Furthermore, the gene expression of mucous glycoprotein MUC4 in KCM was 100 times higher than that in FBS-free medium, and the expression of MUC4 protein only showed on the apical surface of cells cultured in KCM. The relative gene expression levels of MUC1, 13, 15, and 16 in both the normal and FBS-free medium were found to be no more than one-thirtieth of that of MUC4 in KCM. The main factor of the wettability difference between KCM and FBS-free medium was speculated to be the difference of MUC4 expression between both media. This method can be a simple technique for testing not only the surface wettability but also the mucous formation of cultured cells.

  16. Xenobiotic- and Serum-Free Culture of Oral Mucosal Epithelial Cells on Contact Lenses.

    PubMed

    Björkblom, Benny; Eidet, Jon R; Utheim, Tor P; Ulltveit-Moe, Harald F; Raeder, Sten

    2016-01-01

    Cultured autologous oral mucosal epithelial cells (OMECs) have proven useful in the treatment of ocular surface disorders. This study is the first to investigate the potential of expanding OMEC in a xenobiotic- and serum-free medium using therapeutic contact lenses (CLs) as a substrate and carrier. Porcine OMEC were seeded on laminin-coated lotrafilcon A therapeutic CLs with the density of 8 × 10(4) cells/lens and cultured in a defined serum and xenobiotic-free medium. Confocal immunofluorescence microscopy was used to analyze the following: (1) cellular morphology by using rhodamine-phalloidin staining of F-actin, (2) phenotype by applying antibodies against the progenitor cell marker p63 and the putative stem cell marker ABCG2 and (3) cell viability by using propidium iodide and Hoechst 33342 dual staining. Porcine OMEC attached well to the CLs, and cell-to-cell contacts were evident. After three days in culture, the OMEC displayed a confluent monolayer with uniform cobblestone morphology, whereas stratified cultures with 2-3 layers were formed after six days. No significant difference in expression of p63 was observed after three-day culture (79.4 ± 14.8%) compared with six-day culture (60.3 ± 18.9%). ABCG2 expression in the basal cell layer was 6.3 ± 1.0% and 4.8 ± 1.8% after three- and six-day culture, respectively. The basal layer viability of cultured OMECs was 99.3 ± 0.2% and 82.8 ± 1.1% after three and six days culture, respectively. The use of therapeutic CLs has potential as a substrate and carrier for OMEC cultured in a xenobiotic- and serum-free culture system.

  17. Effects of steroids on the secretion of immunoregulatory factors by thymic epithelial cell cultures.

    PubMed Central

    Stimson, W H; Crilly, P J

    1981-01-01

    Rat thymic epithelial cells were cultured for 39 days in the presence of various concentrations of oestradiol, testosterone, progesterone and corticosterone and the supernatants assessed for effects on the stimulation of cells from the thymus, bone marrow, lymph nodes and spleen, with several agents. All the steroids, except progesterone, were found to significantly regulate the secretion of immunoregulatory factors by the epithelial cells at physiological levels but the effects were dose dependent. Fractionation of active supernatants indicated that the capacity to enhance or depress cellular proliferation was mainly associated with substances having molecular weights greater than 30,000 or less than 1000, respectively. This study supports the idea that certain steroids can influence the immune response indirectly through the thymus. PMID:7298074

  18. Cell Lineage Identification and Stem Cell Culture in a Porcine Model for the Study of Intestinal Epithelial Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Liara M.; Williamson, Ian; Piedrahita, Jorge A.; Blikslager, Anthony T.; Magness, Scott T.

    2013-01-01

    Significant advances in intestinal stem cell biology have been made in murine models; however, anatomical and physiological differences between mice and humans limit mice as a translational model for stem cell based research. The pig has been an effective translational model, and represents a candidate species to study intestinal epithelial stem cell (IESC) driven regeneration. The lack of validated reagents and epithelial culture methods is an obstacle to investigating IESC driven regeneration in a pig model. In this study, antibodies against Epithelial Adhesion Molecule 1 (EpCAM) and Villin marked cells of epithelial origin. Antibodies against Proliferative Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA), Minichromosome Maintenance Complex 2 (MCM2), Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) and phosphorylated Histone H3 (pH3) distinguished proliferating cells at various stages of the cell cycle. SOX9, localized to the stem/progenitor cells zone, while HOPX was restricted to the +4/‘reserve’ stem cell zone. Immunostaining also identified major differentiated lineages. Goblet cells were identified by Mucin 2 (MUC2); enteroendocrine cells by Chromogranin A (CGA), Gastrin and Somatostatin; and absorptive enterocytes by carbonic anhydrase II (CAII) and sucrase isomaltase (SIM). Transmission electron microscopy demonstrated morphologic and sub-cellular characteristics of stem cell and differentiated intestinal epithelial cell types. Quantitative PCR gene expression analysis enabled identification of stem/progenitor cells, post mitotic cell lineages, and important growth and differentiation pathways. Additionally, a method for long-term culture of porcine crypts was developed. Biomarker characterization and development of IESC culture in the porcine model represents a foundation for translational studies of IESC-driven regeneration of the intestinal epithelium in physiology and disease. PMID:23840480

  19. Keratanase-sensitive cell surface glycans are synthesized by cultured tracheal epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Forsberg, L.S.; Varsano, S.; Borson, D.B.; Basbaum, C.B.; Nadel, J.A.

    1986-05-01

    Canine tracheal epithelial cells grown in monolayer culture appear undifferentiated and are uniformly devoid of secretory granules. Cells at confluency were radiolabeled with (/sup 35/S)SO/sub 4/ and washed extensively with fresh unlabeled medium (2 h). Brief trypsin treatment of the cells caused release of /sup 35/S-labeled products which were harvested by immediate transfer at 4/sup 0/C into isolation buffer containing protease inhibitors and 0.4 mM saccharo-1,4-lactone and 2-acetamido-galactonolactone to minimize endogenous protease and glycosidase activities. Gel filtration on Sepharose C14B in associating conditions yielded two /sup 35/S fractions, one with apparent MWgreater than or equal to10/sup 6/ da and another at 3x10/sup 5/ da (Kavg=0.39). ..beta..-elimination in 0.05 M NaOH/1.0 M NaBH/sub 4/ yielded /sup 35/S products of greatly reduced MW (10,000 da) which were excluded from Bio-Gel P-10, characteristics of glycosaminoglycan chains. This sulfated fraction was resistant to chondroitinase ABC, heparinase and heparan sulfate lyase. However, it was completely degraded to oligosaccharides (2000 to greater than or equal to500 da) by endo-..beta..-galactosidase or keratanase. This suggests that sulfate is carried on glycosaminoglycan chains which have a polylactosamine repeating unit typical of keratans and which are attached to protein moiety through alkali-labile linkage. Immunofluorescence studies using a monoclonal antibody directed to a lactosamine sequence show intense localized staining of the tracheal epithelial surface.

  20. A protocol for the culture and differentiation of highly polarized human retinal pigment epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Sonoda, Shozo; Spee, Christine; Barron, Ernesto; Ryan, Stephen J; Kannan, Ram; Hinton, David R

    2009-01-01

    We provide our detailed, standardized in vitro protocol for culture and differentiation of human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells into a highly polarized, functional monolayer. Disruption of polarized RPE function plays an important role in the pathogenesis of common blinding disorders of the retina. The availability of this polarized RPE monolayer allows for reproducible evaluation of RPE function, modeling of RPE dysfunction in retinal disease, and in vitro evaluation of novel therapies. The protocol, which takes approximately 6 weeks, describes the culture of RPE from human fetal donor eyes, and the differentiation of these cells into a polarized monolayer with high transepithelial resistance, and morphologic characteristics that mimic the RPE monolayer in vivo. By modifying the procedure for initial isolation of pure RPE cells, and culture conditions used in existing protocols, we have established a standardized protocol that provides highly reproducible RPE monolayers from the same donor eye. PMID:19373231

  1. Lens and cataract: clastogenic responses in epithelial cells of the organ-cultured rat lens

    SciTech Connect

    Geard, C.R.; Worgul, B.V.

    1987-01-01

    The epithelial cells of the vertebrate lens have an unique character and a probable involvement in cataract formation, which could be initiated by exogenous stimuli. Individual rat lenses were organ-cultured, and the effects of mitomycin C and gamma rays on sister chromatid exchanges (SCE), chromosomal aberrations, and cellular kinetics assessed in cells from the epithelial monolayer. SCE showed about a 5.5-fold increase over the mitomycin C dose range (0, 17, 83, 170 nM), while chromosomal aberrations increased 38-fold. In cells from untreated lenses, SCE were 1600 times more frequent than aberrations and at a level consistent with in vivo assessments in other cell types. Gamma rays (up to 4 Gy) had a greater inhibiting effect on cellular progression, while 17 nM mitomycin C and 1 Gy induced similar clastogenic responses. This first demonstration of such changes in lens epithelial cells expands on the cell types available for monitoring potential mutagen-carcinogens. Additionally chromosomal changes resulting from lens cellular challenge could be the basis of later cytopathological changes in the lens, of which cataract is the primary concern to humans. Potential cataractogens warrant monitoring, and the study outlined may aid in this endeavor, as well as contributing to an understanding of cataract etiology.

  2. Morphogenetic Effects of Neuregulin (Neu Differentiation Factor) in Cultured Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chausovsky, Alexander; Tsarfaty, Ilan; Kam, Zvi; Yarden, Yosef; Geiger, Benjamin; Bershadsky, Alexander D.

    1998-01-01

    Neuregulin, or neu differentiation factor, induces cell proliferation or differentiation through interaction with members of the ErbB family of receptor tyrosine kinases. We report that neuregulin can also induce profound morphogenic responses in cultured epithelial cells of different origins. These effects include scattering of small epithelial islands and rearrangement of larger cell islands into ordered ring-shaped arrays with internal lumens. The ring-forming cells are interconnected by cadherin- and β-catenin-containing adherens junctions. In confluent cultures, neuregulin treatment induces formation of circular lumenlike gaps in the monolayer. Both cell scattering and ring formation are accompanied by a marked increase in cell motility that is independent of hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor and its receptor (c-Met). Affinity-labeling experiments implied that a combination of ErbB-2 with ErbB-3 mediates the morphogenic signal of neuregulin in gastric cells. Indeed, a similar morphogenic effect could be reconstituted in nonresponsive cells by coexpression of ErbB-2 and -3. We conclude that a heterodimer between the kinase-defective neuregulin receptor, ErbB-3, and the coreceptor, ErbB-2, mediates the morphogenetic action of neuregulin. PMID:9802906

  3. Factors affecting morphogenesis of rabbit gallbladder epithelial cells cultured in collagen gels.

    PubMed

    Mori, M; Miyazaki, K

    2000-05-01

    Although peptide growth factors play an important role in the morphogenesis of gallbladder, little is known about how they effect the morphogenesis of gallbladder epithelial cells. Rabbit gallbladder epithelial cells (RGEC) were isolated and cultured in monolayer or collagen gels. Epidermal growth factor (EGF), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), epimorphin, transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta 1), and fibroblast-conditioned medium (FCM) were added to the cultured cells to clarify the effects of these peptides and FCM on morphogenesis of RGEC. RGEC suspended in collagen gels form spherical cysts with morphologic polarity. EGF, HGF, epimorphin, and FCM promoted cyst maturation by accelerating the proliferation and aggregation of clear, polarized vesicles. In contrast, TGF-beta 1 markedly inhibited DNA synthesis in both monolayer and collagen gel cultures and promoted formation of branching structures in collagen gels. Furthermore, in the presence of EGF, TGF-beta 1 induced a drastic change in morphogenesis, with the formation of branching networks that showed cell-cell contact only at sites where branches touched. RGEC-forming multicellular cysts did not express vimentin but expressed significant amounts of cytokeratin and regained junctional complexes. In contrast, TGF-beta 1-treated cells strongly expressed vimentin along with branching structures and showed decreases in cytokeratin expression and junctional complexes. Thus, TGF-beta 1 induces a mesenchyme-like cell shape accompanied by cytoskeletal molecular changes, with loss of both epithelial polarization and junctional complexes. These results suggest that the morphogenetic program of RGEC is likely to be determined by the interaction of these peptides and the timing of their presence.

  4. In vitro optimization of the Gallus domesticus oviduct epithelial cells culture.

    PubMed

    Kasperczyk, K; Bajek, A; Joachimiak, R; Walasik, K; Marszalek, A; Drewa, T; Bednarczyk, M

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this experiment was to establish an efficient method for isolation and further culture in vitro of the normal chicken oviduct epithelial cells (COEC) for cell-based research models. Different factors were tested to optimize COEC primary culture for repeatable results: the origin of isolated cells (oviduct Infundibulum or Magnum section); the oviduct tissue dissociation procedure (mechanical scrapping or mincing), tissue digestion times (15, 30 and 45 min), the culture plates coating (colagene I, polystyrene surface or 3T3 feeder layer), the growth media (classic DMEM/Ham's F12 and defined serum-free medium, Lonza Switzerland), incubation temperature (37 °C vs 41°C) and different cell seeding numbers: 0.2M, 0.5M and 1.0M cells/well. The COEC isolated by mincing the Infundibular neck and digestion of tissue for 30 min formed cell aggregates of bright colour and gave proliferating colonies of epithelial-like character which was the best result obtained from all applied procedures in our studies. The fibroblast-like cells considered as contaminants occurred only sporadically up to day 7 of culture. Seeding about 1M cells in 1 mL of serum-free medium onto 12-well dishes gave the optimal growth of colonies resulting in 5 to 7 confluent culture wells from a single oviduct sample. Feeder layer and collagen I did not improve adhesion of the COEC to the culture vessel. Adoption of 37 °C and 41 °C did not reveal apparent differences to the condition of cultured COEC. Cell differentiation and proliferation potential depends on number and replicative capacity of isolated progenitors. The progenitors are responsible for holoclones formation and good culture growth. The percentage of colonies developed from the cells isolated from Infundibulum was greater than that of other samples in our studies. We conclude that the model of COEC primary cultures from different segments of oviduct, in particular infundibulum, should be incorporated to the range of avian cells

  5. Differential effects of vitamin D on normal human prostate epithelial and stromal cells in primary culture.

    PubMed

    Krill, D; Stoner, J; Konety, B R; Becich, M J; Getzenberg, R H

    1999-07-01

    Because epidemiologic evidence has demonstrated that vitamin D may play a role in the etiology of prostate cancer, we tested the inhibitory effect of the biologically active form of vitamin D (1,25-D) on the cell proliferation of human prostate epithelial and stromal cells in a chemically defined situation in the presence and absence of dihydrotestosterone (DHT). We also tested the effect of 1,25-D in castrated rats in the presence and absence of flutamide, an androgen receptor blocker. Prostate stromal and epithelial cells were isolated from freshly collected human prostatectomy specimens, and cell proliferation was measured with the MTT assay. Immunohistochemistry was performed to detect the presence of 1,25-D receptors, androgen receptors, smooth muscle actin, and E-cadherin. For in vivo analysis of 1,25-D, male Sprague-Dawley rats were castrated, then treated with either 1,25-D, 1,25-D with flutamide, or vehicle control. Incubation of primary cultures of prostate epithelial cells with 1,25-D at a concentration of 10(-8) M reduced cell proliferation by 40% of controls. The inhibition of growth by 1,25-D was maintained in the presence of DHT. Conversely, the effect of a similar dose of 1,25-D on stromal cell exposure was increased proliferation. In vivo, 1,25-D increased the prostatic weight of castrated rats that had serum testosterone levels below the detectable limit. The addition of flutamide did not alter this effect. These results confirm that vitamin D may be an effective antiproliferative agent of epithelial cells in prostate cancer therapy and support in vivo studies performed in the normal rat prostate.

  6. Oxysterols from human bile induce apoptosis of canine gallbladder epithelial cells in monolayer culture.

    PubMed

    Seo, Dong Wan; Choi, Ho-Soon; Lee, Sum P; Kuver, Rahul

    2004-12-01

    Oxysterols have been detected in various mammalian organs and blood. Biliary epithelium is exposed to high concentrations of cholesterol, and we have identified three keto-oxysterols (cholest-4-en-3-one, cholesta-4,6-dien-3-one, cholesta-3,5-dien-7-one) in human bile and gallstones. Because the effects of oxysterols on biliary physiology are not well defined, we investigated their biological effects on dog gallbladder epithelial cells. Enriched medium (culture medium containing taurocholate and lecithin and cholesterol +/- various oxysterols) was applied to confluent monolayers of dog gallbladder epithelial cells in culture. Cytotoxicity and apoptosis were studied by morphological analysis and flow cytometry. Oxysterols in the mitochondrial fraction were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, whereas release of cytochrome c from mitochondria was assayed by spectrophotometry and Western blot analysis. Compared with cells treated with culture medium or with enriched medium containing cholesterol, oxysterol-treated cells showed significantly increased apoptosis (P < 0.05). Exogenously applied oxysterols were recovered from the mitochondrial fraction. Cytochrome c release from mitochondria was increased significantly by cholest-4-en-3-one, cholesta-4,6-dien-3-one, and 5beta-cholestan-3-one (all P < 0.05). Thus oxysterols recovered from human bile and gallstones induce apoptosis of biliary epithelium via a mitochondrial-dependent pathway and may play a role in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammation and carcinogenesis in the gallbladder.

  7. Identification of regulatory factors for mesenchymal stem cell-derived salivary epithelial cells in a co-culture system.

    PubMed

    Park, Yun-Jong; Koh, Jin; Gauna, Adrienne E; Chen, Sixue; Cha, Seunghee

    2014-01-01

    Patients with Sjögren's syndrome or head and neck cancer patients who have undergone radiation therapy suffer from severe dry mouth (xerostomia) due to salivary exocrine cell death. Regeneration of the salivary glands requires a better understanding of regulatory mechanisms by which stem cells differentiate into exocrine cells. In our study, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells were co-cultured with primary salivary epithelial cells from C57BL/6 mice. Co-cultured bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells clearly resembled salivary epithelial cells, as confirmed by strong expression of salivary gland epithelial cell-specific markers, such as alpha-amylase, muscarinic type 3 receptor, aquaporin-5, and cytokeratin 19. To identify regulatory factors involved in this differentiation, transdifferentiated mesenchymal stem cells were analyzed temporarily by two-dimensional-gel-electrophoresis, which detected 58 protein spots (>1.5 fold change, p<0.05) that were further categorized into 12 temporal expression patterns. Of those proteins only induced in differentiated mesenchymal stem cells, ankryin-repeat-domain-containing-protein 56, high-mobility-group-protein 20B, and transcription factor E2a were selected as putative regulatory factors for mesenchymal stem cell transdifferentiation based on putative roles in salivary gland development. Induction of these molecules was confirmed by RT-PCR and western blotting on separate sets of co-cultured mesenchymal stem cells. In conclusion, our study is the first to identify differentially expressed proteins that are implicated in mesenchymal stem cell differentiation into salivary gland epithelial cells. Further investigation to elucidate regulatory roles of these three transcription factors in mesenchymal stem cell reprogramming will provide a critical foundation for a novel cell-based regenerative therapy for patients with xerostomia.

  8. Identification of Regulatory Factors for Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Derived Salivary Epithelial Cells in a Co-Culture System

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yun-Jong; Koh, Jin; Gauna, Adrienne E.; Chen, Sixue; Cha, Seunghee

    2014-01-01

    Patients with Sjögren’s syndrome or head and neck cancer patients who have undergone radiation therapy suffer from severe dry mouth (xerostomia) due to salivary exocrine cell death. Regeneration of the salivary glands requires a better understanding of regulatory mechanisms by which stem cells differentiate into exocrine cells. In our study, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells were co-cultured with primary salivary epithelial cells from C57BL/6 mice. Co-cultured bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells clearly resembled salivary epithelial cells, as confirmed by strong expression of salivary gland epithelial cell-specific markers, such as alpha-amylase, muscarinic type 3 receptor, aquaporin-5, and cytokeratin 19. To identify regulatory factors involved in this differentiation, transdifferentiated mesenchymal stem cells were analyzed temporarily by two-dimensional-gel-electrophoresis, which detected 58 protein spots (>1.5 fold change, p<0.05) that were further categorized into 12 temporal expression patterns. Of those proteins only induced in differentiated mesenchymal stem cells, ankryin-repeat-domain-containing-protein 56, high-mobility-group-protein 20B, and transcription factor E2a were selected as putative regulatory factors for mesenchymal stem cell transdifferentiation based on putative roles in salivary gland development. Induction of these molecules was confirmed by RT-PCR and western blotting on separate sets of co-cultured mesenchymal stem cells. In conclusion, our study is the first to identify differentially expressed proteins that are implicated in mesenchymal stem cell differentiation into salivary gland epithelial cells. Further investigation to elucidate regulatory roles of these three transcription factors in mesenchymal stem cell reprogramming will provide a critical foundation for a novel cell-based regenerative therapy for patients with xerostomia. PMID:25402494

  9. Expression of fibronectin and integrins in cultured periodontal ligament epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Uitto, V J; Larjava, H; Peltonen, J; Brunette, D M

    1992-05-01

    The process of attachment of epithelial cells obtained from the porcine periodontal ligament (cell rests of Malassez) to different extracellular matrix proteins and their expression of fibronectin and integrin receptors were studied by means of immunocytochemistry, in situ hybridization, and time-lapse cinemicrography techniques. The cell lines of periodontal ligament epithelial cells (PLE cells) attached to and spread rapidly on fibronectin, vitronectin, and type I collagen. One of the cell lines also attached to laminin, while the other cell line showed poor attachment to both laminin and Matrigel, a basement membrane material. By use of the in situ hybridization technique, some PLE cells were found to express the fibronectin gene strongly. Immunocytochemical staining localized fibronectin in extracellular fibrils and intracellular granules. Fibronectin was also found in the tracks left behind by the cells migrating on the substratum. Arg-gly-asp-ser peptide inhibited the attachment of the PLE cells to fibronectin, laminin, type I collagen, and vitronectin by 47%, 43%, 83%, and 94%, respectively, suggesting that the cell-matrix interactions were partly mediated by receptors related to the integrin family. Antibodies against the beta 1-integrin subunit stained the cell bodies and the plasma membrane projections of spreading cells. After 24 h or longer in culture, beta 1-integrins were localized to the regions of cell-cell contact. Cinemicrography of the arg-gly-asp-ser-peptide-treated cells demonstrated that the spreading and migration of isolated cells were prevented by the peptide. The peptide did not appear to dissociate the cell-cell contacts or interfere with migration of spread-cell colonies.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. The global effect of heat on gene expression in cultured bovine mammary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Lian; Sun, Yu; Wu, Jie; Li, Xiaojuan; Luo, Man; Wang, Genlin

    2015-03-01

    Heat stress (HS) in hot climates is a major cause that strongly negatively affects milk yield in dairy cattle, leading to immeasurable economic loss. The heat stress response of bovine mammary epithelial cells (BMECs) is one component of the acute systemic response to HS. Gene networks of BMECs respond to environmental heat loads with both intra- and extracellular signals that coordinate cellular and whole-animal metabolism. Our experimental objective was to characterize the direct effects of heat stress on the cultured bovine mammary epithelial cells by microarray analyses. The data identified 2716 differentially expressed genes in 43,000 transcripts which were changed significantly between heat-stressed and normal bovine mammary epithelial cells (fold change ≥2, P ≤ 0.001). Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis showed that these differentially expressed genes are involved in different pathways that regulate cytoskeleton, cell cycle, and stress response processes. Our study provides an overview of gene expression profile and the interaction between gene expression and heat stress, which will lead to further understanding of the potential effects of heat stress on bovine mammary glands.

  11. Azithromycin: assessment of intrinsic cytotoxic effects on corneal epithelial cell cultures

    PubMed Central

    Mencucci, Rita; Pellegrini-Giampietro, Domenico E; Paladini, Iacopo; Favuzza, Eleonora; Menchini, Ugo; Scartabelli, Tania

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To compare the cytotoxic effects of preservative-free azithromycin on corneal epithelial cells in vivo with those of preservative-free netilmicin and levofloxacin, and the preservative benzalkonium chloride (BAK). Methods Rabbit corneal epithelial cells in vitro were incubated for 15 minutes or 6 hours with commercially available ophthalmic preservative-free netilmicin 0.3%, levofloxacin 0.3%, or azithromycin 1.5% preparations or different concentrations of unpreserved azithromycin and different concentrations of BAK. Qualitative analysis was undertaken using phase-contrast optics to examine the morphological aspects of cell cultures and quantitative analysis was undertaken by measuring the release of the cytoplasmic enzyme lactate dehydrogenase into the medium immediately and 24 hours after exposure to drugs. Finally, we observed the wound-healing rate of mechanically injured corneal epithelial cells exposed to each antibiotic ophthalmic preparation for 48 hours. Results Our results show that both the commercially available unpreserved mono-dose preparation of azithromycin and ophthalmic preparations of azithromycin up to a concentration of 1.5% were virtually devoid of harmful effects under our experimental conditions. This was not significantly different from the results obtained for the other antibiotic preparations (P > 0.05) tested, but was unlike the results obtained for BAK. Azithromycin 1.5% also showed good recovery properties after a mechanical wound test. Conclusion Under our experimental conditions, unpreserved azithromycin 1.5% showed a much lower toxicity than BAK and did not interfere with the wound-healing process. PMID:23737659

  12. Contact with cultured epithelial cells stimulates secretion of Salmonella typhimurium invasion protein InvJ.

    PubMed Central

    Zierler, M K; Galán, J E

    1995-01-01

    Contact of Salmonella typhimurium with cultured epithelial cells results in the assembly of surface appendages termed invasomes which are presumably required for the internalization of these organisms into host cells. The assembly of these structures requires the function of a dedicated protein secretion system encoded in the inv locus. We show in this report that contact of wild-type S. typhimurium with cultured Henle-407 cells stimulated the secretion of InvJ, a recently identified target of the inv-encoded type III protein secretion system. Stimulation of InvJ secretion also occurred upon bacterial contact with bovine calf serum-coated culture dishes but did not occur upon S. typhimurium contact with glutaraldehyde-fixed Henle-407 cells. The stimulation of InvJ secretion did not require de novo protein synthesis. Invasion-defective invC and invG mutants of S. typhimurium failed to secrete InvJ upon contact with live Henle-407 cells. In contrast, contact-dependent secretion of InvJ in S. typhimurium invE mutants occurred at levels equivalent to those of the wild type. These results indicate that the presence of Henle-407 cells and/or serum is capable of activating the type III secretion system encoded in the inv locus, further supporting the notion that Salmonella entry into cultured cells is the result of a biochemical cross-talk between the bacteria and the host cells. PMID:7558314

  13. Effects of epidermal growth factor on the proliferation and cell cycle regulation of cultured human amnion epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Fatimah, Simat Siti; Tan, Geok Chin; Chua, Kien Hui; Tan, Ay Eeng; Hayati, Abdul Rahman

    2012-08-01

    Human amnion epithelial cells (HAECs) hold great promise in tissue engineering for regenerative medicine. Large numbers of HAECs are required for this purpose. Hence, exogenous growth factor is added to the culture medium to improve epithelial cells proliferation. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of epidermal growth factor (EGF) on the proliferation and cell cycle regulation of cultured HAECs. HAECs at P1 were cultured for 7 days in medium containing an equal volume mix of HAM's F12: Dulbecco's Modified Eagles Medium (1:1) supplemented with different concentrations of EGF (0, 5, 10, 20, 30 and 50 ng/ml EGF) in reduced serum. Morphology, growth kinetics and cell cycle analysis using flow cytometry were assessed. Quantitative gene expression for cell cycle control genes, pluripotent transcription factors, epithelial genes and neuronal genes were also determined. EGF enhanced HAECs proliferation with optimal concentration at 10 ng/ml EGF. EGF significantly increased the proportion of HAECs at S- and G2/M-phase of the cell cycle compared to the control. At the end of culture, HAECs remained as diploid cells under cell cycle analysis. EGF significantly decreased the mRNA expression of p21, pRb, p53 and GADD45 in cultured HAECs. EGF also significantly decreased the pluripotent genes expression: Oct-3/4, Sox2 and Nanog; epithelial genes expression: CK14, p63, CK1 and Involucrin; and neuronal gene expression: NSE, NF-M and MAP 2. The results suggested that EGF is a strong mitogen that promotes the proliferation of HAECs through cell cycle regulation. EGF did not promote HAECs differentiation or pluripotent genes expression. Copyright © 2012 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Adenine nucleotides stimulate migration in wounded cultures of kidney epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Kartha, S; Toback, F G

    1992-01-01

    Adenine nucleotides speed structural and functional recovery when administered after experimental renal injury in the rat and stimulate proliferation of kidney epithelial cells. As cell migration is a component of renal regeneration after acute tubular necrosis, we have used an in vitro model of wound healing to study this process. High density, quiescent monkey kidney epithelial cultures were wounded by mechanically scraping away defined regions of the monolayer to simulate the effect of cell loss after tubular necrosis and the number of cells that migrated into the denuded area was counted. Migration was independent of cell proliferation. Provision of adenosine, adenine nucleotides, or cyclic AMP increased the number of migrating cells and accelerated repair of the wound. Other purine and pyrimidine nucleotides were not effective. Arginine-glycine-aspartic acid-serine peptide, which blocks the binding of extracellular fibronectin to its cell surface receptor, completely inhibited migration in the presence or absence of ADP. Very low concentrations of epidermal growth factor (K0.5 approximately 0.3 ng/ml) stimulated migration, whereas transforming growth factor-beta 2 was inhibitory (Ki approximately 0.2 ng/ml). Thus, adenosine and/or adenine nucleotides released from injured or dying renal cells, or administered exogenously, may stimulate surviving cells in the wounded nephron to migrate along the basement membrane, thereby rapidly restoring tubular structure and function. Images PMID:1634617

  15. Enhanced in vitro maturation of canine oocytes by oviduct epithelial cell co-culture.

    PubMed

    No, Jingu; Zhao, Minghui; Lee, Seunghoon; Ock, Sun A; Nam, Yoonseok; Hur, Tai-Young

    2017-09-06

    Canine-assisted reproductive techniques have been successful for several years; however, the lack of an oocyte in vitro maturation system has limited their application. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of canine oviduct epithelial cells (cOECs) on canine oocyte maturation in vitro. Specifically, the method used for isolation of cOECs did not affect the expression of epithelial markers, E-cadherin and cytokeratin, on fresh, cultured and cryopreserved cells. Moreover, BrdU analysis showed that cOECs cultured in Medium 171 supplemented with mammary epithelial growth supplement were more proliferative than counterparts in advanced Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium or Medium 199. Maturation rate of canine oocytes collected from bitches at diestrus was significantly increased when oocytes were co-cultured with either fresh, cultured or frozen/thawed cOECs (13.23 ± 1.15%, 10.38 ± 4.89%, or 10.54 ± 2.96%, respectively) than that of control oocytes cultured without cOECs (2.48 ± 2.16%, p < 0.05). Additionally, the number of oocytes collected from bitches at estrus the reached metaphase II was increased ∼4 fold in co-culture with fresh, cultured, or frozen/thawed cOECs (47.2 ± 3.82%, 45.4 ± 7.34%, and 46.9 ± 1.51%, respectively) as compared with oocytes cultured without cOECs (11.9 ± 3.18%, p < 0.05). Nuclear maturation was further confirmed by assessing the formation of normal metaphase-II spindles, whereas cytoplasmic maturation was confirmed by inducing parthenogenetic oocyte activation. Embryonic development to the 8-cell stage was similar between in vivo and in vitro matured oocytes. These results suggested that co-culturing immature canine oocytes with cOECs facilitated canine oocyte maturation and early stages of embryonic development. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Stroma Regulates Increased Epithelial Lateral Cell Adhesion in 3D Culture: A Role for Actin/Cadherin Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Chambers, Karen F.; Pearson, Joanna F.; Aziz, Naveed; O'Toole, Peter; Garrod, David; Lang, Shona H.

    2011-01-01

    Background Cell shape and tissue architecture are controlled by changes to junctional proteins and the cytoskeleton. How tissues control the dynamics of adhesion and cytoskeletal tension is unclear. We have studied epithelial tissue architecture using 3D culture models and found that adult primary prostate epithelial cells grow into hollow acinus-like spheroids. Importantly, when co-cultured with stroma the epithelia show increased lateral cell adhesions. To investigate this mechanism further we aimed to: identify a cell line model to allow repeatable and robust experiments; determine whether or not epithelial adhesion molecules were affected by stromal culture; and determine which stromal signalling molecules may influence cell adhesion in 3D epithelial cell cultures. Methodology/Principal Findings The prostate cell line, BPH-1, showed increased lateral cell adhesion in response to stroma, when grown as 3D spheroids. Electron microscopy showed that 9.4% of lateral membranes were within 20 nm of each other and that this increased to 54% in the presence of stroma, after 7 days in culture. Stromal signalling did not influence E-cadherin or desmosome RNA or protein expression, but increased E-cadherin/actin co-localisation on the basolateral membranes, and decreased paracellular permeability. Microarray analysis identified several growth factors and pathways that were differentially expressed in stroma in response to 3D epithelial culture. The upregulated growth factors TGFβ2, CXCL12 and FGF10 were selected for further analysis because of previous associations with morphology. Small molecule inhibition of TGFβ2 signalling but not of CXCL12 and FGF10 signalling led to a decrease in actin and E-cadherin co-localisation and increased paracellular permeability. Conclusions/Significance In 3D culture models, paracrine stromal signals increase epithelial cell adhesion via adhesion/cytoskeleton interactions and TGFβ2-dependent mechanisms may play a key role. These

  17. Isolation and Culture of Bovine Oviductal Epithelial Cells for Use in the Anatomy and Physiology Laboratory and Undergraduate Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Way, Amy L.

    2006-01-01

    This article presents methods for the isolation and culture of epithelial cells from the bovine oviduct for use in both research and the teaching laboratory and provides examples of ways that an oviductal cell culture can be incorporated into an undergraduate research program. Cow reproductive tracts are readily available from area butchers, and…

  18. Isolation and Culture of Bovine Oviductal Epithelial Cells for Use in the Anatomy and Physiology Laboratory and Undergraduate Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Way, Amy L.

    2006-01-01

    This article presents methods for the isolation and culture of epithelial cells from the bovine oviduct for use in both research and the teaching laboratory and provides examples of ways that an oviductal cell culture can be incorporated into an undergraduate research program. Cow reproductive tracts are readily available from area butchers, and…

  19. Efficient and simple approach to in vitro culture of primary epithelial cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Janik, Karolina; Popeda, Marta; Peciak, Joanna; Rosiak, Kamila; Smolarz, Maciej; Treda, Cezary; Rieske, Piotr; Stoczynska-Fidelus, Ewelina; Ksiazkiewicz, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    Primary cancer cells constitute a favourable testing platform for in vitro research in oncology field as they reflect tumour state more accurately than the most commonly employed stable cell lines. Unfortunately, due to limited availability of material and difficulties with protocols validation, primary models are rarely implemented into laboratory practice. We have compared protocols for primary cultures, differing in media components and plate coatings. In terms of culture establishment, application of Geltrex® coating demonstrated equal efficiency to feeder layer (83% compared with 72% successfully established breast and 80% compared with 80% prostate tumour specimens), yet it was substantially less complicated and easier to validate. Both Geltrex® coating and tissue-specific primary cell medium were permanently required to successfully maintain primary epithelial prostate cancer cells (PEPCs) in culture. In case of primary epithelial breast cancer cells (PEBCs), collagen I coating enabled to obtain comparable number of passages to Geltrex® coating (P=0.438). Commercial primary cell media demonstrated lower efficiency than tissue-specific ones (PEPCs–5 compared with 8 and PEBCs–6 compared with 9 passages). Interestingly, both analysed tumour types were unsusceptible to induction of culture lifespan extension when transduced with SV40LT, BMI-1 or hEST2 genes, commonly applied as potential immortalizing agents. In conclusion, the approach based on extracellular matrix reconstitution and tissue-specific primary cell media is easy to validate and provides in vitro expansion sufficient for analytical purposes (approximately 8 passages). Therefore, it may facilitate implementation of hardly available experimental models for a variety of analyses. PMID:27803125

  20. A chemically defined culture medium containing Rho kinase inhibitor Y-27632 for the fabrication of stratified squamous epithelial cell grafts.

    PubMed

    Aslanova, Afag; Takagi, Ryo; Yamato, Masayuki; Okano, Teruo; Yamamoto, Masakazu

    2015-05-01

    With the development of a culture method for stratified squamous epithelial cells, tissue-engineered epithelial cell sheets have been successfully applied as clinical cell grafts. However, the implementation of these cell sheets without the use of any animal-derived materials is highly desirable. In this study, Rho-associated protein kinase inhibitor Y-27632 was used to develop a chemically defined culture medium for the fabrication of stratified epithelial cell grafts consisting of human epidermal and oral keratinocytes, and the proliferation activity, cell morphology, and gene expressions of the keratinocytes were analyzed. The results of a colorimetric assay indicated that Y-27632 significantly promoted the proliferation of the keratinocytes in culture media both with and without fetal bovine serum (FBS), although there were no indications of Y-27632 efficacy on cell morphology and stratification of the keratinocytes in culture medium without any animal-derived materials. The results of quantitative RT-PCR revealed that gene expressions correlated with cell adhesion, cell-cell junction, proliferation markers, and stem/progenitor markers in cultured keratinocytes were not strongly affected by the addition of Y-27632 to the culture medium. Moreover, gene expressions of differentiation markers in stratified keratinocytes cultured in medium without FBS were nearly identical to those of keratinocytes co-cultured with 3T3 feeder cells. Interestingly, the expressions of differentiation markers in cultured stratified keratinocytes were suppressed by FBS, whereas they were reconstructed by either co-culture of a 3T3 feeder layer or addition of Y-27632 into the culture medium containing FBS. These findings indicate that Y-27632 is a useful supplement for the development of a chemically defined culture medium for fabrication of stratified epithelial cell grafts for clinical applications for the purpose of developing the culture medium with a lower risk of pathogen

  1. Evaluation of Differentiated Human Bronchial Epithelial Cell Culture Systems for Asthma Research

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Ceri E.; Torr, Elizabeth E.; Mohd Jamili, Nur H.; Bosquillon, Cynthia; Sayers, Ian

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to evaluate primary (human bronchial epithelial cells, HBEC) and non-primary (Calu-3, BEAS-2B, BEAS-2B R1) bronchial epithelial cell culture systems as air-liquid interface- (ALI-) differentiated models for asthma research. Ability to differentiate into goblet (MUC5AC+) and ciliated (β-Tubulin IV+) cells was evaluated by confocal imaging and qPCR. Expression of tight junction/adhesion proteins (ZO-1, E-Cadherin) and development of transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) were assessed. Primary cells showed localised MUC5AC, β-Tubulin IV, ZO-1, and E-Cadherin and developed TEER with, however, a large degree of inter- and intradonor variation. Calu-3 cells developed a more reproducible TEER and a phenotype similar to primary cells although with diffuse β-Tubulin IV staining. BEAS-2B cells did not differentiate or develop tight junctions. These data highlight the challenges in working with primary cell models and the need for careful characterisation and selection of systems to answer specific research questions. PMID:22287976

  2. Biocompatibility of microplates for culturing epithelial renal cells evaluated by a microcalorimetric technique.

    PubMed

    Xie, Y; DePierre, J W; Nässberger, L

    2000-09-01

    In the present study we have developed a microcalorimetric procedure which allows convenient investigation of biocompatibility in a microsystem. We examined the biocompatibility of a porcine renal epithelial tubule cell line LLC-PK1 and a human primary renal epithelial tubule cell (RPTEC) with microplates composed of three different materials, i.e. Thermanox, transparent film and titanium. All three materials showed equal biocompatibility with LLC-PK1 cells, judging from the attainment of steady-state power curves and the same rate of heat production per cell (2.5 microW / microg DNA). The human renal cells were poorly biocompatible with the Thermanox and transparent film. However, on titanium the RPTEC cell did adhere, as demonstrated by a steady-state power curve. The human cells also showed a higher metabolic activity (3.0 microW / microg DNA), than did LLC-PK1 cells cultured on the same type of microplates. In research on biocompatibility there is a need for alternatives to experimental animal investigations. The present technique allows studies of cellular interactions with different biomaterials in a rapid and standardized manner and may therefore prove to be a useful screening procedure. Copyright 2000 Kluwer Academic Publishers

  3. PRIMARY CULTURE OF CHOROIDAL EPITHELIAL CELLS: CHARACTERIZATION OF AN IN VITRO MODEL OF BLOOD-CSF BARRIER

    PubMed Central

    ZHENG, WEI; ZHAO, QIUQU; GRAZIANO, JOSEPH H.

    2016-01-01

    Summary A primary rat choroidal epithelial cell culture system was developed to investigate mechanisms of heavy metal toxicity on the blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier. Epithelial cells were dissociated from choroidal tissue by pronase digestion and cultured in standard DMEM culture media supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum and 10 ng epithelial growth factor per ml. The procedure yielded 2–5 × 104 cells from pooled plexuses of three to four rats, and a viability of 77–85%. The cultures displayed a dominant polygonal type of epithelial cells, with a population doubling time of 2–3 d. The cultures were of distinct choroidal epithelial origins. For example, immunocytochemical studies using monospecific rabbit anti-rat TTR polyclonal antibody revealed a strong positive stain of transthyretin (TTR), a thyroxine transport protein exclusively produced by the choroidal epithelia. Also, reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (PCR) confirmed the presence of specific TTR mRNA in the cultures. The cultures were further adapted to grow on a freely permeable membrane sandwiched between two culture chambers. The formation of an impermeable confluent monolayer occurred within 5 d after seeding and was verified by the presence of a steady electrical resistance across the membrane (80 ± 10 ohm per cm2). The epithelial barriers appeared to actively transport [125I]-thyroxine from the basal to apical chamber. These results suggest that this primary cell culture system possesses typical choroidal epithelial characteristics and appears to be a suitable model for in vitro mechanistic investigations of blood–CSF barrier. PMID:9542634

  4. Human amniotic epithelial cells differentiate into cells expressing germ cell specific markers when cultured in medium containing serum substitute supplement

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Human amniotic epithelial cells (hAECs) maintain the plasticity of pregastrulation embryonic cells, having the potential to differentiate into all three germ layers. The potential of these cells to differentiate into cells expressing germ cell specific markers has never been described before. Methods In the present study, hAECs were cultured in medium containing serum substitute supplement (SSS). Gene and protein expression of germ cell and oocyte specific markers was assessed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), immunofluorescence staining and flow activated cell sorter analysis (FACS) in hAECs at different time points during the differentiation into cells expressing germ cell specific markers. Results When cultured with SSS, already at passage 1, hAECs start to express the germ cell specific genes C-KIT, DAZL, VASA and ZP3 and at passage 5 large round cells, resembling oocytes, appeared. The cells express the germ cell specific marker DAZL, the oocyte specific markers GDF9 and ZP3 and the meiosis specific markers DMC1 and SCP3 at the protein level. Conclusions From our preliminary results we can conclude that hAECs have the potential to differentiate into cells expressing germ cell specific markers. PMID:23241213

  5. Isolation, culture and phenotypic characterization of human sweat gland epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yunhe; Li, Meiying; Zhang, Xueyan; Bai, Tingting; Chi, Guanfan; Liu, Jin Yu; Li, Yulin

    2014-10-01

    Sweat gland epithelial cells (SGECs) have been identified as essential for the regeneration of sweat glands and for the construction of skin substitutes containing skin appendages. Consequently, the isolation, culture and phenotypic characterization of SGECs are of paramount importance. In the present study study, human sweat glands were isolated by pipetting under a phase contrast microscope following digestion with collagenase type I. Subsequently, a microscopic organ culture technique was used for the primary culture of human SGECs, and the culture conditions were modified in order to achieve optimal cell growth status. Primary SGECs were identified based on their expression of markers specific for sweat glands, including carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), CK7, CK8, CK14, CK15, CK18 and CK19. We explored the possible presence of stem cells in human sweat glands by detecting their expression of leucine-rich repeat-containing G protein-coupled receptor 5 (LGR5). Primary SGECs achieved a good growth state when cultured under serum-free conditions. After one passage, the cells cultured in keratinocyte serum-free medium with 1% fetal bovine serum (FBS) still showed a prominent proliferative activity. Phenotypic analysis by immunofluorescence microscopy, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and western blot analysis demonstrated the expression of sweat gland-specific markers, including CEA, CK7, CK8, CK14, CK15, CK18 and CK19. In addition, RT-PCR and immunochemistry detected the expression of LGR5. In comparison with traditional serum-containing conditions, serum-free culture provides the preferred culture conditions for human SGECs. LGR5 is a novel marker that identifies human sweat gland-derived stem cells.

  6. Therapeutic effect of lung mixed culture-derived epithelial cells on lung fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Kensuke; Fujita, Tetsuo; Umezawa, Hiroki; Namiki, Kana; Yoshioka, Kento; Hagihara, Masahiko; Sudo, Tatsuhiko; Kimura, Sadao; Tatsumi, Koichiro; Kasuya, Yoshitoshi

    2014-11-01

    Cell-based therapy is recognized as one of potential therapeutic options for lung fibrosis. However, preparing stem/progenitor cells is complicated and not always efficient. Here, we show easily prepared cell populations having therapeutic capacity for lung inflammatory disease that are named as 'lung mixed culture-derived epithelial cells' (LMDECs). LMDECs expressed surfactant protein (SP)-C and gave rise to type I alveolar epithelial cells (AECs) in vitro and in vivo that partly satisfied type II AEC-like characteristics. An intratracheal delivery of not HEK 293 cells but LMDECs to the lung ameliorated bleomycin (BLM)-induced lung injury. A comprehensive analysis of bronchoalveolar fluid by western blot array revealed that LMDEC engraftment could improve the microenvironment in the BLM-instilled lung in association with stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1)/CXC chemokine receptor 4 signaling axis. SDF-1 enhanced both migration activity and differentiating efficiency of LMDECs. Further classification of LMDECs by flow cytometric study showed that a major population of LMDECs (LMDEC(Maj), 84% of total LMDECs) was simultaneously SP-C(+), CD44(+), CD45(+), and hematopoietic cell lineage(+) and that LMDECs included bronchioalveolar stem cells (BASCs) showing SP-C(+)Clara cell secretory protein(+)stem cell antigen (Sca)1(+) as a small population (1.8% of total LMDECs). CD44(+)-sorted LMDEC(Maj) and Sca1(+)-sorted LMDECs equally ameliorated fibrosis induced by BLM like LMDECs did. However, infiltrated neutrophils were observed in Sca1(+)-sorted LMDEC-treated alveoli that was not typical in LMDEC(Maj)- or LMDEC-treated alveoli. These findings suggest that the protective effect of LMDECs against BLM-induced lung injury depends greatly on that of LMDEC(Maj). Furthermore, the cells expressing both alveolar epithelial and hematopoietic cell lineage markers (SP-C(+)CD45(+)) that have characteristics corresponding to LMDEC(Maj) were observed in the alveoli of lung and

  7. Increased sulfation of glycoconjugates by cultured nasal epithelial cells from patients with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, P W; Boat, T F; Cranfill, K; Yankaskas, J R; Boucher, R C

    1989-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) respiratory epithelia exhibit abnormal anion transport that may be linked to abnormal lung defense. In these studies, we investigated whether primary cultures of CF respiratory epithelial cells regulate abnormally the sulfate content of high molecular weight glycoconjugates (HMG) participating in airways' mucosal defense. HMG, including glycosaminoglycans and mucin-type glycoproteins released spontaneously into medium and HMG released from cell surfaces by trypsin, were metabolically labeled with 35SO4- and [6-3H]-glucosamine (GlcN) or 35SO4- and [3H]serine. All three classes of HMG from CF cells exhibited 35S/3H labeling ratios 1.5-4-fold greater than HMG from normal or disease control cells. Differences for labeling ratios of HMG from CF cells were shown to be the consequence of increased 35SO4- incorporation rather than decreased peptide synthesis and release or HMG glycosylation. The buoyant density of CF mucin-type HMG also was increased, consistent with increased sulfation. These observations suggest that oversulfation of a spectrum of HMG is a genetically determined characteristic of CF epithelial cells and may play an important pathophysiological role by altering the properties of mucous secretions and/or the interactions between selected bacteria and HMG at the airways' surface. Images PMID:2738159

  8. Cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of areca nut-related compounds in cultured human buccal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Sundqvist, K; Liu, Y; Nair, J; Bartsch, H; Arvidson, K; Grafström, R C

    1989-10-01

    Because betel quid chewing has been linked to the development of oral cancer, pathobiological effects of an aqueous areca nut extract, four areca nut alkaloids (arecoline, guvacoline, guvacine, and arecaidine), and four nitrosated derivatives [N-nitrosoguvacoline, N-nitrosoguvacine, 3-(N-nitrosomethylamino)propionaldehyde and 3-(N-nitrosomethylamino)propionitrile] have been investigated using cultured human buccal epithelial cells. Areca nut extract in a dose-dependent manner decreases cell survival, vital dye accumulation, and membrane integrity, and it causes formation of both DNA single strand breaks and DNA protein cross-links. Depletion of cellular free low-molecular-weight thiols also occurs, albeit at quite toxic concentrations. Comparisons of the areca nut-related N-nitroso compounds and their precursor alkaloids, at concentrations up to 5 mM, indicate that 3-(N-nitrosomethylamino)propionaldehyde is the most potent on a molar basis to decrease both survival and thiol content and to cause significant formation of DNA single strand breaks. Arecoline, guvacoline, or N-nitrosoguvacoline decreases survival and cellular thiols, whereas arecaidine, guvacine, N-nitrosoguvacine, and 3-(N-nitrosomethylamino)propionitrile have only minor effects on these variables. Taken together, the present studies indicate that aqueous extract and, in particular, one N-nitroso compound related to areca nut, i.e., 3-(N-nitrosomethylamino)propionaldehyde, are highly cytotoxic and genotoxic to cultured human buccal epithelial cells, of potential importance in the induction of tumors in betel quid chewers.

  9. Establishment of mammary gland model in vitro: culture and evaluation of a yak mammary epithelial cell line.

    PubMed

    Fu, Mei; Chen, Yabing; Xiong, Xianrong; Lan, Daoliang; Li, Jian

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to establish yak mammary epithelial cells (YMECs) for an in vitro model of yak mammary gland biology. The primary culture of YMECs was obtained from mammary gland tissues of lactating yak and then characterized using immunocytochemistry, RT-PCR, and western blot analysis. Whether foreign genes could be transfected into the YMECs were examined by transfecting the EGFP gene into the cells. Finally, the effect of Staphylococcus aureus infection on YMECs was determined. The established YMECs retained the mammary epithelial cell characteristics. A spontaneously immortalized yak mammary epithelial cell line was established and could be continuously subcultured for more than 60 passages without senescence. The EGFP gene was successfully transferred into the YMECs, and the transfected cells could be maintained for a long duration in the culture by continuous subculturing. The cells expressed more antimicrobial peptides upon S.aureus invasion. Therefore, the established cell line could be considered a model system to understand yak mammary gland biology.

  10. A microfluidic cell culture device (μFCCD) to culture epithelial cells with physiological and morphological properties that mimic those of the human intestine.

    PubMed

    Chi, Meiying; Yi, Banya; Oh, Seunghan; Park, Dong-June; Sung, Jong Hwan; Park, Sungsu

    2015-01-01

    Physiological and morphological properties of the human intestine cannot be accurately mimicked in conventional culture devices such as well plates and petri dishes where intestinal epithelial cells form a monolayer with loose contacts among cells. Here, we report a novel microfluidic cell culture device (μFCCD) that can be used to culture cells as a human intestinal model. This device enables intestinal epithelial cells (Caco-2) to grow three-dimensionally on a porous membrane coated with fibronectin between two polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) layers. Within 3 days, Caco-2 cells cultured in the μFCCD formed villi- and crypt-like structures with small intercellular spaces, while individual cells were tightly connected to one another through the expression of the tight junction protein occludin, and were covered with a secreted mucin, MUC-2. Caco-2 cells cultured in the μFCCD for 3 days were less susceptible to bacterial attack than those cultured in transwell plates for 21 days. μFCCD-cultured Caco-2 cells also displayed physiologically relevant absorption and paracellular transport properties. These results suggest that our intestinal model more accurately mimics the morphological and physiological properties of the intestine in vivo than the conventional transwell culture model.

  11. Concise review: transplantation of cultured oral mucosal epithelial cells for treating limbal stem cell deficiency-current status and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Utheim, Tor Paaske

    2015-06-01

    A number of diseases and external factors can deplete limbal stem cells, causing pain and visual loss. Ten years have passed since the first transplantation of cultured oral mucosal epithelial cells in humans, representing the first autologous cell-based therapy for severe bilateral limbal stem cell deficiency. Its steady increase in popularity since then can be attributed to the accumulating evidence of its efficacy in reverting limbal stem cell deficiency. In this review, the focus is on clinical, and to a lesser degree laboratory, features of cultured oral mucosal epithelial transplants over the past 10 years. Comparisons with other available technologies are made. Avenues for research to stimulate further improvements in clinical results and allow worldwide distribution of limbal stem cell therapy based on oral mucosal cells are discussed. These include storage and transportation of cultured oral mucosal epithelial sheets and in vivo culture of oral mucosal epithelial cells.

  12. Isolation, cryopreservation and culture of human amnion epithelial cells for clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Sean V; Kidyoor, Amritha; Reid, Tanya; Atala, Anthony; Wallace, Euan M; Lim, Rebecca

    2014-12-21

    Human amnion epithelial cells (hAECs) derived from term or pre-term amnion membranes have attracted attention from researchers and clinicians as a potential source of cells for regenerative medicine. The reason for this interest is evidence that these cells have highly multipotent differentiation ability, low immunogenicity, and anti-inflammatory functions. These properties have prompted researchers to investigate the potential of hAECs to be used to treat a variety of diseases and disorders in pre-clinical animal studies with much success. hAECs have found widespread application for the treatment of a range of diseases and disorders. Potential clinical applications of hAECs include the treatment of stroke, multiple sclerosis, liver disease, diabetes and chronic and acute lung diseases. Progressing from pre-clinical animal studies into clinical trials requires a higher standard of quality control and safety for cell therapy products. For safety and quality control considerations, it is preferred that cell isolation protocols use animal product-free reagents. We have developed protocols to allow researchers to isolate, cryopreserve and culture hAECs using animal product-free reagents. The advantage of this method is that these cells can be isolated, characterized, cryopreserved and cultured without the risk of delivering potentially harmful animal pathogens to humans, while maintaining suitable cell yields, viabilities and growth potential. For researchers moving from pre-clinical animal studies to clinical trials, these methodologies will greatly accelerate regulatory approval, decrease risks and improve the quality of their therapeutic cell population.

  13. Commensal Bacteria Modulate Innate Immune Responses of Vaginal Epithelial Cell Multilayer Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Rose, William A.; McGowin, Chris L.; Spagnuolo, Rae Ann; Eaves-Pyles, Tonyia D.; Popov, Vsevolod L.; Pyles, Richard B.

    2012-01-01

    The human vaginal microbiome plays a critical but poorly defined role in reproductive health. Vaginal microbiome alterations are associated with increased susceptibility to sexually-transmitted infections (STI) possibly due to related changes in innate defense responses from epithelial cells. Study of the impact of commensal bacteria on the vaginal mucosal surface has been hindered by current vaginal epithelial cell (VEC) culture systems that lack an appropriate interface between the apical surface of stratified squamous epithelium and the air-filled vaginal lumen. Therefore we developed a reproducible multilayer VEC culture system with an apical (luminal) air-interface that supported colonization with selected commensal bacteria. Multilayer VEC developed tight-junctions and other hallmarks of the vaginal mucosa including predictable proinflammatory cytokine secretion following TLR stimulation. Colonization of multilayers by common vaginal commensals including Lactobacillus crispatus, L. jensenii, and L. rhamnosus led to intimate associations with the VEC exclusively on the apical surface. Vaginal commensals did not trigger cytokine secretion but Staphylococcus epidermidis, a skin commensal, was inflammatory. Lactobacilli reduced cytokine secretion in an isolate-specific fashion following TLR stimulation. This tempering of inflammation offers a potential explanation for increased susceptibility to STI in the absence of common commensals and has implications for testing of potential STI preventatives. PMID:22412914

  14. Uptake and intracellular activity of trovafloxacin in human phagocytes and tissue-cultured epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Pascual, A; García, I; Ballesta, S; Perea, E J

    1997-01-01

    The penetration of trovafloxacin into human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs), human peritoneal macrophages, and tissue-cultured epithelial cells (McCoy cells) was evaluated. The cellular concentration to extracellular concentration (C/E) ratios of trovafloxacin were greater than 9 for extracellular concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 25 micrograms/ml. The uptake of trovafloxacin by PMNs was rapid, reversible, nonsaturable, not energy dependent, and significantly increased at 4 degrees C. Ingestion of opsonized zymosan, but not opsonized Staphylococcus aureus, significantly increased the amount of PMN-associated trovafloxacin. This agent at concentrations of 0.5 and 1 microgram/ml induced a greater reduction in the survival of intracellular S. aureus in PMNs than ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin. It was concluded that trovafloxacin reaches concentrations within phagocytic and nonphagocytic cells several times higher than the extracellular ones, while it remains active in PMNs. PMID:9021179

  15. Primary culture of intestinal epithelial cells as a potential model for Toxoplasma gondii enteric cycle studies.

    PubMed

    Moura, Marcos de Assis; Amendoeira, Maria Regina Reis; Barbosa, Helene Santos

    2009-09-01

    The primary culture of intestinal epithelial cells from domestic cats is an efficient cellular model to study the enteric cycle of Toxoplasma gondii in a definitive host. The parasite-host cell ratio can be pointed out as a decisive factor that determines the intracellular fate of bradyzoites forms. The development of the syncytial-like forms of T. gondii was observed using the 1:20 bradyzoite-host cell ratio, resulting in similar forms described in in vivo systems. This alternative study potentially opens up the field for investigation into the molecular aspects of this interaction. This can contribute to the development of new strategies for intervention of a main route by which toxoplasmosis spreads.

  16. Human airway epithelial cell culture to identify new respiratory viruses: coronavirus NL63 as a model.

    PubMed

    S Banach, Bridget; Orenstein, Jan M; Fox, Linda M; Randell, Scott H; Rowley, Anne H; Baker, Susan C

    2009-03-01

    Propagation of new human respiratory virus pathogens in established cell lines is hampered by a lack of predictability regarding cell line permissivity and by availability of suitable antibody reagents to detect infection in cell lines that do not exhibit significant cytopathic effect. Recently, molecular methods have been used to amplify and identify novel nucleic acid sequences directly from clinical samples, but these methods may be hampered by the quantity of virus present in respiratory secretions at different time points following the onset of infection. Human airway epithelial (HAE) cultures, which effectively mimic the human bronchial environment, allow for cultivation of a wide variety of human respiratory viral pathogens. The goal of the experiments described here was to determine if propagation and identification of a human respiratory virus may be achieved through inoculation of HAE cultures followed by whole transcriptome amplification (WTA) and sequence analysis. To establish proof-of-principle human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63) was evaluated, and the first visualization of HCoV-NL63 virus by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is reported. Initial propagation of human respiratory secretions onto HAE cultures followed by TEM and WTA of culture supernatant may be a useful approach for visualization and detection of new human respiratory pathogens that have eluded identification by traditional approaches.

  17. Epithelial cell culture models for the prevention and therapy of clinical breast cancer (Review)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Clinical breast cancer progresses via a multi-step carcinogenic process wherein genetic, molecular, endocrine and dietary factors play significant roles in the pathogenesis, prevention and therapy of the disease. Preclinical cell culture models, expressing clinically relevant genetic and endocrine defects and exhibiting quantifiable cancer risk, may provide facile, clinically translatable approaches to identify molecular targets and susceptible mechanistic pathways for the efficacy of novel interventional approaches. This review summarizes laboratory investigations focused on i) developing murine and human mammary tissue-derived cell culture models; ii) optimizing mechanism-based quantitative endpoint biomarker assays specific for carcinogenic risk and preventive/therapeutic efficacy; and iii) providing quantifiable proof-of-principle evidence for validation of the present cell culture approaches, capable of prioritizing efficacious lead compounds for subsequent in vivo animal studies and clinical trials for the prevention/therapy of breast cancer. Epithelial cell culture models are developed and characterized where the carcinogenic process is initiated by the targeted expression of clinically relevant oncogenes. The cell culture systems from mouse mammary tissue are in vitro approaches that complement the Ras and Myc transgenic mouse models. The human mammary tissue-derived systems are in vitro models for chemoendocrine, therapy-resistant, clinical, pre-invasive ER-/PR-/HER-2+ comedo ductal carcinoma in situ, ER+/PR+ chemoendocrine therapy-responsive breast cancer and ER-/PR-/HER-2- triple-negative chemoendocrine, therapy-resistant breast cancer. The oncogene-initiated phenotypes exhibit loss of homeostatic growth control, downregulation of cell apoptosis and gain of carcinogenic risk in vitro, as well as transplantable tumor development in vivo. Numerous mechanistically distinct, synthetic pharmacological agents, as well as naturally occurring dietary compounds

  18. Cationorm shows good tolerability on human HCE-2 corneal epithelial cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Kinnunen, Kati; Kauppinen, Anu; Piippo, Niina; Koistinen, Arto; Toropainen, Elisa; Kaarniranta, Kai

    2014-03-01

    Preservatives have been for a long time known to cause detrimental effects on ocular surface. Cationorm, a preservative-free compound with electrostatic properties is a novel way to solve the problems encountered with traditional benzalkonium chloride (BAK)-containing eye drops. The aim of this study was to evaluate tolerability of the preservative-free cationic emulsion Cationorm in vitro on corneal epithelial cells. The human corneal epithelial cell (HCE-2) culture line was used to study cellular morphology, cytotoxicity and inflammatory responses after Cationorm diluted 1/10 exposure for 5, 15 and 30 min. Exposures to Systane diluted 1/10 with polyquaternium-1/polidronium chloride 0.001% as preservative, BAK 0.001% or C16 (0.0002%) and normal cell culture medium served as positive and negative references. Cell viability was determined by measuring the release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity was evaluated using 3-(4,5-dimethyldiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The possible induction of apoptosis was analyzed by measuring the activity of caspase-3, and Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) was used to evaluate the number of viable cells after the exposure to test compounds. Furthermore, the tendency of the test compounds to produce inflammatory reaction was determined by analyzing the production of proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-8, and DNA binding of the p65 subunit of transcription factor NF-κB was measured from cell lysates. HCE-2 cells showed no morphological changes after the exposure to Cationorm, but in cells exposed to BAK, clear cytoplasm vacuolization and loose cell-cell contacts were observed in transmission (TEM) or scanning (SEM) electron microscopic analyses. Cell viability, as measured with the release of LDH, indicated a time dependent increase in LDH expression after exposure to all test compounds but especially with BAK. Moreover, Cationorm and BAK time-dependently decreased the

  19. The effects of vitamin A compounds on hyaluronic acid released from cultured rabbit corneal epithelial cells and keratocytes.

    PubMed

    Toshida, Hiroshi; Tabuchi, Nobuhito; Koike, Daisuke; Koide, Misao; Sugiyama, Keikichi; Nakayasu, Kiyoo; Kanai, Atsushi; Murakami, Akira

    2012-01-01

    A role of vitamin A in the synthesis of hyaluronic acid by skin cells is well known. Hyaluronic acid is produced by corneal epithelial cells and keratocytes in the eye. We investigated whether rabbit corneal epithelial cells and keratocytes release hyaluronic acid after exposure to vitamin A compounds. Rabbit corneal epithelial cells and keratocytes were inoculated with RCGM2 medium and incubated at 37ºC under 5% CO(2) in air for 24 h. The medium was then replaced with medium containing 0.1, 1, 10, or 100 μM retinoic acid or retinol palmitate (VApal) and incubated for another 48 h. Hyaluronic acid release from both corneal epithelial cells and keratocytes during culture was increased by retinoic acid at the lower concentration of 0.1 μM and 1 μM determined with a sandwich binding protein assay kit. However, it was significantly decreased at the higher concentrations of 10 μM and 100 μM, and the cell count determined with a Neutral Red assay kit was also decreased at these concentrations. On the other hand, hyaluronic acid release from corneal epithelial cells during culture was increased by VApal at the lower concentration of 0.1 μM and 1 μM, but there was no significant difference in the cell count for either corneal epithelial cells or keratocytes in the presence of VApal at any concentration. In conclusion, it is suggested that vitamin A stimulates the release of hyaluronic acid from cultured rabbit corneal epithelial cells and keratocytes.

  20. Toxicity of natural tear substitutes in a fully defined culture model of human corneal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Geerling, G; Daniels, J T; Dart, J K; Cree, I A; Khaw, P T

    2001-04-01

    Serum and saliva have recently been advocated as natural tear substitutes for intractable aqueous-deficient dry eyes, but the effects of these fluids on corneal epithelium have not been well characterized. A laboratory study was performed in a defined test model to compare the toxicity of natural and pharmaceutical tear substitutes and to identify potentially toxic factors in natural tear substitutes, such as amylase, hypotonicity, and variations in preparation. Primary human corneal epithelial cells were cultured with defined keratinocyte serum-free medium. The cells were incubated with hypromellose (hydroxypropylmethylcellulose 0.3%) with and without benzalkonium chloride 0.01%, saliva with differing osmolalities, 100% serum, and 50% serum (1:1 vol/vol with chloramphenicol 0.5%) for varying times and concentrations. Toxicity was examined in four ways. Microvillous density was assessed with scanning electron microscopy. Cell membrane permeability and intracellular esterase activity were analyzed after staining with fluorescent calcein-AM/ethidium homodimer and cellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) was quantified using a luciferin-luciferase-based assay. The toxicity ranking of the tear substitutes correlated in all assays. The ATP assay was the most sensitive, followed by ethidium cell permeability, and finally the esterase activity. Preserved hypromellose was more toxic than the unpreserved preparation. Among natural tear substitutes, natural saliva was most toxic. Isotonic saliva and 50% serum were of similar toxicity, and 100% serum was least toxic. Natural tear substitutes were-except for natural saliva-less toxic than unpreserved hypromellose. Hypotonicity, but not amylase, was the major toxic effect associated with saliva. The dilution of serum with chloramphenicol induced toxicity. This is the first toxicity study using human primary corneal epithelial cells cultured under fully defined conditions as an in vitro model. Cellular ATP is a sensitive parameter

  1. Human proximal tubule epithelial cells cultured on hollow fibers: living membranes that actively transport organic cations.

    PubMed

    Jansen, J; De Napoli, I E; Fedecostante, M; Schophuizen, C M S; Chevtchik, N V; Wilmer, M J; van Asbeck, A H; Croes, H J; Pertijs, J C; Wetzels, J F M; Hilbrands, L B; van den Heuvel, L P; Hoenderop, J G; Stamatialis, D; Masereeuw, R

    2015-11-16

    The bioartificial kidney (BAK) aims at improving dialysis by developing 'living membranes' for cells-aided removal of uremic metabolites. Here, unique human conditionally immortalized proximal tubule epithelial cell (ciPTEC) monolayers were cultured on biofunctionalized MicroPES (polyethersulfone) hollow fiber membranes (HFM) and functionally tested using microfluidics. Tight monolayer formation was demonstrated by abundant zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) protein expression along the tight junctions of matured ciPTEC on HFM. A clear barrier function of the monolayer was confirmed by limited diffusion of FITC-inulin. The activity of the organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2) in ciPTEC was evaluated in real-time using a perfusion system by confocal microscopy using 4-(4-(dimethylamino)styryl)-N-methylpyridinium iodide (ASP(+)) as a fluorescent substrate. Initial ASP(+) uptake was inhibited by a cationic uremic metabolites mixture and by the histamine H2-receptor antagonist, cimetidine. In conclusion, a 'living membrane' of renal epithelial cells on MicroPES HFM with demonstrated active organic cation transport was successfully established as a first step in BAK engineering.

  2. Human proximal tubule epithelial cells cultured on hollow fibers: living membranes that actively transport organic cations

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, J.; De Napoli, I. E; Fedecostante, M.; Schophuizen, C. M. S.; Chevtchik, N. V.; Wilmer, M. J.; van Asbeck, A. H.; Croes, H. J.; Pertijs, J. C.; Wetzels, J. F. M.; Hilbrands, L. B.; van den Heuvel, L. P.; Hoenderop, J. G.; Stamatialis, D.; Masereeuw, R.

    2015-01-01

    The bioartificial kidney (BAK) aims at improving dialysis by developing ‘living membranes’ for cells-aided removal of uremic metabolites. Here, unique human conditionally immortalized proximal tubule epithelial cell (ciPTEC) monolayers were cultured on biofunctionalized MicroPES (polyethersulfone) hollow fiber membranes (HFM) and functionally tested using microfluidics. Tight monolayer formation was demonstrated by abundant zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) protein expression along the tight junctions of matured ciPTEC on HFM. A clear barrier function of the monolayer was confirmed by limited diffusion of FITC-inulin. The activity of the organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2) in ciPTEC was evaluated in real-time using a perfusion system by confocal microscopy using 4-(4-(dimethylamino)styryl)-N-methylpyridinium iodide (ASP+) as a fluorescent substrate. Initial ASP+ uptake was inhibited by a cationic uremic metabolites mixture and by the histamine H2-receptor antagonist, cimetidine. In conclusion, a ‘living membrane’ of renal epithelial cells on MicroPES HFM with demonstrated active organic cation transport was successfully established as a first step in BAK engineering. PMID:26567716

  3. [Experiment of oral mucosa epithelial cells cultured on small intestinal submucosa in vitro].

    PubMed

    Tan, Bo; Wei, Ren-Qian; Yang, Zhi-Ming; Li, Xiu-Qun; Han, Ping; Zhi, Wei; Xie, Hui-Qi; Ren, Yan; Tan, Zhong-Xia

    2010-02-01

    To explore an effective method to culture oral mucosa epithelial cells (OMECs) of canine in vitro, and to observe the biological characteristics of OMECs growing on small intestinal submucosa (SIS) in order to provide the experimental basis for epithelium tissue engineering. The primary OMECs were cultivated with DKSFM (defined keratinocyte serum free medium) containing 6% fetal bovine serum (FBS). The morphological characteristics and the growth curve of OMECs were observed. The expressions of OMECs marker (CK19) were examined by immunocytochemistry. The 2nd passage of OMECs were seeded on SIS, OMECs co-cultured with SIS were observed by hematoxylin-eosin staining, immunohistochemical staining, and scanning electron microscope (SEM). OMECs were grown well in DKSFM. Immunohistochemical staining of the 2nd passage cultured canine OMECs with broadly reacting anti-cytokeratin anyibodies (CK19) was positive. OMECs formed a single layer on the surface of SIS, and eight days later the cells were polygong and arranged like slabstone. Culture of canine OMECs in DKSFM containing 6% FBS is a simple and feasible method. SIS has good biocompatibility, it is a kind of good bioscafold in the tissue-engineered epithelium.

  4. A 3D Culture Model to Study How Fluid Pressure and Flow Affect the Behavior of Aggregates of Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Piotrowski-Daspit, Alexandra S; Simi, Allison K; Pang, Mei-Fong; Tien, Joe; Nelson, Celeste M

    2017-01-01

    Cells are surrounded by mechanical stimuli in their microenvironment. It is important to determine how cells respond to the mechanical information that surrounds them in order to understand both development and disease progression, as well as to be able to predict cell behavior in response to physical stimuli. Here we describe a protocol to determine the effects of interstitial fluid flow on the migratory behavior of an aggregate of epithelial cells in a three-dimensional (3D) culture model. This protocol includes detailed methods for the fabrication of a 3D cell culture chamber with hydrostatic pressure control, the culture of epithelial cells as an aggregate in a collagen gel, and the analysis of collective cell behavior in response to pressure-driven flow.

  5. Multi-layered silk film co-culture system for human corneal epithelial and stromal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Gosselin, Emily A; Torregrosa, Tess; Ghezzi, Chiara E; Mendelsohn, Alexandra C; Gomes, Rachel; Funderburgh, James L; Kaplan, David L

    2017-06-10

    With insufficient options to meet the clinical demand for cornea transplants, one emerging area of emphasis is on cornea tissue engineering. In the present study, the goal was to combine the corneal stroma and epithelium into one co-culture system, in order to monitor both human corneal stromal stem cell (hCSSC) and human corneal epithelial cell (hCE) growth and differentiation into keratocytes and differentiated epithelium in these 3D tissue systems in vitro. Co-culture conditions were first optimized, including the medium, air/liquid interface culture, and surface topography and chemistry of biomaterial scaffold films based on silk protein. The silk was used as scaffolding for both stromal and epithelial tissue layers because it is cell compatible, can be surface patterned, and is optically clear. Next, the effects of proliferating and differentiating hCEs and hCSSCs in this in vitro system were studied, including the effects on cell proliferation, matrix formation by immunochemistry, and gene expression by RT-qPCR. The incorporation of both cell types into the co-culture system demonstrated more complete differentiation and growth for both cell types compared to the corneal stromal cells and corneal epithelial cells alone. Silk films for corneal epithelial culture were optimized to combine a 4.0 micron-scale surface pattern with bulk-loaded collagen type IV. Differentiation of each cell type was in evidence based on increased expression of corneal stroma and epithelial proteins and transcript levels after 6 weeks in co-culture on the optimized silk scaffolds. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  6. Epithelialization and stromalization of porcine follicular granulosa cells during real-time proliferation - a primary cell culture approach.

    PubMed

    Ciesiółka, S; Bryja, A; Budna, J; Kranc, W; Chachuła, A; Bukowska, D; Piotrowska, H; Porowski, L; Antosik, P; Bruska, M; Brüssow, K P; Nowicki, M; Zabel, M; Kempisty, B

    2016-01-01

    The process of oocyte growth and development takes place during long stages of folliculogenesis and oogenesis. This is accompanied by biochemical and morphological changes, occurring from the preantral to antral stages during ovarian follicle differentiation. It is well known that the process of follicle growth is associated with morphological modifications of theca (TCs) and granulosa cells (GCs). However, the relationship between proliferation and/or differentiation of porcine GCs during long-term in vitro culture requires further investigation. Moreover, the expression of cytokeratins and vimentin in porcine GCs, in relation to real-time cell proliferation, has yet to be explored. Utilizing confocal microscopy, we analyzed cytokeratin 18 (CK18), cytokeratin 8 + 18 + 19 (panCK), and vimentin (Vim) expression, as well as their protein distribution, within GCs isolated from slaughtered ovarian follicles. The cells were cultured for 168 h with protein expression and cell proliferation index analyzed at 24-h intervals. We found the highest expression of CK18, panCK, and Vim occurred at 120 h of in vitro culture (IVC) as compared with other experimental time intervals. All of the investigated proteins displayed cytoplasmic distribution. Analysis of real-time cell proliferation revealed an increased cell index after the first 24 h of IVC. Additionally, during each period between 24-168 h of IVC, a significant difference in the proliferation profile, expressed as the cell index, was also observed. We concluded that higher expression of vimentin at 120 h of in vitro proliferation might explain the culmination of the stromalization process associated with growth and domination of stromal cells in GC culture. Cytokeratin expression within GC cytoplasm confirms the presence of epithelial cells as well as epithelial-related GC development during IVC. Moreover, expression of both cytokeratins and vimentin during short-term culture suggests that the process of GC proliferation

  7. Ozone enhances the uptake of mineral particles by tracheobronchial epithelial cells in organ culture.

    PubMed

    Churg, A; Brauer, M; Keeling, B

    1996-04-01

    We have previously shown that the basal uptake of mineral particles by tracheobronchial epithelial cells in organ culture is mediated in part by active oxygen species (AOS) and can be greatly augmented by exposure to cigarette smoke, a concentrated source of AOS, and other radicals. We hypothesized that ozone, another generator of AOS in tissues, might have the same effect. To test this hypothesis, tracheal explants were exposed to room air (control) or ozone in varying concentrations from 0.01 to 1.0 ppm for 10 min, and subsequently to a suspension of either amosite asbestos or titanium dioxide (rutile) for 1 h. Explants were then transferred to an air/CO2 incubator for 1 wk to allow particle uptake to occur, and uptake was determined by morphometry. We found that ozone exposure increased the uptake of both asbestos and titanium dioxide in a dose-response fashion; this effect appeared at lower exposure levels and was more marked with titanium dioxide than with amosite. The ozone effect could be prevented by addition of catalase but not superoxide dismutase to the particle suspension, or by preincubation of the particles with deferoxamine. These observations indicate that ozone can directly increase uptake of mineral particles by tracheobronchial epithelial cells; this effect occurs with brief exposures at very low ozone levels and appears to be mediated by hydrogen peroxide and possibly by hydroxyl radical. These findings support the general hypothesis that AOS are important mediators of epithelial particle uptake in many different settings. Enhanced uptake may be one of the mechanisms by which ozone impairs particle clearance from the lung and may play a role in the increased morbidity seen in populations with exposure to high levels of both ozone and atmospheric particulates.

  8. Proteins with epitopes of the acetylcholine receptor in epithelial cell cultures of thymomas in myasthenia gravis.

    PubMed Central

    Marx, A.; Kirchner, T.; Hoppe, F.; O'Connor, R.; Schalke, B.; Tzartos, S.; Müller-Hermelink, H. K.

    1989-01-01

    Thymomas from 12 patients with myasthenia gravis (MG) were investigated for the presence of epitopes of the alpha-subunit of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AchR) using monoclonal antibodies (MAb) reacting against the AchR. In all but two of the tumors epitopes corresponding to antigenic determinants located on the cytoplasmic side of the AchR were identified. From eight thymomas cell lines were established that have been kept in culture for up to 6 months. The cultured cells expressed the same AchR-epitopes as did the primary tumors. During early passages the percentage of epithelial cells positive for the AchR epitopes approximately mirrored the percentage of positive cells in the original tumors. With passaging the relative number of positive cells usually declined but in some cultures an increase was observed. Three cell lines that showed extensive staining with an MAb against the AchR were radiolabeled to characterize the antigen. From protein extracts of these three cell lines proteins of 45 kd and 156 kd molecular weight (MW) were precipitated. These proteins are different from other proteins described in the context of both thymomas and MG. The negative reactivity with MAb against other epitopes of the alpha-subunit, especially against the main immunogenic region (MIR), speaks in favor of membrane-associated proteins of only limited crossreactivity to the AchR. A previous study found an almost exclusive occurrence of these AchR-epitopes in thymomas associated with MG, but not in other thymomas of similar histologic type. The expression of the proteins described here could therefore play a role in the triggering of the autoimmune process against the AchR of the motor, endplate in MG patients. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:2468286

  9. Effects of cidofovir on cell death and replication of feline herpesvirus-1 in cultured feline corneal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Sandmeyer, Lynne S; Keller, Charlotte B; Bienzle, Dorothee

    2005-02-01

    To assess the effect of cidofovir on viability of feline corneal epithelial (FCE) cells, replication of feline herpesvirus (FHV)-1, and virus-induced cytopathic changes. Healthy eyes from 14 recently euthanatized cats. Cidofovir at concentrations ranging from 0.05 to 0.000005 mg/mL was added to primary cultures of FCE cells, and cytopathic changes and effects on cell proliferation and cell viability were determined during the subsequent 48 hours. Efficacy of cidofovir (0.02 and 0.05 mg/mL) to prevent in vitro infection of FCE cells with FHV-1 was determined during 72 hours of culture by assessing viral cytopathic effects and viral titers. Cidofovir at concentrations of 0.05, 0.005, and 0.0005 mg/mL significantly reduced mean viable cell counts, and cidofovir at a concentration of 0.05 mg/mL significantly reduced the percentage viability of cultured FCE cells. Minimal cytopathic changes were observed at concentrations of 0.02 and 0.05 mg of cidofovir/mL. Cidofovir at concentrations of 0.05 and 0.02 mg/mL abrogated the cytopathic effects attributable to FHV-1 infection and reduced viral titers from > or =10(14) TCID(50)/mL to < or =10(3.5) TCID50/mL. Cidofovir in vitro was highly efficacious against FHV-1 infection of a primary culture of FCE cells but had cytostatic effects on cultured cells.

  10. Mucin biosynthesis and secretion in tracheal epithelial cells in primary culture.

    PubMed Central

    Svitacheva, N; Davies, J R

    2001-01-01

    Density-gradient centrifugation of bovine tracheal epithelial cell extracts revealed a 'high-density' (1.48 g/ml) sialic-acid-rich population as well as a 'low-density' (1.42 g/ml) one that reacted more strongly with a periodate-Schiff (PAS) assay. The sialic-acid-rich mucins were oligomeric molecules containing disulphide- bond-linked subunits and large glycosylated domains, whereas the PAS-reactive component seemed to be smaller and 'monomeric'. Only the 'high-density' population was secreted from cells cultured for 5 days on plastic or a collagen type 1, Matrigel or Vitrogen substrate. Release was less from cells grown on plastic than from those on a substrate and the amount was unaffected by increasing the thickness of the collagen layer. For cells grown on collagen, the amount of the sialic-acid-rich mucin increased over 10 days, whereas the PAS-reactive component was largely absent after 24 h, which was consistent with an initial release of stored PAS-reactive molecules and synthesis of the sialic-acid-rich mucins de novo. Both [(3)H]proline and [(35)S]sulphate were poorly incorporated into mucins detected with the chemical assays but molecules with a higher buoyant density than that of either of the previously identified species were labelled with [(35)S]sulphate. The [(35)S]sulphate-labelled material yielded large trypsin-resistant fragments and contained O-linked glycans but was not affected by digestion with chondroitin ABC lyase or heparan sulphate lyase, suggesting that it is a mucin rather than a proteoglycan. [(35)S]Sulphate is thus a poor marker for the major oligomeric mucins produced by bovine tracheal epithelial cells but the radiolabel is incorporated into a heavily labelled mucin-like component. PMID:11115395

  11. [Influence of polysaccharide from Aloe vera on the proliferation of the human epithelial cells cultured in vitro].

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao-dong; Wu, Bo-yu; Jiang, Qiong; Wang, Shun-bin; Huang, Li-ying; Wang, Zhong-cheng

    2005-12-01

    To investigate the influence of polysaccharide from Aloe Vera (AP) on the proliferation of the human epithelial cells cultured in vitro. The human epithelial cells undergoing 3 to 4 passages of confluence culture were randomly divided into control and 25, 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg/L AP groups according to different dosage of the polysaccharide (AP) added into the culture medium. In the control group (C), equal volume of DK-SFM medium was added to the culturing cells. The conjugation time of epithelial cells, the changes in the cell morphology and ultrastructure were observed under inverted phase contrast microscope and transmission electron microscope, respectively. The cell proliferation was measured by MTT, cell count analysis and [(3)H]-TdR incorporation. Flow cytometry analysis was employed to detect the cell cycle. The leakage rate of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) was assayed for the evaluation of the epithelial cell injury. There was no significant difference in the morphology of the epithelial cells among the groups under inverted phase contrast microscope. But under the transmission electron microscope (TEM), the cells in 100 to 400 mg/L AP groups were seen to have proliferated actively, with euchromatin dominant in the nuclei, while heterochromatin was dominant in the cellular nucleus in control and 25 mg/L AP groups. The confluence time of epithelial cells in 50, 100, 200, 400 mg/L AP groups (154 +/- 12, 141 +/- 20, 130 +/- 19, 124 +/- 13) h preceded noticeably than that in control group (182 +/- 8) h, (P < 0.01). The cell proliferation in 100, 200, 400 mg/L groups reached the peak on the 5th day after AP treatment, while that in control and other groups was delayed by 1 to 2 days. The survival rate of the cells in 25 to 400 mg/L AP groups increased dramatically compared with that in control group, with its [(3)H]-TdR incorporation levels significantly increased in a dose dependent manner. The leakage rate of LDH in 200 and 400 mg/L AP groups was lower than

  12. Non-malignant respiratory epithelial cells preferentially proliferate from resected non-small cell lung cancer specimens cultured under conditionally reprogrammed conditions.

    PubMed

    Gao, Boning; Huang, Chunxian; Kernstine, Kemp; Pelekanou, Vasiliki; Kluger, Yuval; Jiang, Tingting; Peters-Hall, Jennifer R; Coquelin, Melissa; Girard, Luc; Zhang, Wei; Huffman, Kenneth; Oliver, Dwight; Kinose, Fumi; Haura, Eric; Teer, Jamie K; Rix, Uwe; Le, Anh T; Aisner, Dara L; Varella-Garcia, Marileila; Doebele, Robert C; Covington, Kyle R; Hampton, Oliver A; Doddapaneni, Harsha V; Jayaseelan, Joy C; Hu, Jianhong; Wheeler, David A; Shay, Jerry W; Rimm, David L; Gazdar, Adi; Minna, John D

    2017-02-14

    The "conditionally reprogrammed cells" (CRC) method, using a Rho kinase inhibitor and irradiated mouse fibroblast cells has been described for the efficient growth of cells from malignant and non-malignant samples from primary tumor and non-malignant sites. Using the CRC method, four institutions independently cultured tumor tissues from 48 non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC, mostly from primary resected tumors) and 22 non-malignant lungs. We found that epithelial cells could be cultured from tumor and non-malignant lung. However, epithelial cells cultured from tumors had features of non-malignant respiratory epithelial cells which include: 1) among 22 mutations found in the original tumors only two mutations were found in the CRC cultures with reduced frequency (31% to 13% and 92% to 15% from original tumor and CRC culture respectively); 2) copy number variation was analyzed in 9 tumor and their CRC cultures and only diploid patterns were found in CRC cultures; 3) mRNA expression profiles were similar to those of normal respiratory epithelial cells; and 4) co-culture of tumor and non-malignant lung epithelial cells resulted in mostly non-malignant cells. We conclude that CRC method is a highly selective and useful method for the growth of non-malignant respiratory epithelial cells from tumor specimens and only occasionally do such CRC cultures contain a small subpopulation of cancer cells marked by oncogenic mutations. While our findings are restricted to resected primary NSCLC, they indicated the necessity to fully characterize all CRC cultures and the need to develop culture technology that facilitates the growth of primary lung cancers.

  13. Elevated non-esterified fatty acid concentrations hamper bovine oviductal epithelial cell physiology in three different in vitro culture systems.

    PubMed

    Jordaens, L; Arias-Alvarez, M; Pintelon, I; Thys, S; Valckx, S; Dezhkam, Y; Bols, P E J; Leroy, J L M R

    2015-10-01

    Elevated non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs) have been recognized as an important link between lipolytic metabolic conditions and impaired fertility in high-yielding dairy cows. However, NEFA effects on the oviductal micro-environment currently remain unknown. We hypothesize that elevated NEFAs may contribute to the complex pathology of subfertility by exerting a negative effect on bovine oviductal epithelial cell (BOEC) physiology. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to elucidate direct NEFA effects on BOEC physiology in three different in vitro cell culture systems. Bovine oviductal epithelial cells (four replicates) were mechanically isolated, pooled, and cultured as conventional monolayers, as explants, and in a polarized cell culture system with Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium/F12-based culture medium. Bovine oviductal epithelial cells were exposed to an NEFA mixture of oleic, stearic, and palmitic acids for 24 hours at both physiological and pathologic concentrations. A control (0 μM NEFA) and a solvent control (0 μM NEFA + 0.45% ethanol) group were implemented. Bovine oviductal epithelial cells physiology was assessed by means of cell number and viability, a sperm binding assay, transepithelial electric resistance (TER), and a wound-healing assay. Bovine oviductal epithelial cell morphology was assessed by scanning electron microscopy on cell polarity, presence of microvilli and cilia, and monolayer integrity. Bovine oviductal epithelial cell number was negatively affected by increasing NEFAs, however, cell viability was not. Sperm binding affinity significantly decreased with increasing NEFAs and tended (P = 0.051) to be more affected by the direction of NEFA exposure in the polarized cell culture system. The absolute TER increase after NEFA exposure in the control (110 ± 11 Ω.cm(2)) was significantly higher than that in all the other treatments and was also different depending on the exposure side. Bidirectional exposed monolayers were even

  14. Basal cells are the progenitors of primary tracheal epithelial cell cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, J.R.; Terzaghi-Howe, M. Oak Ridge National Lab., TN )

    1992-01-01

    The goal of this study was to identify the cells from the rat tracheal epithelium which attach and proliferate in primary culture. When cells isolated from tracheas by enzymatic digestion were held in suspension at 37C for several hours most of the differentiated cells dies. The kinetics of this selective cell death were not dependent on the constituents of the holding medium. With time in suspension, the colony forming efficiency of the surviving cells increased two- to threefold. Comparison of the growth curves of cells held or plated directly showed no difference in the number of cells in the proliferating populations. Using two lectins, it was possible to monitor the loss of specific populations in suspension. BS1-B4 is a marker for basal cells and UEA-1 is a secretory cell marker. Only those cells that were BS1-B4 positive survived in suspension. Further, the colonies that formed in primary culture were positive for this marker. Single cell suspensions of cells were sorted by flow cytometry and a fivefold increase in the colony forming efficiency of BS1-B4 positive cells compared to that of the negative cells was observed. These findings suggest that the cells that survived in suspension and proliferated in culture originated from the basal cells of the trachea.

  15. Effect of different artificial tears against desiccation in cultured human epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Tost, Frank; Keiss, Ramona; Großjohann, Rico; Jürgens, Clemens; Giebel, Jürgen

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background A large number of artificial tears is widely used to treat dry eye symptoms. To test the efficacy of these drugs independent of individual parameters in vitro models are required. As described previously, we employed a reproducible in vitro cell culture system to evaluate the desiccation protection capability of some artificial tears. In the present paper data is presented of another set of pharmaceutical agents. Material/Methods Conjunctival epithelial cell line Chang 1-5c-4 (series 1) and the corneal cell line 2.040 pRSV-T (series 2) were cultured under standard conditions. Confluent cells were wetted for 20 min with artificial tears (Arufil® Uno, Arufil®, Lacrimal®, Lacophthal® sine, Siccaprotect®, Tears Again®, Vidisept® EDO, Vistil®, Wet Comod®) or PBS as a control. After exposure to a constant air flow for 0, 15, 30 and 45 minutes respectively, cells were incubated with the vital dye alamarBlue. Subsequently, absorption of the oxidised form of the dye was assessed using an ELISA-Reader. Results Cell best survival rates in series 1 after 15 min were found for Lacrimal® (0.89), Wet Comod® (0.84) compared to PBS (0.66) and in series 2 for Vidisept® EDO (0.57) and Lacrimal® (0.56) compared to PBS (0.01). After 45 min highest survival was seen in series 1 for Lacrimal® (0.46) and Lacophthal® sine (0.36) compared to PBS (0.33) and in series 2 for Lacrimal® (−0.06) and Arufil (−0.16) compared to PBS (−0.23). Conclusions Both cell lines tested showed different susceptibility towards desiccation and the artificial tears showed differences in preventing cells from desiccation. PMID:22534701

  16. Stem cell conditioned culture media attenuated albumin-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition in renal tubular cells.

    PubMed

    Hu, Junping; Zhu, Qing; Li, Pin-Lan; Wang, Weili; Yi, Fan; Li, Ningjun

    2015-01-01

    Proteinuria-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays an important role in progressive renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis in chronic renal disease. Stem cell therapy has been used for different diseases. Stem cell conditioned culture media (SCM) exhibits similar beneficial effects as stem cell therapy. The present study tested the hypothesis that SCM inhibits albumin-induced EMT in cultured renal tubular cells. Rat renal tubular cells were treated with/without albumin (20 µmg/ml) plus SCM or control cell media (CCM). EMT markers and inflammatory factors were measured by Western blot and fluorescent images. Albumin induced EMT as shown by significant decreases in levels of epithelial marker E-cadherin, increases in mesenchymal markers fibroblast-specific protein 1 and α-smooth muscle actin, and elevations in collagen I. SCM inhibited all these changes. Meanwhile, albumin induced NF-κB translocation from cytosol into nucleus and that SCM blocked the nuclear translocation of NF-κB. Albumin also increased the levels of pro-inflammatory factor monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP)-1 by nearly 30 fold compared with control. SCM almost abolished albumin-induced increase of MCP-1. These results suggest that SCM attenuated albumin-induced EMT in renal tubular cells via inhibiting activation of inflammatory factors, which may serve as a new therapeutic approach for chronic kidney diseases. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Cytotoxicity testing of multipurpose contact lens solutions using monolayer and stratified cultures of human corneal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Lim, Mary J; Hurst, Rachel K; Konynenbelt, B J; Ubels, John L

    2009-11-01

    To investigate in vitro cytotoxicity of five marketed multipurpose contact lens solutions (MPS) on the morphology, viability, and barrier function of monolayer and stratified human corneal-limbal epithelial cells. Cells were exposed to MPS for 10, 20, or 60 minutes. In monolayer cultures, effects of the MPS on cell morphology were observed using Hoffman modulation contrast microscopy. Cell proliferation after exposure to MPS was evaluated and cytotoxicity of the MPS was determined using a live/dead cell assay and flow cytometry. In stratified cultures, multilayer corneal epithelial constructs were established on membrane inserts. Effects of the MPS on the morphology and barrier function of stratified cultures were determined using microscopy, a fluorescein permeability test, and measurement of trans-epithelial resistance. In monolayer cultures, none of the MPS damaged cells during a 10-min exposure. All of the MPS had varying time-dependent adverse effects on cell morphology, viability, and proliferation during 20- and 60-min exposures. In stratified cultures, none of the MPS had an adverse effect on the structure or barrier function of stratified cultures. Monolayer cultures are highly sensitive to damage by MPS. In contrast, because stratified human corneal-limbal epithelial cultures are resistant to adverse effects of MPS, it is suggested that models that simulate the stratified structure of the corneal epithelium should be used for in vitro toxicologic testing. Caution should be used when interpreting such studies, because in vitro tests may not be predictive of clinical responses to contact lens products that are known to be safe when used as directed.

  18. Neuropeptides Exert Direct Effects on Rat Thymic Epithelial Cells in Culture

    PubMed Central

    Head, Gail M.; Mentlein, R.; Patay, Birte Von; Downing, J. E.G.

    1998-01-01

    To determine if major thymic neuropeptides and neurotransmitters can directly influence the functional activity of cultured rat thymic epithelium, neuropeptides and neurotransmitters were applied, and intercellular communication, proliferation, and thymulin secretion assessed. After injections of a mixture of lucifer yellow dextran (too large to pass gap junctions) and cascade blue (which does) into single cells, some neuropeptides decrease dye coupling: 0.1 mM GABA (P < 0.0001), 100 nM NPY (P < 0.0001), 100 nM VIP (P < 0.001), 100 nM CGRP (P < 0.001), 100 nM SP (P < 0.01), and 0.1 mM histamine (P < 0.01), whereas 0.1 mM 5-HT, mM acetylcholine, and 1 μM isoproterenol (β-adrenergic agonist) had no effect. Proliferation (incorporation of tritiated thymidine) was increased by CGRP (P = 0.004) and histamine (P < 0.02), but decreased by isoproterenol (P = 0.002), 5-HT (P = 0.003), and acetylcholine (P < 0.05). The percentage of multinucleate cells was decreased after isoproterenol (2.5%), and increased after 5-HT (21.3%), GABA (15%), and histamine (15.1%). Compared to controls, thymulin in the supernatant was decreased after challenge with acetylcholine (52%), isoproterenol (71%), 5-HT (73%), and histamine (84%). This study demonstrates direct effects of neuropeptides and neurotransmitters on functional aspects of cultured thymic epithelial cells. PMID:9716910

  19. Alginate as a cell culture substrate for growth and differentiation of human retinal pigment epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Heidari, Razeih; Soheili, Zahra-Soheila; Samiei, Shahram; Ahmadieh, Hamid; Davari, Maliheh; Nazemroaya, Fatemeh; Bagheri, Abouzar; Deezagi, Abdolkhalegh

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells' behavior in alginate beads that establish 3D environment for cellular growth and mimic extracellular matrix versus the conventional 2D monolayer culture. RPE cells were encapsulated in alginate beads by dripping alginate cell suspension into CaCl2 solution. Beads were suspended in three different media including Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM)/F12 alone, DMEM/F12 supplemented with 10 % fetal bovine serum (FBS), and DMEM/F12 supplemented with 30 % human amniotic fluid (HAF). RPE cells were cultivated on polystyrene under the same conditions as controls. Cell phenotype, cell proliferation, cell death, and MTT assay, immunocytochemistry, and real-time RT-PCR were performed to evaluate the effect of alginate on RPE cells characteristics and integrity. RPE cells can survive and proliferate in alginate matrixes. Immunocytochemistry analysis exhibited Nestin, RPE65, and cytokeratin expressions in a reasonable number of cultured cells in alginate beads. Real-time PCR data demonstrated high levels of Nestin, CHX10, RPE65, and tyrosinase gene expressions in RPE cells immobilized in alginate when compared to 2D monolayer culture systems. The results suggest that alginate can be used as a reliable scaffold for maintenance of RPE cells' integrity and in vitro propagation of human retinal progenitor cells for cell replacement therapies in retinal diseases.

  20. A chemically defined culture medium containing Rho kinase inhibitor Y-27632 for the fabrication of stratified squamous epithelial cell grafts

    SciTech Connect

    Aslanova, Afag; Takagi, Ryo; Yamato, Masayuki; Okano, Teruo; Yamamoto, Masakazu

    2015-05-01

    With the development of a culture method for stratified squamous epithelial cells, tissue-engineered epithelial cell sheets have been successfully applied as clinical cell grafts. However, the implementation of these cell sheets without the use of any animal-derived materials is highly desirable. In this study, Rho-associated protein kinase inhibitor Y-27632 was used to develop a chemically defined culture medium for the fabrication of stratified epithelial cell grafts consisting of human epidermal and oral keratinocytes, and the proliferation activity, cell morphology, and gene expressions of the keratinocytes were analyzed. The results of a colorimetric assay indicated that Y-27632 significantly promoted the proliferation of the keratinocytes in culture media both with and without fetal bovine serum (FBS), although there were no indications of Y-27632 efficacy on cell morphology and stratification of the keratinocytes in culture medium without any animal-derived materials. The results of quantitative RT-PCR revealed that gene expressions correlated with cell adhesion, cell–cell junction, proliferation markers, and stem/progenitor markers in cultured keratinocytes were not strongly affected by the addition of Y-27632 to the culture medium. Moreover, gene expressions of differentiation markers in stratified keratinocytes cultured in medium without FBS were nearly identical to those of keratinocytes co-cultured with 3T3 feeder cells. Interestingly, the expressions of differentiation markers in cultured stratified keratinocytes were suppressed by FBS, whereas they were reconstructed by either co-culture of a 3T3 feeder layer or addition of Y-27632 into the culture medium containing FBS. These findings indicate that Y-27632 is a useful supplement for the development of a chemically defined culture medium for fabrication of stratified epithelial cell grafts for clinical applications for the purpose of developing the culture medium with a lower risk of pathogen

  1. Establishment of a long-term three-dimensional primary culture of mouse glandular stomach epithelial cells within the stem cell niche.

    PubMed

    Katano, Takahito; Ootani, Akifumi; Mizoshita, Tsutomu; Tanida, Satoshi; Tsukamoto, Hironobu; Ozeki, Keiji; Ebi, Masahide; Mori, Yoshinori; Kataoka, Hiromi; Kamiya, Takeshi; Toda, Shuji; Joh, Takashi

    2013-03-22

    Compared to the small intestine and colon, little is known about stem cells in the stomach because of a lack of specific stem cell markers and an in vitro system that allows long-term culture. Here we describe a long-term three-dimensional (3D) primary gastric culture system within the stem cell niche. Glandular stomach cells from neonatal mice cultured in collagen gel yielded expanding sphere-like structures for 3months. The wall of the gastrospheres consisted of a highly polarized epithelial monolayer with an outer lining of myofibroblasts. The epithelial cells showed a tall columnar cell shape, basal round nuclei, and mucus-filled cytoplasm as well as expression of MUC5AC, indicating differentiation into gastric surface mucous cells. These cells demonstrated the features of fully differentiated gastric surface mucous cells such as microvilli, junctional complexes, and glycogen and secretory granules. Fewer than 1% of cultured epithelial cells differentiated into enteroendocrine cells. Active proliferation of the epithelial cells and many apoptotic cells in the inner lumen revealed the rapid cell turnover in gastrospheres in vitro. This method enables us to investigate the role of signaling between cell-cell and epithelial-mesenchymal interactions in an environment that is extremely similar to the in vivo environment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Primary Murine Small Intestinal Epithelial Cells, Maintained in Long-Term Culture, Are Susceptible to Rotavirus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Macartney, Kristine K.; Baumgart, Daniel C.; Carding, Simon R.; Brubaker, Jeffery O.; Offit, Paul A.

    2000-01-01

    We describe a method for long-term culture of primary small intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) from suckling mice. IEC were digested from intestinal fragments as small intact units of epithelium (organoids) by using collagenase and dispase. IEC proliferated from organoids on a basement-membrane-coated culture surface and remained viable for 3 weeks. Cultured IEC had the morphologic and functional characteristics of immature enterocytes, notably sustained expression of cytokeratin and alkaline phosphatase. Few mesenchymal cells were present in the IEC cultures. IEC were also cultured from adult BALB/c mice and expressed major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II antigens for at least 48 h in vitro. Primary IEC supported the growth of rhesus rotavirus (RRV) to a greater extent than a murine small intestinal cell line, m-ICcl2. Cell-culture-adapted murine rotavirus strain EDIM infected primary IEC and m-ICcl2 cells to a lesser extent than RRV. Wild-type EDIM did not infect either cell type. Long-term culture of primary murine small intestinal epithelial cells provides a method to study (i) virus-cell interactions, (ii) the capacity of IEC to act as antigen-presenting cells using a wide variety of MHC haplotypes, and (iii) IEC biology. PMID:10823867

  3. Establishment of a novel lingual organoid culture system: generation of organoids having mature keratinized epithelium from adult epithelial stem cells.

    PubMed

    Hisha, Hiroko; Tanaka, Toshihiro; Kanno, Shohei; Tokuyama, Yoko; Komai, Yoshihiro; Ohe, Shuichi; Yanai, Hirotsugu; Omachi, Taichi; Ueno, Hiroo

    2013-11-15

    Despite the strong need for the establishment of a lingual epithelial cell culture system, a simple and convenient culture method has not yet been established. Here, we report the establishment of a novel lingual epithelium organoid culture system using a three-dimensional matrix and growth factors. Histological analyses showed that the generated organoids had both a stratified squamous epithelial cell layer and a stratum corneum. Very recently, we showed via a multicolor lineage tracing method that Bmi1-positive stem cells exist at the base of the epithelial basal layer in the interpapillary pit. Using our new culture system, we found that organoids could be generated by single Bmi1-positive stem cells and that in the established organoids, multiple Bmi1-positive stem cells were generated at the outermost layer. Moreover, we observed that organoids harvested at an early point in culture could be engrafted and maturate in the tongue of recipient mice and that the organoids generated from carcinogen-treated mice had an abnormal morphology. Thus, this culture system presents valuable settings for studying not only the regulatory mechanisms of lingual epithelium but also lingual regeneration and carcinogenesis.

  4. Establishment of a Novel Lingual Organoid Culture System: Generation of Organoids Having Mature Keratinized Epithelium from Adult Epithelial Stem Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hisha, Hiroko; Tanaka, Toshihiro; Kanno, Shohei; Tokuyama, Yoko; Komai, Yoshihiro; Ohe, Shuichi; Yanai, Hirotsugu; Omachi, Taichi; Ueno, Hiroo

    2013-11-01

    Despite the strong need for the establishment of a lingual epithelial cell culture system, a simple and convenient culture method has not yet been established. Here, we report the establishment of a novel lingual epithelium organoid culture system using a three-dimensional matrix and growth factors. Histological analyses showed that the generated organoids had both a stratified squamous epithelial cell layer and a stratum corneum. Very recently, we showed via a multicolor lineage tracing method that Bmi1-positive stem cells exist at the base of the epithelial basal layer in the interpapillary pit. Using our new culture system, we found that organoids could be generated by single Bmi1-positive stem cells and that in the established organoids, multiple Bmi1-positive stem cells were generated at the outermost layer. Moreover, we observed that organoids harvested at an early point in culture could be engrafted and maturate in the tongue of recipient mice and that the organoids generated from carcinogen-treated mice had an abnormal morphology. Thus, this culture system presents valuable settings for studying not only the regulatory mechanisms of lingual epithelium but also lingual regeneration and carcinogenesis.

  5. Voltage-activated currents recorded from rabbit pigmented ciliary body epithelial cells in culture.

    PubMed Central

    Fain, G L; Farahbakhsh, N A

    1989-01-01

    1. The whole-cell recording mode of the patch-clamp technique was used to investigate the presence of voltage-activated currents in the isolated pigmented cells from the rabbit ciliary body epithelium grown in culture. 2. In Ringer solution with composition similar to that of the rabbit aqueous humour, depolarizing voltage steps activated a transient inward current and a delayed outward current, while hyperpolarization elicited an inwardly rectified current. 3. The depolarization-activated inward current was mainly carried by Na+ and was blocked by submicromolar concentrations of tetrodotoxin. This current in many cells was sufficiently large to produce a regenerative Na+ spike. 4. The depolarization-activated outward current was carried by K+ and blocked by external TEA and Ba2+. Its activation appeared to be Ca2(+)-independent. 5. The hyperpolarization-activated inward current was almost exclusively carried by K+ and was blocked by Ba2+ and Cs+. For large hyperpolarizations below -120 mV, this current exhibited a biphasic activation with a fast transient peak followed by a slower sag, that appeared to be due to K+ depletion. 6. The voltage-dependent K+ conductances probably act to stabilize the cell membrane resting potential and may also play a role in ion transport. The function of the Na(+)-dependent inward current is unclear, but it may permit the electrically coupled epithelial cells of the ciliary body to conduct propagated action potentials. Images Fig. 2 PMID:2621623

  6. EFFECTS OF ATRAZINE AND AN ATRAZINE METABOLITE MIXTURE ON DIFFERENTIATED MAMMARY EPITHELIAL CELL MILK PROTEIN PRODUCTION IN CULTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effects of Atrazine and an Atrazine Metabolite Mixture on Differentiated Mammary Epithelial Cell Milk Protein Production in Culture

    E.P. Hines, R. Barbee, M. Blanton, M.S. Pooler, and S.E. Fenton. US EPA, ORD/NHEERL, RTD, RTP, NC, 27711, USA.

    Previous studies have ...

  7. EFFECTS OF ATRAZINE AND AN ATRAZINE METABOLITE MIXTURE ON DIFFERENTIATED MAMMARY EPITHELIAL CELL MILK PROTEIN PRODUCTION IN CULTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effects of Atrazine and an Atrazine Metabolite Mixture on Differentiated Mammary Epithelial Cell Milk Protein Production in Culture

    E.P. Hines, R. Barbee, M. Blanton, M.S. Pooler, and S.E. Fenton. US EPA, ORD/NHEERL, RTD, RTP, NC, 27711, USA.

    Previous studies have ...

  8. Interaction of platelet-activating factor with cultured guinea pig tracheal epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Churchill, L; Chilton, F H; Proud, D

    1991-01-01

    The present study has examined the interaction of platelet-activating factor (PAF) with cultured guinea pig tracheal epithelial cells (GTE). PAF stimulated GTE to release endogenous arachidonic acid and metabolize it to prostaglandins E2 and F2 alpha (PGE2 and PGF2 alpha). Prostanoid production by GTE in response to PAF was dose-dependent (0.1-100 nM) and was maximal within 5 min. PGE2 and PGF2 alpha levels increased by 3.3 +/- 0.8 and 3.2 +/- 0.6 ng/10(6) cells respectively over basal levels in response to 100 nM-PAF. The ability of GTE to synthesize and/or catabolize PAF was also examined. GTE readily incorporated [3H]acetate into a product which migrated on t.l.c. with PAF. However, further characterization of this product suggested that label had not been incorporated into PAF, but rather that it was incorporated into another lipid product with chromatographic characteristics similar to those of PAF. In contrast, GTE readily metabolized PAF to inactive products. When [3H]PAF was incubated with GTE, 50% of the total [3H]PAF added was catabolized in approx. 15 min. The major route of catabolism of PAF by GTE was the deacetylation-reacylation pathway, which yielded 1-O-[3H]alkyl-2-acyl-sn-glycerophosphocholine. Determination of the nature of the long-chain acyl group incorporated into the sn-2 position of the newly synthesized products revealed that oleic and linoleic acids were the major fatty acids present. Taken together, these results suggest that respiratory epithelial cells respond to stimulation by PAF with enhanced production of PGE2 and PGF2 alpha, and also have the capacity to modulate inflammatory reactions in the airways by their ability to degrade this potent inflammatory mediator. Images Fig. 1. PMID:2064601

  9. Establishment of a long-term three-dimensional primary culture of mouse glandular stomach epithelial cells within the stem cell niche

    SciTech Connect

    Katano, Takahito; Ootani, Akifumi; Mizoshita, Tsutomu; Tanida, Satoshi; Tsukamoto, Hironobu; Ozeki, Keiji; Ebi, Masahide; Mori, Yoshinori; Kataoka, Hiromi; Kamiya, Takeshi; Toda, Shuji; Joh, Takashi

    2013-03-22

    Highlights: ► We established a 3D culture system to allow long-term culture of stomach cells. ► In this culture system, gastric epithelial cells grew for about 3 months. ► The cultured cells differentiated into multi-units of the stomach. ► This culture method should be useful for elucidating the cause of gastric diseases. -- Abstract: Compared to the small intestine and colon, little is known about stem cells in the stomach because of a lack of specific stem cell markers and an in vitro system that allows long-term culture. Here we describe a long-term three-dimensional (3D) primary gastric culture system within the stem cell niche. Glandular stomach cells from neonatal mice cultured in collagen gel yielded expanding sphere-like structures for 3 months. The wall of the gastrospheres consisted of a highly polarized epithelial monolayer with an outer lining of myofibroblasts. The epithelial cells showed a tall columnar cell shape, basal round nuclei, and mucus-filled cytoplasm as well as expression of MUC5AC, indicating differentiation into gastric surface mucous cells. These cells demonstrated the features of fully differentiated gastric surface mucous cells such as microvilli, junctional complexes, and glycogen and secretory granules. Fewer than 1% of cultured epithelial cells differentiated into enteroendocrine cells. Active proliferation of the epithelial cells and many apoptotic cells in the inner lumen revealed the rapid cell turnover in gastrospheres in vitro. This method enables us to investigate the role of signaling between cell–cell and epithelial–mesenchymal interactions in an environment that is extremely similar to the in vivo environment.

  10. Oral insulin stimulates intestinal epithelial cell turnover following massive small bowel resection in a rat and a cell culture model.

    PubMed

    Ben Lulu, Shani; Coran, Arnold G; Shehadeh, Naim; Shamir, Raanan; Mogilner, Jorge G; Sukhotnik, Igor

    2012-02-01

    We have recently reported that oral insulin (OI) stimulates intestinal adaptation after bowel resection and that OI enhances enterocyte turnover in correlation with insulin receptor expression along the villus-crypt axis. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of OI on intestinal epithelial cell proliferation and apoptosis in a rat model of short bowel syndrome (SBS) and in a cell culture model. Caco-2 cells were incubated with increasing concentrations of insulin. Cell proliferation and apoptosis were determined by FACS cytometry. Cell viability was investigated using the Alamar Blue technique. Male rats were divided into three groups: Sham rats underwent bowel transection, SBS rats underwent a 75% bowel resection, and SBS-OI rats underwent bowel resection and were treated with OI given in drinking water (1 U/ml) from the third postoperative day. Parameters of intestinal adaptation, enterocyte proliferation and apoptosis were determined on day 15. Real time PCR was used to determine the level of bax and bcl-2 mRNA and western blotting was used to determine bax, bcl-2, p-ERK and AKT protein levels. Statistical analysis was performed using the one-way ANOVA test, with P < 0.05 considered statistically significant. Treatment of Caco-2 cells with insulin resulted in a significant increase in cell proliferation (twofold increase after 24 h and 37% increase after 48 h) and cell viability (in a dose-dependent manner), but did not change cell apoptosis. In a rat model of SBS, treatment with OI resulted in a significant increase in all parameters of intestinal adaptation. Elevated cell proliferation rate in insulin treated rats was accompanied by elevated AKT and p-ERK protein levels. Decreased cell apoptosis in SBS-INS rats corresponded with a decreased bax/bcl-2 ratio. Oral insulin stimulates intestinal epithelial cell turnover after massive small bowel resection in a rat model of SBS and a cell culture model.

  11. Vortex or whorl formation of cultured human corneal epithelial cells induced by magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Dua, H S; Singh, A; Gomes, J A; Laibson, P R; Donoso, L A; Tyagi, S

    1996-01-01

    The terms 'vortex keratopathy' and 'hurricane keratopathy' describe two similar conditions affecting the corneal surface. In the former, a vortex or whorl pattern is seen on the corneal surface and is due to the deposition of substances such as pigment, iron or drugs in the epithelial cells. In the latter, a similar pattern is presented by migrating epithelial cells but, unlike the former, the pattern is rendered more visible by fluorescein staining. Both represent the migratory pattern of normal epithelial cells which is otherwise not visible due to the slow rate of epithelial turnover and migration. The whorl pattern has a clockwise predisposition in the majority of cases and is hypothesised to be due to the influence of ocular electro-magnetic fields on the migrating epithelial cells. In this study we tested in vitro the effect of static magnetic fields on corneal epithelial cells. We were able to reproduce dramatic vortex or whorl patterns in response to magnetic fields, but without preferential migration towards the North or South Pole.

  12. Tamoxifen Toxicity in Cultured Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells Is Mediated by Concurrent Regulated Cell Death Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Leo A.; Amarnani, Dhanesh; Gnanaguru, Gopalan; Tseng, Wen Allen; Vavvas, Demetrios G.; D'Amore, Patricia A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the mechanism of tamoxifen-induced cell death in human cultured RPE cells, and to investigate concurrent cell death mechanisms including pyroptosis, apoptosis, and necroptosis. Methods. Human RPE cells were cultured until confluence and treated with tamoxifen; cell death was measured by detecting LDH release. Tamoxifen-induced cell death was further confirmed by 7-aminoactinomycin D (7-AAD) and annexin V staining. Lysosomal destabilization was assessed using lysosomal-associated membrane protein-1 (LAMP-1) and acridine orange staining. The roles of lysosomal enzymes cathepsin B and L were examined by blocking their activity. Caspase activity was evaluated by caspase-1, -3, -8, and -9 specific inhibition. Cells were primed with IL-1α and treated with tamoxifen; mature IL-1β production was quantified via ELISA. Caspase activity was verified with the fluorochrome-labeled inhibitor of caspases (FLICA) probe specific for each caspase. Regulated cell necrosis or necroptosis was examined with 7-AAD and inhibition of receptor-interacting protein 1 (RIP1) kinase using necrostatin-1 (Nec-1). Results. Cell death occurred within 2 hours of tamoxifen treatment of confluent RPE cells and was accompanied by lysosomal membrane permeabilization. Blockade of cathepsin B and L activity led to a significant decrease in cell death, indicating that lysosomal destabilization and cathepsin release occur prior to regulated cell death. Tamoxifen-induced toxicity was shown to occur through both caspase-dependent and caspase-independent cell death pathways. Treatment of RPE cells with caspase inhibitors and Nec-1 resulted in a near complete rescue from cell death. Conclusions. Tamoxifen-induced cell death occurs through concurrent regulated cell death mechanisms. Simultaneous inhibition of caspase-dependent and caspase-independent cell death pathways is required to protect cells from tamoxifen. Inhibition of upstream activators, such as the cathepsins, may represent a

  13. Epithelial cell culture from human adenoids: a functional study model for ciliated and secretory cells.

    PubMed

    González, Claudia; Espinosa, Marisol; Sánchez, María Trinidad; Droguett, Karla; Ríos, Mariana; Fonseca, Ximena; Villalón, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Mucociliary transport (MCT) is a defense mechanism of the airway. To study the underlying mechanisms of MCT, we have both developed an experimental model of cultures, from human adenoid tissue of ciliated and secretory cells, and characterized the response to local chemical signals that control ciliary activity and the secretion of respiratory mucins in vitro. In ciliated cell cultures, ciliary beat frequency (CBF) and intracellular Ca(2+) levels were measured in response to ATP, UTP, and adenosine. In secretory cultures, mucin synthesis and secretion were identified by using immunodetection. Mucin content was taken from conditioned medium and analyzed in the presence or absence of UTP. Enriched ciliated cell monolayers and secretory cells were obtained. Ciliated cells showed a basal CBF of 10.7 Hz that increased significantly after exposure to ATP, UTP, or adenosine. Mature secretory cells showed active secretion of granules containing different glycoproteins, including MUC5AC. Culture of ciliated and secretory cells grown from adenoid epithelium is a reproducible and feasible experimental model, in which it is possible to observe ciliary and secretory activities, with a potential use as a model to understand mucociliary transport control mechanisms.

  14. Epithelial Cell Culture from Human Adenoids: A Functional Study Model for Ciliated and Secretory Cells

    PubMed Central

    González, Claudia; Espinosa, Marisol; Sánchez, María Trinidad; Droguett, Karla; Ríos, Mariana; Fonseca, Ximena; Villalón, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Background. Mucociliary transport (MCT) is a defense mechanism of the airway. To study the underlying mechanisms of MCT, we have both developed an experimental model of cultures, from human adenoid tissue of ciliated and secretory cells, and characterized the response to local chemical signals that control ciliary activity and the secretion of respiratory mucins in vitro. Materials and Methods. In ciliated cell cultures, ciliary beat frequency (CBF) and intracellular Ca2+ levels were measured in response to ATP, UTP, and adenosine. In secretory cultures, mucin synthesis and secretion were identified by using immunodetection. Mucin content was taken from conditioned medium and analyzed in the presence or absence of UTP. Results. Enriched ciliated cell monolayers and secretory cells were obtained. Ciliated cells showed a basal CBF of 10.7 Hz that increased significantly after exposure to ATP, UTP, or adenosine. Mature secretory cells showed active secretion of granules containing different glycoproteins, including MUC5AC. Conclusion. Culture of ciliated and secretory cells grown from adenoid epithelium is a reproducible and feasible experimental model, in which it is possible to observe ciliary and secretory activities, with a potential use as a model to understand mucociliary transport control mechanisms. PMID:23484122

  15. Cytoprotective role of taurine in a renal epithelial cell culture model.

    PubMed

    Eppler, Bärbel; Dawson, Ralph

    2002-03-15

    Taurine (TAU) is a sulfur-containing amino acid that has been shown to decrease during aging and is believed to be important for cytoprotection. A decrease in TAU could exacerbate the accumulation of free radical-induced damage that may lead to cell death during the aging process. We have shown previously that TAU directly inhibits dopamine (DA) and (-)-3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-L-alanine (L-dopa) oxidation. Experiments were conducted to establish a cytoprotective role for TAU. Porcine renal epithelial cells were treated for 1 hr with iron and catecholamines (L-dopa and DA) to produce cytotoxicity by a free radical and quinone mechanism in the absence and presence of 10 or 20mM TAU. Viability assays, protein, and DNA measurements were performed after a 24hr recovery period. In some experiments, cells were extracted immediately after the insult for DA and TAU content measurements using high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. Catecholamine-induced cytotoxicity caused a 50% loss in cell viability, and 10 or 20mM TAU provided significant protection from cytotoxicity and maintained the functional integrity of the cells. Photomicrographs showed attenuation in cell loss and swelling in the presence of TAU. Pretreatment with 1mM TAU followed by exposure to iron and L-dopa in the presence of 1mM TAU caused a moderate but non-significant increase in cell survival. These data conclusively show that TAU can play a cytoprotective role in the LLC-PK(1) cell culture model.

  16. Human Amniotic Epithelial Cells Cultured in Substitute Serum Medium Maintain Their Stem Cell Characteristics for Up to Four Passages

    PubMed Central

    Evron, Ayelet; Goldman, Shlomit; Shalev, Eliezer

    2011-01-01

    Background and Objectives: The common applied culture medium in which human amniotic epithelial cells (hAECs) maintain their stem cell characteristics contains fetal calf serum (FCS) and thus is not compatible with possible future clinical applications due to the danger of animal derived pathogens. To overcome this problem, we replaced FCS with serum substitute supplement, a serum substitute used in the in vitro fertilization for embryo development, in the common applied culture medium and cultured hAECs in this substitute serum medium (SSM). Methods and Results: Purity validation and characterization of freshly isolated and cultured hAECs was assessed through the expression of stem cell specific markers by RT-PCR (gene expression), by immunofluorescence staining and FACS (protein expression). Furthermore, karyotype was performed at passage four in order to exclude possible chromosome anomalies in hAECs cultured in SSM. The differentiation potential of hAECs into the cardiomyogenic lineage was tested through cardiac Troponin T expression by immunohistochemistry. hAECs cultured in SSM maintained expression of all the major pluripotent genes Sox-2, Oct-4 and Nanog as well as the expression of the embryonic stem cell specific surface antigens SSEA-4, SSEA-3 and TRA-1-60 over four passages. Using cardiac differentiation medium containing 10% serum substitute supplement, hAECs differentiated into cardiac troponin T expressing cells. Conclusions: We can conclude that, hAECs maintain their stem cell characteristics when cultured in SSM for up to 4 passages. This makes possible future clinical applications of these cells more feasible. PMID:24298345

  17. Ambroxol inhibits rhinovirus infection in primary cultures of human tracheal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Yamaya, Mutsuo; Nishimura, Hidekazu; Nadine, Lusamba Kalonji; Ota, Chiharu; Kubo, Hiroshi; Nagatomi, Ryoichi

    2014-04-01

    The mucolytic drug ambroxol hydrochloride reduces the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and the frequency of exacerbation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, the inhibitory effects of ambroxol on rhinovirus infection, the major cause of COPD exacerbations, have not been studied. We examined the effects of ambroxol on type 14 rhinovirus (RV14) infection, a major RV group, in primary cultures of human tracheal epithelial cells. RV14 infection increased virus titers and cytokine content in the supernatants and RV14 RNA in the cells. Ambroxol (100 nM) reduced RV14 titers and cytokine concentrations of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and IL-8 in the supernatants and RV14 RNA in the cells after RV14 infection, in addition to reducing susceptibility to RV14 infection. Ambroxol also reduced the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), the receptor for RV14, and the number of acidic endosomes from which RV14 RNA enters the cytoplasm. In addition, ambroxol reduced the activation of the transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) in the nucleus. These results suggest that ambroxol inhibits RV14 infection partly by reducing ICAM-1 and acidic endosomes via the inhibition of NF-κB activation. Ambroxol may modulate airway inflammation by reducing the production of cytokines in rhinovirus infection.

  18. Monoclonal antibodies to an epithelial ovarian adenocarcinoma: distinctive reactivity with xenografts of the original tumor and a cultured cell line.

    PubMed

    Baumal, R; Law, J; Buick, R N; Kahn, H; Yeger, H; Sheldon, K; Colgan, T; Marks, A

    1986-08-01

    Four monoclonal antibodies (mAb) (8C, 10B, M2A, and M2D) were produced against the human epithelial ovarian adenocarcinoma cell line, HEY. The affinity constants of binding of the mAb to cultured HEY cells were 8 X 10(8) M-1 (M2D) and 10(9) M-1 (8C and 10B). mAb 8C reacted with a major glycoprotein of Mr 90,000 on the surface of HEY cells. The four mAb differed from previously reported mAb to epithelial ovarian adenocarcinomas on the basis of their reactivity with cultured ovarian adenocarcinoma cell lines using a cell-binding radioimmunoassay, and their staining of cryostat sections of various human normal and tumor tissues using an immunoperoxidase reaction. All four mAb reacted with s.c. tumors derived by injecting cultured HEY cells into thymectomized CBA/CJ mice. However, only two of the four mAb (8C and 10B) also reacted with s.c. tumors of the original HEY xenograft from which the cultured cell line was derived. In addition, mAb 8C and 10B reacted by immunoperoxidase staining with 2 and 4 different cases, respectively, of 11 epithelial ovarian adenocarcinomas examined. Cultured HEY cells were adapted to grow i.p. in BALB/c-nu/nu mice and the i.p. tumors retained their reactivity with the monoclonal antibodies. These tumor-bearing mice offer a useful model system for studying the potential of mAb, especially 8C and 10B, for the diagnosis and treatment of patients with peritoneal extension of epithelial ovarian adenocarcinomas.

  19. Electrical properties of dog tracheal epithelial cells grown in monolayer culture.

    PubMed

    Coleman, D L; Tuet, I K; Widdicombe, J H

    1984-03-01

    Epithelial cells from dog trachea, when grown in tissue culture, formed confluent monolayers 5-6 days after plating. After 8-10 days, domes [mean diam 356 +/- (SE) 53 micron] appeared in monolayers grown in collagen-coated flasks. When grown on polycarbonate filters coated with collagen, a detectable resistance (greater than 5 omega X cm2) and transepithelial potential difference (PD) (greater than 0.1 mV) developed 6 days after plating and increased to approximately 15 omega X cm2 and 15 mV at 10 days. Serosal ouabain (10(-4) M) abolished PD and short-circuit current (Isc). Luminal ouabain had no effect. Luminal amiloride (10(-4) M) and serosal bumetanide (10(-4) M) each decreased PD and Isc. However, a combination of both of these drugs did not abolish Isc. Isoproterenol (10(-5) M), dibutyryl adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (10(-3) M), vasoactive intestinal peptide (10(-7) M), prostaglandin (PG) E2 (10(-5) M), PGF2 alpha (10(-5) M), and bradykinin (10(-5) M) each increased PD and Isc. Thus these monolayer cultures maintain electrical properties resembling those of the original tissue. This preparation may prove useful for the study of water and ion transport by airway epithelia.

  20. Chromosomal changes in cultured human epithelial cells transformed by low- and high-LET radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Tracy Chui-hsu; Craise, L.M; Prioleau, J.C.; Stampfer, M.R.; Rhim, J.S.

    1990-11-01

    For a better assessment of radiation risk in space, an understanding of the responses of human cells, especially the epithelial cells, to low- and high-LET radiation is essential. In our laboratory, we have successfully developed techniques to study the neoplastic transformation of two human epithelial cell systems by ionizing radiation. These cell systems are human mammary epithelial cells (H184B5) and human epidermal keratinocytes (HEK). Both cell lines are immortal, anchorage dependent for growth, and nontumorigenic in athymic nude nice. Neoplastic transformation was achieved by irradiation cells successively. Our results showed that radiogenic cell transformation is a multistep process and that a single exposure of ionizing radiation can cause only one step of transformation. It requires, therefore, multihits to make human epithelial cells fully tumorigenic. Using a simple karyotyping method, we did chromosome analysis with cells cloned at various stages of transformation. We found no consistent large terminal deletion of chromosomes in radiation-induced transformants. Some changes of total number of chromosomes, however, were observed in the transformed cells. These transformants provide an unique opportunity for further genetic studies at a molecular level. 15 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Chromosomal changes in cultured human epithelial cells transformed by low- and high-LET radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craise, L. M.; Prioleau, J. C.; Stampfer, M. R.; Rhim, J. S.; Yang, TC-H (Principal Investigator)

    1992-01-01

    For a better assessment of radiation risk in space, an understanding of the responses of human cells, especially the epithelial cells, to low- and high-LET radiation is essential. In our laboratory, we have successfully developed techniques to study the neoplastic transformation of two human epithelial cell systems by ionizing radiation. These cell systems are human mammary epithelial cells (H184B5) and human epidermal keratinocytes (HEK). Both cell lines are immortal, anchorage dependent for growth, and nontumorigenic in athymic nude mice. Neoplastic transformation was achieved by irradiating cells successively. Our results showed that radiogenic cell transformation is a multistep process and that a single exposure of ionizing radiation can cause only one step of transformation. It requires, therefore, multihits to make human epithelial cells fully tumorigenic. Using a simple karyotyping method, we did chromosome analysis with cells cloned at various stages of transformation. We found no consistent large terminal deletion of chromosomes in radiation-induced transformants. Some changes of total number of chromosomes, however, were observed in the transformed cells. These transformants provide an unique opportunity for further genetic studies at a molecular level.

  2. Chromosomal changes in cultured human epithelial cells transformed by low- and high-LET radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craise, L. M.; Prioleau, J. C.; Stampfer, M. R.; Rhim, J. S.; Yang, TC-H (Principal Investigator)

    1992-01-01

    For a better assessment of radiation risk in space, an understanding of the responses of human cells, especially the epithelial cells, to low- and high-LET radiation is essential. In our laboratory, we have successfully developed techniques to study the neoplastic transformation of two human epithelial cell systems by ionizing radiation. These cell systems are human mammary epithelial cells (H184B5) and human epidermal keratinocytes (HEK). Both cell lines are immortal, anchorage dependent for growth, and nontumorigenic in athymic nude mice. Neoplastic transformation was achieved by irradiating cells successively. Our results showed that radiogenic cell transformation is a multistep process and that a single exposure of ionizing radiation can cause only one step of transformation. It requires, therefore, multihits to make human epithelial cells fully tumorigenic. Using a simple karyotyping method, we did chromosome analysis with cells cloned at various stages of transformation. We found no consistent large terminal deletion of chromosomes in radiation-induced transformants. Some changes of total number of chromosomes, however, were observed in the transformed cells. These transformants provide an unique opportunity for further genetic studies at a molecular level.

  3. Chromosomal changes in cultured human epithelial cells transformed by low- and high-let radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chui-Hsu Yang, Tracy; Craise, Laurie M.; Prioleau, John C.; Stampfer, Martha R.; Rhim, Johng S.

    1992-07-01

    For a better assessment of radiation risk in space, an understanding of the responses of human cells, especially the epithelial cells, to low- and high-LET radiation is essential. In our laboratory, we have successfully developed techniques to study the neoplastic transformation of two human epithelial cell systems by ionizing radiation. These cell systems are human mammary epithelial cells (H184B5) and human epidermal keratinocytes (HEK). Both cell lines are immortal, anchorage dependent for growth, and nontumorigenic in athymic nude mice. Neoplastic transformation was achieved by irradiating cells successively. Our results showed that radiogenic cell transformation is a multistep process and that a single exposure of ionizing radiation can cause only one step of transformation. It requires, therefore, multihits to make human epithelial cells fully tumorigenic. Using a simple karyotyping method, we did chromosome analysis with cells cloned at various stages of transformation. We found no consistent large terminal deletion of chromosomes in radiation-induced transformants. Some changes of total number of chromosomes, however, were observed in the transformed cells. These transformants provide an unique opportunity for further genetic studies at a molecular level.

  4. [Simulation of corneal epithelial injuries by mechanical and corrosive damage : Influence of fetal bovine serum and dexpanthenol on epithelial regeneration in a cell culture model].

    PubMed

    Hahne, M; Reichl, S

    2010-06-01

    The present study describes simulation of corneal epithelial injury and its regeneration using an in-vitro model of immortalized human corneal epithelial cells (HCE-T) growing as monolayer cultures. The epithelial model was damaged using defined strengths by mechanical injury or partial damage using chemical detergents (SDS and acidified medium) and subsequently the epithelium was further cultivated using serum-containing and serum-free medium supplemented with varying concentrations of calcium pantothenat. After mechanical injury wound healing was evaluated using a photomicroscope over a period of up to 48 h whereas after chemical injury a cell viability assay was used to detect the course of ATP levels in the cell layers as an indicator for the metabolic activity. Depending on the kind of injury pantothenat showed a regeneration enhancing effect in the concentration range from 0.001% to 0.01%. However, a concentration of 0.1% pantothenat appeared to be regeneration inhibiting. The combination of pantothenat and serum was more beneficial for wound healing than pantothenat alone, whereas serum partly levelled the effect of pantothenat. The described model allowed simulation of corneal epithelial injury and its regeneration, whereby the influence of the serum content and the kind of injury could be determined.

  5. Differentiation of mouse iPS cells into ameloblast-like cells in cultures using medium conditioned by epithelial cell rests of Malassez and gelatin-coated dishes.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Koki; Sato, Jun; Takai, Rie; Uehara, Osamu; Kurashige, Yoshihito; Nishimura, Michiko; Chiba, Itsuo; Saitoh, Masato; Abiko, Yoshihiro

    2015-09-01

    Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are generated from adult cells and are potentially of great value in regenerative medicine. Recently, it was shown that iPS cells can differentiate into ameloblast-like cells in cultures using feeder cells. In the present study, we sought to induce differentiation of ameloblast-like cells from iPS cells under feeder-free conditions using medium conditioned by cultured epithelial cell rests of Malassez (ERM) cells and gelatin-coated dishes. Two culture conditions were compared: co-cultures of iPS cells and ERM cells; and, culture of iPS cells in ERM cell-conditioned medium. Differentiation of ameloblast-like cells in the cultures was assessed using real-time RT-PCR assays of expression of the marker genes keratin 14, amelogenin, and ameloblastin and by immunocytochemical staining for amelogenin. We found greater evidence of ameloblast-like cell differentiation in the cultures using the conditioned medium. In the latter, the level of amelogenin expression increased daily and was significantly higher than controls on the 7th, 10th, and 14th days. Expression of ameloblastin also increased daily and was significantly higher than controls on the 14th day. The present study demonstrates that mouse iPS cells can be induced to differentiate into ameloblast-like cells in feeder-free cell cultures using ERM cell-conditioned medium and gelatin-coated dishes.

  6. Irreparable complex DNA double-strand breaks induce chromosome breakage in organotypic three-dimensional human lung epithelial cell culture

    PubMed Central

    Asaithamby, Aroumougame; Hu, Burong; Delgado, Oliver; Ding, Liang-Hao; Story, Michael D.; Minna, John D.; Shay, Jerry W.; Chen, David J.

    2011-01-01

    DNA damage and consequent mutations initiate the multistep carcinogenic process. Differentiated cells have a reduced capacity to repair DNA lesions, but the biological impact of unrepaired DNA lesions in differentiated lung epithelial cells is unclear. Here, we used a novel organotypic human lung three-dimensional (3D) model to investigate the biological significance of unrepaired DNA lesions in differentiated lung epithelial cells. We showed, consistent with existing notions that the kinetics of loss of simple double-strand breaks (DSBs) were significantly reduced in organotypic 3D culture compared to kinetics of repair in two-dimensional (2D) culture. Strikingly, we found that, unlike simple DSBs, a majority of complex DNA lesions were irreparable in organotypic 3D culture. Levels of expression of multiple DNA damage repair pathway genes were significantly reduced in the organotypic 3D culture compared with those in 2D culture providing molecular evidence for the defective DNA damage repair in organotypic culture. Further, when differentiated cells with unrepaired DNA lesions re-entered the cell cycle, they manifested a spectrum of gross-chromosomal aberrations in mitosis. Our data suggest that downregulation of multiple DNA repair pathway genes in differentiated cells renders them vulnerable to DSBs, promoting genome instability that may lead to carcinogenesis. PMID:21421565

  7. Identification of early carcinogen-induced changes in nutritional and substrate requirements in cultured tracheal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Pai, S B; Steele, V E; Nettesheim, P

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of our studies was to determine whether specific differences in nutritional and/or substrate requirements exist between normal and carcinogen treated tracheal epithelial cells. Epithelial cells were collected from control tracheas or from tracheas exposed in vivo for 4 weeks to the carcinogen 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA). This carcinogen exposure was shown in previous studies (18) to induce various types of transformed epithelial cell phenotypes. The cells were cultured under 7 different culture conditions, one of which was designed to provide optimum growth conditions for all cells (nonselective condition = SC0) and contained F12, conditioning factors from 3T3 fibroblasts, Dulbecco's minimal essential medium (DME), insulin, transferrin, hydrocortisone, fetal bovine serum (FBS) and bovine hypothalamus extract. By removing one or more factors from SC0 we hoped to design conditions selecting against normal and for "carcinogen altered" cells. It was found that normal cells require collagen and conditioning factors (CF) (produced from 3T3 fibroblasts grown in DME + 2% FBS) for growth in hormone supplemented medium. Increasing the serum concentration to 10% did not compensate for the collagen and CF requirements. In comparison, cells from carcinogen-exposed tracheas clearly had reduced nutritional and substrate requirements. Such cells grew for at least 30 days without collagen substratum as long as CF were present or without CF as long as collagen was present. High serum concentration replaced the requirement for both collagen and CF. Immortalization and anchorage independence of growth occurred in all cultures derived from DMBA-exposed tracheas except in those maintained in high serum but without DME, collagen and CF. These studies indicate that "carcinogen-altered" cells can be identified and selected for based on substrate and nutrient requirements. This should be useful in designing a quantitative epithelial transformation system.

  8. Direct contact between boar spermatozoa and porcine oviductal epithelial cell (OEC) cultures is needed for optimal sperm survival in vitro.

    PubMed

    Yeste, M; Lloyd, R E; Badia, E; Briz, M; Bonet, S; Holt, W V

    2009-07-01

    Oviductal epithelial cell (OEC) co-culture prolongs sperm viability and motility in vitro in a number of species including humans and horses. This study has sought to determine the effects of homologous OEC co-culture on boar sperm function. To determine whether the effects on spermatozoa were specifically caused by co-culture with or by OEC secretions, or by both factors together, a number of co-culture and cell-conditioned medium (CM) experiments were conducted. Firstly, Percoll-washed spermatozoa were co-cultured with OECs and pig kidney epithelial (LLC-PK1) cells, and in medium without cells. Secondly, Percoll-washed spermatozoa were incubated with CM derived from both OECs and LLC-PK1 cells and in unconditioned medium. A number of sperm function parameters were assessed after 5, 30, 60, 90, 120, and 180 min, and 24h of co-culturing or incubation with CM. Of all the sperm function parameters investigated, the percentage (%) viability data yielded the most interesting results. OECs (mean+/-S.E.M.; 31.2+/-1.10) were better than LLC-PK1 cells (24.3+/-0.93) at prolonging the viability of unbound spermatozoa after 24h of co-culturing (P<0.05). Also after 24h, the viability of spermatozoa bound to the OECs (77.6+/-1.83) was significantly higher than in the case of the LLC-PK1 cells (53.5+/-1.43; P<0.001). Other sperm function parameters, e.g., capacitation and motility, were also influenced by OEC co-culturing and incubation with CM, although to a lesser degree. In conclusion, porcine homologous OEC co-culture and CM incubation specifically affect sperm function. However, we propose that it is OEC co-culturing, rather than OEC-CM, that has the greater influence.

  9. Estradiol selectively regulates innate immune function by polarized human uterine epithelial cells in culture

    PubMed Central

    Fahey, JV; Wright, JA; Shen, L; Smith, JM; Ghosh, M; Rossoll, RM; Wira, CR

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the role of E2 in regulating innate immune protection by human uterine epithelial cells (UECs). Recognizing that UECs produce cytokines and chemokines to recruit and activate immune cells as well as viral and bacterial antimicrobials, we sought to examine the effect of E2 on constitutive and Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonist (lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and poly (I:C))-induced immune responses. The secretion by polarized UECs in culture of interleukin (IL)-6, macrophage inhibitory factor (MIF), and secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI) was examined as well as the mRNA expression of human β-defensin-2 (HBD2), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, IL-8, and nuclear factor (NF)-kB. When incubated with E2 for 24–48 h, we found that E2 stimulated UEC secretion of SLPI (fourfold) and mRNA expression of HBD2 (fivefold). Moreover, when antibacterial activity in UEC secretions was measured using Staphylococcus aureus, E2 increased the secretion of soluble factor(s) with antibacterial activity. In contrast, E2 had no effect on constitutive secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines by UECs but completely inhibited LPS- and poly (I:C)-induced secretion of MIF, IL-6, and IL-8. Estradiol also reversed the stimulatory effects of IL-1β on mRNA expression of TNF-α, IL-8, and NF-kB by 85, 95, and 70%, respectively. As SLPI is known to inhibit NF-kB expression, these findings suggest that E2 inhibition of proinflammatory cytokines may be mediated through SLPI regulation of NF-kB. Overall, these findings indicate that the production of cytokines, chemokines, and antimicrobials by UECs are differentially regulated by E2. Further, it suggests that with E2 regulation, epithelial cells that line the uterine cavity have evolved immunologically to be sensitive to viral and bacterial infections as well as the constraints of procreation. PMID:19079193

  10. Culture of porcine hepatocytes or bile duct epithelial cells by inductive serum-free media

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A serum-free, feeder-cell-dependent, selective culture system for the long-term culture of porcine hepatocytes or cholangiocytes was developed. Liver cells were isolated from 1 wk old pigs or young adult pigs (25 and 63 kg live weight) and were placed in primary culture on feeder-cell layers of mit...

  11. CD45/CD11b positive subsets of adult lung anchorage-independent cells harness epithelial stem cells in culture.

    PubMed

    Peter, Yakov; Sen, Namita; Levantini, Elena; Keller, Steven; Ingenito, Edward P; Ciner, Aaron; Sackstein, Robert; Shapiro, Steven D

    2013-07-01

    Compensatory growth is mediated by multiple cell types that interact during organ repair. To elucidate the relationship between stem/progenitor cells that proliferate or differentiate and somatic cells of the lung, we used a novel organotypic ex vivo pneumoexplant system. Applying this technique, we identified a sustained culture of repopulating adult progenitors in the form of free-floating anchorage-independent cells (AICs). AICs did not express integrin proteins α5, β3 and β7, and constituted 37% of the total culture at day 14, yielding a mixed yet conservative population that recapitulated RNA expression patterns of the healthy lung. AICs exhibited rapid proliferation manifested by a marked 60-fold increase in cell numbers by day 21. More than 50% of the AIC population was c-KIT(+) or double-positive for CD45(+) and CD11b(+) antigenic determinants, consistent with cells of hematopoietic origin. The latter subset was found to be enriched with prosurfactant protein-C and SCGB1A1 expressing putative stem cells and with aquaporin-5 producing cells, characteristic of terminally differentiated alveolar epithelial type-1 pneumocytes. At the air/gel interface, AICs undergo remodeling to form a cellular lining, whereas TGF(β)1 treatment modifies protein expression properties to further imply a robust effect of the microenvironment on AIC phenotypic changes. These data confirm the active participation of clonogenic hematopoietic stem cells in a mammalian model of lung repair and validate mixed stem/somatic cell cultures, which license sustained cell viability, proliferation and differentiation, for use in studies of compensatory pulmonary growth. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Air-liquid interface cultures enhance the oxygen supply and trigger the structural and functional differentiation of intestinal porcine epithelial cells (IPEC).

    PubMed

    Nossol, Constanze; Diesing, A-K; Walk, N; Faber-Zuschratter, H; Hartig, R; Post, A; Kluess, J; Rothkötter, H-J; Kahlert, S

    2011-07-01

    The specific function of the epithelium as critical barrier between the intestinal lumen and the organism's internal microenvironment is reflected by permanent maintenance of intercellular junctions and cellular polarity. The intestinal epithelial cells are responsible for absorption of nutritional components, facing mechanical stress and a changing oxygen supplementation via blood stream. Oxygen itself can regulate the barrier and the absorptive function of the epithelium. Therefore, we compared the dish cell culture, the transwell-like membrane culture and the oxygen enriched air-liquid interface (ALI) culture. We demonstrated strong influence of the different culture conditions on morphology and function of intestinal porcine epithelial cell lines in vitro. ALI culture resulted in a significant increase in cell number, epithelial cell layer thickness and expression as well as apical localisation of the microvilli-associated protein villin. Remarkable similarities regarding the morphological parameters were observed between ALI cultures and intestinal epithelial cells in vivo. Furthermore, the functional analysis of protein uptake and degradation by the epithelial cells demonstrated the necessity of sufficient oxygen supply as achieved in ALI cultures. Our study is the first report providing marked evidence that optimised oxygen supply using ALI cultures directly affects the morphological differentiation and functional properties of intestinal epithelial cells in vitro.

  13. Tissue Harvesting Site and Culture Medium Affect Attachment, Growth, and Phenotype of Ex Vivo Expanded Oral Mucosal Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Islam, Rakibul; Eidet, Jon Roger; Badian, Reza A; Lippestad, Marit; Messelt, Edward; Griffith, May; Dartt, Darlene A; Utheim, Tor Paaske

    2017-04-06

    Transplantation of cultured oral mucosal epithelial cells (OMECs) is a promising treatment strategy for limbal stem cell deficiency. In order to improve the culture method, we investigated the effects of four culture media and tissue harvesting sites on explant attachment, growth, and phenotype of OMECs cultured from Sprague-Dawley rats. Neither choice of media or harvesting site impacted the ability of the explants to attach to the culture well. Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium/Ham's F12 (DMEM) and Roswell Park Memorial Institute 1640 medium (RPMI) supported the largest cellular outgrowth. Fold outgrowth was superior from LL explants compared to explants from the buccal mucosa (BM), HP, and transition zone of the lower lip (TZ) after six-day culture. Putative stem cell markers were detected in cultures grown in DMEM and RPMI. In DMEM, cells from TZ showed higher colony-forming efficiency than LL, BM, and HP. In contrast to RPMI, DMEM both expressed the putative stem cell marker Bmi-1 and yielded cell colonies. Our data suggest that OMECs from LL and TZ cultured in DMEM give rise to undifferentiated cells with high growth capacity, and hence are the most promising for treatment of limbal stem cell deficiency.

  14. Arsenic Compromises Conducting Airway Epithelial Barrier Properties in Primary Mouse and Immortalized Human Cell Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Sherwood, Cara L.; Liguori, Andrew E.; Olsen, Colin E.; Lantz, R. Clark; Burgess, Jefferey L.; Boitano, Scott

    2013-01-01

    Arsenic is a lung toxicant that can lead to respiratory illness through inhalation and ingestion, although the most common exposure is through contaminated drinking water. Lung effects reported from arsenic exposure include lung cancer and obstructive lung disease, as well as reductions in lung function and immune response. As part of their role in innate immune function, airway epithelial cells provide a barrier that protects underlying tissue from inhaled particulates, pathogens, and toxicants frequently found in inspired air. We evaluated the effects of a five-day exposure to environmentally relevant levels of arsenic {<4μM [~300 μg/L (ppb)] as NaAsO2} on airway epithelial barrier function and structure. In a primary mouse tracheal epithelial (MTE) cell model we found that both micromolar (3.9 μM) and submicromolar (0.8 μM) arsenic concentrations reduced transepithelial resistance, a measure of barrier function. Immunofluorescent staining of arsenic-treated MTE cells showed altered patterns of localization of the transmembrane tight junction proteins claudin (Cl) Cl-1, Cl-4, Cl-7 and occludin at cell-cell contacts when compared with untreated controls. To better quantify arsenic-induced changes in tight junction transmembrane proteins we conducted arsenic exposure experiments with an immortalized human bronchial epithelial cell line (16HBE14o-). We found that arsenic exposure significantly increased the protein expression of Cl-4 and occludin as well as the mRNA levels of Cl-4 and Cl-7 in these cells. Additionally, arsenic exposure resulted in altered phosphorylation of occludin. In summary, exposure to environmentally relevant levels of arsenic can alter both the function and structure of airway epithelial barrier constituents. These changes likely contribute to the observed arsenic-induced loss in basic innate immune defense and increased infection in the airway. PMID:24349408

  15. Arsenic compromises conducting airway epithelial barrier properties in primary mouse and immortalized human cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Sherwood, Cara L; Liguori, Andrew E; Olsen, Colin E; Lantz, R Clark; Burgess, Jefferey L; Boitano, Scott

    2013-01-01

    Arsenic is a lung toxicant that can lead to respiratory illness through inhalation and ingestion, although the most common exposure is through contaminated drinking water. Lung effects reported from arsenic exposure include lung cancer and obstructive lung disease, as well as reductions in lung function and immune response. As part of their role in innate immune function, airway epithelial cells provide a barrier that protects underlying tissue from inhaled particulates, pathogens, and toxicants frequently found in inspired air. We evaluated the effects of a five-day exposure to environmentally relevant levels of arsenic {<4μM [~300 μg/L (ppb)] as NaAsO2} on airway epithelial barrier function and structure. In a primary mouse tracheal epithelial (MTE) cell model we found that both micromolar (3.9 μM) and submicromolar (0.8 μM) arsenic concentrations reduced transepithelial resistance, a measure of barrier function. Immunofluorescent staining of arsenic-treated MTE cells showed altered patterns of localization of the transmembrane tight junction proteins claudin (Cl) Cl-1, Cl-4, Cl-7 and occludin at cell-cell contacts when compared with untreated controls. To better quantify arsenic-induced changes in tight junction transmembrane proteins we conducted arsenic exposure experiments with an immortalized human bronchial epithelial cell line (16HBE14o-). We found that arsenic exposure significantly increased the protein expression of Cl-4 and occludin as well as the mRNA levels of Cl-4 and Cl-7 in these cells. Additionally, arsenic exposure resulted in altered phosphorylation of occludin. In summary, exposure to environmentally relevant levels of arsenic can alter both the function and structure of airway epithelial barrier constituents. These changes likely contribute to the observed arsenic-induced loss in basic innate immune defense and increased infection in the airway.

  16. Mechanisms by which ascorbic acid increases ferritin levels in cultured lens epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Goralska, M; Harned, J; Grimes, A M; Fleisher, L N; McGahan, M C

    1997-03-01

    A previous study demonstrated that ascorbic acid increased the concentration of the iron storage protein, ferritin. In cultured lens epithelial cells. The current study was designed to determine the mechanism by which ascorbic acid exerts this effect. Ascorbic acid increased both ferritin mRNA levels (by about 30%) and translation of ferritin (de novo synthesis was increased up to 15-fold) within 6 hr. Cycloheximide completely abolished the ability of ascorbic acid to increase ferritin levels, whereas actinomycin D only decreased it by about 30%. Therefore, the ascorbic-acid induced increase in ferritin concentration is due mainly to an increase in ferritin synthesis at the translational levels. This is a novel role for ascorbic acid. Addition of iron with ascorbic acid further increased de novo synthesis of ferritin, but this additive effect was only noted at a later time point (20 hr). Factors which decrease ferritin mRNA translation, such as the reducing agent dithiothreitol or the iron chelator desferrioxamine, reduced the ascorbic acid effect on de novo ferritin synthesis. The effects of ascorbic acid on ferritin mRNA levels may be mediated by its oxidation product, H2O2, since, like ascorbic acid, H2O2 increased ferritin mRNA levels by 30%. However, in contrast to the ascorbic acid-induced increase in translation of ferritin, H2O2 substantially decreased de novo ferritin synthesis. This effect of H2O2 could have physiological significance in eyes where concentrations of H2O2 in the aqueous humor are elevated. High levels of H2O2 could decrease the concentration of ferritin within the lens. Since ferritin sequesters iron and has been shown to decrease oxidative damage by limiting the availability of iron to catalyse free radical reactions, H2O2-induced reduction in ferritin concentration in the lens could have deleterious effects. The ability of ascorbic acid to increase ferritin concentration in lens epithelial cells could provide an additional protective

  17. CULTURE CONDITIONS AFFECT HUMAN AIRWAY EPITHELIAL CELL RESPONSE TO DIESEL PARTICLE EXPOSURE IN VITRO

    EPA Science Inventory

    Diesel exhaust particles (DEP) are a ubiquitous ambient air contaminant that may contribute to the health effects of particulate matter inhalation. In vitro studies have shown that DEP exposure induces pro-inflammatory proteins in human airway epithelial cells (HAEC) with varying...

  18. CULTURE CONDITIONS AFFECT HUMAN AIRWAY EPITHELIAL CELL RESPONSE TO DIESEL PARTICLE EXPOSURE IN VITRO

    EPA Science Inventory

    Diesel exhaust particles (DEP) are a ubiquitous ambient air contaminant that may contribute to the health effects of particulate matter inhalation. In vitro studies have shown that DEP exposure induces pro-inflammatory proteins in human airway epithelial cells (HAEC) with varying...

  19. Neutrophil and asbestos fiber-induced cytotoxicity in cultured human mesothelial and bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Kinnula, V L; Raivio, K O; Linnainmaa, K; Ekman, A; Klockars, M

    1995-03-01

    This study investigates reactive oxygen species generation and oxidant-related cytotoxicity induced by amosite asbestos fibers and polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMNs) in human mesothelial cells and human bronchial epithelial cells in vitro. Transformed human pleural mesothelial cells (MET 5A) and bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS 2B) were treated with amosite (2 micrograms/cm2) for 48 h. After 24 h of incubation, the cells were exposed for 1 h to nonactivated or amosite (50 micrograms) activated PMNs, washed, and incubated for another 23 h. Reactive oxygen species generation by the PMNs and the target cells was measured by chemiluminescence. Cell injury was assessed by cellular adenine nucleotide depletion, extracellular release of nucleotides, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Amosite-activated (but also to a lesser degree nonactivated) PMNs released substantial amounts of reactive oxygen metabolites, whereas the chemiluminescence of amosite-exposed mesothelial cells and epithelial cells did not differ from the background. Amosite treatment (48 h) of the target cells did not change intracellular adenine nucleotides (ATP, ADP, AMP) or nucleotide catabolite products (xanthine, hypoxanthine, and uric acid). When the target cells were exposed to nonactivated PMNs, significant adenine nucleotide depletion and nucleotide catabolite accumulation was observed in mesothelial cells only. In separate experiments, when the target cells were exposed to amosite-activated PMNs, the target cell injury was further potentiated compared with the amosite treatment alone or exposure to nonactivated PMNs. In conclusion, this study suggests the importance of inflammatory cell-derived free radicals in the development of amosite-induced mesothelial cell injury.

  20. Glutaraldehyde cross-linking of amniotic membranes affects their nanofibrous structures and limbal epithelial cell culture characteristics.

    PubMed

    Lai, Jui-Yang; Ma, David Hui-Kang

    2013-01-01

    Given that the cells can sense nanometer dimensions, the chemical cross-linking-mediated alteration in fibrillar structure of collagenous tissue scaffolds is critical to determining their cell culture performances. This article explores, for the first time, the effect of nanofibrous structure of glutaraldehyde (GTA) cross-linked amniotic membrane (AM) on limbal epithelial cell (LEC) cultivation. Results of ninhydrin assays demonstrated that the amount of new cross-links formed between the collagen chains is significantly increased with increasing the cross-linking time from 1 to 24 hours. By transmission electron microscopy, the AM treated with GTA for a longer duration exhibited a greater extent of molecular aggregation, thereby leading to a considerable increase in nanofiber diameter and resistance against collagenase degradation. In vitro biocompatibility studies showed that the samples cross-linked with GTA for 24 hours are not well-tolerated by the human corneal epithelial cell cultures. When the treatment duration is less than 6 hours, the biological tissues cross-linked with GTA for a longer time may cause slight reductions in 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium, inner salt, and anti-inflammatory activities. Nevertheless, significant collagen molecular aggregation also enhances the stemness gene expression, indicating a high ability of these AM matrices to preserve the progenitors of LECs in vitro. It is concluded that GTA cross-linking of collagenous tissue materials may affect their nanofibrous structures and corneal epithelial stem cell culture characteristics. The AM treated with GTA for 6 hours holds promise for use as a niche for the expansion and transplantation of limbal epithelial progenitor cells.

  1. In situ-forming click-crosslinked gelatin based hydrogels for 3D culture of thymic epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Truong, Vinh X; Hun, Michael L; Li, Fanyi; Chidgey, Ann P; Forsythe, John S

    2016-07-21

    Hydrogels prepared from naturally derived gelatin can provide a suitable environment for cell attachment and growth, making them favourable materials in tissue engineering. However, physically crosslinked gelatin hydrogels are not stable under physiological conditions while chemical crosslinking of gelatin by radical polymerization may be harmful to cells. In this study, we attached the norbornene functional group to gelatin, which was subsequently crosslinked with a polyethylene glycol (PEG) linker via the nitrile oxide-norbornene click reaction. The rapid crosslinking process allows the hydrogel to be formed within minutes of mixing the polymer solutions under physiological conditions, allowing the gels to be used as injectable materials. The hydrogels properties including mechanical strength, swelling and degradation, can be tuned by changing either the ratio of the reacting groups or the total concentration of the polymer precursors. Murine embryonic fibroblastic cells cultured in soft gels (2 wt% of gelatin and 1 wt% of PEG linker) demonstrated high cell viability as well as similar phenotypic profiles (PDGFRα and MTS15) to Matrigel cultures over 5 days. Thymic epithelial cell and fibroblast co-cultures produced epithelial colonies in these gels following 7 days incubation. These studies demonstrate that gelatin based hydrogels, prepared using "click" crosslinking, provide a robust cell culture platform with retained benefits of the gelatin material, and are therefore suitable for use in various tissue engineering applications.

  2. Effect of ionizing radiation on acinar morphogenesis of human prostatic epithelial cells under three-dimensional culture conditions.

    PubMed

    Wang, T; X, S Ma; Kong, D; Yi, H; Wang, X; Liang, B; Xu, H; He, M; Jia, L; Qased, A B; Yang, Y; Liu, X

    2012-01-01

    Homeostasis is maintained by the interplay of multiple factors that directly or indirectly regulate cell proliferation and cell death. Complex multiple interactions between cells and the extracellular matrix occur during acinar morphogenesis and changes in these might indicate carcinogenesis of cells from a normal to a malignant, invasive phenotype. In this study, the human prostatic epithelial cell line RWPE-1 was cultured under three-dimensional (3-D) culture conditions, and the effect of ionizing radiation on acinar morphogenesis and its association with autophagy were discussed. The results illustrated that formation of specific spheroid (acinar) structures was detectable under 3-D culture conditions. Radiation induced the disruption of acini in different cell models using either gene overexpression (Akt) or gene knock-down (Beclin 1 and ATG7). Introduction of Akt not only accelerated the growth of cells (i.e., caused the cells to manifest elongating and microspike-like structures that are obviously different from structures seen in wild-type RWPE-1 cells under two-dimensional conditions), but also changed their morphological characteristics under 3-D culture conditions. Knock-down of autophagy-related genes (Beclin 1 and ATG7) increased the radiosensitivity of cells under 3-D culture conditions, and cells died of non-apoptotic death after radiation. The results suggested that ionizing radiation may change the cell phenotype and the formation of acini. Additionally even the autophagy mechanism may play a role in these processes.

  3. Primary airway epithelial cell culture and asthma in children-lessons learnt and yet to come.

    PubMed

    McLellan, Kirsty; Shields, Mike; Power, Ultan; Turner, Steve

    2015-12-01

    Until recently the airway epithelial cell (AEC) was considered a simple barrier that prevented entry of inhaled matter into the lung parenchyma. The AEC is now recognized as having an important role in the inflammatory response of the respiratory system to inhaled exposures, and abnormalities of these responses are thought to be important to asthma pathogenesis. This review first explores how the challenges of studying nasal and bronchial AECs in children have been addressed and then summarizes the results of studies of primary AEC function in children with and without asthma. There is good evidence that nasal AECs may be a suitable surrogate for the study of certain aspects of bronchial AEC function, although bronchial AECs remain the gold standard for asthma research. There are consistent differences between children with and without asthma for nasal and bronchial AEC mediator release following exposure to a range of pro-inflammatory stimulants including interleukins (IL)-1β, IL-4, and IL-13. However, there are inconsistencies between studies, e.g., release of IL-6, an important pro-inflammatory cytokine, is not increased in children with asthma relative to controls in all studies. Future work should expand current understanding of the "upstream" signalling pathways in AEC, study AEC from children before the onset of asthma symptoms and in vitro models should be developed that replicate the in vivo status more completely, e.g., co-culture with dendritic cells. AECs are difficult to obtain from children and collaboration between centers is expected to yield meaningful advances in asthma understanding and ultimately help deliver novel therapies.

  4. Increased ROS production in non-polarized mammary epithelial cells induces monocyte infiltration in 3D culture.

    PubMed

    Li, Linzhang; Chen, Jie; Xiong, Gaofeng; St Clair, Daret K; Xu, Wei; Xu, Ren

    2017-01-01

    Loss of epithelial cell polarity promotes cell invasion and cancer dissemination. Therefore, identification of factors that disrupt polarized acinar formation is crucial. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) drive cancer progression and promote inflammation. Here, we show that the non-polarized breast cancer cell line T4-2 generates significantly higher ROS levels than polarized S1 and T4R cells in three-dimensional (3D) culture, accompanied by induction of the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) pathway and cytokine expression. Minimizing ROS in T4-2 cells with antioxidants reestablished basal polarity and inhibited cell proliferation. Introducing constitutively activated RAC1 disrupted cell polarity and increased ROS levels, indicating that RAC1 is a crucial regulator that links cell polarity and ROS generation. We also linked monocyte infiltration with disruption of polarized acinar structure using a 3D co-culture system. Gain- and loss-of-function experiments demonstrated that increased ROS in non-polarized cells is necessary and sufficient to enhance monocyte recruitment. ROS also induced cytokine expression and NF-κB activity. These results suggest that increased ROS production in mammary epithelial cell leads to disruption of cell polarity and promotes monocyte infiltration.

  5. Morphological and functional characterization of bovine oviductal epithelial cell monolayers cultured on polarizing membranes.

    PubMed

    Gómez, E; Uría, H

    1997-01-01

    Several characteristics of oviductal cells, cultured under either polarizing or nonpolarizing conditions, were studied. In vitro produced bovine embryos tested the embryotrophic abilities of the respective conditioned media. Conditioned medium from the apical face of polarized cell monolayers supported higher rates of development to blastocyst and expanded blastocysts. In contrast, conditioned medium from the basal face supported embryo development only to the 8-16 cell stage; however, these embryos were able to continue development to the morula stage when cultured in medium from the apical and basal faces, indicating total cell confluence and a clear functional polarization. At the ultrastructural level, cells cultured in polarizing conditions displayed characteristics nearer to the same cells in vivo and signs of a metabolic activity higher than that in cells cultured under non-polarizing conditions. It can be concluded that cell-polarization, in our culture conditions, is beneficial to embryo development.

  6. Azithromycin induces anti-viral effects in cultured bronchial epithelial cells from COPD patients

    PubMed Central

    Menzel, Mandy; Akbarshahi, Hamid; Bjermer, Leif; Uller, Lena

    2016-01-01

    Rhinovirus infection is a major cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations and may contribute to the development into severe stages of COPD. The macrolide antibiotic azithromycin may exert anti-viral actions and has been reported to reduce exacerbations in COPD. However, little is known about its anti-viral actions on bronchial epithelial cells at clinically relevant concentrations. Primary bronchial epithelial cells from COPD donors and healthy individuals were treated continuously with azithromycin starting 24 h before infection with rhinovirus RV16. Expression of interferons, RIG-I like helicases, pro-inflammatory cytokines and viral load were analysed. Azithromycin transiently increased expression of IFNβ and IFNλ1 and RIG-I like helicases in un-infected COPD cells. Further, azithromycin augmented RV16-induced expression of interferons and RIG-I like helicases in COPD cells but not in healthy epithelial cells. Azithromycin also decreased viral load. However, it only modestly altered RV16-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine expression. Adding budesonide did not reduce interferon-inducing effects of azithromycin. Possibly by inducing expression of RIG-I like helicases, azithromycin increased rhinovirus-induced expression of interferons in COPD but not in healthy bronchial epithelium. These effects would reduce bronchial viral load, supporting azithromycin’s emerging role in prevention of exacerbations of COPD. PMID:27350308

  7. Protection against radiation-induced oxidative stress in cultured human epithelial cells by treatment with antioxidant agents

    SciTech Connect

    Wan, X. Steven; Ware, Jeffrey H.; Zhou, Zhaozong; Donahue, Jeremiah J.; Guan, Jun; Kennedy, Ann R. . E-mail: akennedy@mail.med.upenn.edu

    2006-04-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the protective effects of antioxidant agents against space radiation-induced oxidative stress in cultured human epithelial cells. Methods and Materials: The effects of selected concentrations of N-acetylcysteine, ascorbic acid, sodium ascorbate, co-enzyme Q10, {alpha}-lipoic acid, L-selenomethionine, and vitamin E succinate on radiation-induced oxidative stress were evaluated in MCF10 human breast epithelial cells exposed to radiation with X-rays, {gamma}-rays, protons, or high mass, high atomic number, and high energy particles using a dichlorofluorescein assay. Results: The results demonstrated that these antioxidants are effective in protecting against radiation-induced oxidative stress and complete or nearly complete protection was achieved by treating the cells with a combination of these agents before and during the radiation exposure. Conclusion: The combination of antioxidants evaluated in this study is likely be a promising countermeasure for protection against space radiation-induced adverse biologic effects.

  8. Establishment of a 3D cell culture model of primary bovine mammary epithelial cells extracted from fresh milk.

    PubMed

    Hillreiner, Maria; Müller, Nadine I; Koch, Heiner M; Schmautz, Christiane; Küster, Bernhard; Pfaffl, Michael W; Kliem, Heike

    2017-06-22

    For the investigation of molecular processes underlying diseases of the bovine mammary gland, primary bovine mammary epithelial cells (pbMEC) are used. They are known to contribute to the innate immune system of the bovine mammary gland. The functionality of pbMEC depends on the maintenance of in vivo characteristics. So far, the optimization of pbMEC culture conditions was intended in a variety of experiments. For this purpose, most of the studies used stable cell lines or primary cells obtained from udder biopsies of slaughtered animals. By contrast, within our study, pbMEC of healthy and first lactating Brown Swiss cows were non-invasively isolated from fresh milk. The non-invasively isolated pbMEC were cultivated on the extracellular matrix-like scaffold Matrigel®. Further, they were challenged with different compositions of proliferation media, containing lactogenic hormones and/or the essential amino acid L-lysine. Changes in expression levels of genes coding for milk proteins and for components of the janus kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription (JAK-STAT) and mTOR pathways were analyzed by RT-qPCR. The secreted proteins were analyzed by LC-MS/MS measurements. We showed for the first time the establishment of a physiologically functional 3D cell culture model of pbMEC isolated from fresh milk. This represents a primary cell culture model system, based on non-invasive cell collection, that can be used to unravel physiological processes in an unbiased manner.

  9. Efficient protection by cationized catalase against H2O2 injury in primary cultured alveolar epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Nemoto, Takayuki; Kawakami, Shigeru; Yamashita, Fumiyoshi; Hashida, Mitsuru

    2007-08-16

    Increasing evidence suggests that hydrogen peroxide plays an important role in alveolar epithelial injury produced during many inflammatory lung diseases. In this study, the successful prevention of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2))-induced injury in primary cultured rabbit alveolar epithelial cells by cationized catalase is described. Cationized catalase was synthesized by direct chemical modification to enhance its association with alveolar epithelial cells. Cationized catalase exhibited a 22.3-fold higher cellular association at 2 h than native catalase, and incubation of cationized catalase with the cells produced a 2.19-fold intracellular catalase activity, which suggested that cationized catalase distributed both to the cell membrane and into the cell interior. Cationized catalase markedly suppressed H(2)O(2)-induced cell injury. In addition, electron spin resonance spectrometry analysis revealed that cationized catalase effectively eliminated H(2)O(2) produced in the medium by glucose plus glucose oxidase. On the other hand, polyethylene glycol-modified catalase (PEG-catalase) did not have any protective effect against H(2)O(2)-induced cell injury although PEG-catalase exhibited a 2.49-fold higher cellular association at 2 h than native catalase. These results suggest that cationization of catalase is a promising strategy for the treatment of many of inflammatory lung diseases.

  10. Evaluation of low-dosage environmental mutagens with a long-term, cultured epithelial cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Li, C.S.; Lin, R.H.

    1996-12-31

    Polycyclic or polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a group of compounds consisting of at least two fused aromatic rings and are common environmental contaminants in soil, water, and air. Additionally, some PAHs are considered to be mutagenic, carcinogenic, and cytotoxic compounds. BaA (Benz(a)anthracene) and BaP (Benzo(a)pyrene) are the two major unsubstituted PAHs identified by the USEPA as priority pollutants. BaA is suspected to be a human carcinogen by the US Department of Health and Human Services, whereas BaP is regarded as an animal carcinogen. It is estimated that the emission concentrations of BaA and BaP from mainstream cigarette smoke are 20-70 ng per g cigarette and 20-40 ng per g cigarette, respectively, with an average sidestream to mainstream weight ratio of 3. In addition, BaA and BaP are also the main emissions from diesel particulate extracts with mean concentrations of 500 ppm and 40 ppm, respectively. From a recent report concerning PAHs in urban areas all over the world, the airborne concentration of BaP was typically found to be in the range of 1-20 ng/m{sup 3} in Europe and 1 ng/m{sup 3} in the U.S.A. For BaA, the concentrations commonly ranged from I to 50 ng/m{sup 3} in Europe and from 0.1 to 1 ng/m{sup 3} in the U.S.A. Therefore, the long term exposure to these two compounds may cause health effects. This study examines long-term cultured epithelial cell lines exposed to BaP or BaA, in vitro, and the frequency of HGPRT mutants. 19 refs., 3 figs.

  11. Carbocisteine inhibits oxidant-induced apoptosis in cultured human airway epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Motoki; Nakayama, Katsutoshi; Yasuda, Hiroyasu; Kubo, Hiroshi; Kuwano, Kazuyoshi; Arai, Hiroyuki; Yamaya, Mutsuo

    2009-09-01

    Increased oxidant levels have been associated with exacerbations of COPD, and L-carbocisteine, a mucolytic agent, reduces the frequency of exacerbations. The mechanisms underlying the inhibitory effects of L-carbocisteine on oxidant-induced COPD exacerbations were examined in an in vitro study of human airway epithelial cells. In order to examine the antioxidant effects of L-carbocisteine, human tracheal epithelial cells were treated with L-carbocisteine and exposed to hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)). Cell apoptosis was assessed using a cell death detection ELISA, and the pathways leading to cell apoptosis were examined by measurement of caspase-3 and caspase-9 by western blot analysis with fluorescent detection. The proportion of apoptotic cells in human tracheal epithelium was increased in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, following exposure to H(2)O(2). Treatment with L-carbocisteine reduced the proportion of apoptotic cells. In contrast, H(2)O(2) did not increase the concentration of LDH in supernatants of epithelial cells. Exposure to H(2)O(2) activated caspase-3 and caspase-9, and L-carbocisteine inhibited the H(2)O(2)-induced activation of these caspases. L-carbocisteine activated Akt phosphorylation, which modulates caspase activation, and the inhibitors of Akt, LY294002 and wortmannin, significantly reversed the inhibitory effects of L-carbocisteine on H(2)O(2)-induced cell apoptosis. These findings suggest that in human airway epithelium, L-carbocisteine may inhibit cell damage induced by H(2)O(2) through the activation of Akt phosphorylation. L-carbocisteine may have antioxidant effects, as well as mucolytic activity, in inflamed airways.

  12. [Effect of decontaminating solutions on titanium surface: an in vitro study of human epithelial cell culture].

    PubMed

    Ungvári, Krisztina; Pelsoczi, K István; Kormos, Bernadett; Oszkó, Albert; Radnai, Márta; Nagy, Katalin; Fazekas, András; Turzó, Kinga

    2011-03-01

    The effects of three different decontaminating solutions in clinical use for peri-implantitis therapy on the chemical structure and surface roughness of commercially pure (CP) Ti were investigated. A further aim was to survey the response of the biological environment to these changes, by examining the attachment and proliferation of human epithelial cells after treatment of the Ti surfaces with these solutions. CP (grade 4) machined titanium discs (CAMLOG Biotechnologies AG, Switzerland) were treated with 3% H2O2 (5 min), saturated citric acid (pH = 1; 1 min) or chlorhexidine gel (CHX, 5 min). The surface properties were followed through the use of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The epithelial cell attachment and proliferation was examined by means of 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and bicinchoninic acid (BCA) protein-content assays. XPS showed an intact TiO2 layer on each sample and CHX was adsorbed by the surface, as C-O and/or C=O bond formation was revealed. AFM results gave no significant changes in the roughness after treating the surfaces with the cleaning solutions. While MTT and BCA assays did not show significant differences in epithelial cell attachments, the cell proliferation was significantly increased after H2O2 treatment as compared to CHX (not shown by BCA assays). The applied decontaminating agents do not damage the Ti surface. H2O2 can be used effectively in decontaminating the implants affected by peri-implantitis, as the human epithelial cell growth was improved, in contrast with CHX.

  13. GLUCOSE METABOLITE PATTERNS AS MARKERS OF FUNCTIONAL DIFFERENTIATION IN FRESHLY ISOLATED AND CULTURED MOUSE MAMMARY EPITHELIAL CELLS

    SciTech Connect

    Emerman, J.T.; Bartley, J.C.; Bissell, M.J.

    1980-06-01

    In the mammary gland of nonruminant animals, glucose is utilized in a characteristic and unique way during lactation. We have measured the incorporation of glucose carbon from [U-{sup 14}C] glucose into intermediary metabolites and metabolic products in mammary epithelial cells from virgin, pregnant, and lactating mice and demonstrate that glucose metabolite patterns can be used to recognize stages of differentiated function. For these cells, the rates of synthesis of glycogen and lactose, the ratio of lactate to alanine, and the ratio of citrate to malate were important parameters in identifying the degree of expression of differentiation. We further show that these patterns can be used as markers to determine the differentiated state of cultured mammary epithelial cells. Cells maintained on plastic substrates lose their distinctive glucose metabolite patterns while those on floating collagen gels do not. Cells from pregnant mice have a pattern similar to freshly isolated cells from pregnant mice. The pattern of cells from lactating mice is different from that of the cells of origin, and resembles that of the cells from pregnant mice. Our findings suggest that the floating collagen gels under the culture conditions used in these experiments provide an environment for the functional expression of the pregnant state, while additional factors are needed for the expression of the lactating state.

  14. Propagation of normal human epithelial cell populations using an in vivo culture system. Description and applications.

    PubMed Central

    Klein-Szanto, A. J.; Terzaghi, M.; Mirkin, L. D.; Martin, D.; Shiba, M.

    1982-01-01

    A new model using xenotransplanted human epithelia was developed for the study of toxic and carcinogenic effects of chemicals. Epithelial cells from the respiratory tract of 4 male and 3 female premature and fullterm fetuses were enzymatically removed and inoculated into deepithelialized rat tracheas. These were sealed at both ends and transplanted subcutaneously into nude mice. After 3-4 weeks, a normal mucociliary epithelium covered the tracheal lumen. At this stage the epithelial cells could be isolated again and transplanted into new denuded rat tracheas. This passaging could be repeated up to six times, each permitting an amplification factor of approximately 3. Tracheal transplants containing cells of human origin (in vivo Passages 2-4) were treated with 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene. Hyperplasias, squamous metaplasias, and dysplasias were seen 1-8 weeks after initiation of treatment, indicating that the responses of human and rodent epithelial cells to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are similar. Initial experiments with skin and esophageal epithelia suggest that other covering epithelia could also be used in this fashion for evaluation of toxicants and carcinogens that are likely to come into contact with these tissues. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:6821529

  15. N-glycosylated proteins are involved in efficient internalization of Klebsiella pneumoniae by cultured human epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Fumagalli, O; Tall, B D; Schipper, C; Oelschlaeger, T A

    1997-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae obtained from patients with urinary tract infections is able to invade cultured human epithelial cells. The internalization process is dependent upon both microfilaments and microtubules. To better understand the interaction of these invasive bacteria with the host cell receptor(s), bladder, lung, and ileocecal epithelial cells were infected with K. pneumoniae in the presence of various lectins possessing multiple glycan specificities. It was found that the N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc)-specific lectins concanavalin A, Datura stramonium agglutinin, and wheat germ agglutinin significantly inhibited the invasion of K. pneumoniae into these cells but did not interfere with the internalization of an invasive strain of Salmonella typhimurium. Conversely, internalization of K. pneumoniae but not S. typhimurium was also significantly inhibited when the bacteria were pretreated with GlcNAc or chitin hydrolysate, a GlcNAc polymer, prior to the gentamicin invasion assay. Other carbohydrates such as glucose, galactose, mannose, fucose, and N-acetylneuraminic acid had no inhibitory effects on K. pneumoniae uptake. Furthermore, internalization of K. pneumoniae but not S. typhimurium by HCT8 cells was also significantly inhibited when eukaryotic protein glycosylation was interrupted by tunicamycin or when host N-linked surface glycans were removed by pretreatment with N-glycosidase F. These studies suggest that a N-glycosylated protein receptor is involved in the internalization of K. pneumoniae by human epithelial cells in vitro. The results also indicate that internal GlcNAc residues might be a carbohydrate component of the receptor. PMID:9353018

  16. Determination of apical membrane polarity in mammary epithelial cell cultures: The role of cell-cell, cell-substratum, and membrane-cytoskeleton interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Parry, G.; Beck, J.C.; Moss, L.; Bartley, J. ); Ojakian, G.K. )

    1990-06-01

    The membrane glycoprotein, PAS-O, is a major differentiation antigen on mammary epithelial cells and is located exclusively in the apical domain of the plasma membrane. The authors have used 734B cultured human mammary carcinoma cells as a model system to study the role of tight junctions, cell-substratum contacts, and submembranous cytoskeletal elements in restricting PAS-O to the apical membrane. Immunofluorescence and immunoelectronmicroscopy experiments demonstrated that while tight junctions demarcate PAS-O distribution in confluent cultures, apical polarity could be established at low culture densities when cells could not form tight junctions with neighboring cells. They suggest, then, that interactions between vitronectin and its receptor, are responsible for establishment of membrane domains in the absence of tight junctions. The role of cytoskeletal elements in restricting PAS-O distribution was examined by treating cultures with cytochalasin D, colchicine, or acrylamide. Cytochalasin D led to a redistribution of PAS0O while colchicine and acrylamide did not. They hypothesize that PAS-O is restricted to the apical membrane by interactions with a microfilament network and that the cytoskeletal organization is dependent upon cell-cell and cell-substratum interactions.

  17. Effect of cigarette smoke extract on P-glycoprotein function in primary cultured and newly developed alveolar epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Takano, Mikihisa; Naka, Ryosuke; Sasaki, Yoshihiro; Nishimoto, Saori; Yumoto, Ryoko

    2016-12-01

    The effect of cigarette smoke extract (CSE) on P-glycoprotein (P-gp) function in the distal lung is unclear. In this study, we first examined the expression and function of P-gp and the effect of CSE in rat primary cultured alveolar epithelial cells. The expression of P-gp protein was observed in type I-like cells, but not in type II cells. In type I-like cells, rhodamine 123 (Rho123) accumulation was enhanced by various P-gp inhibitors such as verapamil and cyclosporine A. In addition, the expression of P-gp mRNAs, mdr1a and mdr1b, as well as P-gp activity increased along with the transdifferentiation. When type I-like cells were co-incubated with CSE, P-gp activity was suppressed. Next, we attempted to clarify the effect of CSE on P-gp function in human-derived cultured alveolar epithelial cells. For this purpose, we isolated an A549 clone (A549/P-gp) expressing P-gp, because P-gp expression in native A549 cells was negligible. In A549/P-gp cells, P-gp was functionally expressed, and the inhibitory effect of CSE on P-gp was observed. These results suggested that smoking would directly suppress P-gp activity, and that A549/P-gp cell line should be a useful model to further study the effect of xenobiotics on P-gp function in the alveolar epithelial cells.

  18. Benzo(alpha)pyrene metabolism and DNA-binding in cultured explants of human bronchus and in monolayer cultures of human bronchial epithelial cells treated with ellagic acid.

    PubMed

    Teel, R W; Stoner, G D; Babcock, M S; Dixit, R; Kim, K

    1986-01-01

    Ellagic acid, a plant phenolic compound present in certain foods eaten by humans, has been reported to possess antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic properties. To evaluate the potential anticarcinogenic effect of ellagic acid in humans, we investigated the effect of nontoxic concentrations of ellagic acid on the metabolism of benzo(alpha)pyrene and binding of benzo(alpha)pyrene metabolites to DNA in cultured explants of human bronchus and in human bronchial epithelial cell cultures. Ellagic acid at concentrations of 10, 25, or 50 microM did not significantly alter the metabolism of benzo(alpha)pyrene in the bronchial explant cultures and in only one of four bronchial cell cultures. However, binding of metabolites of benzo(alpha)pyrene to DNA was inhibited in all explant and cell cultures of human bronchus by 26 to 77%. These results support the work of other investigators and suggest that ellagic acid may be an inhibitor of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-induced carcinogenesis in humans.

  19. Morphology, behavior, and interaction of cultured epithelial cells after the antibody-induced disruption of keratin filament organization

    PubMed Central

    1983-01-01

    The organization of intermediate filaments in cultured epithelial cells was rapidly and radically affected by intracellularly injected monoclonal antikeratin filament antibodies. Different antibodies had different effects, ranging from an apparent splaying apart of keratin filament bundles to the complete disruption of the keratin filament network. Antibodies were detectable within cells for more than four days after injection. The antibody-induced disruption of keratin filament organization had no light-microscopically discernible effect on microfilament or microtubule organization, cellular morphology, mitosis, the integrity of epithelial sheets, mitotic rate, or cellular reintegration after mitosis. Cell-to-cell adhesion junctions survived keratin filament disruption. However, antibody injected into a keratinocyte-derived cell line, rich in desmosomes, brought on a superfasciculation of keratin filament bundles, which appeared to pull desmosomal junctions together, suggesting that desmosomes can move in the plane of the plasma membrane and may only be 'fixed' by their anchoring to the cytoplasmic filament network. Our observations suggest that keratin filaments are not involved in the establishment or maintenance of cell shape in cultured cells. PMID:6187752

  20. Contacting co-culture of human retinal microvascular endothelial cells alters barrier function of human embryonic stem cell derived retinal pigment epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Skottman, H; Muranen, J; Lähdekorpi, H; Pajula, E; Mäkelä, K; Koivusalo, L; Koistinen, A; Uusitalo, H; Kaarniranta, K; Juuti-Uusitalo, K

    2017-10-01

    Here we evaluated the effects of human retinal microvascular endothelial cells (hREC) on mature human embryonic stem cell (hESC) derived retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells. The hESC-RPE cells (Regea08/017, Regea08/023 or Regea11/013) and hREC (ACBRI 181) were co-cultured on opposite sides of transparent membranes for up to six weeks. Thereafter barrier function, small molecule permeability, localization of RPE and endothelial cell marker proteins, cellular fine structure, and growth factor secretion of were evaluated. After co-culture, the RPE specific CRALBP and endothelial cell specific von Willebrand factor were appropriately localized. In addition, the general morphology, pigmentation, and fine structure of hESC-RPE cells were unaffected. Co-culture increased the barrier function of hESC-RPE cells, detected both with TEER measurements and cumulative permeability of FD4 - although the differences varied among the cell lines. Co-culturing significantly altered VEGF and PEDF secretion, but again the differences were cell line specific. The results of this study showed that co-culture with hREC affects hESC-RPE functionality. In addition, co-culture revealed drastic cell line specific differences, most notably in growth factor secretion. This model has the potential to be used as an in vitro outer blood-retinal barrier model for drug permeability testing. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Deep nuclear invaginations are linked to cytoskeletal filaments - integrated bioimaging of epithelial cells in 3D culture.

    PubMed

    Jorgens, Danielle M; Inman, Jamie L; Wojcik, Michal; Robertson, Claire; Palsdottir, Hildur; Tsai, Wen-Ting; Huang, Haina; Bruni-Cardoso, Alexandre; López, Claudia S; Bissell, Mina J; Xu, Ke; Auer, Manfred

    2017-01-01

    The importance of context in regulation of gene expression is now an accepted principle; yet the mechanism by which the microenvironment communicates with the nucleus and chromatin in healthy tissues is poorly understood. A functional role for nuclear and cytoskeletal architecture is suggested by the phenotypic differences observed between epithelial and mesenchymal cells. Capitalizing on recent advances in cryogenic techniques, volume electron microscopy and super-resolution light microscopy, we studied human mammary epithelial cells in three-dimensional (3D) cultures forming growth-arrested acini. Intriguingly, we found deep nuclear invaginations and tunnels traversing the nucleus, encasing cytoskeletal actin and/or intermediate filaments, which connect to the outer nuclear envelope. The cytoskeleton is also connected both to other cells through desmosome adhesion complexes and to the extracellular matrix through hemidesmosomes. This finding supports a physical and/or mechanical link from the desmosomes and hemidesmosomes to the nucleus, which had previously been hypothesized but now is visualized for the first time. These unique structures, including the nuclear invaginations and the cytoskeletal connectivity to the cell nucleus, are consistent with a dynamic reciprocity between the nucleus and the outside of epithelial cells and tissues.

  2. Local remodeling of synthetic extracellular matrix microenvironments by co-cultured endometrial epithelial and stromal cells enables long-term dynamic physiological function.

    PubMed

    Cook, Christi D; Hill, Abby S; Guo, Margaret; Stockdale, Linda; Papps, Julia P; Isaacson, Keith B; Lauffenburger, Douglas A; Griffith, Linda G

    2017-04-18

    Mucosal barrier tissues, comprising a layer of tightly-bonded epithelial cells in intimate molecular communication with an underlying matrix-rich stroma containing fibroblasts and immune cells, are prominent targets for drugs against infection, chronic inflammation, and other disease processes. Although human in vitro models of such barriers are needed for mechanistic studies and drug development, differences in extracellular matrix (ECM) needs of epithelial and stromal cells hinder efforts to create such models. Here, using the endometrium as an example mucosal barrier, we describe a synthetic, modular ECM hydrogel suitable for 3D functional co-culture, featuring components that can be remodeled by cells and that respond dynamically to sequester local cell-secreted ECM characteristic of each cell type. The synthetic hydrogel combines peptides with off-the-shelf reagents and is thus accessible to cell biology labs. Specifically, we first identified a single peptide as suitable for initial attachment of both endometrial epithelial and stromal cells using a 2D semi-empirical screen. Then, using a co-culture system of epithelial cells cultured on top of gel-encapsulated stromal cells, we show that inclusion of ECM-binding peptides in the hydrogel, along with the integrin-binding peptide, leads to enhanced accumulation of basement membrane beneath the epithelial layer and more fibrillar collagen matrix assembly by stromal cells over two weeks in culture. Importantly, endometrial co-cultures composed of either cell lines or primary cells displayed hormone-mediated differentiation as assessed by morphological changes and secretory protein production. A multiplex analysis of apical cytokine and growth factor secretion comparing cell lines and primary cells revealed strikingly different patterns, underscoring the importance of using primary cell models in analysis of cell-cell communication networks. In summary, we define a "one-size-fits-all" synthetic ECM that enables

  3. Two-dimensional culture of human pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells results in an irreversible transition from epithelial to mesenchymal phenotype.

    PubMed

    Kang, Ya'an; Zhang, Ran; Suzuki, Rei; Li, Shao-qiang; Roife, David; Truty, Mark J; Chatterjee, Deyali; Thomas, Ryan M; Cardwell, James; Wang, Yu; Wang, Huamin; Katz, Matthew H; Fleming, Jason B

    2015-02-01

    Many commercially available cell lines have been in culture for ages, acquiring phenotypes that differ from the original cancers from which these cell lines were derived. Therefore, research on new cell lines could improve the success rates of translational research in cancer. We have developed methods for the isolation and culture of human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cells from murine xenografts of human PDAC. We hypothesize that phenotypes of PDAC cells are modified by in vitro culture conditions over time and by in vivo implantation. Patient-derived xenografts were created in immunodeficient mice using surgically resected tumor specimens. These murine xenografts were then used to establish human PDAC cell lines in culture. Earlier (<5) passage and later (>20) passage cell lines were evaluated separately regarding proliferation, cell cycle, genetic mutations, invasiveness, chemosensitivity, tumorigenesis, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) status, and proteomics. Later passage cells accelerated their doubling time and colony formation, and were more concentrated in the G0/G1 phase and less in the G2/M checkpoint phase. Later passage cells were more sensitive to gemcitabine and 5-fluorouracil than earlier passage cells, but all four new cell lines were more chemo-resistant compared with commercial ATCC cell lines. EMT induction was observed when establishing and passaging cell lines in vitro and furthermore by growing them as subcutaneous tumors in vivo. This study demonstrates a novel approach to the establishment of PDAC cell lines and observes a process by which newly established cell lines undergo phenotypic changes during in vitro culture and in vivo tumorigenesis. This may help explain differences of treatment effects often observed between experiments conducted in vitro, in vivo, and in human clinical trials.

  4. Harvesting Human Prostate Tissue Material and Culturing Primary Prostate Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Frame, Fiona M; Pellacani, Davide; Collins, Anne T; Maitland, Norman J

    2016-01-01

    In order to fully explore the biology of a complex solid tumor such as prostate cancer, it is desirable to work with patient tissue. Only by working with cells from a tissue can we take into account patient variability and tumor heterogeneity. Cell lines have long been regarded as the workhorse of cancer research and it could be argued that they are of most use when considered within a panel of cell lines, thus taking into account specified mutations and variations in phenotype between different cell lines. However, often very different results are obtained when comparing cell lines to primary cells cultured from tissue. It stands to reason that cells cultured from patient tissue represents a close-to-patient model that should and does produce clinically relevant data. This chapter aims to illustrate the methods of processing, storing and culturing cells from prostate tissue, with a description of potential uses.

  5. Glucocorticoid receptors in primary cultures of mouse mammary epithelial cells: characterization and modulation by prolactin and cortisol

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, W.; Shyamala, G.

    1985-06-01

    Mammary epithelial cells isolated from midpregant mice and cultured on collagen gels contain soluble glucocorticoid receptors. The kinetics of binding of dexamethasone reveal a saturable binding site (dissociation constant (K /sub d/), approximately 1 nM), and the binding site obeys a steroid specificity characteristic of a glucocorticoid receptor. As with the receptor isolated from intact glands, the receptor from the cultured cells also requires the addition of dithiothreitol for maximal binding of dexamethasone. The receptors are maintained at in vivo levels (approximately 1.3 pmol/mg DNA) for at least a period of 10 days in culture. However, the presence of both cortisol and PRL is required for the maintenance of the receptors, and the effect of both these hormones is dose dependent.

  6. Effect of retinoic acid on proliferation and polyamine metabolism in cultured bovine retinal pigment epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Yasunari, T; Yanagihara, N; Komatsu, T; Moriwaki, M; Shiraki, K; Miki, T; Yano, Y; Otani, S

    1999-01-01

    Reports regarding the effect of all-trans-retinoic acid (RA) on the cell growth of retinal pigment epithelial cells (RPE) have been contradictory. The aims of this study are to clarify the in vitro effect of RA on RPE cells and to examine polyamine metabolism after RA stimulation. A 4-day incubation of fetal-calf-serum (FCS)-stimulated RPE cells with 10 or 25 microM RA significantly increased both cell number and [3H]thymidine incorporation. RPE cells grown over an extended period for 8 days also increased in number and reached full confluency. However, if the incubation was further extended to 12 days, no further increase in cell number was detected. RA treatment of FCS-stimulated RPE cells shifted the peak of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity from 16 to 4 h. S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (SAMDC) activity and spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase (SAT) activity of RA-treated RPE cells were significantly greater until 8 and 16 h after incubation, respectively. The putrescine content was significantly increased in RA-treated RPE cells up until 24 h, while spermidine, spermine and N1-acetylspermidine contents were significantly increased until 16 h. Our findings suggest that RA treatment increases the intracellular polyamine concentration of RPE cells via activation of ODC, SAMDC and SAT and that this results in the promotion of RPE cell growth until the cells reach full confluency.

  7. Glucose metabolite patterns as markers of functional differentiation in freshly isolated and cultured mouse mammary epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Emerman, J.T.; Bartley, J.C.; Bissel, M.J.

    1981-01-01

    In the mammary gland of non-ruminant animals, glucose is utilized in a characteristic and unique way during lacation. By measuring the incorporation of glucose carbon from (U-/sup 14/C)glucose into intermediary metabolitees and metabolic products in mammary epithelia cells from virgin, pregnant, and lacating mice, we domonstrate that glucose metabolite patterns can be used to recognize stages of differentiated function. For these cells, the rates of synthesis of glycogen and lactose, the ratio of lactate to alanine, and the ratio of citrate to malate are important parameters in identifying the degree of expression of differentiation. We further show that these patterns can be used as markers to determine the differentiated state of cultured mammary epithelial cells. Cells maintained on plastic substrates lose their distinctive glucose metabolite patterns while those on floating collagen gels do not. Cells isolated from pregnant mice and cultured on collagen gels have a pattern similar to that of their freshly isolated counter-parts. When isolated from lacating mice, the metabolite patterns of cells cultured on collagen gels are different from that of the cells of origin, and resembles that of freshly isolated cells from pregnant mice. Our findings suggest that the floating collagen gels under the culture conditions used in these experiments provide an environment for the functional expression of the pregnant state, while additional factors are needed for the expression of the lactating state.

  8. Medium Calcium Concentration Determines Keratin Intermediate Filament Density and Distribution in Immortalized Cultured Thymic Epithelial Cells (TECs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sands, Sandra S.; Meek, William D.; Hayashi, Jun; Ketchum, Robert J.

    2005-08-01

    Isolation and culture of thymic epithelial cells (TECs) using conventional primary tissue culture techniques under conditions employing supplemented low calcium medium yielded an immortalized cell line derived from the LDA rat (Lewis [Rt1l] cross DA [Rt1a]) that could be manipulated in vitro. Thymi were harvested from 4 5-day-old neonates, enzymically digested using collagenase (1 mg/ml, 37°C, 1 h) and cultured in low calcium WAJC404A medium containing cholera toxin (20 ng/ml), dexamethasone (10 nM), epidermal growth factor (10 ng/ml), insulin (10 [mu]g/ml), transferrin (10 [mu]g/ml), 2% calf serum, 2.5% Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium (DMEM), and 1% antibiotic/antimycotic. TECs cultured in low calcium displayed round to spindle-shaped morphology, distinct intercellular spaces (even at confluence), and dense reticular-like keratin patterns. In high calcium (0.188 mM), TECs formed cobblestone-like confluent monolayers that were resistant to trypsinization (0.05%) and displayed keratin intermediate filaments concentrated at desmosomal junctions between contiguous cells. Changes in cultured TEC morphology were quantified by an analysis of desmosome/membrane relationships in high and low calcium media. Desmosomes were significantly increased in the high calcium medium. These studies may have value when considering the growth conditions of cultured primary cell lines like TECs.

  9. Effect of different culture media and deswelling agents on survival of human corneal endothelial and epithelial cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Valtink, Monika; Donath, Patricia; Engelmann, Katrin; Knels, Lilla

    2016-02-01

    To examine the effects of media and deswelling agents on human corneal endothelial and epithelial cell viability using a previously developed screening system. The human corneal endothelial cell line HCEC-12 and the human corneal epithelial cell line HCE-T were cultured in four different corneal organ culture media (serum-supplemented: MEM +2 % FCS, CorneaMax®/CorneaJet®, serum-free: Human Endothelial-SFM, Stemalpha-2 and -3) with and without 6 % dextran T500 or 7 % HES 130/0.4. Standard growth media F99HCEC and DMEM/F12HCE-T served as controls. In additional controls, the stress inducers staurosporine or hydrogen peroxide were added. After 5 days in the test media, cell viability was assessed by flow cytometrically quantifying apoptotic and necrotic cells (sub-G1 DNA content, vital staining with YO-PRO-1® and propidium iodide) and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). The MEM-based media were unable to support HCEC-12 and HCE-T survival under stress conditions, resulting in significantly increased numbers of apoptotic and necrotic cells. HCEC-12 survival was markedly improved in SFM-based media even under staurosporine or hydrogen peroxide. Likewise, HCE-T survival was improved in SFM with or without dextran. The media CorneaMax®, CorneaJet®, and CorneaMax® with HES supported HCEC-12 survival better than MEM-based media, but less well than SFM-based media. HCE-T viability was also supported by CorneaJet®, but not by CorneaMax® with or without HES. Stemalpha-based media were not suitable for maintaining viability of HCEC-12 or HCE-T in the applied cell culture system. The use of serum-supplemented MEM-based media for corneal organ culture should be discontinued in favour of serum-free media like SFM.

  10. The role of proteases in fibronectin matrix remodeling in thyroid epithelial cell monolayer cultures.

    PubMed

    Nezi, Luigi; Greco, Dario; Nitsch, Lucio; Garbi, Corrado

    2002-01-01

    Fischer rat thyroid (FRT) cells organize a matrix of extracellular fibronectin (FN) fibrils, which undergoes extensive remodeling according to cell culture confluence. In non-confluent cells FN forms a fibrillar array associated with the ventral cell surface. However, basal FN is progressively removed in confluent cultures and substituted by non-fibrillar FN deposits at lateral cell domains in regions of cell-cell contacts. FRT cells secrete and expose on the plasma membrane the tissue-type plasminogen activator and, in serum-free cultures, plasminogen induces a rapid loss of FN fibrils. Incubation with plasmin inhibitors greatly reduces this effect. FRT cells also express annexin II, a plasminogen receptor, suggesting that plasmin activity is associated with the pericellular enviroment. This is in agreement with the observation that a great reduction in FN degradation is observed if the cells are pre-incubated with carboxypeptidase B, which prevents plasminogen binding to the cells. A gelatinolytic activity with a molecular weigth equivalent to MMP-2 has been demonstrated by zymography of culture media, and the presence of MMP-2 and MT1-MMP on the cell plasma membrane has been detected by immunofluorescence. These results indicate that in the FN remodeling process, occurring during FRT epithelium maturation, both plasmin-dependent (tPA activated) and plasmin-independent proteolytic activities are involved.

  11. Effects of species and cellular activity of oviductal epithelial cells on their dialogue with co-cultured mouse embryos.

    PubMed

    Tan, Xiu-Wen; Ma, Suo-Feng; Yu, Jian-Ning; Zhang, Xia; Lan, Guo-Cheng; Liu, Xin-Yong; Han, Zheng-Bin; Tan, Jing-He

    2007-01-01

    An efficient co-culture system, especially with oviductal or uterine epithelial cells, is important not only for the production of high quality embryos, but also for the study of the molecular dialogue between embryos and their maternal environment. Although mouse embryos have been co-cultured successfully with oviductal epithelial cells (OECs) from several species, studies on the effects of species and functionality of OECs are few. Reports concerning the necessity of direct contact between the embryo and OECs and about the culture of mouse embryos in medium conditioned with heterologous OECs have been controversial. In this study, pronuclear embryos from Kunming mice, characterized by an obvious two-cell block in vitro, were co-cultured with mouse, goat, and chick OECs. The functionality of OECs was determined by analyzing the cell cycle, apoptosis, the numbers of mitochondria and cilia, and the ability both to support embryonic development and to remove hypoxanthine from the culture medium. The necessity of direct contact between OECs and embryos was studied by repeated renewal of culture medium with fresh conditioned medium, the culture of embryos in plastic wells connected by tunnels to wells with OEC monolayers, and the co-culture of embryos separated from OECs by a filter. Both goat and chick OECs supported mouse embryonic development, but their embryotrophic lifespan was shorter than that of the mouse OECs. Whereas media conditioned with mouse OECs supported mouse embryonic development satisfactorily, medium conditioned with goat OECs supported little development. Immediate dialogue between heterologous OECs and embryos was essential for efficient co-culture, whereas direct contact between the two cell types was not; neither dialogue nor contact was needed between isologous OECs and embryos. Embryotrophic activity and the ability to remove hypoxanthine from conditioned medium declined with time after confluence and number of passages of OECs, mainly because

  12. Infection of cultured intestinal epithelial cells with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus.

    PubMed

    Cinatl, J; Hoever, G; Morgenstern, B; Preiser, W; Vogel, J-U; Hofmann, W-K; Bauer, G; Michaelis, M; Rabenau, H F; Doerr, H W

    2004-08-01

    To identify a model for the study of intestinal pathogenesis of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) we tested the sensitivity of six human intestinal epithelial cell lines to infection with SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV). In permissive cell lines, effects of SARS-CoV on cellular gene expression were analysed using high-density oligonucleotide arrays. Caco-2 and CL-14 cell lines were found to be highly permissive to SARS-CoV, due to the presence of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 as a functional receptor. In both cell lines, SARS-CoV infection deregulated expression of cellular genes which may be important for the intestinal pathogenesis of SARS.

  13. Low Power Laser Irradiation Stimulates the Proliferation of Adult Human Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells in Culture

    PubMed Central

    Song, Qing; Uygun, Basak; Banerjee, Ipsita; Nahmias, Yaakov; Zhang, Quan; Berthiaume, François; Latina, Mark; Yarmush, Martin L.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effects of low power laser irradiation on the proliferation of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells. Adult human RPE cells were artificially pigmented by preincubation with sepia melanin, and exposed to a single sublethal laser pulse (590 nm, 1 µs, <200 mJ/cm2). DNA synthesis, cell number, and growth factor activity in irradiated RPE cells were subsequently monitored. The effect of sublethal laser irradiation on the “wound” healing response of an RPE monolayer in an in vitro scratch assay was also investigated. Single pulsed laser irradiation increased DNA synthesis in pigmented RPE cells measured 6 h post-treatment. In the scratch assay, laser irradiation increased the rates of cell proliferation and wound closure. Conditioned medium, collected 48 h following laser treatment, increased cell proliferation of unirradiated cells. Irradiation increased RPE cell secretion of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-B chain, and increased mRNA levels of several growth factors and their receptors, including PDGF, transforming growth factor-β1, basic fibroblast growth factor, epidermal growth factor, insulin-like growth factor, as well as heat shock proteins. This demonstrates, for the first time, that low power single pulsed laser irradiation stimulates the proliferation of RPE cells, and upregulates growth factors that are mitogenic for RPE cells. PMID:26740823

  14. Interleukin-8 induces DNA synthesis, migration and down-regulation of cleaved caspase-3 in cultured human gingival epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Fujita, T; Yoshimoto, T; Matsuda, S; Kajiya, M; Kittaka, M; Imai, H; Iwata, T; Uchida, Y; Shiba, H; Kurihara, H

    2015-08-01

    Migration of the junctional epithelium occurs in association with the formation of a periodontal pocket. Although the migration of junctional epithelium is known to be related to the proliferation and migration of gingival junctional epithelial cells, the mechanism has not been clarified. In patients with periodontitis, the levels of interleukin-8 (IL-8) in both gingival tissue and gingival crevicular fluid are dramatically increased. IL-8 has broad bioactive functions. In this study, we examined the role of IL-8 in DNA synthesis, migration and protection against apoptosis in cultured human gingival epithelial cells (HGEC). DNA synthesis was estimated by measuring the incorporation of bromodeoxyuridine. The migration of gingival epithelial cells was assessed in a wound-healing assay. The expression of integrin beta-1 was analyzed using immunofluorescence confocal microscopy and western blotting. Cleaved caspase-3 was detected using western blotting and a Caspase-Glo assay kit. IL-8 increased the synthesis of DNA in HGEC, and the maximal effect was seen at 25 or 50 ng/mL of IL-8. In addition, 50 ng/mL of IL-8 induced cell migration, and a neutralizing antibody of integrin beta-1 inhibited the migration. IL-8 also activated expression of integrin beta-1. Furthermore, IL-8 reduced the Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans-induced increase in caspase-3 expression in HGEC. IL-8 may facilitate the migration of gingival junctional epithelium by enhancing DNA synthesis, migration and preventing apoptosis of gingival epithelial cells. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Povidone-iodine-induced cell death in cultured human epithelial HeLa cells and rat oral mucosal tissue.

    PubMed

    Sato, So; Miyake, Masao; Hazama, Akihiro; Omori, Koichi

    2014-07-01

    Although povidone-iodine (PVP-I) has been used as a gargle since 1956, its effectiveness and material safety have been remained controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the toxicity of PVP-I to epithelial cells in a concentration range significantly lower than that used clinically. Study design was in vitro laboratory investigations and in vivo histological and immunologic analysis. We examined the effects of PVP-I at concentrations of 1 × 10(-2) to 1 × 10(3) μM and 1 × 10(-4) to 1 × 10 μM on HeLa cells as a model of epithelial cells and rat oral mucosa, respectively, after 1 or 2 days of exposure. Annexin V/FLUOS was used to distinguish live, apoptotic and necrotic cells. The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) method was also used to observe whether apoptotic epithelial cells exist in rat oral mucosa after 1 day of exposure of PVP-I. HeLa cells developed concentration-dependent cytotoxicity, and epithelium of rat oral mucosa was thinned in a concentration-dependent manner. HeLa cell apoptosis increased after 1 × 10(0) μM of PVP-I exposure for 2 days. In the TUNEL method, many apoptotic epithelial cells were observed in the rat oral mucosa after 1 day of exposure to diluted 1 × 10(-2) μM of PVP-I, but minimal apoptotic epithelial cells were observed using 1 × 10(-3) μM of PVP-I. Our findings suggest that exposure to PVP-I, of which concentrations are even lower than those used clinically, causes toxicity in epithelial cells. This knowledge would help us better understand the risk of the use of PVP-I against mucosa.

  16. Ductular network formation by rat biliary epithelial cells in the dynamical culture with collagen gel and dimethylsulfoxide stimulation.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Wataru; Sudo, Ryo; Fukasawa, Kazutomo; Ikeda, Mariko; Mitaka, Toshihiro; Tanishita, Kazuo

    2008-08-01

    Formation of bile ducts in culture is important for reconstructing hepatic organoids with bile drainage systems. However, morphogenic factors of biliary epithelial cells (BECs) have been poorly understood because of the lack of experimental models. Here, we demonstrated that rat BECs formed bile ductular networks in dynamic culture, when culture conditions were sequentially controlled. BEC morphogenesis was achieved through two-dimensional culture on collagen gel, collagen gel sandwich configuration, and 1% dimethylsulfoxide stimulation. In this culture system, BECs developed into large bile duct structures (LBDs) that formed interconnected networks of continuous lumens. LBD luminal surfaces possessed well developed microvilli, consisted of 7 to 10 BECs, and their inner diameters measured 20 to 50 microm. Quantitative PCR analysis revealed that the cells in LBDs expressed apical and basal domain markers of BECs. Immunofluorescent staining identified apical domain markers such as Cl(-)/HCO(3)(-) anion exchanger 2 and cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator on the luminal surface of LBDs, responding to secretin stimulation as well as laminin protein surrounding LBDs. Furthermore, the cells in LBDs transported metabolized fluorescein from the basal side to the luminal space, further demonstrating that the reconstructed LBDs were functionally and morphologically similar to the bile ducts in vivo. The culture model described here will be useful in reconstructing hepatic tissues as well as in understanding the mechanism of bile duct development and its disruption in disease.

  17. The putative human stem cell marker, Rex-1 (Zfp42): structural classification and expression in normal human epithelial and carcinoma cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Mongan, Nigel P; Martin, Kisha M; Gudas, Lorraine J

    2006-12-01

    Human Rex-1 (hRex-1) (also referred to as zinc-finger protein-42, Zfp42) encodes a zinc finger protein expression of which is believed to be characteristic of pluripotent stem cells. We have applied bioinformatics to classify the relationship of human, rat, and mouse REX1 proteins in the C2H2 family of zinc finger proteins and demonstrate that REX1 is a member of the YY1 sub-family of transcription factors, which includes the Drosophila pleiohomeotic (Pho) protein. We have generated a molecular model of the human REX1 zinc finger domains based on the crystal structure of the YY1 transcription factor. To date, expression of hRex-1 and its extensively studied mouse homolog mRex-1, has been reported only in embryonic and adult stem cells and in differentiated spermatocytes. In this study, reverse transcription-PCR and Western analysis were employed to assay for hRex-1 expression in cultured normal human epithelial cells and human carcinoma cell lines. Expression of hRex-1 mRNA was detected in normal human epidermal keratinocytes, normal prostate epithelial cells (PrEC), bronchial, and small airway lung epithelial cells. Other stem cell markers, such as Oct 4, DAB2, and cMyc were also detected in normal human epidermal keratinocyte cultures. Expression of hRex-1 was also detected in some human tumor cell lines including MDA-MB-468 mammary carcinoma, SCC-15 head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, and N-TERA2 human teratocarcinoma cells. Western analyses confirmed expression of the human REX1 (ZFP42) protein in MDA-MB-468 cells and normal human keratinocytes. This research has identified model human cell culture systems, in addition to embryonic stem (ES) cells, in which Rex-1 is expressed, and this should enable the characterization of REX1 functions in normal adult epithelial cells and tumorigenic stem cells.

  18. Salivary α-amylase exhibits antiproliferative effects in primary cell cultures of rat mammary epithelial cells and human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Fedrowitz, Maren; Hass, Ralf; Bertram, Catharina; Löscher, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most diagnosed cancers in females, frequently with fatal outcome, so that new strategies for modulating cell proliferation in the mammary tissue are urgently needed. There is some, as yet inconclusive evidence that α-amylase may constitute a novel candidate for affecting cellular growth. The present investigation aimed to examine if salivary α-amylase, an enzyme well known for the metabolism of starch and recently introduced as a stress marker, is able to exert antiproliferative effects on the growth of mammary gland epithelial cells. For this purpose, primary epithelial cultures of breast tissue from two different inbred rat strains, Fischer 344 (F344) and Lewis, as well as breast tumor cells of human origin were used. Treatment with human salivary α-amylase was performed once daily for 2 days followed by cell counting (trypan blue assay) to determine alterations in cell numbers. Cell senescence after α-amylase treatment was assessed by β-galactosidase assay. Endogenous α-amylase was detected in cells from F344 and Lewis by immunofluorescence. Salivary α-amylase treatment in vitro significantly decreased the proliferation of primary cells from F344 and Lewis rats in a concentration-dependent manner. Noticeably, the sensitivity towards α-amylase was significantly higher in Lewis cells with stronger impact on cell growth after 5 and 50 U/ml compared to F344 cells. An antiproliferative effect of α-amylase was also determined in mammary tumor cells of human origin, but this effect varied depending on the donor, age, and type of the cells. The results presented here indicate for the first time that salivary α-amylase affects cell growth in rat mammary epithelial cells and in breast tumor cells of human origin. Thus, α-amylase may be considered a novel, promising target for balancing cellular growth, which may provide an interesting tool for tumor prophylaxis and treatment.

  19. Transforming Growth Factor-β Signaling Cascade Induced by Mechanical Stimulation of Fluid Shear Stress in Cultured Corneal Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Utsunomiya, Tsugiaki; Ishibazawa, Akihiro; Nagaoka, Taiji; Hanada, Kazuomi; Yokota, Harumasa; Ishii, Nobuhito; Yoshida, Akitoshi

    2016-11-01

    Because blinking is regarded as mechanical stimulation of fluid shear stress on the corneal epithelial cells, we investigated the effects of fluid shear stress on cultured human corneal epithelial cells (HCECs). The HCECs were exposed to shear stress (0, 1.2, 12 dyne/cm2) with the parallel-plate type of flow chamber. Wound healing, cellular proliferation, growth factor expression, TGF-β1 concentration in the culture supernatant, and phosphorylation of SMAD2 were investigated. Monolayers of HCECs exposed to shear stress had delayed wound healing and decreased proliferation compared with those of the static control (0 dyne/cm2). With increasing shear stress, TGF-β1 expression and phosphorylation of SMAD2 increased significantly, but the levels of total TGF-β1 in the culture supernatant decreased significantly. Delayed wound healing, decreased proliferation, and phosphorylation of the SMAD2 by shear stress were canceled out with a TGF-β receptor inhibitor. Fluid shear stress on the HCECs affected TGF-β signaling, which was associated with delayed wound healing. Mechanical stress by blinking might involve TGF-β signaling, and activation of TGF-β might be a key factor in wound healing of the corneal epithelium. Further studies should investigate the molecular mechanism of shear stress-induced activation of TGF-β.

  20. Three-Dimensional Organotypic Co-Culture Model of Intestinal Epithelial Cells and Macrophages to Study "Salmonella Enterica" Colonization Patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ott, Mark; Yang, J; Barilla, J.; Crabbe, A.; Sarker, S. F.; Liu, Y.

    2017-01-01

    Three-dimensional/3-D organotypic models of human intestinal epithelium mimic the differentiated form and function of parental tissues often not exhibited by 2-D monolayers and respond to Salmonella in ways that reflect in vivo infections. To further enhance the physiological relevance of 3-D models to more closely approximate in vivo intestinal microenvironments during infection, we developed and validated a novel 3-D intestinal co-culture model containing multiple epithelial cell types and phagocytic macrophages, and applied to study enteric infection by different Salmonella pathovars.

  1. Detection of epithelial cell transfer in spinal areas by light microscopy and determining any tissue coring via cell culture during combined spinal-epidural interventions.

    PubMed

    Tunali, Yusuf; Kaya, Guner; Tunali, Gulden; Solakoglu, Seyhun; Yenice, Sedef; Bahar, Mois

    2006-01-01

    Epithelial tissue coring by spinal needles during subarachnoid injections may cause intraspinal epidermal tumors. Previous studies have investigated tissue transfer with different needle types during subarachnoid or epidural injection. This study deals with the transfer of epithelial tissue during combined spinal-epidural (CSE) anesthesia. We studied 68 American Society of Anesthesiologists I to III adult patients. CSE anesthesia was induced under aseptic conditions at the L2-3 or L3-4 interspace with patients in the lateral decubitus position. Cerebral spinal fluid, spinal needle stylet, fluid used to flush the interior of the spinal needle, fluid used to wash the exterior of the spinal needle, fluid used to flush the interior of the epidural needle, and fluid used to wash the exterior tip of the epidural needle were examined under light microscopy (n = 30 patients) or incubated in a cell-culture medium (n = 38 patients). Samples were incubated in cell-culture medium alone (n = 13) or in a cell-culture medium for 3 weeks and then in a medium with epidermal growth factor (n = 25). As a positive control, skin tissue samples were taken by punch biopsy from 10 randomly chosen patients who underwent CSE interventions. These samples were incubated in an enriched medium serum. Light microscopy revealed that there was cell transfer in all phases in various rates: samples 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 contained epithelial cells and debris in ratios of 6.9%, 20.7%, 6.9%, 20.7%, 26.7%, and 33.3%, respectively. Epithelial cell colonization was detected in the cell-culture samples taken from the control group but not in the samples taken from the CSE group. We could not reproduce the cells or cell debris obtained during the CSE interventions in vivo, which can be explained by a possible structural deformation of cells or the inadequacy of the amount of cells that were transferred.

  2. Lactobacillus acidophilus binds to MUC3 component of cultured intestinal epithelial cells with highest affinity.

    PubMed

    Das, Jugal Kishore; Mahapatra, Rajani Kanta; Patro, Shubhransu; Goswami, Chandan; Suar, Mrutyunjay

    2016-04-01

    Lactobacillus strains have been shown to adhere to the mucosal components of intestinal epithelial cells. However, established in vitro adhesion assays have several drawbacks in assessing the adhesion of new Lactobacillus strains. The present study aimed to compare the adhesion of four different Lactobacillus strains and select the most adherent microbe, based on in silico approach supported by in vitro results. The mucus-binding proteins in Lactobacillus acidophilus, L. plantarum, L. brevis and L. fermentum were identified and their capacities to interact with intestinal mucin were compared by molecular docking analysis. Lactobacillus acidophilus had the maximal affinity of binding to mucin with predicted free energy of -6.066 kcal mol(-1) Further, in vitro experimental assay of adhesion was performed to validate the in silico results. The adhesion of L. acidophilus to mucous secreting colon epithelial HT-29 MTX cells was highest at 12%, and it formed biofilm with maximum depth (Z = 84 μm). Lactobacillus acidophilus was determined to be the most adherent strain in the study. All the Lactobacillus strains tested in this study, displayed maximum affinity of binding to MUC3 component of mucus as compared to other gastrointestinal mucins. These findings may have importance in the design of probiotics and health care management. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Transcriptome Analysis of Cultured Limbal Epithelial Cells on an Intact Amniotic Membrane following Hypothermic Storage in Optisol-GS

    PubMed Central

    Paaske Utheim, Tor; Salvanos, Panagiotis; Aass Utheim, Øygunn; Ræder, Sten; Pasovic, Lara; Olstad, Ole Kristoffer; Fideliz de la Paz, Maria; Sehic, Amer

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying activation of cell death pathways using genome-wide transcriptional analysis in human limbal epithelial cell (HLEC) cultures following conventional hypothermic storage in Optisol-GS. Three-week HLEC cultures were stored in Optisol-GS for 2, 4, and 7 days at 4 °C. Partek Genomics Suite software v.6.15.0422, (Partec Inc., St. Louis, MO, USA) was used to identify genes that showed significantly different (P < 0.05) levels of expression following hypothermic storage compared to non-stored cell sheets. There were few changes in gene expression after 2 days of storage, but several genes were differently regulated following 4 and 7 days of storage. The histone-coding genes HIST1H3A and HIST4H4 were among the most upregulated genes following 4 and 7 days of hypothermic storage. Bioinformatic analysis suggested that these two genes are involved in a functional network highly associated with cell death, necrosis, and transcription of RNA. HDAC1, encoding histone deacetylase 1, was the most downregulated gene after 7 days of storage. Together with other downregulated genes, it is suggested that HDAC1 is involved in a regulating network significantly associated with cellular function and maintenance, differentiation of cells, and DNA repair. Our data suggest that the upregulated expression of histone-coding genes together with downregulated genes affecting cell differentiation and DNA repair may be responsible for increased cell death following hypothermic storage of cultured HLEC. In summary, our results demonstrated that a higher number of genes changed with increasing storage time. Moreover, in general, larger differences in absolute gene expression values were observed with increasing storage time. Further understanding of these molecular mechanisms is important for optimization of storage technology for limbal epithelial sheets. PMID:26901233

  4. Effect of Cryopreserved Amniotic Membrane Orientation on the Expression of Limbal Mesenchymal and Epithelial Stem Cell Markers in Prolonged Limbal Explant Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Lužnik, Zala; Hawlina, Marko; Maličev, Elvira; Bertolin, Marina; Kopitar, Andreja Nataša; Ihan, Alojz; Ferrari, Stefano; Schollmayer, Petra

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the effect of prolonged limbal explants cultured without any scaffolds or on amniotic membrane (AM) on the viability, proliferation and differentiation potential of putative phenotypically defined cultured limbal mesenchymal (LMSC) and epithelial stem cells (LESC). Methods Limbal explants were cultivated on cryopreserved intact AM or plastic plates using medium supplemented with only human serum. AM was positioned with either the epithelial or stromal side up. The outgrowing cells were immunophenotyped for the co-expression of mesenchymal stem cell markers (CD73/CD90/CD105 positive and CD45 negative), proliferation and putative progenitor markers (CXCR4, CD117), epithelial markers and antigen presenting cell markers (CD80, CD83, CD86) by flow cytometry. Immunohistochemistry on limbal cultures cultivated on AM was carried out with antibodies against pan-cytokeratin, p63, Ki67. Results Morphological and immunostaining analyses revealed two distinct stem cell population types, which could be identified over prolonged culturing time periods. Expression of LMSC markers and CXCR4 was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in cultures cultivated without AM. However, no statistically significant difference was observed in CD117 expression. The cells cultivated on AM retained an epithelial cell structure, which was further confirmed by histology examination. Histology revealed limbal epithelial growth and p63, Ki67 positive cells on both sides of AM. Conclusion Limbal cells cultivated on AM exhibited a lower expression profile of LMSC and CXCR4 markers as limbal cells cultivated on plastic culture plates. However, CD117 expression was similar. Histology confirmed limbal epithelial cell growth on both sides of AM, with no morphological differences, or positivity of cells for p63 and Ki67. PMID:27723792

  5. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis of proteolytic enzymes in cultures of human respiratory epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Baginski, Leonie; Tachon, Gaëlle; Falson, Françoise; Patton, John S; Bakowsky, Udo; Ehrhardt, Carsten

    2011-04-01

    Pancreatic proteolytic digestive enzymes are a major extracellular barrier to the sucessful systemic delivery of biopharmaceuticals via the oral route, whereas in health in the lungs these powerful proteases are virtually absent from the extracellular fluids. Despite this, the absorption of some (but not all) natural peptides and proteins from the lungs may be poor, and one has to acknowledge that information on the activity and spatial distribution of proteolytic enzymes in the human lung is scarce. Here, we investigated expression patterns of a series of proteolytic enzymes in several human respiratory cell types on mRNA level in an attempt to better understand the fate of inhaled biopharmaceuticals. The mRNA expression of proteolytic enzymes (i.e., carboxypeptidases: CPA1, CPA2, CPB, CPM; gamma-glutamyltransferases: GGT1, GGT2; angiotensin-converting enzymes: ACE, ACE2; aminopeptidases: APA, APB, APN, APP1, APP2, APP3; endopeptidases: 24.11 (neprilysin), 24.15 (thimet oligopeptidase), 24.18 (meprin A); enteropeptidase; trypsin 1, trypsin 2; neutrophilic elastase; dipeptidyl peptidase 4; gamma-glutamylhydrolase) was investigated by semiquantitative RT-PCR in human bronchial (hBEpC, Calu-3, 16HBE14o-) and alveolar (A549) epithelial cells, respectively. Gastrointestinal Caco-2 cells were used as comparison. Obvious differences were observed in proteinases' expression pattern between the investigated cell types. Although considered to be of bronchial epithelial phenotype, neither Calu-3 nor 16HBE14o- cells matched the mRNA expression pattern of hBEpC in primary culture. Of all investigated cell lines, Caco-2 expresses the highest number of proteases and peptidases. Although mRNA expression does not necessarily signify enzyme functionality, our results provide the first comprehensive analysis of peptidase and protease expression and distribution in human lung epithelial cells and are the basis for further investigations.

  6. Cancer Risk-Assessment of Radiation Damage in Ataxia Telangiectasia Heterozygous Human Breast Epithelial Cell Cultures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Applewhite, Lisa C.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the study of the markers of cellular changes that are found during the onset of carcinogenesis. Several of the biological factors are markers of stress response, oncoprotein expression, and differentiation factors. Oxidative stress response agents such as heat shock proteins (HSPs) protect cells from oxidative stresses such as ionizing radiation. The onocoprotein HER-2/neu, a specific breast cancer marker, indicates early onset of cancer. Additional structural and morphogenetic markers of differentiation were considered in order to determine initial cellular changes at the initial onset of cancer. As an additional consideration, all-trans retinoic acid (RA), a differentiation agent, was considered because of its known role in regulating normal differentiation and inhibiting tumor proliferation via specific nuclear receptors. This paper discusses study and results of the preliminary analyses of gamma irradiation of AT heterozygous human breast epithelial cells (WH). Comparisons are also made of the effects various RA concentrations post-irradiation.

  7. Ultraviolet microbeam irradiations of cultured newt lung epithelial cells during mitosis

    SciTech Connect

    Cypher, C.

    1983-01-01

    The mechanism of chromosome movement is unknown. The structural environment for this movement is a birefringent, spindle-shaped array of microtubules. Microbeams of ultraviolet light were used to disrupt the mitotic spindles of newt lung epithelial cells to localize force production within spindles and to evaluate the role of microtubules in force generation or transduction. Time-lapse cinephotomicrographic records of cells were made using phase and polarization microscopy. Irradiation effects were correlated with spindle microtubule structure by immuno-gold antitubulin staining. The results demonstrate the pervasive effects of local irradiations upon spindle structure. The spindle compaction observed after irradiations suggests that each half-spindle is under a compressive force. Since the irradiations locally disassemble microtubules, the results suggest that the birefringent microtubules oppose this compressive force.

  8. Cancer Risk-Assessment of Radiation Damage in Ataxia Telangiectasia Heterozygous Human Breast Epithelial Cell Cultures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Applewhite, Lisa C.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the study of the markers of cellular changes that are found during the onset of carcinogenesis. Several of the biological factors are markers of stress response, oncoprotein expression, and differentiation factors. Oxidative stress response agents such as heat shock proteins (HSPs) protect cells from oxidative stresses such as ionizing radiation. The onocoprotein HER-2/neu, a specific breast cancer marker, indicates early onset of cancer. Additional structural and morphogenetic markers of differentiation were considered in order to determine initial cellular changes at the initial onset of cancer. As an additional consideration, all-trans retinoic acid (RA), a differentiation agent, was considered because of its known role in regulating normal differentiation and inhibiting tumor proliferation via specific nuclear receptors. This paper discusses study and results of the preliminary analyses of gamma irradiation of AT heterozygous human breast epithelial cells (WH). Comparisons are also made of the effects various RA concentrations post-irradiation.

  9. Establishment of Primary Cell Culture From Ascitic Fluid and Solid Tumor Obtained From Epithelial Ovarian Carcinoma Patients.

    PubMed

    Kar, Rajarshi; Chawla, Diwesh; Gupta, Bindiya; Mehndiratta, Mohit; Wadhwa, Neelam; Agarwal, Rachna

    2017-08-16

    Ovarian cancer is the seventh leading cause of cancer death worldwide. This is mainly due to late diagnosis and high rate of relapse and resistance following chemotherapy. In the present study, we describe simple and cost-effective method to establish primary culture from ascitic fluid and solid tumor obtained from epithelial ovarian carcinoma patient, which may provide a better tool for in vitro testing of drug sensitivity and designing individualized treatment protocol. Complete Dulbecco modified Eagle medium (DMEM) was prepared by supplementing DMEM with 10% fetal bovine serum and antibiotics (ciprofloxacin and amphotericin B). Establishment of primary culture of ovarian cancer cells from ascites fluid and solid tumor was done by using complete DMEM media. Primary cultures of ovarian cancer cells were established from ascitic fluid and solid tumor tissue. Of the 7 ascitic fluid samples, we were able to establish 5 primary cultures of ovarian cancer cells. All the 7 samples were diagnosed as serous papillary adenocarcinoma. Some fibroblasts were also attached to culture flask on day 4; they were removed by exposing them to trypsin for a brief period. On day 7, grape-like clusters were visualized under inverted microscope. The cells became confluent on the 10th and 11th day and showed cobblestone appearance, which is a hallmark of ovarian cancer cells. Senescent irregularly shaped cells that have ceased dividing were seen after 8 to 10 passages. This study highlights the fact that establishing primary cultures from ascitic fluid or solid tumor tissue may help us to understand the molecular profile of the cancer cells, which allow us to select the best chemotherapeutic agent for ovarian cancer patients and thus take a step toward patient-tailored therapy so that patients are not exposed to drugs to which they are not likely to respond.

  10. Comparison of the canine corneal epithelial cell sheets cultivated from limbal stem cells on canine amniotic membrane, atelocollagen gel, and temperature-responsive culture dish.

    PubMed

    Nam, Eunryel; Fujita, Naoki; Morita, Maresuke; Tsuzuki, Keiko; Lin, Hsing Yi; Chung, Cheng Shu; Nakagawa, Takayuki; Nishimura, Ryohei

    2015-07-01

    The current study compared canine corneal epithelial cell sheets cultivated from limbal stem cells on amniotic membrane, atelocollagen gel, and temperature-responsive culture dish. We collected limbal epithelial cells from the intact eyes of beagles and cultivated the cells on denuded canine amniotic membranes, temperature-responsive cell culture labware, and collagen gel with 3T3 feeder cells. Immunofluorescence staining for Ki-67 was used to analyze the capacity of cell proliferation in the sheets. Immunofluorescence staining was also performed for the corneal epithelium-specific marker cytokeratin 3 and putative stem cell markers ABCG2 and p63. Reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed to detect ABCG2 and p63. The growth rates of the cultivated cells, or the times it took them to reach confluency, were different for the three scaffolds. The cultivated sheet on the temperature-responsive dish consisted of 2-3 layers, while those on the collagen gel and on the amniotic membrane consisted of 5-8 layers. The basal layer cells grown on all three scaffolds expressed putative stem cell markers. In real-time RT-PCR analysis, the highest level of p63 was observed in the sheets grown on collagen gel. In this study, the cells cultured on the collagen gel demonstrated a capacity for cell proliferation, and the expressions of stem cells in the sheets suggested that collagen gel is the most suitable carrier for clinical use. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  11. The Effect of Lactobacillus acidophilus PTCC 1643 on Cultured Intestinal Epithelial Cells Infected with Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis

    PubMed Central

    Moshiri, Mona; Dallal, Mohammad Mehdi Soltan; Rezaei, Farhad; Douraghi, Masoumeh; Sharifi, Laleh; Noroozbabaei, Zahra; Gholami, Mehrdad; Mirshafiey, Abbas

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Gastrointestinal disorders caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SesE) are a significant health problem around the globe. Probiotic bacteria have been shown to have positive effects on the immune responses. Lactobacillus acidophilus was examined for its capability to influence the innate immune response of HT29 intestinal epithelial cells towards SesE. The purpose of this work was to assess the effect of L. acidophilus PTCC 1643 on cultured intestinal epithelial cells infected with SesE. Methods HT29 cells were cultured in Roswell Park Memorial Institute medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum and 1% penicillin/streptomycin. The cells were treated with L. acidophilus PTCC 1643 after or before challenge with SesE. At 2 and 4 hours post-infection, we measured changes in the expression levels of TLR2 and TLR4 via real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results Treatment with L. acidophilus inhibited SesE-induced increases in TLR2 and TLR4 expression in the infected HT29 cells. Moreover, the expression of TLR2 and TLR4 in cells that were pretreated with L. acidophilus and then infected with SesE was significantly higher than that in cells infected with SesE without pretreatment. Taken together, the results indicated that L. acidophilus had an anti-inflammatory effect and modulated the innate immune response to SesE by influencing TLR2 and TLR4 expression. Conclusion Our findings suggested that L. acidophilus PTCC 1643 was able to suppress inflammation caused by SesE infection in HT29 cells and reduce TLR2 and TLR4 expression. Additional in vivo and in vitro studies are required to further elucidate the mechanisms underlying this anti-inflammatory effect. PMID:28443224

  12. The Effect of Lactobacillus acidophilus PTCC 1643 on Cultured Intestinal Epithelial Cells Infected with Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis.

    PubMed

    Moshiri, Mona; Dallal, Mohammad Mehdi Soltan; Rezaei, Farhad; Douraghi, Masoumeh; Sharifi, Laleh; Noroozbabaei, Zahra; Gholami, Mehrdad; Mirshafiey, Abbas

    2017-02-01

    Gastrointestinal disorders caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SesE) are a significant health problem around the globe. Probiotic bacteria have been shown to have positive effects on the immune responses. Lactobacillus acidophilus was examined for its capability to influence the innate immune response of HT29 intestinal epithelial cells towards SesE. The purpose of this work was to assess the effect of L. acidophilus PTCC 1643 on cultured intestinal epithelial cells infected with SesE. HT29 cells were cultured in Roswell Park Memorial Institute medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum and 1% penicillin/streptomycin. The cells were treated with L. acidophilus PTCC 1643 after or before challenge with SesE. At 2 and 4 hours post-infection, we measured changes in the expression levels of TLR2 and TLR4 via real-time polymerase chain reaction. Treatment with L. acidophilus inhibited SesE-induced increases in TLR2 and TLR4 expression in the infected HT29 cells. Moreover, the expression of TLR2 and TLR4 in cells that were pretreated with L. acidophilus and then infected with SesE was significantly higher than that in cells infected with SesE without pretreatment. Taken together, the results indicated that L. acidophilus had an anti-inflammatory effect and modulated the innate immune response to SesE by influencing TLR2 and TLR4 expression. Our findings suggested that L. acidophilus PTCC 1643 was able to suppress inflammation caused by SesE infection in HT29 cells and reduce TLR2 and TLR4 expression. Additional in vivo and in vitro studies are required to further elucidate the mechanisms underlying this anti-inflammatory effect.

  13. Bovine milk RNases modulate pro-inflammatory responses induced by nucleic acids in cultured immune and epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Sandeep K; Haigh, Brendan J; Seyfert, Hans-Martin; Griffin, Frank J; Wheeler, Thomas T

    2017-03-01

    Activation of innate immune receptors by exogenous substances is crucial for the detection of microbial pathogens and a subsequent inflammatory response. The inflammatory response to microbial lipopolysaccharide via Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is facilitated by soluble accessory proteins, but the role of such proteins in the activation of other pathogen recognition receptors for microbial nucleic acid is not well understood. Here we demonstrate that RNase4 and RNase5 purified from bovine milk bind to Salmonella typhimurium DNA and stimulate pro-inflammatory responses induced by nucleic acid mimetics and S. typhimurium DNA in an established mouse macrophage cell culture model, RAW264.7, as well as in primary bovine mammary epithelial cells. RNase4 and 5 also modulated pro-inflammatory signalling in response to nucleic acids in bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells, although producing a distinct response. These results support a role for RNase4 and RNase5 in mediating inflammatory signals in both immune and epithelial cells, involving mechanisms that are cell-type specific.

  14. Ex vivo culture of intestinal crypt organoids as a model system for assessing cell death induction in intestinal epithelial cells and enteropathy.

    PubMed

    Grabinger, T; Luks, L; Kostadinova, F; Zimberlin, C; Medema, J P; Leist, M; Brunner, T

    2014-05-15

    Intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) not only have a critical function in the absorption of nutrients, but also act as a physical barrier between our body and the outside world. Damage and death of the epithelial cells lead to the breakdown of this barrier function and inflammation due to access of the immune system to compounds of the intestinal flora. Intestinal epithelial damage is frequently associated with various inflammatory disorders, chemo- and radiotherapy as well as drug-mediated toxicity. Until recently, intestinal epithelial-damaging activities of drugs and treatments could be tested only in vivo in animal models because of the poor survival rate of primary IECs ex vivo. The three-dimensional culture and outgrowth of intestinal crypt stem cells into organoids have offered new possibilities to culture and study IECs ex vivo. Here we demonstrate that intestinal organoids are a useful and physiologically relevant model system to study cell death and survival in IECs. We further describe a number of microscopy-based as well as colorimetric methods to monitor and score survival and death of intestinal organoids. Finally, the comparison of organoids isolated from gene-deficient mice and wild-type mice allows investigating the role of specific genes in the regulation of IEC death. Owing to their comparable structure and behavior, intestinal organoids may serve as an interesting and physiologically relevant surrogate system for large- and mid-scale in vitro testing of intestinal epithelium-damaging drugs and toxins, and for the investigation of cell death pathways.

  15. High- and low-LET Radiation-induced Chromosome Aberrations in Human Epithelial Cells Cultured in 3-dimensional Matrices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hada, M.; George K.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Wu, H.

    2008-01-01

    Energetic heavy ions pose a great health risk to astronauts who participate in extended ISS missions and will be an even greater concern for future manned lunar and Mars missions. High-LET heavy ions are particularly effective in causing various biological effects, including cell inactivation, genetic mutations, cataracts and cancer induction. Most of these biological endpoints are closely related to chromosomal damage, which can be utilized as a biomarker for radiation insults. Previously, we had studied low- and high-LET radiation-induced chromosome aberrations in human epithelial cells cultured in 2-dimension (2D) using the multicolor banding fluorescence in situ hybridization (mBAND) technique. However, it has been realized that the biological response to radiation insult in a 2D in vitro cellular environment can differ significantly from the response in 3-dimension (3D) or at the actual tissue level. In this study, we cultured human epithelial cells in 3D to provide a more suitable model for human tissue. Human mammary epithelial cells (CH184B5F5/M10) were grown in Matrigel to form 3D structures, and exposed to Fe-ions at NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at the Brookhaven National Laboratory or 137Cs-gamma radiation source at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center. After exposure, cells were allowed to repair for 16hr before dissociation and subcultured at low density in 2D. G2 and metaphase chromosomes in the first cell cycle were collected in the first cell cycle after irradiation using a chemical-induced premature chromosome condensation (PCC) technique, and chromosome aberrations were analyzed using mBAND technique. With this technique, individually painted chromosomal bands on one chromosome allowed the identification of interchromosomal aberrations (translocation to unpainted chromosomes) and intrachromosomal aberrations (inversions and deletions within a single painted chromosome). Our data indicate a significant difference in the

  16. High- and low-LET Radiation-induced Chromosome Aberrations in Human Epithelial Cells Cultured in 3-dimensional Matrices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hada, M.; George K.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Wu, H.

    2008-01-01

    Energetic heavy ions pose a great health risk to astronauts who participate in extended ISS missions and will be an even greater concern for future manned lunar and Mars missions. High-LET heavy ions are particularly effective in causing various biological effects, including cell inactivation, genetic mutations, cataracts and cancer induction. Most of these biological endpoints are closely related to chromosomal damage, which can be utilized as a biomarker for radiation insults. Previously, we had studied low- and high-LET radiation-induced chromosome aberrations in human epithelial cells cultured in 2-dimension (2D) using the multicolor banding fluorescence in situ hybridization (mBAND) technique. However, it has been realized that the biological response to radiation insult in a 2D in vitro cellular environment can differ significantly from the response in 3-dimension (3D) or at the actual tissue level. In this study, we cultured human epithelial cells in 3D to provide a more suitable model for human tissue. Human mammary epithelial cells (CH184B5F5/M10) were grown in Matrigel to form 3D structures, and exposed to Fe-ions at NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at the Brookhaven National Laboratory or 137Cs-gamma radiation source at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center. After exposure, cells were allowed to repair for 16hr before dissociation and subcultured at low density in 2D. G2 and metaphase chromosomes in the first cell cycle were collected in the first cell cycle after irradiation using a chemical-induced premature chromosome condensation (PCC) technique, and chromosome aberrations were analyzed using mBAND technique. With this technique, individually painted chromosomal bands on one chromosome allowed the identification of interchromosomal aberrations (translocation to unpainted chromosomes) and intrachromosomal aberrations (inversions and deletions within a single painted chromosome). Our data indicate a significant difference in the

  17. Phagosomal pH and glass fiber dissolution in cultured nasal epithelial cells and alveolar macrophages: a preliminary study.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, N F

    1994-01-01

    The dissolution rate of glass fibers has been shown to be pH sensitive using in vitro lung fluid simulant models. The current study investigated whether there is a difference in phagosomal pH (ppH) between rat alveolar macrophages (AM) and rat nasal epithelial cells (RNEC) and whether such a difference would influence the dissolution of glass fibers. The ppH was measured in cultured AM and RNEC using flow cytometric, fluorescence-emission rationing techniques with fluorescein-labeled, amorphous silica particles. Glass fiber dissolution was determined in AM and RNEC cultured for 3 weeks with fast dissolving glass fibers (GF-A) or slow dissolving ones (GF-B). The mean diameters of GF-A were 2.7 microns and of GF-B, 2.6 microns, the average length of both fibers was approximately 22 to 25 microns. Dissolution was monitored by measuring the length and diameter of intracellular fibers and estimating the volume, assuming a cylindrical morphology. The ppH of AM was 5.2 to 5.8, and the ppH of RNEC was 7.0 to 7.5. The GF-A dissolved more slowly in RNEC than in AM, and no dissolution was evident in either cell type with GF-B. The volume loss with GF-A after a 3-week culture with AM was 66% compared to 45% for cultured RNEC. These results are different from those obtained using in vitro lung fluid-simulant models where dissolution is faster at higher pH. This difference suggests that dissolution rates of glass fibers in AM should not be applied to the dissolution of fibers in epithelial cells. Images Figure 1. a Figure 1. b Figure 2. a Figure 2. b Figure 3. a Figure 3. b PMID:7882965

  18. Specificity in calcium oxalate adherence to papillary epithelial cells in culture

    SciTech Connect

    Riese, R.J.; Riese, J.W.; Kleinman, J.G.; Wiessner, J.H.; Mandel, G.S.; Mandel, N.S. )

    1988-11-01

    Attachment of microcystallites to cellular membranes may be an important component of the pathophysiology of many diseases including urolithiasis. This study attempts to characterize the interaction of calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystals and apatite (AP) crystals with renal papillary collecting tubule (RPCT) cells in primary culture. Primary cultures of RPCT cells showed the characteristic monolayer growth with sporadically interspersed clumped cells. Cultures were incubated with ({sup 14}C)CaOx crystals, and the crystals that bound were quantified by microscopy and adherent radioactivity. Per unit of cross-sectional area, 32 times more CaOx crystals were bound to the clumps than to the monolayer. CaOx adherence demonstrated concentration-dependent saturation with a {beta} value (fraction of cell culture area binding CaOx crystals) of 0.179 and a 1/{alpha}{sub ox} value of 287 {mu}g/cm{sup 2}. On incubation with AP crystals, CaOx binding demonstrated concentration-dependent inhibition with a 1/{alpha}{sub AP} value of 93 {mu}g/cm{sup 2}. Microcystallite adherence to RPCT cells demonstrates selectivity for cellular clumps, saturation, and inhibition. These features suggest specific binding.

  19. Differentiation of human amniotic epithelial cells into Schwann‑like cells via indirect co‑culture with Schwann cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Shuang; Li, Jiachun; Zhu, Qingtang; Dai, Ting; He, Bo; Zhou, Xiang; Xiang, Jianping; Liu, Xiaolin

    2015-02-01

    Human amniotic epithelial cells (hAECs) exhibit multi‑lineage differentiation ability. The present study investigated the possibility that hAECs possess the potential to differentiate into Schwann‑like cells using an in vitro indirect co‑culture approach. hAECs were isolated via enzymatic digestion, and immunocytochemistry and flow cytometry were performed to identify the hAECs. The hAECs were co‑cultured with Schwann cells (SCs) to differentiate the hAECs into Schwann‑like cells via induced proximity. The expression of typical S‑100 SC markers in the co‑cultured hAECs was determined via immunocytochemistry. For the functional experiments, reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT‑qPCR) was performed to measure the expression levels of nerve growth factor (NGF), brain‑derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and glial cell‑derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) mRNA. In addition, neurite outgrowth was measured in PC12 cells following co‑culture with the differentiated hAECs. Subsequent to co‑culture with SCs for 21 days, the hAECs exhibited spindle‑like morphology. The immunocytochemistry results revealed that the co‑cultured hAECs expressed S‑100, indicating differentiation into Schwann‑like cells. RT‑qPCR revealed that NGF, BDNF and GDNF expression was upregulated upon differentiation. The average axon length of the PC12 cells increased from 21.32±5.45 to 51.32±8.56 µm subsequent to co‑culture with the differentiated hAECs. These results demonstrate that this indirect co‑culture microenvironment induced the hAECs to differentiate into Schwann‑like cells that exhibited the morphological, phenotypic and functional characteristics of SCs. Therefore, the use of differentiated hAECs that exhibit the characteristics of SCs provides a promising alternative to the present techniques used for peripheral nerve regeneration.

  20. The majority of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli strains produce the E. coli common pilus when adhering to cultured epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Avelino, Fabiola; Saldaña, Zeus; Islam, Sohidul; Monteiro-Neto, Valerio; Dall'Agnol, Monique; Eslava, Carlos A; Girón, Jorge A

    2010-11-01

    Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) have emerged as a significant worldwide cause of chronic diarrhea in the pediatric population and in HIV patients. The vast majority of EAEC strains do not produce the aggregative adherence fimbriae I-III (AAFs) so far reported and thus, what adherence factors are present in these strains remains unknown. Here, we investigated the prevalence of the chromosomal E. coli common pilus (ECP) genes and ECP production amongst 130 EAEC strains of diverse origin as well as the role of ECP in EAEC adherence. Through multiplex PCR analysis we found that 96% of EAEC strains contained the ecpA structural pilin gene whereas only 3.1% and 5.4% were positive for AAF fimbrial genes aggA or aafA, respectively. Among the ecpA(+) strains, 63% produced ECP when adhering to cultured epithelial cells. An ecpA mutant derived from prototypic strain 042 (AAF/II(+)) was not altered in adherence suggesting that the AAF/II, and not ECP, plays a major role in this strain. In contrast, strain 278-1 (AAF(-)) deleted of the ecpA gene was significantly reduced in adherence to cultured epithelial cells. In all, these data indicate a potential role of ECP in adherence for EAEC strains lacking the known AAFs and that in association with other adhesive determinants, ECP may contribute to their survival and persistence within the host and in the environment.

  1. Stat5a increases lactation of dairy cow mammary gland epithelial cells cultured in vitro.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao Fei; Li, Meng; Li, Qing Zhang; Lu, Li Min; Tong, Hui Li; Gao, Xue Jun

    2012-10-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 5a (Stat5a) transduces signals of extracellular cytokines and growth factors to the nucleus of mammary gland epithelial cells and thereby regulates gene transcription during pregnancy, lactation, and weaning. However, its function on the milk production of dairy cows needs further investigation. In this experiment, the effects of Stat5a on lactation ability of dairy cow mammary gland epithelial cells (DCMECs) were analyzed. Eukaryotic expression vector pcDNA3.1+-stat5a-αS1 was constructed by inserting stat5a gene into the plasmid vector pcDNA3.1+ and replacing CMV promoter with α-S1-casein 5' flanking sequence. The recombinant vector was stably transfected into DCMECs after geneticin (G418) selection. The proliferation and viability of DCMECs, expression of β-casein and stat5a gene, and the content of lactose were detected. The results showed that stat5a gene in eukaryotic expression vector pcDNA3.1+-stat5a-αS1 was highly expressed in DCMECs and could increase the lactation ability of DCMECs. The associativity of Stat5a with nutrients on the lactation ability of DCMECs was also evaluated. Lysine (Lys), methionine (Met), sodium acetate, β-sodium hydroxybutyrate, and glucose all had more positive effects on the lactation function of DCMECs after pcDNA3.1+-stat5a-αS1 transfection. The proliferation and viability of DCMECs, expression of β-casein and stat5a gene, and contents of lactose and triglyceride were detected. The results revealed that nutrients could promote expression of Stat5a gene to increase lactation of DCMECs. These data help to clarify the function of stat5 gene on lactation and gene regulatory networks linking stat5a.

  2. Locational heterogeneity of maturation by changes in migratory behaviors of human retinal pigment epithelial cells in culture.

    PubMed

    Sonoi, Rie; Kim, Mee-Hae; Kino-oka, Masahiro

    2015-01-01

    To better characterize human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells, their maturation was studied by time-lapse observation and immunostaining of the tight junction protein ZO-1. During subconfluency with active migration, the cells had an elongated shape. During cell division to reach confluency, RPE cells became small and tight, exhibiting cobblestone-like morphology. In addition, RPE maturation at the peripheral region of the culture vessel was delayed when compared with the central region, demonstrating local heterogeneity during maturation. To correlate cellular migration and maturation, we compared frequencies of migration rate and number of ZO-1-positive cells at the central and peripheral regions. Cells having migration rates less than 5.0 μm/h in the central region were 1.4-fold higher than in the peripheral region at day 5. Regardless of locational differences in the culture vessel, the frequency of cells having migration rates less than 5.0 μm/h showed 90% agreement with the frequency of ZO-1-positive cells. To inhibit cell migration, RPE cells were exposed to medium containing 50 μg/ml Rac1 inhibitor at day 5. Frequencies of ZO-1-positive cells and cells having migration rates less than 5.0 μm/h at the peripheral region were similar to those at the central region. The results show that migration is an important factor affecting maturation, and demonstrate that location heterogeneity during maturation is caused by different migratory behaviors in the culture vessel. Copyright © 2014 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Ferret airway epithelial cell cultures support efficient replication of influenza B virus but not mumps virus.

    PubMed

    Elderfield, Ruth A; Parker, Lauren; Stilwell, Peter; Roberts, Kim L; Schepelmann, Silke; Barclay, Wendy S

    2015-08-01

    Ferrets have become the model animal of choice for influenza pathology and transmission experiments as they are permissive and susceptible to human influenza A viruses. However, inoculation of ferrets with mumps virus (MuV) did not lead to successful infections. We evaluated the use of highly differentiated ferret tracheal epithelium cell cultures, FTE, for predicting the potential of ferrets to support respiratory viral infections. FTE cultures supported productive replication of human influenza A and B viruses but not of MuV, whereas analogous cells generated from human airways supported replication of all three viruses. We propose that in vitro strategies using these cultures might serve as a method of triaging viruses and potentially reducing the use of ferrets in viral studies.

  4. Subretinal Pigment Epithelial Deposition of Drusen Components Including Hydroxyapatite in a Primary Cell Culture Model

    PubMed Central

    Pilgrim, Matthew G.; Lengyel, Imre; Lanzirotti, Antonio; Newville, Matt; Fearn, Sarah; Emri, Eszter; Knowles, Jonathan C.; Messinger, Jeffrey D.; Read, Russell W.; Guidry, Clyde; Curcio, Christine A.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Extracellular deposits containing hydroxyapatite, lipids, proteins, and trace metals that form between the basal lamina of the RPE and the inner collagenous layer of Bruch's membrane are hallmarks of early AMD. We examined whether cultured RPE cells could produce extracellular deposits containing all of these molecular components. Methods Retinal pigment epithelium cells isolated from freshly enucleated porcine eyes were cultured on Transwell membranes for up to 6 months. Deposit composition and structure were characterized using light, fluorescence, and electron microscopy; synchrotron x-ray diffraction and x-ray fluorescence; secondary ion mass spectroscopy; and immunohistochemistry. Results Apparently functional primary RPE cells, when cultured on 10-μm-thick inserts with 0.4-μm-diameter pores, can produce sub-RPE deposits that contain hydroxyapatite, lipids, proteins, and trace elements, without outer segment supplementation, by 12 weeks. Conclusions The data suggest that sub-RPE deposit formation is initiated, and probably regulated, by the RPE, as well as the loss of permeability of the Bruch's membrane and choriocapillaris complex associated with age and early AMD. This cell culture model of early AMD lesions provides a novel system for testing new therapeutic interventions against sub-RPE deposit formation, an event occurring well in advance of the onset of vision loss. PMID:28146236

  5. Oncostatin M synergises with house dust mite proteases to induce the production of PGE2 from cultured lung epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Knight, Darryl A; Asokananthan, Nithiananthan; Watkins, D Neil; Misso, Neil L A; Thompson, Philip J; Stewart, Geoffrey A

    2000-01-01

    The release of PGE2 and nitric oxide (NO) from the respiratory epithelium may act to dampen inflammation. In other tissues, oncostatin M (OSM), a potent inducer of epithelial antiproteases, has also been shown to interact with IL-1β to stimulate PGE2 release. However, whether OSM interacts with pro-inflammatory cytokines and proteases in the production of anti-inflammatory eicosanoids and NO from airway epithelium is unknown.The effect of OSM and the related cytokine leukaemia inhibitory factor (LIF) on PGE2 and NO production by the respiratory epithelial cell line, A549 in response to pro-inflammatory cytokines as well as protease-rich house dust mite (HDM) fractions and a protease-deficient rye grass pollen extract was examined by immunohistochemistry, cell culture, ELISA and enzyme-immunoassay.Cells treated with a mixture of IL-1β, IFNγ and LPS for 48 h produced a 9 fold increase in PGE2 and a 3 fold increase in NO levels (both P<0.05). Both OSM and LIF were without effect. However, OSM added together with the cytokine mixture synergistically enhanced PGE2 production (22 fold, P<0.05). OSM also synergistically enhanced PGE2 production in response to a cysteine protease-enriched, but not serine protease-enriched HDM fraction (P<0.05). Rye grass extract, neither alone nor in combination with OSM, induced PGE2 or NO production, although it did induce the release of GM-CSF.These observations suggest that OSM is an important co-factor in the release of PGE2 and NO from respiratory epithelial cells and may play a role in defense against exogenous proteases such as those derived from HDM. PMID:11015296

  6. Eosinophils promote epithelial to mesenchymal transition of bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Yasukawa, Atsushi; Hosoki, Koa; Toda, Masaaki; Miyake, Yasushi; Matsushima, Yuki; Matsumoto, Takahiro; Boveda-Ruiz, Daniel; Gil-Bernabe, Paloma; Nagao, Mizuho; Sugimoto, Mayumi; Hiraguchi, Yukiko; Tokuda, Reiko; Naito, Masahiro; Takagi, Takehiro; D'Alessandro-Gabazza, Corina N; Suga, Shigeru; Kobayashi, Tetsu; Fujisawa, Takao; Taguchi, Osamu; Gabazza, Esteban C

    2013-01-01

    Eosinophilic inflammation and remodeling of the airways including subepithelial fibrosis and myofibroblast hyperplasia are characteristic pathological findings of bronchial asthma. Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays a critical role in airway remodelling. In this study, we hypothesized that infiltrating eosinophils promote airway remodelling in bronchial asthma. To demonstrate this hypothesis we evaluated the effect of eosinophils on EMT by in vitro and in vivo studies. EMT was assessed in mice that received intra-tracheal instillation of mouse bone marrow derived eosinophils and in human bronchial epithelial cells co-cultured with eosinophils freshly purified from healthy individuals or with eosinophilic leukemia cell lines. Intra-tracheal instillation of eosinophils was associated with enhanced bronchial inflammation and fibrosis and increased lung concentration of growth factors. Mice instilled with eosinophils pre-treated with transforming growth factor(TGF)-β1 siRNA had decreased bronchial wall fibrosis compared to controls. EMT was induced in bronchial epithelial cells co-cultured with human eosinophils and it was associated with increased expression of TGF-β1 and Smad3 phosphorylation in the bronchial epithelial cells. Treatment with anti-TGF-β1 antibody blocked EMT in bronchial epithelial cells. Eosinophils induced EMT in bronchial epithelial cells, suggesting their contribution to the pathogenesis of airway remodelling.

  7. TREK-1 Regulates Cytokine Secretion from Cultured Human Alveolar Epithelial Cells Independently of Cytoskeletal Rearrangements

    PubMed Central

    Schwingshackl, Andreas; Roan, Esra; Teng, Bin; Waters, Christopher M.

    2015-01-01

    Background TREK-1 deficient alveolar epithelial cells (AECs) secrete less IL-6, more MCP-1, and contain less F-actin. Whether these alterations in cytokine secretion and F-actin content are related remains unknown. We now hypothesized that cytokine secretion from TREK-1-deficient AECs was regulated by cytoskeletal rearrangements. Methods We determined F-actin and α-tubulin contents of control, TREK-1-deficient and TREK-1-overexpressing human A549 cells by confocal microscopy and western blotting, and measured IL-6 and MCP-1 levels using real-time PCR and ELISA. Results Cytochalasin D decreased the F-actin content of control cells. Jasplakinolide increased the F-actin content of TREK-1 deficient cells, similar to the effect of TREK-1 overexpression in control cells. Treatment of control and TREK-1 deficient cells with TNF-α, a strong stimulus for IL-6 and MCP-1 secretion, had no effect on F-actin structures. The combination of TNF-α+cytochalasin D or TNF-α+jasplakinolide had no additional effect on the F-actin content or architecture when compared to cytochalasin D or jasplakinolide alone. Although TREK-1 deficient AECs contained less F-actin at baseline, quantified biochemically, they contained more α-tubulin. Exposure to nocodazole disrupted α-tubulin filaments in control and TREK-1 deficient cells, but left the overall amount of α-tubulin unchanged. Although TNF-α had no effect on the F-actin or α-tubulin contents, it increased IL-6 and MCP-1 production and secretion from control and TREK-1 deficient cells. IL-6 and MCP-1 secretions from control and TREK-1 deficient cells after TNF-α+jasplakinolide or TNF-α+nocodazole treatment was similar to the effect of TNF-α alone. Interestingly, cytochalasin D decreased TNF-α-induced IL-6 but not MCP-1 secretion from control but not TREK-1 deficient cells. Conclusion Although cytochalasin D, jasplakinolide and nocodazole altered the F-actin and α-tubulin structures of control and TREK-1 deficient AEC, the

  8. Geranylgeranylacetone induces cyclooxygenase-2 expression in cultured rat gastric epithelial cells through NF-kappaB.

    PubMed

    Nishida, Tsutomu; Yabe, Yuki; Fu, Hai Ying; Hayashi, Yujiro; Asahi, Kayoko; Eguchi, Hiroshi; Tsuji, Shingo; Tsujii, Masahiko; Hayashi, Norio; Kawano, Sunao

    2007-08-01

    Geranylgeranylacetone (GGA) effectively protects the gastric mucosa against noxious agents. The precise mechanisms underlying the gastroprotective actions of GGA are not known. To elucidate the precise mechanism of GGA, the effect of GGA treatment on COX-2 expression in rat gastric epithelial (RGM1) cells was investigated. We used a prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) enzyme-linked immunoassay kit and Western blot analysis to measure PGE2 production and COX-2 induction by GGA treatment in serum-starved RGM1 cells. Gel-shift assay, Western blot analysis, and a reporter assay were performed to determine which COX-2 promoter was involved in GGA-induced COX-2 expression. GGA treatment dose dependently increased COX-2 expression and PGE2 production. The nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB sites of the COX-2 gene promoter were critical for GGA-mediated COX-2 expression. GGA induces COX-2 expression and increases PGE2 production in serum-starved RGM1 cells via activation of the NF-kappaB sites of COX-2 gene promoters.

  9. Interaction of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi with cultured epithelial cells: roles of surface structures in adhesion and invasion

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, Anne; House, Deborah; Perkins, Timothy; Baker, Stephen; Kingsley, Robert A.; Dougan, Gordon

    2008-01-01

    In this study we investigate the ability of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) surface structures to influence invasion and adhesion in epithelial cell assay systems. In general, S. Typhi was found to be less adherent, invasive and cytotoxic than S. enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium). Culture conditions had little effect on adhesion of S. Typhi to cultured cells but had a marked influence on invasion. In contrast, bacterial growth conditions did not influence S. Typhi apical invasion of polarized cells. The levels of S. Typhi, but not S. Typhimurium, invasion were increased by application of bacteria to the basolateral surface of polarized cells. Expression of virulence (Vi) capsule by S. Typhi resulted in a modest reduction in adhesion, but profoundly reduced levels of invasion of non-polarized cells. However, Vi capsule expression had no affect on invasion of the apical or basolateral surfaces of polarized cells. Mutation of the staA, tcfA or pilS genes did not affect invasion or adhesion in either the presence or the absence of Vi capsule. PMID:18599820

  10. A novel sorbitol transport mechanism in cultured renal papillary epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Siebens, A.W.; Spring, K.R. )

    1989-12-01

    The renal papillary epithelial cell line, GRB-PAP1, accumulates sorbitol when grown in a hypertonic (500 mosmol/kgH2O) bathing medium. When the cells are returned to a 300 mosmol/kgH2O medium, they lose their sorbitol rapidly to the bath. Sorbitol movement across the membranes of these cells was investigated by studying the uptake of radioactive sorbitol and related compounds. Sorbitol uptake increased 71-fold when cells grown in 500 mosmol/kgH2O medium were exposed to a 300 mosmol/kgH2O test solution. The magnitude of the permeability increase was proportional to the size of the change in the osmolality of the bathing medium and not the absolute osmolality. Sorbitol uptake was a linear function of medium sorbitol concentration with no sign of saturation at sorbitol concentrations up to 315 mM. Although the permeability of other polyols was increased when the osmolality was reduced, competition between sorbitol and related sugars and polyols could not be demonstrated. Both the increased sorbitol uptake after a decrease in medium osmolality and the decrease to control permeability after return to the original osmolality were complete within 30 s. A wide variety of transport inhibitors and ion substitutions failed to alter the magnitude of the sorbitol permeability increase. The most effective inhibitor was quinidine, 1 mM reducing sorbitol uptake by 73%. The sorbitol permeability increase could also be blocked by reducing the temperature to 0 degrees C. Nonspecific uptake of sorbitol, such as endocytosis, was shown to be of only minor significance. The large increase in sorbitol permeability and subsequent sorbitol efflux enables these cells to withstand large decreases in osmolality without excessive swelling and consequent damage. A similar compensatory mechanism may operate in vivo in the renal papilla during the onset of diuresis.

  11. Geldanamycin and its analog induce cytotoxicity in cultured human retinal pigment epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wen-Chuan; Wu, Meng-Hsien; Chang, Yo-Chen; Hsieh, Ming-Chu; Wu, Horng-Jiun; Cheng, Kai-Chun; Lai, Yu-Hung; Kao, Ying-Hsien

    2010-08-01

    Geldanamycin (GA), a benzoquinone ansamycin, was originally isolated as a natural product with anti-fungal activity. GA and its analogs, including 17-allylamino-demethoxy geldanamycin (17-AAG), are also known to block the function of a molecular chaperone, heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90). In light of their anti-tumor properties through direct cytotoxicity and anti-angiogenicity, GA has been previously demonstrated to suppress hypoxia-induced VEGF production in retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells, implicating its applicability in treating intraocular neovascularization. This study aimed at investigating the effectiveness of Hsp90 inhibitor treatment in suppressing proliferation of cultured human RPE cells and elucidating its underlying mechanism. Cultured RPE cells were treated with GA or 17-AAG and subjected for cell proliferation assay and cell cycle analysis. Expression of apoptotic regulators and survival signaling activity were monitored by Western blotting. The results showed that both GA and 17-AAG significantly inhibited RPE cell proliferation at micromolar levels. Treatment with GA and 17-AAG led to growth arrests in G1 and S phases, increased sub-G1 hypodipoid cell population, induced apoptotic cell death, and upregulated P53 and P21 expression, although the drug-induced Bcl-2 upregulation cannot prevent cell death. Additionally, GA and 17-AAG significantly suppressed constitutive contents of phosphorylated ERK1/2 and total Akt proteins, and completely abrogated wortmannin-sensitized Akt phosphorylation. In conclusion, GA and 17-AAG inhibit RPE cell proliferation and induce cytotoxicity, possibly through downregulating Akt- and ERK1/2-mediated signaling activities. They might potentially constitute a therapeutic agent for ocular disorders with RPE over proliferation, such as proliferative vitreoretinopathy.

  12. Characterization of the dopamine transporter gene expression and binding sites in cultured human amniotic epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Elwan, Mohamed A; Ishii, Takashi; Sakuragawa, Norio

    2003-05-15

    In this study we sought to investigate whether the dopamine transporter, DAT, and its binding sites are expressed in the human amniotic epithelial cells (HAEC) using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and radioligand binding studies, respectively. The RT-PCR findings showed that HAEC expressed DAT mRNA with 100% homology to the human brain DAT. Saturation binding studies using [3H]mazindol showed a high affinity DAT binding site with K(D) and B(max) values of 12.32+/-1.67 nM and 82.7+/-9.74 fmol/mg protein, respectively. Competition experiments showed that selective DAT blockers are potent displacers of [3H]mazindol binding. The rank order of potency of the competing drugs is consistent with the pharmacology of the DAT. The present results provide compelling evidence that HAEC natively express the DAT mRNA and binding sites. More importantly, these results may suggest that HAEC is an appropriate human cell model for studying dopamine release and uptake processes and potential ligands at these sites.

  13. Comparative genomic study of gastric epithelial cells co-cultured with Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fen; Luo, Li-Dan; Pan, Jian-Hua; Huang, Li-Hua; Lv, Hong-Wei; Guo, Qin; Xu, Can-Xia; Shen, Shou-Rong

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To identify genes potentially involved in Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)-induced gastric carcinogenesis. METHODS: GES-1 cells were co-cultured with H. pylori strains isolated from patients with gastric carcinoma (GC, n = 10) or chronic gastritis (CG, n = 10) for in vitro proliferation and apoptosis assays to identify the most and least virulent strains. These two strains were cagA-genotyped and used for further in vivo carcinogenic virulence assays by infecting Mongolian gerbils for 52 wk, respectively; a broth free of H. pylori was lavaged as control. Genomic profiles of GES-1 cells co-cultured with the most and least virulent strains were determined by microarray analysis. The most differentially expressed genes were further verified using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction in GES-1 cells infected with the most and least virulent strains, and by immunohistochemistry in H. pylori positive CG, precancerous diseases, and GC biopsy specimens in an independent experiment. RESULTS: GC-derived H. pylori strains induced a potent proliferative effect in GES-1 cells in co-culture, whereas CG-derived strains did not. The most (from a GC patient) and least (from a CG patient) virulent strains were cagA-positive and negative, respectively. At week 52, CG, atrophy, metaplasia, dysplasia, and GC were observed in 90.0%, 80.0%, 80.0%, 90%, and 60.0%, respectively, of the animals lavaged with the most virulent strain. However, only mild CG was observed in 90% of the animals lavaged with the least virulent strain. On microarray analysis, 800 differentially expressed genes (49 up- and 751 down-regulated), involving those associated with cell cycle regulation, cell apoptosis, cytoskeleton, immune response, and substance and energy metabolisms, were identified in cells co-cultured with the most virulent strain as compared with those co-cultured with the least virulent strain. The six most differentially expressed genes (with a betweenness centrality of 0

  14. Effects of increasing numbers of phagocytic inclusions on human retinal pigment epithelial cells in culture: a model for aging.

    PubMed Central

    Boulton, M; Marshall, J

    1986-01-01

    Cultures of human retinal pigment epithelial cells have been challenged with a number of biological (lipofuscin, melanin, and rod outer segments) and non-biological (latex microspheres) particles at a variety of concentrations. The particles were chosen to include examples of both degradable and non-degradable systems. A range of morphological changes were observed by phase contrast microscopy, and these became more atypical with increasing concentration. At the highest concentration cells had ingested so many particles that many had died and others had ruptured. The time course of these changes indicated a relationship between cellular lytic activity and the capacity of the particle to degrade. The potential of this system as a model for studying senescence is discussed. Images PMID:3790481

  15. Cysteamine restores glutathione redox status in cultured cystinotic proximal tubular epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Wilmer, Martijn J; Kluijtmans, Leo A J; van der Velden, Thea J; Willems, Peter H; Scheffer, Peter G; Masereeuw, Rosalinde; Monnens, Leo A; van den Heuvel, Lambertus P; Levtchenko, Elena N

    2011-06-01

    Recent evidence implies that impaired metabolism of glutathione has a role in the pathogenesis of nephropathic cystinosis. This recessive inherited disorder is characterized by lysosomal cystine accumulation and results in renal Fanconi syndrome progressing to end stage renal disease in the majority of patients. The most common treatment involves intracellular cystine depletion by cysteamine, delaying the development of end stage renal disease by a yet elusive mechanism. However, cystine depletion does not arrest the disease nor cures Fanconi syndrome in patients, indicating involvement of other yet unknown pathologic pathways. Using a newly developed proximal tubular epithelial cell model from cystinotic patients, we investigate the effect of cystine accumulation and cysteamine on both glutathione and ATP metabolism. In addition to the expected increase in cystine and defective sodium-dependent phosphate reabsorption, we observed less negative glutathione redox status and decreased intracellular ATP levels. No differences between control and cystinosis cell lines were observed with respect to protein turnover, albumin uptake, cytosolic and mitochondrial ATP production, total glutathione levels, protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation. Cysteamine treatment increased total glutathione in both control and cystinotic cells and normalized cystine levels and glutathione redox status in cystinotic cells. However, cysteamine did not improve decreased sodium-dependent phosphate uptake. Our data implicate that cysteamine increases total glutathione and restores glutathione redox status in cystinosis, which is a positive side-effect of this agent next to cystine depletion. This beneficial effect points to a potential role of cysteamine as anti-oxidant for other renal disorders associated with enhanced oxidative stress.

  16. Monolayer culture systems with respiratory epithelial cells for evaluation of bacterial invasiveness.

    PubMed

    Hirakata, Yoichi; Yano, Hisakazu; Arai, Kazuaki; Endo, Shiro; Kanamori, Hajime; Aoyagi, Tetsuji; Hirotani, Ayako; Kitagawa, Miho; Hatta, Masumitsu; Yamamoto, Natsuo; Kunishima, Hiroyuki; Kawakami, Kazuyoshi; Kaku, Mitsuo

    2010-01-01

    Pseudomonas (P.) aeruginosa is a major opportunistic pathogen especially in immunocompromised patients. To evaluate the invasiveness of respiratory pathogens, we developed monolayer culture systems and examined the degree of invasion by P. aeruginosa and invasive Salmonella (S.) typhimurium strains using human respiratory cell lines: A549 (derived from lung cancer), BEAS-2B (normal bronchial epithelium), and Calu-3 (pleural effusion of a patient with adenocarcinoma of the lung). Cells were seeded into filter units containing 0.33 cm(2) filter membranes with 3.0 microm pores, and were incubated at 37 degrees C under 5% CO(2) for 4-10 days. By monitoring the trans-monolayer electrical resistance (TER), we judged that BEAS-2B cells (TER values: 436.2 +/- 16.8 to 628.8 +/- 66.3 Omega cm(2)) and Calu-3 cells (TER values: 490.5 +/- 25.2 to 547.8 +/- 21.6 Omega cm(2)) formed monolayers with tight junctions, but not A549 cells. On day 8 of culture, monolayer cultures were infected with bacteria, and the number of microorganisms penetrating into the basolateral medium was counted. Wild-type P. aeruginosa PAO1 (PAO1 WT) and S. typhimurium SL1344 were detected in the basolateral medium of BEAS-2B monolayer system by 3 h after inoculation, while only P. aeruginosa PAO1 WT was detected in the basolateral medium of Calu-3 monolayer, indicating poor invasiveness of S. typhimurium SL1344 in the Calu-3 system. These findings suggest that BEAS-2B or Calu-3 monolayer system could be useful for evaluating the invasiveness of respiratory pathogens. Because of the difference in bacterial invasiveness, we may need to choose a suitable cell system for each target pathogen.

  17. beta-Glucoronidase and the gastric epithelial cell. A study using organ culture.

    PubMed

    Tayler, R; Orwell, R L; Piper, D W

    1977-01-01

    In an attempt to determine the significance of increased beta-glucuronidase content of gastric juice of patients with gastric carcinoma, gastric mucosal cells were exposed, in organ culture technique, to a known gastric carcinogen and indices of carcinogenic activity were studied in the ambient fluid and in the mucosal cells. Isotopic methods were used to determine cell viability. Indices of carcinogenic activity in the ambient fluid were beta-glucuronidase and lactate production and changes in the LDH isoenzyme pattern of the homogenates of the exposed cells were also studied. Incubation with the carcinogen resulted in increased production of beta-glucuronidase and lactate, suggesting the increased beta-glucuronidase activity in the gastric juice of patients with gastric cancer indicates malignancy.

  18. Hepatocyte growth factor is the most potent endogenous stimulant of rabbit gastric epithelial cell proliferation and migration in primary culture.

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, M; Ota, S; Shimada, T; Hamada, E; Kawabe, T; Okudaira, T; Matsumura, M; Kaneko, N; Terano, A; Nakamura, T

    1995-01-01

    Various growth factors are suggested to be involved in gastric mucosal repair. Our previous studies have shown that exogenous hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) has a proliferative effect on gastric epithelial cells. In the present study, comparison of the maximum proliferative effects and the optimum concentrations of several growth factors revealed that HGF was the most potent mitogen for gastric epithelial cells, as is the case for hepatocytes. Restitution of gastric epithelial cell monolayers was assessed using a round wound restitution model. HGF was the most effective agent for facilitating gastric epithelial restitution among those tested. A binding assay revealed specific binding of HGF to its receptor on gastric epithelial cells. Northern blot analysis confirmed the expression of specific HGF receptor mRNA (c-met) by gastric epithelial cells but not by gastric fibroblasts. To investigate endogenous HGF production, we determined the effect of gastric fibroblast-conditioned medium on epithelial proliferation and restitution. The conditioned medium produced similar effects to HGF and its activity was neutralized by an anti-HGF antibody. In addition, expression of HGF mRNA was detected in gastric fibroblasts but not in gastric epithelial cells. Our immunohistochemical study confirmed these in vitro data by means of demonstrating the existence and localization of HGF at human native gastric mucosa. HGF was localized at fibroblasts under the epithelial cell layer around gastric ulcers. These results suggest that HGF may be a potent endogenous promotor of gastric epithelial cell proliferation and migration, and may contribute to gastric mucosal repair through a paracrine mechanism. Images PMID:7738166

  19. Magnetic Nanodrug Delivery Through the Mucus Layer of Air-Liquid Interface Cultured Primary Normal Human Tracheobronchial Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Economou, E. C.; Marinelli, S.; Smith, M. C.; Routt, A. A.; Kravets, V. V.; Chu, H. W.; Spendier, K.; Celinski, Z. J.

    2016-01-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide (Fe3O4) and highly anisotropic barium hexaferrite (BaFe12O19) nanoparticles were coated with an anti-inflammatory drug and magnetically transported through mucus produced by primary human airway epithelial cells. Using wet planetary ball milling, dl-2-amino-3-phosphonopropionic acid-coated BaFe12O19 nano-particles (BaNPs) of 1–100 nm in diameter were prepared in water. BaNPs and conventional 20–30-nm Fe3O4 nanoparticles (FeNPs) were then encased in a polymer (PLGA) loaded with dexamethasone (Dex) and tagged for imaging. PLGA-Dex-coated BaNPs and FeNPs were characterized using dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometry. Both PLGA-Dex-coated BaNPs and FeNPs were transferred to the surface of a ~100-μm thick mucus layer of air-liquid interface cultured primary normal human tracheobronchial epithelial (NHTE) cells. Within 30 min, the nanoparticles were pulled successfully through the mucus layer by a permanent neodymium magnet. The penetration time of the nanomedicine was monitored using confocal microscopy and tailored by varying the thickness of the PLGA-Dex coating around the particles. PMID:27774374

  20. Magnetic Nanodrug Delivery Through the Mucus Layer of Air-Liquid Interface Cultured Primary Normal Human Tracheobronchial Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Economou, E C; Marinelli, S; Smith, M C; Routt, A A; Kravets, V V; Chu, H W; Spendier, K; Celinski, Z J

    2016-09-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide (Fe3O4) and highly anisotropic barium hexaferrite (BaFe12O19) nanoparticles were coated with an anti-inflammatory drug and magnetically transported through mucus produced by primary human airway epithelial cells. Using wet planetary ball milling, dl-2-amino-3-phosphonopropionic acid-coated BaFe12O19 nano-particles (BaNPs) of 1-100 nm in diameter were prepared in water. BaNPs and conventional 20-30-nm Fe3O4 nanoparticles (FeNPs) were then encased in a polymer (PLGA) loaded with dexamethasone (Dex) and tagged for imaging. PLGA-Dex-coated BaNPs and FeNPs were characterized using dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometry. Both PLGA-Dex-coated BaNPs and FeNPs were transferred to the surface of a ~100-μm thick mucus layer of air-liquid interface cultured primary normal human tracheobronchial epithelial (NHTE) cells. Within 30 min, the nanoparticles were pulled successfully through the mucus layer by a permanent neodymium magnet. The penetration time of the nanomedicine was monitored using confocal microscopy and tailored by varying the thickness of the PLGA-Dex coating around the particles.

  1. A method for high purity intestinal epithelial cell culture from adult human and murine tissues for the investigation of innate immune function

    PubMed Central

    Graves, Christina L.; Harden, Scott W.; LaPato, Melissa; Nelson, Michael; Amador, Byron; Sorenson, Heather; Frazier, Charles J.; Wallet, Shannon M.

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) serve as an important physiologic barrier between environmental antigens and the host intestinal immune system. Thus, IECs serve as a first line of defense and may act as sentinel cells during inflammatory insults. Despite recent renewed interest in IEC contributions to host immune function, the study of primary IEC has been hindered by lack of a robust culture technique, particularly for small intestinal and adult tissues. Here, a novel adaptation for culture of primary IEC is described for human duodenal organ donor tissue as well as duodenum and colon of adult mice. These epithelial cell cultures display characteristic phenotypes and are of high purity. In addition, the innate immune function of human primary IEC, specifically with regard to Toll-like receptor (TLR) expression and microbial ligand responsiveness, is contrasted with a commonly used intestinal epithelial cell line (HT-29). Specifically, TLR expression at the mRNA level and production of cytokine (IFNγ and TNFα) in response to TLR agonist stimulation is assessed. Differential expression of TLRs as well as innate immune responses to ligand stimulation is observed in human-derived cultures compared to that of HT-29. Thus, use of this adapted method to culture primary epithelial cells from adult human donors and from adult mice will allow for more appropriate studies of IECs as innate immune effectors. PMID:25193428

  2. A method for high purity intestinal epithelial cell culture from adult human and murine tissues for the investigation of innate immune function.

    PubMed

    Graves, Christina L; Harden, Scott W; LaPato, Melissa; Nelson, Michael; Amador, Byron; Sorenson, Heather; Frazier, Charles J; Wallet, Shannon M

    2014-12-01

    Intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) serve as an important physiologic barrier between environmental antigens and the host intestinal immune system. Thus, IECs serve as a first line of defense and may act as sentinel cells during inflammatory insults. Despite recent renewed interest in IEC contributions to host immune function, the study of primary IEC has been hindered by lack of a robust culture technique, particularly for small intestinal and adult tissues. Here, a novel adaptation for culture of primary IEC is described for human duodenal organ donor tissue as well as duodenum and colon of adult mice. These epithelial cell cultures display characteristic phenotypes and are of high purity. In addition, the innate immune function of human primary IEC, specifically with regard to Toll-like receptor (TLR) expression and microbial ligand responsiveness, is contrasted with a commonly used intestinal epithelial cell line (HT-29). Specifically, TLR expression at the mRNA level and production of cytokine (IFNγ and TNFα) in response to TLR agonist stimulation is assessed. Differential expression of TLRs as well as innate immune responses to ligand stimulation is observed in human-derived cultures compared to that of HT-29. Thus, use of this adapted method to culture primary epithelial cells from adult human donors and from adult mice will allow for more appropriate studies of IECs as innate immune effectors.

  3. In-cell Western™ detection of organic cation transporters in bronchial epithelial cell layers cultured at an air-liquid interface on Transwell(®) inserts.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, M; Latif, M L; Pritchard, D I; Bosquillon, C

    2013-01-01

    Organic cation transporters (OCT) have been shown to mediate the transport of inhaled drugs in bronchial epithelial cells and might have important physiological functions in the airway epithelium. However, a quantitative method to evaluate OCT protein expression in physiologically relevant airway epithelial cell culture models is currently lacking. In-cell Western™ (ICW) techniques might fill that gap but to date, have only been performed on cells grown on 96 or 384-well microplates. An ICW assay was designed for measuring levels of the different OCT subtypes in intact layers of the human bronchial epithelial Calu-3 cell line cultured at an air-liquid interface on Transwell(®) inserts. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) was used as the internal standard for normalisation of cell number between the layers. The protocol was subsequently validated by exposing cell layers to compounds known to cause variations in OCT expression. Antibody signals above the background fluorescence were detected for OCT1, OCT3, OCTN1 and OCTN2 but not for OCT2 in 21day old Calu-3 layers, in agreement with previous studies which had reported OCT2 was absent in the Calu-3 cell line. Furthermore, increases in the fluorescence signal associated with OCT1, OCTN1 and OCTN2 were obtained following treatment of the layers with, respectively, the nitric oxide inducer sodium nitroprusside, the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor α (PPARα) agonist fenofibrate or the PPARγ agonist rosiglitazone, confirming the reliability of the ICW method developed. However, a suitable positive control for OCT3 could not be identified. This novel ICW assay can be exploited to quantify basal OCT protein expression as well as changes in transporter levels following external stimuli in various in vitro models. It can also be easily adapted to probe any protein in epithelial layers maintained on permeable filters. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Adenoviral Gene Therapy for Diabetic Keratopathy: Effects on Wound Healing and Stem Cell Marker Expression in Human Organ-cultured Corneas and Limbal Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Kramerov, Andrei A; Saghizadeh, Mehrnoosh; Ljubimov, Alexander V

    2016-04-07

    The goal of this protocol is to describe molecular alterations in human diabetic corneas and demonstrate how they can be alleviated by adenoviral gene therapy in organ-cultured corneas. The diabetic corneal disease is a complication of diabetes with frequent abnormalities of corneal nerves and epithelial wound healing. We have also documented significantly altered expression of several putative epithelial stem cell markers in human diabetic corneas. To alleviate these changes, adenoviral gene therapy was successfully implemented using the upregulation of c-met proto-oncogene expression and/or the downregulation of proteinases matrix metalloproteinase-10 (MMP-10) and cathepsin F. This therapy accelerated wound healing in diabetic corneas even when only the limbal stem cell compartment was transduced. The best results were obtained with combined treatment. For possible patient transplantation of normalized stem cells, an example is also presented of the optimization of gene transduction in stem cell-enriched cultures using polycationic enhancers. This approach may be useful not only for the selected genes but also for the other mediators of corneal epithelial wound healing and stem cell function.

  5. Hyperglycemia Does Not Affect Iron Mediated Toxicity of Cultured Endothelial and Renal Tubular Epithelial Cells: Influence of L-Carnosine.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shiqi; Ntasis, Emmanouil; Kabtni, Sarah; van den Born, Jaap; Navis, Gerjan; Bakker, Stephan J L; Krämer, Bernhard K; Yard, Benito A; Hauske, Sibylle J

    2016-01-01

    Iron has been suggested to affect the clinical course of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) as accompanying increased intracellular iron accumulation may provide an alternative source for reactive oxygen species (ROS). Although carnosine has proven its therapeutic efficacy in rodent models of T2DM, little is known about its efficacy to protect cells from iron toxicity. We sought to assess if high glucose (HG) exposure makes cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and renal proximal tubular epithelial cells (PTECs) more susceptible to metal induced toxicity and if this is ameliorated by L-carnosine. HUVECs and PTECs, cultured under normal glucose (5 mM, NG) or HG (30 mM), were challenged for 24 h with FeCl3. Cell viability was not impaired under HG conditions nor did HG increase susceptibility to FeCl3. HG did not change the expression of divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1), ferroportin (IREG), and transferrin receptor protein 1 (TFRC). Irrespective of glucose concentrations L-carnosine prevented toxicity in a dose-dependent manner, only if it was present during the FeCl3 challenge. Hence our study indicates that iron induced cytotoxicity is not enhanced under HG conditions. L-Carnosine displayed a strong protective effect, most likely by chelation of iron mediated toxicity.

  6. Autosomal mutations in mouse kidney epithelial cells exposed to high-energy protons in vivo or in culture.

    PubMed

    Turker, Mitchell S; Grygoryev, Dmytro; Dan, Cristian; Eckelmann, Bradley; Lasarev, Michael; Gauny, Stacey; Kwoh, Ely; Kronenberg, Amy

    2013-05-01

    Proton exposure induces mutations and cancer, which are presumably linked. Because protons are abundant in the space environment and significant uncertainties exist for the effects of space travel on human health, the purpose of this study was to identify the types of mutations induced by exposure of mammalian cells to 4-5 Gy of 1 GeV protons. We used an assay that selects for mutations affecting the chromosome 8-encoded Aprt locus in mouse kidney cells and selected mutants after proton exposure both in vivo and in cell culture. A loss of heterozygosity (LOH) assay for DNA preparations from the in vivo-derived kidney mutants revealed that protons readily induced large mutational events. Fluorescent in situ hybridization painting for chromosome 8 showed that >70% of proton-induced LOH patterns resembling mitotic recombination were in fact the result of nonreciprocal chromosome translocations, thereby demonstrating an important role for DNA double-strand breaks in proton mutagenesis. Large interstitial deletions, which also require the formation and resolution of double-strand breaks, were significantly induced in the cell culture environment (14% of all mutants), but to a lesser extend in vivo (2% of all mutants) suggesting that the resolution of proton-induced double-strand breaks can differ between the intact tissue and cell culture microenvironments. In total, the results demonstrate that double-strand break formation is a primary determinant for proton mutagenesis in epithelial cell types and suggest that resultant LOH for significant genomic regions play a critical role in proton-induced cancers.

  7. Damage thresholds for cultured retinal pigment epithelial cells exposed to lasers at 532 nm and 458 nm.

    PubMed

    Denton, Michael L; Foltz, Michael S; Schuster, Kurt J; Estlack, Larry E; Thomas, Robert J

    2007-01-01

    The determination of safe exposure levels for lasers has come from damage assessment experiments in live animals, which typically involve correlating visually identifiable damage with laser dosimetry. Studying basic mechanisms of laser damage in animal retinal systems often requires tissue sampling (animal sacrifice), making justification and animal availability problematic. We determined laser damage thresholds in cultured monolayers of a human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell line. By varying exposure duration and laser wavelength, we identified conditions leading to damage by presumed photochemical or thermal mechanisms. A comparison with literature values for ocular damage thresholds validates the in vitro model. The in vitro system described will facilitate molecular and cellular approaches for understanding laser-tissue interaction.

  8. 3D Organotypic Co-culture Model Supporting Medullary Thymic Epithelial Cell Proliferation, Differentiation and Promiscuous Gene Expression.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Sheena; Stark, Hans-Jürgen; Martin, Iris; Boukamp, Petra; Kyewski, Bruno

    2015-07-30

    Intra-thymic T cell development requires an intricate three-dimensional meshwork composed of various stromal cells, i.e., non-T cells. Thymocytes traverse this scaffold in a highly coordinated temporal and spatial order while sequentially passing obligatory check points, i.e., T cell lineage commitment, followed by T cell receptor repertoire generation and selection prior to their export into the periphery. The two major resident cell types forming this scaffold are cortical (cTECs) and medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs). A key feature of mTECs is the so-called promiscuous expression of numerous tissue-restricted antigens. These tissue-restricted antigens are presented to immature thymocytes directly or indirectly by mTECs or thymic dendritic cells, respectively resulting in self-tolerance. Suitable in vitro models emulating the developmental pathways and functions of cTECs and mTECs are currently lacking. This lack of adequate experimental models has for instance hampered the analysis of promiscuous gene expression, which is still poorly understood at the cellular and molecular level. We adapted a 3D organotypic co-culture model to culture ex vivo isolated mTECs. This model was originally devised to cultivate keratinocytes in such a way as to generate a skin equivalent in vitro. The 3D model preserved key functional features of mTEC biology: (i) proliferation and terminal differentiation of CD80(lo), Aire-negative into CD80(hi), Aire-positive mTECs, (ii) responsiveness to RANKL, and (iii) sustained expression of FoxN1, Aire and tissue-restricted genes in CD80(hi) mTECs.

  9. Cementum- and periodontal ligament-like tissue formation by dental follicle cell sheets co-cultured with Hertwig's epithelial root sheath cells.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yudi; Bai, Yuxiang; Matsuzaka, Kenichi; Hashimoto, Sadamitsu; Fukuyama, Tatsuro; Wu, Lian; Miwa, Tsuneyuki; Liu, Xiaohui; Wang, Xiaojing; Inoue, Takashi

    2011-06-01

    Dental follicle cells (DFCs) are believed contain the precursor cells of the periodontium and can form cell sheets by secreting extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. Cell sheet engineering has been recently developed and applied successfully in the field of tissue regeneration. However, research on the in vitro characteristics of DFC sheets is lacking and an assessment of whether DFC sheets can produce periodontal tissues in vivo has not been reported. To test the characteristics and applicability of DFC sheets in this field, we established a co-culture system of rat DFCs and Hertwig's epithelial root sheath (HERS) cells in vitro, and included the following controls: a co-culture of DFCs and alveolar mucosa epithelial cells, DFCs with no cells in the upper chamber, and DFCs cultured without an upper chamber. After 3 weeks of co-culturing the cells, the DFC sheets were transplanted into adult male rats' omenta. One week after co-culturing DFCs with HERS cells, mRNA levels of collagen type I (COL-1), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), runt related transcription factor 2 (Runx 2) and bone sialoprotein (BSP) were increased significantly. In addition, after 3 weeks of co-culturing the cells, the numbers of ALP-, osteocalcin (OCN)-, BSP- and osteoprotegerin (OPG)-positive DFCs increased. The DFCs also produced more calcified nodules and exhibited an increased number of subcellular organelles, which are important for protein synthesis and secretion. Moreover, gap junctions were found between the experimental DFCs within the sheet. Five weeks of in vivo growth of DFC sheets pre-exposed to HERS cells led to the formation of cementum-like tissues, which were positive for OCN, BSP and OPG, as well as the formation of periodontal ligament-like tissues, which were positive for COL-1. In contrast, control cells only produced fibrous tissues. These results indicate that the DFC sheets induced by HERS cells are able to produce periodontal tissues through epithelial

  10. Regulation of podocalyxin trafficking by Rab small GTPases in 2D and 3D epithelial cell cultures

    PubMed Central

    Mrozowska, Paulina S.

    2016-01-01

    MDCK II cells, a widely used model of polarized epithelia, develop into different structures depending on culture conditions: two-dimensional (2D) monolayers when grown on synthetic supports or three-dimensional (3D) cysts when surrounded by an extracellular matrix. The establishment of epithelial polarity is accompanied by transcytosis of the apical marker podocalyxin from the outer plasma membrane to the newly formed apical domain, but its exact route and regulation remain poorly understood. Here, through comprehensive colocalization and knockdown screenings, we identified the Rab GTPases mediating podocalyxin transcytosis and showed that different sets of Rabs coordinate its transport during cell polarization in 2D and 3D structures. Moreover, we demonstrated that different Rab35 effectors regulate podocalyxin trafficking in 2D and 3D environments; trafficking is mediated by OCRL in 2D monolayers and ACAP2 in 3D cysts. Our results give substantial insight into regulation of the transcytosis of this apical marker and highlight differences between trafficking mechanisms in 2D and 3D cell cultures. PMID:27138252

  11. Control of lens epithelial cell survival

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    We have studied the survival requirements of developing lens epithelial cells to test the hypothesis that most cells are programmed to kill themselves unless they are continuously signaled by other cells not to do so. The lens cells survived for weeks in both explant cultures and high-density dissociated cell cultures in the absence of other cells or added serum or protein, suggesting that they do not require signals from other cell types to survive. When cultured at low density, however, they died by apoptosis, suggesting that they depend on other lens epithelial cells for their survival. Lens epithelial cells cultured at high density in agarose gels also survived for weeks, even though they were not in direct contact with one another, suggesting that they can promote one another's survival in the absence of cell- cell contact. Conditioned medium from high density cultures promoted the survival of cells cultured at low density, suggesting that lens epithelial cells support one another's survival by secreting survival factors. We show for the first time that normal cell death occurs within the anterior epithelium in the mature lens, but this death is strictly confined to the region of the anterior suture. PMID:8491781

  12. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma: Characterization in a 3D-cell culture model

    PubMed Central

    Gagliano, Nicoletta; Celesti, Giuseppe; Tacchini, Lorenza; Pluchino, Stefano; Sforza, Chiarella; Rasile, Marco; Valerio, Vincenza; Laghi, Luigi; Conte, Vincenzo; Procacci, Patrizia

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To analyze the effect of three-dimensional (3D)-arrangement on the expression of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition markers in pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cells. METHODS: HPAF-II, HPAC, and PL45 PDAC cells were cultured in either 2D-monolayers or 3D-spheroids. Ultrastructure was analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. The expression of E-cadherin, β-catenin, N-cadherin, collagen type I (COL-I), vimentin, α-smooth muscle actin (αSMA), and podoplanin was assayed by confocal microscopy in cells cultured on 12-mm diameter round coverslips and in 3D-spheroids. Gene expression for E-cadherin, Snail, Slug, Twist, Zeb1, and Zeb2 was quantified by real-time PCR. E-cadherin protein level and its electrophoretic pattern were studied by Western blot in cell lysates obtained from cells grown in 2D-monolayers and 3D-spheroids. RESULTS: The E-cadherin/β-catenin complex was expressed in a similar way in plasma membrane cell boundaries in both 2D-monolayers and 3D-spheroids. E-cadherin increased in lysates obtained from 3D-spheroids, while cleavage fragments were more evident in 2D-monolayers. N-cadherin expression was observed in very few PDAC cells grown in 2D-monolayers, but was more evident in 3D-spheroids. Some cells expressing COL-I were observed in 3D-spheroids. Podoplanin, expressed in collectively migrating cells, and αSMA were similarly expressed in both experimental conditions. The concomitant maintenance of the E-cadherin/β-catenin complex at cell boundaries supports the hypothesis of a collective migration for these cells, which is consistent with podoplanin expression. CONCLUSION: We show that a 3D-cell culture model could provide deeper insight into understanding the biology of PDAC and allow for the detection of marked differences in the phenotype of PDAC cells grown in 3D-spheroids. PMID:27182158

  13. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma: Characterization in a 3D-cell culture model.

    PubMed

    Gagliano, Nicoletta; Celesti, Giuseppe; Tacchini, Lorenza; Pluchino, Stefano; Sforza, Chiarella; Rasile, Marco; Valerio, Vincenza; Laghi, Luigi; Conte, Vincenzo; Procacci, Patrizia

    2016-05-14

    To analyze the effect of three-dimensional (3D)-arrangement on the expression of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition markers in pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cells. HPAF-II, HPAC, and PL45 PDAC cells were cultured in either 2D-monolayers or 3D-spheroids. Ultrastructure was analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. The expression of E-cadherin, β-catenin, N-cadherin, collagen type I (COL-I), vimentin, α-smooth muscle actin (αSMA), and podoplanin was assayed by confocal microscopy in cells cultured on 12-mm diameter round coverslips and in 3D-spheroids. Gene expression for E-cadherin, Snail, Slug, Twist, Zeb1, and Zeb2 was quantified by real-time PCR. E-cadherin protein level and its electrophoretic pattern were studied by Western blot in cell lysates obtained from cells grown in 2D-monolayers and 3D-spheroids. The E-cadherin/β-catenin complex was expressed in a similar way in plasma membrane cell boundaries in both 2D-monolayers and 3D-spheroids. E-cadherin increased in lysates obtained from 3D-spheroids, while cleavage fragments were more evident in 2D-monolayers. N-cadherin expression was observed in very few PDAC cells grown in 2D-monolayers, but was more evident in 3D-spheroids. Some cells expressing COL-I were observed in 3D-spheroids. Podoplanin, expressed in collectively migrating cells, and αSMA were similarly expressed in both experimental conditions. The concomitant maintenance of the E-cadherin/β-catenin complex at cell boundaries supports the hypothesis of a collective migration for these cells, which is consistent with podoplanin expression. We show that a 3D-cell culture model could provide deeper insight into understanding the biology of PDAC and allow for the detection of marked differences in the phenotype of PDAC cells grown in 3D-spheroids.

  14. Analysis of thymic stromal cell subpopulations grown in vitro on extracellular matrix in defined medium. II. Cytokine activities in murine thymic epithelial and mesenchymal cell culture supernatants.

    PubMed

    Eshel, I; Savion, N; Shoham, J

    1990-03-01

    Two morphologically distinct primary cultures of murine thymic stroma were established and found to be of epithelial (MTEC) and mesenchymal (MTMC) origin. These cultures were generated by selective conditions of tissue disruption and were maintained on extracellular matrix in defined medium. Culture supernatants (CS) from these cultures (EC-CS and MC-CS respectively), were tested for cytokine production and for effects on thymocyte maturation. Both supernatants displayed the activities of IL-3 and of granulocyte/macrophage-CSF and not of IL-1, -2, -4, or IFN. In addition they were found to be mitogenic to murine thymocytes in a "spontaneous" [3H]TdR incorporation assay. The two supernatants differed, however, in their effect on Con A stimulation. EC-CS had a strong enhancing effect, both when used for preincubation (18 h) before Con A stimulation or when present simultaneously with it. MC-CS had a small inconsistent effect under these conditions. Also EC-CS enhanced IL-2 and IL-3 production by thymocytes. The responsive thymocyte subpopulation was the one that does not bind peanut agglutinin. CS of an established thymic epithelial cell line displayed only part of these activities at a considerably lower level. CS from primary kidney cell culture was completely devoid of activity. The results suggest that primary thymic stromal cell cultures, cultivated under the defined conditions described here, may better preserve physiologic secretory activities, and probably also other cell functions, compared with established cell lines. Furthermore, the results are compatible with the hypothesis that the soluble factors, secreted by thymic stromal cells, are active on either very early or late stages of thymic differentiation, whereas the main intrathymic stages of differentiation are conceivable dependent primarily on direct contact with stromal cells.

  15. Effects of shiga toxin 2 on cellular regeneration mechanisms in primary and three-dimensional cultures of human renal tubular epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Márquez, Laura B; Araoz, Alicia; Repetto, Horacio A; Ibarra, Fernando R; Silberstein, Claudia

    2016-10-01

    Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) causes post-diarrheal Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome (HUS), which is one of the most common causes of acute renal failure in children in Argentine. The aim of the present work was to study the effects of Shiga toxin type 2 (Stx2) on regenerative mechanisms of primary cultures of human cortical renal tubular epithelial cells (HRTEC) and three-dimensional (3D) cultures of HRTEC. Primary cultures of HRTEC were able to develop tubular structures when grown in matrigel, which showed epithelial cells surrounding a central lumen resembling the original renal tubules. Exposure to Stx2 inhibited tubulogenesis in 3D-HRTEC cultures. Moreover, a significant increase in apoptosis, and decrease in cell proliferation was observed in tubular structures of 3D-HRTEC exposed to Stx2. A significant reduction in cell migration and vimentin expression levels was observed in HRTEC primary cultures exposed to Stx2, demonstrating that the holotoxin affected HRTEC dedifferentiation. Furthermore, a decreased number of cells expressing CD133 progenitor marker was found in HRTEC cultures treated with Stx2. The CD133 positive cells also expressed the Stx receptor globotriaosylceramide, which may explain their sensitivity to Stx2. In conclusion, Stx2 affects the regenerative processes of human renal tubular epithelial cells in vitro, by inhibiting cell dedifferentiation mechanisms, as well as tubules restoration. The development of 3D-HRTEC cultures that resemble original human renal proximal tubules is a novel in vitro model to study renal epithelial repair mechanisms after injury.

  16. Direct binding of boar ejaculate and epididymal spermatozoa to porcine epididymal epithelial cells is also needed to maintain sperm survival in in vitro co-culture.

    PubMed

    Yeste, Marc; Castillo-Martín, Míriam; Bonet, Sergi; Briz, Maria Dolors

    2012-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the influence of cultured epididymal epithelial cells (EEC) from corpus, caput or cauda, oviductal epithelial cells (OEC) and non-reproductive epithelial cells (LLC-PK1) on function and survival of epididymal and ejaculated spermatozoa, in the latter case to determine whether such influence differed between morphologically normal and abnormal spermatozoa. For this purpose, either spermatozoa were directly co-cultured with EEC from caput, corpus, or cauda, OEC and LLC-PK1 cells (experiment 1) or a membrane-diffusible insert was included in these co-cultures (experiment 2). EEC cultured from the three epididymal regions did not differently affect the sperm parameters. Morphologically normal spermatozoa presented a higher ability to bind EEC, OEC, and LLC-PK1 than abnormal spermatozoa with cytoplasmic droplets or with tail/head malformations. Epididymal spermatozoa were more able to bind EEC during the first 24 h of co-culture, while ejaculated spermatozoa presented a higher capacity to bind OEC between 30 min and 3 h of co-incubation. In all cases, the ability to bind to epithelial cells was higher when they were co-cultured with EEC and OEC than with LLC-PK1. After 2 h of co-culture, the viability of epididymal spermatozoa was better maintained when they bound EEC than when they bound OEC. Conversely, the viability of ejaculated spermatozoa was better maintained when bound OEC than when bound EEC after 24 and 48 h of co-culture. Our work, apart from corroborating the involvement of morphologically normal spermatozoa in the formation of sperm reservoir, highlights the importance of direct contact spermatozoa-EEC in maintaining the sperm survival in in vitro co-culture, and also suggests that a specific binding between EEC and epididymal spermatozoa exists. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. p57KIP2 expression and loss of heterozygosity during immortal conversion of cultured human mammary epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Nijjar, Tarlochan; Wigington, Don; Garbe, James C.; Waha, Andreas; Stampfer, Martha R.; Yaswen, Paul

    1999-08-01

    The authors have uncovered a novel role for the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, p57KIP2, during the immortalization of cultured human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC). HMEC immortalized following chemical carcinogen exposure initially expressed little or no telomerase activity, and their telomeres continued to shorten with passage. Cell populations whose mean terminal restriction fragment (TRF) length declined and exhibited slow heterogeneous growth, and contained many non-proliferative cells. These conditionally immortal HMEC cultures accumulated large quantities of p57 protein. With continued passage, the conditionally immortal cell populations very graduall2048nverted to a fully immortal phenotype of good uniform growth, expression of high levels of telomerase activity, and stabilization of telomere length. The fully immortal good growing HMEC did not accumulate p57 in G0 or during the cell cycle. DNA and RNA analysis of mass populations and individual subclones of conditionally immortal HMEC line 184A1 showed that continued growth of conditionally immortal cells with critically short telomeres was repeatedly accompanied by loss of the expressed p57 allele, and transient expression of the previously imprinted allele. Conditionally immortal 184A1 with mean TRF > 3 kb infected with retroviruses containing the p57 gene exhibited premature slow heterogeneous growth. Conversely, exogenous expression of hTERT, the catalytic subunit of telomerase, in 184A1 with mean TRF > 3 kb prevented both the slow heterogeneous growth phase and accumulation of p57 in cycling populations. These data indicate that in HMEC which have overcome replicative senescence, p57 may provide an additional barrier against indefinite proliferation. Overcoming p57 mediated growth inhibition in these cells may be crucial for acquisition of the unlimited growth potential thought to be critical for malignant progression.

  18. Bovine Oviduct Epithelial Cells Dedifferentiate Partly in Culture, While Maintaining their Ability to Improve Early Embryo Development Rate and Quality.

    PubMed

    Schmaltz-Panneau, B; Locatelli, Y; Uzbekova, S; Perreau, C; Mermillod, P

    2015-10-01

    There are convincing arguments to suggest that the success of early reproductive events is reliant on a satisfactory dialogue between gametes-embryo and the oviduct epithelium. The aim of this study was to develop and characterize an in vitro model to study these interactions. Cattle zygotes produced in vitro were cultured in either SOF or TCM-199 in the presence or absence of bovine oviduct cell monolayers (BOEC), under 20% or 5% O2 . The embryonic development rate and its quality (cell numbers, cryosurvival) were evaluated, as were the BOEC contents in 11 candidate transcripts (real-time PCR) at different time points. A BOEC co-culture did indeed increase the rate of development in both media under 5% O2 (41 vs 27% and 28 vs 10% of Day 8 blastocysts in SOF and TCM-199, respectively; p < 0.05). The effect of BOEC on the developmental rate was more pronounced under 20% O2 (35 vs 6% and 27 vs 4% of Day 8 blastocysts in SOF and TCM-199, respectively; p < 0.05). BOEC significantly increased the embryonic cell count in TCM-199 (122.5 ± 11.1 vs 70.3 ± 9.6; p < 0.05) and embryonic cryosurvival in both media. The expression levels of SOD, FGF2 and TGF-β1 in BOEC remained steady during culture, although mRNA levels of OGP, C3, PGR and ESR2 were clearly reduced, suggesting a dedifferentiation of BOEC during culture. However, SSP1 and GPX4 transcripts were slightly increased during culture, this rise becoming significant by the end of the culture period. In conclusion, our co-culture system with bovine oviduct epithelial cells used for the development of bovine zygotes produced in vitro enhanced blastocyst formation and above all the quality of the resulting embryos, which was associated with specific transcriptomic changes.

  19. Purification of kidney epithelial cell growth inhibitors.

    PubMed Central

    Holley, R W; Böhlen, P; Fava, R; Baldwin, J H; Kleeman, G; Armour, R

    1980-01-01

    Two high molecular weight growth inhibitors have been isolated from the culture medium of BSC-1 cells, epithelial cells of African green monkey kidney. The purified kidney epithelial cell growth inhibitors, at ng/ml concentrations, reversibly arrest the growth of BSC-1 cells in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. Their action is selective; they are most active on BSC-1 cells, are less active as inhibitors of the growth of rat lung and human breast epithelial cells, and do not inhibit the growth of 3T3 mouse embryo fibroblasts ad human skin fibroblasts in culture. Their growth inhibitory action on BSC-1 cell cultures is counteracted by epidermal growth factor or calf serum. PMID:6969400

  20. Precision-cut intestinal slices as a culture system to analyze the infection of differentiated intestinal epithelial cells by avian influenza viruses.

    PubMed

    Punyadarsaniya, Darsaniya; Winter, Christine; Mork, Ann-Kathrin; Amiri, Mahdi; Naim, Hassan Y; Rautenschlein, Silke; Herrler, Georg

    2015-02-01

    Many viruses infect and replicate in their host via the intestinal tract, e.g. many picornaviruses, several coronaviruses and avian influenza viruses of waterfowl. To analyze infection of enterocytes is a challenging task as culture systems for differentiated intestinal epithelial cells are not readily available and often have a life span that is too short for infection studies. Precision-cut intestinal slices (PCIS) from chicken embryos were prepared and shown that the epithelial cells lining the lumen of the intestine are viable for up to 4 days. Using lectin staining, it was demonstrated that α2,3-linked sialic acids, the preferred receptor determinants of avian influenza viruses, are present on the apical side of the epithelial cells. Furthermore, the epithelial cells (at the tips) of the villi were shown to be susceptible to infection by an avian influenza virus of the H9N2 subtype. This culture system will be useful to analyze virus infection of intestinal epithelial cells and it should be applicable also to the intestine of other species.

  1. Profound re-organization of cell surface proteome in equine retinal pigment epithelial cells in response to in vitro culturing.

    PubMed

    Szober, Christoph M; Hauck, Stefanie M; Euler, Kerstin N; Fröhlich, Kristina J H; Alge-Priglinger, Claudia; Ueffing, Marius; Deeg, Cornelia A

    2012-10-31

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the cell surface proteome of native compared to cultured equine retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells. The RPE plays an essential role in visual function and represents the outer blood-retinal barrier. We are investigating immunopathomechanisms of equine recurrent uveitis, an autoimmune inflammatory disease in horses leading to breakdown of the outer blood-retinal barrier and influx of autoreactive T-cells into affected horses' vitrei. Cell surface proteins of native and cultured RPE cells from eye-healthy horses were captured by biotinylation, analyzed by high resolution mass spectrometry coupled to liquid chromatography (LC MS/MS), and the most interesting candidates were validated by PCR, immunoblotting and immunocytochemistry. A total of 112 proteins were identified, of which 84% were cell surface membrane proteins. Twenty-three of these proteins were concurrently expressed by both cell states, 28 proteins exclusively by native RPE cells. Among the latter were two RPE markers with highly specialized RPE functions: cellular retinaldehyde-binding protein (CRALBP) and retinal pigment epithelium-specific protein 65kDa (RPE65). Furthermore, 61 proteins were only expressed by cultured RPE cells and absent in native cells. As we believe that initiating events, leading to the breakdown of the outer blood-retinal barrier, take place at the cell surface of RPE cells as a particularly exposed barrier structure, this differential characterization of cell surface proteomes of native and cultured equine RPE cells is a prerequisite for future studies.

  2. Profound Re-Organization of Cell Surface Proteome in Equine Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells in Response to In Vitro Culturing

    PubMed Central

    Szober, Christoph M.; Hauck, Stefanie M.; Euler, Kerstin N.; Fröhlich, Kristina J. H.; Alge-Priglinger, Claudia; Ueffing, Marius; Deeg, Cornelia A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the cell surface proteome of native compared to cultured equine retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells. The RPE plays an essential role in visual function and represents the outer blood-retinal barrier. We are investigating immunopathomechanisms of equine recurrent uveitis, an autoimmune inflammatory disease in horses leading to breakdown of the outer blood-retinal barrier and influx of autoreactive T-cells into affected horses’ vitrei. Cell surface proteins of native and cultured RPE cells from eye-healthy horses were captured by biotinylation, analyzed by high resolution mass spectrometry coupled to liquid chromatography (LC MS/MS), and the most interesting candidates were validated by PCR, immunoblotting and immunocytochemistry. A total of 112 proteins were identified, of which 84% were cell surface membrane proteins. Twenty-three of these proteins were concurrently expressed by both cell states, 28 proteins exclusively by native RPE cells. Among the latter were two RPE markers with highly specialized RPE functions: cellular retinaldehyde-binding protein (CRALBP) and retinal pigment epithelium-specific protein 65kDa (RPE65). Furthermore, 61 proteins were only expressed by cultured RPE cells and absent in native cells. As we believe that initiating events, leading to the breakdown of the outer blood-retinal barrier, take place at the cell surface of RPE cells as a particularly exposed barrier structure, this differential characterization of cell surface proteomes of native and cultured equine RPE cells is a prerequisite for future studies. PMID:23203049

  3. Interphase Chromosome Conformation and Chromatin-Chromatin Interactions in Human Epithelial Cells Cultured Under Different Gravity Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Ye; Wong, Michael; Hada, Megumi; Wu, Honglu

    2015-01-01

    Microgravity has been shown to alter global gene expression patterns and protein levels both in cultured cells and animal models. It has been suggested that the packaging of chromatin fibers in the interphase nucleus is closely related to genome function, and the changes in transcriptional activity are tightly correlated with changes in chromatin folding. This study explores the changes of chromatin conformation and chromatin-chromatin interactions in the simulated microgravity environment, and investigates their correlation to the expression of genes located at different regions of the chromosome. To investigate the folding of chromatin in interphase under various culture conditions, human epithelial cells, fibroblasts, and lymphocytes were fixed in the G1 phase. Interphase chromosomes were hybridized with a multicolor banding in situ hybridization (mBAND) probe for chromosome 3 which distinguishes six regions of the chromosome as separate colors. After images were captured with a laser scanning confocal microscope, the 3-dimensional structure of interphase chromosome 3 was reconstructed at multi-mega base pair scale. In order to determine the effects of microgravity on chromosome conformation and orientation, measures such as distance between homologous pairs, relative orientation of chromosome arms about a shared midpoint, and orientation of arms within individual chromosomes were all considered as potentially impacted by simulated microgravity conditions. The studies revealed non-random folding of chromatin in interphase, and suggested an association of interphase chromatin folding with radiation-induced chromosome aberration hotspots. Interestingly, the distributions of genes with expression changes over chromosome 3 in cells cultured under microgravity environment are apparently clustered on specific loci and chromosomes. This data provides important insights into how mammalian cells respond to microgravity at molecular level.

  4. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells accelerate oxalate-induced apoptosis of human renal proximal tubule epithelial cells in co-culture system which is prevented by pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate.

    PubMed

    Sarıca, Kemal; Aydin, Hasan; Yencilek, Faruk; Telci, Dilek; Yilmaz, Bayram

    2012-10-01

    Oxalate is the most common component of kidney stones and elevated urinary levels induce renal tubular cell toxicity and death which is essential for crystal attachment. Endothelial cells, in some studies have been shown to regulate certain functions of renal proximal tubule cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of endothelial cells on tubular cell apoptosis in a co-culture system mimicking the in vivo renal physiological settings. The human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and human renal proximal tubule epithelial cells (RPTEC) were exposed to increasing concentrations (0-1.0 mM) of oxalate with or without 10 μM PDTC pretreatment for 24 h. In HUVEC, RPTEC and HUVEC-RPTEC co-cultures, the cell viability was measured using the WST-1 assay and cell death with the TUNEL analysis using the flow cytometry. The treatment of RPTECs with oxalate lead to 8.9-26.2% cell death which was reduced to 0-1.6% with the PDTC pretreatment. The death rate of RPTECs was significantly increased by 15-19% at different oxalate concentrations when co-cultured with HUVECs. In contrast, cell viability was not substantially altered in PDTC pretreated RPTECs that were co-cultured with HUVECs. Apoptosis was the way of cell death as similar rate of apoptosis was observed in cell culture systems. Although cell viability of RPTECs was further reduced when co-cultured with HUVECs, it was restored with the pretreatment of PDTC. This is the first study focusing on the role of endothelial cells on RPTEC apoptosis following hyperoxaluria.

  5. Isospora suis in an epithelial cell culture system - an in vitro model for sexual development in coccidia.

    PubMed

    Worliczek, Hanna Lucia; Ruttkowski, Bärbel; Schwarz, Lukas; Witter, Kirsti; Tschulenk, Waltraud; Joachim, Anja

    2013-01-01

    Coccidian parasites are of major importance in animal production, public health and food safety. The most frequently used representative in basic research on this group is Toxoplasma gondii. Although this parasite is well investigated there is no adequate in vitro model for its sexual development available and knowledge on this important life cycle phase is therefore scarce. The use of Isosporasuis, a sister taxon to T. gondii and the causative agent of piglet coccidiosis, could provide a solution for this. In the present study an in vitro model for neonatal porcine coccidiosis in cells representative for the in vivo situation in the piglet gut was developed and evaluated. The parasite development was investigated by light and transmission electron microscopy and optimum culture conditions were evaluated. Intestinal porcine epithelial cells (IPEC-J2) adequately representing the natural host cells supported the development of all endogenous life cycle stages of I. suis, including gametocytes and oocysts. A concentration of 5% fetal calf serum in the culture medium led to highest gametocyte densities on day 12 post infection. Low infection doses (≤1 sporozoite for 100 host cells) were best for oocyst and gametocyte development. The presented system can also be used for immunostaining with established antibodies developed against T. gondii (in our case, anti-TgIMC3 antibodies directed against the inner membrane complex 3). The complete life cycle of I. suis in a cell line representing the natural host cell type and species provides a unique model among coccidian parasites and can be used to address a wide range of topics, especially with regard to the sexual development of coccidia.

  6. High-frequency low-level diode laser irradiation promotes proliferation and migration of primary cultured human gingival epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Ejiri, Kenichiro; Aoki, Akira; Yamaguchi, Yoko; Ohshima, Mitsuhiro; Izumi, Yuichi

    2014-07-01

    In periodontal therapy, the use of low-level diode lasers has recently been considered to improve wound healing of the gingival tissue. However, its effects on human gingival epithelial cells (HGECs) remain unknown. The aim of the present study was to examine whether high-frequency low-level diode laser irradiation stimulates key cell responses in wound healing, proliferation and migration, in primary cultured HGECs in vitro. HGECs were derived from seven independent gingival tissue specimens. Cultured HGECs were exposed to a single session of high-frequency (30 kHz) low-level diode laser irradiation with various irradiation time periods (fluence 5.7-56.7 J/cm(2)). After 20-24 h, cell proliferation was evaluated by WST-8 assay and [(3)H]thymidine incorporation assay, and cell migration was monitored by in vitro wound healing assay. Further, phosphorylation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways after irradiation was investigated by Western blotting. The high-frequency low-level irradiation significantly increased cell proliferation and [(3)H]thymidine incorporation at various irradiation time periods. Migration of the irradiated cells was significantly accelerated compared with the nonirradiated control. Further, the low-level diode laser irradiation induced phosphorylation of MAPK/extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) at 5, 15, 60, and 120 min after irradiation. Stress-activated protein kinases/c-Jun N-terminal kinase and p38 MAPK remained un-phosphorylated. The results show that high-frequency low-level diode laser irradiation promotes HGEC proliferation and migration in association with the activation of MAPK/ERK, suggesting that laser irradiation may accelerate gingival wound healing.

  7. Isospora suis in an Epithelial Cell Culture System – An In Vitro Model for Sexual Development in Coccidia

    PubMed Central

    Worliczek, Hanna Lucia; Ruttkowski, Bärbel; Schwarz, Lukas; Witter, Kirsti; Tschulenk, Waltraud; Joachim, Anja

    2013-01-01

    Coccidian parasites are of major importance in animal production, public health and food safety. The most frequently used representative in basic research on this group is Toxoplasma gondii. Although this parasite is well investigated there is no adequate in vitro model for its sexual development available and knowledge on this important life cycle phase is therefore scarce. The use of Isosporasuis, a sister taxon to T. gondii and the causative agent of piglet coccidiosis, could provide a solution for this. In the present study an in vitro model for neonatal porcine coccidiosis in cells representative for the in vivo situation in the piglet gut was developed and evaluated. The parasite development was investigated by light and transmission electron microscopy and optimum culture conditions were evaluated. Intestinal porcine epithelial cells (IPEC-J2) adequately representing the natural host cells supported the development of all endogenous life cycle stages of I. suis, including gametocytes and oocysts. A concentration of 5% fetal calf serum in the culture medium led to highest gametocyte densities on day 12 post infection. Low infection doses (≤1 sporozoite for 100 host cells) were best for oocyst and gametocyte development. The presented system can also be used for immunostaining with established antibodies developed against T. gondii (in our case, anti-TgIMC3 antibodies directed against the inner membrane complex 3). The complete life cycle of I. suis in a cell line representing the natural host cell type and species provides a unique model among coccidian parasites and can be used to address a wide range of topics, especially with regard to the sexual development of coccidia. PMID:23861983

  8. Isolation, culture and characterization of biliary epithelial cells from different anatomical levels of the intrahepatic and extrahepatic biliary tree from a mouse.

    PubMed

    Katayanagi, K; Kono, N; Nakanuma, Y

    1998-04-01

    We developed methods to isolate biliary epithelial cells (BECs) from the gallbladder (GB), common bile duct (CBD), intrahepatic large bile duct (ILBD) and small bile duct (ISBD) of a mouse, simultaneously. ILBD and ISBD were cut from the biliary tree after collagenase perfusion of the liver. BECs from all of these biliary segments were cultured as explants on collagen gel. BECs spread from the explants and formed cellular sheets. Areas of these sheets composed entirely of BECs were cut and placed on other gels as subculture, and this continued for 10 passages. Primary and passage cultured BECs on gel were composed of a monolayer of epithelial cells. Passaged cultured BECs in gel formed a spherical cyst lined by a single epithelial layer. Ultrastructurally, microvilli were dense on the luminal surface, and junctional complex and interdigitation was identifiable on the lateral surfaces. These features were similar in both primary and passaged cultured BECs, irrespective of their anatomical origin. Major histocompatibility complex antigens and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 were induced on the basolateral cell membranes of primary and passaged cultured BECs, by interferon-gamma. Although several phenotypic, structural and probable biological features of BECs inherent to each anatomical level may be lost after culture on gel, a combination of this method, several immunological modifications in experimental animals, and addition of immunologically active substances to the culture medium will make the immunopathologic analysis of biliary diseases possible.

  9. Pro-inflammatory Cytokines Impair Vitamin D-induced Host Defense in Cultured Airway Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Schrumpf, Jasmijn A; Amatngalim, Gimano D; Veldkamp, Joris B; Verhoosel, Renate M; Ninaber, Dennis K; Ordonez, Soledad R; van der Does, Anne M; Haagsman, Henk P; Hiemstra, Pieter S

    2017-02-23

    Vitamin D is a regulator of host defense against infections and induces expression of the antimicrobial peptide hCAP18/LL-37. Vitamin D deficiency is associated with chronic inflammatory lung diseases and respiratory infections. However, it is incompletely understood if and how (chronic) airway inflammation affects vitamin D metabolism and action. We hypothesized that long-term exposure of primary bronchial epithelial cells (PBEC) to pro-inflammatory cytokines alters their vitamin D metabolism, antibacterial activity and expression of hCAP18/LL-37. To investigate this, PBEC were differentiated at the air-liquid interphase for 14 days in presence of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β (TNF-α/IL-1β), and subsequently exposed to vitamin D (inactive 25(OH)D3 and active 1,25(OH)2D3). Expression of hCAP18/LL-37, vitamin D receptor (VDR) and enzymes involved in vitamin D metabolism (CYP24A1 and CYP27B1) was determined using qPCR, Western blot and immunofluorescence staining. Furthermore, vitamin D-mediated antibacterial activity was assessed using non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi). We found that TNF-α/IL-1β treatment reduced vitamin D-induced expression of hCAP18/LL-37 and killing of NTHi. In addition, CYP24A1 (a vitamin D-degrading enzyme) was increased by TNF-α/IL-1β, whereas CYP27B1 (that converts 25(OH)D3 to its active form) and VDR expression remained unaffected. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the TNF-α/IL-1β-mediated induction of CYP24A1 was at least in part mediated by the transcription factor specific protein 1 (Sp1) and the EGFR-MAPK-pathway. These findings indicate that TNF-α/IL-1β decreases vitamin D-mediated antibacterial activity and hCAP18/LL-37 expression via induction of CYP24A1, and suggests that chronic inflammation impairs protective responses induced by vitamin D.

  10. Plasma polymer-coated contact lenses for the culture and transfer of corneal epithelial cells in the treatment of limbal stem cell deficiency.

    PubMed

    Brown, Karl David; Low, Suet; Mariappan, Indumathi; Abberton, Keren Maree; Short, Robert; Zhang, Hong; Maddileti, Savitri; Sangwan, Virender; Steele, David; Daniell, Mark

    2014-02-01

    Extensive damage to the limbal region of the cornea leads to a severe form of corneal blindness termed as limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD). Whereas most cases of corneal opacity can be treated with full thickness corneal transplants, LSCD requires stem cell transplantation for successful ocular surface reconstruction. Current treatments for LSCD using limbal stem cell transplantation involve the use of murine NIH 3T3 cells and human amniotic membranes as culture substrates, which pose the threat of transmission of animal-derived pathogens and donor tissue-derived cryptic infections. In this study, we aimed to produce surface modified therapeutic contact lenses for the culture and delivery of corneal epithelial cells for the treatment of LSCD. This approach avoids the possibility of suture-related complications and is completely synthetic. We used plasma polymerization to deposit acid functional groups onto the lenses at various concentrations. Each surface was tested for its suitability to promote corneal epithelial cell adhesion, proliferation, retention of stem cells, and differentiation and found that acid-based chemistries promoted better cell adhesion and proliferation. We also found that the lenses coated with a higher percentage of acid functional groups resulted in a higher number of cells transferred onto the corneal wound bed in rabbit models of LSCD. Immunohistochemistry of the recipient cornea confirmed the presence of autologous, transplanted 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU)-labeled cells. Hematoxylin staining has also revealed the presence of a stratified epithelium at 26 days post-transplantation. This study provides the first evidence for in vivo transfer and survival of cells transplanted from a contact lens to the wounded corneal surface. It also proposes the possibility of using plasma polymer-coated contact lenses with high acid functional groups as substrates for the culture and transfer of limbal cells in the treatment of LSCD.

  11. Plasma Polymer-Coated Contact Lenses for the Culture and Transfer of Corneal Epithelial Cells in the Treatment of Limbal Stem Cell Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Karl David; Low, Suet; Mariappan, Indumathi; Abberton, Keren Maree; Short, Robert; Zhang, Hong; Maddileti, Savitri; Sangwan, Virender; Steele, David

    2014-01-01

    Extensive damage to the limbal region of the cornea leads to a severe form of corneal blindness termed as limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD). Whereas most cases of corneal opacity can be treated with full thickness corneal transplants, LSCD requires stem cell transplantation for successful ocular surface reconstruction. Current treatments for LSCD using limbal stem cell transplantation involve the use of murine NIH 3T3 cells and human amniotic membranes as culture substrates, which pose the threat of transmission of animal-derived pathogens and donor tissue-derived cryptic infections. In this study, we aimed to produce surface modified therapeutic contact lenses for the culture and delivery of corneal epithelial cells for the treatment of LSCD. This approach avoids the possibility of suture-related complications and is completely synthetic. We used plasma polymerization to deposit acid functional groups onto the lenses at various concentrations. Each surface was tested for its suitability to promote corneal epithelial cell adhesion, proliferation, retention of stem cells, and differentiation and found that acid-based chemistries promoted better cell adhesion and proliferation. We also found that the lenses coated with a higher percentage of acid functional groups resulted in a higher number of cells transferred onto the corneal wound bed in rabbit models of LSCD. Immunohistochemistry of the recipient cornea confirmed the presence of autologous, transplanted 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU)-labeled cells. Hematoxylin staining has also revealed the presence of a stratified epithelium at 26 days post-transplantation. This study provides the first evidence for in vivo transfer and survival of cells transplanted from a contact lens to the wounded corneal surface. It also proposes the possibility of using plasma polymer-coated contact lenses with high acid functional groups as substrates for the culture and transfer of limbal cells in the treatment of LSCD. PMID:24328453

  12. Effects of zinc on epithelial barrier properties and viability in a human and a porcine intestinal cell culture model.

    PubMed

    Lodemann, U; Einspanier, R; Scharfen, F; Martens, H; Bondzio, A

    2013-03-01

    Zinc is an essential trace element with a variety of physiological and biochemical functions. Piglets are commonly supplemented, during the weaning period, with doses of zinc above dietary requirements with positive effects on health and performance that might be attributed to anti-secretory and barrier-enhancing effects in the intestine. For a better understanding of these observations increasing zinc sulfate (ZnSO4; 0-200μM) concentrations were used in an in vitro culture model of porcine (IPEC-J2) and human (Caco-2) intestinal epithelial cells and effects on barrier function, viability, and the mRNA expression of one selected heat shock protein (Hsp) were assessed. When treated apically with zinc sulfate, the transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) did not change significantly. In contrast, cell viability measured by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage, by ATP and by WST-1 conversion in postconfluent IPEC-J2 monolayers was affected after a 24-h treatment with 200μM ZnSO4. Caco-2 cells were more resistant to Zn. ZnSO4 did not induce any effect on viability, except when it was used at the highest concentration (200μM), and only in preconfluent cells. Furthermore, ZnSO4 induced Hsp70 mRNA expression at 200μM and was more pronounced in preconfluent cells. The observed dose-related effects of zinc are cell-line specific and depended on the differentiation status of the cells. The IPEC-J2 cell line appears to be a suitable in vitro model to characterize specific effects on porcine intestinal cells. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of Metals on β-Actin and Total Protein Synthesis in Cultured Human Intestinal Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Calabro, Anthony R.; Gazarian, Dmitry I.; Barile, Frank A.

    2010-01-01

    As an important structural protein, β-actin is associated with anchoring of tight junctions (TJs) to the cell scaffold. Caco-2 cells, an immortal intestinal epithelial cell line, rely on β-actin to form intact monolayers with high transepithelial electrical resistance in cell culture inserts. We examined the effect of six metals on expression of β-actin mRNA and β-actin synthesis, on total and net production of newly synthesized proteins, on paracellular transport of TJ markers, and on cell viability in confluent monolayers. [3H]-glycine and [3H]-tyrosine were used as indicators of newly synthesized proteins in the absence or presence of increasing concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, copper, manganese, mercury and nickel. The monolayers were exposed to 24-hr single exposures as well as continuous daily repeated doses of metals for 48-hr and 96-hr. Results suggest that decreases in newly synthesized proteins, in which β-actin represents about 10%, correlated with 2- to 5-fold higher expression of β-actin mRNA for the higher concentrations of metals. Interestingly, IC50s calculated for each chemical for 24-hr acute and 48- and 96-hr repeated dosing experiments, using the MTT viability assay and paracellular permeability markers, decreased newly synthesized and total proteins to 10% and 40% of control, respectively. Overall, the results indicate that, at equivalent concentrations, the metals affect β-actin mRNA and newly synthesized proteins before cell viability and paracellular permeability are compromised. Consequently the results help in elucidating mechanisms of metal cytotoxicity that lead to understanding the relationship between tight junction integrity, paracellular transport, and cell viability. PMID:20452446

  14. Culture of Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia Epithelial Cells at Air-Liquid Interface Can Alter Ciliary Phenotype but Remains a Robust and Informative Diagnostic Aid

    PubMed Central

    Coles, Janice L.; Williams, Gwyneth; Rutman, Andrew; Goggin, Patricia M.; Adam, Elizabeth C.; Page, Anthony; Evans, Hazel J.; Lackie, Peter M.; O’Callaghan, Christopher; Lucas, Jane S.

    2014-01-01

    Background The diagnosis of primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) requires the analysis of ciliary function and ultrastructure. Diagnosis can be complicated by secondary effects on cilia such as damage during sampling, local inflammation or recent infection. To differentiate primary from secondary abnormalities, re-analysis of cilia following culture and re-differentiation of epithelial cells at an air-liquid interface (ALI) aids the diagnosis of PCD. However changes in ciliary beat pattern of cilia following epithelial cell culture has previously been described, which has brought the robustness of this method into question. This is the first systematic study to evaluate ALI culture as an aid to diagnosis of PCD in the light of these concerns. Methods We retrospectively studied changes associated with ALI-culture in 158 subjects referred for diagnostic testing at two PCD centres. Ciliated nasal epithelium (PCD n = 54; non-PCD n = 111) was analysed by high-speed digital video microscopy and transmission electron microscopy before and after culture. Results Ciliary function was abnormal before and after culture in all subjects with PCD; 21 PCD subjects had a combination of static and uncoordinated twitching cilia, which became completely static following culture, a further 9 demonstrated a decreased ciliary beat frequency after culture. In subjects without PCD, secondary ciliary dyskinesia was reduced. Conclusions The change to ciliary phenotype in PCD samples following cell culture does not affect the diagnosis, and in certain cases can assist the ability to identify PCD cilia. PMID:24586956

  15. An In Vitro Culture System for Long-Term Expansion of Epithelial and Mesenchymal Salivary Gland Cells: Role of TGF-β1 in Salivary Gland Epithelial and Mesenchymal Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Janebodin, Kajohnkiart; Buranaphatthana, Worakanya; Ieronimakis, Nicholas; Hays, Aislinn L.; Reyes, Morayma

    2013-01-01

    Despite a pivotal role in salivary gland development, homeostasis, and disease, the role of salivary gland mesenchyme is not well understood. In this study, we used the Col1a1-GFP mouse model to characterize the salivary gland mesenchyme in vitro and in vivo. The Col1a1-GFP transgene was exclusively expressed in the salivary gland mesenchyme. Ex vivo culture of mixed salivary gland cells in DMEM plus serum medium allowed long-term expansion of salivary gland epithelial and mesenchymal cells. The role of TGF-β1 in salivary gland development and disease is complex. Therefore, we used this in vitro culture system to study the effects of TGF-β1 on salivary gland cell differentiation. TGF-β1 induced the expression of collagen, and inhibited the formation of acini-like structures in close proximity to mesenchymal cells, which adapted a fibroblastic phenotype. In contrast, TGF-βR1 inhibition increased acini genes and fibroblast growth factors (Fgf-7 and Fgf-10), decreased collagen and induced formation of larger, mature acini-like structures. Thus, inhibition of TGF-β signaling may be beneficial for salivary gland differentiation; however, due to differential effects of TGF-β1 in salivary gland epithelial versus mesenchymal cells, selective inhibition is desirable. In conclusion, this mixed salivary gland cell culture system can be used to study epithelial-mesenchymal interactions and the effects of differentiating inducers and inhibitors. PMID:23841093

  16. Phototoxicity of indocyanine green and Brilliant Blue G under continuous fluorescent illumination on cultured human retinal pigment epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Takayama, Kei; Sato, Tomohito; Karasawa, Yoko; Sato, Shunichi; Ito, Masataka; Takeuchi, Masaru

    2012-10-25

    We compared the phototoxicity of indocyanine green (ICG) and Brilliant Blue G (BBG) in cultured RPE cells under fluorescent lamp illumination imitating ambient light. Cultured human RPE line cells were stained with ICG or BBG solution at concentrations of clinical use, and cultured in a colorless medium for 24 hours in the dark or under illumination from a fluorescent lamp. After culture, cell morphology and TUNEL-positive apoptotic cells were observed. Cell viability and cell death rate were evaluated. Absorption spectral changes of BBG before and after incubation were measured. ICG-stained cells cultured under illumination changed to an oval morphology with increased number of apoptotic cells, whereas ICG-stained cells cultured in the dark, and BBG-stained cells cultured under illumination and dark conditions maintained a flat morphology without increase in apoptotic cells. Cell viability decreased and cell death rate increased only in cells stained by ICG followed by culture under illumination. Staining cells with ICG at one-tenth concentration of clinical usage induced no cytotoxicity after culture under illumination. Approximately 30% of total BBG retained in the stained cells was released into the culture supernatant after incubation for 24 hours. The absorption spectrum of BBG did not change after fluorescent light irradiation. Illumination with a fluorescent lamp caused cell death via apoptosis in ICG-exposed, but not in BBG-exposed cultured RPE cells. BBG may be a safer dye than ICG because of low light-induced cytotoxicity and rapid elution from stained cells.

  17. Cell kinetics of differentiation of Na/sup +/-dependent hexose transport in a cultured renal epithelial cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, J.S.; Weiss, E.R.

    1985-01-01

    Fully differentiated cells of the renal proximal tubule have the capability of taking up hexoses across their apical borders by transport coupled to the Na/sup +/-electrochemical gradient. This property is also found in postconfluent cultures of the cloned cell line LLC-PK/sub 1/, a morphologically polarized line of renal cells. Postconfluent cells develop the Na/sup +/-dependent capacity to transport hexoses at their apical surface. This function is not observable during the growth phase of the cultures. To analyze the developmental process at the cellular level a method has been derived to separate transporting cells, expressing the differentiated function, from nontransporting cells. The method is based on the swelling of the cells accompanying the uptake of the nonmetabolizable glucose analog alpha methylglucoside. The swollen cells have a lower buoyant density than the undifferentiated cells and may be separated from them on density gradients. Analysis of the distribution of cells on such gradients shows that after the cells reach confluence the undifferentiated subpopulation is recruited onto the differentiation pathway with a rate constant of 0.2 per day, that 5 to 7 days are required for a cell to traverse this pathway to the fully differentiated state, and that once the maximum uptake capacity is achieved the cells do not develop further.

  18. Matrix-based three-dimensional culture of buffalo mammary epithelial cells showed higher induction of genes related to milk protein and fatty acid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Shandilya, Umesh K; Sharma, Ankita; Sodhi, Monika; Kapila, Neha; Kishore, Amit; Mohanty, Ashok; Kataria, Ranjit; Malakar, Dhruva; Mukesh, Manishi

    2016-02-01

    Demanding transcriptomic studies in livestock animal species could be replaced by good in vitro models mimicking the function of mammary gland. Mammary epithelial cells (MEC) are the functional unit of the mammary gland. Extracellular matrix is known to be a key factor providing normal homeostasis in three-dimensional (3D) environment as important signals are lost when cells are cultured in two-dimensional (2D) environment. The aims of this study were to establish a buffalo mammary epithelial cells (BMECs) in 3D culture using extracellular matrix and to determine whether such a 3D culture model has different expression pattern than 2D counterpart. The purified MEC generated after several passages were used to establish 3D culture using Geltrex matrix. The expression of milk casein genes viz., alpha S1-casein (CSN1S1), alpha S2-casein (CSN1S2), beta-casein (CSN2), kappa-casein (CSN3); and fatty acid metabolism genes viz., butyrophilin (BTN1A1), glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAM), fatty acid-binding protein 3 (FABP3), and stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) was assessed in 3D culture in comparison to traditional monolayer culture using qRT-PCR. Notable morphological differences were observed for BMECs grown in 3D culture in comparison to 2D culture. Morphologically, epithelial structures grown in Geltrex matrix (3D) environment showed enhanced functional differentiation in comparison to 2D culture. In 3D culture, lumen and dome-like structures were formed by day 5, whereas polarized acinus-like structure were formed within 15 days of culturing. The expression data showed higher mRNA induction of milk casein and fatty acid metabolism genes in 10-day-old 3D BMECs culture in comparison to 2D monolayer culture. The result suggests that 3D organization of epithelial cells has favorable effect on induction of milk and fatty acid metabolism-related genes. Therefore, matrix-based 3D culture of MEC that recapitulate the structural and functional context of normal tissues

  19. The Role of the p38 MAPK Signaling Pathway in High Glucose-Induced Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition of Cultured Human Renal Tubular Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Zhi-Mei; Wang, Qun; Wan, Qiang; Lin, Jian-Gong; Hu, Meng-Si; Liu, You-Xia; Wang, Rong

    2011-01-01

    Background Epithelial-mesenchymal transition of tubular epithelial cells, which is characterized by a loss of epithelial cell characteristics and a gain of ECM-producing myofibroblast characteristics, is an essential mechanism that is involved in tubulointerstitial fibrosis, an important component of the renal injury that is associated with diabetic nephropathy. Under diabetic conditions, p38 MAPK activation has been reported in glomeruli and mesangial cells; however, studies on p38 MAPK in TECs are lacking. In this study, the role of p38 MAPK in AP-1 activation and in the EMT in the human proximal tubular epithelial cell line (HK-2) under high glucose concentration conditions is investigated. Methodology/Principal Findings A vector for small interfering RNA that targets p38 MAPK was constructed; the cells were then either transfected with p38 siRNA or pretreated with a chemical inhibitor of AP-1 and incubated with low glucose plus TGF-β1 or high glucose for 48 h. Cells that were not transfected or pretreated and were exposed to low glucose with or without TGF-β1 or high glucose for 48 h were considered to be the controls. We found that high glucose induced an increase in TGF-β1. And high glucose-induced p38 MAPK activation was inhibited by p38 siRNA (P<0.05). A significant decline in E-cadherin and CK expression and a notable increase in vimentin and α-SMA were detected when exposed to low glucose with TGF-β1 or high glucose, and a significant raise of secreted fibronectin were detected when exposed to high glucose; whereas these changes were reversed when the cells were treated with p38 siRNA or AP-1 inhibitor (P<0.05). AP-1 activity levels and Snail expression were up-regulated under high glucose conditions but were markedly down-regulated through knockdown of p38 MAPK with p38 siRNA or pretreatment with AP-1 inhibitor (P<0.05). Conclusion This study suggests that p38 MAPK may play an important role in the high glucose-induced EMT by activating AP-1 in

  20. Qualitatively monitoring binding and expression of the transcription factor Sp1 as a useful tool to evaluate the reliability of primary cultured epithelial stem cells in tissue reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Gaudreault, Manon; Larouche, Danielle; Germain, Lucie; Guérin, Sylvain L

    2013-01-01

    Electrophoretic mobility shift assay and Western blot are simple, efficient, and rapid methods for the study of DNA-protein interactions and expression, respectively. Primary cultures and subcultures of epithelial cells are widely used for the production of tissue-engineered substitutes and are gaining popularity as a model for gene expression studies. The preservation of stem-cells through the culture process is essential to produce high quality substitutes. However as such cells are passaged in culture, they often lose their ability to proliferate, a process likely to be determined by the altered expression of nuclear-located transcription factors such as Sp1, whose expression has been documented to be required for cell adhesion, migration, and differentiation. Our recent studies demonstrated that reconstructed tissues exhibiting poor histological and structural characteristics are also those that were produced with epithelial cells in which expression and DNA binding of Sp1 was reduced in vitro. Therefore, monitoring both the expression and DNA binding of this transcription factor in human skin and corneal epithelial cells might prove a particularly useful tool for selecting which cells are to be used for tissue reconstruction.

  1. Patterning Bacterial Communities on Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Dwidar, Mohammed; Leung, Brendan M.; Yaguchi, Toshiyuki; Takayama, Shuichi; Mitchell, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Micropatterning of bacteria using aqueous two phase system (ATPS) enables the localized culture and formation of physically separated bacterial communities on human epithelial cell sheets. This method was used to compare the effects of Escherichia coli strain MG1655 and an isogenic invasive counterpart that expresses the invasin (inv) gene from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis on the underlying epithelial cell layer. Large portions of the cell layer beneath the invasive strain were killed or detached while the non-invasive E. coli had no apparent effect on the epithelial cell layer over a 24 h observation period. In addition, simultaneous testing of the localized effects of three different bacterial species; E. coli MG1655, Shigella boydii KACC 10792 and Pseudomonas sp DSM 50906 on an epithelial cell layer is also demonstrated. The paper further shows the ability to use a bacterial predator, Bdellovibriobacteriovorus HD 100, to selectively remove the E. coli, S. boydii and P. sp communities from this bacteria-patterned epithelial cell layer. Importantly, predation and removal of the P. Sp was critical for maintaining viability of the underlying epithelial cells. Although this paper focuses on a few specific cell types, the technique should be broadly applicable to understand a variety of bacteria-epithelial cell interactions. PMID:23785519

  2. Microplasma Induced Cell Morphological Changes and Apoptosis of Ex Vivo Cultured Human Anterior Lens Epithelial Cells - Relevance to Capsular Opacification.

    PubMed

    Recek, Nina; Andjelić, Sofija; Hojnik, Nataša; Filipič, Gregor; Lazović, Saša; Vesel, Alenka; Primc, Gregor; Mozetič, Miran; Hawlina, Marko; Petrovski, Goran; Cvelbar, Uroš

    2016-01-01

    Inducing selective or targeted cell apoptosis without affecting large number of neighbouring cells remains a challenge. A plausible method for treatment of posterior capsular opacification (PCO) due to remaining lens epithelial cells (LECs) by reactive chemistry induced by localized single electrode microplasma discharge at top of a needle-like glass electrode with spot size ~3 μm is hereby presented. The focused and highly-localized atmospheric pressure microplasma jet with electrode discharge could induce a dose-dependent apoptosis in selected and targeted individual LECs, which could be confirmed by real-time monitoring of the morphological and structural changes at cellular level. Direct cell treatment with microplasma inside the medium appeared more effective in inducing apoptosis (caspase 8 positivity and DNA fragmentation) at a highly targeted cell level compared to treatment on top of the medium (indirect treatment). Our results show that single cell specific micropipette plasma can be used to selectively induce demise in LECs which remain in the capsular bag after cataract surgery and thus prevent their migration (CXCR4 positivity) to the posterior lens capsule and PCO formation.

  3. Effects of cell culture techniques on gene expression and cholesterol efflux in primary bovine mammary epithelial cells derived from milk and tissue.

    PubMed

    Sorg, D; Potzel, A; Beck, M; Meyer, H H D; Viturro, E; Kliem, H

    2012-10-01

    Primary bovine mammary epithelial cells (pbMEC) are often used in cell culture to study metabolic and inflammatory processes in the udder of dairy cows. The most common source is udder tissue from biopsy or after slaughter. However, it is also possible to culture them from milk, which is non-invasive, repeatable and yields less contamination with fibroblasts. Generally, not much is known about the influence of cell origin and cell culture techniques such as cryopreservation on pbMEC functionality. Cells were extracted from milk and udder tissue to evaluate if milk-derived pbMEC are a suitable alternative to tissue-derived pbMEC and to test what influence cryopreservation has. The cells were cultivated for three passages and stored in liquid nitrogen. The relative gene expression of the five target genes kappa-casein, lingual antimicrobial peptide (LAP), lactoferrin, lysozyme (LYZ1) and the prolactin receptor normalised with keratin 8 showed a tendency to decrease in the tissue cultures, but not in the milk-derived cultures, suggesting a greater influence of the cultivation process on tissue-derived cells, freezing lowered expression levels in both cultures. Overall expression of LAP and LYZ1 tended to be higher in milk cells. Cholesterol efflux was measured to compare passages one to seven in milk-derived cells. Passage number did not alter the efflux rate (p ≤ 0.05). We showed for the first time that the extraction of pbMEC from milk can be a suitable alternative to tissue extraction.

  4. The effect of UVB irradiation on ferritin subunit synthesis, ferritin assembly and Fe metabolism in cultured canine lens epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Harned, J; Grimes, A M; McGahan, M C

    2003-04-01

    Ferritin is a multimeric protein consisting of heavy and light chains assembled in different tissue-specific ratios, which can protect cells from oxidative stress by storing reactive iron (Fe). Because the lens is constantly exposed to UV irradiation, we studied its effects on ferritin synthesis and Fe metabolism in cultured lens epithelial cells with and without ascorbic acid (Asc). UVB caused a large increase in accumulation of newly synthesized ferritin chains; this increase was additive to that induced by Asc. In contrast to the Asc-induced increase in Fe storage, Fe storage in ferritin was unaltered by UVB. Although UVB increased accumulation of newly synthesized ferritin chains, total ferritin levels were unaltered. In contrast, Asc, which induced a quantitatively similar increase in accumulation of newly synthesized ferritin chains, doubled the total amount of ferritin. Because UVB did not change Fe storage in ferritin or the size of the labile Fe pool, it was hypothesized and then determined that these newly synthesized chains did not assemble into functional holoferritin. Numerous studies detail the effects of various treatments on de novo ferritin synthesis; however, this study provides a cautionary note regarding the conclusions of such studies in the absence of data indicating assembly of functional ferritin molecules.

  5. A 3-D airway epithelial cell and macrophage co-culture system to study Rhodococcus equi infection.

    PubMed

    Schwab, Ute; Caldwell, Shannon; Matychak, Mary-Beth; Felippe, Julia

    2013-07-15

    We developed a 3-D equine bronchial epithelial cell (BEC) culture that fully differentiates into ciliary beating and mucus producing cells. Using this system, we evaluated how mucus affects the phagocytic activity of macrophages. Adult horse monocyte-derived macrophages were incubated with Rhodococcus equi for 4h either in the mucus layer of in vitro generated airway epithelium or on collagen coated membranes. Using light and electron microscopy, we noted that the number of macrophages with intracellular bacteria, and the number of intracellular bacteria per macrophage were lower in the presence of mucus. TNFα measurements revealed that the presence of BECs promoted TNFα production by R. equi-infected macrophages; a decrease in TLR-2 (involved in R. equi recognition) and an increase in EGF-R (involved in mucin production) mRNA expression were also noted. Interestingly, when foal macrophages were added to foal BECs, we made the opposite observation, i.e. many macrophages were loaded with R. equi. Our in vitro bronchial system shows great potential for the identification of mechanisms how BECs and mucus play a role in phagocyte activation and bacterial clearance. Further studies using this system will show whether the airway environment in the foal responds differently to R. equi infection.

  6. The Silk-protein Sericin Induces Rapid Melanization of Cultured Primary Human Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells by Activating the NF-κB Pathway.

    PubMed

    Eidet, J R; Reppe, S; Pasovic, L; Olstad, O K; Lyberg, T; Khan, A Z; Fostad, I G; Chen, D F; Utheim, T P

    2016-03-04

    Restoration of the retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells to prevent further loss of vision in patients with age-related macular degeneration represents a promising novel treatment modality. Development of RPE transplants, however, requires up to 3 months of cell differentiation. We explored whether the silk protein sericin can induce maturation of primary human retinal pigment epithelial (hRPE) cells. Microarray analysis demonstrated that sericin up-regulated RPE-associated transcripts (RPE65 and CRALBP). Upstream analysis identified the NF-κB pathway as one of the top sericin-induced regulators. ELISA confirmed that sericin stimulates the main NF-κB pathway. Increased levels of RPE-associated proteins (RPE65 and the pigment melanin) in the sericin-supplemented cultures were confirmed by western blot, spectrophotometry and transmission electron microscopy. Sericin also increased cell density and reduced cell death following serum starvation in culture. Inclusion of NF-κB agonists and antagonists in the culture medium showed that activation of the NF-κB pathway appears to be necessary, but not sufficient, for sericin-induced RPE pigmentation. We conclude that sericin promotes pigmentation of cultured primary hRPE cells by activating the main NF-κB pathway. Sericin's potential role in culture protocols for rapid differentiation of hRPE cells derived from embryonic or induced pluripotent stem cells should be investigated.

  7. The Silk-protein Sericin Induces Rapid Melanization of Cultured Primary Human Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells by Activating the NF-κB Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Eidet, J. R.; Reppe, S.; Pasovic, L.; Olstad, O. K.; Lyberg, T.; Khan, A. Z.; Fostad, I. G.; Chen, D. F.; Utheim, T. P.

    2016-01-01

    Restoration of the retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells to prevent further loss of vision in patients with age-related macular degeneration represents a promising novel treatment modality. Development of RPE transplants, however, requires up to 3 months of cell differentiation. We explored whether the silk protein sericin can induce maturation of primary human retinal pigment epithelial (hRPE) cells. Microarray analysis demonstrated that sericin up-regulated RPE-associated transcripts (RPE65 and CRALBP). Upstream analysis identified the NF-κB pathway as one of the top sericin-induced regulators. ELISA confirmed that sericin stimulates the main NF-κB pathway. Increased levels of RPE-associated proteins (RPE65 and the pigment melanin) in the sericin-supplemented cultures were confirmed by western blot, spectrophotometry and transmission electron microscopy. Sericin also increased cell density and reduced cell death following serum starvation in culture. Inclusion of NF-κB agonists and antagonists in the culture medium showed that activation of the NF-κB pathway appears to be necessary, but not sufficient, for sericin-induced RPE pigmentation. We conclude that sericin promotes pigmentation of cultured primary hRPE cells by activating the main NF-κB pathway. Sericin’s potential role in culture protocols for rapid differentiation of hRPE cells derived from embryonic or induced pluripotent stem cells should be investigated. PMID:26940175

  8. Viable and morphologically normal boar spermatozoa alter the expression of heat-shock protein genes in oviductal epithelial cells during co-culture in vitro.

    PubMed

    Yeste, Marc; Holt, William V; Bonet, Sergi; Rodríguez-Gil, Joan E; Lloyd, Rhiannon E

    2014-09-01

    The principal aim of this study was to determine if boar spermatozoa influence the expression of four selected chaperone and heat-shock protein (HSP) genes-namely clusterin (CLU), HSP90AA1, HSPA5, and HSPA8-in oviductal epithelial cells (OECs) during in vitro co-culture. All corresponding proteins of these genes were previously identified in a sperm-interacting, 70-kDa soluble fraction derived from apical plasma membranes of OECs. The present study also sought to determine whether or not: (i) spermatozoa must directly bind to OEC for an effect on gene expression to be elicited and (ii) reproductive and nonreproductive epithelial cell types (LLC-PK1, pig kidney) respond equivalently, in terms of alterations in chaperone and HSP gene expression, during co-culture with sperm. Spermatozoa induced a significant upregulation (P < 0.05) in HSP90AA1 and HSPA5 in OECs after 3 hr, and in HSPA8 after 6 hr of co-culture when they were in direct contact with epithelial cells. Conversely, no upregulation of HSP transcription was observed when spermatozoa did not directly bind to OECs. Spermatozoa also induced a significant upregulation (P < 0.05) of the same three genes when in direct contact with LLC-PK1 cells, but the timing occurred later than with OECs. Interestingly, the extent of HSP gene upregulation induced by direct contact of spermatozoa with epithelial cells was dependent on sperm-binding index and on the viability and morphological quality of the bound sperm population. In conclusion, the upregulation of HSP genes caused by direct contact between spermatozoa and OECs, rather than nonreproductive epithelial cells, suggests HSPs could play an integral role in the modulation of sperm function in the oviductal reservoir.

  9. mRNA expression pattern of selected candidate genes differs in bovine oviductal epithelial cells in vitro compared with the in vivo state and during cell culture passages.

    PubMed

    Danesh Mesgaran, Sadjad; Sharbati, Jutta; Einspanier, Ralf; Gabler, Christoph

    2016-08-15

    The mammalian oviduct provides the optimal environment for gamete maturation including sperm capacitation, fertilization, and development of the early embryo. Various cell culture models for primary bovine oviductal epithelial cells (BOEC) were established to reveal such physiological events. The aim of this study was to evaluate 17 candidate mRNA expression patterns in oviductal epithelial cells (1) in transition from in vivo cells to in vitro cells; (2) during three consecutive cell culture passages; (3) affected by the impact of LOW or HIGH glucose content media; and (4) influenced by different phases of the estrous cycle in vivo and in vitro. In addition, the release of a metabolite and proteins from BOEC at two distinct cell culture passage numbers was estimated to monitor the functionality. BOEC from 8 animals were isolated and cultured for three consecutive passages. Total RNA was extracted from in vivo and in vitro samples and subjected to reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction to reveal mRNA expression of selected candidate genes. The release of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), oviduct-specific glycoprotein 1 (OVGP1) and interleukin 8 (IL8) by BOEC was measured by EIA or ELISA after 24 h. Almost all candidate genes (prostaglandin synthases, enzymes of cellular metabolism and mucins) mRNA expression pattern differed compared in vivo with in vitro state. In addition, transcription of most candidate genes was influenced by the number of cell culture passages. Different glucose medium content did not affect mRNA expression of most candidate genes. The phase of the estrous cycle altered some candidate mRNA expression in BOEC in vitro at later passages. The release of PGE2 and OVGP1 between passages did not differ. However, BOEC in passage 3 released significantly higher amount of IL8 compared with cells in passage 0. This study supports the hypothesis that candidate mRNA expression in BOEC was influenced by transition from the in vivo situation

  10. Suppression of interleukin 1α and interleukin 1β in human limbal epithelial cells cultured on the amniotic membrane stromal matrix

    PubMed Central

    Solomon, A.; Rosenblatt, M.; Monroy, D.; Ji, Z.; Pflugfelder, S.; Tseng, S.

    2001-01-01

    AIMS—Amniotic membrane (AM) transplantation reduces inflammation in a variety of ocular surface disorders. The aim of this study was to determine if AM stroma suppresses the expression of the IL-1 gene family in cultured human corneal limbal epithelial cells.
METHODS—Human corneal limbal epithelial cells were cultured from limbocorneal explants of donor eyes on plastic or on the AM stroma. Transcript expression of IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-1 receptor antagonist (RA), and GAPDH was compared with or without addition of lipopolysaccharide to their serum-free media for 24 hours using RNAse protection assay (RPA). Their protein production in the supernatant was analysed by ELISA.
RESULTS—Expression of IL-1α and IL-1β transcripts and proteins was significantly reduced by cells cultured on the AM stromal matrix compared with plastic cultures whether lipopolysaccharide was added or not. Moreover, expression of IL-1 RA by cells cultured in the lipopolysaccharide-free medium was upregulated by AM stromal matrix. The ratio between IL-1 RA and IL-1α protein levels in AM cultures was higher than in plastic cultures.
CONCLUSIONS—AM stromal matrix markedly suppresses lipopolysaccharide induced upregulation of both IL-1α and IL-1β. These data may explain in part the effect of AM transplantation in reducing ocular surface inflammation, underscoring the unique feature of the AM as a substrate for tissue engineering.

 PMID:11264135

  11. Equine bone marrow mesenchymal or amniotic epithelial stem cells as feeder in a model for the in vitro culture of bovine embryos.

    PubMed

    Lange-Consiglio, Anna; Maggio, Valentina; Pellegrino, Laura; Cremonesi, Fausto

    2012-02-01

    Various studies have shown that the in vitro culture environment is one of the key determinants of the blastocyst output. In the present study we investigated the effects of co-culturing bovine embryos with equine bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) or equine amniotic epithelial stem cells (AE-SCs) on in vitro blastocysts development. BM specimens were obtained aseptically from sternal aspirates of horses under local anaesthesia and the isolated cells were resuspended in Dulbecco Modified Earle's Medium supplemented with 10 ng/ml of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). Amniotic membranes were obtained from fresh placentas and, to release the AE cells, amniotic fragments were incubated with 0.05% trypsin for 45 min. Separated AE cells were plated in standard culture medium containing 10 ng/ml epidermal growth factor (EGF). Seven hundred and five cumulus-oocyte complexes were used and, after IVM and IVF, cumulus-free presumptive zygotes were randomly transferred into one of three co-culture systems in which they were cultured up to day 7: (1) co-culture with cumulus cells (control); (2) co-culture with BM-MSCs; and (3) co-culture with AE-SCs. Statistical analyses were performed by ANOVA. Blastocyst developmental rates were significantly different (p < 0.001) between control, AE-SCs and BM-MSCs (respectively 35.45, 41.84 and 30.09%). In conclusion, the AE-SC monolayer create a more suitable microenvironment necessary for inducing local cell activation and proliferation of the growing embryos in comparison with BM-MSCs and cumulus cells. It can be suggested that these cells secrete biologically active substances, including signalling molecules and growth factors of epithelial nature, different to those of the BM cells of mesenchymal origin.

  12. Characterization of Nipah virus infection in a model of human airway epithelial cells cultured at an air-liquid interface.

    PubMed

    Escaffre, Olivier; Borisevich, Viktoriya; Vergara, Leoncio A; Wen, Julie W; Long, Dan; Rockx, Barry

    2016-05-01

    Nipah virus (NiV) is an emerging paramyxovirus that can cause lethal respiratory illness in humans. No vaccine/therapeutic is currently licensed for humans. Human-to-human transmission was previously reported during outbreaks and NiV could be isolated from respiratory secretions, but the proportion of cases in Malaysia exhibiting respiratory symptoms was significantly lower than that in Bangladesh. Previously, we showed that primary human basal respiratory epithelial cells are susceptible to both NiV-Malaysia (M) and -Bangladesh (B) strains causing robust pro-inflammatory responses. However, the cells of the human respiratory epithelium that NiV targets are unknown and their role in NiV transmission and NiV-related lung pathogenesis is still poorly understood. Here, we characterized NiV infection of the human respiratory epithelium using a model of the human tracheal/bronchial (B-ALI) and small airway (S-ALI) epithelium cultured at an air-liquid interface. We show that NiV-M and NiV-B infect ciliated and secretory cells in B/S-ALI, and that infection of S-ALI, but not B-ALI, results in disruption of the epithelium integrity and host responses recruiting human immune cells. Interestingly, NiV-B replicated more efficiently in B-ALI than did NiV-M. These results suggest that the human tracheal/bronchial epithelium is favourable to NiV replication and shedding, while inducing a limited host response. Our data suggest that the small airways epithelium is prone to inflammation and lesions as well as constituting a point of virus entry into the pulmonary vasculature. The use of relevant models of the human respiratory tract, such as B/S-ALI, is critical for understanding NiV-related lung pathogenesis and identifying the underlying mechanisms allowing human-to-human transmission.

  13. Diesel Exhaust Influences Carcinogenic PAH-Induced Genotoxicity and Gene Expression in Human Breast Epithelial Cells in Culture

    PubMed Central

    Courter, Lauren A.; Pereira, Cliff; Baird, William M.

    2009-01-01

    The carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon ns (PAHs) benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) and dibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DB[a,l]P) are widespread environmental pollutants, however their toxicological effects within a mixture is not established. We investigated the influence of diesel exhaust (DE) on B[a]P and DB[a,l]P-induced PAH-DNA adduct formation, metabolic activation, gene expression and 8-oxo-dG adduct levels in human breast epithelial cells (MCF-10A) in culture. Following 24 and 48 h, cells co-exposed to DE plus B[a]P exhibited a significant decrease in PAH-DNA adduct levels, compared with B[a]P alone, as determined by 33P-postlabeling combined with reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme activity, as measured by the ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) assay and CYP1B1 expression, significantly increased with co-exposure of DE plus DB[a,l]P, compared with DB[a,l]P alone. Aldo keto-reductase (AKR)1C1, AKR1C2,and AKR1C3 expression also significantly increased in cells exposed to DE plus PAH, compared with PAH exposure alone. Cell populations exhibiting 8-oxo-dG adducts significantly increased in response to exposure to B[a]P or DE plus B[a]P for 24 h, compared with vehicle control, as quantified by flow cytometry. These results suggest that complex mixtures may modify the carcinogenic potency of PAH by shifting the metabolic activation pathway from the production of PAH diol-epoxides to AKR pathway-derived metabolites. PMID:17612574

  14. Differential regulation of epidermal growth factor receptor by hydrogen peroxide and flagellin in cultured lung alveolar epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Nishi, Hiroyuki; Maeda, Noriko; Izumi, Shunsuke; Higa-Nakamine, Sayomi; Toku, Seikichi; Kakinohana, Manabu; Sugahara, Kazuhiro; Yamamoto, Hideyuki

    2015-02-05

    In previous studies, we found that stimulation of Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) by flagellin induced the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-activated protein kinase-2 (MAPKAPK-2) through activation of the p38 MAPK pathway in cultured alveolar epithelial A549 cells. Our studies strongly suggested that MAPKAPK-2 phosphorylated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) at Ser1047. It has been reported that phosphorylation of Ser1047 after treatment with tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) induced the internalization of EGFR. In the present study, we first found that treatment of A549 cells with hydrogen peroxide induced the activation of MAPKAPK-2 and phosphorylation of EGFR at Ser1047 within 30 min. This was different from flagellin treatment because hydrogen peroxide treatment induced the phosphorylation of EGFR at Tyr1173 as well as Ser1047, indicating the activation of EGFR. We also found that KN93, an inhibitor of CaM kinase II, inhibited the hydrogen peroxide-induced phosphorylation of EGFR at Ser1047 through inhibition of the activation of the p38 MAPK pathway. Furthermore, we examined the internalization of EGFR by three different methods. Flow cytometry with an antibody against the extracellular domain of EGFR and biotinylation of cell surface proteins revealed that flagellin, but not hydrogen peroxide, decreased the amount of cell-surface EGFR. In addition, activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase by EGF treatment was reduced by flagellin pre-treatment. These results strongly suggested that hydrogen peroxide activated the p38 MAPK pathway via activation of CaM kinase II and that flagellin and hydrogen peroxide regulate the functions of EGFR by different mechanisms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Airway epithelial cell responses to ozone injury

    SciTech Connect

    Leikauf, G.D.; Simpson, L.G.; Zhao, Qiyu

    1995-03-01

    The airway epithelial cell is an important target in ozone injury. Once activated, the airway epithelium responds in three phases. The initial, or immediate phase, involves activation of constitutive cells, often through direct covalent interactions including the formation of secondary ozonolysis products-hydroxyhydroperoxides, aldehydes, and hydrogen peroxide. Recently, we found hydroxyhydroperoxides to be potent agonists; of bioactive eicosanoid formation by human airway epithelial cells in culture. Other probable immediate events include activation and inactivation of enzymes present on the epithelial surface (e.g., neutral endopeptidase). During the next 2 to 24 hr, or early phase, epithelial cells respond by synthesis and release of chemotactic factors, including chemokines-macrophage inflammatory protein-2, RANTES, and interleukin-8. Infiltrating leukocytes during this period also release elastase, an important agonist of epithelial cell mucus secretion and additional chemokine formation. The third (late) phase of ozone injury is characterized by eosinophil or monocyte infiltration. Cytokine expression leads to alteration of structural protein synthesis, with increases in fibronectin evident by in situ hybridization. Synthesis of epithelial antiproteases, e.g., secretary leukocyte protease inhibitor, may also increase locally 24 to 48 hr after elastase concentrations become excessive. Thus, the epithelium is not merely a passive barrier to ozone injury but has a dynamic role in directing the migration, activating, and then counteracting inflammatory cells. Through these complex interactions, epithelial cells can be viewed as the initiators (alpha) and the receptors (omega) of ozone-induced airway disease. 51 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Synchronous oscillation of the cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration and membrane potential in cultured epithelial cells (Intestine 407).

    PubMed

    Yada, T; Oiki, S; Ueda, S; Okada, Y

    1986-06-16

    Cultured epithelial Intestine 407 cells exhibit regular oscillations of the membrane potential with repeated hyperpolarizations. These hyperpolarizations were inhibited not only by K+ channel blockers (tetraethylammonium and nonyltriethylammonium) but also by inhibitors of the Ca2+-activated K+ channel (quinine and quinidine). Using Ca2+-selective microelectrodes, cyclic increases in the cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration of more than 1 X 10(-6) M were found to coincide with the cyclic membrane hyperpolarizations. Thus, it appears that the potential oscillation is brought about by the oscillation of the intracellular free Ca2+ level which induces periodic activation of the Ca2+-dependent K+ channels. Neither the deprivation of extracellular Ca2+ nor the application of Ca2+ channel blockers (Co2+ and Ni2+) abolished the potential oscillation. Mitochondrial inhibitors (KCN, NaN3, antimycin A, FCCP and dinitrophenol) inhibited the potential oscillation, whereas glycolytic inhibitors (iodoacetic acid and NaF) had no effects. Caffeine and oxalate, which affect the microsomal Ca2+ transport, failed to exert any effect upon the potential oscillation. It is concluded that the cytosolic Ca2+ oscillation results from cyclic releases of Ca2+ from the intracellular storage site, which depends upon mitochondrial activities.

  17. Culture of prostate epithelial cells of the rhesus monkey on extracellular matrix substrate: influence of steroids and insulin-like growth factors.

    PubMed

    Udayakumar, T S; Jeyaraj, D A; Rajalakshmi, M; Sharma, R S

    1999-09-01

    Rhesus monkey prostate epithelial cells from the cranial lobe were isolated and cultured in flasks coated either with collagen IV or laminin. The effects of stromal cell medium, androgens and growth factors on cell number, thymidine incorporation and secretory activity were assessed. The results indicate that dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and androstenedione have stimulatory influences on cell proliferation and secretion in coated flasks. DHT was more effective in increasing cell number but the induction of secretory activity was similar with both steroids. The combination of IGF-I and -II resulted in inducing better cell proliferation and secretory activity than the individual IGFs but, of the two IGFs, IGF-I was more effective than IGF-II. DHT with IGFs was more potent in inducing proliferation, differentiation and secretion than androstenedione. Even in the absence of steroids or growth factors, colony formation and confluence occurred in coated flasks but cell differentiation and secretion only to a limited extent. In conclusion, we were able to establish an in vitro primary culture of prostate epithelial cells from rhesus monkey using extracellular matrix proteins, steroids and growth factors as additional supplements. This culture system may be useful to study prostate cell physiology and to identify drugs that can inhibit cell proliferation.

  18. Source-Dependent Intracellular Distribution of Iron in Lens Epithelial Cells Cultured Under Normoxic and Hypoxic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Goralska, Małgorzata; Nagar, Steven; Fleisher, Lloyd N.; Mzyk, Philip; McGahan, M. Christine

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. Intracellular iron trafficking and the characteristics of iron distribution from different sources are poorly understood. We previously determined that the lens removes excess iron from fluids of inflamed eyes. In the current study, we examined uptake and intracellular distribution of 59Fe from iron transport protein transferrin or ferric chloride (nontransferrin-bound iron [NTBI]) in cultured canine lens epithelial cells (LECs). Because lens tissue physiologically functions under low oxygen tension, we also tested effects of hypoxia on iron trafficking. Excess iron, not bound to proteins, can be damaging to cells due to its ability to catalyze formation of reactive oxygen species. Methods. LECs were labeled with 59Fe-Tf or 59FeCl3 under normoxic or hypoxic conditions. Cell lysates were fractioned into mitochondria-rich, nuclei-rich, and cytosolic fractions. Iron uptake and its subcellular distribution were measured by gamma counting. Results. 59Fe accumulation into LECs labeled with 59Fe-Tf was 55-fold lower as compared with that of 59FeCl3. Hypoxia (24 hours) decreased uptake of iron from transferrin but not from FeCl3. More iron from 59FeCl3 was directed to the mitochondria-rich fraction (32.6%–47.7%) compared with 59Fe from transferrin (10.6%–12.6%). The opposite was found for the cytosolic fraction (8.7%–18.3% and 54.2%–46.6 %, respectively). Hypoxia significantly decreased iron accumulation in the mitochondria-rich fraction of LECs labeled with 59Fe-Tf . Conclusions. There are source-dependent differences in iron uptake and trafficking. Uptake and distribution of NTBI are not as strictly regulated as that of iron from transferrin. Excessive exposure to NTBI, which could occur in pathological conditions, may oxidatively damage organelles, particularly mitochondria. PMID:24194187

  19. Source-dependent intracellular distribution of iron in lens epithelial cells cultured under normoxic and hypoxic conditions.

    PubMed

    Goralska, Małgorzata; Nagar, Steven; Fleisher, Lloyd N; Mzyk, Philip; McGahan, M Christine

    2013-11-19

    Intracellular iron trafficking and the characteristics of iron distribution from different sources are poorly understood. We previously determined that the lens removes excess iron from fluids of inflamed eyes. In the current study, we examined uptake and intracellular distribution of ⁵⁹Fe from iron transport protein transferrin or ferric chloride (nontransferrin-bound iron [NTBI]) in cultured canine lens epithelial cells (LECs). Because lens tissue physiologically functions under low oxygen tension, we also tested effects of hypoxia on iron trafficking. Excess iron, not bound to proteins, can be damaging to cells due to its ability to catalyze formation of reactive oxygen species. LECs were labeled with ⁵⁹Fe-Tf or ⁵⁹FeCl₃ under normoxic or hypoxic conditions. Cell lysates were fractioned into mitochondria-rich, nuclei-rich, and cytosolic fractions. Iron uptake and its subcellular distribution were measured by gamma counting. ⁵⁹Fe accumulation into LECs labeled with ⁵⁹Fe-Tf was 55-fold lower as compared with that of ⁵⁹FeCl₃. Hypoxia (24 hours) decreased uptake of iron from transferrin but not from FeCl₃. More iron from ⁵⁹FeCl₃ was directed to the mitochondria-rich fraction (32.6%-47.7%) compared with ⁵⁹Fe from transferrin (10.6%-12.6%). The opposite was found for the cytosolic fraction (8.7%-18.3% and 54.2%-46.6 %, respectively). Hypoxia significantly decreased iron accumulation in the mitochondria-rich fraction of LECs labeled with ⁵⁹Fe-Tf . There are source-dependent differences in iron uptake and trafficking. Uptake and distribution of NTBI are not as strictly regulated as that of iron from transferrin. Excessive exposure to NTBI, which could occur in pathological conditions, may oxidatively damage organelles, particularly mitochondria.

  20. Lung Epithelial Progenitor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Rawlins, Emma L.

    2008-01-01

    The current enthusiasm for stem cell research stems from the hope that damaged or diseased tissues may one day be repaired through the manipulation of endogenous or exogenous stem cells. The postnatal human respiratory system is highly accessible and provides unique opportunities for the application of such techniques. Several putative adult lung epithelial stem cells have been identified in the mouse model system. However, their in vivo capabilities to contribute to different lineages, and their control mechanisms, remain unclear. If stem cell–based therapies are to be successful in the lung, it is vitally important that we understand the normal behavior of adult lung stem cells, and how this is regulated. Lung embryonic progenitor cells are much better defined and characterized than their adult counterparts. Moreover, experiments on a variety of developing tissues are beginning to uncover general mechanisms by which embryonic progenitors influence final organ size and structure. This provides a framework for the study of lung embryonic progenitor cells, facilitating experimental design and interpretation. A similar approach to investigating adult lung stem cells could produce rapid advances in the field. PMID:18684716

  1. Use of primary cultures of human bronchial epithelial cells isolated from cystic fibrosis patients for the pre-clinical testing of CFTR modulators.

    PubMed

    Neuberger, Timothy; Burton, Bill; Clark, Heather; Van Goor, Fredrick

    2011-01-01

    The use of human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cell cultures derived from the bronchi of CF patients offers the opportunity to study the effects of CFTR correctors and potentiators on CFTR function and epithelial cell biology in the native pathological environment. Cultured HBE cells derived from CF patients exhibit many of the morphological and functional characteristics believed to be associated with CF airway disease in vivo, including abnormal ion and fluid transport leading to dehydration of the airway surface and the loss of cilia beating. In addition, they can be generated in sufficient quantities to support routine lab testing of compound potency and efficacy and retain reproducible levels of CFTR function over time. Here we describe the development and validation of the CF HBE pharmacology model and its use to characterize, optimize, and select clinical candidates. It is expected that the pre-clinical testing of CFTR potentiators and correctors using epithelial cell cultures derived from CF patients will help to increase their likelihood of clinical efficacy.

  2. Myb permits multilineage airway epithelial cell differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Jie-hong; Adair-Kirk, Tracy L.; Patel, Anand C.; Huang, Tao; Yozamp, Nicholas S.; Xu, Jian; Reddy, E. Premkumar; Byers, Derek E.; Pierce, Richard A.; Holtzman, Michael J.; Brody, Steven L.

    2014-01-01

    The epithelium of the pulmonary airway is specially differentiated to provide defense against environmental insults, but also subject to dysregulated differentiation that results in lung disease. The current paradigm for airway epithelial differentiation is a one-step program whereby a p63+ basal epithelial progenitor cell generates a ciliated or secretory cell lineage, but the cue for this transition and whether there are intermediate steps is poorly defined. Here we identify transcription factor Myb as a key regulator that permits early multilineage differentiation of airway epithelial cells. Myb+ cells were identified as p63− and therefore distinct from basal progenitor cells, but were still negative for markers of differentiation. Myb RNAi treatment of primary-culture airway epithelial cells and Myb gene deletion in mice resulted in a p63− population with failed maturation of Foxj1+ ciliated cells, as well as Scbg1a1+ and Muc5ac+ secretory cells. Consistent with these findings, analysis of whole genome expression of Myb-deficient cells identified Myb-dependent programs for ciliated and secretory cell differentiation. Myb+ cells were rare in human airways but were increased in regions of ciliated cells and mucous cell hyperplasia in samples from subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Together, the results show that a p63− Myb+ population of airway epithelial cells represents a distinct intermediate stage of differentiation that is required under normal conditions and may be heightened in airway disease. PMID:25103188

  3. Effects of hydrogen peroxide on MAPK activation, IL-8 production and cell viability in primary cultures of human bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Pelaia, Girolamo; Cuda, Giovanni; Vatrella, Alessandro; Gallelli, Luca; Fratto, Donatella; Gioffrè, Vincenza; D'Agostino, Bruno; Caputi, Mario; Maselli, Rosario; Rossi, Francesco; Costanzo, Francesco S; Marsico, Serafino A

    2004-09-01

    The airway epithelium is continuously exposed to inhaled oxidants, including airborne pollutants and cigarette smoke, which can exert harmful proinflammatory and cytotoxic effects. Therefore, the aim of our study was to investigate, in primary cultures of human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEC), the signal transduction pathways activated by increasing concentrations (0.25, 0.5, and 1 mM) of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), as well as their effects on IL-8 production and cell viability. The reported results show that H(2)O(2) elicited, in a concentration-dependent fashion, a remarkable increase in phosphorylation-dependent activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), associated with a significant induction of IL-8 synthesis and a dramatically enhanced cell death. Pre-treatment of HBEC with MAPK inhibitors was able to significantly inhibit the effects of H(2)O(2) on IL-8 secretion, and to effectively prevent cell death. Therefore, these findings suggest that MAPKs play a key role as molecular transducers of the airway epithelial injury triggered by oxidative stress, as well as potential pharmacologic targets for indirect antioxidant intervention.

  4. Primary human epithelial cell culture system for studying interactions between female upper genital tract and sexually transmitted viruses, HSV-2 and HIV-1.

    PubMed

    Kaushic, Charu; Nazli, Aisha; Ferreira, Victor H; Kafka, Jessica K

    2011-10-01

    Evidence from clinical and epidemiological studies indicates that women are disproportionately susceptible to sexually transmitted viral infections. To understand the underlying biological basis for this increased susceptibility, more studies are needed to examine the acute events in the female reproductive tract following exposure to viruses during sexual transmission. The epithelial lining of the female reproductive tract is the primary barrier that sexually transmitted viruses, such as HIV-1 and HSV-2 need to infect or traverse, in order to initiate and establish productive infection. We have established an ex-vivo primary culture system to grow genital epithelial cells from upper reproductive tract tissues of women. Using these cultures, we have extensively examined the interactions between epithelial cells of the female genital tract and HSV-2 and HIV-1. In this review, we describe in detail the experimental protocol to grow these cultures, monitor their differentiation and inoculate with HSV-2 and HIV-1. Prospective use of these cultures to re-create the microenvironment in the reproductive tract is discussed.

  5. Organotypic three-dimensional culture model of mesenchymal and epithelial cells to examine tissue fusion events.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Tissue fusion during early mammalian development requires coordination of multiple cell types, the extracellular matrix, and complex signaling pathways. Fusion events during processes including heart development, neural tube closure, and palatal fusion are dependent on signaling ...

  6. Organotypic three-dimensional culture model of mesenchymal and epithelial cells to examine tissue fusion events.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Tissue fusion during early mammalian development requires coordination of multiple cell types, the extracellular matrix, and complex signaling pathways. Fusion events during processes including heart development, neural tube closure, and palatal fusion are dependent on signaling ...

  7. Characterization of cyclosporin A transport in cultured rabbit corneal epithelial cells: P-glycoprotein transport activity and binding to cyclophilin.

    PubMed

    Kawazu, K; Yamada, K; Nakamura, M; Ota, A

    1999-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize cyclosporin A (CsA) uptake and transport in cultured rabbit corneal epithelial cells (RCECs). CsA uptake was evaluated by measuring time-dependent 3H-CsA accumulation in confluent RCECs. Bidirectional 3H-CsA fluxes were measured across the RCEC layers grown on Transwell-COL culture plate inserts. The anti-P-gp monoclonal antibody C219 was used in western blot analysis to probe for the presence of P-gp in these cells. The accumulation of 3H-CsA was time and temperature dependent. Steady state was reached by 60 minutes. The initial uptake was saturable and was suppressed as a function of increases in preloading with unlabeled CsA. This uptake process was enhanced by metabolic inhibition with either 3-O-methylglucose, MG, or 10 mM NaN3 and 3-O-MG. The largest increase was obtained with 10 mM NaN3 in combination with 3-O-MG. In their presence, uptake increased by 40%. A multidrug-resistance (MDR)-reversing agent (i.e., 500 microM verapamil, 100 microM vincristine, 100 microM progesterone, 100 microM testosterone, 500 microM quinidine, or 100 microM chlorpromazine) significantly increased 3H-CsA accumulation. The largest increase was obtained with 500 microM quinidine (i.e., 36%). Conversely, verapamil and vincristine produced the largest inhibition of 3H-CsA efflux (i.e., 19% and 28%, respectively). However, in the presence of 10 microM unlabeled CsA, 3H-CsA efflux increased. 3H-CsA flux across RCEC layers showed marked directional asymmetry. The stromal (S) to tear (T) side transcellular 3H-CsA permeability coefficient (Ptrans) was approximately seven times higher than that in the T-to-S direction. The S-to-T Ptrans was reduced by an MDR-reversing agent by up to 40%. Western blot analysis of lysates revealed a 170-kDa membrane protein band. These results suggest that in RCEC the tear-side-facing membrane has a P-gp-mediated drug efflux pump. In addition, there is suggestive evidence for the presence of the cytosolic

  8. Human Mammary Luminal Epithelial Cells Contain Progenitors to Myoepithelial Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Pechoux, Christine; Gudjonsson, Thorarinn; Ronnov-Jessen, Lone; Bissell, Mina J; Petersen, Ole

    1999-02-01

    The origin of the epithelial and myoepithelial cells in the human breast has not been delineated. In this study we have addressed whether luminal epithelial cells and myoepithelial cells are vertically connected, i.e., whether one is the precursor for the other. We used a primary culture assay allowing preservation of basic phenotypic traits of luminal epithelial and myoepithelial cells in culture. The two cell types were then separated immunomagnetically using antibodies directed against lineage-specific cell surface antigens into at best 100% purity. The cellular identity was ascertained by cytochemistry, immunoblotting, and 2-D gel electrophoresis. Luminal epithelial cells were identified by strong expression of cytokeratins 18 and 19 while myoepithelial cells were recognized by expression of vimentin and {alpha}-smooth muscle actin. We used a previously devised culture medium (CDM4) that allows vigorous expansion of proliferative myoepithelial cells and also devised a medium (CDM6) that allowed sufficient expansion of differentiated luminal epithelial cells based on addition of hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor. The two different culture media supported each lineage for at least five passages without signs of interconversion. We used parallel cultures where we switched culture media, thus testing the ability of each lineage to convert to the other. Whereas the myoepithelial lineage showed no signs of interconversion, a subset of luminal epithelial cells, gradually, but distinctly, converted to myoepithelial cells. We propose that in the mature human breast, it is the luminal epithelial cell compartment that gives rise to myoepithelial cells rather than the other way around.

  9. Inflammatory responses of a macrophage/epithelial cell co-culture model to mono and mixed infections with Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, and Tannerella forsythia.

    PubMed

    Bodet, Charles; Chandad, Fatiha; Grenier, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    Accumulated evidence points to Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, and Tannerella forsythia as three major etiologic agents of chronic periodontitis. Epithelial cells and macrophages play a major role in the host response to periodontopathogens, and the secretion of inflammatory mediators and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) by these host cells is believed to contribute to periodontal tissue destruction. The aim of this study was to investigate the inflammatory response of a macrophage/epithelial cell co-culture model following mono or mixed infections with the above three periodontopathogens. An in vitro co-culture model composed of epithelial-like transformed cells (HeLa cell line) and macrophage-like cells (phorbol myristic acid-differentiated U937 monocytic cell line) was challenged with whole cells or lipopolysaccharides (LPS) of P. gingivalis, T. denticola, and T. forsythia, individually and in combination. Following stimulation, the production of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1beta), IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), regulated on activation normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and MMP-9 were quantified by enzyme-linked immunoassays. We observed that mono or mixed infections of the co-culture model induced the secretion of IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-8, PGE2, and MMP-9. P. gingivalis and T. forsythia induced an increase in RANTES secretion, whereas T. denticola alone or in combination resulted in a significant decrease in RANTES levels. All LPS challenges induced an increase in chemokine, MMP-9, and PGE2 production. No synergistic effect on the production of cytokines, chemokines, PGE2, and MMP-9 was observed for any of the bacterial or LPS mixtures tested. This study supports the view that P. gingivalis, T. denticola, and T. forsythia may induce high levels of pro-inflammatory mediators and MMP-9 in periodontal lesions, thus contributing to the progression of periodontitis.

  10. Effects of steroid hormones on differentiated glandular epithelial and stromal cells in a three dimensional cell culture model of the canine endometrium

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Oestrogens and progesterone have a significant impact on the endometrium during the canine oestrous cycle. Their receptors mediate plasma steroid hormone levels and are expressed in several endometrial cell types. Altered steroid receptor expression patterns are involved in serious uterine diseases; however the mechanisms of hormone action during pathogenesis in these tissues remain unclear. The development of 3D culture systems of canine endometrial cells provides an opportunity for the effects of steroid hormones to be quantitatively assessed in a more in vivo-like setting. The present study aimed to determine the effects of the steroid hormones 17β-estradiol (E) and progesterone (P) on the expression of the oestrogen and progesterone receptors (ER and PR), and on proliferative activity, in a 3D co-culture system of canine uterine origin, comprising differentiated endometrial glands, and stromal cells (SCs). Results Morphology, differentiation, and apical-basolateral polarity of cultured glandular epithelial cells (GECs) were comparable to those in native uterine tissue as assessed by immunohistochemistry using differentiation markers (β-catenin, laminin), lectin histochemistry, and transmission electron microscopy. Supplementation of our 3D-culture system with E (at 15, 30 and 100 pg/mL) resulted in constant levels of ER expression in GECs, but reduced expression levels in SCs. PR expression was reduced in both GECs and SCs following treatment with E. 3 ng/mL P resulted in increased ER expression in GECs, but a decrease in SCs. PR expression in GECs increased in all P-treated groups, whereas PRs in SCs decreased with the lowest and highest doses, but increased with the middle dose of treatment. Proliferative activity, assessed by Ki67 staining, remained below 1% in all assays and cell types. Conclusions The present study demonstrates the applicability of our 3D organotypic canine endometrium-derived culture system for cellular-level studies. 3D

  11. A Novel Approach for Ovine Primary Alveolar Epithelial Type II Cell Isolation and Culture from Fresh and Cryopreserved Tissue Obtained from Premature and Juvenile Animals

    PubMed Central

    Marcinkiewicz, Mariola M.; Baker, Sandy T.; Wu, Jichuan; Hubert, Terrence L.; Wolfson, Marla R.

    2016-01-01

    The in vivo ovine model provides a clinically relevant platform to study cardiopulmonary mechanisms and treatments of disease; however, a robust ovine primary alveolar epithelial type II (ATII) cell culture model is lacking. The objective of this study was to develop and optimize ovine lung tissue cryopreservation and primary ATII cell culture methodologies for the purposes of dissecting mechanisms at the cellular level to elucidate responses observed in vivo. To address this, we established in vitro submerged and air-liquid interface cultures of primary ovine ATII cells isolated from fresh or cryopreserved lung tissues obtained from mechanically ventilated sheep (128 days gestation—6 months of age). Presence, abundance, and mRNA expression of surfactant proteins was assessed by immunocytochemistry, Western Blot, and quantitative PCR respectively on the day of isolation, and throughout the 7 day cell culture study period. All biomarkers were significantly greater from cells isolated from fresh than cryopreserved tissue, and those cultured in air-liquid interface as compared to submerged culture conditions at all time points. Surfactant protein expression remained in the air-liquid interface culture system while that of cells cultured in the submerged system dissipated over time. Despite differences in biomarker magnitude between cells isolated from fresh and cryopreserved tissue, cells isolated from cryopreserved tissue remained metabolically active and demonstrated a similar response as cells from fresh tissue through 72 hr period of hyperoxia. These data demonstrate a cell culture methodology using fresh or cryopreserved tissue to support study of ovine primary ATII cell function and responses, to support expanded use of biobanked tissues, and to further understanding of mechanisms that contribute to in vivo function of the lung. PMID:26999050

  12. A Novel Approach for Ovine Primary Alveolar Epithelial Type II Cell Isolation and Culture from Fresh and Cryopreserved Tissue Obtained from Premature and Juvenile Animals.

    PubMed

    Marcinkiewicz, Mariola M; Baker, Sandy T; Wu, Jichuan; Hubert, Terrence L; Wolfson, Marla R

    2016-01-01

    The in vivo ovine model provides a clinically relevant platform to study cardiopulmonary mechanisms and treatments of disease; however, a robust ovine primary alveolar epithelial type II (ATII) cell culture model is lacking. The objective of this study was to develop and optimize ovine lung tissue cryopreservation and primary ATII cell culture methodologies for the purposes of dissecting mechanisms at the cellular level to elucidate responses observed in vivo. To address this, we established in vitro submerged and air-liquid interface cultures of primary ovine ATII cells isolated from fresh or cryopreserved lung tissues obtained from mechanically ventilated sheep (128 days gestation-6 months of age). Presence, abundance, and mRNA expression of surfactant proteins was assessed by immunocytochemistry, Western Blot, and quantitative PCR respectively on the day of isolation, and throughout the 7 day cell culture study period. All biomarkers were significantly greater from cells isolated from fresh than cryopreserved tissue, and those cultured in air-liquid interface as compared to submerged culture conditions at all time points. Surfactant protein expression remained in the air-liquid interface culture system while that of cells cultured in the submerged system dissipated over time. Despite differences in biomarker magnitude between cells isolated from fresh and cryopreserved tissue, cells isolated from cryopreserved tissue remained metabolically active and demonstrated a similar response as cells from fresh tissue through 72 hr period of hyperoxia. These data demonstrate a cell culture methodology using fresh or cryopreserved tissue to support study of ovine primary ATII cell function and responses, to support expanded use of biobanked tissues, and to further understanding of mechanisms that contribute to in vivo function of the lung.

  13. Uptake and metabolism of 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12-HETE) by cultured renal tubular epithelial cells (RTEC)

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, J.A.; Spector, A.A.

    1986-03-01

    To determine if 12-HETE, a lipoxygenase product that mediates inflammation and tissue injury, can interact with RTEC, confluent Madin Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells were incubated for 2-16 hr with 1.0 ..mu..M (/sup 3/H)-12-HETE. Initial uptake of 12-HETE was rapid; at 16 hrs. 70% of the 12-HETE uptake was incorporated into phospholipids (PL). The distribution among the choline, ethanolamine, inositol, and serine PL was 36, 36, 20 and 8%, respectively. Incubation of MDCK cells with 0.5 to 5.0 ..mu..M (/sup 3/H)-12-HETE for 1 hr indicated linear uptake without evidence of saturation. Incubation with 1.0 ..mu..M 12-HETE and 0.25-10.0 ..mu..M arachidonic acid for 1 hr revealed no competition for uptake at the lower concentrations but a 40% reduction in 12-HETE uptake at 10.0 ..mu..M. Polarity of 12-HETE uptake was indicated by a preference of the basolateral surface over the apical surface by 1.4. After 2 hr, analysis of the medium by reverse phase HPLC revealed that 12-HETE was converted to three polar metabolites which eluted at 25.9, 29.4 and 31.3 min respectively; 12-HETE eluted at 37.5 min. The appearance of these polar metabolites was not prevented by ibuprofen (50 ..mu..M) nordihydroguaiaretic acid (30 ..mu..M), allopurinol (15 mM), or butylated hydroxytoluene (20 ..mu..M). These findings suggest that the lipoxygenase product 12-HETE may affect RTEC through incorporation into membrane PL and/or conversion to polar metabolites.

  14. Aging phenotypes in cultured normal human mammary epithelial cells are correlated with decreased telomerase activity independent of telomere length

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Shortening of telomeres, which are essential for maintenance of genomic integrity, is a mechanism commonly associated with the aging process. Here we ascertained whether changes in telomere lengths or telomerase activity correlated with age in normal human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC), or with phenotypes of aging in breast. Accordingly, flow cytometry fluorescence in situ hybridization (flowFISH) was used to determine relative telomere lengths (RTL), and telomerase activity was measured by the telomeric repeat amplification protocol (TRAP), in a collection of 41 primary HMEC strains established from women aged 16 to 91 years. Results RTL measurements of HMEC strains that were heterogeneous with respect to lineage composition revealed no significant associations between telomere length with age, maximum observed population doublings, or with lineage composition of the strains. However, within strains, luminal epithelial and cKit-expressing epithelial progenitor cells that were flow cytometry-enriched from individual HMEC strains exhibited significantly shorter telomeres relative to isogenic myoepithelial cells (P < 0.01). In unsorted strains, detectable telomerase activity did not correlate with RTL. Telomerase activity declined with age; the average age of strains that exhibited TRAP activity was 29.7 ± 3.9y, whereas the average age of strains with no detectable TRAP activity was 49.0 ± 4.9y (P < 0.01). Non-detectable TRAP activity also was correlated with phenotypes of aging previously described in HMEC strains; increased proportions of CD227-expressing luminal epithelial cells (P < 0.05) and cKit-expressing progenitor cells (P < 0.05). Conclusions Telomere shortening did not correlate with the chronological ages of HMEC strains, whereas decreased telomerase activity correlated with age and with lineage distribution phenotypes characteristic of aging. PMID:23718190

  15. Integrins and epithelial cell polarity.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jessica L; Streuli, Charles H

    2014-08-01

    Cell polarity is characterised by differences in structure, composition and function between at least two poles of a cell. In epithelial cells, these spatial differences allow for the formation of defined apical and basal membranes. It has been increasingly recognised that cell-matrix interactions and integrins play an essential role in creating epithelial cell polarity, although key gaps in our knowledge remain. This Commentary will discuss the mounting evidence for the role of integrins in polarising epithelial cells. We build a model in which both inside-out signals to polarise basement membrane assembly at the basal surface, and outside-in signals to control microtubule apical-basal orientation and vesicular trafficking are required for establishing and maintaining the orientation of epithelial cell polarity. Finally, we discuss the relevance of the basal integrin polarity axis to cancer. This article is part of a Minifocus on Establishing polarity.

  16. Cultured Human Airway Epithelial Cells (Calu-3): A Model of Human Respiratory Function, Structure, and Inflammatory Responses

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yan; Chidekel, Aaron; Shaffer, Thomas H.

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews the application of the human airway Calu-3 cell line as a respiratory model for studying the effects of gas concentrations, exposure time, biophysical stress, and biological agents on human airway epithelial cells. Calu-3 cells are grown to confluence at an air-liquid interface on permeable supports. To model human respiratory conditions and treatment modalities, monolayers are placed in an environmental chamber, and exposed to specific levels of oxygen or other therapeutic modalities such as positive pressure and medications to assess the effect of interventions on inflammatory mediators, immunologic proteins, and antibacterial outcomes. Monolayer integrity and permeability and cell histology and viability also measure cellular response to therapeutic interventions. Calu-3 cells exposed to graded oxygen concentrations demonstrate cell dysfunction and inflammation in a dose-dependent manner. Modeling positive airway pressure reveals that pressure may exert a greater injurious effect and cytokine response than oxygen. In experiments with pharmacological agents, Lucinactant is protective of Calu-3 cells compared with Beractant and control, and perfluorocarbons also protect against hyperoxia-induced airway epithelial cell injury. The Calu-3 cell preparation is a sensitive and efficient preclinical model to study human respiratory processes and diseases related to oxygen- and ventilator-induced lung injury. PMID:20948883

  17. Effect of selenium nanoparticles with different sizes in primary cultured intestinal epithelial cells of crucian carp, Carassius auratus gibelio.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanbo; Yan, Xuxia; Fu, Linglin

    2013-01-01

    Nano-selenium (Se), with its high bioavailability and low toxicity, has attracted wide attention for its potential application in the prevention of oxidative damage in animal tissues. However, the effect of nano-Se of different sizes on the intestinal epithelial cells of the crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) is poorly understood. Our study showed that different sizes and doses of nano-Se have varied effects on the cellular protein contents and the enzyme activities of secreted lactate dehydrogenase, intracellular sodium potassium adenosine triphosphatase, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase. It was also indicated that nano-Se had a size-dependent effect on the primary intestinal epithelial cells of the crucian carp. Thus, these findings may bring us a step closer to understanding the size effect and the bioavailability of nano-Se on the intestinal tract of the crucian carp.

  18. C22-bronchial and T7-alveolar epithelial cell lines of the immortomouse are excellent murine cell culture model systems to study pulmonary peroxisome biology and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Karnati, Srikanth; Palaniswamy, Saranya; Alam, Mohammad Rashedul; Oruqaj, Gani; Stamme, Cordula; Baumgart-Vogt, Eveline

    2016-03-01

    In pulmonary research, temperature-sensitive immortalized cell lines derived from the lung of the "immortomouse" (H-2k(b)-tsA58 transgenic mouse), such as C22 club cells and T7 alveolar epithelial cells type II (AECII), are frequently used cell culture models to study CC10 metabolism and surfactant synthesis. Even though peroxisomes are highly abundant in club cells and AECII and might fulfill important metabolic functions therein, these organelles have never been investigated in C22 and T7 cells. Therefore, we have characterized the peroxisomal compartment and its associated gene transcription in these cell lines. Our results show that peroxisomes are highly abundant in C22 and T7 cells, harboring a common set of enzymes, however, exhibiting specific differences in protein composition and gene expression patterns, similar to the ones observed in club cells and AECII in situ in the lung. C22 cells contain a lower number of larger peroxisomes, whereas T7 cells possess more numerous tubular peroxisomes, reflected also by higher levels of PEX11 proteins. Moreover, C22 cells harbor relatively higher amounts of catalase and antioxidative enzymes in distinct subcellular compartments, whereas T7 cells exhibit higher levels of ABCD3 and plasmalogen synthesizing enzymes as well as nuclear receptors of the PPAR family. This study suggest that the C22 and T7 cell lines of the immortomouse lung are useful models to study the regulation and metabolic function of the peroxisomal compartment and its alterations by paracrine factors in club cells and AECII.

  19. Human monocyte-derived dendritic cells from leukoreduction system chambers after plateletpheresis are functional in an in vitro co-culture assay with intestinal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Tiscornia, Inés; Sánchez-Martins, Viviana; Hernández, Ana; Bollati-Fogolín, Mariela

    2012-10-31

    The dendritic cells (DC) found in the intestine are involved both in the maintenance of tolerance towards commensal microbiota, and in the generation of protective immune responses against pathogens, thus contributing to gut immune homeostasis. There is an increasing interest in the use of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) as probiotics; among their beneficial effects we highlight the modulation of the immune system which is one of their fundamental properties. As these effects are strain-dependent, it is important to have in vitro systems that include DC and intestinal epithelial cells (IEC), which are crucial for intestinal homeostasis, to identify candidates by means of bacterial screening. Obtaining enough human cells, necessary to simultaneously test several bacteria, is a major challenge for researchers. In this study we analyzed the usefulness of the cellular fraction retained in leukoreduction system chambers following plateletpheresis (PP) as a source of DC. We compared the capacity of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from buffy coats (BC) or PP to generate DC using a short differentiation protocol. The functionality of the DC obtained was analyzed in co-cultures together with intestinal epithelial HT-29 cells, stimulating with LPS alone or with two LAB commonly used in the food industry, Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii. DC surface markers CD86, HLA-DR and cytokine production were measured. The behavior of DC derived from PP was similar to the behavior observed for DC derived from BC. When we tested the response of DC to bacteria, we found significant differences in cytokine secretion, especially for IL-10, suggesting that the system has the ability to discriminate LAB with different immunomodulatory properties. We also found that DC derived from both sources displayed a similar ability to phagocyte bacteria. In conclusion, we hereby propose a modification of the two-day protocol for obtaining human DC previously described, using

  20. A Novel Impedance Biosensor for Measurement of Trans-Epithelial Resistance in Cells Cultured on Nanofiber Scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Schramm, Robert A; Koslow, Matthew H; Nelson, Deirdre A; Larsen, Melinda; Castracane, James

    2017-08-31

    Nanofibrous scaffolds provide high surface area for cell attachment, and resemble the structure of the collagen fibers which naturally occur in the basement membrane and extracellular matrix. A label free and non-destructive method of assessing the interaction of cell tissue and scaffolds aids in the ability to discern the effective quality and magnitude of any scaffold modifications. Impedance cell spectroscopy is a biosensing method that employs a functional approach to assessing the cell monolayer. The electrical impedance barrier function of a cell monolayer represents the level of restriction to diffusion of charged species between all adjacent cells across an entire contiguous cellular monolayer. The impedance signals from many individual paracellular pathways contribute to the bulk measurement of the whole monolayer barrier function. However, the scaffold substrate must be entirely porous in order to be used with electrochemical cell impedance spectroscopy (ECIS) and cells must be closely situated to the electrodes. For purposes of evaluating cell-scaffold constructs for tissue engineering, non-invasive evaluation of cell properties while seeded on scaffolds is critical. A Transwell-type assay makes a measurement across a semi-permeable membrane, using electrodes placed on opposing sides of the membrane immersed in fluid. It was found that by suspending a nanofiber scaffold across a Transwell aperture, it is possible to integrate a fully functional nanofiber tissue scaffold with the ECIS Transwell apparatus. Salivary epithelial cells were grown on the nanofiber scaffolds and tight junction formation was evaluated using ECIS measurements in parallel with immunostaining and confocal imaging. The trans-epithelial resistance increased coordinate with cell coverage, culminating with a cell monolayer, at which point the tight junction proteins assemble and strengthen, reaching the peak signal. These studies demonstrate that ECIS can be used to evaluate tight

  1. Genotoxic Effects of Low- and High-LET Radiation on Human Epithelial Cells Grown in 2-D Versus 3-D Culture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patel, Z. S.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Huff, J. L.

    2011-01-01

    Risk estimation for radiation-induced cancer relies heavily on human epidemiology data obtained from terrestrial irradiation incidents from sources such as medical and occupational exposures as well as from the atomic bomb survivors. No such data exists for exposures to the types and doses of high-LET radiation that will be encountered during space travel; therefore, risk assessment for space radiation requires the use of data derived from cell culture and animal models. The use of experimental models that most accurately replicate the response of human tissues is critical for precision in risk projections. This work compares the genotoxic effects of radiation on normal human epithelial cells grown in standard 2-D monolayer culture compared to 3-D organotypic co-culture conditions. These 3-D organotypic models mimic the morphological features, differentiation markers, and growth characteristics of fully-differentiated normal human tissue and are reproducible using defined components. Cultures were irradiated with 2 Gy low-LET gamma rays or varying doses of high-LET particle radiation and genotoxic damage was measured using a modified cytokinesis block micronucleus assay. Our results revealed a 2-fold increase in residual damage in 2 Gy gamma irradiated cells grown under organotypic culture conditions compared to monolayer culture. Irradiation with high-LET particle radiation gave similar results, while background levels of damage were comparable under both scenarios. These observations may be related to the phenomenon of "multicellular resistance" where cancer cells grown as 3-D spheroids or in vivo exhibit an increased resistance to killing by chemotherapeutic agents compared to the same cells grown in 2-D culture. A variety of factors are likely involved in mediating this process, including increased cell-cell communication, microenvironment influences, and changes in cell cycle kinetics that may promote survival of damaged cells in 3-D culture that would

  2. [Characterization of epithelial primary culture from human conjunctiva].

    PubMed

    Rivas, L; Blázquez, A; Muñoz-Negrete, F J; López, S; Rebolleda, G; Domínguez, F; Pérez-Esteban, A

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate primary cultures from human conjunctiva supplemented with fetal bovine serum, autologous serum, and platelet-rich autologous serum, over human amniotic membrane and lens anterior capsules. One-hundred and forty-eight human conjunctiva explants were cultured in CnT50(®) supplemented with 1, 2.5, 5 and 10% fetal bovine serum, autologous serum and platelet-rich autologous serum. Conjunctival samples were incubated at 37°C, 5% CO2 and 95% HR, for 3 weeks. The typical phenotype corresponding to conjunctival epithelial cells was present in all primary cultures. Conjunctival cultures had MUC5AC-positive secretory cells, K19-positive conjunctival cells, and MUC4-positive non-secretory conjunctival cells, but were not corneal phenotype (cytokeratin K3-negative) and fibroblasts (CD90-negative). Conjunctiva epithelial progenitor cells were preserved in all cultures; thus, a cell culture in CnT50(®) supplemented with 1 to 5% autologous serum over human amniotic membrane can provide better information of epithelial cell differentiation for the conjunctival surface reconstruction. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  3. Primary cultures of renal epithelial cells from X-linked hypophosphatemic (Hyp) mice express defects in phosphate transport and vitamin D metabolism.

    PubMed Central

    Bell, C L; Tenenhouse, H S; Scriver, C R

    1988-01-01

    Mutation in a gene (symbol Hyp) on the X chromosome causes hypophosphatemia in the mouse. The murine phenotype is a counterpart of X-linked hypophosphatemia in man. Both exhibit impaired renal reabsorption of phosphate in vivo. In vitro studies in the Hyp mouse have shown decreased Na+-dependent phosphate transport at the brush border membrane and abnormal mitochondrial vitamin D metabolism. To determine whether the mutant renal phenotype is intrinsic to the kidney or dependent upon putative extrinsic humoral factor(s) for its expression, we established primary cultures of renal epithelial cells from normal and Hyp male mouse kidneys. The cells are derived from proximal tubule. Initial uptake rates of phosphate and alpha-methyl-D-glucopyranoside (alpha-MG), a metabolically inert analogue of D-glucose, were measured simultaneously in confluent monolayers exhibiting epithelial polarity and tight junctions. The mean phosphate/alpha-MG uptake ratio in Hyp cultures was 82% of that in normal cells (P less than 0.01, n = 96). Moreover, the production of 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 was significantly elevated in confluent cultures of Hyp cells relative to normal cells. These results imply that the Hyp gene is expressed in situ in renal epithelium and suggest that humoral factors are not necessary for the mutant renal phenotype in X-linked hypophosphatemia of mouse and man. PMID:3414685

  4. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression is enhanced in renal parietal epithelial cells of zucker diabetic Fatty rats and is induced by albumin in in vitro primary parietal cell culture.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuanyuan; George, Jasmine; Li, Yun; Olufade, Rebecca; Zhao, Xueying

    2015-01-01

    As a subfamily of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), gelatinases including MMP-2 and MMP-9 play an important role in remodeling and homeostasis of the extracellular matrix. However, conflicting results have been reported regarding their expression level and activity in the diabetic kidney. This study investigated whether and how MMP-9 expression and activity were changed in glomerular epithelial cells upon albumin overload. In situ zymography, immunostaining and Western blot for renal MMP gelatinolytic activity and MMP-9 protein expression were performed in Zucker lean and Zucker diabetic rats. Confocal microscopy revealed a focal increase in gelatinase activity and MMP-9 protein in the glomeruli of diabetic rats. Increased glomerular MMP-9 staining was mainly observed in hyperplastic parietal epithelial cells (PECs) expressing claudin-1 in the diabetic kidneys. Interestingly, increased parietal MMP-9 was often accompanied by decreased staining for podocyte markers (nephrin and podocalyxin) in the sclerotic area of affected glomeruli in diabetic rats. Additionally, urinary excretion of podocyte marker proteins was significantly increased in association with the levels of MMP-9 and albumin in the urine of diabetic animals. To evaluate the direct effect of albumin on expression and activity of MMP-9, primary cultured rat glomerular PECs were incubated with rat serum albumin (0.25 - 1 mg/ml) for 24 - 48 hrs. MMP-9 mRNA levels were significantly increased following albumin treatment. Meanwhile, albumin administration resulted in a dose-dependent increase in MMP-9 protein and activity in culture supernatants of PECs. Moreover, albumin activated p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in PECs. Inhibition of p44/42 MAPK suppressed albumin-induced MMP-9 secretion from glomerular PECs. Taken together, we have demonstrated that an up-regulation of MMP-9 in activated parietal epithelium is associated with a loss of adjacent podocytes in progressive diabetic nephropathy

  5. Phenotypic plasticity in normal breast derived epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Normal, healthy human breast tissue from a variety of volunteer donors has become available for research thanks to the establishment of the Susan G. Komen for the Cure® Tissue Bank at the IU Simon Cancer Center (KTB). Multiple epithelial (K-HME) and stromal cells (K-HMS) were established from the donated tissue. Explant culture was utilized to isolate the cells from pieces of breast tissue. Selective media and trypsinization were employed to select either epithelial cells or stromal cells. The primary, non-transformed epithelial cells, the focus of this study, were characterized by immunohistochemistry, flow cytometry, and in vitro cell culture. Results All of the primary, non-transformed epithelial cells tested have the ability to differentiate in vitro into a variety of cell types when plated in or on biologic matrices. Cells identified include stratified squamous epithelial, osteoclasts, chondrocytes, adipocytes, neural progenitors/neurons, immature muscle and melanocytes. The cells also express markers of embryonic stem cells. Conclusions The cell culture conditions employed select an epithelial cell that is pluri/multipotent. The plasticity of the epithelial cells developed mimics that seen in metaplastic carcinoma of the breast (MCB), a subtype of triple negative breast cancer; and may provide clues to the origin of this particularly aggressive type of breast cancer. The KTB is a unique biorepository, and the normal breast epithelial cells isolated from donated tissue have significant potential as new research tools. PMID:24915897

  6. TGF-β1 stimulates movement of renal proximal tubular epithelial cells in a three-dimensional cell culture via an autocrine TGF-β2 production.

    PubMed

    Luo, Deyi; Guan, Qiunong; Wang, Kunjie; Nguan, Christopher Y C; Du, Caigan

    2017-01-01

    TGF-βs are multifunctional cytokines, but their roles in human renal homeostasis are not fully understood. This study investigated the role of TGF-β1 in the movement of human renal proximal tubular epithelial cells (PTECs) in a three-dimensional (3D) model. HKC-8 cells, a human PTEC line, were grown in a 3D collagen culture system. Cell movement was observed under a microscope. The gene expression was examined using PCR Arrays or qRT-PCR, and protein levels by Western blot. Here, we showed that the tight junction structure formed between adjacent cells of a HKC-8 cell colony in 3D cultures, and TGF-β1 stimulated their movement, evidenced by the appearance of fingerlike pseudopodia in the leader cells at the edge of the colonies. The cell movement of these human PTECs was correlated with up-regulation of both MMP2 and MMP9 and down-regulation or inactivation of PLAUR and PTK2B. Analysis of TGF-β signaling targets confirmed autocrine production of TGF-β2 and its cleaving enzyme furin as well as SNAI1 by TGF-β1stimulation. Knockdown of TGF-β2 expression disrupted TGF-β1-stimulated PTEC invasiveness, which was correlated with the down-regulation of MMP2 and MMP9. In conclusion, the activation of TGF-β receptor autocrine signaling by up-regulated TGF-β2 may play a pivotal role in TGF-β1-induced human PTEC movement, which could be mediated at least by both MMP2 and MMP9. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Epithelial: lamina propria lymphocyte interactions promote epithelial cell differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Dahan, Stephanie; Roda, Giulia; Pinn, David; Roth-Walter, Franziska; Kamalu, Okebugwu; Martin, Andrea P.; Mayer, Lloyd

    2010-01-01

    Background & Aims Lymphoepithelial interactions in the gut can occur in the epithelium and the sub-epithelial space. We asked whether Normal, Crohn’s Disease (CD) or Ulcerative colitis (UC) lamina propria lymphocytes (LPL) could promote intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) growth and differentiation. Methods T84 cells were co-cultured with freshly isolated LPL for varying periods. After removal of LPL, IECs were lysed and subjected to i) measurement of intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) activity; ii) Western blot analysis for MAPK and Akt activation; and iii) Real Time-PCR to assess CDX2 mRNA levels. Tissue sections were immunostained for evidence of MAPK and PI3K activation, CDX2 and IAP; and CDX2 mRNA expression was assessed on human colonic biopsies. Results IAP activity was increased in T84 cells co-cultured for 8 days with Normal LPL (p<0.05), and even greater with CD LPL (p<0.001). Crypt IECs in active CD mucosa expressed IAP ex vivo. Phospho-MAPK (ERK1/2, p38, and JNK) and phospho-Akt were seen as early as 30 min after co-culture. MAPK activation was greatest in T84 cells co-cultured with CD LPL. There was a specific increase in P-p38 MAPK and P-Akt staining in the nuclei of crypt IECs in active vs inactive CD, normal mucosa and UC mucosa. CDX2 mRNA expression was increased in CD LPL co-cultured T84 cells which not correlated with the CDX2 protein localization ex vivo. Conclusion Our observations indicate that there is crosstalk between LPL and IECs, which leads to IEC differentiation. Moreover, in CD mucosa, the differentiation of IEC is accelerated. PMID:18045591

  8. Autologous human nasal epithelial cell sheet using temperature-responsive culture insert for transplantation after middle ear surgery.

    PubMed

    Hama, Takanori; Yamamoto, Kazuhisa; Yaguchi, Yuichiro; Murakami, Daisuke; Sasaki, Hiroyuki; Yamato, Masayuki; Okano, Teruo; Kojima, Hiromi

    2017-04-01

    Postoperative mucosal regeneration of the middle ear cavity and the mastoid cavity is of great importance after middle ear surgery. However, the epithelialization of the mucosa in the middle ear is retarded because chronic inflammation without epithelialization aggravates gas exchange and clinical function. These environmental conditions in the middle ear lead to postoperative retraction and adhesion of the newly-formed tympanic membrane. Therefore, if the mucosa on the exposed middle ear bone surface can be rapidly regenerated after surgery, the surgical treatments for cholesteatoma and adhesive middle ear disease can potentially be improved. In this study, we successfully generated a cell sheet designed for the postoperative treatment of cholesteatoma. We used nasal cells to create an artificial middle ear mucosal cell sheet with a three-dimensional (3D) configuration similar to that of the middle ear mucosa. The sheets consisted of multi-layered mucosal epithelia and lower connective tissue and were similar to normal middle ear mucosa. This result indicates that tissue-engineered mucosal cell sheets would be useful to minimize complications after surgical operations in the middle ear and future clinical applications are expected. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Comparison of several radiation effects in human MCF10A mammary epithelial cells cultured as 2D monolayers or 3D acinar stuctures in matrigel.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yu-Fen; Nagasawa, Hatsumi; Peng, Yuanlin; Chuang, Eric Y; Bedford, Joel S

    2009-06-01

    It has been argued that the cell-cell and cell-matrix interaction networks in normal tissues are disrupted by radiation and that this largely controls many of the most important cellular radiation responses. This has led to the broader assertion that individual cells in normal tissue or a 3D normal-tissue-like culture will respond to radiation very differently than the same cells in a 2D monolayer culture. While many studies have shown that, in some cases, cell-cell contact in spheroids of transformed or tumor cell lines can alter radiation responses relative to those for the same cells in monolayer cultures, a question remains regarding the possible effect of the above-mentioned disruption of signaling networks that operate more specifically for cells in normal tissues or in a 3D tissue-like context. To test the generality of this notion, we used human MCF-10A cells, an immortalized mammary epithelial cell line that produces acinar structures in culture with many properties of human mammary ducts. We compared the dose responses for these cells in the 2D monolayer and in 3D ductal or acinar structures. The responses examined were reproductive cell death, induction of chromosomal aberrations, and the levels of gamma-H2AX foci in cells after single acute gamma-ray doses and immediately after 20 h of irradiation at a dose rate of 0.0017 Gy/min. We found no significant differences in the dose responses of these cells in 2D or 3D growth conditions. While this does not mean that such differences cannot occur in other situations, it does mean that they do not generally or necessarily occur.

  10. Comparison of autosomal mutations in mouse kidney epithelial cells exposed to iron ions in situ or in culture.

    PubMed

    Turker, Mitchell S; Connolly, Lanelle; Dan, Cristian; Lasarev, Michael; Gauny, Stacey; Kwoh, Ely; Kronenberg, Amy

    2009-11-01

    Exposure to accelerated iron ions represents a significant health risk in the deep space environment because it induces mutations that can cause cancer. A mutation assay was used to determine the full spectrum of autosomal mutations induced by exposure to 2 Gy of 1 GeV/nucleon iron ions in intact kidney epithelium, and the results were compared with mutations induced in cells of a kidney epithelial cell line exposed in vitro. A molecular analysis for loss of heterozygosity (LOH) for polymorphic loci on chromosome 8, which harbors Aprt, demonstrated iron-ion induction of mitotic recombination, interstitial deletion, and discontinuous LOH events. Iron-ion-induced deletions were detected more readily with the in vitro assay, whereas discontinuous LOH was detected more readily in the intact kidney. The specific induction of discontinuous LOH in vivo suggests that this mutation pattern may serve as an indicator of genomic instability. Interestingly, the frequency of small intragenic events increased as a function of time after exposure, suggesting non-targeted effects. In total, the results demonstrate that 1 GeV/nucleon iron ions can elicit a variety of autosomal mutations and that the cellular microenvironment and the sampling time after exposure can influence the distribution of these mutations in epithelial cell populations.

  11. Integrins and epithelial cell polarity

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jessica L.; Streuli, Charles H.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cell polarity is characterised by differences in structure, composition and function between at least two poles of a cell. In epithelial cells, these spatial differences allow for the formation of defined apical and basal membranes. It has been increasingly recognised that cell–matrix interactions and integrins play an essential role in creating epithelial cell polarity, although key gaps in our knowledge remain. This Commentary will discuss the mounting evidence for the role of integrins in polarising epithelial cells. We build a model in which both inside-out signals to polarise basement membrane assembly at the basal surface, and outside-in signals to control microtubule apical–basal orientation and vesicular trafficking are required for establishing and maintaining the orientation of epithelial cell polarity. Finally, we discuss the relevance of the basal integrin polarity axis to cancer. This article is part of a Minifocus on Establishing polarity. For further reading, please see related articles: ‘ERM proteins at a glance’ by Andrea McClatchey (J. Cell Sci. 127, 3199–3204). ‘Establishment of epithelial polarity – GEF who's minding the GAP?’ by Siu Ngok et al. (J. Cell Sci. 127, 3205–3215). PMID:24994933

  12. Characterization of the interaction between human respiratory syncytial virus and the cell cycle in continuous cell culture and primary human airway epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Weining; Munday, Diane C; Howell, Gareth; Platt, Gareth; Barr, John N; Hiscox, Julian A

    2011-10-01

    Viruses can modify conditions inside cells to make them more favorable for replication and progeny virus production. One way of doing this is through manipulation of the cell cycle, a process that describes the ordered growth and division of cells. Analysis of model cell lines, such as A549 cells and primary airway epithelial cells, infected with human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) has shown alteration of the cell cycle during infection, although the signaling events were not clearly understood. In this study, targeted transcriptomic analysis of HRSV-infected primary airway epithelial cells revealed alterations in the abundances of many mRNAs encoding cell cycle-regulatory molecules, including decreases in the D-type cyclins and corresponding cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK4 and CDK6 [CDK4/6]). These alterations were reflected in changes in protein abundance and/or relocalization in HRSV-infected cells; taken together, they were predicted to result in G(0)/G(1) phase arrest. In contrast, there was no change in the abundances of D-type cyclins in A549 cells infected with HRSV. However, the abundance of the G(1)/S phase progression inhibitor p21(WAF1/CIP1) was increased over that in mock-treated cells, and this, again, was predicted to result in G(0)/G(1) phase arrest. The G(0)/G(1) phase arrest in both HRSV-infected primary cells and A549 cells was confirmed using dual-label flow cytometry that accurately measured the different stages of the cell cycle. Comparison of progeny virus production in primary and A549 cells enriched in G(0)/G(1) using a specific CDK4/6 kinase inhibitor with asynchronously replicating cells indicated that this phase of the cell cycle was more efficient for virus production.

  13. Targeted inhibition of p57 and p15 blocks transforming growth factor β-inhibited proliferation of primary cultured human limbal epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhuo; Li, De-quan; Tong, Louis; Stewart, Paul; Chu, Claire; Pflugfelder, Stephen C.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the role of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p57 and p15 in transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 or TGF-β2 inhibited proliferation of primary cultured human limbal epithelial cells using short interfering RNA (siRNA). Methods Primary cultured human limbal epithelial cells were treated with TGF-β1 or TGF-β2 for 6 and 24 h, and total RNA extracted for RT-PCR and real-time PCR using primers for p21, p27, and p57 (CipP/Kip family) and p15 and p19 (INK4 family). Proteins were extracted for western blot analysis of p57 and p15. For RNA interference, primary cultured human limbal epithelial cells were transfected with annealed double-stranded siRNA (67 nM) specific for p57, p15, or siRNA-Fluorescein (siRNA-F; as a negative control) followed by treatment with TGF-β1 or TGF-β2 at 1 ng/ml. P57 and p15 were quantitatively detected by real-time PCR and western blot; and immunolocalized by immunofluorescent staining. The effects of TGF-β1 or TGF-β2 on cell proliferation were evaluated by BrdU incorporation and MTT assay. Results TGF-β1 or TGF-β2 significantly inhibited primary cultured human limbal epithelial cell proliferation measured by BrdU incorporation and MTT assay. TGF-β1 or TGF-β2 upregulated the expression of p57 and p15 mRNA and protein, but did not effect the expression of p19, p21, or p27. The siRNA transfection efficiency of these cells was 75% and no cellular toxicity was observed by 24 h. The TGF-β1 or TGF-β2 stimulated expression of p57 and p15 mRNA were markedly blocked by siRNA-p57 or siRNA-p15, respectively, but not by siRNA-F. The TGF-β1 or TGF-β2 suppression of epithelial proliferation measured by BrdU incorporation and MTT generation was increased to near normal levels by siRNA-p57 or siRNA-p15. Western blot and immunofluorescent staining showed that levels of p57 and p15 proteins were equally reduced in the cytoplasm and nucleus. Conclusions These findings demonstrate that TGF-β1 and/or TGF-β2 inhibit proliferation

  14. In vitro co-culture systems for studying molecular basis of cellular interaction between Aire-expressing medullary thymic epithelial cells and fresh thymocytes

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, Yoshitaka; Kudoh, Jun; Yoshida, Tetsuhiko; Shimizu, Nobuyoshi

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT We previously established three mouse cell lines (Aire+TEC1, Aire+TEC2 and Aire+DC) from the medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs) and dendritic cells (mDCs). These cells constitutively expressed “autoimmune regulator (Aire) gene” and they exhibited various features of self antigen-presenting cells (self-APCs) present in the thymic medullary region. Here, we confirmed our previous observation that Aire+ thymic epithelial cells adhere to fresh thymocytes and kill them by inducing apoptosis, thus potentially reproducing in vitro some aspects of the negative selection of T cells in vivo. In this system, a single Aire+ cell appeared able to kill ∼30 thymocytes within 24 hrs. Moreover, we observed that ectopic expression of peripheral tissue-specific antigens (TSAs), and expression of several surface markers involved in mTEC development, increased as Aire+ cell density increases toward confluency. Thus, these Aire+ cells appear to behave like differentiating mTECs as if they pass through the developmental stages from intermediate state toward mature state. Surprisingly, an in vitro co-culture system consisting of Aire+ cells and fractionated sub-populations of fresh thymocytes implied the possible existence of two distinct subtypes of thymocytes (named as CD4+ killer and CD4− rescuer) that may determine the fate (dead or alive) of the differentiating Aire+mTECs. Thus, our in vitro co-culture system appears to mimic a part of “in vivo thymic crosstalk”. PMID:25326516

  15. In vitro co-culture systems for studying molecular basis of cellular interaction between Aire-expressing medullary thymic epithelial cells and fresh thymocytes.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Yoshitaka; Kudoh, Jun; Yoshida, Tetsuhiko; Shimizu, Nobuyoshi

    2014-10-17

    We previously established three mouse cell lines (Aire(+)TEC1, Aire(+)TEC2 and Aire(+)DC) from the medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs) and dendritic cells (mDCs). These cells constitutively expressed "autoimmune regulator (Aire) gene" and they exhibited various features of self antigen-presenting cells (self-APCs) present in the thymic medullary region. Here, we confirmed our previous observation that Aire(+) thymic epithelial cells adhere to fresh thymocytes and kill them by inducing apoptosis, thus potentially reproducing in vitro some aspects of the negative selection of T cells in vivo. In this system, a single Aire(+) cell appeared able to kill ∼30 thymocytes within 24 hrs. Moreover, we observed that ectopic expression of peripheral tissue-specific antigens (TSAs), and expression of several surface markers involved in mTEC development, increased as Aire(+) cell density increases toward confluency. Thus, these Aire(+) cells appear to behave like differentiating mTECs as if they pass through the developmental stages from intermediate state toward mature state. Surprisingly, an in vitro co-culture system consisting of Aire(+) cells and fractionated sub-populations of fresh thymocytes implied the possible existence of two distinct subtypes of thymocytes (named as CD4(+) killer and CD4(-) rescuer) that may determine the fate (dead or alive) of the differentiating Aire(+)mTECs. Thus, our in vitro co-culture system appears to mimic a part of "in vivo thymic crosstalk". © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  16. Formation of organoid structures and extracellular matrix production in an intestinal epithelial cell line during long-term in vitro culture.

    PubMed

    Sambuy, Y; De Angelis, I

    1986-09-01

    During the long-term in vitro maintenance of an epithelial cell line established from rat duodenum (IEC-17) we have observed progressive morphological changes which, after approximately 4-5 months in culture, led to a loss of substrate adherence and to the formation of organoid structures characterized by organized layers of cells separated by continuous extracellular-like material and delimiting close lumina. The cells exhibited a defined polarity with deposition of extracellular matrix components on one side and development of microvilli on the opposite surface. The morphological changes observed did not appear to be the expression of spontaneous transformation since the cells retained a normal diploid rat karyotype and did not grow in soft agar. In this report we present the optical and electron microscopical characterization of the progressive organotypic differentiation of the cell line. Further studies are currently in progress to characterize the extracellular matrix during the process of differentiation.

  17. MDCK cell cultures as an epithelial in vitro model: cytoskeleton and tight junctions as indicators for the definition of age-related stages by confocal microscopy.

    PubMed

    Rothen-Rutishauser, B; Krämer, S D; Braun, A; Günthert, M; Wunderli-Allenspach, H

    1998-07-01

    Madin Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells were grown in culture, and age-related morphological changes in the cytoskeleton and tight junction (TJ) network were used to define stages in view of establishing an optimal in vitro model for the epithelial barrier. Growth curves and transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) were determined, and the cytoskeleton (actin, alpha-tubulin, vimentin) and TJ (Zonula occludens proteins ZO1, ZO2) were investigated with immunofluorescent methods by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and digital image restoration. TEER measurements indicated that TJ were functional after one day. Values then remained constant. Four morphological stages could be distinguished. Stage I (0-1 day): Sub confluent cultures with flat cells; TJ established after cell-to-cell contacts are made. Stage II (2-6 days): Confluent monolayers with a complete TJ network, which remains intact throughout the later stages. Stage III (7-14 days): Rearrangement in the cytoskeleton; constant cell number; volume and surface area of cells reduced (cobble-stone appearance). Stage IV (> or = 15 days): Dome formation, i.e. thickening and spontaneous uplifting of the cell monolayer. Based on the structural characteristics of stage III cell cultures, which are closest to the in vivo situation, we expect them to represent an optimal in vitro model to study drug transport and/or interactions with drugs and excipients.

  18. Corneal organ culture model for assessing epithelial responses to surfactants.

    PubMed

    Xu, K P; Li, X F; Yu, F S

    2000-12-01

    The main goal of the present study was to investigate the response of cultured bovine corneas to the application of irritant substances and its potential use for predicting ocular irritancy in humans. We hypothesized that chemicals causing eye irritation may induce disruption of epithelial tight junctions and trigger cell stress responses modulated via transcription factors such as AP-1 and NF-kappaB. A simple air-lifted corneal organ culture system was used as an ex vivo model for ocular irritancy test. The effects of two surfactants, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and benzalkonium chloride (BAK), on corneal epithelial permeability and DNA-binding activity of AP-1 and NF-kappaB were studied in cultured bovine corneas. Both SDS and BAK induced tight junction disruption and increased permeability of corneal epithelium assessed using surface biotinylation in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. An increase in DNA-binding activity measured using electrophoretic mobility shift assay was observed when cultured corneas were treated with surfactants at concentrations causing minimal to mild ocular irritation, indicating epithelial cell stress response. Furthermore, exposure of cultured corneas to SDS or BAK at concentrations causing severe ocular irritancy resulted in a decrease in DNA-binding activity of these transcription factors in epithelial cells. These results indicate that the combination of corneal organ culture and measurements of corneal epithelial permeability and DNA-binding activity of stress-response transcription factors following chemical exposure has the potential to be used as a mechanistically based alternative to in vivo animal testing.

  19. Tropism and Infectivity of Influenza Virus, Including Highly Pathogenic Avian H5N1 Virus, in Ferret Tracheal Differentiated Primary Epithelial Cell Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Hui; Goldsmith, Cynthia S.; Maines, Taronna R.; Belser, Jessica A.; Gustin, Kortney M.; Pekosz, Andrew; Zaki, Sherif R.; Katz, Jacqueline M.

    2013-01-01

    Tropism and adaptation of influenza viruses to new hosts is partly dependent on the distribution of the sialic acid (SA) receptors to which the viral hemagglutinin (HA) binds. Ferrets have been established as a valuable in vivo model of influenza virus pathogenesis and transmission because of similarities to humans in the distribution of HA receptors and in clinical signs of infection. In this study, we developed a ferret tracheal differentiated primary epithelial cell culture model that consisted of a layered epithelium structure with ciliated and nonciliated cells on its apical surface. We found that human-like (α2,6-linked) receptors predominated on ciliated cells, whereas avian-like (α2,3-linked) receptors, which were less abundant, were presented on nonciliated cells. When we compared the tropism and infectivity of three human (H1 and H3) and two avian (H1 and H5) influenza viruses, we observed that the human influenza viruses primarily infected ciliated cells and replicated efficiently, whereas a highly pathogenic avian H5N1 virus (A/Vietnam/1203/2004) replicated efficiently within nonciliated cells despite a low initial infection rate. Furthermore, compared to other influenza viruses tested, VN/1203 virus replicated more efficiently in cells isolated from the lower trachea and at a higher temperature (37°C) compared to a lower temperature (33°C). VN/1203 virus infection also induced higher levels of immune mediator genes and cell death, and virus was recovered from the basolateral side of the cell monolayer. This ferret tracheal differentiated primary epithelial cell culture system provides a valuable in vitro model for studying cellular tropism, infectivity, and the pathogenesis of influenza viruses. PMID:23255802

  20. Use of a feline respiratory epithelial cell culture system grown at the air-liquid interface to characterize the innate immune response following feline herpesvirus 1 infection.

    PubMed

    Nelli, Rahul K; Maes, Roger; Kiupel, Matti; Hussey, Gisela Soboll

    2016-03-02

    Infection with feline herpesvirus-1 (FHV-1) accounts for 50% of viral upper respiratory diseases in domestic cats and is a significant cause of ocular diseases. Despite the clinical significance and high prevalence of FHV-1 infection, currently available vaccines cannot completely protect cats from infection and lifelong latency. FHV-1 infects via the mucous membranes and replicates in respiratory epithelial cells, but very little is known about the early innate immunity at this site. To address questions about immunity to FHV-1, feline respiratory epithelial cells cultured at air-liquid interface (ALI-FRECs) were established by collecting respiratory tracts from 6 healthy cats after euthanasia. Cells were isolated, cultured and characterized histologically and immunologically before infection with FHV-1. The expression of Toll-like receptors (TLRs), cytokine and chemokine responses were measured by real time PCR. ALI-FRECs morphologically resembled the natural airways of cats with multilayered columnar epithelial cells and cilia. Immunological properties of the natural airways were maintained in ALI-FRECs, as evidenced by the expression of TLRs, cytokines, chemokines, interferons, beta-defensins, and other regulatory genes. Furthermore, ALI-FRECs were able to support infection and replication of FHV-1, as well as modulate transcriptional regulation of various immune genes in response to infection. IL-1β and TNFα were increased in ALI-FRECs by 24hpi, whereas expression levels of IFN-α and TLR9 were not increased until 36hpi. In contrast, TLR3, GM-CSF and TGF-1β expression was down-regulated at 36hpi. The data presented show the development of a system ideal for investigating the molecular pathogenesis and immunity of FHV-1 or other respiratory pathogens.

  1. Adrenergic regulation of ion transport across adult alveolar epithelial cells: effects on Cl- channel activation and transport function in cultures with an apical air interface.

    PubMed

    Jiang, X; Ingbar, D H; O'Grady, S M

    2001-06-01

    The effect of beta-adrenergic receptor stimulation on Cl- channel activation was investigated in alveolar epithelial cells grown in monolayer culture and in freshly isolated cells. Monolayers cultured under apical air interface conditions exhibited enhanced amiloride-sensitive Na+ transport compared to apical liquid interface monolayers. Amiloride or benzamil inhibited most (66%) of the basal short circuit current (Isc) with half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of 0.62 microm and 0.09 microm respectively. Basolateral addition of terbutaline (2 microm) produced a rapid decrease in Isc followed by a slow recovery that exceeded the basal Isc. When Cl- was replaced with methanesulfonate in either intact monolayers or basolateral membrane permeabilized monolayers, the response to terbutaline (2 microm) was completely inhibited. No effect of terbutaline on amiloride-sensitive Na+ current was detected. beta-Adrenergic agonists and 8-chlorothiophenyl cyclic adenosine monophosphate (8-ctp cAMP) directly stimulated a Cl- channel in freshly isolated alveolar epithelial cells. The current was blocked by glibenclamide (100 microm) and had a reversal potential of -22 mV. No increase in amiloride-sensitve current was detected in response to terbutaline or 8-cpt cAMP stimulation. These data support the conclusion that beta-adrenergic agonists produce acute activation of apical Cl- channels and that monolayers maintained under apical air interface conditions exhibit increased Na+ absorption.

  2. Modeling and Simulation of Mucus Flow in Human Bronchial Epithelial Cell Cultures - Part I: Idealized Axisymmetric Swirling Flow.

    PubMed

    Vasquez, Paula A; Jin, Yuan; Palmer, Erik; Hill, David; Forest, M Gregory

    2016-08-01

    A multi-mode nonlinear constitutive model for mucus is constructed directly from micro- and macro-rheology experimental data on cell culture mucus, and a numerical algorithm is developed for the culture geometry and idealized cilia driving conditions. This study investigates the roles that mucus rheology, wall effects, and HBE culture geometry play in the development of flow profiles and the shape of the air-mucus interface. Simulations show that viscoelasticity captures normal stress generation in shear leading to a peak in the air-mucus interface at the middle of the culture and a depression at the walls. Linear and nonlinear viscoelastic regimes can be observed in cultures by varying the hurricane radius and mean rotational velocity. The advection-diffusion of a drug concentration dropped at the surface of the mucus flow is simulated as a function of Peclet number.

  3. Modeling and Simulation of Mucus Flow in Human Bronchial Epithelial Cell Cultures – Part I: Idealized Axisymmetric Swirling Flow

    PubMed Central

    Vasquez, Paula A.; Jin, Yuan; Palmer, Erik; Hill, David; Forest, M. Gregory

    2016-01-01

    A multi-mode nonlinear constitutive model for mucus is constructed directly from micro- and macro-rheology experimental data on cell culture mucus, and a numerical algorithm is developed for the culture geometry and idealized cilia driving conditions. This study investigates the roles that mucus rheology, wall effects, and HBE culture geometry play in the development of flow profiles and the shape of the air-mucus interface. Simulations show that viscoelasticity captures normal stress generation in shear leading to a peak in the air-mucus interface at the middle of the culture and a depression at the walls. Linear and nonlinear viscoelastic regimes can be observed in cultures by varying the hurricane radius and mean rotational velocity. The advection-diffusion of a drug concentration dropped at the surface of the mucus flow is simulated as a function of Peclet number. PMID:27494700

  4. Maintenance of differentiated function of the surfactant system in human fetal lung type II epithelial cells cultured on plastic.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, L W; Angampalli, S; Guttentag, S H; Beers, M F; Feinstein, S I; Matlapudi, A; Ballard, P L

    2001-01-01

    We report a simplified culture system for human fetal lung type II cells that maintains surfactant expression. Type II cells isolated from explant cultures of hormone-treated lungs (18-22 wk gestation) by collagenase + trypsin digestion were cultured on plastic for 4 days in serum-free medium containing dexamethasone (Dex, 10 nM) + 8-bromo-cAMP (0.1 mM + isobutylmethylxanthine (0.1 mM) or were untreated (control). Surfactant protein (SP) mRNAs decreased markedly in control cells between days 1 and 4 of culture, but mRNA levels were high in treated cells on day) 4 (SP-A, SP-B, SP-C, SP-D; 600%, 100%, 85%, 130% of day 0 content, respectively). Dex or cAMP alone increased SP-B, SP-C, and SP-D mRNAs and together had additive effects. The greatest increase in SP-A mRNA occurred with cAMP alone. Treated cells processed pro-SP-B and pro-SP-C proteins to mature form