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Sample records for epithelial mesenchymal transition

  1. Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition and Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yanyuan; Sarkissyan, Marianna; Vadgama, Jaydutt V.

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women and distant site metastasis is the main cause of death in breast cancer patients. There is increasing evidence supporting the role of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in tumor cell progression, invasion, and metastasis. During the process of EMT, epithelial cancer cells acquire molecular alternations that facilitate the loss of epithelial features and gain of mesenchymal phenotype. Such transformation promotes cancer cell migration and invasion. Moreover, emerging evidence suggests that EMT is associated with the increased enrichment of cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) and these CSCs display mesenchymal characteristics that are resistant to chemotherapy and target therapy. However, the clinical relevance of EMT in human cancer is still under debate. This review will provide an overview of current evidence of EMT from studies using clinical human breast cancer tissues and its associated challenges. PMID:26821054

  2. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition in malignant mesothelioma.

    PubMed

    Fassina, Ambrogio; Cappellesso, Rocco; Guzzardo, Vincenza; Dalla Via, Lisa; Piccolo, Stefano; Ventura, Laura; Fassan, Matteo

    2012-01-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition is a physiopathological process by which epithelial cells acquire mesenchymal shape and properties. Malignant mesothelioma is histologically characterized by the concomitant presence of epithelioid and sarcomatoid features, the latter being associated to worse prognosis, thus suggesting a role of epithelial-mesenchymal transition in this dual phenotype. We studied 109 malignant mesotheliomas (58 epithelioid, 26 sarcomatoid, and 25 biphasic) by immunohistochemistry and qRT-PCR analysis, and demonstrated a substantial switch from epithelial markers (E-cadherin, β-catenin, and cytokeratins 5/6) to mesenchymal markers (N-cadherin, vimentin, α-smooth muscle actin, Snail, Slug, Twist, ZEB1, ZEB2, S100A4, MMP2, and MMP9) through epithelioid to biphasic and sarcomatoid histotypes. In agreement with these findings, the ectopic expression of miR-205 (a repressor of ZEB1 and ZEB2 expression) in MeT-5A (mesothelial cell line), H2452 (an epithelioid malignant mesothelioma cell line) and MSTO-211H (a biphasic malignant mesothelioma cell line) not only induced a significant reduction of ZEB1 and ZEB2 and a consequent up-regulation of E-cadherin gene expression, but also inhibited migration and invasion. Moreover, miR-205 was significantly down-regulated in biphasic and sarcomatoid histotypes (qRT-PCR and in situ hybridization analyses). Collectively, our findings indicate that epithelial-mesenchymal transition has a significant part in the morphological features of malignant mesothelioma. In particular, miR-205 down-regulation correlated significantly with both a mesenchymal phenotype and a more aggressive behavior.

  3. Epithelial-mesenchymal, mesenchymal-epithelial, and endothelial-mesenchymal transitions in malignant tumors: An update

    PubMed Central

    Gurzu, Simona; Turdean, Sabin; Kovecsi, Attila; Contac, Anca Otilia; Jung, Ioan

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) represents conversion of an epithelial cell in an elongated cell with mesenchymal phenotype, which can occur in physiologic and pathologic processes such as embryogenesis (type 1 EMT), wound healing and/or fibrosis (type 2 EMT) and malignant tumors (type 3 EMT). The proliferation rate, metastasizing and recurrence capacity, as also the individualized response at chemotherapics, in both epithelial and mesenchymal malignant tumors is known to be influenced by reversible switch between EMT and mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition (MET). Although much research work has already been done in these fields, the specific molecular pathways of EMT, relating to the tumor type and tumor localization, are yet to be elucidated. In this paper, based on the literature and personal experience of the authors, an update in the field of EMT vs MET in epithelial and mesenchymal tumors is presented. The authors tried to present the latest data about the particularities of these processes, and also of the so-called endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition, based on tumor location. The EMT-angiogenesis link is discussed as a possible valuable parameter for clinical follow-up and targeted therapeutic oncologic management. The paper begins with presentation of the basic aspects of EMT, its classification and assessment possibilities, and concludes with prognostic and therapeutic perspectives. The particularities of EMT and MET in gastric and colorectal carcinomas, pancreatic cancer, hepatocellular and cholangiocarcinomas, and lung, breast and prostate cancers, respectively in sarcomas and gastrointestinal stromal tumors are presented in detail. PMID:25984514

  4. Biomarkers for epithelial-mesenchymal transitions

    PubMed Central

    Zeisberg, Michael; Neilson, Eric G.

    2009-01-01

    Somatic cells that change from one mature phenotype to another exhibit the property of plasticity. It is increasingly clear that epithelial and endothelial cells enjoy some of this plasticity, which is easily demonstrated by studying the process of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Published reports from the literature typically rely on ad hoc criteria for determining EMT events; consequently, there is some uncertainty as to whether the same process occurs under different experimental conditions. As we discuss in this Personal Perspective, we believe that context and various changes in plasticity biomarkers can help identify at least three types of EMT and that using a collection of criteria for EMT increases the likelihood that everyone is studying the same phenomenon — namely, the transition of epithelial and endothelial cells to a motile phenotype. PMID:19487819

  5. [Epithelial-mesenchymal transition in cancer progression].

    PubMed

    Gos, Monika; Miłoszewska, Joanna; Przybyszewska, Małgorzata

    2009-01-01

    According to recently published data, the epithelial-mesenchymal transition--a process important for embryonic development, may be involved in many pathological processes such as wound healing, tissue fibrosis or cancer progression. The EMT process in cell is driven by growth factors (EGF, PDGF, HGF) or other signaling proteins such as TGF-beta, sonic hedgehog (Shh), Wnt/beta-catenin and extracellular matrix (ECM) components that may stimulate cellular growth and migration. During cancer progression, the EMT process is necessary to the conversion of benign tumor to aggressive and highly invasive cancer. This is due to complex changes in cancer cells and their microenvironment that lead to dissolution of intracellular junctions and their detachment from basolateral membrane, and changes in the interactions between cancer cells and ECM. The loss of adhesion is accompanied by molecular and morphologic changes in cancer cells that are essential for the phenotypic change from epithelial to mesenchymal one, and the acquirement of higher migration and invasion potential. During the colonization of distant sites, a reverse process mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET) takes place and metastatic cancer cells again acquire the epithelial phenotype. The EMT in cancer progression is not only specific for cancer cells. It has been suggested that also cells within tumor microenvironment e.g. cancer associated fibroblasts (CAF) are generated in part from normal epithelial cells in EMT process. The understanding of the role of EMT and MET processes in cancer progression and their relationship with cancer stem cells, cancer associated fibroblasts and other stroma cells might lead to the discovery of new, targeted cancer therapies.

  6. Protons sensitize epithelial cells to mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Minli; Hada, Megumi; Saha, Janapriya; Sridharan, Deepa M; Pluth, Janice M; Cucinotta, Francis A

    2012-01-01

    Proton radiotherapy has gained more favor among oncologists as a treatment option for localized and deep-seated tumors. In addition, protons are a major constituent of the space radiation astronauts receive during space flights. The potential for these exposures to lead to, or enhance cancer risk has not been well studied. Our objective is to study the biological effects of low energy protons on epithelial cells and its propensity to enhance transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFβ1)-mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a process occurring during tumor progression and critical for invasion and metastasis. Non-transformed mink lung epithelial cells (Mv1Lu) and hTERT- immortalized human esophageal epithelial cells (EPC) were used in this study. EMT was identified by alterations in cell morphology, EMT-related gene expression changes determined using real-time PCR, and EMT changes in specific cellular markers detected by immunostaining and western blotting. Although TGFβ1 treatment alone is able to induce EMT in both Mv1Lu and EPC cells, low energy protons (5 MeV) at doses as low as 0.1 Gy can enhance TGFβ1 induced EMT. Protons alone can also induce a mild induction of EMT. SD208, a potent TGFβ Receptor 1 (TGFβR1) kinase inhibitor, can efficiently block TGFβ1/Smad signaling and attenuate EMT induction. We suggest a model for EMT after proton irradiation in normal and cancerous tissue based on our results that showed that low and high doses of protons can sensitize normal human epithelial cells to mesenchymal transition, more prominently in the presence of TGFβ1, but also in the absence of TGFβ1.

  7. Protons Sensitize Epithelial Cells to Mesenchymal Transition

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Minli; Hada, Megumi; Saha, Janapriya; Sridharan, Deepa M.; Pluth, Janice M.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2012-01-01

    Proton radiotherapy has gained more favor among oncologists as a treatment option for localized and deep-seated tumors. In addition, protons are a major constituent of the space radiation astronauts receive during space flights. The potential for these exposures to lead to, or enhance cancer risk has not been well studied. Our objective is to study the biological effects of low energy protons on epithelial cells and its propensity to enhance transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFβ1)-mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a process occurring during tumor progression and critical for invasion and metastasis. Non-transformed mink lung epithelial cells (Mv1Lu) and hTERT- immortalized human esophageal epithelial cells (EPC) were used in this study. EMT was identified by alterations in cell morphology, EMT-related gene expression changes determined using real-time PCR, and EMT changes in specific cellular markers detected by immunostaining and western blotting. Although TGFβ1 treatment alone is able to induce EMT in both Mv1Lu and EPC cells, low energy protons (5 MeV) at doses as low as 0.1 Gy can enhance TGFβ1 induced EMT. Protons alone can also induce a mild induction of EMT. SD208, a potent TGFβ Receptor 1 (TGFβR1) kinase inhibitor, can efficiently block TGFβ1/Smad signaling and attenuate EMT induction. We suggest a model for EMT after proton irradiation in normal and cancerous tissue based on our results that showed that low and high doses of protons can sensitize normal human epithelial cells to mesenchymal transition, more prominently in the presence of TGFβ1, but also in the absence of TGFβ1. PMID:22844446

  8. Modeling continuum of epithelial mesenchymal transition plasticity.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Mousumi; Ghosh, Biswajoy; Anura, Anji; Mitra, Pabitra; Pathak, Tanmaya; Chatterjee, Jyotirmoy

    2016-02-01

    Living systems respond to ambient pathophysiological changes by altering their phenotype, a phenomenon called 'phenotypic plasticity'. This program contains information about adaptive biological dynamism. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is one such process found to be crucial in development, wound healing, and cancer wherein the epithelial cells with restricted migratory potential develop motile functions by acquiring mesenchymal characteristics. In the present study, phase contrast microscopy images of EMT induced HaCaT cells were acquired at 24 h intervals for 96 h. The expression study of relevant pivotal molecules viz. F-actin, vimentin, fibronectin and N-cadherin was carried out to confirm the EMT process. Cells were intuitively categorized into five distinct morphological phenotypes. A population of 500 cells for each temporal point was selected to quantify their frequency of occurrence. The plastic interplay of cell phenotypes from the observations was described as a Markovian process. A model was formulated empirically using simple linear algebra, to depict the possible mechanisms of cellular transformation among the five phenotypes. This work employed qualitative, semi-quantitative and quantitative tools towards illustration and establishment of the EMT continuum. Thus, it provides a newer perspective to understand the embedded plasticity across the EMT spectrum. PMID:26762753

  9. Emerging role of epithelial-mesenchymal transition in hepatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Go J

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that the phenomenon of epithelial-mesenchymal-transition (EMT) plays a fundamental role in the tumor development. Several research articles have been published from Journal of Experimental and Clinical Cancer Research (JECCR) which have investigated into the molecular machineries underlying the importance of EMT for hepatic cancer. Given those recent publications by JECCR, this commentary focuses on the pathological significance of EMT for liver tumor. PMID:27619936

  10. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition: An emerging target in tissue fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Li, Meirong; Luan, Fuxin; Zhao, Yali; Hao, Haojie; Zhou, Yong; Han, Weidong; Fu, Xiaobing

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is involved in a variety of tissue fibroses. Fibroblasts/myofibroblasts derived from epithelial cells contribute to the excessive accumulation of fibrous connective tissue in damaged tissue, which can lead to permanent scarring or organ malfunction. Therefore, EMT-related fibrosis cannot be neglected. This review highlights the findings that demonstrate the EMT to be a direct contributor to the fibroblast/myofibroblast population in the development of tissue fibrosis and helps to elucidate EMT-related anti-fibrotic strategies, which may enable the development of therapeutic interventions to suppress EMT and potentially reverse organ fibrosis.

  11. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition: An emerging target in tissue fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Meirong; Luan, Fuxin; Zhao, Yali; Hao, Haojie; Zhou, Yong; Han, Weidong

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is involved in a variety of tissue fibroses. Fibroblasts/myofibroblasts derived from epithelial cells contribute to the excessive accumulation of fibrous connective tissue in damaged tissue, which can lead to permanent scarring or organ malfunction. Therefore, EMT-related fibrosis cannot be neglected. This review highlights the findings that demonstrate the EMT to be a direct contributor to the fibroblast/myofibroblast population in the development of tissue fibrosis and helps to elucidate EMT-related anti-fibrotic strategies, which may enable the development of therapeutic interventions to suppress EMT and potentially reverse organ fibrosis. PMID:26361988

  12. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition can suppress major attributes of human epithelial tumor-initiating cells

    PubMed Central

    Celià-Terrassa, Toni; Meca-Cortés, Óscar; Mateo, Francesca; Martínez de Paz, Alexia; Rubio, Nuria; Arnal-Estapé, Anna; Ell, Brian J.; Bermudo, Raquel; Díaz, Alba; Guerra-Rebollo, Marta; Lozano, Juan José; Estarás, Conchi; Ulloa, Catalina; ρlvarez-Simón, Daniel; Milà, Jordi; Vilella, Ramón; Paciucci, Rosanna; Martínez-Balbás, Marian; García de Herreros, Antonio; Gomis, Roger R.; Kang, Yibin; Blanco, Jerónimo; Fernández, Pedro L.; Thomson, Timothy M.

    2012-01-01

    Malignant progression in cancer requires populations of tumor-initiating cells (TICs) endowed with unlimited self renewal, survival under stress, and establishment of distant metastases. Additionally, the acquisition of invasive properties driven by epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is critical for the evolution of neoplastic cells into fully metastatic populations. Here, we characterize 2 human cellular models derived from prostate and bladder cancer cell lines to better understand the relationship between TIC and EMT programs in local invasiveness and distant metastasis. The model tumor subpopulations that expressed a strong epithelial gene program were enriched in highly metastatic TICs, while a second subpopulation with stable mesenchymal traits was impoverished in TICs. Constitutive overexpression of the transcription factor Snai1 in the epithelial/TIC-enriched populations engaged a mesenchymal gene program and suppressed their self renewal and metastatic phenotypes. Conversely, knockdown of EMT factors in the mesenchymal-like prostate cancer cell subpopulation caused a gain in epithelial features and properties of TICs. Both tumor cell subpopulations cooperated so that the nonmetastatic mesenchymal-like prostate cancer subpopulation enhanced the in vitro invasiveness of the metastatic epithelial subpopulation and, in vivo, promoted the escape of the latter from primary implantation sites and accelerated their metastatic colonization. Our models provide new insights into how dynamic interactions among epithelial, self-renewal, and mesenchymal gene programs determine the plasticity of epithelial TICs. PMID:22505459

  13. TGF-β induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xenitidis, P.; Seimenis, I.; Kakolyris, S.; Adamopoulos, A.

    2015-09-01

    Epithelial cells may undergo a process called epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). During EMT, cells lose their epithelial characteristics and acquire a migratory ability. Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) signaling is considered to play an important role in EMT by regulating a set of genes through a gene regulatory network (GRN). This work aims at TGF-β induced EMT GRN modeling using publicly available experimental data (gene expression microarray data). The time-series network identification (TSNI) algorithm was used for inferring the EMT GRN. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) and precision-recall (P-R) curves were constructed and the areas under them were used for evaluating the algorithm performance regarding network inference.

  14. MicroRNA Regulation of Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition

    PubMed Central

    Abba, Mohammed L.; Patil, Nitin; Leupold, Jörg Hendrik; Allgayer, Heike

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a central regulatory program that is similar in many aspects to several steps of embryonic morphogenesis. In addition to its physiological role in tissue repair and wound healing, EMT contributes to chemo resistance, metastatic dissemination and fibrosis, amongst others. Classically, the morphological change from epithelial to mesenchymal phenotype is characterized by the appearance or loss of a group of proteins which have come to be recognized as markers of the EMT process. As with all proteins, these molecules are controlled at the transcriptional and translational level by transcription factors and microRNAs, respectively. A group of developmental transcription factors form the backbone of the EMT cascade and a large body of evidence shows that microRNAs are heavily involved in the successful coordination of mesenchymal transformation and vice versa, either by suppressing the expression of different groups of transcription factors, or otherwise acting as their functional mediators in orchestrating EMT. This article dissects the contribution of microRNAs to EMT and analyzes the molecular basis for their roles in this cellular process. Here, we emphasize their interaction with core transcription factors like the zinc finger enhancer (E)-box binding homeobox (ZEB), Snail and Twist families as well as some pluripotency transcription factors. PMID:26784241

  15. Noncoding RNAs in Tumor Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ching-Wen; Lin, Pei-Ying; Yang, Pan-Chyr

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial-derived tumor cells acquire the capacity for epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which enables them to invade adjacent tissues and/or metastasize to distant organs. Cancer metastasis is the main cause of cancer-related death. Molecular mechanisms involved in the switch from an epithelial phenotype to mesenchymal status are complicated and are controlled by a variety of signaling pathways. Recently, a set of noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs), including miRNAs and long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), were found to modulate gene expressions at either transcriptional or posttranscriptional levels. These ncRNAs are involved in EMT through their interplay with EMT-related transcription factors (EMT-TFs) and EMT-associated signaling. Reciprocal regulatory interactions between lncRNAs and miRNAs further increase the complexity of the regulation of gene expression and protein translation. In this review, we discuss recent findings regarding EMT-regulating ncRNAs and their associated signaling pathways involved in cancer progression. PMID:26989421

  16. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition mediated tumourigenesis in the gastrointestinal tract

    PubMed Central

    Natalwala, Ammar; Spychal, Robert; Tselepis, Chris

    2008-01-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a highly conserved process that has been well characterised in embryogenesis. Studies have shown that the aberrant activation of EMT in adult epithelia can promote tumour metastasis by repressing cell adhesion molecules, including epithelial (E)-cadherin. Reduced intracellular adhesion may allow tumour cells to disseminate and spread throughout the body. A number of transcription proteins of the Snail superfamily have been implicated in EMT. These proteins have been shown to be over-expressed in advanced gastrointestinal (GI) tumours including oesophageal adenocarcinomas, colorectal carcinomas, gastric and pancreatic cancers, with a concomitant reduction in the expression of E-cadherin. Regulators of EMT may provide novel clinical targets to detect GI cancers early, so that cancers previously associated with a poor prognosis such as pancreatic cancer can be diagnosed before they become inoperable. Furthermore, pharmacological therapies designed to inhibit these proteins will aim to prevent local and distant tumour invasion. PMID:18609701

  17. Sirtuins and Cancer: Role in the Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition

    PubMed Central

    Della-Morte, David; Capuani, Barbara; Silvestris, Franco

    2016-01-01

    The human sirtuins (SIRT1–SIRT7) enzymes are a highly conserved family of NAD+-dependent histone deacetylases, which play a critical role in the regulation of a large number of metabolic pathways involved in stress response and aging. Cancer is an age-associated disease, and sirtuins may have a considerable impact on a plethora of processes that regulate tumorigenesis. In particular, growing evidence suggests that sirtuins may modulate epithelial plasticity by inducing transcriptional reprogramming leading to epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), invasion, and metastases. Though commonly regarded as EMT inducers, sirtuins may also suppress this process, and their functional properties seem to largely depend on the cellular context, stage of cancer development, tissue of origin, and microenvironment architecture. Here, we review the role of sirtuins in cancer biology with particular emphasis on their role in EMT. PMID:27379175

  18. Role of Epithelial-Mesenchyme Transition in Chlamydia Pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Igietseme, Joseph U; Omosun, Yusuf; Stuchlik, Olga; Reed, Matthew S; Partin, James; He, Qing; Joseph, Kahaliah; Ellerson, Debra; Bollweg, Brigid; George, Zenas; Eko, Francis O; Bandea, Claudiu; Liu, Hsi; Yang, Genyan; Shieh, Wun-Ju; Pohl, Jan; Karem, Kevin; Black, Carolyn M

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection in women causes serious adverse reproductive complications, and is a strong co-factor for human papilloma virus (HPV)-associated cervical epithelial carcinoma. We tested the hypothesis that Chlamydia induces epithelial-mesenchyme transition (EMT) involving T cell-derived TNF-alpha signaling, caspase activation, cleavage inactivation of dicer and dysregulation of micro-RNA (miRNA) in the reproductive epithelium; the pathologic process of EMT causes fibrosis and fertility-related epithelial dysfunction, and also provides the co-factor function for HPV-related cervical epithelial carcinoma. Using a combination of microarrays, immunohistochemistry and proteomics, we showed that chlamydia altered the expression of crucial miRNAs that control EMT, fibrosis and tumorigenesis; specifically, miR-15a, miR-29b, miR-382 and MiR-429 that maintain epithelial integrity were down-regulated, while miR-9, mi-R-19a, miR-22 and miR-205 that promote EMT, fibrosis and tumorigenesis were up-regulated. Chlamydia induced EMT in vitro and in vivo, marked by the suppression of normal epithelial cell markers especially E-cadherin but up-regulation of mesenchymal markers of pathological EMT, including T-cadherin, MMP9, and fibronectin. Also, Chlamydia upregulated pro-EMT regulators, including the zinc finger E-box binding homeobox protein, ZEB1, Snail1/2, and thrombospondin1 (Thbs1), but down-regulated anti-EMT and fertility promoting proteins (i.e., the major gap junction protein connexin 43 (Cx43), Mets1, Add1Scarb1 and MARCKSL1). T cell-derived TNF-alpha signaling was required for chlamydial-induced infertility and caspase inhibitors prevented both infertility and EMT. Thus, chlamydial-induced T cell-derived TNF-alpha activated caspases that inactivated dicer, causing alteration in the expression of reproductive epithelial miRNAs and induction of EMT. EMT causes epithelial malfunction, fibrosis, infertility, and the enhancement of tumorigenesis of HPV

  19. Role of Epithelial-Mesenchyme Transition in Chlamydia Pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Igietseme, Joseph U; Omosun, Yusuf; Stuchlik, Olga; Reed, Matthew S; Partin, James; He, Qing; Joseph, Kahaliah; Ellerson, Debra; Bollweg, Brigid; George, Zenas; Eko, Francis O; Bandea, Claudiu; Liu, Hsi; Yang, Genyan; Shieh, Wun-Ju; Pohl, Jan; Karem, Kevin; Black, Carolyn M

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection in women causes serious adverse reproductive complications, and is a strong co-factor for human papilloma virus (HPV)-associated cervical epithelial carcinoma. We tested the hypothesis that Chlamydia induces epithelial-mesenchyme transition (EMT) involving T cell-derived TNF-alpha signaling, caspase activation, cleavage inactivation of dicer and dysregulation of micro-RNA (miRNA) in the reproductive epithelium; the pathologic process of EMT causes fibrosis and fertility-related epithelial dysfunction, and also provides the co-factor function for HPV-related cervical epithelial carcinoma. Using a combination of microarrays, immunohistochemistry and proteomics, we showed that chlamydia altered the expression of crucial miRNAs that control EMT, fibrosis and tumorigenesis; specifically, miR-15a, miR-29b, miR-382 and MiR-429 that maintain epithelial integrity were down-regulated, while miR-9, mi-R-19a, miR-22 and miR-205 that promote EMT, fibrosis and tumorigenesis were up-regulated. Chlamydia induced EMT in vitro and in vivo, marked by the suppression of normal epithelial cell markers especially E-cadherin but up-regulation of mesenchymal markers of pathological EMT, including T-cadherin, MMP9, and fibronectin. Also, Chlamydia upregulated pro-EMT regulators, including the zinc finger E-box binding homeobox protein, ZEB1, Snail1/2, and thrombospondin1 (Thbs1), but down-regulated anti-EMT and fertility promoting proteins (i.e., the major gap junction protein connexin 43 (Cx43), Mets1, Add1Scarb1 and MARCKSL1). T cell-derived TNF-alpha signaling was required for chlamydial-induced infertility and caspase inhibitors prevented both infertility and EMT. Thus, chlamydial-induced T cell-derived TNF-alpha activated caspases that inactivated dicer, causing alteration in the expression of reproductive epithelial miRNAs and induction of EMT. EMT causes epithelial malfunction, fibrosis, infertility, and the enhancement of tumorigenesis of HPV

  20. Role of Epithelial-Mesenchyme Transition in Chlamydia Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Igietseme, Joseph U.; Omosun, Yusuf; Stuchlik, Olga; Reed, Matthew S.; Partin, James; He, Qing; Joseph, Kahaliah; Ellerson, Debra; Bollweg, Brigid; George, Zenas; Eko, Francis O.; Bandea, Claudiu; Liu, Hsi; Yang, Genyan; Shieh, Wun-Ju; Pohl, Jan; Karem, Kevin; Black, Carolyn M.

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection in women causes serious adverse reproductive complications, and is a strong co-factor for human papilloma virus (HPV)-associated cervical epithelial carcinoma. We tested the hypothesis that Chlamydia induces epithelial-mesenchyme transition (EMT) involving T cell-derived TNF-alpha signaling, caspase activation, cleavage inactivation of dicer and dysregulation of micro-RNA (miRNA) in the reproductive epithelium; the pathologic process of EMT causes fibrosis and fertility-related epithelial dysfunction, and also provides the co-factor function for HPV-related cervical epithelial carcinoma. Using a combination of microarrays, immunohistochemistry and proteomics, we showed that chlamydia altered the expression of crucial miRNAs that control EMT, fibrosis and tumorigenesis; specifically, miR-15a, miR-29b, miR-382 and MiR-429 that maintain epithelial integrity were down-regulated, while miR-9, mi-R-19a, miR-22 and miR-205 that promote EMT, fibrosis and tumorigenesis were up-regulated. Chlamydia induced EMT in vitro and in vivo, marked by the suppression of normal epithelial cell markers especially E-cadherin but up-regulation of mesenchymal markers of pathological EMT, including T-cadherin, MMP9, and fibronectin. Also, Chlamydia upregulated pro-EMT regulators, including the zinc finger E-box binding homeobox protein, ZEB1, Snail1/2, and thrombospondin1 (Thbs1), but down-regulated anti-EMT and fertility promoting proteins (i.e., the major gap junction protein connexin 43 (Cx43), Mets1, Add1Scarb1 and MARCKSL1). T cell-derived TNF-alpha signaling was required for chlamydial-induced infertility and caspase inhibitors prevented both infertility and EMT. Thus, chlamydial-induced T cell-derived TNF-alpha activated caspases that inactivated dicer, causing alteration in the expression of reproductive epithelial miRNAs and induction of EMT. EMT causes epithelial malfunction, fibrosis, infertility, and the enhancement of tumorigenesis of HPV

  1. Esophageal epithelial cells acquire functional characteristics of activated myofibroblasts after undergoing an epithelial to mesenchymal transition

    PubMed Central

    Muir, Amanda B.; Dods, Kara; Noah, Yuli; Toltzis, Sarit; Chandramouleeswaran, Prasanna Modayur; Lee, Anna; Benitez, Alain; Bedenbaugh, Adam; Falk, Gary W.; Wells, Rebecca G.; Nakagawa, Hiroshi; Wang, Mei-Lun

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is an allergic inflammatory disease that leads to esophageal fibrosis and stricture. We have recently shown that in EoE, esophageal epithelial cells undergo an epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), characterized by gain of mesenchymal markers and loss of epithelial gene expression. Whether epithelial cells exposed to profibrotic cytokines can also acquire the functional characteristics of activated myofibroblasts, including migration, contraction, and extracellular matrix deposition, is relevant to our understanding and treatment of EoE-associated fibrogenesis. In the current study, we characterize cell migration, contraction, and collagen production by esophageal epithelial cells that have undergone cytokine-induced EMT in vitro. Methods and Results Stimulation of human non-transformed immortalized esophageal epithelial cells (EPC2-hTERT) with profibrotic cytokines TNFα, TGFβ, and IL1β for three weeks led to acquisition of mesenchymal αSMA and vimentin, and loss of epithelial E-cadherin expression. Upon removal of the profibrotic stimulus, epithelial characteristics were partially rescued. TGFβ stimulation had a robust effect upon epithelial collagen production. Surprisingly, TNFα stimulation had the most potent effect upon cell migration and contraction, exceeding the effects of the prototypical profibrotic cytokine TGFβ. IL1β stimulation alone had minimal effect upon esophageal epithelial migration, contraction, and collagen production. Conclusions Esophageal epithelial cells that have undergone EMT acquire functional characteristics of activated myofibroblasts in vitro. Profibrotic cytokines exert differential effects upon esophageal epithelial cells, underscoring complexities of fibrogenesis in EoE, and implicating esophageal epithelial cells as effector cells in EoE-associated fibrogenesis. PMID:25183431

  2. OVOL guides the epithelial-hybrid-mesenchymal transition

    PubMed Central

    Boareto, Marcelo; Parsana, Princy; Mooney, Steven M.; Pienta, Kenneth J.; Levine, Herbert; Ben-Jacob, Eshel

    2015-01-01

    Metastasis involves multiple cycles of Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) and its reverse-MET. Cells can also undergo partial transitions to attain a hybrid epithelial/mesenchymal (E/M) phenotype that has maximum cellular plasticity and allows migration of Circulating Tumor Cells (CTCs) as a cluster. Hence, deciphering the molecular players helping to maintain the hybrid E/M phenotype may inform anti-metastasis strategies. Here, we devised a mechanism-based mathematical model to couple the transcription factor OVOL with the core EMT regulatory network miR-200/ZEB that acts as a three-way switch between the E, E/M and M phenotypes. We show that OVOL can modulate cellular plasticity in multiple ways - restricting EMT, driving MET, expanding the existence of the hybrid E/M phenotype and turning both EMT and MET into two-step processes. Our theoretical framework explains the differences between the observed effects of OVOL in breast and prostate cancer, and provides a platform for investigating additional signals during metastasis. PMID:25944618

  3. Tissue geometry patterns epithelial-mesenchymal transition via intercellular mechanotransduction

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, Esther W.; Chen, Qike K.; Gjorevski, Nikolce; Nelson, Celeste M.

    2010-01-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a phenotypic change in which epithelial cells detach from their neighbors and become motile. Whereas soluble signals such as growth factors and cytokines are responsible for stimulating EMT, here we show that gradients of mechanical stress define the spatial locations at which EMT occurs. When treated with transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, cells at the corners and edges of square mammary epithelial sheets expressed EMT markers, whereas those in the center did not. Changing the shape of the epithelial sheet altered the spatial pattern of EMT. Traction force microscopy and finite element modeling demonstrated that EMT-permissive regions experienced the highest mechanical stress. Myocardin-related transcription factor (MRTF)-A was localized to the nuclei of cells located in high-stress regions, and inhibiting cytoskeletal tension or MRTF-A expression abrogated the spatial patterning of EMT. These data suggest a causal role for tissue geometry and endogenous mechanical stresses in the spatial patterning of EMT. PMID:20336666

  4. Role of Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition in Prostate Tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Mohammad Imran; Hamid, Abid; Adhami, Vaqar Mustafa; Lall, Rahul K; Mukhtar, Hasan

    2015-01-01

    Globally, the cancer associated deaths are generally attributed to the spread of cancerous cells or their features to the nearby or distant secondary organs by a process known as metastasis. Among other factors, the metastatic dissemination of cancer cells is attributed to the reactivation of an evolutionary conserved developmental program known as epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). During EMT, fully differentiated epithelial cells undergo a series of dramatic changes in their morphology, along with loss of cell to cell contact and matrix remodeling into less differentiated and invasive mesenchymal cells. Many studies provide evidence for the existence of EMT like states in prostate cancer (PCa) and suggest its possible involvement in PCa progression and metastasis. At the same time, the lack of conclusive evidence regarding the presence of full EMT in human PCa samples has somewhat dampened the interest in the field. However, ongoing EMT research provides new perspectives and unveils the enormous potential of this field in tailoring new therapeutic regimens for PCa management. This review summarizes the role of many transcription factors and other molecules that drive EMT during prostate tumorigenesis. PMID:25506896

  5. Mechanisms of TGFβ-Induced Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition.

    PubMed

    Moustakas, Aristidis; Heldin, Carl-Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Transitory phenotypic changes such as the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) help embryonic cells to generate migratory descendants that populate new sites and establish the distinct tissues in the developing embryo. The mesenchymal descendants of diverse epithelia also participate in the wound healing response of adult tissues, and facilitate the progression of cancer. EMT can be induced by several extracellular cues in the microenvironment of a given epithelial tissue. One such cue, transforming growth factor β (TGFβ), prominently induces EMT via a group of specific transcription factors. The potency of TGFβ is partly based on its ability to perform two parallel molecular functions, i.e. to induce the expression of growth factors, cytokines and chemokines, which sequentially and in a complementary manner help to establish and maintain the EMT, and to mediate signaling crosstalk with other developmental signaling pathways, thus promoting changes in cell differentiation. The molecules that are activated by TGFβ signaling or act as cooperating partners of this pathway are impossible to exhaust within a single coherent and contemporary report. Here, we present selected examples to illustrate the key principles of the circuits that control EMT under the influence of TGFβ. PMID:27367735

  6. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition: a new target in anticancer drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Marcucci, Fabrizio; Stassi, Giorgio; De Maria, Ruggero

    2016-05-01

    The conversion of cells with an epithelial phenotype into cells with a mesenchymal phenotype, referred to as epithelial-mesenchymal transition, is a critical process for embryonic development that also occurs in adult life, particularly during tumour progression. Tumour cells undergoing epithelial-mesenchymal transition acquire the capacity to disarm the body's antitumour defences, resist apoptosis and anticancer drugs, disseminate throughout the organism, and act as a reservoir that replenishes and expands the tumour cell population. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition is therefore becoming a target of prime interest for anticancer therapy. Here, we discuss the screening and classification of compounds that affect epithelial-mesenchymal transition, highlight some compounds of particular interest, and address issues related to their clinical application.

  7. Osteopontin-A Master Regulator of Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition.

    PubMed

    Kothari, Anai N; Arffa, Matthew L; Chang, Victor; Blackwell, Robert H; Syn, Wing-Kin; Zhang, Jiwang; Mi, Zhiyong; Kuo, Paul C

    2016-01-01

    Osteopontin (OPN) plays an important functional role in both physiologic and pathologic states. OPN is implicated in the progression of fibrosis, cancer, and metastatic disease in several organ systems. The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), first described in embryology, is increasingly being recognized as a significant contributor to fibrotic phenotypes and tumor progression. Several well-established transcription factors regulate EMT and are conserved across tissue types and organ systems, including TWIST, zinc finger E-box-binding homeobox (ZEB), and SNAIL-family members. Recent literature points to an important relationship between OPN and EMT, implicating OPN as a key regulatory component of EMT programs. In this review, OPN's interplay with traditional EMT activators, both directly and indirectly, will be discussed. Also, OPN's ability to restructure the tissue and tumor microenvironment to indirectly modify EMT will be reviewed. Together, these diverse pathways demonstrate that OPN is able to modulate EMT and provide new targets for directing therapeutics. PMID:27023622

  8. [Epithelial-mesenchymal transition in health and disease].

    PubMed

    Puchinskaia, M V

    2015-01-01

    The paper gives general information about the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), its morphological manifestations, altered expression of a number of proteins, types of EMT, and its role in embryogenesis and human diseases, including that about EMT as a mechanism by which the tumor cell acquires prometastatic potential. EMT is a process that is essential in health for gastrulation and the formation of neural crest cells; however, it is also important for the development of abnormalities, among other processes, organ fibrosis and tumor metastases. An understanding of the role of EMT in cancer spread has led to active studies of the process in the past decades. Despite the fact that there are sufficiently many publications on different aspects of EMT, the exact mechanisms regulating the process and the possibility for its therapeutic exposure remain unclear. There is also evidence on the possible association of EMT with the generation of cancer stem cells in tumors. PMID:25868373

  9. Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Epithelial Transition Induced by Renal Tubular Cells-Derived Extracellular Vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Chiabotto, Giulia; Bruno, Stefania; Collino, Federica

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal-epithelial interactions play an important role in renal tubular morphogenesis and in maintaining the structure of the kidney. The aim of this study was to investigate whether extracellular vesicles (EVs) produced by human renal proximal tubular epithelial cells (RPTECs) may induce mesenchymal-epithelial transition of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). To test this hypothesis, we characterized the phenotype and the RNA content of EVs and we evaluated the in vitro uptake and activity of EVs on MSCs. MicroRNA (miRNA) analysis suggested the possible implication of the miR-200 family carried by EVs in the epithelial commitment of MSCs. Bone marrow-derived MSCs were incubated with EVs, or RPTEC-derived total conditioned medium, or conditioned medium depleted of EVs. As a positive control, MSCs were co-cultured in a transwell system with RPTECs. Epithelial commitment of MSCs was assessed by real time PCR and by immunofluorescence analysis of cellular expression of specific mesenchymal and epithelial markers. After one week of incubation with EVs and total conditioned medium, we observed mesenchymal-epithelial transition in MSCs. Stimulation with conditioned medium depleted of EVs did not induce any change in mesenchymal and epithelial gene expression. Since EVs were found to contain the miR-200 family, we transfected MSCs using synthetic miR-200 mimics. After one week of transfection, mesenchymal-epithelial transition was induced in MSCs. In conclusion, miR-200 carrying EVs released from RPTECs induce the epithelial commitment of MSCs that may contribute to their regenerative potential. Based on experiments of MSC transfection with miR-200 mimics, we suggested that the miR-200 family may be involved in mesenchymal-epithelial transition of MSCs. PMID:27409796

  10. Osteopontin—A Master Regulator of Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition

    PubMed Central

    Kothari, Anai N.; Arffa, Matthew L.; Chang, Victor; Blackwell, Robert H.; Syn, Wing-Kin; Zhang, Jiwang; Mi, Zhiyong; Kuo, Paul C.

    2016-01-01

    Osteopontin (OPN) plays an important functional role in both physiologic and pathologic states. OPN is implicated in the progression of fibrosis, cancer, and metastatic disease in several organ systems. The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), first described in embryology, is increasingly being recognized as a significant contributor to fibrotic phenotypes and tumor progression. Several well-established transcription factors regulate EMT and are conserved across tissue types and organ systems, including TWIST, zinc finger E-box-binding homeobox (ZEB), and SNAIL-family members. Recent literature points to an important relationship between OPN and EMT, implicating OPN as a key regulatory component of EMT programs. In this review, OPN’s interplay with traditional EMT activators, both directly and indirectly, will be discussed. Also, OPN’s ability to restructure the tissue and tumor microenvironment to indirectly modify EMT will be reviewed. Together, these diverse pathways demonstrate that OPN is able to modulate EMT and provide new targets for directing therapeutics. PMID:27023622

  11. Novel clinical therapeutics targeting the epithelial to mesenchymal transition

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is implicated in many processes, ranging from tissue and organogenesis to cancer and metastatic spread. Understanding the key regulatory mechanisms and mediators within this process offers the opportunity to develop novel therapeutics with broad clinical applicability. To date, several components of EMT already are targeted using pharmacologic agents in fibrosis and cancer. As our knowledge of EMT continues to grow, the potential for novel therapeutics will also increase. This review focuses on the role of EMT both as a necessary part of development and a key player in disease progression, specifically the similarity in pathways used during both processes as targets for drug development. Also, the key role of the tumor microenvironment with EMT is outlined, focusing on both co-factors and cell types with the ability to modulate the progression of EMT in cancer and metastatic disease. Lastly, we discuss the current status of clinical therapies both in development and those progressed to clinical trial specifically targeting pathologic EMTs including small molecule inhibitors, non-coding RNAs, exogenous co-factors, and adjunctive therapies to current chemotherapeutics. PMID:25343018

  12. Scrib is Required for Epithelial Cell Identity and Prevents Epithelial To Mesenchymal Transition in the Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Yamben, Idella F.; Rachel, Rivka A.; Shatadal, Shalini; Copeland, Neal G.; Jenkins, Nancy A.; Warming, Soren; Griep, Anne E.

    2013-01-01

    The integrity and function of epithelial tissues depends on the establishment and maintenance of defining characteristics of epithelial cells, cell-cell adhesion and cell polarity. Disruption of these characteristics can lead to the loss of epithelial identity through a process called epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), which can contribute to pathological conditions such as tissue fibrosis and invasive cancer. In invertebrates, the epithelial polarity gene scrib plays a critical role in establishing and maintaining cell adhesion and polarity. In this study we asked if the mouse homolog, Scrib, is required for establishment and/or maintenance of epithelial identity in vivo. To do so, we conditionally deleted Scrib in the head ectoderm tissue that gives rise to both the ocular lens and the corneal epithelium. Deletion of Scrib in the lens resulted in a change in epithelial cell shape from cuboidal to flattened and elongated. Early in the process, the cell adhesion protein, E-cadherin, and apical polarity protein, ZO-1, were downregulated and the myofibroblast protein, αSMA, was upregulated, suggesting EMT was occurring in the Scrib deficient lenses. Correlating temporally with the upregulation of αSMA, Smad3 and Smad4, TGFβ signaling intermediates, accumulated in the nucleus and Snail, a TGFβ target and transcriptional repressor of the gene encoding E-cadherin, was upregulated. Pax6, a lens epithelial transcription factor required to maintain lens epithelial cell identity also was downregulated. Loss of Scrib in the corneal epithelium also led to molecular changes consistent with EMT, suggesting that the effect of Scrib deficiency was not unique to the lens. Together, these data indicate that mammalian Scrib is required to maintain epithelial identity and that loss of Scrib can culminate in EMT, mediated, at least in part, through TGFβ signaling. PMID:24095903

  13. Klebsiella pneumoniae Is Able to Trigger Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition Process in Cultured Airway Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Leone, Laura; Mazzetta, Francesca; Martinelli, Daniela; Valente, Sabatino; Alimandi, Maurizio; Raffa, Salvatore; Santino, Iolanda

    2016-01-01

    The ability of some bacterial pathogens to activate Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition normally is a consequence of the persistence of a local chronic inflammatory response or depends on a direct interaction of the pathogens with the host epithelial cells. In this study we monitored the abilities of the K. pneumoniae to activate the expression of genes related to EMT-like processes and the occurrence of phenotypic changes in airway epithelial cells during the early steps of cell infection. We describe changes in the production of intracellular reactive oxygen species and increased HIF-1α mRNA expression in cells exposed to K. pneumoniae infection. We also describe the upregulation of a set of transcription factors implicated in the EMT processes, such as Twist, Snail and ZEB, indicating that the morphological changes of epithelial cells already appreciable after few hours from the K. pneumoniae infection are tightly regulated by the activation of transcriptional pathways, driving epithelial cells to EMT. These effects appear to be effectively counteracted by resveratrol, an antioxidant that is able to exert a sustained scavenging of the intracellular ROS. This is the first report indicating that strains of K. pneumoniae may promote EMT-like programs through direct interaction with epithelial cells without the involvement of inflammatory cells. PMID:26812644

  14. mAChRs activation induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition on lung epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been proposed as a mechanism in the progression of airway diseases and cancer. Here, we explored the role of acetylcholine (ACh) and the pathway involved in the process of EMT, as well as the effects of mAChRs antagonist. Methods Human lung epithelial cells were stimulated with carbachol, an analogue of ACh, and epithelial and mesenchymal marker proteins were evaluated using western blot and immunofluorescence analyses. Results Decreased E-cadherin expression and increased vimentin and α-SMA expression induced by TGF-β1 in alveolar epithelial cell (A549) were significantly abrogated by the non-selective mAChR antagonist atropine and enhanced by the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor physostigmine. An EMT event also occurred in response to physostigmine alone. Furthermore, ChAT express and ACh release by A549 cells were enhanced by TGF-β1. Interestingly, ACh analogue carbachol also induced EMT in A549 cells as well as in bronchial epithelial cells (16HBE) in a time- and concentration-dependent manner, the induction of carbachol was abrogated by selective antagonist of M1 (pirenzepine) and M3 (4-DAMP) mAChRs, but not by M2 (methoctramine) antagonist. Moreover, carbachol induced TGF-β1 production from A549 cells concomitantly with the EMT process. Carbachol-induced EMT occurred through phosphorylation of Smad2/3 and ERK, which was inhibited by pirenzepine and 4-DAMP. Conclusions Our findings for the first time indicated that mAChR activation, perhaps via M1 and M3 mAChR, induced lung epithelial cells to undergo EMT and provided insights into novel therapeutic strategies for airway diseases in which lung remodeling occurs. PMID:24678619

  15. Fuzheng Huayu Recipe Ameliorates Liver Fibrosis by Restoring Balance between Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition and Mesenchymal-to-Epithelial Transition in Hepatic Stellate Cells.

    PubMed

    Pan, Qin; Wang, Yu-Qin; Li, Guang-Ming; Duan, Xiao-Yan; Fan, Jian-Gao

    2015-01-01

    Activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) depending on epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) reflects the key event of liver fibrosis. Contrastively, mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition (MET) of HSCs facilitates the fibrosis resolution. Here we investigated the effect of Fuzheng Huayu (FZHY) recipe, a Chinese herbal decoction made of Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae, Semen Persicae, Cordyceps sinensis, Pollen Pini, and Gynostemma pentaphyllum, on liver fibrosis concerning the balance of EMT and MET in HSCs. In contrast to the increased TGF-β 1/BMP-7 ratio in activated HSCs, FZHY administration induced significant upregulation of BMP-7 and downregulation of TGF-β 1 at both transcription and translation levels. Restoration of TGF-β 1/BMP-7 ratio inhibited the expression of p38 MAPK and phosphorylated p38 MAPK, resulting in the reversal of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) to mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition (MET) as characterized by the abolishment of EMT markers (α-SMA and desmin) and reoccurrence of MET marker (E-cadherin). In vivo treatment of FZHY recipe also demonstrated the statistical reduction of activated HSCs with EMT phenotype, which attenuated the carbon tetrachloride- (CCl4-) induced liver fibrosis in a dose-dependent manner. These findings may highlight a novel antifibrotic role of FZHY recipe on the basis of rebalancing EMT and MET in HSCs. PMID:26881209

  16. Mesenchymal stem cells protect from hypoxia-induced alveolar epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Uzunhan, Yurdagül; Bernard, Olivier; Marchant, Dominique; Dard, Nicolas; Vanneaux, Valérie; Larghero, Jérôme; Gille, Thomas; Clerici, Christine; Valeyre, Dominique; Nunes, Hilario; Boncoeur, Emilie; Planès, Carole

    2016-03-01

    Administration of bone marrow-derived human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) reduces lung inflammation, fibrosis, and mortality in animal models of lung injury, by a mechanism not completely understood. We investigated whether hMSC would prevent epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) induced by hypoxia in primary rat alveolar epithelial cell (AEC). In AEC cultured on semipermeable filters, prolonged hypoxic exposure (1.5% O2 for up to 12 days) induced phenotypic changes consistent with EMT, i.e., a change in cell morphology, a decrease in transepithelial resistance (Rte) and in the expression of epithelial markers [zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), E-cadherin, AQP-5, TTF-1], together with an increase in mesenchymal markers [vimentin, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA)]. Expression of transcription factors driving EMT such as SNAIL1, ZEB1, and TWIST1 increased after 2, 24, and 48 h of hypoxia, respectively. Hypoxia also induced TGF-β1 mRNA expression and the secretion of active TGF-β1 in apical medium, and the expression of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), two inducers of EMT. Coculture of AEC with hMSC partially prevented the decrease in Rte and in ZO-1, E-cadherin, and TTF-1 expression, and the increase in vimentin expression induced by hypoxia. It also abolished the increase in TGF-β1 expression and in TGF-β1-induced genes ZEB1, TWIST1, and CTGF. Finally, incubation with human recombinant KGF at a concentration similar to what was measured in hMSC-conditioned media restored the expression of TTF-1 and prevented the increase in TWIST1, TGF-β1, and CTGF in hypoxic AEC. Our results indicate that hMSC prevent hypoxia-induced alveolar EMT through the paracrine modulation of EMT signaling pathways and suggest that this effect is partly mediated by KGF.

  17. CUX1/Wnt signaling regulates Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition in EBV infected epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Malizia, Andrea P.; Lacey, Noreen; Walls, Dermot; Egan, Jim J.; Doran, Peter P.

    2009-07-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a refractory and lethal interstitial lung disease characterized by alveolar epithelial cells apoptosis, fibroblast proliferation and extra-cellular matrix protein deposition. EBV, localised to alveolar epithelial cells of pulmonary fibrosis patients is associated with a poor prognosis. A strategy based on microarray-differential gene expression analysis to identify molecular drivers of EBV-associated lung fibrosis was utilized. Alveolar epithelial cells were infected with EBV to identify genes whose expression was altered following TGF{beta}1-mediated lytic phase. EBV lytic reactivation by TGF{beta}1 drives a selective alteration in CUX1 variant (a) (NCBI accession number NM{sub 1}81552) expression, inducing activation of non-canonical Wnt pathway mediators, implicating it in Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition (EMT), the molecular event underpinning scar production in tissue fibrosis. The role of EBV in EMT can be attenuated by antiviral strategies and inhibition of Wnt signaling by using All-Trans Retinoic Acids (ATRA). Activation of non-canonical Wnt signaling pathway by EBV in epithelial cells suggests a novel mechanism of EMT via CUX1 signaling. These data present a framework for further description of the link between infectious agents and fibrosis, a significant disease burden.

  18. Parathyroid hormone-related protein promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Ardura, Juan Antonio; Rayego-Mateos, Sandra; Rámila, David; Ruiz-Ortega, Marta; Esbrit, Pedro

    2010-02-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is an important process that contributes to renal fibrogenesis. TGF-beta1 and EGF stimulate EMT. Recent studies suggested that parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) promotes fibrogenesis in the damaged kidney, apparently dependent on its interaction with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), but whether it also interacts with TGF-beta and EGF to modulate EMT is unknown. Here, PTHrP(1-36) increased TGF-beta1 in cultured tubuloepithelial cells and TGF-beta blockade inhibited PTHrP-induced EMT-related changes, including upregulation of alpha-smooth muscle actin and integrin-linked kinase, nuclear translocation of Snail, and downregulation of E-cadherin and zonula occludens-1. PTHrP(1-36) also induced EGF receptor (EGFR) activation; inhibition of protein kinase C and metalloproteases abrogated this activation. Inhibition of EGFR activation abolished these EMT-related changes, the activation of ERK1/2, and upregulation of TGF-beta1 and VEGF by PTHrP(1-36). Moreover, inhibition of ERK1/2 blocked EMT induced by either PTHrP(1-36), TGF-beta1, EGF, or VEGF. In vivo, obstruction of mouse kidneys led to changes consistent with EMT and upregulation of TGF-beta1 mRNA, p-EGFR protein, and PTHrP. Taken together, these data suggest that PTHrP, TGF-beta, EGF, and VEGF might cooperate through activation of ERK1/2 to induce EMT in renal tubuloepithelial cells.

  19. Extracellular matrix proteins regulate epithelial-mesenchymal transition in mammary epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qike K.; Lee, KangAe; Radisky, Derek C.; Nelson, Celeste M.

    2013-01-01

    Mouse mammary epithelial cells undergo transdifferentiation via epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) upon treatment with matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP3). In rigid microenvironments, MMP3 upregulates expression of Rac1b, which translocates to the cell membrane to promote induction of reactive oxygen species and EMT. Here we examine the role of the extracellular matrix (ECM) in this process. Our data show that the basement membrane protein laminin suppresses the EMT response in MMP3-treated cells, whereas fibronectin promotes EMT. These ECM proteins regulate EMT via interactions with their specific integrin receptors. α6-integrin sequesters Rac1b from the membrane and is required for inhibition of EMT by laminin. In contrast, α5-integrin maintains Rac1b at the membrane and is required for the promotion of EMT by fibronectin. Understanding the regulatory role of the ECM will provide insight into mechanisms underlying normal and pathological development of the mammary gland. PMID:23660532

  20. Tracking and Functional Characterization of Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition and Mesenchymal Tumor Cells during Prostate Cancer Metastasis.

    PubMed

    Ruscetti, Marcus; Quach, Bill; Dadashian, Eman L; Mulholland, David J; Wu, Hong

    2015-07-01

    The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been postulated as a mechanism by which cancer cells acquire the invasive and stem-like traits necessary for distant metastasis. However, direct in vivo evidence for the role of EMT in the formation of cancer stem-like cells (CSC) and the metastatic cascade remains lacking. Here we report the first isolation and characterization of mesenchymal-like and EMT tumor cells, which harbor both epithelial and mesenchymal characteristics, in an autochthonous murine model of prostate cancer. By crossing the established Pb-Cre(+/-);Pten(L/L);Kras(G12D) (/+) prostate cancer model with a vimentin-GFP reporter strain, generating CPKV mice, we were able to isolate epithelial, EMT, and mesenchymal-like cancer cells based on expression of vimentin and EpCAM. CPKV mice (but not mice with Pten deletion alone) exhibited expansion of cells with EMT (EpCAM(+)/Vim-GFP(+)) and mesenchymal-like (EpCAM(-)/Vim-GFP(+)) characteristics at the primary tumor site and in circulation. These EMT and mesenchymal-like tumor cells displayed enhanced stemness and invasive character compared with epithelial tumor cells. Moreover, they displayed an enriched tumor-initiating capacity and could regenerate epithelial glandular structures in vivo, indicative of epithelia-mesenchyme plasticity. Interestingly, while mesenchymal-like tumor cells could persist in circulation and survive in the lung following intravenous injection, only epithelial and EMT tumor cells could form macrometastases. Our work extends the evidence that mesenchymal and epithelial states in cancer cells contribute differentially to their capacities for tumor initiation and metastatic seeding, respectively, and that EMT tumor cells exist with plasticity that can contribute to multiple stages of the metastatic cascade. PMID:25948589

  1. Topographic confinement of epithelial clusters induces epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in compliant matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasrollahi, Samila; Pathak, Amit

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial cells disengage from their clusters and become motile by undergoing epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), an essential process for both embryonic development and tumor metastasis. Growing evidence suggests that high extracellular matrix (ECM) stiffness induces EMT. In reality, epithelial clusters reside in a heterogeneous microenvironment whose mechanical properties vary not only in terms of stiffness, but also topography, dimensionality, and confinement. Yet, very little is known about how various geometrical parameters of the ECM might influence EMT. Here, we adapt a hydrogel-microchannels based matrix platform to culture mammary epithelial cell clusters in ECMs of tunable stiffness and confinement. We report a previously unidentified role of ECM confinement in EMT induction. Surprisingly, confinement induces EMT even in the cell clusters surrounded by a soft matrix, which otherwise protects against EMT in unconfined environments. Further, we demonstrate that stiffness-induced and confinement-induced EMT work through cell-matrix adhesions and cytoskeletal polarization, respectively. These findings highlight that both the structure and the stiffness of the ECM can independently regulate EMT, which brings a fresh perspective to the existing paradigm of matrix stiffness-dependent dissemination and invasion of tumor cells.

  2. Radical-Containing Ultrafine Particulate Matter Initiates Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transitions in Airway Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Thevenot, Paul T.; Saravia, Jordy; Jin, Nili; Giaimo, Joseph D.; Chustz, Regina E.; Mahne, Sarah; Kelley, Matthew A.; Hebert, Valeria Y.; Dellinger, Barry; Dugas, Tammy R.; DeMayo, Francesco J.

    2013-01-01

    Environmentally persistent free radicals (EPFRs) in combustion-generated particulate matter (PM) are capable of inducing pulmonary pathologies and contributing to the development of environmental asthma. In vivo exposure of infant rats to EPFRs demonstrates their ability to induce airway hyperresponsiveness to methacholine, a hallmark of asthma. However, the mechanisms by which combustion-derived EPFRs elicit in vivo responses remain elusive. In this study, we used a chemically defined EPFR consisting of approximately 0.2 μm amorphrous silica containing 3% cupric oxide with the organic pollutant 1,2-dichlorobenzene (DCB-230). DCB-230 possesses similar radical content to urban-collected EPFRs but offers several advantages, including lack of contaminants and chemical uniformity. DCB-230 was readily taken up by BEAS-2B and at high doses (200 μg/cm2) caused substantial necrosis. At low doses (20 μg/cm2), DCB-230 particles caused lysosomal membrane permeabilization, oxidative stress, and lipid peroxidation within 24 hours of exposure. During this period, BEAS-2B underwent epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), including loss of epithelial cell morphology, decreased E-cadherin expression, and increased α–smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and collagen I production. Similar results were observed in neonatal air–liquid interface culture (i.e., disruption of epithelial integrity and EMT). Acute exposure of infant mice to DCB-230 resulted in EMT, as confirmed by lineage tracing studies and evidenced by coexpression of epithelial E-cadherin and mesenchymal α-SMA proteins in airway cells and increased SNAI1 expression in the lungs. EMT in neonatal mouse lungs after EPFR exposure may provide an explanation for epidemiological evidence supporting PM exposure and increased risk of asthma. PMID:23087054

  3. A comparison of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and re-epithelialization

    PubMed Central

    Leopold, Philip L.; Vincent, Jan; Wang, Hongjun

    2012-01-01

    Wound healing and cancer metastasis share a common starting point, namely, a change in the phenotype of some cells from stationary to motile. The term, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) describes the changes in molecular biology and cellular physiology that allow a cell to transition from a sedentary cell to a motile cell, a process that is relevant not only for cancer and regeneration, but also for normal development of multicellular organisms. The present review compares the similarities and differences in cellular response at the molecular level as tumor cells enter EMT or as keratinocytes begin the process of re-epithelialization of a wound. Looking toward clinical interventions that might modulate these processes, the mechanisms and outcomes of current and potential therapies are reviewed for both anti-cancer and pro-wound healing treatments related to the pathways that are central to EMT. Taken together, the comparison of re-epithelialization and tumor EMT serves as a starting point for the development of therapies that can selectively modulate different forms of EMT. PMID:22863788

  4. Breast Cancer Stem Cells Transition between Epithelial and Mesenchymal States Reflective of their Normal Counterparts

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Suling; Cong, Yang; Wang, Dong; Sun, Yu; Deng, Lu; Liu, Yajing; Martin-Trevino, Rachel; Shang, Li; McDermott, Sean P.; Landis, Melissa D.; Hong, Suhyung; Adams, April; D’Angelo, Rosemarie; Ginestier, Christophe; Charafe-Jauffret, Emmanuelle; Clouthier, Shawn G.; Birnbaum, Daniel; Wong, Stephen T.; Zhan, Ming; Chang, Jenny C.; Wicha, Max S.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Previous studies have suggested that breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) mediate metastasis, are resistant to radiation and chemotherapy, and contribute to relapse. Although several BCSC markers have been described, it is unclear whether these markers identify the same or independent BCSCs. Here, we show that BCSCs exist in distinct mesenchymal-like (epithelial-mesenchymal transition [EMT]) and epithelial-like (mesenchymal-epithelial transition [MET]) states. Mesenchymal-like BCSCs characterized as CD24−CD44+ are primarily quiescent and localized at the tumor invasive front, whereas epithelial-like BCSCs express aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), are proliferative, and are located more centrally. The gene-expression profiles of mesenchymal-like and epithelial-like BCSCs are remarkably similar across different molecular subtypes of breast cancer, and resemble those of distinct basal and luminal stem cells found in the normal breast. We propose that the plasticity of BCSCs that allows them to transition between EMT- and MET-like states endows these cells with the capacity for tissue invasion, dissemination, and growth at metastatic sites. PMID:24511467

  5. Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) Gene Variants and Epithelial Ovarian Cancer (EOC) Risk.

    PubMed

    Amankwah, Ernest K; Lin, Hui-Yi; Tyrer, Jonathan P; Lawrenson, Kate; Dennis, Joe; Chornokur, Ganna; Aben, Katja K H; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Antonenkova, Natalia; Bruinsma, Fiona; Bandera, Elisa V; Bean, Yukie T; Beckmann, Matthias W; Bisogna, Maria; Bjorge, Line; Bogdanova, Natalia; Brinton, Louise A; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Bunker, Clareann H; Butzow, Ralf; Campbell, Ian G; Carty, Karen; Chen, Zhihua; Chen, Y Ann; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Cook, Linda S; Cramer, Daniel W; Cunningham, Julie M; Cybulski, Cezary; Dansonka-Mieszkowska, Agnieszka; du Bois, Andreas; Despierre, Evelyn; Dicks, Ed; Doherty, Jennifer A; Dörk, Thilo; Dürst, Matthias; Easton, Douglas F; Eccles, Diana M; Edwards, Robert P; Ekici, Arif B; Fasching, Peter A; Fridley, Brooke L; Gao, Yu-Tang; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Giles, Graham G; Glasspool, Rosalind; Goodman, Marc T; Gronwald, Jacek; Harrington, Patricia; Harter, Philipp; Hasmad, Hanis N; Hein, Alexander; Heitz, Florian; Hildebrandt, Michelle A T; Hillemanns, Peter; Hogdall, Claus K; Hogdall, Estrid; Hosono, Satoyo; Iversen, Edwin S; Jakubowska, Anna; Jensen, Allan; Ji, Bu-Tian; Karlan, Beth Y; Jim, Heather; Kellar, Melissa; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Krakstad, Camilla; Kjaer, Susanne K; Kupryjanczyk, Jolanta; Lambrechts, Diether; Lambrechts, Sandrina; Le, Nhu D; Lee, Alice W; Lele, Shashi; Leminen, Arto; Lester, Jenny; Levine, Douglas A; Liang, Dong; Lim, Boon Kiong; Lissowska, Jolanta; Lu, Karen; Lubinski, Jan; Lundvall, Lene; Massuger, Leon F A G; Matsuo, Keitaro; McGuire, Valerie; McLaughlin, John R; McNeish, Ian; Menon, Usha; Milne, Roger L; Modugno, Francesmary; Moysich, Kirsten B; Ness, Roberta B; Nevanlinna, Heli; Eilber, Ursula; Odunsi, Kunle; Olson, Sara H; Orlow, Irene; Orsulic, Sandra; Weber, Rachel Palmieri; Paul, James; Pearce, Celeste L; Pejovic, Tanja; Pelttari, Liisa M; Permuth-Wey, Jennifer; Pike, Malcolm C; Poole, Elizabeth M; Risch, Harvey A; Rosen, Barry; Rossing, Mary Anne; Rothstein, Joseph H; Rudolph, Anja; Runnebaum, Ingo B; Rzepecka, Iwona K; Salvesen, Helga B; Schernhammer, Eva; Schwaab, Ira; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Shvetsov, Yurii B; Siddiqui, Nadeem; Sieh, Weiva; Song, Honglin; Southey, Melissa C; Spiewankiewicz, Beata; Sucheston-Campbell, Lara; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Terry, Kathryn L; Thompson, Pamela J; Thomsen, Lotte; Tangen, Ingvild L; Tworoger, Shelley S; van Altena, Anne M; Vierkant, Robert A; Vergote, Ignace; Walsh, Christine S; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Whittemore, Alice S; Wicklund, Kristine G; Wilkens, Lynne R; Wu, Anna H; Wu, Xifeng; Woo, Yin-Ling; Yang, Hannah; Zheng, Wei; Ziogas, Argyrios; Kelemen, Linda E; Berchuck, Andrew; Schildkraut, Joellen M; Ramus, Susan J; Goode, Ellen L; Monteiro, Alvaro N A; Gayther, Simon A; Narod, Steven A; Pharoah, Paul D P; Sellers, Thomas A; Phelan, Catherine M

    2015-12-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a process whereby epithelial cells assume mesenchymal characteristics to facilitate cancer metastasis. However, EMT also contributes to the initiation and development of primary tumors. Prior studies that explored the hypothesis that EMT gene variants contribute to epithelial ovarian carcinoma (EOC) risk have been based on small sample sizes and none have sought replication in an independent population. We screened 15,816 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 296 genes in a discovery phase using data from a genome-wide association study of EOC among women of European ancestry (1,947 cases and 2,009 controls) and identified 793 variants in 278 EMT-related genes that were nominally (P < 0.05) associated with invasive EOC. These SNPs were then genotyped in a larger study of 14,525 invasive-cancer patients and 23,447 controls. A P-value <0.05 and a false discovery rate (FDR) <0.2 were considered statistically significant. In the larger dataset, GPC6/GPC5 rs17702471 was associated with the endometrioid subtype among Caucasians (odds ratio (OR) = 1.16, 95% CI = 1.07-1.25, P = 0.0003, FDR = 0.19), whereas F8 rs7053448 (OR = 1.69, 95% CI = 1.27-2.24, P = 0.0003, FDR = 0.12), F8 rs7058826 (OR = 1.69, 95% CI = 1.27-2.24, P = 0.0003, FDR = 0.12), and CAPN13 rs1983383 (OR = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.69-0.90, P = 0.0005, FDR = 0.12) were associated with combined invasive EOC among Asians. In silico functional analyses revealed that GPC6/GPC5 rs17702471 coincided with DNA regulatory elements. These results suggest that EMT gene variants do not appear to play a significant role in the susceptibility to EOC.

  6. Overexpression of c-myc induces epithelial mesenchymal transition in mammary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Cho, Kyoung Bin; Cho, Min Kyong; Lee, Won Young; Kang, Keon Wook

    2010-07-28

    The c-myc gene is frequently overexpressed in human breast cancer and its target genes are involved in tumorigenesis. Epithelial mesenchymal transitions (EMT), where cells undergo a developmental switch from a polarized epithelial phenotype to a highly motile mesenchymal phenotype, are associated with invasion and motility of cancer cells. Basal E-cadherin expression was down-regulated in c-myc overexpressing MCF10A (c-myc-MCF10A) cells compared to GFP-overexpressing MCF10A (GFP-MCF10A) cells, while N-cadherin was distinctly increased in c-myc-MCF10A cells. Given that glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3beta) and the snail axis have key roles in E-cadherin deregulation during EMT, we investigated the role of GSK-3beta/snail signaling pathways in the induction of EMT by c-myc overexpression. In contrast to GFP-MCF10A cells, both the transcriptional activity and the ubiquitination-dependent protein stability of snail were enhanced in c-myc-MCF10A cells, and this was reversed by GSK-3beta overexpression. We also found that c-myc overexpression inhibits GSK-3beta activity through activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). Inhibition of ERK by dominant negative mutant transfection or chemical inhibitor significantly suppressed snail gene transcription. These results suggest that c-myc overexpression during transformation of mammary epithelial cells (MEC) is involved in EMTs via ERK-dependent GSK-3beta inactivation and subsequent snail activation.

  7. Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) Gene Variants and Epithelial Ovarian Cancer (EOC) Risk.

    PubMed

    Amankwah, Ernest K; Lin, Hui-Yi; Tyrer, Jonathan P; Lawrenson, Kate; Dennis, Joe; Chornokur, Ganna; Aben, Katja K H; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Antonenkova, Natalia; Bruinsma, Fiona; Bandera, Elisa V; Bean, Yukie T; Beckmann, Matthias W; Bisogna, Maria; Bjorge, Line; Bogdanova, Natalia; Brinton, Louise A; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Bunker, Clareann H; Butzow, Ralf; Campbell, Ian G; Carty, Karen; Chen, Zhihua; Chen, Y Ann; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Cook, Linda S; Cramer, Daniel W; Cunningham, Julie M; Cybulski, Cezary; Dansonka-Mieszkowska, Agnieszka; du Bois, Andreas; Despierre, Evelyn; Dicks, Ed; Doherty, Jennifer A; Dörk, Thilo; Dürst, Matthias; Easton, Douglas F; Eccles, Diana M; Edwards, Robert P; Ekici, Arif B; Fasching, Peter A; Fridley, Brooke L; Gao, Yu-Tang; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Giles, Graham G; Glasspool, Rosalind; Goodman, Marc T; Gronwald, Jacek; Harrington, Patricia; Harter, Philipp; Hasmad, Hanis N; Hein, Alexander; Heitz, Florian; Hildebrandt, Michelle A T; Hillemanns, Peter; Hogdall, Claus K; Hogdall, Estrid; Hosono, Satoyo; Iversen, Edwin S; Jakubowska, Anna; Jensen, Allan; Ji, Bu-Tian; Karlan, Beth Y; Jim, Heather; Kellar, Melissa; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Krakstad, Camilla; Kjaer, Susanne K; Kupryjanczyk, Jolanta; Lambrechts, Diether; Lambrechts, Sandrina; Le, Nhu D; Lee, Alice W; Lele, Shashi; Leminen, Arto; Lester, Jenny; Levine, Douglas A; Liang, Dong; Lim, Boon Kiong; Lissowska, Jolanta; Lu, Karen; Lubinski, Jan; Lundvall, Lene; Massuger, Leon F A G; Matsuo, Keitaro; McGuire, Valerie; McLaughlin, John R; McNeish, Ian; Menon, Usha; Milne, Roger L; Modugno, Francesmary; Moysich, Kirsten B; Ness, Roberta B; Nevanlinna, Heli; Eilber, Ursula; Odunsi, Kunle; Olson, Sara H; Orlow, Irene; Orsulic, Sandra; Weber, Rachel Palmieri; Paul, James; Pearce, Celeste L; Pejovic, Tanja; Pelttari, Liisa M; Permuth-Wey, Jennifer; Pike, Malcolm C; Poole, Elizabeth M; Risch, Harvey A; Rosen, Barry; Rossing, Mary Anne; Rothstein, Joseph H; Rudolph, Anja; Runnebaum, Ingo B; Rzepecka, Iwona K; Salvesen, Helga B; Schernhammer, Eva; Schwaab, Ira; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Shvetsov, Yurii B; Siddiqui, Nadeem; Sieh, Weiva; Song, Honglin; Southey, Melissa C; Spiewankiewicz, Beata; Sucheston-Campbell, Lara; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Terry, Kathryn L; Thompson, Pamela J; Thomsen, Lotte; Tangen, Ingvild L; Tworoger, Shelley S; van Altena, Anne M; Vierkant, Robert A; Vergote, Ignace; Walsh, Christine S; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Whittemore, Alice S; Wicklund, Kristine G; Wilkens, Lynne R; Wu, Anna H; Wu, Xifeng; Woo, Yin-Ling; Yang, Hannah; Zheng, Wei; Ziogas, Argyrios; Kelemen, Linda E; Berchuck, Andrew; Schildkraut, Joellen M; Ramus, Susan J; Goode, Ellen L; Monteiro, Alvaro N A; Gayther, Simon A; Narod, Steven A; Pharoah, Paul D P; Sellers, Thomas A; Phelan, Catherine M

    2015-12-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a process whereby epithelial cells assume mesenchymal characteristics to facilitate cancer metastasis. However, EMT also contributes to the initiation and development of primary tumors. Prior studies that explored the hypothesis that EMT gene variants contribute to epithelial ovarian carcinoma (EOC) risk have been based on small sample sizes and none have sought replication in an independent population. We screened 15,816 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 296 genes in a discovery phase using data from a genome-wide association study of EOC among women of European ancestry (1,947 cases and 2,009 controls) and identified 793 variants in 278 EMT-related genes that were nominally (P < 0.05) associated with invasive EOC. These SNPs were then genotyped in a larger study of 14,525 invasive-cancer patients and 23,447 controls. A P-value <0.05 and a false discovery rate (FDR) <0.2 were considered statistically significant. In the larger dataset, GPC6/GPC5 rs17702471 was associated with the endometrioid subtype among Caucasians (odds ratio (OR) = 1.16, 95% CI = 1.07-1.25, P = 0.0003, FDR = 0.19), whereas F8 rs7053448 (OR = 1.69, 95% CI = 1.27-2.24, P = 0.0003, FDR = 0.12), F8 rs7058826 (OR = 1.69, 95% CI = 1.27-2.24, P = 0.0003, FDR = 0.12), and CAPN13 rs1983383 (OR = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.69-0.90, P = 0.0005, FDR = 0.12) were associated with combined invasive EOC among Asians. In silico functional analyses revealed that GPC6/GPC5 rs17702471 coincided with DNA regulatory elements. These results suggest that EMT gene variants do not appear to play a significant role in the susceptibility to EOC. PMID:26399219

  8. Evidence of epithelial-mesenchymal transition in canine prostate cancer metastasis.

    PubMed

    Fonseca-Alves, Carlos Eduardo; Kobayashi, Priscila Emiko; Rivera-Calderón, Luis Gabriel; Laufer-Amorim, Renée

    2015-06-01

    The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a fundamental event responsible for the invasiveness and metastasis of epithelial tumours. The EMT has been described in many human cancers, but there are few reports of this phenomenon in veterinary oncology. Due to the importance of this process, the current study evaluated mesenchymal and epithelial marker protein expression in prostate lesions from dogs. Our results indicate both a loss of E-cadherin and translocation of β-catenin from the membrane to the cytoplasm and nucleus in the tumour group. Vimentin expression in the tumour group was higher than in normal tissue. All of the metastases were positive for prostate-specific antigen, pan-cytokeratin and E-cadherin, although fewer positive cells were present than in the primary tumours. The immunohistochemical results showed a loss of epithelial markers and a gain of a mesenchymal marker among metastatic cells, suggesting that the EMT occurs during the metastatic process of canine prostate carcinoma.

  9. Bypassing cellular EGF receptor dependence through epithelial-to-mesenchymal-like transitions

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, Stuart; Buck, Elizabeth; Russo, Suzanne; Petti, Filippo; Sujka-Kwok, Izabela; Eyzaguirre, Alexandra; Rosenfeld-Franklin, Maryland; Gibson, Neil W.; Miglarese, Mark; Epstein, David; Iwata, Kenneth K.; Haley, John D.

    2008-01-01

    Over 90% of all cancers are carcinomas, malignancies derived from cells of epithelial origin. As carcinomas progress, these tumors may lose epithelial morphology and acquire mesenchymal characteristics which contribute to metastatic potential. An epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) similar to the process critical for embryonic development is thought to be an important mechanism for promoting cancer invasion and metastasis. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transitions have been induced in vitro by transient or unregulated activation of receptor tyrosine kinase signaling pathways, oncogene signaling and disruption of homotypic cell adhesion. These cellular models attempt to mimic the complexity of human carcinomas which respond to autocrine and paracrine signals from both the tumor and its microenvironment. Activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has been implicated in the neoplastic transformation of solid tumors and overexpression of EGFR has been shown to correlate with poor survival. Notably, epithelial tumor cells have been shown to be significantly more sensitive to EGFR inhibitors than tumor cells which have undergone an EMT-like transition and acquired mesenchymal characteristics, including non-small cell lung (NSCLC), head and neck (HN), bladder, colorectal, pancreas and breast carcinomas. EGFR blockade has also been shown to inhibit cellular migration, suggesting a role for EGFR inhibitors in the control of metastasis. The interaction between EGFR and the multiple signaling nodes which regulate EMT suggest that the combination of an EGFR inhibitor and other molecular targeted agents may offer a novel approach to controlling metastasis. PMID:18236164

  10. Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) gene variants and Epithelial Ovarian Cancer (EOC) risk

    PubMed Central

    Amankwah, Ernest K.; Lin, Hui-Yi; Tyrer, Jonathan P.; Lawrenson, Kate; Dennis, Joe; Chornokur, Ganna; Aben, Katja KH.; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Antonenkova, Natalia; Bruinsma, Fiona; Bandera, Elisa V.; Bean, Yukie T.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Bisogna, Maria; Bjorge, Line; Bogdanova, Natalia; Brinton, Louise A.; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Bunker, Clareann H.; Butzow, Ralf; Campbell, Ian G.; Carty, Karen; Chen, Zhihua; Chen, Y. Ann; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Cook, Linda S.; Cramer, Daniel W.; Cunningham, Julie M.; Cybulski, Cezary; Dansonka-Mieszkowska, Agnieszka; du Bois, Andreas; Despierre, Evelyn; Dicks, Ed; Doherty, Jennifer A.; Dörk, Thilo; Dürst, Matthias; Easton, Douglas F.; Eccles, Diana M.; Edwards, Robert P.; Ekici, Arif B.; Fasching, Peter A.; Fridley, Brooke L.; Gao, Yu-Tang; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Giles, Graham G.; Glasspool, Rosalind; Goodman, Marc T.; Gronwald, Jacek; Harrington, Patricia; Harter, Philipp; Hasmad, Hanis N.; Hein, Alexander; Heitz, Florian; Hildebrandt, Michelle A.T.; Hillemanns, Peter; Hogdall, Claus K.; Hogdall, Estrid; Hosono, Satoyo; Iversen, Edwin S.; Jakubowska, Anna; Jensen, Allan; Ji, Bu-Tian; Karlan, Beth Y.; Jim, Heather; Kellar, Melissa; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.; Krakstad, Camilla; Kjaer, Susanne K.; Kupryjanczyk, Jolanta; Lambrechts, Diether; Lambrechts, Sandrina; Le, Nhu D.; Lee, Alice W.; Lele, Shashi; Leminen, Arto; Lester, Jenny; Levine, Douglas A.; Liang, Dong; Lim, Boon Kiong; Lissowska, Jolanta; Lu, Karen; Lubinski, Jan; Lundvall, Lene; Massuger, Leon F.A.G.; Matsuo, Keitaro; McGuire, Valerie; McLaughlin, John R.; McNeish, Ian; Menon, Usha; Milne, Roger L.; Modugno, Francesmary; Moysich, Kirsten B.; Ness, Roberta B.; Nevanlinna, Heli; Eilber, Ursula; Odunsi, Kunle; Olson, Sara H.; Orlow, Irene; Orsulic, Sandra; Weber, Rachel Palmieri; Paul, James; Pearce, Celeste L.; Pejovic, Tanja; Pelttari, Liisa M.; Permuth-Wey, Jennifer; Pike, Malcolm C.; Poole, Elizabeth M.; Risch, Harvey A.; Rosen, Barry; Rossing, Mary Anne; Rothstein, Joseph H.; Rudolph, Anja; Runnebaum, Ingo B.; Rzepecka, Iwona K.; Salvesen, Helga B.; Schernhammer, Eva; Schwaab, Ira; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Shvetsov, Yurii B.; Siddiqui, Nadeem; Sieh, Weiva; Song, Honglin; Southey, Melissa C.; Spiewankiewicz, Beata; Sucheston-Campbell, Lara; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Terry, Kathryn L.; Thompson, Pamela J.; Thomsen, Lotte; Tangen, Ingvild L.; Tworoger, Shelley S.; van Altena, Anne M.; Vierkant, Robert A.; Vergote, Ignace; Walsh, Christine S.; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Whittemore, Alice S.; Wicklund, Kristine G.; Wilkens, Lynne R.; Wu, Anna H.; Wu, Xifeng; Woo, Yin-Ling; Yang, Hannah; Zheng, Wei; Ziogas, Argyrios; Kelemen, Linda E.; Berchuck, Andrew; Schildkraut, Joellen M.; Ramus, Susan J.; Goode, Ellen L.; Monteiro, Alvaro N.A.; Gayther, Simon A.; Narod, Steven A.; Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Sellers, Thomas A.; Phelan, Catherine M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a process whereby epithelial cells assume mesenchymal characteristics to facilitate cancer metastasis. However, EMT also contributes to the initiation and development of primary tumors. Prior studies that explored the hypothesis that EMT gene variants contribute to EOC risk have been based on small sample sizes and none have sought replication in an independent population. Methods We screened 1254 SNPs in 296 genes in a discovery phase using data from a genome-wide association study of EOC among women of European ancestry (1,947 cases and 2,009 controls) and identified 793 variants in 278 EMT-related genes that were nominally (p<0.05) associated with invasive EOC. These SNPs were then genotyped in a larger study of 14,525 invasive-cancer patients and 23,447 controls. A p-value <0.05 and a false discovery rate (FDR) <0.2 was considered statistically significant. Results In the larger dataset, GPC6/GPC5 rs17702471 was associated with the endometrioid subtype among Caucasians (OR=1.16, 95%CI=1.07–1.25, p=0.0003, FDR=0.19), while F8 rs7053448 (OR=1.69, 95%CI=1.27–2.24, p=0.0003, FDR=0.12), F8 rs7058826 (OR=1.69, 95%CI=1.27–2.24, p=0.0003, FDR=0.12), and CAPN13 rs1983383 (OR=0.79, 95%CI=0.69–0.90, p=0.0005, FDR=0.12) were associated with combined invasive EOC among Asians. In silico functional analyses revealed that GPC6/GPC5 rs17702471 coincided with DNA regulatory elements. Conclusion These results suggest that EMT gene variants do not appear to play a significant role in the susceptibility to EOC. PMID:26399219

  11. Molecular signature and therapeutic perspective of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transitions in epithelial cancers.

    PubMed

    Sabbah, Michèle; Emami, Shahin; Redeuilh, Gérard; Julien, Sylvia; Prévost, Grégoire; Zimber, Amazia; Ouelaa, Radia; Bracke, Marc; De Wever, Olivier; Gespach, Christian

    2008-01-01

    The mechanisms involved in the epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) are integrated in concert with master developmental and oncogenic pathways regulating in tumor growth, angiogenesis, metastasis, as well as the reprogrammation of specific gene repertoires ascribed to both epithelial and mesenchymal cells. Consequently, it is not unexpected that EMT has profound impacts on the neoplastic progression, patient survival, as well as the resistance of cancers to therapeutics (taxol, vincristine, oxaliplatin, EGF-R targeted therapy and radiotherapy), independent of the "classical" resistance mechanisms linked to genotoxic drugs. New therapeutic combinations using genotoxic agents and/or EMT signaling inhibitors are therefore expected to circumvent the chemotherapeutic resistance of cancers characterized by transient or sustained EMT signatures. Thus, targeting critical orchestrators at the convergence of several EMT pathways, such as the transcription pathways NF-kappaB, AKT/mTOR axis, MAPK, beta-catenin, PKC and the AP-1/SMAD factors provide a realistic strategy to control EMT and the progression of human epithelial cancers. Several inhibitors targeting these signaling platforms are already tested in preclinical and clinical oncology. In addition, upstream EMT signaling pathways induced by receptor and nonreceptor tyrosine kinases (e.g. EGF-R, IGF-R, VEGF-R, integrins/FAK, Src) and G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) constitute practical options under preclinical research, clinical trials or are currently used in the clinic for cancer treatment: e.g. small molecule inhibitors (Iressa: targeting selectively the EGF-R; CP-751,871, AMG479, NVP-AEW541, BMS-536924, PQIP, AG1024: IGF-R; AZD2171, ZD6474: VEGF-R; AZD0530, BMS-354825, SKI606: Src; BIM-46174: GPCR; rapamycin, CCI-779, RAD-001: mTOR) and humanized function blocking antibodies (Herceptin: ErbB2; Avastin: VEGF-A; Erbitux: EGF-R; Abegrin: alphavbeta3 integrins). We can assume that silencing RNA and adenovirus

  12. Mechanisms of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in sea urchin embryos.

    PubMed

    Katow, Hideki

    2015-01-01

    Sea urchin mesenchyme is composed of the large micromere-derived spiculogenetic primary mesenchyme cells (PMC), veg2-tier macromere-derived non-spiculogenetic mesenchyme cells, the small micromere-derived germ cells, and the macro- and mesomere-derived neuronal mesenchyme cells. They are formed through the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and possess multipotency, except PMCs that solely differentiate larval spicules. The process of EMT is associated with modification of epithelial cell surface property that includes loss of affinity to the apical and basal extracellular matrices, inter-epithelial cell adherens junctions and epithelial cell surface-specific proteins. These cell surface structures and molecules are endocytosed during EMT and utilized as initiators of cytoplasmic signaling pathways that often initiate protein phosphorylation to activate the gene regulatory networks. Acquisition of cell motility after EMT in these mesenchyme cells is associated with the expression of proteins such as Lefty, Snail and Seawi. Structural simplicity and genomic database of this model will further promote detailed EMT research. PMID:26716069

  13. Mechanisms of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in sea urchin embryos

    PubMed Central

    Katow, Hideki

    2015-01-01

    Sea urchin mesenchyme is composed of the large micromere-derived spiculogenetic primary mesenchyme cells (PMC), veg2-tier macromere-derived non-spiculogenetic mesenchyme cells, the small micromere-derived germ cells, and the macro- and mesomere-derived neuronal mesenchyme cells. They are formed through the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and possess multipotency, except PMCs that solely differentiate larval spicules. The process of EMT is associated with modification of epithelial cell surface property that includes loss of affinity to the apical and basal extracellular matrices, inter-epithelial cell adherens junctions and epithelial cell surface-specific proteins. These cell surface structures and molecules are endocytosed during EMT and utilized as initiators of cytoplasmic signaling pathways that often initiate protein phosphorylation to activate the gene regulatory networks. Acquisition of cell motility after EMT in these mesenchyme cells is associated with the expression of proteins such as Lefty, Snail and Seawi. Structural simplicity and genomic database of this model will further promote detailed EMT research. PMID:26716069

  14. Transcription Factors OVOL1 and OVOL2 Induce the Mesenchymal to Epithelial Transition in Human Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Roca, Hernan; Hernandez, James; Weidner, Savannah; McEachin, Richard C.; Fuller, David; Sud, Sudha; Schumann, Taibriana; Wilkinson, John E.; Zaslavsky, Alexander; Li, Hangwen; Maher, Christopher A.; Daignault-Newton, Stephanie; Healy, Patrick N.; Pienta, Kenneth J.

    2013-01-01

    Cell plasticity regulated by the balance between the mesenchymal to epithelial transition (MET) and the opposite program, EMT, is critical in the metastatic cascade. Several transcription factors (TFs) are known to regulate EMT, though the mechanisms of MET remain unclear. We demonstrate a novel function of two TFs, OVOL1 and OVOL2, as critical inducers of MET in human cancers. Our findings indicate that the OVOL-TFs control MET through a regulatory feedback loop with EMT-inducing TF ZEB1, and the regulation of mRNA splicing by inducing Epithelial Splicing Regulatory Protein 1 (ESRP1). Using mouse prostate tumor models we show that expression of OVOL-TFs in mesenchymal prostate cancer cells attenuates their metastatic potential. The role of OVOL-TFs as inducers of MET is further supported by expression analyses in 917 cancer cell lines, suggesting their role as crucial regulators of epithelial-mesenchymal cell plasticity in cancer. PMID:24124593

  15. The epithelial-mesenchymal transition in cancer: a potential critical topic for translational proteomic research.

    PubMed

    Bottoni, Patrizia; Isgrò, Maria Antonietta; Scatena, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a morphogenetic process that results in a loss of epithelial characteristics and the acquisition of a mesenchymal phenotype. First described in embryogenesis, the EMT has been recently implicated in carcinogenesis and tumor progression. In addition, recent evidence has shown that stem-like cancer cells present the hallmarks of the EMT. Some of the molecular mechanisms related to the interrelationships between cancer pathophysiology and the EMT are well-defined. Nevertheless, the precise molecular mechanism by which epithelial cancer cells acquire the mesenchymal phenotype remains largely unknown. This review focuses on various proteomic strategies with the goal of better understanding the physiological and pathological mechanisms of the EMT process.

  16. Tetrandrine reverses epithelial-mesenchymal transition in bladder cancer by downregulating Gli-1.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yongjian; Liu, Wei; He, Wenbo; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Deng, Xiuling; Ma, Yanmin; Zeng, Jin; Kou, Bo

    2016-05-01

    Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway is considered to play a crucial role in vertebrate development and carcinogenesis. Additionally, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a cellular process during which epithelial cells become mesenchymal-appearing cells, facilitating cancer metastasis and invasion. Accumulating evidence has indicated that the Hh signaling pathway could potentiate the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). In the present study, we demonstrated that tetrandrine, a bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid isolated from Stephaniae, exerts its anti-metastatic ability in bladder cancer cells by regulating GLI family zinc finger 1 (Gli-1), a key factor of Hedgehog signaling pathway. In our study, we confirmed that tetrandrine could impede migration and invasion in bladder cancer 5637 and T24 cells. Additionally, tetrandrine reverses EMT by increasing the expression of E-cadherin and reducing the N-cadherin, vimentin and Slug expression in a dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, tetrandrine also decreases mobility and reduces the expression of Gli-1 in bladder cancer cells. Moreover, we verified that tetrandrine inhibits metastasis and induces mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET) of bladder cancer through downregulation of Gli-1, which could be partially reversed by Gli-1 overexpression. In conclusion, our findings show that tetrandrine inhibits migration and invasion, and reverses EMT of bladder cancer cells through negatively regulating Gli-1. It indicates that Gli-1 may be a potential therapeutic target of tetrandrine against bladder cancer. PMID:26983576

  17. Pathogenesis of Type 2 Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) in Renal and Hepatic Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Tennakoon, Anusha H.; Izawa, Takeshi; Kuwamura, Mitsuru; Yamate, Jyoji

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), particularly, type 2 EMT, is important in progressive renal and hepatic fibrosis. In this process, incompletely regenerated renal epithelia lose their epithelial characteristics and gain migratory mesenchymal qualities as myofibroblasts. In hepatic fibrosis (importantly, cirrhosis), the process also occurs in injured hepatocytes and hepatic progenitor cells (HPCs), as well as ductular reaction-related bile epithelia. Interestingly, the ductular reaction contributes partly to hepatocarcinogenesis of HPCs, and further, regenerating cholangiocytes after injury may be derived from hepatic stellate cells via mesenchymal to epithelia transition, a reverse phenomenon of type 2 EMT. Possible pathogenesis of type 2 EMT and its differences between renal and hepatic fibrosis are reviewed based on our experimental data. PMID:26729181

  18. Molecular signaling of the epithelial to mesenchymal transition in generating and maintaining cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Gaoliang; Wang, Zhe; Fang, Xiaoguang; Liu, Jia; Yang, Chaoyong James

    2010-08-01

    The epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a highly conserved cellular program that allows polarized, well-differentiated epithelial cells to convert to unpolarized, motile mesenchymal cells. EMT is critical for appropriate embryogenesis and plays a crucial role in tumorigenesis and cancer progression. Recent studies revealed that there is a direct link between the EMT program and the gain of epithelial stem cell properties. EMT is sufficient to induce a population with stem cell characteristics from well-differentiated epithelial cells and cancer cells. In this review, we briefly introduce the biology of EMT inducers and transcription factors in tumorigenesis and then focus on the role of these key players of the EMT in generating and maintaining cancer stem cells.

  19. The epithelial mesenchymal transition process may contribute to the pathogenesis of amniotic band syndrome.

    PubMed

    Romero-Valdovinos, M; Bobadilla-Sandoval, N; Flisser, A; Vadillo-Ortega, F

    2014-09-01

    The etiology of the amniotic band syndrome is unknown, and has been subject of debate since the time of Hippocrates. The most accepted theories fail to cover all the abnomalities found in affected children. During organogenesis the epithelial-mesenchymal transition process (EMTP) participates in adequate formation of different organs from three embryo layers. Altered activation of EMTP occurs when the epithelial homeostasis is disturbed, the resulting myofibroblasts are able to secrete extracellular matrix proteins and deposit them on the tissues contributing to a fibrotic phenotype. If injury occurs during organogenesis, wound healing could be exaggerated and fibrotic response could be triggered. The molecule that regulates both of these processes (EMTP and fibrosis) is the transforming growth factor β (TGFβ); indeed null animals for TGFβ isoforms show similar defects than those seen in the amniotic band syndrome. Based on documented evidence this review intends to explain how the epithelial mesenchymal transition process may contribute to the pathogenesis of amniotic band syndrome. PMID:24998668

  20. Testing the differential adhesion hypothesis across the epithelial-mesenchymal transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawlizak, Steve; Fritsch, Anatol W.; Grosser, Steffen; Ahrens, Dave; Thalheim, Tobias; Riedel, Stefanie; Kießling, Tobias R.; Oswald, Linda; Zink, Mareike; Manning, M. Lisa; Käs, Josef A.

    2015-08-01

    We analyze the mechanical properties of three epithelial/mesenchymal cell lines (MCF-10A, MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-436) that exhibit a shift in E-, N- and P-cadherin levels characteristic of an epithelial-mesenchymal transition associated with processes such as metastasis, to quantify the role of cell cohesion in cell sorting and compartmentalization. We develop a unique set of methods to measure cell-cell adhesiveness, cell stiffness and cell shapes, and compare the results to predictions from cell sorting in mixtures of cell populations. We find that the final sorted state is extremely robust among all three cell lines independent of epithelial or mesenchymal state, suggesting that cell sorting may play an important role in organization and boundary formation in tumours. We find that surface densities of adhesive molecules do not correlate with measured cell-cell adhesion, but do correlate with cell shapes, cell stiffness and the rate at which cells sort, in accordance with an extended version of the differential adhesion hypothesis (DAH). Surprisingly, the DAH does not correctly predict the final sorted state. This suggests that these tissues are not behaving as immiscible fluids, and that dynamical effects such as directional motility, friction and jamming may play an important role in tissue compartmentalization across the epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

  1. A comprehensive DNA methylation profile of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Carmona, F Javier; Davalos, Veronica; Vidal, Enrique; Gomez, Antonio; Heyn, Holger; Hashimoto, Yutaka; Vizoso, Miguel; Martinez-Cardus, Anna; Sayols, Sergi; Ferreira, Humberto J; Sánchez-Mut, Jose V; Morán, Sebastián; Margelí, Mireia; Castella, Eva; Berdasco, Maria; Stefansson, Olafur A; Eyfjord, Jorunn E; Gonzalez-Suarez, Eva; Dopazo, Joaquín; Orozco, Modesto; Gut, Ivo G; Esteller, Manel

    2014-10-01

    Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a plastic process in which fully differentiated epithelial cells are converted into poorly differentiated, migratory and invasive mesenchymal cells, and it has been related to the metastasis potential of tumors. This is a reversible process and cells can also eventually undergo mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition. The existence of a dynamic EMT process suggests the involvement of epigenetic shifts in the phenotype. Herein, we obtained the DNA methylomes at single-base resolution of Madin-Darby canine kidney cells undergoing EMT and translated the identified differentially methylated regions to human breast cancer cells undergoing a gain of migratory and invasive capabilities associated with the EMT phenotype. We noticed dynamic and reversible changes of DNA methylation, both on promoter sequences and gene-bodies in association with transcription regulation of EMT-related genes. Most importantly, the identified DNA methylation markers of EMT were present in primary mammary tumors in association with the epithelial or the mesenchymal phenotype of the studied breast cancer samples. PMID:25106427

  2. Interleukin-6 induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition in human intrahepatic biliary epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    JIANG, GUI-XING; CAO, LI-PING; KANG, PENG-CHENG; ZHONG, XIANG-YU; LIN, TIAN-YU; CUI, YUN-FU

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the role of interleukin-6 (IL-6) in the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of human intrahepatic biliary epithelial cell (HIBEC) lines in vitro. HIBECs were stimulated with IL-6 at concentrations of 0, 10, 20, 50 and 100 µg/l for 24 h. A wound healing and Transwell assay were performed to determine the migratory and invasive capacity of HIBECs, respectively. Following 24 h of incubation, IL-6 at 10 and 20 µg/l significantly increased the number of migrated and invaded cells (P<0.05), while stimulation with 50 and 100 µg/l IL-6 resulted in a further increase of the migratory and invasive capacity compared to that in all other groups (P<0.05). Furthermore, reverse-transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analyses were used to detect the mRNA and protein expression of EMT markers E-cadherin and vimentin in HIBECs. Decreased mRNA levels of E-cadherin accompanied by higher mRNA levels of vimentin were observed in the 10, 20, 50, 100 µg/l IL-6 groups compared to those in the 0 µg/l group (all P<0.05). Furthermore, the protein expression of E-cadherin was decreased, while that of vimentin was increased in the 50 and 100 µg/l IL-6 groups compared to those in the 0, 10 and 20 µg/l IL-6 groups (all P<0.05). The present study therefore indicated that IL-6 promoted the process of EMT in HIBECs as characterized by increased migration and invasion of HIBECs and the typical changes in mRNA and protein expression of the EMT markers E-cadherin and vimentin. PMID:26708270

  3. Inflammatory microenvironment contributes to epithelial-mesenchymal transition in gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Ma, Hui-Ying; Liu, Xin-Zhou; Liang, Chun-Min

    2016-08-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) is the fifth most common malignancy in the world. The major cause of GC is chronic infection with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). Infection with H. pylori leads to an active inflammatory microenvironment that is maintained by immune cells such as T cells, macrophages, natural killer cells, among other cells. Immune cell dysfunction allows the initiation and accumulation of mutations in GC cells, inducing aberrant proliferation and protection from apoptosis. Meanwhile, immune cells can secrete certain signals, including cytokines, and chemokines, to alter intracellular signaling pathways in GC cells. Thus, GC cells obtain the ability to metastasize to lymph nodes by undergoing the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), whereby epithelial cells lose their epithelial attributes and acquire a mesenchymal cell phenotype. Metastasis is a leading cause of death for GC patients, and the involved mechanisms are still under investigation. In this review, we summarize the current research on how the inflammatory environment affects GC initiation and metastasis via EMT. PMID:27547005

  4. Relevance of the stroma and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) for the rheumatic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Zvaifler, Nathan J

    2006-01-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a term applied to the process whereby cells undergo a switch from an epithelial phenotype with tight junctions, lateral, apical, and basal membranes, and lack of mobility into mesenchymal cells that have loose interactions with other cells, are non-polarized, motile and produce an extracellular matrix. The importance of this process was initially recognized from a very early step in embryology, but more recently as a potential mechanism for the progression and spread of epithelial cancers. As the sequence of morphological changes has become understood in molecular terms, diseases characterized by alterations in stromal elements and fibrosis are being considered as examples of EMT. This review will focus on the pathogenetic features of immune-mediated renal disease, systemic sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis that could be explained by EMT. PMID:16689999

  5. Inflammatory microenvironment contributes to epithelial-mesenchymal transition in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Hui-Ying; Liu, Xin-Zhou; Liang, Chun-Min

    2016-01-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) is the fifth most common malignancy in the world. The major cause of GC is chronic infection with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). Infection with H. pylori leads to an active inflammatory microenvironment that is maintained by immune cells such as T cells, macrophages, natural killer cells, among other cells. Immune cell dysfunction allows the initiation and accumulation of mutations in GC cells, inducing aberrant proliferation and protection from apoptosis. Meanwhile, immune cells can secrete certain signals, including cytokines, and chemokines, to alter intracellular signaling pathways in GC cells. Thus, GC cells obtain the ability to metastasize to lymph nodes by undergoing the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), whereby epithelial cells lose their epithelial attributes and acquire a mesenchymal cell phenotype. Metastasis is a leading cause of death for GC patients, and the involved mechanisms are still under investigation. In this review, we summarize the current research on how the inflammatory environment affects GC initiation and metastasis via EMT. PMID:27547005

  6. CDKL2 promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transition and breast cancer progression

    PubMed Central

    Li, Linna; Liu, Chunping; Amato, Robert J.; Chang, Jeffrey T.; Du, Guangwei; Li, Wenliang

    2014-01-01

    The epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) confers mesenchymal properties on epithelial cells and has been closely associated with the acquisition of aggressive traits by epithelial cancer cells. To identify novel regulators of EMT, we carried out cDNA screens that covered 500 human kinases. Subsequent characterization of candidate kinases led us to uncover cyclin-dependent kinase-like 2 (CDKL2) as a novel potent promoter for EMT and breast cancer progression. CDKL2-expressing human mammary gland epithelial cells displayed enhanced mesenchymal traits and stem cell-like phenotypes, which was acquired through activating a ZEB1/E-cadherin/β-catenin positive feedback loop and regulating CD44 mRNA alternative splicing to promote conversion of CD24high cells to CD44high cells. Furthermore, CDKL2 enhanced primary tumor formation and metastasis in a breast cancer xenograft model. Notably, CDKL2 is expressed significantly higher in mesenchymal human breast cancer cell lines than in epithelial lines, and its over-expression/amplification in human breast cancers is associated with shorter disease-free survival. Taken together, our study uncovered a major role for CDKL2 in promoting EMT and breast cancer progression. PMID:25333262

  7. [Epithelial mesenchymal transition during development in fibrosis and in the progression of carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Thiery, J-P; Chua, K; Sim, Wen Jing; Huang, R

    2010-11-01

    Epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a fundamental mechanism controlling multiple events during embryonic development. Mesenchymal cells appear transiently in some diploblasts, the most primitive species characterized by two epithelial layers. Since almost 800 million years, EMT has been conserved throughout evolution to control morphogenetic events, such as the formation of the three primary germ layers during gastrulation. Most interestingly, specific molecular pathways have been conserved in many different species to drive EMT. In the animal kingdom, a recurrent theme is that EMT controls the intercellular adhesion machinery and the dynamics of its associated cytoskeleton. EMT pathways are also tightly connected to determination and differentiation programs, and are reactivated in adult tissues following injury or exposure to toxic agents. EMT is now shown to operate during the early stages of carcinoma invasion leading to blood or lymph vessel intravasation of malignant cells. The converse mechanism - mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET) - then operates at distant sites from the primary tumor to form macrometastases from isolated micrometastatic cells. The mesenchymal-like state of carcinoma confers stemness, protection from cell death, escape from immune response and, most importantly, resistance to conventional and targeted therapies. Our laboratory has designed an EMT high-throughput screen of small molecular weight compounds and biologics in order to establish new therapeutic approaches that interfere with the plasticity of carcinoma cells. New therapeutic interventions are envisioned to delay tumor recurrence. PMID:21084241

  8. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition: possible role in meningiomas.

    PubMed

    Pecina-Slaus, Nives; Cicvara-Pecina, Tatjana; Kafka, Anja

    2012-01-01

    Epithelial-to-mesenchimal transition (EMT) is a process involved in invasion and metastasis of tumors. The occurrence of EMT during tumor progression resembles the developmental scenario and sheds light on important mechanisms for the initial step of metastasis - invasion where noninvasive tumor cells acquire motility and ultimately disseminate to distant organs. The hallmark of EMT is the loss of expression of the cell-cell adhesion molecule E-cadherin. The numerous reports by many authors as well as our own results indicate that E-cadherin plays a role in CNS tumors - meningiomas. Our studies showed that 73 % of meningiomas had downregulation of E-cadherin. Moreover, loss of heterozygosity of E-cadherin was observed in 32 % of meningiomas. Bound to E-cadherin in adherens junctions is beta-catenin, whose translocation to the nucleus is yet another molecular event involved in EMT. In our study beta-catenin was progressively upregulated from meningothelial to atypical, while 60 % of anaplastic meningiomas showed upregulation and nuclear localization of the protein. The elucidation of molecular mechanisms that govern EMT will offer new approaches and targets to restrain metastasis.

  9. Hypoxia, Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition, and TET-Mediated Epigenetic Changes

    PubMed Central

    Kao, Shih-Han; Wu, Kou-Juey; Lee, Wen-Hwa

    2016-01-01

    Tumor hypoxia is a pathophysiologic outcome of disrupted microcirculation with inadequate supply of oxygen, leading to enhanced proliferation, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), metastasis, and chemo-resistance. Epigenetic changes induced by hypoxia are well documented, and they lead to tumor progression. Recent advances show that DNA demethylation mediated by the Ten-eleven translocation (TET) proteins induces major epigenetic changes and controls key steps of cancer development. TET enzymes serve as 5mC (5-methylcytosine)-specific dioxygenases and cause DNA demethylation. Hypoxia activates the expression of TET1, which also serves as a co-activator of HIF-1α transcriptional regulation to modulate HIF-1α downstream target genes and promote epithelial-mesenchymal transition. As HIF is a negative prognostic factor for tumor progression, hypoxia-activated prodrugs (HAPs) may provide a favorable therapeutic approach to lessen hypoxia-induced malignancy. PMID:26861406

  10. Resveratrol inhibits epithelial-mesenchymal transition and renal fibrosis by antagonizing the hedgehog signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yongheng; Lu, Hong; Wu, Cunzao; Liang, Yong; Wang, Silu; Lin, Chengcheng; Chen, Bicheng; Xia, Peng

    2014-12-01

    Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a biologic process in which tubular cells lose their epithelial phenotypes and acquire new characteristic features of mesenchymal properties, is increasingly recognized as an integral part of renal tissue fibrogenesis. Recent studies indicate that resveratrol, a botanical compound derived mainly from the skins of red grapes, may have anti-fibrotic effects in many tissues, but the potential molecular mechanism remains unknown. In the present study, we identified that resveratrol inhibits the induction of EMT and deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) through antagonizing the hedgehog pathway in vitro and in vivo. In rats with unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO), administration of resveratrol (20mg/kg/day) significantly reduced serum creatinine. Resveratrol also decreased expression of TGF-β1, and inhibited the phenotypic transition from epithelial cells to mesenchymal cells, and the deposition of ECM in UUO rats. In cultured renal tubular epithelial cells (NRK-52E), TGF-β1-induced EMT and ECM synthesis was abolished with the treatment of resveratrol. The induction of EMT was associated with the activation of the hedgehog pathway. Resveratrol treatment markedly inhibited the over-activity of the hedgehog pathway in the obstructed kidney and in TGF-β1-treated NRK-52E cells, resulted in reduction of cellular proliferation, EMT and ECM accumulation. Thus, these results suggest that resveratrol is able to inhibit EMT and fibrosis in vivo and in vitro through antagonizing the hedgehog pathway, and resveratrol may have therapeutic potential for patients with fibrotic kidney diseases.

  11. Overexpression of Snail in retinal pigment epithelial triggered epithelial–mesenchymal transition

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Hui; Li, Min; Xu, Ding; Zhao, Chun; Liu, Guodong; Wang, Fang

    2014-03-28

    Highlights: • First reported overexpression of Snail in RPE cells could directly trigger EMT. • Further confirmed the regulator role of Snail in RPE cells EMT in vitro. • Snail may be a potential therapeutic target to prevent the fibrosis of PVR. - Abstract: Snail transcription factor has been implicated as an important regulator in epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) during tumourigenesis and fibrogenesis. Our previous work showed that Snail transcription factor was activated in transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) induced EMT in retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells and may contribute to the development of retinal fibrotic disease such as proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR). However, whether Snail alone has a direct role on retinal pigment epithelial–mesenchymal transition has not been investigated. Here, we analyzed the capacity of Snail to drive EMT in human RPE cells. A vector encoding Snail gene or an empty vector were transfected into human RPE cell lines ARPE-19 respectively. Snail overexpression in ARPE-19 cells resulted in EMT, which was characterized by the expected phenotypic transition from a typical epithelial morphology to mesenchymal spindle-shaped. The expression of epithelial markers E-cadherin and Zona occludin-1 (ZO-1) were down-regulated, whereas mesenchymal markers a-smooth muscle actin (a-SMA) and fibronectin were up-regulated in Snail expression vector transfected cells. In addition, ectopic expression of Snail significantly enhanced ARPE-19 cell motility and migration. The present data suggest that overexpression of Snail in ARPE-19 cells could directly trigger EMT. These results may provide novel insight into understanding the regulator role of Snail in the development of retinal pigment epithelial–mesenchymal transition.

  12. Bestrophin 1 Promotes Epithelial-to-mesenchymal Transition of Renal Collecting Duct Cells

    PubMed Central

    Aldehni, Fadi; Spitzner, Melanie; Martins, Joana Raquel; Barro-Soria, René; Schreiber, Rainer; Kunzelmann, Karl

    2009-01-01

    Bestrophin 1 (Best1) controls intracellular Ca2+ concentration, induces Ca2+-activated Cl- conductance, and increases proliferation of colon carcinoma cells. Here, we show that expression of Best1 in mouse renal collecting duct (CD) cells causes i) an increase in cell proliferation, ii) a loss of amiloride-sensitive Na+ absorption, iii) induction of Ca2+-dependent Cl- conductance (CaCC), and iv) epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. During conditions of high proliferation or when we exposed CD cells to serum or TGF–β1, we observed upregulation of Best1, increased CaCC, redistribution of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition marker β-catenin, and upregulation of vimentin. In contrast, suppression of Best1 by RNAi inhibited proliferation, reduced CaCC, and downregulated markers of EMT. CaCC and expression of Best1 were independent of the cell cycle but clearly correlated to cell proliferation and cell density. During renal inflammation in LPS-treated mice or after unilateral ureteral obstruction, we observed transient upregulation of Best1. These data indicate that repression of cell proliferation, CaCC, and expression of Best1 occurs during mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition once CD cells polarize and terminally differentiate. These results may suggest a role for Best1 in renal fibrosis and tissue repair. PMID:19470678

  13. Epithelial-mesenchymal transitions: the importance of changing cell state in development and disease

    PubMed Central

    Acloque, Hervé; Adams, Meghan S.; Fishwick, Katherine; Bronner-Fraser, Marianne; Nieto, M. Angela

    2009-01-01

    The events that convert adherent epithelial cells into individual migratory cells that can invade the extracellular matrix are known collectively as epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Throughout evolution, the capacity of cells to switch between these two cellular states has been fundamental in the generation of complex body patterns. Here, we review the EMT events that build the embryo and further discuss two prototypical processes governed by EMT in amniotes: gastrulation and neural crest formation. Cells undergo EMT to migrate and colonize distant territories. Not surprisingly, this is also the mechanism used by cancer cells to disperse throughout the body. PMID:19487820

  14. Insulin resistance and necroinflammation drives ductular reaction and epithelial-mesenchymal transition in chronic hepatitis C

    PubMed Central

    Svegliati-Baroni, Gianluca; Faraci, Graziella; Fabris, Luca; Saccomanno, Stefania; Cadamuro, Massimiliano; Pierantonelli, Irene; Trozzi, Luciano; Bugianesi, Elisabetta; Guido, Maria; Strazzabosco, Mario; Benedetti, Antonio; Marchesini, Giulio

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the mechanism(s) linking insulin resistance (IR) to hepatic fibrosis and the role of the epithelial component in tissue repair and fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C (CHC). Design Prospective observational study. Setting Tertiary care academic centre. Patients 78 consecutive patients with CHC. Main outcome measures IR, calculated by the oral glucose insulin sensitivity during oral glucose tolerance test; necroinflammatory activity and fibrosis, defined according to Ishak’s score; steatosis, graded as 0 (<5% of hepatocytes), 1 (5–33%), 2 (33–66%) and 3 (>66%). To evaluate the role of the epithelial component in tissue repair and fibrosis, the expansion of the ductular reaction (DR) was calculated by keratin-7 (CK7) morphometry. Nuclear expression of Snail, downregulation of E-cadherin and expression of fibroblast specific protein-1 (FSP1) and vimentin by CK7-positive cells were used as markers of epithelial-mesenchymal transition in DR elements. Results IR, the degree of necroinflammation and expansion of the DR (stratified as reactive ductular cells (RDCs), hepatic progenitor cells and intermediate hepatobiliary cells according to morphological criteria) were all associated with the stage of fibrosis. Nuclear Snail expression, E-cadherin downregulation and vimentin upregulation were observed in RDCs. By dual immunofluorescence for CK7 and FSP1, the number of RDCs undergoing epithelial-mesenchymal transition progressively increased together with the necroinflammatory score. By multivariate analysis, total inflammation and insulin resistance were the only factors significantly predicting the presence of advanced fibrosis (Ishak score ≥3) and the expansion of RDCs. Conclusion This study indicates that IR is associated with the degree of necroinflammatory injury in CHC and contributes to hepatic fibrosis by stimulating the expansion of RDCs that express epithelial-mesenchymal transition markers. PMID:20966027

  15. The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is regulated by oncoviruses in cancer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xue; Bode, Ann M; Dong, Zigang; Cao, Ya

    2016-09-01

    The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), defined as transdifferentiation of epithelial cells into mesenchymal cells, is critical for embryonic development, wound healing, tissue regeneration, organ fibrosis, and cancer progression. Recently, the role of EMT in carcinogenesis has attracted much attention. Oncoviruses, including human papillomaviruses (HPVs), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and hepatitis B and C viruses (HBVs, HCVs), are known to be involved in the etiology of cancer and have been found to play important roles in cancer metastasis, especially in the EMT process. The HPV encoded oncoproteins E6 and E7 (E6/E7), EBV latent membrane protein-1 and -2A, EBV nuclear antigen, HBV-encoded X antigen, and nonstructural HCV protein 5A are all involved in the regulation of EMT. This review primarily focuses on the role of oncoviruses and their encoded proteins or signaling pathways in the EMT process. Understanding their roles will help us in the development of effective strategies for prevention and treatment of virus-related cancers.-Chen, X., Bode, A. M., Dong, Z., Cao, Y. The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is regulated by oncoviruses in cancer.

  16. The Significance of Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition for Circulating Tumor Cells.

    PubMed

    Kölbl, Alexandra C; Jeschke, Udo; Andergassen, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a process involved in embryonic development, but it also plays a role in remote metastasis formation in tumor diseases. During this process cells lose their epithelial features and adopt characteristics of mesenchymal cells. Thereby single tumor cells, which dissolve from the primary tumor, are enabled to invade the blood vessels and travel throughout the body as so called "circulating tumor cells" (CTCs). After leaving the blood stream the reverse process of EMT, the mesenchymal to epithelial transition (MET) helps the cells to seed in different tissues, thereby generating the bud of metastasis formation. As metastasis is the main reason for tumor-associated death, CTCs and the EMT process are in the focus of research in recent years. This review summarizes what was already found out about the molecular mechanisms driving EMT, the consequences of EMT for tumor cell detection, and suitable markers for the detection of CTCs which underwent EMT. The research work done in this field could open new roads towards combating cancer. PMID:27529216

  17. The Significance of Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition for Circulating Tumor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kölbl, Alexandra C.; Jeschke, Udo; Andergassen, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a process involved in embryonic development, but it also plays a role in remote metastasis formation in tumor diseases. During this process cells lose their epithelial features and adopt characteristics of mesenchymal cells. Thereby single tumor cells, which dissolve from the primary tumor, are enabled to invade the blood vessels and travel throughout the body as so called “circulating tumor cells” (CTCs). After leaving the blood stream the reverse process of EMT, the mesenchymal to epithelial transition (MET) helps the cells to seed in different tissues, thereby generating the bud of metastasis formation. As metastasis is the main reason for tumor-associated death, CTCs and the EMT process are in the focus of research in recent years. This review summarizes what was already found out about the molecular mechanisms driving EMT, the consequences of EMT for tumor cell detection, and suitable markers for the detection of CTCs which underwent EMT. The research work done in this field could open new roads towards combating cancer. PMID:27529216

  18. Sox5 induces epithelial to mesenchymal transition by transactivation of Twist1

    SciTech Connect

    Pei, Xin-Hong; Lv, Xin-Quan; Li, Hui-Xiang

    2014-03-28

    Highlights: • Depletion of Sox5 inhibits breast cancer proliferation, migration, and invasion. • Sox5 transactivates Twist1 expression. • Sox5 induces epithelial to mesenchymal transition through transactivation of Twist1 expression. - Abstract: The epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), a highly conserved cellular program, plays an important role in normal embryogenesis and cancer metastasis. Twist1, a master regulator of embryonic morphogenesis, is overexpressed in breast cancer and contributes to metastasis by promoting EMT. In exploring the mechanism underlying the increased Twist1 in breast cancer cells, we found that the transcription factor SRY (sex-determining region Y)-box 5(Sox5) is up-regulation in breast cancer cells and depletion of Sox5 inhibits breast cancer cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. Furthermore, depletion of Sox5 in breast cancer cells caused a dramatic decrease in Twist1 and chromosome immunoprecipitation assay showed that Sox5 can bind directly to the Twist1 promoter, suggesting that Sox5 transactivates Twist1 expression. We further demonstrated that knockdown of Sox5 up-regulated epithelial phenotype cell biomarker (E-cadherin) and down-regulated mesenchymal phenotype cell biomarkers (N-cadherin, Vimentin, and Fibronectin 1), resulting in suppression of EMT. Our study suggests that Sox5 transactivates Twist1 expression and plays an important role in the regulation of breast cancer progression.

  19. The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is regulated by oncoviruses in cancer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xue; Bode, Ann M; Dong, Zigang; Cao, Ya

    2016-09-01

    The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), defined as transdifferentiation of epithelial cells into mesenchymal cells, is critical for embryonic development, wound healing, tissue regeneration, organ fibrosis, and cancer progression. Recently, the role of EMT in carcinogenesis has attracted much attention. Oncoviruses, including human papillomaviruses (HPVs), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and hepatitis B and C viruses (HBVs, HCVs), are known to be involved in the etiology of cancer and have been found to play important roles in cancer metastasis, especially in the EMT process. The HPV encoded oncoproteins E6 and E7 (E6/E7), EBV latent membrane protein-1 and -2A, EBV nuclear antigen, HBV-encoded X antigen, and nonstructural HCV protein 5A are all involved in the regulation of EMT. This review primarily focuses on the role of oncoviruses and their encoded proteins or signaling pathways in the EMT process. Understanding their roles will help us in the development of effective strategies for prevention and treatment of virus-related cancers.-Chen, X., Bode, A. M., Dong, Z., Cao, Y. The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is regulated by oncoviruses in cancer. PMID:27279361

  20. Circulating tumour cells and the epithelial mesenchymal transition in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Lim, S H S; Becker, T M; Chua, W; Ng, W L; de Souza, P; Spring, K J

    2014-10-01

    Circulating tumour cells (CTCs) hold great potential as liquid biopsies to prognosticate disease and guide treatment in colorectal cancer. However, their emerging role in determining the molecular phenotype of tumour metastasis carries even more promising clinical use in the provision of comprehensive biomarker detection for targeted therapies and determination of drug resistance. The isolation of CTCs is technology dependent, and in the case of epithelial cell adhesion molecule-based platforms, the ability to detect cells that have undergone the epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is ineffective. CTCs displaying a mesenchymal phenotype are believed to have an increased metastatic potential. The rarity of CTCs provides another challenge in the enumeration of these cells. The future will likely involve the analysis of individual CTCs at any stage of the EMT in order to provide real-time phenotypic and molecular snapshots capable of tracking the dynamic evolution of tumour progression over time.

  1. Mesenchymal to Epithelial Transition Induced by Reprogramming Factors Attenuates the Malignancy of Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Takaishi, Mikiro; Tarutani, Masahito; Takeda, Junji; Sano, Shigetoshi

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a biological process of metastatic cancer. However, an effective anticancer therapy that directly targets the EMT program has not yet been discovered. Recent studies have indicated that mesenchymal to epithelial transition (MET), the reverse phenomenon of EMT, is observed in fibroblasts during the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells. In the present study, we investigated the effects of reprogramming factors (RFs) on squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cells. RFs-introduced cancer cells (RICs) demonstrated the enhanced epithelial characteristics in morphology with altered expression of mRNA and microRNAs. The motility and invasive activities of RICs in vitro were significantly reduced. Furthermore, xenografts of RICs exhibited no lymph node metastasis, whereas metastasis was detected in parental SCC-inoculated mice. Thus, we concluded that RICs regained epithelial properties through MET and showed reduced cancer malignancy in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, the understanding of the MET process in cancer cells by introduction of RFs may lead to the designing of a novel anticancer strategy. PMID:27258152

  2. Combinatorial Interventions Inhibit the Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition and Support Hybrid Cellular Phenotypes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanudo, Jorge G. T.; Steinway, S. N.; Michel, P. J.; Feith, D. J.; Loughran, T. P., Jr.; Albert, Reka

    Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a developmental process hijacked by cancer cells to leave the primary tumor site and spread to other parts of the body. The molecular network regulating EMT involves the cooperation and cross-talk between multiple signaling pathways and key transcription factors, which we incorporated into systems-level logical network model for EMT. Using the EMT network model, we investigate potential EMT-suppressing interventions by identifying which individual and combinatorial perturbations suppress the induction of EMT by TGF β, an important signal driving EMT in liver cancer. We find that all non-trivial interventions are combinatorial and involve the inhibition of the SMAD complex together with other targets, several of which we experimentally tested and validated using liver cancer cell lines. We compare the combinatorial interventions with the results from a network control method we recently developed, which allowed us to determine the specific feedback regulatory motifs through which the interventions suppress EMT. Our results also reveal that blocking certain network components gives rise to steady states that are intermediate to the epithelial and mesenchymal states, supporting the existence of hybrid epithelial-mesenchymal states. Supported by NSF Grants PHY 1205840 and IIS 1161001, and NIH Grant F30DK093234.

  3. Testing the differential adhesion hypothesis across the epithelial-mesenchymal transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawlizak, Steve; Fritsch, Anatol; Grosser, Steffen; Oswald, Linda; Manning, Lisa; Kas, Josef

    We analyze the properties of three epithelial/mesenchymal cell lines that exhibit a shift in cadherin levels characteristic of an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) associated with processes such as metastasis, to quantify the role of cell cohesion in cell sorting and compartmentalization. We develop a unique set of methods to measure cell-cell adhesiveness, cell stiffness and cell shapes, and compare the results to predictions from cell sorting in mixtures of cell populations. We find that the final sorted state is extremely robust among all three cell lines independent of epithelial or mesenchymal state, suggesting that cell sorting may play an important role in organization and boundary formation in tumours. We find that surface densities of adhesive molecules do not correlate with measured cell-cell adhesion, but do correlate with cell shapes, cell stiffness and the rate at which cells sort, in accordance with an extended differential adhesion hypothesis (DAH). Surprisingly, the DAH does not correctly predict the final sorted state. This suggests that these tissues are not behaving as immiscible fluids, and that dynamical effects such as directional motility, friction and jamming may play an important role in tissue compartmentalization across the EMT.

  4. [The epithelial-mesenchymal transition and fibrosis of the renal transplant].

    PubMed

    Mezni, Imen; Galichon, Pierre; Bacha, Mohamed Mongi; Sfar, Imen; Hertig, Alexandre; Goucha, Rim; Xu-Dubois, Yi-Chun; Abderrahim, Ezzedine; Gorgi, Yousr; Rondeau, Eric; Abdallah, Taieb Ben

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a process by which differentiated epithelial cells undergo a phenotypic conversion and acquire a mesenchymal phenotype, including elongated morphology, enhanced migratory and invasion capacity, and greatly increased production of extracellular matrix (ECM) components. This phenomenon plays a pivotal role in embryonic development, wound healing and tissue regeneration. It has also been involved in organ fibrosis. Some studies suggest that following injury, renal tubular epithelial cells undergo reprograming in mesenchymal cells, and thus constitute an important source of de novo myofibroblasts invading the renal interstitium and contributing to fibrosis. However, an increasing number of studies raise doubts about the existence of this process in vivo. The role of EMT in the development of renal fibrosis remains a matter of intense debate and may depend on the model studied. In this review, we describe the role of EMT in the development of fibrosis of renal graft, and then we propose approaches for detecting and treating renal fibrogenesis by targeting TEM.

  5. Change in Cell Shape Is Required for Matrix Metalloproteinase-Induced Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition of Mammary Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Celeste M.; Khauv, Davitte; Bissell, Mina J.; Radisky, Derek C.

    2010-01-01

    Cell morphology dictates response to a wide variety of stimuli, controlling cell metabolism, differentiation, proliferation, and death. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a developmental process in which epithelial cells acquire migratory characteristics, and in the process convert from a “cuboidal” epithelial structure into an elongated mesenchymal shape. We had shown previously that matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP3) can stimulate EMT of cultured mouse mammary epithelial cells through a process that involves increased expression of Rac1b, a protein that stimulates alterations in cytoskeletal structure. We show here that cells treated with MMP-3 or induced to express Rac1b spread to cover a larger surface, and that this induction of cell spreading is a requirement of MMP-3/Rac1b-induced EMT. We find that limiting cell spreading, either by increasing cell density or by culturing cells on precisely defined micropatterned substrata, blocks expression of characteristic markers of EMT in cells treated with MMP-3. These effects are not caused by general disruptions in cell signaling pathways, as TGF-β-induced EMT is not affected by similar limitations on cell spreading. Our data reveal a previously unanticipated cell shape-dependent mechanism that controls this key phenotypic alteration and provide insight into the distinct mechanisms activated by different EMT-inducing agents. PMID:18506791

  6. Change in cell shape is required for matrix metalloproteinase-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition of mammary epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Celeste M.; Khauv, Davitte; Bissell, Mina J.; Radisky, Derek C.

    2008-06-26

    Cell morphology dictates response to a wide variety of stimuli, controlling cell metabolism, differentiation, proliferation, and death. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a developmental process in which epithelial cells acquire migratory characteristics, and in the process convert from a 'cuboidal' epithelial structure into an elongated mesenchymal shape. We had shown previously that matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP3) can stimulate EMT of cultured mouse mammary epithelial cells through a process that involves increased expression of Rac1b, a protein that stimulates alterations in cytoskeletal structure. We show here that cells treated with MMP-3 or induced to express Rac1b spread to cover a larger surface, and that this induction of cell spreading is a requirement of MMP-3/Rac1b-induced EMT. We find that limiting cell spreading, either by increasing cell density or by culturing cells on precisely defined micropatterned substrata, blocks expression of characteristic markers of EMT in cells treated with MMP-3. These effects are not caused by general disruptions in cell signaling pathways, as TGF-{beta}-induced EMT is not affected by similar limitations on cell spreading. Our data reveal a previously unanticipated cell shape-dependent mechanism that controls this key phenotypic alteration and provide insight into the distinct mechanisms activated by different EMT-inducing agents.

  7. Influence of IL-8 on the epithelial-mesenchymal transition and the tumor microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Palena, Claudia; Hamilton, Duane H; Fernando, Romaine I

    2012-06-01

    The phenomenon of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has gained attention in the field of cancer biology for its potential contribution to the progression of carcinomas. Tumor EMT is a phenotypic switch that promotes the acquisition of a fibroblastoid-like morphology by epithelial tumor cells, resulting in enhanced tumor cell motility and invasiveness, increased metastatic propensity and resistance to chemotherapy, radiation and certain small-molecule-targeted therapies. Tumor cells undergoing EMT are also known to increase the secretion of specific factors, including cytokines, chemokines and growth factors, which could play an important role in tumor progression. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the secretory properties of epithelial tumor cells that have undergone an EMT, with an emphasis on the potential role of the IL-8-IL-8 receptor axis on the induction and/or maintenance of tumor EMT and its ability to remodel the tumor microenvironment.

  8. Expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition regulators SNAI2 and TWIST1 in thyroid carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Buehler, Darya; Hardin, Heather; Shan, Weihua; Montemayor-Garcia, Celina; Rush, Patrick S; Asioli, Sofia; Chen, Herbert; Lloyd, Ricardo V

    2013-01-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition is an important mechanism of epithelial tumor progression, local invasion and metastasis. The E-cadherin (CDH1) repressor SLUG (SNAI2) and the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor TWIST1 inhibit CDH1 expression in poorly differentiated malignancies as inducers of epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition has been implicated in progression from well to poorly differentiated/anaplastic thyroid carcinoma but the expression of SNAI2 and TWIST1 proteins and their phenotypic association in human thyroid cancers has not been extensively studied. We examined the expression of SNAI2, TWIST1 and CDH1 by immunohistochemistry in a panel of well-differentiated and anaplastic thyroid cancers and by qRT-PCR in thyroid cell lines. Ten normal thyroids, 33 follicular adenomas, 56 papillary thyroid carcinomas including 28 follicular variants, 27 follicular carcinomas and 10 anaplastic thyroid carcinomas were assembled on a tissue microarray and immunostained for SNAI2, TWIST1 and CDH1. Most (8/10) anaplastic thyroid carcinomas demonstrated strong nuclear immunoreactivity for SNAI2 with associated absence of CDH1 in 6/8 cases (75%). TWIST1 was expressed in 5/10 anaplastic thyroid carcinomas with absence of CDH1 in 3/5 (60%) cases. These findings were confirmed in whole sections of all anaplastic thyroid carcinomas and in a separate validation set of 10 additional anaplastic thyroid carcinomas. All normal thyroids, follicular adenomas, papillary and follicular thyroid carcinomas were negative for SNAI2 and TWIST1 (P<0.0001) and all showed strong diffuse immunoreactivity for CDH1 (P=0.026). Expression of SNAI2, TWIST1 and CDH1 mRNA varied in a normal thyroid, papillary carcinoma and two anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cell lines tested, but the highest levels of CDH1 mRNA were detected in the normal thyroid cell line while the anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cell line demonstrated the highest levels of SNAI2 and TWIST1 m

  9. Vitamin C inhibit the proliferation, migration and epithelial-mesenchymal-transition of lens epithelial cells by destabilizing HIF-1α

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Lin; Quan, Yanlong; Wang, Jianming; Wang, Feng; Zheng, Yuping; Zhou, Aiyi

    2015-01-01

    Posterior capsular opacification (PCO), the main complication of cataract surgery, is mainly caused by the proliferation, migration, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of the residual lens epithelial cells (LECs).Vitamin C was reported to reduce the risk of forming a cataract. However, there has been no study showing the association between vitamin C and PCO. In this study, we found that vitamin C could inhibit the migration and proliferation of human lens epithelial cells. We also found that vitamin C could increase the proline hydroxylation of HIF-1α and reduce the activity of HIF-1α. Moreover, vitamin C could not inhibit the activity of proline-mutant HIF-1α (402/564). Overexpression of wild-type HIF-1α or proline-mutant HIF-1α was found to increase the proliferation and migration of human lens epithelial cells. Differently, vitamin C could inhibit the proliferation and migration in wild-type HIF-1α-overexpressing lens epithelial cells but not the proline-mutant HIF-1α-overexpressing cells. Additionally, vitamin C was also found to inhibit the expression of EMT transcription factors TWIST. We then found that vitamin C could repress the EMT phenotypes induced by the overexpression of wild-type HIF-1α but not the proline-mutant HIF-1α. These results provide evidence that vitamin C plays a role in the repression of proliferation, migration, and EMT of human lens epithelial cells by destabilizing HIF-1α. PMID:26628999

  10. Dynamic transcription factor networks in epithelial-mesenchymal transition in breast cancer models.

    PubMed

    Siletz, Anaar; Schnabel, Michael; Kniazeva, Ekaterina; Schumacher, Andrew J; Shin, Seungjin; Jeruss, Jacqueline S; Shea, Lonnie D

    2013-01-01

    The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a complex change in cell differentiation that allows breast carcinoma cells to acquire invasive properties. EMT involves a cascade of regulatory changes that destabilize the epithelial phenotype and allow mesenchymal features to manifest. As transcription factors (TFs) are upstream effectors of the genome-wide expression changes that result in phenotypic change, understanding the sequential changes in TF activity during EMT provides rich information on the mechanism of this process. Because molecular interactions will vary as cells progress from an epithelial to a mesenchymal differentiation program, dynamic networks are needed to capture the changing context of molecular processes. In this study we applied an emerging high-throughput, dynamic TF activity array to define TF activity network changes in three cell-based models of EMT in breast cancer based on HMLE Twist ER and MCF-7 mammary epithelial cells. The TF array distinguished conserved from model-specific TF activity changes in the three models. Time-dependent data was used to identify pairs of TF activities with significant positive or negative correlation, indicative of interdependent TF activity throughout the six-day study period. Dynamic TF activity patterns were clustered into groups of TFs that change along a time course of gene expression changes and acquisition of invasive capacity. Time-dependent TF activity data was combined with prior knowledge of TF interactions to construct dynamic models of TF activity networks as epithelial cells acquire invasive characteristics. These analyses show EMT from a unique and targetable vantage and may ultimately contribute to diagnosis and therapy.

  11. Zeb1 controls neuron differentiation and germinal zone exit by a mesenchymal-epithelial-like transition.

    PubMed

    Singh, Shalini; Howell, Danielle; Trivedi, Niraj; Kessler, Ketty; Ong, Taren; Rosmaninho, Pedro; Raposo, Alexandre Asf; Robinson, Giles; Roussel, Martine F; Castro, Diogo S; Solecki, David J

    2016-05-14

    In the developing mammalian brain, differentiating neurons mature morphologically via neuronal polarity programs. Despite discovery of polarity pathways acting concurrently with differentiation, it's unclear how neurons traverse complex polarity transitions or how neuronal progenitors delay polarization during development. We report that zinc finger and homeobox transcription factor-1 (Zeb1), a master regulator of epithelial polarity, controls neuronal differentiation by transcriptionally repressing polarity genes in neuronal progenitors. Necessity-sufficiency testing and functional target screening in cerebellar granule neuron progenitors (GNPs) reveal that Zeb1 inhibits polarization and retains progenitors in their germinal zone (GZ). Zeb1 expression is elevated in the Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) medulloblastoma subgroup originating from GNPs with persistent SHH activation. Restored polarity signaling promotes differentiation and rescues GZ exit, suggesting a model for future differentiative therapies. These results reveal unexpected parallels between neuronal differentiation and mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition and suggest that active polarity inhibition contributes to altered GZ exit in pediatric brain cancers.

  12. GM130 regulates epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and invasion of gastric cancer cells via snail

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jianquan; Yang, Chun; Guo, Shujun; Wu, Yonggang

    2015-01-01

    Gastric cancer is one of the most common causes of digestive tract tumor. Despite of recent advances in surgical techniques and development of adjuvant therapy, the underlying mechanisms of gastric cancer remain poorly understood and relevant insight into novel treatment strategies using gene target remains incomplete. Recently, several studies report that epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a crucial process for the invasion and metastasis of epithelial tumors; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying this transition are unknown. As a cis-Golgi matrix protein, GM130 plays an important role in cell cycle progression and transport of protein in the secretory pathway. In this study, we found that GM130 expression has a positive correlation with the pathological differentiation and tumor node metastasis (TNM) stage of gastric cancer. High GM130 expression levels also predict shorter overall survival of gastric cancer patients. RNA interference-mediated knockdown of GM130 expression increased epithelial marker (E-cadherin) and decreased mesenchymal marker (N-cadherin and vimentin) expression in gastric cancer cells, suppressing cell invasion, and tumor formation. Furthermore, we found that GM130 upregulated expression of the key EMT regulator Snail (SNAI1), which mediated EMT activation and cell invasion by GM130. Taken together, our study indicates GM130 may be a promising therapeutic biomarker for gastric cancer. PMID:26617790

  13. GM130 regulates epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and invasion of gastric cancer cells via snail.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jianquan; Yang, Chun; Guo, Shujun; Wu, Yonggang

    2015-01-01

    Gastric cancer is one of the most common causes of digestive tract tumor. Despite of recent advances in surgical techniques and development of adjuvant therapy, the underlying mechanisms of gastric cancer remain poorly understood and relevant insight into novel treatment strategies using gene target remains incomplete. Recently, several studies report that epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a crucial process for the invasion and metastasis of epithelial tumors; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying this transition are unknown. As a cis-Golgi matrix protein, GM130 plays an important role in cell cycle progression and transport of protein in the secretory pathway. In this study, we found that GM130 expression has a positive correlation with the pathological differentiation and tumor node metastasis (TNM) stage of gastric cancer. High GM130 expression levels also predict shorter overall survival of gastric cancer patients. RNA interference-mediated knockdown of GM130 expression increased epithelial marker (E-cadherin) and decreased mesenchymal marker (N-cadherin and vimentin) expression in gastric cancer cells, suppressing cell invasion, and tumor formation. Furthermore, we found that GM130 upregulated expression of the key EMT regulator Snail (SNAI1), which mediated EMT activation and cell invasion by GM130. Taken together, our study indicates GM130 may be a promising therapeutic biomarker for gastric cancer. PMID:26617790

  14. Mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET) as a mechanism for metastatic colonisation in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Gunasinghe, N P A Devika; Wells, Alan; Thompson, Erik W; Hugo, Honor J

    2012-12-01

    As yet, there is no cure for metastatic breast cancer. Historically, considerable research effort has been concentrated on understanding the processes of metastasis, how a primary tumour locally invades and systemically disseminates using the phenotypic switching mechanism of epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT); however, much less is understood about how metastases are then formed. Breast cancer metastases often look (and may even function) as 'normal' breast tissue, a bizarre observation against the backdrop of the organ structure of the lung, liver, bone or brain. Mesenchymal to epithelial transition (MET), the opposite of EMT, has been proposed as a mechanism for establishment of the metastatic neoplasm, leading to questions such as: Can MET be clearly demonstrated in vivo? What factors cause this phenotypic switch within the cancer cell? Are these signals/factors derived from the metastatic site (soil) or expressed by the cancer cells themselves (seed)? How do the cancer cells then grow into a detectable secondary tumour and further disseminate? And finally--Can we design and develop therapies that may combat this dissemination switch? This review aims to address these important questions by evaluating long-standing paradigms and novel emerging concepts in the field of epithelial mesencyhmal plasticity.

  15. Resveratrol inhibits epithelial-mesenchymal transition of retinal pigment epithelium and development of proliferative vitreoretinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Ishikawa, Keijiro; He, Shikun; Terasaki, Hiroto; Nazari, Hossein; Zhang, Huiming; Spee, Christine; Kannan, Ram; Hinton, David R

    2015-01-01

    Proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) is a serious complication of retinal detachment and ocular trauma, and its recurrence may lead to irreversible vision loss. Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells is a critical step in the pathogenesis of PVR, which is characterized by fibrotic membrane formation and traction retinal detachment. In this study, we investigated the potential impact of resveratrol (RESV) on EMT and the fibrotic process in cultured RPE cells and further examined the preventive effect of RESV on PVR development using a rabbit model of PVR. We found that RESV induces mesenchymal to epithelial transition (MET) and inhibits transforming growth factor-β2(TGF-β2)-induced EMT of RPE cells by deacetylating SMAD4. The effect of RESV on MET was dependent on sirtuin1 activation. RESV suppressed proliferation, migration and fibronectin synthesis induced by platelet-derived growth factor-BB or TGF-β2. In vivo, RESV inhibited the progression of experimental PVR in rabbit eyes. Histological findings showed that RESV reduced fibrotic membrane formation and decreased α-SMA expression in the epiretinal membranes. These results suggest the potential use of RESV as a therapeutic agent to prevent the development of PVR by targeting EMT of RPE. PMID:26552368

  16. Reprogramming during epithelial to mesenchymal transition under the control of TGFβ

    PubMed Central

    Tan, E-Jean; Olsson, Anna-Karin; Moustakas, Aristidis

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) refers to plastic changes in epithelial tissue architecture. Breast cancer stromal cells provide secreted molecules, such as transforming growth factor β (TGFβ), that promote EMT on tumor cells to facilitate breast cancer cell invasion, stemness and metastasis. TGFβ signaling is considered to be abnormal in the context of cancer development; however, TGFβ acting on breast cancer EMT resembles physiological signaling during embryonic development, when EMT generates or patterns new tissues. Interestingly, while EMT promotes metastatic fate, successful metastatic colonization seems to require the inverse process of mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET). EMT and MET are interconnected in a time-dependent and tissue context-dependent manner and are coordinated by TGFβ, other extracellular proteins, intracellular signaling cascades, non-coding RNAs and chromatin-based molecular alterations. Research on breast cancer EMT/MET aims at delivering biomolecules that can be used diagnostically in cancer pathology and possibly provide ideas for how to improve breast cancer therapy. PMID:25482613

  17. Interplay Between Transcription Factors and MicroRNAs Regulating Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transitions in Colorectal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Kaller, Markus; Hermeking, Heiko

    2016-01-01

    The epithelial-mesenchymal-transition (EMT) represents a morphogenetic program involved in developmental processes such as gastrulation and neural crest formation. The EMT program is co-opted by epithelial tumor cells and endows them with features necessary for spreading to distant sites, such as invasion, migration, apoptosis resistance and stemness. Thereby, EMT facilitates metastasis formation and therapy resistance. A growing number of transcription factors has been implicated in the regulation of EMT. These include EMT-inducing transcription factors (EMT-TFs), the most prominent being SNAIL, SLUG, ZEB1, ZEB2 and TWIST, and negative regulators of EMT, such as p53. Furthermore, a growing number of microRNAs, such as members of the miR-200 and miR-34 family, have been characterized as negative regulators of EMT. EMT-TFs and microRNAs, such as ZEB1/2 and miR-200 or SNAIL and miR-34, are often engaged in double-negative feedback loops forming bistable switches controlling the transitions from epithelial to the mesenchymal cell states. Within this chapter, we will provide a comprehensive overview over the transcription factors and microRNAs that have been implicated in the regulation of EMT in colorectal cancer. Furthermore, we will highlight the regulatory connections between EMT-TFs and miRNAs to illustrate common principles of their interaction that regulate EMTs. PMID:27573895

  18. Lysophosphatidic Acid Initiates Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition and Induces β-Catenin-mediated Transcription in Epithelial Ovarian Carcinoma*

    PubMed Central

    Burkhalter, Rebecca J.; Westfall, Suzanne D.; Liu, Yueying; Stack, M. Sharon

    2015-01-01

    During tumor progression, epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) cells undergo epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which influences metastatic success. Mutation-dependent activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling has been implicated in gain of mesenchymal phenotype and loss of differentiation in several solid tumors; however, similar mutations are rare in most EOC histotypes. Nevertheless, evidence for activated Wnt/β-catenin signaling in EOC has been reported, and immunohistochemical analysis of human EOC tumors demonstrates nuclear staining in all histotypes. This study addresses the hypothesis that the bioactive lipid lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), prevalent in the EOC microenvironment, functions to regulate EMT in EOC. Our results demonstrate that LPA induces loss of junctional β-catenin, stimulates clustering of β1 integrins, and enhances the conformationally active population of surface β1 integrins. Furthermore, LPA treatment initiates nuclear translocation of β-catenin and transcriptional activation of Wnt/β-catenin target genes resulting in gain of mesenchymal marker expression. Together these data suggest that LPA initiates EMT in ovarian tumors through β1-integrin-dependent activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling, providing a novel mechanism for mutation-independent activation of this pathway in EOC progression. PMID:26175151

  19. Sheep, wolf, or werewolf: cancer stem cells and the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jeffrey T; Mani, Sendurai A

    2013-11-28

    Multiple cancers contain subpopulations that exhibit characteristics of cancer stem cells (CSCs), the ability to self-renew and seed heterogeneous tumors. Recent evidence suggests two potentially overlapping models for these phenotypes: one where stem cells arise from multipotent progenitor cells, and another where they are created via an epithelial to mesenchymal transition. Unraveling this issue is critical, as it underlies phenomena such as metastasis and therapeutic resistance. Therefore, there is intense interest in understanding these two types of CSSs, how they differ from differentiated cancer cells, the mechanisms that drive their phenotypes, and how that knowledge can be incorporated into therapeutics.

  20. Tacrolimus Modulates TGF-β Signaling to Induce Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Human Renal Proximal Tubule Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Jason; Cassidy, Hilary; Slattery, Craig; Ryan, Michael P; McMorrow, Tara

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a process which describes the trans-differentiation of epithelial cells into motile mesenchymal cells, is pivotal in stem cell behavior, development and wound healing, as well as contributing to disease processes including fibrosis and cancer progression. Maintenance immunosuppression with calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) has become routine management for renal transplant patient, but unfortunately the nephrotoxicity of these drugs has been well documented. HK-2 cells were exposed to Tacrolimus (FK506) and EMT markers were assessed by RT PCR and western blot. FK506 effects on TGF-β mRNA were assessed by RT PCR and TGF-β secretion was measured by ELISA. The impact of increased TGF-β secretion on Smad signaling pathways was investigated. The impact of inhibition of TGF-β signaling on EMT processes was assessed by scratch-wound assay. The results presented in this study suggest that FK506 initiates EMT processes in the HK-2 cell line, with altered expression of epithelial and myofibroblast markers evident. Additionally, the study demonstrates that FK506 activation of the TGF-β/ SMAD pathways is an essential step in the EMT process. Overall the results demonstrate that EMT is heavily involved in renal fibrosis associated with CNI nephrotoxicity. PMID:27128949

  1. Tacrolimus Modulates TGF-β Signaling to Induce Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Human Renal Proximal Tubule Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Jason; Cassidy, Hilary; Slattery, Craig; Ryan, Michael P.; McMorrow, Tara

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a process which describes the trans-differentiation of epithelial cells into motile mesenchymal cells, is pivotal in stem cell behavior, development and wound healing, as well as contributing to disease processes including fibrosis and cancer progression. Maintenance immunosuppression with calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) has become routine management for renal transplant patient, but unfortunately the nephrotoxicity of these drugs has been well documented. HK-2 cells were exposed to Tacrolimus (FK506) and EMT markers were assessed by RT PCR and western blot. FK506 effects on TGF-β mRNA were assessed by RT PCR and TGF-β secretion was measured by ELISA. The impact of increased TGF-β secretion on Smad signaling pathways was investigated. The impact of inhibition of TGF-β signaling on EMT processes was assessed by scratch-wound assay. The results presented in this study suggest that FK506 initiates EMT processes in the HK-2 cell line, with altered expression of epithelial and myofibroblast markers evident. Additionally, the study demonstrates that FK506 activation of the TGF-β/ SMAD pathways is an essential step in the EMT process. Overall the results demonstrate that EMT is heavily involved in renal fibrosis associated with CNI nephrotoxicity. PMID:27128949

  2. Blocking TGF-β expression inhibits silica particle-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition in human lung epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Rong, Yi; Shen, Yan; Zhang, Zhihong; Cui, Xiuqing; Xiao, Lili; Liu, Yuewei; Luo, Xin; Chen, Weihong

    2015-11-01

    The main characteristic of silicosis is irreversible fibrosis. Certain studies have shown that epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) regulated by transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) is involved in fibrosis. Thus, we suggest that TGF-β regulated EMT may play an important role in silicosis. In this study, we determined the expression of TGF-β-Smad2/3, EMT- and ECM-related markers in lung epithelial cells treated with silica particle by RT-PCR, western-blot and ELISA. In order to explore the role of TGF-β, we used TGF-β inhibitor in the cell model. We found that the cells lost the expression of epithelial phenotypic markers and acquired increased expression of mesenchymal cells markers with ECM deposition after treatment with silica particle. Moreover, the changes of EMT-related event was restricted in response to TGF-β inhibitor. These findings suggest that EMT is essentially involved in the pathogenesis of fibrosis induced by silica particles and down-regulating the TGF-β expression can inhibit the process of EMT.

  3. Identification of epithelial to mesenchymal transition as a novel source of fibroblasts in intestinal fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Flier, Sarah N; Tanjore, Harikrishna; Kokkotou, Efi G; Sugimoto, Hikaru; Zeisberg, Michael; Kalluri, Raghu

    2010-06-25

    Intestinal fibrosis is a major complication of Crohn disease (CD), but the precise mechanism by which it occurs is incompletely understood. As a result, specific therapies to halt or even reverse fibrosis have not been explored. Here, we evaluated the contribution of epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) to intestinal fibrosis associated with a mouse model of CD and also human inflammatory bowel disease. Mice administered intrarectal 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) develop inflammation and fibrosis that resembles CD both histologically and by immunologic profile. We utilized this model to molecularly probe the contribution of EMT to intestinal fibrosis. Additionally, we utilized double-transgenic VillinCre;R26Rosa-lox-STOP-lox-LacZ mice, in which removal of the STOP cassette by Cre recombinase in villin(+) intestinal epithelial cells activates permanent LacZ expression, to lineage trace epithelial cells that might undergo EMT upon TNBS administration. TNBS-induced fibrosis is associated with the presence of a significant number of cells that express both epithelial and mesenchymal markers. In the lineage tagged transgenic mice, the appearance of LacZ(+) cells that also express the fibroblast marker FSP1 unequivocally demonstrates EMT. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1, a known inducer of EMT in epithelial cells, induces EMT in rat intestinal epithelial cells in vitro, and bone morphogenic protein-7, an antagonist of TGF-beta1, inhibits EMT and fibrosis both in vitro and in the TNBS-treated mice. Our study demonstrates that EMT contributes to intestinal fibrosis associated with the TNBS-induced model of Crohn colitis and that inhibition of TGF-beta1 with recombinant human bone morphogenic protein-7 prevents this process and prevents fibrosis.

  4. Resveratrol sensitizes tamoxifen in antiestrogen-resistant breast cancer cells with epithelial-mesenchymal transition features.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiao-Peng; Miao, Shan; Wu, Yin; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Xiao-Fang; Ma, Hua-Zhao; Xin, Hai-Li; Feng, Juan; Wen, Ai-Dong; Li, Yan

    2013-07-26

    Tamoxifen resistance remains to be a huge obstacle in the treatment of hormone-dependent breast cancer, and this therefore highlights the dire need to explore the underlying mechanisms. The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a molecular process through which an epithelial cell transfers into a mesenchymal phenotype. Roles of EMT in embryo development, cancer invasion and metastasis have been extensively reported. Herein, we established tamoxifen-resistant MCF-7/TR breast cancer cells and showed that MCF-7/TR cells underwent EMT driven by enhanced endogenous TGF-β/Smad signaling. Ectopic supplement of TGF-β promoted in MCF-7 cells a mesenchymal and resistant phenotype. In parallel, we demonstrated that resveratrol was capable of synergizing with tamoxifen and triggering apoptosis in MCF-7/TR cells. Further Western blot analysis indicated that the chemosensitizing effects of resveratrol were conferred with its modulation on endogenous TGF-β production and Smad phosphorylation. In particular, 50 μM resveratrol had minor effects on MCF-7/TR cell proliferation, but could significantly attenuate endogenous TGF-β production and the Smad pathway, ultimately leading to reversion of EMT. Collectively, our study highlighted distinct roles of EMT in tamoxifen resistance and resveratrol as a potential agent to overcome acquired tamoxifen resistance. The molecular mechanism of resveratrol chemosensitizing effects is, at least in part, TGF-β/Smad-dependent.

  5. An Atypical System for Studying Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Vedagiri, Dhiviya; Lashkari, Hiren Vasantrai; Mangani, Abubakar Siddiq; Kumar, Jerald Mahesh; Jose, Jedy; Thatipalli, Avinash Raj; Harshan, Krishnan Harinivas

    2016-01-01

    Intrahepatic and extrahepatic metastases are frequently detected in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is believed to drive metastasis. There are not many well-established model systems to study EMT in HCC. Here we identified an atypical EMT while characterizing a population of mesenchymal cells in Huh7.5 hepatoma cell cultures. Cells with distinct morphology appeared during geneticin treatment of Huh7.5 cultures. Molecular characterization of geneticin resistant Huh7.5M cells confirmed EMT. Huh7.5M cells expressed cancer stem cell markers. p38MAPK and ERK1/2 were substantially activated in Huh7.5M cells. Their Inhibition elevated E-Cadherin expression with concerted suppression of Vimentin and anchorage independent growth in Huh7.5M cells. TGFβ could not induce EMT in Huh7.5 cultures, but enriched mesenchymal populations, similar to geneticin. Huh7.5M cells formed more aggressive solid tumors, primarily comprising cells with epithelial morphology, in nude mice. Canonical EMT-TFs did not participate in this atypical EMT, indicating that the established canonical EMT-TFs do not drive every EMT and there is a dire need to identify additional factors. The system that we characterized is a unique model to study EMT, MET and biphasic TGFβ signaling in HCC and offers considerable potential to facilitate more insightful studies on deeper questions in tumor metastasis. PMID:27197891

  6. Sonic hedgehog-mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition in renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yongheng; Lu, Hong; Lin, Chengcheng; Xu, Yaya; Hu, Dannü; Liang, Yong; Hong, Weilong; Chen, Bicheng

    2016-05-01

    The sonic hedgehog (SHH) signaling pathway plays a critical role in embryonic development, tissue regeneration and organogenesis. The activation of SHH signaling produces profibrogenic effects in various tissues, such as the liver and the biliary ducts. However, the role of SHH signaling in renal fibrogenesis remains to be elucidated. For this purpose, in the present study, we evaluated the hypothesis that activated SHH signaling promotes the acquisition of a myofibroblastic phenotype through the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), resulting in renal interstitial fibrosis (RIF). Kidney samples from rats subjected to unilateral or bilateral ureteral obstruction exhibited the enhanced expression of SHH-pathway proteins, mesenchymal markers and the decreased expression of epithelial markers. Overactive SHH signaling as well as tubular EMT and RIF in the obstructed kidneys were inhibited by recanalization of the ureter. In vitro, SHH signaling was activated during EMT induction and extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition was observed in transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1)-treated renal tubular epithelial cells [RTECs; NRK-52E cell line]. Exogenous SHH activated SHH signaling and resulted in the upregulated expression of mesenchymal genes, the profibrogenic cytokine TGF-β1, and the downregulated expression of epithelial markers. The blockade of SHH signaling with cyclopamine abolished SHH-mediated EMT as well as the acquisition of a myofibroblastic phenotype, and decreased TGF-β1 expression and ECM production. Thus, taken together, these findings demonstrate that the activation of the SHH signaling pathway promotes the induction of EMT and renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis. The pharmacological inhibition of SHH signaling may potentially be of therapeutic value in the management of fibrotic kidney diseases. PMID:27035418

  7. CD146, an epithelial-mesenchymal transition inducer, is associated with triple-negative breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Qiqun; Li, Weidong; Lu, Di; Wu, Zhenzhen; Duan, Hongxia; Luo, Yongting; Feng, Jing; Yang, Dongling; Fu, Li; Yan, Xiyun

    2012-01-24

    The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays an important role in breast cancer metastasis, especially in the most aggressive and lethal subtype, "triple-negative breast cancer" (TNBC). Here, we report that CD146 is a unique activator of EMTs and significantly correlates with TNBC. In epithelial breast cancer cells, overexpression of CD146 down-regulated epithelial markers and up-regulated mesenchymal markers, significantly promoted cell migration and invasion, and induced cancer stem cell-like properties. We further found that RhoA pathways positively regulated CD146-induced EMTs via the key EMT transcriptional factor Slug. An orthotopic breast tumor model demonstrated that CD146-overexpressing breast tumors showed a poorly differentiated phenotype and displayed increased tumor invasion and metastasis. We confirmed these findings by conducting an immunohistochemical analysis of 505 human primary breast tumor tissues and found that CD146 expression was significantly associated with high tumor stage, poor prognosis, and TNBC. CD146 was expressed at abnormally high levels (68.9%), and was strongly associated with E-cadherin down-regulation in TNBC samples. Taken together, these findings provide unique evidence that CD146 promotes breast cancer progression by induction of EMTs via the activation of RhoA and up-regulation of Slug. Thus, CD146 could be a therapeutic target for breast cancer, especially for TNBC. PMID:22210108

  8. Mechanisms of disease: epithelial-mesenchymal transition and back again: does cellular plasticity fuel neoplastic progression?

    SciTech Connect

    Bissell, Mina J; Turley, Eva A.; Veiseh, Mandana; Radisky, Derek C.; Bissell, Mina J.

    2008-02-13

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a conversion that facilitates organ morphogenesis and tissue remodeling in physiological processes such as embryonic development and wound healing. A similar phenotypic conversion is also detected in fibrotic diseases and neoplasia, which is associated with disease progression. EMT in cancer epithelial cells often seems to be an incomplete and bi-directional process. In this Review, we discuss the phenomenon of EMT as it pertains to tumor development, focusing on exceptions to the commonly held rule that EMT promotes invasion and metastasis. We also highlight the role of the RAS-controlled signaling mediators, ERK1, ERK2 and PI3-kinase, as microenvironmental responsive regulators of EMT.

  9. A novel regulatory role for tissue transglutaminase in epithelial-mesenchymal transition in cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Nyabam, Samuel; Wang, Zhuo; Thibault, Thomas; Oluseyi, Ayinde; Basar, Rameeza; Marshall, Lindsay; Griffin, Martin

    2016-09-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a genetic disorder caused by mutation of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) for which there is no overall effective treatment. Recent work indicates tissue transglutaminase (TG2) plays a pivotal intracellular role in proteostasis in CF epithelia and that the pan TG inhibitor cysteamine improves CFTR stability. Here we show TG2 has another role in CF pathology linked with TGFβ1 activation and signalling, induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), CFTR stability and induction of matrix deposition. We show that increased TG2 expression in normal and CF bronchial epithelial cells increases TGFβ1 levels, promoting EMT progression, and impairs tight junctions as measured by Transepithelial Electric Resistance (TEER) which can be reversed by selective inhibition of TG2 with an observed increase in CFTR stability. Our data indicate that selective inhibition of TG2 provides a potential therapeutic avenue for reducing fibrosis and increasing CFTR stability in CF. PMID:27234323

  10. Partial Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition and Other New Mechanisms of Kidney Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Lovisa, Sara; Zeisberg, Michael; Kalluri, Raghu

    2016-10-01

    Kidney fibrosis is the unavoidable consequence of chronic kidney disease irrespective of the primary underlying insult. It is a complex phenomenon governed by the interplay between different cellular components and intricate networks of signaling pathways, which together lead to loss of renal functionality and replacement of kidney parenchyma with scar tissue. An immense effort has recently been made to understand the molecular and cellular mechanisms leading to kidney fibrosis. The cellular protagonists of this process include myofibroblasts, tubular epithelial cells, endothelial cells, and immune cells. We discuss here the most recent findings, including partial epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), in the initiation and progression of tissue fibrosis and chronic kidney disease (CKD). A deep understanding of these mechanisms will allow the development of effective therapies.

  11. LOXL2 catalytically inactive mutants mediate epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Cuevas, Eva P; Moreno-Bueno, Gema; Canesin, Giacomo; Santos, Vanesa; Portillo, Francisco; Cano, Amparo

    2014-02-15

    Lysyl-oxidase-like 2 (LOXL2) is a member of the lysyl oxidase family that catalyzes the cross-linking of collagens or elastins in the extracellular matrix, thus regulating the tensile strength of tissues. However, many reports have suggested different intracellular roles for LOXL2, including the ability to regulate gene transcription and tumor progression. We previously reported that LOXL2 mediates epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) by Snail1-dependent and independent mechanisms, related to E-cadherin silencing and downregulation of epidermal differentiation and cell polarity components, respectively. Whether or not the catalytic activity of LOXL2 is required to induce/sustain EMT is actually unknown. Here we show that LOXL2 catalytic inactive mutants collaborate with Snail1 in E-cadherin gene repression to trigger EMT and, in addition, promote FAK/Src pathway activation to support EMT. These findings reveal a non-conventional role of LOXL2 on regulating epithelial cell plasticity.

  12. Epicardial Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition in Heart Development and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Krainock, Michael; Toubat, Omar; Danopoulos, Soula; Beckham, Allison; Warburton, David; Kim, Richard

    2016-01-01

    The epicardium is an epithelial monolayer that plays a central role in heart development and the myocardial response to injury. Recent developments in our understanding of epicardial cell biology have revealed this layer to be a dynamic participant in fundamental processes underlying the development of the embryonic ventricles, the coronary vasculature, and the cardiac valves. Likewise, recent data have identified the epicardium as an important contributor to reparative and regenerative processes in the injured myocardium. These essential functions of the epicardium rely on both non-cell autonomous and cell-autonomous mechanisms, with the latter featuring the process of epicardial Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT). This review will focus on the induction and regulation of epicardial EMT, as it pertains to both cardiogenesis and the response of the myocardium to injury. PMID:26907357

  13. The protein tyrosine phosphatase Pez regulates TGFbeta, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and organ development.

    PubMed

    Wyatt, Leila; Wadham, Carol; Crocker, Lesley A; Lardelli, Michael; Khew-Goodall, Yeesim

    2007-09-24

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), crucial during embryogenesis for new tissue and organ formation, is also considered to be a prerequisite to cancer metastasis. We report here that the protein tyrosine phosphatase Pez is expressed transiently in discrete locations in developing brain, heart, pharyngeal arches, and somites in zebrafish embryos. We also find that Pez knock-down results in defects in these organs, indicating a crucial role in organogenesis. Overexpression of Pez in epithelial MDCK cells causes EMT, with a drastic change in cell morphology and function that is accompanied by changes in gene expression typical of EMT. Transfection of Pez induced TGFbeta signaling, critical in developmental EMT with a likely role also in oncogenic EMT. In zebrafish, TGFbeta3 is co- expressed with Pez in a number of tissues and its expression was lost from these tissues when Pez expression was knocked down. Together, our data suggest Pez plays a crucial role in organogenesis by inducing TGFbeta and EMT. PMID:17893246

  14. HOXB7, a homeodomain protein, is overexpressed in breast cancer and confers epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xinyan; Chen, Hexin; Parker, Belinda; Rubin, Ethel; Zhu, Tao; Lee, Ji Shin; Argani, Pedram; Sukumar, Saraswati

    2006-10-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is increasingly recognized as a mechanism whereby cells in primary noninvasive tumors acquire properties essential for migration and invasion. Microarray analyses of microdissected epithelial cells from bone metastasis revealed a HOXB7 overexpression that was 3-fold higher than in primary breast carcinomas and 18-fold higher compared with normal breast. This led us to investigate the role of HOXB7 in neoplastic transformation of breast cells. Expression of HOXB7 in both MCF10A and Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) epithelial cells resulted in the acquisition of both phenotypic and molecular attributes typical of EMT. Loss of epithelial proteins, claudin 1 and claudin 7, mislocalization of claudin 4 and E-cadherin, and the expression of mesenchymal proteins, vimentin and alpha-smooth muscle actin, were observed. MDCK cells expressing HOXB7 exhibited properties of migration and invasion. Unlike MDCK vector-transfected cells, MDCK-HOXB7 cells formed highly vascularized tumors in mice. MDCK-HOXB7 cells overexpressed basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), had more active forms of both Ras and RhoA proteins, and displayed higher levels of phosphorylation of p44 and p42 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK; extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2). Effects initiated by HOXB7 were reversed by specific inhibitors of FGF receptor and the Ras-MAPK pathways. These data provide support for a function for HOXB7 in promoting tumor invasion through activation of Ras/Rho pathway by up-regulating bFGF, a known transcriptional target of HOXB7. Reversal of these effects by HOXB7-specific siRNA further suggested that these effects were mediated by HOXB7. Thus, HOXB7 overexpression caused EMT in epithelial cells, accompanied by acquisition of aggressive properties of tumorigenicity, migration, and invasion.

  15. Mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition contributes to endometrial regeneration following natural and artificial decidualization.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Amanda L; Zhang, Ling; Arango, Nelson A; Teixeira, Jose; Pru, James K

    2013-03-15

    Despite being a histologically dynamic organ, mechanisms coordinating uterine regeneration during the menstrual/estrous cycle and following parturition are poorly understood. In the current study, we hypothesized that endometrial epithelial tissue regeneration is accomplished, in part, by mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition (MET). To test this hypothesis, fate mapping studies were completed using a double transgenic (Tg) reporter strain, Amhr2-Cre; Rosa26-Stop(fl/fl-EYFP) (i.e., flox-stop EYFP reporter). EYFP expression was observed in Müllerian duct mesenchyme-derived stroma and myometrium, but not epithelia in young and peripubertal double Tg female mice. However, mosaic EYFP expression was observed in epithelia of double Tg mice after parturition. To ensure the observed epithelial EYFP expression was not due to leaky Amhr2 promoter activity, resulting in aberrant Cre expression, transgenic mice expressing LacZ under the control of the Amhr2 promoter (Amhr2-LacZ) were used to monitor β-galactosidase (β-Gal) activity within the uterus. β-Gal activity was not detected in luminal or glandular epithelia regardless of age, reproductive status, or degree of damage incurred within the uterus. Lastly, a unique population of transitional cells was identified that expressed the epithelial cell marker, pan-cytokeratin, and the stromal cell marker, vimentin. These cells localized predominantly to the regeneration zone in the mesometrial region of the endometrium. These findings suggest a previously unappreciated role for MET in endometrial regeneration and have important implications for proliferative diseases of the endometrium such as endometriosis.

  16. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) confers primary resistance to trastuzumab (Herceptin)

    PubMed Central

    Oliveras-Ferraros, Cristina; Corominas-Faja, Bruna; Cufí, Sílvia; Vazquez-Martin, Alejandro; Martin-Castillo, Begoña; Iglesias, Juan Manuel; López-Bonet, Eugeni; Martin, Ángel G.; Menendez, Javier A.

    2012-01-01

    The rate of inherent resistance to single-agent trastuzumab in HER2-overexpressing metastatic breast carcinomas is impressive at above 70%. Unfortunately, little is known regarding the distinctive genetic signatures that could predict trastuzumab refractoriness ab initio. The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) molecular features, HER2 expression status and primary responses to trastuzumab were explored in the public Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) Breast Cancer Collection. Lentivirus-delivered small hairpin RNAs were employed to reduce specifically and stably the expression of EMT transcription factors in trastuzumab-refractory basal/HER2+ cells. Cell proliferation assays and pre-clinical nude mice xenograft-based studies were performed to assess the contribution of specific EMT transcription factors to inherent trastuzumab resistance. Primary sensitivity to trastuzumab was restricted to the SLUG/SNAIL2-negative subset of luminal/HER2+ cell lines, whereas all of the SLUG/SNAIL2-positive basal/HER2+ cell lines exhibited an inherent resistance to trastuzumab. The specific knockdown of SLUG/SNAIL2 suppressed the stem-related CD44+CD24-/low mesenchymal immunophenotype by transcriptionally upregulating the luminal epithelial marker CD24 in basal/HER2+ cells. Basal/HER2+ cells gained sensitivity to the growth-inhibitory effects of trastuzumab following SLUG/SNAIL2 gene depletion, which induced the expression of the mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition (MET) genes involved in promoting an epithelial phenotype. The isolation of CD44+CD24-/low mesenchymal cells by magnetic-activated cell sorting (MACS) confirmed their intrinsic unresponsiveness to trastuzumab. A reduction in tumor growth and dramatic gain in sensitivity to trastuzumab in vivo were confirmed when the SLUG/SNAIL2 knockdown basal/HER2+ cells were injected into nude mice. HER2 overexpression in a basal, rather than in a luminal molecular background, results in a basal/HER2+ breast cancer subtype that

  17. Pancreatic stellate cells promote epithelial-mesenchymal transition in pancreatic cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kikuta, Kazuhiro; Masamune, Atsushi; Watanabe, Takashi; Ariga, Hiroyuki; Itoh, Hiromichi; Hamada, Shin; Satoh, Kennichi; Egawa, Shinichi; Unno, Michiaki; Shimosegawa, Tooru

    2010-12-17

    Research highlights: {yields} Recent studies have shown that pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) promote the progression of pancreatic cancer. {yields} Pancreatic cancer cells co-cultured with PSCs showed loose cell contacts and scattered, fibroblast-like appearance. {yields} PSCs decreased the expression of epithelial markers but increased that of mesenchymal markers, along with increased migration. {yields} This study suggests epithelial-mesenchymal transition as a novel mechanism by which PSCs contribute to the aggressive behavior of pancreatic cancer cells. -- Abstract: The interaction between pancreatic cancer cells and pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs), a major profibrogenic cell type in the pancreas, is receiving increasing attention. There is accumulating evidence that PSCs promote the progression of pancreatic cancer by increasing cancer cell proliferation and invasion as well as by protecting them from radiation- and gemcitabine-induced apoptosis. Because epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays a critical role in the progression of pancreatic cancer, we hypothesized that PSCs promote EMT in pancreatic cancer cells. Panc-1 and SUIT-2 pancreatic cancer cells were indirectly co-cultured with human PSCs isolated from patients undergoing operation for pancreatic cancer. The expression of epithelial and mesenchymal markers was examined by real-time PCR and immunofluorescent staining. The migration of pancreatic cancer cells was examined by scratch and two-chamber assays. Pancreatic cancer cells co-cultured with PSCs showed loose cell contacts and a scattered, fibroblast-like appearance. The expression of E-cadherin, cytokeratin 19, and membrane-associated {beta}-catenin was decreased, whereas vimentin and Snail (Snai-1) expression was increased more in cancer cells co-cultured with PSCs than in mono-cultured cells. The migration of pancreatic cancer cells was increased by co-culture with PSCs. The PSC-induced decrease of E-cadherin expression was not altered

  18. Sox2 acts as a rheostat of epithelial to mesenchymal transition during neural crest development

    PubMed Central

    Mandalos, Nikolaos; Rhinn, Muriel; Granchi, Zoraide; Karampelas, Ioannis; Mitsiadis, Thimios; Economides, Aris N.; Dollé, Pascal; Remboutsika, Eumorphia

    2014-01-01

    Precise control of self-renewal and differentiation of progenitor cells into the cranial neural crest (CNC) pool ensures proper head development, guided by signaling pathways such as BMPs, FGFs, Shh and Notch. Here, we show that murine Sox2 plays an essential role in controlling progenitor cell behavior during craniofacial development. A “Conditional by Inversion” Sox2 allele (Sox2COIN) has been employed to generate an epiblast ablation of Sox2 function (Sox2EpINV). Sox2EpINV/+(H) haploinsufficient and conditional (Sox2EpINV/mosaic) mutant embryos proceed beyond gastrulation and die around E11. These mutant embryos exhibit severe anterior malformations, with hydrocephaly and frontonasal truncations, which could be attributed to the deregulation of CNC progenitor cells during their epithelial to mesenchymal transition. This irregularity results in an exacerbated and aberrant migration of Sox10+ NCC in the branchial arches and frontonasal process of the Sox2 mutant embryos. These results suggest a novel role for Sox2 as a regulator of the epithelial to mesenchymal transitions (EMT) that are important for the cell flow in the developing head. PMID:25309446

  19. STAT3 and MCL-1 associate to cause a mesenchymal epithelial transition.

    PubMed

    Renjini, A P; Titus, Shiny; Narayan, Prashanth; Murali, Megha; Jha, Rajesh Kumar; Laloraya, Malini

    2014-04-15

    Embryo implantation is effected by a myriad of signaling cascades acting on the embryo-endometrium axis. Here we show, by using MALDI TOF analysis, far-western analysis and colocalization and co-transfection studies, that STAT3 and MCL-1 are interacting partners during embryo implantation. We show in vitro that the interaction between the two endogenous proteins is strongly regulated by estrogen and progesterone. Implantation, pregnancy and embryogenesis are distinct from any other process in the body, with extensive, but controlled, proliferation, cell migration, apoptosis, cell invasion and differentiation. Cellular plasticity is vital during the early stages of development for morphogenesis and organ homeostasis, effecting the epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) and, the reverse process, mesenchymal to epithelial transition (MET). STAT3 functionally associates with MCL-1 in the mammalian breast cancer cell line MCF7 that overexpresses STAT3 and MCL-1, which leads to an increased rate of apoptosis and decreased cellular invasion, disrupting the EMT. Association of MCL-1 with STAT3 modulates the normal, anti-apoptotic, activity of MCL-1, resulting in pro-apoptotic effects. Studying the impact of the association of STAT3 with MCL-1 on MET could lead to an enhanced understanding of pregnancy and infertility, and also metastatic tumors. PMID:24481815

  20. HnRNP A1 controls a splicing regulatory circuit promoting mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition

    PubMed Central

    Bonomi, Serena; di Matteo, Anna; Buratti, Emanuele; Cabianca, Daphne S.; Baralle, Francisco E.; Ghigna, Claudia; Biamonti, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is an embryonic program used by cancer cells to acquire invasive capabilities becoming metastatic. ΔRon, a constitutively active isoform of the Ron tyrosine kinase receptor, arises from skipping of Ron exon 11 and provided the first example of an alternative splicing variant causatively linked to the activation of tumor EMT. Splicing of exon 11 is controlled by two adjacent regulatory elements, a silencer and an enhancer of splicing located in exon 12. The alternative splicing factor and oncoprotein SRSF1 directly binds to the enhancer, induces the production of ΔRon and activates EMT leading to cell locomotion. Interestingly, we now find an important role for hnRNP A1 in controlling the activity of the Ron silencer. HnRNP A1 is able to antagonize the binding of SRSF1 and prevent exon skipping. Notably, hnRNP A1, by inhibiting the production of ΔRon, activates the reversal program, namely the mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition, which instead occurs at the final metastasis sites. Also, hnRNP A1 affects Ron splicing by regulating the expression level of hnRNP A2/B1, which similarly to SRSF1 can promote ΔRon production. These results shed light on how splicing regulation contributes to the tumor progression and provide potential targets to develop anticancer therapies. PMID:23863836

  1. AGE-RAGE interaction in the TGFβ2-mediated epithelial to mesenchymal transition of human lens epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Raghavan, Cibin T; Nagaraj, Ram H

    2016-08-01

    Basement membrane (BM) proteins accumulate chemical modifications with age. One such modification is glycation, which results in the formation of advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs). In a previous study, we reported that AGEs in the human lens capsule (BM) promote the TGFβ2-mediated epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of lens epithelial cells, which we proposed as a mechanism for posterior capsule opacification (PCO) or secondary cataract formation. In this study, we investigated the role of a receptor for AGEs (RAGE) in the TGFβ2-mediated EMT in a human lens epithelial cell line (FHL124). RAGE was present in FHL124 cells, and its levels were unaltered in cells cultured on either native or AGE-modified BM or upon treatment with TGFβ2. RAGE overexpression significantly enhanced the TGFβ2-mediated EMT responses in cells cultured on AGE-modified BM compared with the unmodified matrix. In contrast, treatment of cells with a RAGE antibody or EN-RAGE (an endogenous ligand for RAGE) resulted in a significant reduction in the TGFβ2-mediated EMT response. This was accompanied by a reduction in TGFβ2-mediated Smad signaling and ROS generation. These results imply that the interaction of matrix AGEs with RAGE plays a role in the TGFβ2-mediated EMT of lens epithelial cells and suggest that the blockade of RAGE could be a strategy to prevent PCO and other age-associated fibrosis. PMID:27263094

  2. Isolating Epithelial and Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition Populations from Primary Tumors by Fluorescence-Activated Cell Sorting.

    PubMed

    Aiello, Nicole M; Rhim, Andrew D; Stanger, Ben Z

    2016-01-01

    Transgenic mice that express conditional reporters allow for the isolation of specific cell lineages. These cells can be further stratified by gene expression and collected by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) for further analysis. Using Cre-recombinase (Cre) technology we have generated a transgenic mouse line termed PKCY in which all pancreatic epithelial cells and therefore all pancreatic cancer cells are constitutively labeled with yellow fluorescent protein (YFP). We have used immunofluorescent staining for E-cadherin to divide the YFP(+) tumor population into epithelial cells (E-cadherin positive) and cells that have undergone an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT; E-cadherin negative). This protocol describes how to prepare a tumor sample for FACS, with an emphasis on separating epithelial and EMT populations. These cells can then be used for a number of applications including, but not limited to, the generation of cell lines, gene-expression analysis by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) or RNA sequencing, DNA sequencing, chromatin immunoprecipitation, and western blots. PMID:26729901

  3. Phthalates stimulate the epithelial to mesenchymal transition through an HDAC6-dependent mechanism in human breast epithelial stem cells.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Tsung-Hua; Tsai, Cheng-Fang; Hsu, Chia-Yi; Kuo, Po-Lin; Lee, Jau-Nan; Chai, Chee-Yin; Hou, Ming-Feng; Chang, Chia-Cheng; Long, Cheng-Yu; Ko, Ying-Chin; Tsai, Eing-Mei

    2012-08-01

    Phthalates are environmental hormone-like molecules that are associated with breast cancer risk and are involved in metastasis, a process that requires the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). However, few studies have addressed the potential effects of phthalates on stem cells. Here we tested the hypothesis that phthalates such as butyl benzyl phthalate and di-n-butyl phthalate induce EMT in R2d cells, a stem cell-derived human breast epithelial cell line that is responsive to estradiol for tumor development. We observed that phthalates induced EMT as evidenced by morphological changes concomitant with increased expression of mesenchymal markers and decreased expression of epithelial markers. Molecular mechanism studies revealed that histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) is required for phthalate-induced cell migration and invasion during EMT in vitro and metastasis into the lungs of nude mice. We also constructed a series of mutant HDAC6 promoter fragments and found that the transcription factor AP-2a plays a novel role in regulating the HDAC6 promoter. Furthermore, phthalates stimulated estrogen receptors and triggered the downstream EGFR-PKA signaling cascade, leading to increased expression of AP-2a in the nucleus. We also observed that phthalates increased expression of the PP1/HDAC6 complex and caused Akt activation and GSK3β inactivation, leading to transcriptional activation of vimentin through the β-catenin-TCF-4/LEF1 pathway. Understanding the signaling cascades of phthalates that activate EMT through HDAC6 in breast epithelial stem cells provides the identification of novel therapeutic target for human breast cancer.

  4. Analysis of Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition Induced by Transforming Growth Factor β.

    PubMed

    Valcourt, Ulrich; Carthy, Jonathon; Okita, Yukari; Alcaraz, Lindsay; Kato, Mitsuyasu; Thuault, Sylvie; Bartholin, Laurent; Moustakas, Aristidis

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the importance of the cell biological process of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been established via an exponentially growing number of reports. EMT has been documented during embryonic development, tissue fibrosis, and cancer progression in vitro, in animal models in vivo and in human specimens. EMT relates to many molecular and cellular alterations that occur when epithelial cells undergo a switch in differentiation that generates mesenchymal-like cells with newly acquired migratory and invasive properties. In addition, EMT relates to a nuclear reprogramming similar to the one occurring in the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells. Via such a process, EMT is gradually established to promote the generation and maintenance of adult tissue stem cells which under disease states such as cancer, are known as cancer stem cells. EMT is induced by developmental growth factors, oncogenes, radiation, and hypoxia. A prominent growth factor that causes EMT is transforming growth factor β (TGF-β).A series of molecular and cellular techniques can be applied to define and characterize the state of EMT in diverse biological samples. These methods range from DNA and RNA-based techniques that measure the expression of key EMT regulators and markers of epithelial or mesenchymal differentiation to functional assays of cell mobility, invasiveness and in vitro stemness. This chapter focuses on EMT induced by TGF-β and provides authoritative protocols and relevant reagents and citations of key publications aiming at assisting newcomers that enter this prolific area of biomedical sciences, and offering a useful reference tool to pioneers and aficionados of the field. PMID:26520123

  5. Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition in Podocytes Mediated by Activation of NADPH Oxidase in Hyperhomocysteinemia

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chun; Xia, Min; Boini, Krishna M.; Li, Cai-Xia; Abais, Justine M.; Li, Xiao-Xue; Laperle, Laura A.; Li, Pin-Lan

    2012-01-01

    The present study tested the hypothesis that hyperhomocysteinemia (hHcys) induces podocytes to undergo epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) through the activation of NADPH oxidase (Nox). It was found that increased homocysteine (Hcys) level suppressed the expression of slit diaphragm-associated proteins, P-cadherin and zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) in conditionally immortalized mouse podocytes, indicating the loss of their epithelial features. Meanwhile, Hcys remarkably increased the abundance of mesenchymal markers, such as fibroblast specific protein-1 (FSP-1) and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA). These phenotype changes in podocytes induced by Hcys were accompanied by enhanced superoxide (O2.−) production, which was substantially suppressed by inhibition of Nox activity. Functionally, Hcys significantly enhanced the permeability of the podocyte monolayer coupled with increased EMT, and this EMT-related increase in cell permeability could be restored by Nox inhibitors. In mice lacking gp91phox (gp91−/−), an essential Nox subunit gene, hHcys-enhanced podocyte EMT and consequent glomerular injury were examined. In wild-type (gp91+/+) mice, hHcys induced by a folate-free (FF) diet markedly enhanced expression of mesenchymal markers (FSP-1 and α-SMA) but decreased expression of epithelial markers of podocytes in glomeruli, which were not observed in gp91−/− mouse glomeruli. Podocyte injury, glomerular sclerotic pathology, and marked albuminuria observed in gp91+/+ mice with hHcys were all significantly attenuated in gp91−/− mice. These results suggest that hHcys induces EMT of podocytes through activation of Nox, which represents a novel mechanism of hHcys-associated podocyte injury. PMID:21647593

  6. Analysis of Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition Induced by Transforming Growth Factor β.

    PubMed

    Valcourt, Ulrich; Carthy, Jonathon; Okita, Yukari; Alcaraz, Lindsay; Kato, Mitsuyasu; Thuault, Sylvie; Bartholin, Laurent; Moustakas, Aristidis

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the importance of the cell biological process of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been established via an exponentially growing number of reports. EMT has been documented during embryonic development, tissue fibrosis, and cancer progression in vitro, in animal models in vivo and in human specimens. EMT relates to many molecular and cellular alterations that occur when epithelial cells undergo a switch in differentiation that generates mesenchymal-like cells with newly acquired migratory and invasive properties. In addition, EMT relates to a nuclear reprogramming similar to the one occurring in the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells. Via such a process, EMT is gradually established to promote the generation and maintenance of adult tissue stem cells which under disease states such as cancer, are known as cancer stem cells. EMT is induced by developmental growth factors, oncogenes, radiation, and hypoxia. A prominent growth factor that causes EMT is transforming growth factor β (TGF-β).A series of molecular and cellular techniques can be applied to define and characterize the state of EMT in diverse biological samples. These methods range from DNA and RNA-based techniques that measure the expression of key EMT regulators and markers of epithelial or mesenchymal differentiation to functional assays of cell mobility, invasiveness and in vitro stemness. This chapter focuses on EMT induced by TGF-β and provides authoritative protocols and relevant reagents and citations of key publications aiming at assisting newcomers that enter this prolific area of biomedical sciences, and offering a useful reference tool to pioneers and aficionados of the field.

  7. Downregulation of 26S proteasome catalytic activity promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transition

    PubMed Central

    van Baarsel, Eric D.; Metz, Patrick J.; Fisch, Kathleen; Widjaja, Christella E.; Kim, Stephanie H.; Lopez, Justine; Chang, Aaron N.; Geurink, Paul P.; Florea, Bogdan I.; Overkleeft, Hermen S.; Ovaa, Huib; Bui, Jack D.; Yang, Jing; Chang, John T.

    2016-01-01

    The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) endows carcinoma cells with phenotypic plasticity that can facilitate the formation of cancer stem cells (CSCs) and contribute to the metastatic cascade. While there is substantial support for the role of EMT in driving cancer cell dissemination, less is known about the intracellular molecular mechanisms that govern formation of CSCs via EMT. Here we show that β2 and β5 proteasome subunit activity is downregulated during EMT in immortalized human mammary epithelial cells. Moreover, selective proteasome inhibition enabled mammary epithelial cells to acquire certain morphologic and functional characteristics reminiscent of cancer stem cells, including CD44 expression, self-renewal, and tumor formation. Transcriptomic analyses suggested that proteasome-inhibited cells share gene expression signatures with cells that have undergone EMT, in part, through modulation of the TGF-β signaling pathway. These findings suggest that selective downregulation of proteasome activity in mammary epithelial cells can initiate the EMT program and acquisition of a cancer stem cell-like phenotype. As proteasome inhibitors become increasingly used in cancer treatment, our findings highlight a potential risk of these therapeutic strategies and suggest a possible mechanism by which carcinoma cells may escape from proteasome inhibitor-based therapy. PMID:26930717

  8. Regulation of Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition Using Biomimetic Fibrous Scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Ravikrishnan, Anitha; Ozdemir, Tugba; Bah, Mohamed; Baskerville, Karen A; Shah, S Ismat; Rajasekaran, Ayyappan K; Jia, Xinqiao

    2016-07-20

    Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a well-studied biological process that takes place during embryogenesis, carcinogenesis, and tissue fibrosis. During EMT, the polarized epithelial cells with a cuboidal architecture adopt an elongated fibroblast-like morphology. This process is accompanied by the expression of many EMT-specific molecular markers. Although the molecular mechanism leading to EMT has been well-established, the effects of matrix topography and microstructure have not been clearly elucidated. Synthetic scaffolds mimicking the meshlike structure of the basement membrane with an average fiber diameter of 0.5 and 5 μm were produced via the electrospinning of poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) and were used to test the significance of fiber diameter on EMT. Cell-adhesive peptide motifs were conjugated to the fiber surface to facilitate cell attachment. Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells grown on these substrates showed distinct phenotypes. On 0.5 μm substrates, cells grew as compact colonies with an epithelial phenotype. On 5 μm scaffolds, cells were more individually dispersed and appeared more fibroblastic. Upon the addition of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), an EMT inducer, cells grown on the 0.5 μm scaffold underwent pronounced scattering, as evidenced by the alteration of cell morphology, localization of focal adhesion complex, weakening of cell-cell adhesion, and up-regulation of mesenchymal markers. In contrast, HGF did not induce a pronounced scattering of MDCK cells cultured on the 5.0 μm scaffold. Collectively, our results show that the alteration of the fiber diameter of proteins found in the basement membrane may create enough disturbances in epithelial organization and scattering that might have important implications in disease progression. PMID:27322677

  9. Regulation of Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition Using Biomimetic Fibrous Scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Ravikrishnan, Anitha; Ozdemir, Tugba; Bah, Mohamed; Baskerville, Karen A.; Shah, S. Ismat; Rajasekaran, Ayyappan K.; Jia, Xinqiao

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a well-studied biological process that takes place during embryogenesis, carcinogenesis and tissue fibrosis. During EMT, the polarized epithelial cells with a cuboidal architecture adopt an elongated fibroblast-like morphology. This process is accompanied by the expression of many EMT-specific molecular markers. While the molecular mechanism leading to EMT has been well established, the effects of matrix topography and microstructure have not been clearly elucidated. Synthetic scaffolds mimicking the mesh-like structure of the basement membrane with an average fiber diameter of 0.5 μm and 5 μm were produced via electrospinning of poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) and were used to test the significance of fiber diameter on EMT. Cell-adhesive peptide motifs were conjugated to the fiber surface to facilitate cell attachment. Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells grown on these substrates showed distinct phenotypes. On 0.5 μm substrates, cells grew as compact colonies with an epithelial phenotype. On 5 μm scaffolds, cells were more individually dispersed and appeared more fibroblastic. Upon addition of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), an EMT inducer, cells grown on the 0.5 μm scaffold underwent pronounced scattering, as evidenced by the alteration of cell morphology, localization of focal adhesion complex, weakening of cell-cell adhesion, and upregulation of mesenchymal markers. By contrast, HGF did not induce a pronounced scattering of MDCK cells cultured on the 5.0 μm scaffold. Collectively, our results show that the alteration of the fiber diameter of proteins found in the basement membrane may create enough disturbances in epithelial organization and scattering that might have important implications in disease progression. PMID:27322677

  10. Neutrophil Granulocytes in Ovarian Cancer - Induction of Epithelial-To-Mesenchymal-Transition and Tumor Cell Migration

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, Christine; Darb-Esfahani, Silvia; Meyer, Anne-Sophie; Hübner, Katrin; Rom, Joachim; Sohn, Christof; Braicu, Ioana; Sehouli, Jalid; Hänsch, G. Maria; Gaida, Matthias M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ovarian cancer (OvCa) is a highly aggressive malignoma with a tumor-promoting microenvironment. Infiltration of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) is frequently seen, raising the question of their impact on tumor development. In that context, effects of PMN on human ovarian cancer cells were assessed. Methods: Human epithelial ovarian cancer cells were incubated with human PMN, lysate of PMN, or neutrophil elastase. Morphological alterations were observed by time-lapse video-microscopy, and the underlying molecular mechanism was analyzed by flow cytometry and Western blotting. Functional alternations were assessed by an in vitro wound healing assay. In parallel, a large cohort of n=334 primary OvCa tissue samples of various histological subtypes was histologically evaluated. Results: Co-cultivation of cancer cells with either PMN or PMN lysate causes a change of the polygonal epithelial phenotype of the cells towards a spindle shaped morphology, causing a cribriform cell growth. The PMN-induced alteration could be attributed to elastase, a major protease of PMN. Elastase-induced shape change was most likely due to the degradation of membranous E-cadherin, which results in loss of cell contacts and polarity. Moreover, in response to elastase, epithelial cytokeratins were downmodulated, in parallel with a nuclear translocation of β-catenin. These PMN-elastase induced alterations of cells are compatible with an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of the cancer cells. Following EMT, the cells displayed a more migratory phenotype. In human biopsies, neutrophil infiltration was seen in 72% of the cases. PMN infiltrates were detected preferentially in areas with low E-cadherin expression. Conclusion: PMN in the microenvironment of OvCa can alter tumor cells towards a mesenchymal and migratory phenotype. PMID:27053953

  11. Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition: A Special Focus on Phthalates and Bisphenol A.

    PubMed

    Oral, Didem; Erkekoglu, Pinar; Kocer-Gumusel, Belmar; Chao, Ming-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a process during which epithelial cells lose their polarity and ability to adhere. Instead, they gain properties to move, migrate through the extracellular matrix, become invasive, and finally become mesenchymal stem cells. This trans-differentiation is critical for embryo development, wound healing, and stem cell behavior. However, this same phenomenon is also observed in cancer progression. Phthalates and bisphenol A (BPA) are endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) that are linked to complex human diseases. These chemicals are suggested to disrupt normal hormonal balance (usually by existing estrogenic/antiandrogenic properties) and stimulate the development of reproductive tumors and steroid hormone-dependent cancers, such as breast cancer. Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), the most abundant phthalate, was shown to induce DNA damage in human cells via multiple molecular signals that include altered apoptosis and mitotic rate, increased cell proliferation, tumor mobility, and invasiveness of tumor cells. DEHP was also shown to inhibit gap junction intercellular communication and tight junctions and promote EMT. Phthalates may also cause the proliferation and metastasis of cancer cells and tumor progression via up-regulating histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6). Phthalates can activate peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs) that may eventually lead to high proliferation of cancer cells. However, in ovarian cells the expression of Snail, Slug, and vimentin was enhanced by the treatment of BPA, whereas E-cadherin was decreased. Mechanistic studies are needed to show the underlying mechanisms of EMT caused by different EDCs.

  12. Acquired platinum resistance involves epithelial to mesenchymal transition through ubiquitin ligase FBXO32 dysregulation

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Miyazaki, Yasumasa; Mikami, Shuji; Niwa, Naoya; Otsuka, Yutaro; Mizuno, Ryuichi; Kikuchi, Eiji; Miyajima, Akira; Sabe, Hisataka; Okada, Yasunori; Suematsu, Makoto; Oya, Mototsugu

    2016-01-01

    To identify the molecules involved in epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) in urothelial carcinoma (UC) after acquisition of platinum resistance, here we examined the changes in global gene expression before and after platinum treatment. Four invasive UC cell lines, T24, 5637, and their corresponding sublines T24PR and 5637PR with acquired platinum resistance, were assessed by microarray, and the ubiquitin E3 ligase FBXO32 was newly identified as a negative regulator of EMT in UC tumors after acquisition of platinum resistance. In vitro and in vivo studies showed an intimate relationship between FBXO32 expression and EMT, demonstrating that FBXO32 dysregulation in T24PR cells results in elevated expression of the mesenchymal molecules SNAIL and vimentin and decreased expression of the epithelial molecule E-cadherin. The association between FBXO32 expression and EMT was further validated using clinical samples. Knockdown of MyoD expression, a specific target of FBXO32 polyubiquitination, revealed upregulation of E-cadherin expression and downregulation of SNAIL and vimentin expression in T24PR cells. Comparative genomic hybridization array analysis demonstrated loss of heterozygosity at 8q24.13 in T24PR cells, which harbors FBXO32. Our findings suggest the importance of the association between EMT and ubiquitin-proteasome regulation when tumors develop acquired platinum resistance. PMID:27812537

  13. Effect of Cigarette Smoking on Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) in Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Vu, Trung; Jin, Lin; Datta, Pran K.

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a process that allows an epithelial cell to acquire a mesenchymal phenotype through multiple biochemical changes resulting in an increased migratory capacity. During cancer progression, EMT is found to be associated with an invasive or metastatic phenotype. In this review, we focus on the discussion of recent studies about the regulation of EMT by cigarette smoking. Various groups of active compounds found in cigarette smoke such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), nicotine-derived nitrosamine ketone (NNK), and reactive oxygen specicies (ROS) can induce EMT through different signaling pathways. The links between EMT and biological responses to cigarette smoke, such as hypoxia, inflammation, and oxidative damages, are also discussed. The effect of cigarette smoke on EMT is not only limited to cancer types directly related to smoking, such as lung cancer, but has also been found in other types of cancer. Altogether, this review emphasizes the importance of understanding molecular mechanisms of the induction of EMT by cigarette smoking and will help in identifying novel small molecules for targeting EMT induced by smoking. PMID:27077888

  14. Inhibitory Effect of Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4 in Retinal Pigment Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Haipei; Li, Hui; Yang, Shuai; Li, Min; Zhao, Chun; Zhang, Jingfa; Xu, Guotong; Wang, Fang

    2016-01-01

    Proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR), a serious vision-threatening complication of retinal detachment (RD), is characterized by the formation of contractile fibrotic membranes, in which epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is a major event. Recent studies suggest an important role of bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) in the suppression of fibrosis. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of BMP4 in the pathological process of PVR, particularly in the EMT of RPE cells. We found that BMP4 and its receptors were co-labelled with cytokeratin and α-SMA positive cells within the PVR membrane. Moreover, the mRNA and protein expression levels of BMP4 were decreased whereas BMP4 receptors ALK2, ALK3 and ALK6 were increased during TGF-β-induced EMT in primary RPE cells. Exogenous BMP4 inhibited TGF-β-induced epithelial marker down-regulation, as well as mesenchymal marker up-regulation at both the mRNA and protein levels in RPE cells. In addition, BMP4 treatment attenuated the TGF-β-induced gel contraction, cell migration and Smad2/3 phosphorylation. However, knockdown of endogenous BMP4 stimulated changes in EMT markers. Our results confirm the hypothesis that BMP4 might inhibit TGF-β-mediated EMT in RPE cells via the Smad2/3 pathway and suppress contraction. This might represent a potential treatment for PVR. PMID:27586653

  15. Vitiligo patient-derived keratinocytes exhibit characteristics of normal wound healing via epithelial to mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Poulomi; Venkatachalam, Sandhyaa; Mamidi, Murali Krishna; Bhonde, Ramesh; Shankar, Krupa; Pal, Rajarshi

    2015-05-01

    Vitiligo is an autoimmune disorder that leads to depigmentation of skin via melanocyte dysfunction. Keratinocyte-induced toxicity is one among the several etiological factors implicated for vitiligo, and hence, autologous keratinocyte grafting is projected as one of the primary mode of treatment for vitiligo. However, reports indicate that perilesional keratinocytes not only display signatures of apoptosis but also could secrete cytokines and mediators which have antagonistic effect on proliferation or survival. Therefore, we investigated how vitiligo patients' derived keratinocytes respond to surplus amounts of inflammatory cytokines and whether they recapitulate events that take place during conventional wound healing. The primary objective of our study was to determine whether keratinocytes isolated from a vitiligo patient would undergo epithelial-mesenchymal transition similar to their normal counterparts upon induction with inflammatory cytokines such as TGF-b1 and EGF. We found that these keratinocytes undergo EMT during wound repair accompanied with increase in the levels of mesenchymal markers and ECM proteins; decrease in the levels of epithelial markers and enhanced migratory ability. Besides, we also demonstrated that EMT induction leads to activation of SMAD and MAPK pathways via Ras, Raf, PAI 1, Snail, Slug and ZO1. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the characterization of primary keratinocytes isolated from vitiligo patients with respect to their wound healing capacity.

  16. Inhibitory Effect of Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4 in Retinal Pigment Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Haipei; Li, Hui; Yang, Shuai; Li, Min; Zhao, Chun; Zhang, Jingfa; Xu, Guotong; Wang, Fang

    2016-09-01

    Proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR), a serious vision-threatening complication of retinal detachment (RD), is characterized by the formation of contractile fibrotic membranes, in which epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is a major event. Recent studies suggest an important role of bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) in the suppression of fibrosis. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of BMP4 in the pathological process of PVR, particularly in the EMT of RPE cells. We found that BMP4 and its receptors were co-labelled with cytokeratin and α-SMA positive cells within the PVR membrane. Moreover, the mRNA and protein expression levels of BMP4 were decreased whereas BMP4 receptors ALK2, ALK3 and ALK6 were increased during TGF-β-induced EMT in primary RPE cells. Exogenous BMP4 inhibited TGF-β-induced epithelial marker down-regulation, as well as mesenchymal marker up-regulation at both the mRNA and protein levels in RPE cells. In addition, BMP4 treatment attenuated the TGF-β-induced gel contraction, cell migration and Smad2/3 phosphorylation. However, knockdown of endogenous BMP4 stimulated changes in EMT markers. Our results confirm the hypothesis that BMP4 might inhibit TGF-β-mediated EMT in RPE cells via the Smad2/3 pathway and suppress contraction. This might represent a potential treatment for PVR.

  17. Sciellin mediates mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition in colorectal cancer hepatic metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Pei-Shan; Liao, Pei-Yu; Tung, Jia-Chen; Hsieh, Chang-Hsun; Hung, Mien-Chie; Chen, Chung-Hsuan; Chang, Wei-Chao

    2016-01-01

    Hepatic metastasis is the major cause of mortality in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. Using proteomic analysis, we found sciellin (SCEL) to be specifically expressed in hepatic metastatic CRC cell lines. SCEL knockdown increased CRC cell migration and invasion, while overexpression had the opposite effect. SCEL knockdown also caused cancer cells to form more invasive structures within 3D cultures, increased the mesenchymal marker vimentin, and attenuated the epithelial marker E-cadherin. SCEL increased WNT signaling by activating β-catenin and its downstream target c-myc, and activated mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition (MET) through a SCEL-β-catenin-E-cadherin axis. SCEL showed higher expression in late stage primary CRC than in its hepatic metastatic counterpart. SCEL expression is dynamically modulated by TGF-β1 and hypoxia, revealing a plastic MET mechanism for tumor colonization. Intrahepatic injection in immunodeficient mice revealed that SCEL is necessary for metastatic CRC tumor growth in the liver. These results demonstrate that SCEL is a MET inducer dynamically regulated through the metastasis process. They suggest SCEL may be a useful therapeutic target for preventing or eliminating CRC hepatic metastasis. PMID:27013588

  18. Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition in Diabetic Nephropathy: Fact or Fiction?

    PubMed Central

    Loeffler, Ivonne; Wolf, Gunter

    2015-01-01

    The pathophysiology of diabetic nephropathy (DN), one of the most serious complications in diabetic patients and the leading cause of end-stage renal disease worldwide, is complex and not fully elucidated. A typical hallmark of DN is the excessive deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins in the glomerulus and in the renal tubulointerstitium, eventually leading to glomerulosclerosis and interstitial fibrosis. Although it is obvious that myofibroblasts play a major role in the synthesis and secretion of ECM, the origin of myofibroblasts in DN remains the subject of controversial debates. A number of studies have focused on epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) as one source of matrix-generating fibroblasts in the diseased kidney. EMT is characterized by the acquisition of mesenchymal properties by epithelial cells, preferentially proximal tubular cells and podocytes. In this review we comprehensively review the literature and discuss arguments both for and against a function of EMT in renal fibrosis in DN. While the precise extent of the contribution to nephrotic fibrosis is certainly arduous to quantify, the picture that emerges from this extensive body of literature suggests EMT as a major source of myofibroblasts in DN. PMID:26473930

  19. Effect of Cigarette Smoking on Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) in Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Vu, Trung; Jin, Lin; Datta, Pran K

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a process that allows an epithelial cell to acquire a mesenchymal phenotype through multiple biochemical changes resulting in an increased migratory capacity. During cancer progression, EMT is found to be associated with an invasive or metastatic phenotype. In this review, we focus on the discussion of recent studies about the regulation of EMT by cigarette smoking. Various groups of active compounds found in cigarette smoke such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), nicotine-derived nitrosamine ketone (NNK), and reactive oxygen specicies (ROS) can induce EMT through different signaling pathways. The links between EMT and biological responses to cigarette smoke, such as hypoxia, inflammation, and oxidative damages, are also discussed. The effect of cigarette smoke on EMT is not only limited to cancer types directly related to smoking, such as lung cancer, but has also been found in other types of cancer. Altogether, this review emphasizes the importance of understanding molecular mechanisms of the induction of EMT by cigarette smoking and will help in identifying novel small molecules for targeting EMT induced by smoking. PMID:27077888

  20. Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition: A Special Focus on Phthalates and Bisphenol A.

    PubMed

    Oral, Didem; Erkekoglu, Pinar; Kocer-Gumusel, Belmar; Chao, Ming-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a process during which epithelial cells lose their polarity and ability to adhere. Instead, they gain properties to move, migrate through the extracellular matrix, become invasive, and finally become mesenchymal stem cells. This trans-differentiation is critical for embryo development, wound healing, and stem cell behavior. However, this same phenomenon is also observed in cancer progression. Phthalates and bisphenol A (BPA) are endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) that are linked to complex human diseases. These chemicals are suggested to disrupt normal hormonal balance (usually by existing estrogenic/antiandrogenic properties) and stimulate the development of reproductive tumors and steroid hormone-dependent cancers, such as breast cancer. Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), the most abundant phthalate, was shown to induce DNA damage in human cells via multiple molecular signals that include altered apoptosis and mitotic rate, increased cell proliferation, tumor mobility, and invasiveness of tumor cells. DEHP was also shown to inhibit gap junction intercellular communication and tight junctions and promote EMT. Phthalates may also cause the proliferation and metastasis of cancer cells and tumor progression via up-regulating histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6). Phthalates can activate peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs) that may eventually lead to high proliferation of cancer cells. However, in ovarian cells the expression of Snail, Slug, and vimentin was enhanced by the treatment of BPA, whereas E-cadherin was decreased. Mechanistic studies are needed to show the underlying mechanisms of EMT caused by different EDCs. PMID:27279583

  1. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition in carcinomas of the female genital tract.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Colin J R; McCluggage, W Glenn

    2013-01-01

    Invasion is a defining feature of malignancy, but the mechanisms of invasion in many common cancers, including gynaecological malignancies, remain unclear. However, it has been proposed that malignant cells may usurp a normal embryological process, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), as a means of acquiring migratory capacity. The synergistic role of the tumour microenvironment in EMT induction has also been explored and helps to explain the spatially restricted distribution of EMT at the deep tumour margin (invasive front). Furthermore, tumour cells undergoing EMT may acquire cancer stem cell characteristics, and this may be relevant to the entire metastatic process and to tumour recurrence and treatment failure. Nevertheless, doubts persist regarding the role of EMT in malignant progression in vivo, partly because few studies have correlated molecular and histological alterations in clinical pathology specimens. In the current review we summarize the evidence for EMT in the common gynaecological epithelial malignancies, and discuss the morphological and immunohistochemical changes occurring at the invasive tumour front that may represent EMT-like processes. The possibility that carcinosarcomas represent a variant type of EMT with 'fixed' mesenchymal differentiation is also considered. Diagnostic histopathologists are ideally placed to critically evaluate the role of EMT in gynaecological and other types of malignancy.

  2. Fisetin inhibits migration, invasion and epithelial-mesenchymal transition of LMP1-positive nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Rong; Zhao, Yinhai; Chen, Jin; Shao, Songjun; Zhang, Xiujuan

    2014-02-01

    Fisetin (3,3',4',7-tetrahydroxyflavone) has been reported to possess certain anticancer properties. It may inhibit tumor cell proliferation, metastasis and induce apoptosis. However, the effects of fisetin in preventing the metastasis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cells remain to be determined. The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is involved in several metastatic malignancies including NPC. It has been reported that the Epstein-Barr virus latent membrane protein-1 (LMP1) induced EMT and is associated with the metastasis of NPC. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of fisetin in preventing the migration and invasion of LMP1-expressing NPC cells (CNE1-LMP1 cells), as well as to investigate whether fisetin may inhibit the molecular changes associated with EMT induced by LMP1. The investigation demonstrated that fisetin suppressed the migration and invasion of CNE1-LMP1 cells under non-cytotoxic concentrations. Fisetin inhibited molecular changes associated with EMT induced by LMP1, upregulated the epithelial marker, E-cadherin protein, and downregulated the mesenchymal marker, vimentin protein, levels. Fisetin also significantly reduced the levels of Twist protein, an EMT regulator. The investigation suggested that fisetin inhibits the migration and invasion of LMP1-positive NPC cells, and the molecular mechanism involves fisetin reversing the EMT induced by LMP1 and downregulates the expression of Twist. This study indicated that fisetin serves as a potential candidate for the treatment of cancer metastasis.

  3. Potential signaling pathway involved in sphingosine-1-phosphate-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition in cancer

    PubMed Central

    ZENG, YE; YAO, XING-HONG; YAN, ZHI-PING; LIU, JING-XIA; LIU, XIAO-HENG

    2016-01-01

    The developmental process of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) occurs when epithelial cells acquire invasive mesenchymal cell characteristics, and the activation of this process has been indicated to be involved in tumor progression. EMT could be induced by growth factors, cytokines and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a biologically-active lipid that plays an important role in cancer metastasis. S1P also contributes to the activation of EMT. However, the mechanism underlying S1P-induced EMT is unclear. Increased evidence has demonstrated that the cell surface glycocalyx is closed associated with S1P and plays an important role in tumor progression, suggesting that S1P-induced EMT could be Snail-MMP signaling-dependent. Thus, we hypothesize that an S1P-glycocalyx-Snail-MMP signaling axis mediates S1P-induced EMT. This is an essential step towards improved understanding of the underlying mechanism involved in S1P-regulted EMT, and the development of novel diagnostic and anticancer therapeutic strategies. PMID:27347154

  4. Modeling TGF-β signaling pathway in epithelial-mesenchymal transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laise, Pasquale; Fanelli, Duccio; Lió, Pietro; Arcangeli, Annarosa

    2012-03-01

    The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) consists in a morphological change in epithelial cells characterized by the loss of the cell adhesion and the acquisition of mesenchymal phenotype. This process plays a crucial role in the embryonic development and in regulating the tissue homeostasis in the adult, but it proves also fundamental for the development of cancer metastasis. Experimental evidences have shown that the EMT depends on the TGF-β signaling pathway, which in turn regulates the transcriptional cellular activity. In this work, a dynamical model of the TGF-β pathway is proposed and calibrated versus existing experimental data on lung cancer A549 cells. The analysis combines Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) and standard Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs) techniques to interpolate the gene expression data via an iterative adjustments of the parameters involved. The kinetic of the Smad proteins phosphorylation, as predicted within the model is found in excellent agreement with available experiments, an observation that confirms the adequacy of the proposed mathematical picture.

  5. Inhibitory Effect of Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4 in Retinal Pigment Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition.

    PubMed

    Yao, Haipei; Li, Hui; Yang, Shuai; Li, Min; Zhao, Chun; Zhang, Jingfa; Xu, Guotong; Wang, Fang

    2016-01-01

    Proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR), a serious vision-threatening complication of retinal detachment (RD), is characterized by the formation of contractile fibrotic membranes, in which epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is a major event. Recent studies suggest an important role of bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) in the suppression of fibrosis. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of BMP4 in the pathological process of PVR, particularly in the EMT of RPE cells. We found that BMP4 and its receptors were co-labelled with cytokeratin and α-SMA positive cells within the PVR membrane. Moreover, the mRNA and protein expression levels of BMP4 were decreased whereas BMP4 receptors ALK2, ALK3 and ALK6 were increased during TGF-β-induced EMT in primary RPE cells. Exogenous BMP4 inhibited TGF-β-induced epithelial marker down-regulation, as well as mesenchymal marker up-regulation at both the mRNA and protein levels in RPE cells. In addition, BMP4 treatment attenuated the TGF-β-induced gel contraction, cell migration and Smad2/3 phosphorylation. However, knockdown of endogenous BMP4 stimulated changes in EMT markers. Our results confirm the hypothesis that BMP4 might inhibit TGF-β-mediated EMT in RPE cells via the Smad2/3 pathway and suppress contraction. This might represent a potential treatment for PVR. PMID:27586653

  6. EGCG Suppresses ERK5 Activation to Reverse Tobacco Smoke-Triggered Gastric Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in BALB/c Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Ling; Chen, Jia; Tang, Hua; Bai, Ling; Lu, Chun; Wang, Kehuan; Li, Manli; Yan, Yinmei; Tang, Ling; Wu, Rui; Ye, Yang; Jin, Longtao; Liang, Zhaofeng

    2016-01-01

    Tobacco smoke is an important risk factor of gastric cancer. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition is a crucial pathophysiological process in cancer development. ERK5 regulation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition may be sensitive to cell types and/or the cellular microenvironment and its role in the epithelial-mesenchymal transition process remain elusive. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is a promising chemopreventive agent for several types of cancers. In the present study we investigated the regulatory role of ERK5 in tobacco smoke-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition in the stomach of mice and the preventive effect of EGCG. Exposure of mice to tobacco smoke for 12 weeks reduced expression of epithelial markers E-cadherin, ZO-1, and CK5, while the expression of mesenchymal markers Snail-1, Vimentin, and N-cadherin were increased. Importantly, we demonstrated that ERK5 modulated tobacco smoke-mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition in mice stomach, as evidenced by the findings that tobacco smoke elevated ERK5 activation, and that tobacco smoke-triggered epithelial-mesenchymal transition was reversed by ERK5 inhibition. Treatment of EGCG (100 mg/kg BW) effectively attenuated tobacco smoke-triggered activation of ERK5 and epithelial-mesenchymal transition alterations in mice stomach. Collectively, these data suggested that ERK5 was required for tobacco smoke-triggered gastric epithelial-mesenchymal transition and that EGCG suppressed ERK5 activation to reverse tobacco smoke-triggered gastric epithelial-mesenchymal transition in BALB/c mice. These findings provide new insights into the mechanism of tobacco smoke-associated gastric tumorigenesis and the chemoprevention of tobacco smoke-associated gastric cancer. PMID:27447666

  7. Differentiation of first trimester cytotrophoblast to extravillous trophoblast involves an epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    DaSilva-Arnold, Sonia; James, Joanna L; Al-Khan, Abdulla; Zamudio, Stacy; Illsley, Nicholas P

    2015-12-01

    The transformation of cytotrophoblast (CTB) to extravillous trophoblast (EVT) is an essential process for placental implantation. EVT generated at the tips of the anchoring villi migrate away from the placenta and invade the endometrium and maternal spiral arteries, where they modulate maternal immune responses and remodel the arteries into high-volume conduits to facilitate uteroplacental blood flow. The process of EVT differentiation has several factors in common with the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) observed in embryonic development, wound healing and cancer metastasis. We hypothesized that the generation of invasive EVT from CTB was a form of EMT. We isolated paired CTB and EVT from first trimester placentae, and compared their gene expression using a PCR array comprising probes for genes involved in EMT. Out of 84 genes, 24 were down-regulated in EVT compared to CTB, including epithelial markers such as E-cadherin (-11-fold) and occludin (-75-fold). Another 30 genes were up-regulated in EVT compared to CTB including mesenchymal markers such as vimentin (235-fold) and fibronectin (107-fold) as well as the matrix metalloproteinases, MMP2 and MMP9 (357-fold, 129-fold). These alterations also included major increases in the ZEB2 (zinc finger E-box binding homeobox 2, 198-fold) and TCF4 (transcription factor 4, 18-fold) transcription factors, suggesting possible stimulatory mechanisms. There was substantial up-regulation of the genes encoding TGFβ1 and TGFβ2 (48-fold, 115-fold), which may contribute to the maintenance of the mesenchymal-like phenotype. We conclude that transformation of CTB to EVT is consistent with an EMT, although the differences with other types of EMT suggest this may be a unique form. PMID:26545962

  8. Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition: General Principles and Pathological Relevance with Special Emphasis on the Role of Matrix Metalloproteinases

    PubMed Central

    Nisticò, Paola; Bissell, Mina J.; Radisky, Derek C.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a physiological process in which epithelial cells acquire the motile and invasive characteristics of mesenchymal cells. Although EMT in embryonic development is a coordinated, organized process involving interaction between many different cells and tissue types, aspects of the EMT program can be inappropriately activated in response to microenvironmental alterations and aberrant stimuli, and this can contribute to disease conditions including tissue fibrosis and cancer progression. Here we will outline how EMT functions in normal development, how it could be activated in pathologic conditions—especially by matrix metalloproteinases—and how it may be targeted for therapeutic benefit. PMID:22300978

  9. An autocrine TGF-beta/ZEB/miR-200 signaling network regulates establishment and maintenance of epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Philip A; Bracken, Cameron P; Smith, Eric; Bert, Andrew G; Wright, Josephine A; Roslan, Suraya; Morris, Melanie; Wyatt, Leila; Farshid, Gelareh; Lim, Yat-Yuen; Lindeman, Geoffrey J; Shannon, M Frances; Drew, Paul A; Khew-Goodall, Yeesim; Goodall, Gregory J

    2011-05-15

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a form of cellular plasticity that is critical for embryonic development and tumor metastasis. A double-negative feedback loop involving the miR-200 family and ZEB (zinc finger E-box-binding homeobox) transcription factors has been postulated to control the balance between epithelial and mesenchymal states. Here we demonstrate using the epithelial Madin Darby canine kidney cell line model that, although manipulation of the ZEB/miR-200 balance is able to repeatedly switch cells between epithelial and mesenchymal states, the induction and maintenance of a stable mesenchymal phenotype requires the establishment of autocrine transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling to drive sustained ZEB expression. Furthermore, we show that prolonged autocrine TGF-β signaling induced reversible DNA methylation of the miR-200 loci with corresponding changes in miR-200 levels. Collectively, these findings demonstrate the existence of an autocrine TGF-β/ZEB/miR-200 signaling network that regulates plasticity between epithelial and mesenchymal states. We find a strong correlation between ZEBs and TGF-β and negative correlations between miR-200 and TGF-β and between miR-200 and ZEBs, in invasive ductal carcinomas, consistent with an autocrine TGF-β/ZEB/miR-200 signaling network being active in breast cancers. PMID:21411626

  10. Mechanical stress induces lung fibrosis by epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)

    PubMed Central

    Cabrera-Benítez, Nuria E.; Parotto, Matteo; Post, Martin; Han, Bing; Spieth, Peter M.; Cheng, Wei-Erh; Valladares, Francisco; Villar, Jesús; Liu, Mingayo; Sato, Masaaki; Zhang, Haibo; Slutsky, Arthur S.

    2016-01-01

    Rationale Many mechanically ventilated patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) develop pulmonary fibrosis. Stresses induced by mechanical ventilation may explain the development of fibrosis by a number of mechanisms (e.g. damage the alveolar epithelium, biotrauma). Objectives To test the hypothesis that mechanical ventilation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of lung fibrosis. Methods C57BL/6 mice were randomized into four groups: healthy controls; hydrochloric acid (HCl) aspiration alone; vehicle control solution followed 24 h later by mechanical ventilation (peak inspiratory pressure 22 cmH2O and PEEP 2 cmH2O for 2h); and acid aspiration followed 24h later by mechanical ventilation. The animals were monitored for up to 15 days after acid aspiration. To explore the direct effects of mechanical stress on lung fibrotic formation, human lung epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) were exposed to mechanical stretch for up to 48 h. Measurement and Main Results Impaired lung mechanics after mechanical ventilation was associated with increased lung hydroxyproline content, and increased expression of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), β-catenin and mesenchymal markers (α-SMA and Vimentin) at both the gene and protein levels. Expression of epithelial markers including cytokeratin-8, E-cadherin and pro-surfactant protein B decreased. Lung histology demonstrated fibrosis formation and potential epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). In vitro direct mechanical stretch of BEAS-2B cells resulted in similar fibrotic and EMT formation. Conclusions Mechanical stress induces lung fibrosis, and EMT may play an important role in mediating the ventilator-induced lung fibrosis. PMID:21926573

  11. The development of cisplatin resistance in neuroblastoma is accompanied by epithelial to mesenchymal transition in vitro.

    PubMed

    Piskareva, Olga; Harvey, Harry; Nolan, John; Conlon, Ross; Alcock, Leah; Buckley, Patrick; Dowling, Paul; Henry, Michael; O'Sullivan, Finbarr; Bray, Isabella; Stallings, Raymond L

    2015-08-10

    Neuroblastoma is a challenging childhood malignancy, with a very high percentage of patients relapsing following acquisition of drug resistance, thereby necessitating the identification of mechanisms of drug resistance as well as new biological targets contributing to the aggressive pathogenicity of the disease. In order to investigate the molecular pathways that are involved with drug resistance in neuroblastoma, we have developed and characterised cisplatin resistant sublines SK-N-ASCis24, KellyCis83 and CHP-212Cis100, integrating data of cell behaviour, cytotoxicity, genomic alterations and modulation of protein expression. All three cisplatin resistant cell lines demonstrated cross resistance to temozolomide, etoposide and irinotecan, all of which are drugs in re-initiation therapy. Array CGH analysis indicated that resistant lines have acquired additional genomic imbalances. Differentially expressed proteins were identified by mass spectrometry and classified by bioinformatics tools according to their molecular and cellular functions and their involvement into biological pathways. Significant changes in the expression of proteins involved with pathways such as actin cytoskeletal signalling (p = 9.28E-10), integrin linked kinase (ILK) signalling (p = 4.01E-8), epithelial adherens junctions signalling (p = 5.49E-8) and remodelling of epithelial adherens junctions (p = 5.87E-8) pointed towards a mesenchymal phenotype developed by cisplatin resistant SK-N-ASCis24. Western blotting and confocal microscopy of MYH9, ACTN4 and ROCK1 coupled with invasion assays provide evidence that elevated levels of MYH9 and ACTN4 and reduced levels of ROCK1 contribute to the increased ROCK1-independent migratory potential of SK-N-ASCis24. Therefore, our results suggest that epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition is a feature during the development of drug resistance in neuroblastoma.

  12. The ectopic expression of Snail in MDBK cells does not induce epithelial-mesenchymal transition

    PubMed Central

    IZAWA, GENYA; KOBAYASHI, WAKAKO; HARAGUCHI, MISAKO; SUDO, AKIHARU; OZAWA, MASAYUKI

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a key process in the tumor metastatic cascade, is characterized by the loss of cell-cell junctions and cell polarity, as well as by the acquisition of migratory and invasive properties. However, the precise molecular events that initiate this complex EMT process are poorly understood. Snail expression induces EMT in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells and the human epidermoid carcinoma cell line, A431. Snail is a zinc finger transcription factor and triggers EMT by suppressing E-cadherin expression. In the present study, to broaden our knowledge of Snail-induced EMT, we generated stable Snail transfectants using Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cells. Contrary to the MDCK or A431 cells examined in our previous studies, the MDBK cells transfected with the Snail construct maintained an epithelial morphology and showed no sign of reduced cell-cell adhesiveness compared to the control cells. Consistent with these observations, the down-regulation of epithelial marker proteins, e.g. E-cadherin and desmoglein, and the upregulation of mesenchymal marker proteins, e.g., N-cadherin and fibronectin, were not detected. Furthermore, the E-cadherin promoter was not methylated. Therefore, in the MDBK cells, the ectopic expression of Snail failed to induce EMT. As previously demonstrated, in MDCK cells, Snail expression is accompanied by the increased expression of other EMT-inducing transcription factors, e.g., Slug and zinc finger E-box-binding homeobox 1 (ZEB1). However, the MDBK cells transfected with the Snail construct did not exhibit an increased expression of these factors. Thus, it is possible that the failure to upregulate other EMT-related transcription factors may explain the lack of Snail-mediated induction of EMT in MDBK cells. PMID:25998899

  13. The ectopic expression of Snail in MDBK cells does not induce epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Izawa, Genya; Kobayashi, Wakako; Haraguchi, Misako; Sudo, Akiharu; Ozawa, Masayuki

    2015-07-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a key process in the tumor metastatic cascade, is characterized by the loss of cell-cell junctions and cell polarity, as well as by the acquisition of migratory and invasive properties. However, the precise molecular events that initiate this complex EMT process are poorly understood. Snail expression induces EMT in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells and the human epidermoid carcinoma cell line, A431. Snail is a zinc finger transcription factor and triggers EMT by suppressing E-cadherin expression. In the present study, to broaden our knowledge of Snail‑induced EMT, we generated stable Snail transfectants using Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cells. Contrary to the MDCK or A431 cells examined in our previous studies, the MDBK cells transfected with the Snail construct maintained an epithelial morphology and showed no sign of reduced cell-cell adhesiveness compared to the control cells. Consistent with these observations, the downregulation of epithelial marker proteins, e.g. E-cadherin and desmoglein, and the upregulation of mesenchymal marker proteins, e.g., N-cadherin and fibronectin, were not detected. Furthermore, the E-cadherin promoter was not methylated. Therefore, in the MDBK cells, the ectopic expression of Snail failed to induce EMT. As previously demonstrated, in MDCK cells, Snail expression is accompanied by the increased expression of other EMT-inducing transcription factors, e.g., Slug and zinc finger E-box-binding homeobox 1 (ZEB1). However, the MDBK cells transfected with the Snail construct did not exhibit an increased expression of these factors. Thus, it is possible that the failure to upregulate other EMT-related transcription factors may explain the lack of Snail-mediated induction of EMT in MDBK cells.

  14. The Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor ARHGEF5 promotes tumor malignancy via epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Komiya, Y; Onodera, Y; Kuroiwa, M; Nomimura, S; Kubo, Y; Nam, J-M; Kajiwara, K; Nada, S; Oneyama, C; Sabe, H; Okada, M

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial tumor cells often acquire malignant properties, such as invasion/metastasis and uncontrolled cell growth, by undergoing epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). However, the mechanisms by which EMT contributes to malignant progression remain elusive. Here we show that the Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) ARHGEF5 promotes tumor malignancy in a manner dependent on EMT status. We previously identified ARHGEF5, a member of the Dbl family of GEFs, as a multifunctional mediator of Src-induced cell invasion and tumor growth. In the present study, ARHGEF5 was upregulated during tumor growth factor-β-induced EMT in human epithelial MCF10A cells, and promoted cell migration by activating the Rho-ROCK pathway. ARHGEF5 was necessary for the invasive and in vivo metastatic activity of human colorectal cancer HCT116 cells. These findings underscore the crucial role of ARHGEF5 in cell migration and invasion/metastasis. An in vivo tumorigenesis assay revealed that ARHGEF5 had the potential to promote tumor growth via the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway. However, ARHGEF5 was not required for tumor growth in epithelial-like human colorectal cancer HCT116 and HT29 cells, whereas the growth of mesenchymal-like SW480 and SW620 cells depended on ARHGEF5. Induction of EMT by tumor necrosis factor-α or Slug in HCT116 cells resulted in the dependence of tumor growth on ARHGEF5. In these mesenchymal-like cells, Akt was activated via ARHGEF5 and its activity was required for tumor growth. Analysis of a transcriptome data set revealed that the combination of ARHGEF5 upregulation and E-cadherin downregulation or Snail upregulation was significantly correlated with poor prognosis in patients with colorectal cancers. Taken together, our findings suggest that EMT-induced ARHGEF5 activation contributes to the progression of tumor malignancy. ARHGEF5 may serve as a potential therapeutic target in a subset of malignant tumors that have undergone EMT. PMID

  15. Foxm1 transcription factor is required for lung fibrosis and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Balli, David; Ustiyan, Vladimir; Zhang, Yufang; Wang, I-Ching; Masino, Alex J; Ren, Xiaomeng; Whitsett, Jeffrey A; Kalinichenko, Vladimir V; Kalin, Tanya V

    2013-01-23

    Alveolar epithelial cells (AECs) participate in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis, producing pro-inflammatory mediators and undergoing epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Herein, we demonstrated the critical role of Forkhead Box M1 (Foxm1) transcription factor in radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Foxm1 was induced in AECs following lung irradiation. Transgenic expression of an activated Foxm1 transcript in AECs enhanced radiation-induced pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis, and increased the expression of IL-1β, Ccl2, Cxcl5, Snail1, Zeb1, Zeb2 and Foxf1. Conditional deletion of Foxm1 from respiratory epithelial cells decreased radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis and prevented the increase in EMT-associated gene expression. siRNA-mediated inhibition of Foxm1 prevented TGF-β-induced EMT in vitro. Foxm1 bound to and increased promoter activity of the Snail1 gene, a critical transcriptional regulator of EMT. Expression of Snail1 restored TGF-β-induced loss of E-cadherin in Foxm1-deficient cells in vitro. Lineage-tracing studies demonstrated that Foxm1 increased EMT during radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis in vivo. Foxm1 is required for radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis by enhancing the expression of genes critical for lung inflammation and EMT.

  16. Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition and Cancer Invasiveness: What Can We Learn from Cholangiocarcinoma?

    PubMed Central

    Brivio, Simone; Cadamuro, Massimiliano; Fabris, Luca; Strazzabosco, Mario

    2015-01-01

    In addition to its well-established role in embryo development, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been proposed as a general mechanism favoring tumor metastatization in several epithelial malignancies. Herein, we review the topic of EMT in cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), a primary liver cancer arising from the epithelial cells lining the bile ducts (cholangiocytes) and characterized by an abundant stromal reaction. CCA carries a dismal prognosis, owing to a pronounced invasiveness and scarce therapeutic opportunities. In CCA, several reports indicate that cancer cells acquire a number of EMT biomarkers and functions. These phenotypic changes are likely induced by both autocrine and paracrine signals released in the tumor microenvironment (cytokines, growth factors, morphogens) and intracellular stimuli (microRNAs, oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes) variably associated with specific disease mechanisms, including chronic inflammation and hypoxia. Nevertheless, evidence supporting a complete EMT of neoplastic cholangiocytes into stromal cells is lacking, and the gain of EMT-like changes by CCA cells rather reflects a shift towards an enhanced pro-invasive phenotype, likely induced by the tumor stroma. This concept may help to identify new biomarkers of early metastatic behavior along with potential therapeutic targets. PMID:26703747

  17. Snail1 is involved in the renal epithelial-mesenchymal transition

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshino, Jun; Monkawa, Toshiaki Tsuji, Mihoko; Inukai, Mai; Itoh, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Matsuhiko

    2007-10-12

    The pathological significance of the tubular epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in kidney diseases is becoming increasingly recognized, and the transcription factor Snail1 plays a critical role in EMT. The results of this study show that Snail1 mRNA and protein were upregulated in the tubular epithelial cells of the obstructed kidneys in a rat model of unilateral ureteral obstruction and in human proximal tubule HKC-8 cells treated with TGF-{beta}1. Glycogen synthase kinase-3{beta} (GSK-3{beta}) regulates the Snail1 level by degrading Snail1 protein. The level of the phosphorylated inactive form of GSK-3{beta} was increased in the tubular epithelial cells of the obstructed kidney. TGF-{beta}1 increased the phosphorylated form of GSK-3{beta} in HKC-8 cells, and inhibition of GSK-3{beta} by the selective inhibitors lithium and TDZD-8 caused Snail1 protein to accumulate. This study demonstrated that Snail1 is involved in renal tubular EMT and that TGF-{beta}1 regulates Snail1 at the transcription and protein degradation levels.

  18. α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit in angiogenesis and epithelial to mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Pillai, Smitha; Chellappan, Srikumar

    2012-05-01

    Cigarette smoking is strongly correlated with many diseases like cancer, cardiovascular disease and macular degeneration. Nicotine, the main active and addictive component of tobacco smoke has recently been shown to enhance angiogenesis in many experimental systems and animal models. The pro-angiogenic activity of nicotine is mediated by nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, particularly the alpha 7 subunit, that are expressed on a variety of non-neuronal cells including those in the vasculature such as endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells. The present review focuses on the role of α7nAChR in mediating the pro-angiogenic effects of nicotine and describes the molecular mechanisms involved in nicotine-induced angiogenesis as well as epithelial to mesenchymal transition. These observations on nicotine function highlight the therapeutic potential of α7nAChR agonists and antagonists for combating angiogenesis related diseases.

  19. TGFβ Signaling in Tumor Initiation, Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition, and Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Retaining the delicate balance in cell signaling activity is a prerequisite for the maintenance of physiological tissue homeostasis. Transforming growth factor-beta (TGFβ) signaling is an essential pathway that plays crucial roles during embryonic development as well as in adult tissues. Aberrant TGFβ signaling activity regulates tumor progression in a cancer cell-autonomous or non-cell-autonomous fashion and these effects may be tumor suppressing or tumor promoting depending on the cellular context. The fundamental role of this pathway in promoting cancer progression in multiple stages of the metastatic process, including epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), is also becoming increasingly clear. In this review, we discuss the latest advances in the effort to unravel the inherent complexity of TGFβ signaling and its role in cancer progression and metastasis. These findings provide important insights into designing personalized therapeutic strategies against advanced cancers. PMID:25883652

  20. Neuromedin B receptor antagonism inhibits migration, invasion, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition of breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyun-Joo; Kim, Mi-Kyoung; Choi, Kyu-Sil; Jeong, Joo-Won; Bae, Soo-Kyung; Kim, Hyung Joon; Bae, Moon-Kyoung

    2016-09-01

    Neuromedin B (NMB) acts as an autocrine growth factor and a pro-angiogenic factor. Its receptor, NMB receptor (NMB-R), is overexpressed in solid tumors. In the present study, we showed that an NMB-R antagonist, PD168368, suppresses migration and invasion of the human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231. In addition, PD168368 reduced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of breast cancer cells by E-cadherin upregulation and vimentin downregulation. Moreover, we found that PD168368 potently inhibits in vivo metastasis of breast cancer. Taken together, these findings suggest that NMB-R antagonism may be an alternative approach to prevent breast cancer metastasis, and targeting NMB-R may provide a novel therapeutic strategy for breast cancer treatment. PMID:27571778

  1. The ubiquitin–proteasome system and signal transduction pathways regulating Epithelial Mesenchymal transition of cancer

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Epithelial to Mesenchymal transition (EMT) in cancer, a process permitting cancer cells to become mobile and metastatic, has a signaling hardwire forged from development. Multiple signaling pathways that regulate carcinogenesis enabling characteristics in neoplastic cells such as proliferation, resistance to apoptosis and angiogenesis are also the main players in EMT. These pathways, as almost all cellular processes, are in their turn regulated by ubiquitination and the Ubiquitin-Proteasome System (UPS). Ubiquitination is the covalent link of target proteins with the small protein ubiquitin and serves as a signal to target protein degradation by the proteasome or to other outcomes such as endocytosis, degradation by the lysosome or specification of cellular localization. This paper reviews signal transduction pathways regulating EMT and being regulated by ubiquitination. PMID:22827778

  2. MiR-338* targeting smoothened to inhibit pulmonary fibrosis by epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Yi; Dai, Jinghong; Wang, Yongsheng; Zhang, Huan; Li, Xinxiu; Wang, Chunli; Cao, Mengshu; Liu, Yin; Ding, Jingjing; Cai, Hourong; Zhang, Deping; Wang, Yaping

    2016-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic lung disease involving pulmonary injury associated with tissue repair, dysfunction and fibrosis. Recent studies indicate that some microRNAs (miRNAs) may play critical roles in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis. In this study, we aim to investigate whether miR-338* (miR-338-5p), which has been found to be associated with tumor progression, is associated with pathological process of pulmonary fibrosis. Balb/c mice were treated with bleomycin (BLM) to establish IPF models. Targtscan was used to predict the downstream target of miR-338*. Morphological changes were observed with light microscope and epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers were detected by western blot. The expression of miR-338* or downstream target SMO was analyzed by real-time quantitative RT-PCR, northern blot or western blot. MiR-338* was down-regulated in the lung tissue from mice with bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. The smoothened (SMO) is a direct target of miR-338*, and knocking-down the expression of SMO could partially rescue the fibrotic phenotype of TGF-β-induced NuLi-1 cells. Over-expression of SMO led to the fibrotic phenotype of NuLi-1 cells even without TGF-β treatment. These findings showed that the over-expression of SMO contributed to the fibrotic phenotype of NuLi-1 cells by affecting the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) procedure. Furthermore, in vivo, lentivirus-mediated over-expression of miR-338* can alleviate lung fibrosis induced by bleomycin in mice. In conclusion, our results suggest that miR-338* can target SMO to reduce the EMT procedure and thus postpone the development of pulmonary fibrosis. PMID:27508042

  3. MiR-338* targeting smoothened to inhibit pulmonary fibrosis by epithelial-mesenchymal transition

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Yi; Dai, Jinghong; Wang, Yongsheng; Zhang, Huan; Li, Xinxiu; Wang, Chunli; Cao, Mengshu; Liu, Yin; Ding, Jingjing; Cai, Hourong; Zhang, Deping; Wang, Yaping

    2016-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic lung disease involving pulmonary injury associated with tissue repair, dysfunction and fibrosis. Recent studies indicate that some microRNAs (miRNAs) may play critical roles in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis. In this study, we aim to investigate whether miR-338* (miR-338-5p), which has been found to be associated with tumor progression, is associated with pathological process of pulmonary fibrosis. Balb/c mice were treated with bleomycin (BLM) to establish IPF models. Targtscan was used to predict the downstream target of miR-338*. Morphological changes were observed with light microscope and epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers were detected by western blot. The expression of miR-338* or downstream target SMO was analyzed by real-time quantitative RT-PCR, northern blot or western blot. MiR-338* was down-regulated in the lung tissue from mice with bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. The smoothened (SMO) is a direct target of miR-338*, and knocking-down the expression of SMO could partially rescue the fibrotic phenotype of TGF-β-induced NuLi-1 cells. Over-expression of SMO led to the fibrotic phenotype of NuLi-1 cells even without TGF-β treatment. These findings showed that the over-expression of SMO contributed to the fibrotic phenotype of NuLi-1 cells by affecting the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) procedure. Furthermore, in vivo, lentivirus-mediated over-expression of miR-338* can alleviate lung fibrosis induced by bleomycin in mice. In conclusion, our results suggest that miR-338* can target SMO to reduce the EMT procedure and thus postpone the development of pulmonary fibrosis. PMID:27508042

  4. Immunohistochemical Localization of Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition Markers in Cyclosporine A Induced Gingival Overgrowth

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Hitesh; Madapusi, Balaji Thodur; Ramamurti, Anjana; Narasimhan, Malathi; Periasamy, Soundararajan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Cyclosporine, an immunosuppressive agent used in the management of renal transplant patients is known to produce Drug Induced Gingival Overgrowth (DIGO) as a side effect. Several mechanisms have been elucidated to understand the pathogenesis of DIGO. Recently, epithelial mesenchymal transition has been proposed as a mechanism underlying fibrosis of various organs. Aim The aim of the study was to investigate if Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) operates in Cyclosporine induced gingival overgrowth. Materials and Methods The study involved obtaining gingival tissue samples from healthy individuals (n=17) and subjects who exhibited cyclosporine induced gingival overgrowth (n=18). Presence and distribution of E-Cadherin, S100 A4 and alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) was assessed using immunohistochemistry and cell types involved in their expression were determined. The number of α– SMA positive fibroblasts were counted in the samples. Results In control group, there was no loss of E-Cadherin and a pronounced staining was seen in the all layers of the epithelium in all the samples analysed (100%). S100 A4 staining was noted in langerhans cells, fibroblasts, endothelial cells and endothelial lined blood capillaries in Connective Tissue (CT) of all the samples (100%) while α - SMA staining was seen only on the endothelial lined blood capillaries in all the samples (100%). However in DIGO, there was positive staining of E-Cadherin only in the basal and suprabasal layers of the epithelium in all the samples (100%). Moreover there was focal loss of E-Cadherin in the epithelium in eight out of 18 samples (44%). A break in the continuity of the basement membrane was noted in three out of 18 samples (16%) on H & E staining. Conclusion Based on the analysis of differential staining of the markers, it can be concluded that EMT could be one of the mechanistic pathways underlying the pathogenesis of DIGO. PMID:27656563

  5. Upregulation of TrkB promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transition and anoikis resistance in endometrial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bao, Wei; Qiu, Haifeng; Yang, Tingting; Luo, Xin; Zhang, Huijuan; Wan, Xiaoping

    2013-01-01

    Mechanisms governing the metastasis of endometrial carcinoma (EC) are poorly defined. Recent data support a role for the cell surface receptor tyrosine kinase TrkB in the progression of several human tumors. Here we present evidence for a direct role of TrkB in human EC. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that TrkB and its secreted ligand, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), are more highly expressed in EC than in normal endometrium. High TrkB levels correlated with lymph node metastasis (p<0.05) and lymphovascular space involvement (p<0.05) in EC. Depletion of TrkB by stable shRNA-mediated knockdown decreased the migratory and invasive capacity of cancer cell lines in vitro and resulted in anoikis in suspended cells. Conversely, exogenous expression of TrkB increased cell migration and invasion and promoted anoikis resistance in suspension culture. Furthermore, over-expression of TrkB or stimulation by BDNF resulted in altered the expression of molecular mediators of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated depletion of the downstream regulator, Twist, blocked TrkB-induced EMT-like transformation. The use of in vivo models revealed decreased peritoneal dissemination in TrkB-depleted EC cells. Additionally, TrkB-depleted EC cells underwent mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition and anoikis in vivo. Our data support a novel function for TrkB in promoting EMT and resistance to anoikis. Thus, TrkB may constitute a potential therapeutic target in human EC. PMID:23936232

  6. The biological and clinical importance of epithelial-mesenchymal transition in circulating tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huiying; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Li, Jun; Sun, Bin; Qian, Haihua; Yin, Zhengfeng

    2015-02-01

    Movement of tumor cells from a primary tumor to a nonadjacent or distant site is a contiguous and complex process. Among the multiple natural cellular programs that promote initiation and progression of tumor metastasis, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) may play a key role in the ultimate generation of a metastatic foci. Acquisition of the EMT phenotype by tumor cells not only increases their migration and invasion potentials, thereby facilitating their ability to infiltrate blood vessels and to produce circulating tumor cells (CTCs), but also promotes survival of CTCs in the bloodstream and their ability to extravasate out of the circulatory system and invade proximal tissues. In organs distal to the primary tumor, the phenotypic switching mechanism of mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET) enables CTCs to grow and colonize, enhancing the likelihood of establishing metastasis. In addition, CTCs that have undergone EMT attain increased resistance to chemotherapy and targeted therapy. CTCs with the EMT phenotype have become recognized as an active source of metastases, and targeting EMT/MET processes during the individual steps of tumor metastasis represents a promising new approach for alleviating cancer metastasis and recurrence. In this article, we focus on the biological and clinical importance of EMT and/or MET in CTCs during the individual steps of tumor metastasis, summarizing the recent findings of the regulatory roles played by EMT and/or MET in the generation, survival, and recolonization of CTCs and discussing the EMT-targeting strategies developed for tumor diagnosis as well as their potential for management of metastatic malignant diseases.

  7. Zeb1 controls neuron differentiation and germinal zone exit by a mesenchymal-epithelial-like transition

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Shalini; Howell, Danielle; Trivedi, Niraj; Kessler, Ketty; Ong, Taren; Rosmaninho, Pedro; Raposo, Alexandre ASF; Robinson, Giles; Roussel, Martine F; Castro, Diogo S; Solecki, David J

    2016-01-01

    In the developing mammalian brain, differentiating neurons mature morphologically via neuronal polarity programs. Despite discovery of polarity pathways acting concurrently with differentiation, it's unclear how neurons traverse complex polarity transitions or how neuronal progenitors delay polarization during development. We report that zinc finger and homeobox transcription factor-1 (Zeb1), a master regulator of epithelial polarity, controls neuronal differentiation by transcriptionally repressing polarity genes in neuronal progenitors. Necessity-sufficiency testing and functional target screening in cerebellar granule neuron progenitors (GNPs) reveal that Zeb1 inhibits polarization and retains progenitors in their germinal zone (GZ). Zeb1 expression is elevated in the Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) medulloblastoma subgroup originating from GNPs with persistent SHH activation. Restored polarity signaling promotes differentiation and rescues GZ exit, suggesting a model for future differentiative therapies. These results reveal unexpected parallels between neuronal differentiation and mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition and suggest that active polarity inhibition contributes to altered GZ exit in pediatric brain cancers. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12717.001 PMID:27178982

  8. Eosinophilic Esophagitis: Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition Contributes to Esophageal Remodeling and Reverses with Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Kagalwalla, Amir F.; Akhtar, Noorain; Woodruff, Samantha A.; Rea, Bryan A.; Masterson, Joanne C.; Mukkada, Vincent; Parashette, Kalyan R.; Du, Jian; Fillon, Sophie; Protheroe, Cheryl A.; Lee, James J.; Amsden, Katie; Melin-Aldana, Hector; Capocelli, Kelley E.; Furuta, Glenn T.; Ackerman, Steven J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Mechanisms underlying esophageal remodeling with subepithelial fibrosis in eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) have not been delineated. Objectives To explore a role for Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) in EoE, and whether EMT resolves with treatment. Methods Esophageal biopsies from 60 children were immunostained for epithelial (cytokeratin) and mesenchymal (vimentin) EMT biomarkers, and EMT quantified. Subjects studied had EoE (n=17), EoE-indeterminate (n=15), GERD (n=7) or normal esophagus (n=21). EMT was analyzed for relationships to diagnosis, eosinophils, and indices of subepithelial fibrosis, eosinophil peroxidase (EPX) and TGF-β immunostaining. EMT was assessed in pre- and post-treatment biopsies from 18 EoE subjects treated with elemental diet, six-food elimination diet, or topical corticosteroids (n=6/group). Results TGF-β1 treatment of esophageal epithelial cells in vitro for 24hrs induced upregulation of mesenchymal genes characteristic of EMT including N-cadherin (3.3-fold), vimentin (2.1-fold) and fibronectin (7.5-fold). EMT in esophageal biopsies was associated with EoE (or indeterminate EoE), but not GERD or normal esophagus, and was correlated to eosinophils (r=0.691), EPX (r=0.738) and TGF-β (r=0.520) immunostaining, and fibrosis (r=0.644) indices. EMT resolved with EoE treatments that induced clinicopathologic remission with reduced eosinophils. EMT decreased significantly post-treatment by 74.1% overall in the 18 treated EoE subjects; pre- vs. post-treatment EMT scores–3.17±0.82 vs. 0.82±0.39 (p<0.001), with similar decreases within treatment groups. Pre-/post-treatment EMT was strongly correlated with eosinophils for combined (r=0.804, p< 0.001) and individual treatment groups. Conclusions EMT likely contributes to subepithelial fibrosis in EoE, resolves with treatments that decrease esophageal inflammation, and its resolution correlates with decreased numbers of esophageal eosinophils. PMID:22465212

  9. Metabolic Reprogramming and Dependencies Associated with Epithelial Cancer Stem Cells Independent of the Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition Program.

    PubMed

    Aguilar, Esther; Marin de Mas, Igor; Zodda, Erika; Marin, Silvia; Morrish, Fionnuala; Selivanov, Vitaly; Meca-Cortés, Óscar; Delowar, Hossain; Pons, Mònica; Izquierdo, Inés; Celià-Terrassa, Toni; de Atauri, Pedro; Centelles, Josep J; Hockenbery, David; Thomson, Timothy M; Cascante, Marta

    2016-05-01

    In solid tumors, cancer stem cells (CSCs) can arise independently of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). In spite of recent efforts, the metabolic reprogramming associated with CSC phenotypes uncoupled from EMT is poorly understood. Here, by using metabolomic and fluxomic approaches, we identify major metabolic profiles that differentiate metastatic prostate epithelial CSCs (e-CSCs) from non-CSCs expressing a stable EMT. We have found that the e-CSC program in our cellular model is characterized by a high plasticity in energy substrate metabolism, including an enhanced Warburg effect, a greater carbon and energy source flexibility driven by fatty acids and amino acid metabolism and an essential reliance on the proton buffering capacity conferred by glutamine metabolism. An analysis of transcriptomic data yielded a metabolic gene signature for our e-CSCs consistent with the metabolomics and fluxomics analyses that correlated with tumor progression and metastasis in prostate cancer and in 11 additional cancer types. Interestingly, an integrated metabolomics, fluxomics, and transcriptomics analysis allowed us to identify key metabolic players regulated at the post-transcriptional level, suggesting potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets to effectively forestall metastasis. Stem Cells 2016;34:1163-1176. PMID:27146024

  10. Quantitative Analysis of Differential Proteome Expression in Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition of Bladder Epithelial Cells Using SILAC Method.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ganglong; Lu, Wei; Yu, Di; Sun, Chengwen; Guo, Jia; Li, Zheng; Guan, Feng

    2016-01-15

    Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is an essential biological process involved in embryonic development, cancer progression, and metastatic diseases. EMT has often been used as a model for elucidating the mechanisms that underlie bladder cancer progression. However, no study to date has addressed the quantitative global variation of proteins in EMT using normal and non-malignant bladder cells. We treated normal bladder epithelial HCV29 cells and low grade nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer KK47 cells with transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) to establish an EMT model, and studied non-treated and treated HCV29 and KK47 cells by the stable isotope labeling amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) method. Labeled proteins were analyzed by 2D ultrahigh-resolution liquid chromatography/LTQ Orbitrap mass spectrometry. Among a total of 2994 unique identified and annotated proteins in HCV29 and KK47 cells undergoing EMT, 48 and 56 proteins, respectively, were significantly upregulated, and 106 and 24 proteins were significantly downregulated. Gene ontology (GO) term analysis and pathways analysis indicated that the differentially regulated proteins were involved mainly in enhancement of DNA maintenance and inhibition of cell-cell adhesion. Proteomes were compared for bladder cell EMT vs. bladder cancer cells, revealing 16 proteins that displayed similar changes in the two situations. Studies are in progress to further characterize these 16 proteins and their biological functions in EMT.

  11. Hyperglycemia Promotes the Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition of Pancreatic Cancer via Hydrogen Peroxide

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Zhengdong

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) and pancreatic cancer are intimately related, as approximately 85% of patients diagnosed with pancreatic cancer have impaired glucose tolerance or even DM. Our previous studies have indicated that high glucose could promote the invasive and migratory abilities of pancreatic cancer cells. We therefore explored the underlying mechanism that hyperglycemia modulates the metastatic potential of pancreatic cancer. Our data showed that streptozotocin- (STZ-) treated diabetic nude mice exhibit larger tumor size than that of the euglycemic mice. The number of nude mice that develop liver metastasis or ascites is much more in the STZ-treated group than that in the euglycemic group. Hyperglycemic mice contain a higher plasma H2O2-level than that from euglycemic mice. The injection of polyethylene glycol-conjugated catalase (PEG-CAT), an H2O2 scavenger, may reverse hyperglycemia-induced tumor metastasis. In addition, hyperglycemia could also modulate the expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition- (EMT-) related factors in pancreatic tumor tissues, as the E-cadherin level is decreased and the expression of mesenchymal markers N-cadherin and vimentin as well as transcription factor snail is strongly increased. The injection of PEG-CAT could also reverse hyperglycemia-induced EMT. These results suggest that the association between hyperglycemia and poor prognosis of pancreatic cancer can be attributed to the alterations of EMT through the production of hydrogen peroxide. PMID:27433288

  12. Regulation of heterochromatin transcription by Snail1/LOXL2 during epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Millanes-Romero, Alba; Herranz, Nicolás; Perrera, Valentina; Iturbide, Ane; Loubat-Casanovas, Jordina; Gil, Jesús; Jenuwein, Thomas; García de Herreros, Antonio; Peiró, Sandra

    2013-12-12

    Although heterochromatin is enriched with repressive traits, it is also actively transcribed, giving rise to large amounts of noncoding RNAs. Although these RNAs are responsible for the formation and maintenance of heterochromatin, little is known about how their transcription is regulated. Here, we show that the Snail1 transcription factor represses mouse pericentromeric transcription, acting through the H3K4 deaminase LOXL2. Since Snail1 plays a key role in the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), we analyzed the regulation of heterochromatin transcription in this process. At the onset of EMT, one of the major structural heterochromatin proteins, HP1α, is transiently released from heterochromatin foci in a Snail1/LOXL2-dependent manner, concomitantly with a downregulation of major satellite transcription. Moreover, preventing the downregulation of major satellite transcripts compromised the migratory and invasive behavior of mesenchymal cells. We propose that Snail1 regulates heterochromatin transcription through LOXL2, thus creating the favorable transcriptional state necessary for completing EMT.

  13. Dynamic Sialylation in Transforming Growth Factor-β (TGF-β)-induced Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition*

    PubMed Central

    Du, Jun; Hong, Senlian; Dong, Lu; Cheng, Bo; Lin, Liang; Zhao, Bing; Chen, Ye-Guang; Chen, Xing

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a fundamental process in embryonic development and organ formation. Aberrant regulation of EMT often leads to tumor progression. Changes in cell surface sialylation have recently been implicated in mediating EMT. Herein we report the visualization of dynamic changes of sialylation and glycoproteomic analysis of newly synthesized sialylated proteins in EMT by metabolic labeling of sialylated glycans with azides, followed by click labeling with fluorophores or affinity tags. We discovered that sialylation was down-regulated during EMT but then reverted and up-regulated in the mesenchymal state after EMT, accompanied by mRNA expression level changes of genes involved in the sialic acid biosynthesis. Quantitative proteomic analysis identified a list of sialylated proteins whose biosynthesis was dynamically regulated during EMT. Sialylation of cell surface adherent receptor integrin β4 was found to be down-regulated, which may regulate integrin functions during EMT. Furthermore, a global sialylation inhibitor was used to probe the functional role of sialylation during EMT. We found that inhibition of sialylation promoted EMT. Taken together, our findings suggest the important role of sialylation in regulating EMT and imply its possible function in related pathophysiological events, such as cancer metastasis. PMID:25809486

  14. Actin Cytoskeleton Regulation of Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition in Metastatic Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Shankar, Jay; Nabi, Ivan R.

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is associated with loss of the cell-cell adhesion molecule E-cadherin and disruption of cell-cell junctions as well as with acquisition of migratory properties including reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton and activation of the RhoA GTPase. Here we show that depolymerization of the actin cytoskeleton of various metastatic cancer cell lines with Cytochalasin D (Cyt D) reduces cell size and F-actin levels and induces E-cadherin expression at both the protein and mRNA level. Induction of E-cadherin was dose dependent and paralleled loss of the mesenchymal markers N-cadherin and vimentin. E-cadherin levels increased 2 hours after addition of Cyt D in cells showing an E-cadherin mRNA response but only after 10-12 hours in HT-1080 fibrosarcoma and MDA-MB-231 cells in which E-cadherin mRNA level were only minimally affected by Cyt D. Cyt D treatment induced the nuclear-cytoplasmic translocation of EMT-associated SNAI 1 and SMAD1/2/3 transcription factors. In non-metastatic MCF-7 breast cancer cells, that express E-cadherin and represent a cancer cell model for EMT, actin depolymerization with Cyt D induced elevated E-cadherin while actin stabilization with Jasplakinolide reduced E-cadherin levels. Elevated E-cadherin levels due to Cyt D were associated with reduced activation of Rho A. Expression of dominant-negative Rho A mutant increased and dominant-active Rho A mutant decreased E-cadherin levels and also prevented Cyt D induction of E-cadherin. Reduced Rho A activation downstream of actin remodelling therefore induces E-cadherin and reverses EMT in cancer cells. Cyt D treatment inhibited migration and, at higher concentrations, induced cytotoxicity of both HT-1080 fibrosarcoma cells and normal Hs27 fibroblasts, but only induced mesenchymal-epithelial transition in HT-1080 cancer cells. Our studies suggest that actin remodelling is an upstream regulator of EMT in metastatic cancer cells. PMID:25756282

  15. Roles of Dietary Phytoestrogens on the Regulation of Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Diverse Cancer Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Geum-A.; Hwang, Kyung-A.; Choi, Kyung-Chul

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays a key role in tumor progression. The cells undergoing EMT upregulate the expression of cell motility-related proteins and show enhanced migration and invasion. The hallmarks of EMT in cancer cells include changed cell morphology and increased metastatic capabilities in cell migration and invasion. Therefore, prevention of EMT is an important tool for the inhibition of tumor metastasis. A novel preventive therapy is needed, such as treatment of natural dietary substances that are nontoxic to normal human cells, but effective in inhibiting cancer cells. Phytoestrogens, such as genistein, resveratrol, kaempferol and 3,3′-diindolylmethane (DIM), can be raised as possible candidates. They are plant-derived dietary estrogens, which are found in tea, vegetables and fruits, and are known to have various biological efficacies, including chemopreventive activity against cancers. Specifically, these phytoestrogens may induce not only anti-proliferation, apoptosis and cell cycle arrest, but also anti-metastasis by inhibiting the EMT process in various cancer cells. There have been several signaling pathways found to be associated with the induction of the EMT process in cancer cells. Phytoestrogens were demonstrated to have chemopreventive effects on cancer metastasis by inhibiting EMT-associated pathways, such as Notch-1 and TGF-beta signaling. As a result, phytoestrogens can inhibit or reverse the EMT process by upregulating the expression of epithelial phenotypes, including E-cadherin, and downregulating the expression of mesenchymal phenotypes, including N-cadherin, Snail, Slug, and vimentin. In this review, we focused on the important roles of phytoestrogens in inhibiting EMT in many types of cancer and suggested phytoestrogens as prominent alternative compounds to chemotherapy. PMID:27231938

  16. Inhibition of histamine receptor 3 suppresses glioblastoma tumor growth, invasion, and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Wen-Ke; Yang, Yong-Xiang; Sun, Chao; Zhang, Zhuo; Xu, Yu-Qiao; Chang, Ting; Li, Zhu-Yi

    2015-01-01

    Histamine receptor 3 (H3R) is expressed in various tumors and correlated with malignancy and tumor proliferation. However, the role of H3R in tumor invasion and epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) remains unknown. Here, we explored the H3R in the highly invasive glioblastoma (GBM) and U87MG cells. We found that H3R mRNA and protein levels were up-regulated in the GBM and glioma cell lines compared to normal brain tissue and astrocytes. In U87MG cell line, inhibition of H3R by siRNA or the antagonist ciproxifan (CPX) suppressed proliferation, invasiveness, and the expression of EMT activators (Snail, Slug and Twist). In addition, expression of epithelial markers (E-cadherin and ZO-1) was up-regulated and expression of mesenchymal markers (vimentin and N-cadherin) was down-regulated in vitro and in vivo in a xenograft model. In addition, we also showed that inhibition of H3R by siRNA or CPX inactivated the PI3K/Akt and MEK/ERK signaling pathways, while inhibition of Akt or ERK activity with antagonists or siRNAs suppressed H3R agonist (R)-(α)-(−)- methylhistamine dihydrobromide (RAMH) mediated invasion and reorganization of cadherin-household. In conclusion, overexpression of H3R is associated with glioma progression. Inhibition of H3R leads to suppressed invasion and EMT of GBM by inactivating the PI3K/Akt and MEK/ERK pathways in gliomas. PMID:25940798

  17. Cell dedifferentiation and epithelial to mesenchymal transitions during intestinal regeneration in H. glaberrima

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Determining the type and source of cells involved in regenerative processes has been one of the most important goals of researchers in the field of regeneration biology. We have previously used several cellular markers to characterize the cells involved in the regeneration of the intestine in the sea cucumber Holothuria glaberrima. Results We have now obtained a monoclonal antibody that labels the mesothelium; the outer layer of the gut wall composed of peritoneocytes and myocytes. Using this antibody we studied the role of this tissue layer in the early stages of intestinal regeneration. We have now shown that the mesothelial cells of the mesentery, specifically the muscle component, undergo dedifferentiation from very early on in the regeneration process. Cell proliferation, on the other hand, increases much later, and mainly takes place in the mesothelium or coelomic epithelium of the regenerating intestinal rudiment. Moreover, we have found that the formation of the intestinal rudiment involves a novel regenerative mechanism where epithelial cells ingress into the connective tissue and acquire mesenchymal phenotypes. Conclusions Our results strongly suggest that the dedifferentiating mesothelium provides the initial source of cells for the formation of the intestinal rudiment. At later stages, cell proliferation supplies additional cells necessary for the increase in size of the regenerate. Our data also shows that the mechanism of epithelial to mesenchymal transition provides many of the connective tissue cells found in the regenerating intestine. These results present some new and important information as to the cellular basis of organ regeneration and in particular to the process of regeneration of visceral organs. PMID:22004330

  18. Triclosan Potentiates Epithelial-To-Mesenchymal Transition in Anoikis-Resistant Human Lung Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Winitthana, Thidarat; Lawanprasert, Somsong; Chanvorachote, Pithi

    2014-01-01

    Alteration of cancer cell toward mesenchymal phenotype has been shown to potentiate tumor aggressiveness by increasing cancer cell metastasis. Herein, we report the effect of triclosan, a widely used antibacterial agent found in many daily products, in enhancing the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in aggressive anoikis resistant human H460 lung cancer cells. EMT has been long known to increase abilities of the cells to increase migration, invasion, and survival in circulating system. The present study reveals that treatment of the cancer cells with triclosan at the physiologically related concentrations significantly increased the colony number of the cancer cells assessed by tumor formation assay. Also, the mesenchymal-like morphology and decrease in cell-to-cell adhesion were observed in triclosan-treated cells. Importantly, western blot analysis revealed that triclosan-treated cells exhibited decreased E-cadherin, while the levels of EMT markers, namely N-cadherin, vimentin, snail and slug were found to be significantly up-regulated. Furthermore, EMT induced by triclosan treatment was accompanied by the activation of focal adhesion kinase/ATP dependent tyrosine kinase (FAK/Akt) and Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Rac1), which enhanced the ability of the cells to migrate and invade. In conclusion, we demonstrated for the first time that triclosan may potentiate cancer cells survival in detached condition and motility via the process of EMT. As mentioned capabilities are required for success in metastasis, the present study provides the novel toxicological information and encourages the awareness of triclosan use in cancer patients. PMID:25329306

  19. Triclosan potentiates epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in anoikis-resistant human lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Winitthana, Thidarat; Lawanprasert, Somsong; Chanvorachote, Pithi

    2014-01-01

    Alteration of cancer cell toward mesenchymal phenotype has been shown to potentiate tumor aggressiveness by increasing cancer cell metastasis. Herein, we report the effect of triclosan, a widely used antibacterial agent found in many daily products, in enhancing the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in aggressive anoikis resistant human H460 lung cancer cells. EMT has been long known to increase abilities of the cells to increase migration, invasion, and survival in circulating system. The present study reveals that treatment of the cancer cells with triclosan at the physiologically related concentrations significantly increased the colony number of the cancer cells assessed by tumor formation assay. Also, the mesenchymal-like morphology and decrease in cell-to-cell adhesion were observed in triclosan-treated cells. Importantly, western blot analysis revealed that triclosan-treated cells exhibited decreased E-cadherin, while the levels of EMT markers, namely N-cadherin, vimentin, snail and slug were found to be significantly up-regulated. Furthermore, EMT induced by triclosan treatment was accompanied by the activation of focal adhesion kinase/ATP dependent tyrosine kinase (FAK/Akt) and Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Rac1), which enhanced the ability of the cells to migrate and invade. In conclusion, we demonstrated for the first time that triclosan may potentiate cancer cells survival in detached condition and motility via the process of EMT. As mentioned capabilities are required for success in metastasis, the present study provides the novel toxicological information and encourages the awareness of triclosan use in cancer patients. PMID:25329306

  20. Triclosan potentiates epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in anoikis-resistant human lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Winitthana, Thidarat; Lawanprasert, Somsong; Chanvorachote, Pithi

    2014-01-01

    Alteration of cancer cell toward mesenchymal phenotype has been shown to potentiate tumor aggressiveness by increasing cancer cell metastasis. Herein, we report the effect of triclosan, a widely used antibacterial agent found in many daily products, in enhancing the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in aggressive anoikis resistant human H460 lung cancer cells. EMT has been long known to increase abilities of the cells to increase migration, invasion, and survival in circulating system. The present study reveals that treatment of the cancer cells with triclosan at the physiologically related concentrations significantly increased the colony number of the cancer cells assessed by tumor formation assay. Also, the mesenchymal-like morphology and decrease in cell-to-cell adhesion were observed in triclosan-treated cells. Importantly, western blot analysis revealed that triclosan-treated cells exhibited decreased E-cadherin, while the levels of EMT markers, namely N-cadherin, vimentin, snail and slug were found to be significantly up-regulated. Furthermore, EMT induced by triclosan treatment was accompanied by the activation of focal adhesion kinase/ATP dependent tyrosine kinase (FAK/Akt) and Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Rac1), which enhanced the ability of the cells to migrate and invade. In conclusion, we demonstrated for the first time that triclosan may potentiate cancer cells survival in detached condition and motility via the process of EMT. As mentioned capabilities are required for success in metastasis, the present study provides the novel toxicological information and encourages the awareness of triclosan use in cancer patients.

  1. PROP1 triggers epithelial-mesenchymal transition-like process in pituitary stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Pérez Millán, María Inés; Brinkmeier, Michelle L; Mortensen, Amanda H; Camper, Sally A

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in PROP1 are the most common cause of hypopituitarism in humans; therefore, unraveling its mechanism of action is highly relevant from a therapeutic perspective. Our current understanding of the role of PROP1 in the pituitary gland is limited to the repression and activation of the pituitary transcription factor genes Hesx1 and Pou1f1, respectively. To elucidate the comprehensive PROP1-dependent gene regulatory network, we conducted genome-wide analysis of PROP1 DNA binding and effects on gene expression in mutant mice, mouse isolated stem cells and engineered mouse cell lines. We determined that PROP1 is essential for stimulating stem cells to undergo an epithelial to mesenchymal transition-like process necessary for cell migration and differentiation. Genomic profiling reveals that PROP1 binds to genes expressed in epithelial cells like Claudin 23, and to EMT inducer genes like Zeb2, Notch2 and Gli2. Zeb2 activation appears to be a key step in the EMT process. Our findings identify PROP1 as a central transcriptional component of pituitary stem cell differentiation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.14470.001 PMID:27351100

  2. Glycosylation in Cancer: Interplay between Multidrug Resistance and Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition?

    PubMed Central

    da Fonseca, Leonardo Marques; da Silva, Vanessa Amil; Freire-de-Lima, Leonardo; Previato, José Osvaldo; Mendonça-Previato, Lucia; Capella, Márcia Alves Marques

    2016-01-01

    The expression of unusual glycan structures is a hallmark of cancer progression, and their functional roles in cancer biology have been extensively investigated in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) models. EMT is a physiological process involved in embryonic development and wound healing. It is characterized by loss of epithelial cell polarity and cell adhesion, permitting cell migration, and thus formation of new epithelia. However, this process is unwanted when occurring outside their physiological limit, resulting in fibrosis of organs and progression of cancer and metastasis. Several studies observed that EMT is related to the acquisition of multidrug resistance (MDR) phenotype, a condition in which cancer cells acquire resistance to multiple different drugs, which has virtually nothing in common. However, although some studies suggested interplay between these two apparently distinct phenomena, almost nothing is known about this possible relationship. A common pathway to them is the need for glycosylation, a post-translational modification that can alter biological function. Thus, this review intends to compile the main facts obtained until now in these two areas, as an effort to unravel the relationship between EMT and MDR. PMID:27446804

  3. Forkhead transcription factor foxq1 promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transition and breast cancer metastasis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haijun; Meng, Fanyan; Liu, Gang; Zhang, Bin; Zhu, Jun; Wu, Feng; Ethier, Stephen P; Miller, Fred; Wu, Guojun

    2011-02-15

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) promotes cancer invasion and metastasis, but the integrative mechanisms that coordinate these processes are incompletely understood. In this study, we used a cross-species expression profiling strategy in metastatic cell lines of human and mouse origin to identify 22 up-regulated and 12 down-regulated genes that are part of an essential genetic program in metastasis. In particular, we identified a novel function in metastasis that was not previously known for the transcription factor Forkhead Box Q1 (Foxq1). Ectopic expression of Foxq1 increased cell migration and invasion in vitro, enhanced the lung metastatic capabilities of mammary epithelial cells in vivo, and triggered a marked EMT. In contrast, Foxq1 knockdown elicited converse effects on these phenotypes in vitro and in vivo. Neither ectopic expression nor knockdown of Foxq1 significantly affected cell proliferation or colony formation in vitro. Notably, Foxq1 repressed expression of the core EMT regulator E-cadherin by binding to the E-box in its promoter region. Further mechanistic investigation revealed that Foxq1 expression is regulated by TGF-β1, and that Foxq1 knockdown blocked TGF-β1-induced EMT at both morphological and molecular levels. Our findings highlight the feasibility of cross-species expression profiling as a strategy to identify metastasis-related genes, and they reveal that EMT induction is a likely mechanism underlying a novel metastasis-promoting function of Foxq1 defined here in breast cancer. PMID:21285253

  4. Human RON receptor tyrosine kinase induces complete epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition but causes cellular senescence

    SciTech Connect

    Cote, Marceline; Miller, A. Dusty; Liu, Shan-Lu . E-mail: shan-lu.liu@mcgill.ca

    2007-08-17

    The RON receptor tyrosine kinase is a member of the MET proto-oncogene family and is important for cell proliferation, differentiation, and cancer development. Here, we created a series of Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) epithelial cell clones that express different levels of RON, and have investigated their biological properties. While low levels of RON correlated with little morphological change in MDCK cells, high levels of RON expression constitutively led to morphological scattering or complete and stabilized epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Unexpectedly, MDCK clones expressing higher levels of RON exhibited retarded proliferation and senescence, despite increased motility and invasiveness. RON was constitutively tyrosine-phosphorylated in MDCK cells expressing high levels of RON and undergoing EMT, and the MAPK signaling pathway was activated. This study reveals for the first time that RON alone is sufficient to induce complete and stabilized EMT in MDCK cells, and overexpression of RON does not cause cell transformation but rather induces cell cycle arrest and senescence, leading to impaired cell proliferation.

  5. LOXL2 catalytically inactive mutants mediate epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Cuevas, Eva P; Moreno-Bueno, Gema; Canesin, Giacomo; Santos, Vanesa; Portillo, Francisco; Cano, Amparo

    2014-01-01

    Lysyl-oxidase-like 2 (LOXL2) is a member of the lysyl oxidase family that catalyzes the cross-linking of collagens or elastins in the extracellular matrix, thus regulating the tensile strength of tissues. However, many reports have suggested different intracellular roles for LOXL2, including the ability to regulate gene transcription and tumor progression. We previously reported that LOXL2 mediates epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) by Snail1-dependent and independent mechanisms, related to E-cadherin silencing and downregulation of epidermal differentiation and cell polarity components, respectively. Whether or not the catalytic activity of LOXL2 is required to induce/sustain EMT is actually unknown. Here we show that LOXL2 catalytic inactive mutants collaborate with Snail1 in E-cadherin gene repression to trigger EMT and, in addition, promote FAK/Src pathway activation to support EMT. These findings reveal a non-conventional role of LOXL2 on regulating epithelial cell plasticity. PMID:24414204

  6. Cordycepin suppresses integrin/FAK signaling and epithelial-mesenchymal transition in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Yao, Wen-Ling; Ko, Bor-Sheng; Liu, Tzu-An; Liang, Shu-Man; Liu, Chia-Chia; Lu, Yi-Jhu; Tzean, Shean-Shong; Shen, Tang-Long; Liou, Jun-Yang

    2014-01-01

    Cordycepin, also known as 3-deoxyadenosine, is an analogue of adenosine extracted from the traditional Chinese medicine "Dong Chong Xia Cao". Cordycepin is an active small molecular weight compound and is implicated in modulating multiple physiological functions including immune activation, anti-aging and anti-tumor effects. Several studies have indicated that cordycepin suppresses tumor progression. However, the signaling pathways involved in cordycepin regulating cancer cell motility, invasiveness and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) remain unclear. In this study, we found that cordycepin inhibits hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell proliferation and migration/invasion. Treatment of cordycepin results in the increasing expression of epithelial marker, Ecadherin while no significant effect was found on N-cadherin α-catenin and β-catenin. Furthermore, although the expression of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) was slightly reduced, the level of phosphorylated FAK was significantly reduced by the treatment of cordycepin. In addition, cordycepin significantly suppresses the expression of integrin α3, integrin α6 and integrin β1 which are crucial interacting partners of FAK in regulating the focal adhesion complex. These results suggest cordycepin may contribute to EMT, antimigration/ invasion and growth inhibitory effects of HCC by suppressing E-cadherin and integrin/FAK signaling. Thus, cordycepin is a potential therapeutic or supplementary agent for preventing HCC tumor progression. PMID:23855336

  7. Association of histone acetylation at the ACTA2 promoter region with epithelial mesenchymal transition of lens epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Ganatra, D A; Rajkumar, S; Patel, A R; Gajjar, D U; Johar, K; Arora, A I; Kayastha, F B; Vasavada, A R

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays a central role in the development of fibrotic complications of the lens. The current study is designed to check whether EMT of lens epithelial cells (LECs) is regulated by epigenetic modifications and to evaluate the effect of Trichostatin-A (TSA) on the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)-induced EMT. Methods Fetal human LECs (FHL124) were treated with TGF-β2 in the presence or absence of TSA. Levels of mRNA, protein, as well as localization of α-smooth muscle actin (αSMA) were studied along with migration of LECs. Acetylation of histone H4 was analyzed and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) was carried out to study the level of acetylated histone H4 at the promoter of αSMA gene (ACTA2). Student's t-test was used for statistical analysis. Results TGF-β2 treatment resulted in myofibroblast-like changes and increased migratory capacity of FHL124. Protein and mRNA expression of αSMA increased, and immunofluorescence revealed presence of extensive stress fibers. TSA treatment preserved epithelial morphology, retarded cell migration, and abrogated an increase in αSMA levels. TSA led to the accumulation of acetylated histone H4 that was reduced on TGF-β2 treatment. However, increased level of histone H4 acetylation was found at the ACTA2 promoter region during TGF-β treatment. Conclusions The increased level of αSMA, a hallmark of EMT in LECs, is associated with increased level of histone H4 acetylation at its promoter region, and TSA helps in suppressing EMT by epigenetically reducing this level. TSA thus shows promising potential in management of fibrotic conditions of the lens. PMID:25853442

  8. Glioma-associated oncogene homolog 1 promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transition in human renal tubular epithelial cell.

    PubMed

    Ding, Hong; Xu, Yanyan; Gao, Di; Wang, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling critically regulates embryogenesis and tissue homeostasis. Here, we investigated the role of Shh signaling in mediating epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in human renal tubular epithelial cells HKC-8. Our RT-PCR assays demonstrated that TGF-β1 induced time-dependent changes in the mRNA transcript levels of Shh, with a steady rise from one hour post TGF-β1 treatment and a peak at four hours post TGF-β1 treatment. Furthermore, TGF-β1 induced a time-dependent increase in the mRNA transcript levels of Gli1. Pre-treatment with 2 or 5 µM cyclopamine significantly attenuated TGF-β1-induced rise in the mRNA transcript levels of Gli1, but failed to attenuate TGF-β1-induced rise in Shh mRNA transcript levels. Additionally, immunoblotting assays and immunofluorescence staining demonstrated that inhibition of Shh signaling by cyclopamine significantly attenuated TGF-β1-induced increase in the mRNA transcript levels of α-SMA, collagen I, and fibronectin. Gli1 overexpression induced Snail1 expression. Moreover, Gli(-/-) mice that had undergone unilateral ureteral obstruction for seven days showed significant reduction in the mRNA transcript levels of Snail1 compared to the wildtype controls. In conclusion, the current study provides novel insight into the regulation of EMT by the Shh/Gli1 signaling pathway, suggesting a critical role of Shh/Gli1 signaling in EMT of human renal tubular epithelial cells. PMID:27158358

  9. β-Catenin/CBP–Dependent Signaling Regulates TGF-β–Induced Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition of Lens Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Taiyab, Aftab; Korol, Anna; Deschamps, Paula A.; West-Mays, Judith A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Transforming growth factor-β–induced epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) is one of the main causes of posterior capsular opacification (PCO) or secondary cataract; however, the signaling events involved in TGF-β–induced PCO have not been fully characterized. Here, we focus on examining the role of β-catenin/cyclic AMP response element–binding protein (CREB)-binding protein (CBP) and β-catenin/T-cell factor (TCF)-dependent signaling in regulating cytoskeletal dynamics during TGF-β–induced EMT in lens epithelial explants. Methods Rat lens epithelial explants were cultured in medium M199 in the absence of serum. Explants were treated with TGF-β2 in the presence or absence of the β-catenin/CBP interaction inhibitor, ICG-001, or the β-catenin/TCF interaction inhibitor, PNU-74654. Western blot and immunofluorescence experiments were carried out and analyzed. Results An increase in the expression of fascin, an actin-bundling protein, was observed in the lens explants upon stimulation with TGF-β, and colocalized with F-actin filaments. Inhibition of β-catenin/CBP interactions, but not β-catenin/TCF interactions, led to a decrease in TGF-β–induced fascin and stress fiber formation, as well as a decrease in the expression of known markers of EMT, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9). In addition, inhibition of β-catenin/CBP–dependent signaling also prevented TGF-β–induced downregulation of epithelial cadherin (E-cadherin) in lens explants. Conclusions We show that β-catenin/CBP–dependent signaling regulates fascin, MMP9, and α-SMA expression during TGF-β–induced EMT. We demonstrate that β-catenin/CBP–dependent signaling is crucial for TGF-β–induced EMT in the lens. PMID:27787561

  10. Synergistic action of master transcription factors controls epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hongyuan; Liu, Yuwei; Xue, Mengzhu; Liu, Haiyue; Du, Shaowei; Zhang, Liwen; Wang, Peng

    2016-04-01

    Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a complex multistep process in which phenotype switches are mediated by a network of transcription factors (TFs). Systematic characterization of all dynamic TFs controlling EMT state transitions, especially for the intermediate partial-EMT state, represents a highly relevant yet largely unexplored task. Here, we performed a computational analysis that integrated time-course EMT transcriptomic data with public cistromic data and identified three synergistic master TFs (ETS2, HNF4A and JUNB) that regulate the transition through the partial-EMT state. Overexpression of these regulators predicted a poor clinical outcome, and their elimination readily abolished TGF-β-induced EMT. Importantly, these factors utilized a clique motif, physically interact and their cumulative binding generally characterized EMT-associated genes. Furthermore, analyses of H3K27ac ChIP-seq data revealed that ETS2, HNF4A and JUNB are associated with super-enhancers and the administration of BRD4 inhibitor readily abolished TGF-β-induced EMT. These findings have implications for systematic discovery of master EMT regulators and super-enhancers as novel targets for controlling metastasis. PMID:26926107

  11. Synergistic action of master transcription factors controls epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Hongyuan; Liu, Yuwei; Xue, Mengzhu; Liu, Haiyue; Du, Shaowei; Zhang, Liwen; Wang, Peng

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a complex multistep process in which phenotype switches are mediated by a network of transcription factors (TFs). Systematic characterization of all dynamic TFs controlling EMT state transitions, especially for the intermediate partial-EMT state, represents a highly relevant yet largely unexplored task. Here, we performed a computational analysis that integrated time-course EMT transcriptomic data with public cistromic data and identified three synergistic master TFs (ETS2, HNF4A and JUNB) that regulate the transition through the partial-EMT state. Overexpression of these regulators predicted a poor clinical outcome, and their elimination readily abolished TGF-β-induced EMT. Importantly, these factors utilized a clique motif, physically interact and their cumulative binding generally characterized EMT-associated genes. Furthermore, analyses of H3K27ac ChIP-seq data revealed that ETS2, HNF4A and JUNB are associated with super-enhancers and the administration of BRD4 inhibitor readily abolished TGF-β-induced EMT. These findings have implications for systematic discovery of master EMT regulators and super-enhancers as novel targets for controlling metastasis. PMID:26926107

  12. Curcumin inhibits invasive capabilities through epithelial mesenchymal transition in breast cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Gallardo, Marcela; Calaf, Gloria M

    2016-09-01

    Curcumin (diferuloyl methane) is an antioxidant that exerts antiproliferative and apoptotic effects and has anti-invasive and anti-metastatic properties. Evidence strongly implicates that epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is involved in malignant progression affecting genes such as Slug, AXL and Twist1. These genes are abnormally expressed in many tumors and favor metastasis. The purpose of this study was to determine the potential effect of curcumin on EMT, migration and invasion. Triple-positive and triple-negative breast cancer cell lines for estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PgR) and HER/neu were used: i) MCF-10F, a normal immortalized breast epithelial cell line (negative), ii) Tumor2, a malignant and tumorigenic cell line (positive) derived from Alpha5 cell line injected into the immunologically depressed mice and transformed by 60/60 cGy doses of high LET (linear energy transfer) α particles (150 keV/µm) of radiation and estrogen, and iii) a commercially available MDA-MB‑231 (negative). The effect of curcumin (30 µM for 48 h) was evaluated on expression of EMT-related genes by RT-qPCR. Results showed that curcumin decreased E-cadherin, N-cadherin, β-catenin, Slug, AXL, Twist1, Vimentin and Fibronectin protein expression, independently of the positivity of the markers in the cell lines. Curcumin also decreased migration and invasive capabilities in comparison to their own controls. It can be concluded that curcumin influenced biochemical changes associated with EMT-related genes that seems to promote such transition and are at the core of several signaling pathways that mediate the transition. Thus, it can be suggested that curcumin is able to prevent or delay cancer progression through the interruption of this process. PMID:27573203

  13. Curcumin inhibits invasive capabilities through epithelial mesenchymal transition in breast cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Gallardo, Marcela; Calaf, Gloria M

    2016-09-01

    Curcumin (diferuloyl methane) is an antioxidant that exerts antiproliferative and apoptotic effects and has anti-invasive and anti-metastatic properties. Evidence strongly implicates that epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is involved in malignant progression affecting genes such as Slug, AXL and Twist1. These genes are abnormally expressed in many tumors and favor metastasis. The purpose of this study was to determine the potential effect of curcumin on EMT, migration and invasion. Triple-positive and triple-negative breast cancer cell lines for estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PgR) and HER/neu were used: i) MCF-10F, a normal immortalized breast epithelial cell line (negative), ii) Tumor2, a malignant and tumorigenic cell line (positive) derived from Alpha5 cell line injected into the immunologically depressed mice and transformed by 60/60 cGy doses of high LET (linear energy transfer) α particles (150 keV/µm) of radiation and estrogen, and iii) a commercially available MDA-MB‑231 (negative). The effect of curcumin (30 µM for 48 h) was evaluated on expression of EMT-related genes by RT-qPCR. Results showed that curcumin decreased E-cadherin, N-cadherin, β-catenin, Slug, AXL, Twist1, Vimentin and Fibronectin protein expression, independently of the positivity of the markers in the cell lines. Curcumin also decreased migration and invasive capabilities in comparison to their own controls. It can be concluded that curcumin influenced biochemical changes associated with EMT-related genes that seems to promote such transition and are at the core of several signaling pathways that mediate the transition. Thus, it can be suggested that curcumin is able to prevent or delay cancer progression through the interruption of this process.

  14. MICAL2 is a novel human cancer gene controlling mesenchymal to epithelial transition involved in cancer growth and invasion.

    PubMed

    Mariotti, Sara; Barravecchia, Ivana; Vindigni, Carla; Pucci, Angela; Balsamo, Michele; Libro, Rosaliana; Senchenko, Vera; Dmitriev, Alexey; Jacchetti, Emanuela; Cecchini, Marco; Roviello, Franco; Lai, Michele; Broccoli, Vania; Andreazzoli, Massimiliano; Mazzanti, Chiara M; Angeloni, Debora

    2016-01-12

    The MICAL (Molecules Interacting with CasL) proteins catalyze actin oxidation-reduction reactions destabilizing F-actin in cytoskeletal dynamics. Here we show for the first time that MICAL2 mRNA is significantly over-expressed in aggressive, poorly differentiated/undifferentiated, primary human epithelial cancers (gastric and renal). Immunohistochemistry showed MICAL2-positive cells on the cancer invasive front and in metastasizing cancer cells inside emboli, but not at sites of metastasis, suggesting MICAL2 expression was 'on' in a subpopulation of primary cancer cells seemingly detaching from the tissue of origin, enter emboli and travel to distant sites, and was turned 'off' upon homing at metastatic sites. In vitro, MICAL2 knock-down resulted in mesenchymal to epithelial transition, reduction of viability, and loss of motility and invasion properties of human cancer cells. Moreover, expression of MICAL2 cDNA in MICAL2-depleted cells induced epithelial to mesenchymal transition. Altogether our data indicate that MICAL2 over-expression is associated with cancer progression and metastatic disease. MICAL2 might be an important regulator of epithelial to mesenchymal transition and therefore a promising target for anti-metastatic therapy. PMID:26689989

  15. MICAL2 is a novel human cancer gene controlling mesenchymal to epithelial transition involved in cancer growth and invasion

    PubMed Central

    Vindigni, Carla; Pucci, Angela; Balsamo, Michele; Libro, Rosaliana; Senchenko, Vera; Dmitriev, Alexey; Jacchetti, Emanuela; Cecchini, Marco; Roviello, Franco; Lai, Michele; Broccoli, Vania; Andreazzoli, Massimiliano; Mazzanti, Chiara M.; Angeloni, Debora

    2016-01-01

    The MICAL (Molecules Interacting with CasL) proteins catalyze actin oxidation-reduction reactions destabilizing F-actin in cytoskeletal dynamics. Here we show for the first time that MICAL2 mRNA is significantly over-expressed in aggressive, poorly differentiated/undifferentiated, primary human epithelial cancers (gastric and renal). Immunohistochemistry showed MICAL2-positive cells on the cancer invasive front and in metastasizing cancer cells inside emboli, but not at sites of metastasis, suggesting MICAL2 expression was 'on' in a subpopulation of primary cancer cells seemingly detaching from the tissue of origin, enter emboli and travel to distant sites, and was turned 'off' upon homing at metastatic sites. In vitro, MICAL2 knock-down resulted in mesenchymal to epithelial transition, reduction of viability, and loss of motility and invasion properties of human cancer cells. Moreover, expression of MICAL2 cDNA in MICAL2-depleted cells induced epithelial to mesenchymal transition. Altogether our data indicate that MICAL2 over-expression is associated with cancer progression and metastatic disease. MICAL2 might be an important regulator of epithelial to mesenchymal transition and therefore a promising target for anti-metastatic therapy. PMID:26689989

  16. MICAL2 is a novel human cancer gene controlling mesenchymal to epithelial transition involved in cancer growth and invasion.

    PubMed

    Mariotti, Sara; Barravecchia, Ivana; Vindigni, Carla; Pucci, Angela; Balsamo, Michele; Libro, Rosaliana; Senchenko, Vera; Dmitriev, Alexey; Jacchetti, Emanuela; Cecchini, Marco; Roviello, Franco; Lai, Michele; Broccoli, Vania; Andreazzoli, Massimiliano; Mazzanti, Chiara M; Angeloni, Debora

    2016-01-12

    The MICAL (Molecules Interacting with CasL) proteins catalyze actin oxidation-reduction reactions destabilizing F-actin in cytoskeletal dynamics. Here we show for the first time that MICAL2 mRNA is significantly over-expressed in aggressive, poorly differentiated/undifferentiated, primary human epithelial cancers (gastric and renal). Immunohistochemistry showed MICAL2-positive cells on the cancer invasive front and in metastasizing cancer cells inside emboli, but not at sites of metastasis, suggesting MICAL2 expression was 'on' in a subpopulation of primary cancer cells seemingly detaching from the tissue of origin, enter emboli and travel to distant sites, and was turned 'off' upon homing at metastatic sites. In vitro, MICAL2 knock-down resulted in mesenchymal to epithelial transition, reduction of viability, and loss of motility and invasion properties of human cancer cells. Moreover, expression of MICAL2 cDNA in MICAL2-depleted cells induced epithelial to mesenchymal transition. Altogether our data indicate that MICAL2 over-expression is associated with cancer progression and metastatic disease. MICAL2 might be an important regulator of epithelial to mesenchymal transition and therefore a promising target for anti-metastatic therapy.

  17. Foxn1 Transcription Factor Regulates Wound Healing of Skin through Promoting Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition.

    PubMed

    Gawronska-Kozak, Barbara; Grabowska, Anna; Kur-Piotrowska, Anna; Kopcewicz, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Transcription factors are key molecules that finely tune gene expression in response to injury. We focused on the role of a transcription factor, Foxn1, whose expression is limited to the skin and thymus epithelium. Our previous studies showed that Foxn1 inactivity in nude mice creates a pro-regenerative environment during skin wound healing. To explore the mechanistic role of Foxn1 in the skin wound healing process, we analyzed post-injured skin tissues from Foxn1::Egfp transgenic and C57BL/6 mice with Western Blotting, qRT-PCR, immunofluorescence and flow cytometric assays. Foxn1 expression in non-injured skin localized to the epidermis and hair follicles. Post-injured skin tissues showed an intense Foxn1-eGFP signal at the wound margin and in leading epithelial tongue, where it co-localized with keratin 16, a marker of activated keratinocytes. This data support the concept that suprabasal keratinocytes, expressing Foxn1, are key cells in the process of re-epithelialization. The occurrence of an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) was confirmed by high levels of Snail1 and Mmp-9 expression as well as through co-localization of vimentin/E-cadherin-positive cells in dermis tissue at four days post-wounding. Involvement of Foxn1 in the EMT process was verified by co-localization of Foxn1-eGFP cells with Snail1 in histological sections. Flow cytometric analysis showed the increase of double positive E-cadherin/N-cadherin cells within Foxn1-eGFP population of post-wounded skin cells isolates, which corroborated histological and gene expression analyses. Together, our findings indicate that Foxn1 acts as regulator of the skin wound healing process through engagement in re-epithelization and possible involvement in scar formation due to Foxn1 activity during the EMT process.

  18. Foxn1 Transcription Factor Regulates Wound Healing of Skin through Promoting Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition

    PubMed Central

    Gawronska-Kozak, Barbara; Grabowska, Anna; Kur-Piotrowska, Anna; Kopcewicz, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Transcription factors are key molecules that finely tune gene expression in response to injury. We focused on the role of a transcription factor, Foxn1, whose expression is limited to the skin and thymus epithelium. Our previous studies showed that Foxn1 inactivity in nude mice creates a pro-regenerative environment during skin wound healing. To explore the mechanistic role of Foxn1 in the skin wound healing process, we analyzed post-injured skin tissues from Foxn1::Egfp transgenic and C57BL/6 mice with Western Blotting, qRT-PCR, immunofluorescence and flow cytometric assays. Foxn1 expression in non-injured skin localized to the epidermis and hair follicles. Post-injured skin tissues showed an intense Foxn1-eGFP signal at the wound margin and in leading epithelial tongue, where it co-localized with keratin 16, a marker of activated keratinocytes. This data support the concept that suprabasal keratinocytes, expressing Foxn1, are key cells in the process of re-epithelialization. The occurrence of an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) was confirmed by high levels of Snail1 and Mmp-9 expression as well as through co-localization of vimentin/E-cadherin-positive cells in dermis tissue at four days post-wounding. Involvement of Foxn1 in the EMT process was verified by co-localization of Foxn1-eGFP cells with Snail1 in histological sections. Flow cytometric analysis showed the increase of double positive E-cadherin/N-cadherin cells within Foxn1-eGFP population of post-wounded skin cells isolates, which corroborated histological and gene expression analyses. Together, our findings indicate that Foxn1 acts as regulator of the skin wound healing process through engagement in re-epithelization and possible involvement in scar formation due to Foxn1 activity during the EMT process. PMID:26938103

  19. Foxn1 Transcription Factor Regulates Wound Healing of Skin through Promoting Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition.

    PubMed

    Gawronska-Kozak, Barbara; Grabowska, Anna; Kur-Piotrowska, Anna; Kopcewicz, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Transcription factors are key molecules that finely tune gene expression in response to injury. We focused on the role of a transcription factor, Foxn1, whose expression is limited to the skin and thymus epithelium. Our previous studies showed that Foxn1 inactivity in nude mice creates a pro-regenerative environment during skin wound healing. To explore the mechanistic role of Foxn1 in the skin wound healing process, we analyzed post-injured skin tissues from Foxn1::Egfp transgenic and C57BL/6 mice with Western Blotting, qRT-PCR, immunofluorescence and flow cytometric assays. Foxn1 expression in non-injured skin localized to the epidermis and hair follicles. Post-injured skin tissues showed an intense Foxn1-eGFP signal at the wound margin and in leading epithelial tongue, where it co-localized with keratin 16, a marker of activated keratinocytes. This data support the concept that suprabasal keratinocytes, expressing Foxn1, are key cells in the process of re-epithelialization. The occurrence of an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) was confirmed by high levels of Snail1 and Mmp-9 expression as well as through co-localization of vimentin/E-cadherin-positive cells in dermis tissue at four days post-wounding. Involvement of Foxn1 in the EMT process was verified by co-localization of Foxn1-eGFP cells with Snail1 in histological sections. Flow cytometric analysis showed the increase of double positive E-cadherin/N-cadherin cells within Foxn1-eGFP population of post-wounded skin cells isolates, which corroborated histological and gene expression analyses. Together, our findings indicate that Foxn1 acts as regulator of the skin wound healing process through engagement in re-epithelization and possible involvement in scar formation due to Foxn1 activity during the EMT process. PMID:26938103

  20. Epigenetic coordination of signaling pathways during the epithelial-mesenchymal transition

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a de-differentiation process required for wound healing and development. In tumors of epithelial origin aberrant induction of EMT contributes to cancer progression and metastasis. Studies have begun to implicate epigenetic reprogramming in EMT; however, the relationship between reprogramming and the coordination of cellular processes is largely unexplored. We have previously developed a system to study EMT in a canonical non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) model. In this system we have shown that the induction of EMT results in constitutive NF-κB activity. We hypothesized a role for chromatin remodeling in the sustained deregulation of cellular signaling pathways. Results We mapped sixteen histone modifications and two variants for epithelial and mesenchymal states. Combinatorial patterns of epigenetic changes were quantified at gene and enhancer loci. We found a distinct chromatin signature among genes in well-established EMT pathways. Strikingly, these genes are only a small minority of those that are differentially expressed. At putative enhancers of genes with the ‘EMT-signature’ we observed highly coordinated epigenetic activation or repression. Furthermore, enhancers that are activated are bound by a set of transcription factors that is distinct from those that bind repressed enhancers. Upregulated genes with the ‘EMT-signature’ are upstream regulators of NF-κB, but are also bound by NF-κB at their promoters and enhancers. These results suggest a chromatin-mediated positive feedback as a likely mechanism for sustained NF-κB activation. Conclusions There is highly specific epigenetic regulation at genes and enhancers across several pathways critical to EMT. The sites of these changes in chromatin state implicate several inducible transcription factors with critical roles in EMT (NF-κB, AP-1 and MYC) as targets of this reprogramming. Furthermore, we find evidence that suggests that these

  1. HNF1α inhibition triggers epithelial-mesenchymal transition in human liver cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 1α (HNF1α) is an atypical homeodomain-containing transcription factor that transactivates liver-specific genes including albumin, α-1-antitrypsin and α- and β-fibrinogen. Biallelic inactivating mutations of HNF1A have been frequently identified in hepatocellular adenomas (HCA), rare benign liver tumors usually developed in women under oral contraceptives, and in rare cases of hepatocellular carcinomas developed in non-cirrhotic liver. HNF1α-mutated HCA (H-HCA) are characterized by a marked steatosis and show activation of glycolysis, lipogenesis, translational machinery and mTOR pathway. We studied the consequences of HNF1α silencing in hepatic cell lines, HepG2 and Hep3B and we reproduced most of the deregulations identified in H-HCA. Methods We transfected hepatoma cell lines HepG2 and Hep3B with siRNA targeting HNF1α and obtained a strong inhibition of HNF1α expression. We then looked at the phenotypic changes by microscopy and studied changes in gene expression using qRT-PCR and Western Blot. Results Hepatocytes transfected with HNF1α siRNA underwent severe phenotypic changes with loss of cell-cell contacts and development of migration structures. In HNF1α-inhibited cells, hepatocyte and epithelial markers were diminished and mesenchymal markers were over-expressed. This epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) was related to the up regulation of several EMT transcription factors, in particular SNAIL and SLUG. We also found an overexpression of TGFβ1, an EMT initiator, in both cells transfected with HNF1α siRNA and H-HCA. Moreover, TGFβ1 expression is strongly correlated to HNF1α expression in cell models, suggesting regulation of TGFβ1 expression by HNF1α. Conclusion Our results suggest that HNF1α is not only important for hepatocyte differentiation, but has also a role in the maintenance of epithelial phenotype in hepatocytes. PMID:21975049

  2. Glycogene Expression Alterations Associated with Pancreatic Cancer Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Complementary Model Systems

    PubMed Central

    Maupin, Kevin A.; Sinha, Arkadeep; Eugster, Emily; Miller, Jeremy; Ross, Julianna; Paulino, Vincent; Keshamouni, Venkateshwar G.; Tran, Nhan; Berens, Michael; Webb, Craig; Haab, Brian B.

    2010-01-01

    Background The ability to selectively detect and target cancer cells that have undergone an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) may lead to improved methods to treat cancers such as pancreatic cancer. The remodeling of cellular glycosylation previously has been associated with cell differentiation and may represent a valuable class of molecular targets for EMT. Methodology/Principal Findings As a first step toward investigating the nature of glycosylation alterations in EMT, we characterized the expression of glycan-related genes in three in-vitro model systems that each represented a complementary aspect of pancreatic cancer EMT. These models included: 1) TGFβ-induced EMT, which provided a look at the active transition between states; 2) a panel of 22 pancreatic cancer cell lines, which represented terminal differentiation states of either epithelial-like or mesenchymal-like; and 3) actively-migrating and stationary cells, which provided a look at the mechanism of migration. We analyzed expression data from a list of 587 genes involved in glycosylation (biosynthesis, sugar transport, glycan-binding, etc.) or EMT. Glycogenes were altered at a higher prevalence than all other genes in the first two models (p<0.05 and <0.005, respectively) but not in the migration model. Several functional themes were shared between the induced-EMT model and the cell line panel, including alterations to matrix components and proteoglycans, the sulfation of glycosaminoglycans; mannose receptor family members; initiation of O-glycosylation; and certain forms of sialylation. Protein-level changes were confirmed by Western blot for the mannose receptor MRC2 and the O-glycosylation enzyme GALNT3, and cell-surface sulfation changes were confirmed using Alcian Blue staining. Conclusions/Significance Alterations to glycogenes are a major component of cancer EMT and are characterized by changes to matrix components, the sulfation of GAGs, mannose receptors, O-glycosylation, and specific

  3. The Cain and Abl of Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition and Transforming Growth Factor-β in Mammary Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Allington, Tressa M.; Schiemann, William P.

    2010-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) normally inhibits breast cancer development by preventing mammary epithelial cell (MEC) proliferation, by inducing MEC apoptosis, and by creating cell microenvironments that maintain MEC homeostasis and prevent their uncontrolled growth and motility. Mammary tumorigenesis elicits dramatic alterations in MEC architecture and microenvironment integrity, which collectively counteract the tumor-suppressing activities of TGF-β and enable its stimulation of breast cancer invasion and metastasis. How malignant MECs overcome the cytostatic actions imposed by normal microenvironments and TGF-β, and how abnormal microenvironments conspire with TGF-β to stimulate the development and progression of mammary tumors remains largely undefined. These knowledge gaps have prevented science and medicine from implementing treatments effective in simultaneously targeting abnormal cellular microenvironments, and in antagonizing the oncogenic activities of TGF-β in developing and progressing breast cancers. c-Abl is a ubiquitously expressed nonreceptor protein tyrosine kinase that essentially oversees all aspects of cell physiology, including the regulation of cell proliferation, migration and adhesion, as well as that of cell survival. Thus, the biological functions of c-Abl are highly reminiscent of those attributed to TGF-β, including the ability to function as either a suppressor or promoter of tumorigenesis. Interestingly, while dysregulated Abl activity clearly promotes tumorigenesis in hematopoietic cells, an analogous role for c-Abl in regulating solid tumor development, including those of the breast, remains controversial. Here, we review the functions of c-Abl in regulating breast cancer development and progression, and in alleviating the oncogenic activities of TGF-β and its stimulation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition during mammary tumorigenesis. PMID:21051857

  4. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition and FOXA genes during tobacco smoke carcinogen induced transformation of human bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Bersaas, Audun; Arnoldussen, Yke Jildouw; Sjøberg, Mari; Haugen, Aage; Mollerup, Steen

    2016-09-01

    Lung cancer is largely an environmentally caused disease with poor prognosis. An in vitro transformation model of human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEC) was used to study long-term effects of tobacco smoke carcinogens on epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and the forkhead box transcription factors FOXA1 and FOXA2. CDK4 and hTERT immortalized HBEC2 and HBEC12 cell lines were exposed weekly to either cigarette smoke condensate (CSC), benzo[a]pyrene, or methylnitrosourea. Transformed cell lines were established from soft-agar colonies after 12weeks of exposure. HBEC12 was transformed by all exposures while HBEC2 was only transformed by CSC. Untransformed HBEC2 showed little invasive capacity, whereas transformed cell lines completely closed the gap in a matrigel scratch wound assay. CDH1 was down-regulated in all of the transformed cell lines. In contrast, CDH2 was up-regulated in both HBEC2 and one of the HBEC12 transformed cell lines. Furthermore, transformed cells showed activation of EMT markers including SNAI1, ZEB1, VIM, and MMP2. All transformed cell lines had significant down-regulation of FOXA1 and FOXA2, indicating a possible role in cell transformation and EMT. ChIP analysis showed increased binding of Histone-H3 and macroH2A in FOXA1 and FOXA2 in the transformed HBEC2 cell lines, indicating a compact chromatin. In conclusion, long-term carcinogen exposure lead to down-regulation of FOXA1 and FOXA2 concomitantly with the occurrence of EMT and in vitro transformation in HBEC cells. PMID:27221058

  5. The Cain and Abl of epithelial-mesenchymal transition and transforming growth factor-β in mammary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Allington, Tressa M; Schiemann, William P

    2011-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) normally inhibits breast cancer development by preventing mammary epithelial cell (MEC) proliferation, by inducing MEC apoptosis, and by creating cell microenvironments that maintain MEC homeostasis and prevent their uncontrolled growth and motility. Mammary tumorigenesis elicits dramatic alterations in MEC architecture and microenvironment integrity, which collectively counteract the tumor-suppressing activities of TGF-β and enable its stimulation of breast cancer invasion and metastasis. How malignant MECs overcome the cytostatic actions imposed by normal microenvironments and TGF-β, and how abnormal microenvironments conspire with TGF-β to stimulate the development and progression of mammary tumors remains largely undefined. These knowledge gaps have prevented science and medicine from implementing treatments effective in simultaneously targeting abnormal cellular microenvironments, and in antagonizing the oncogenic activities of TGF-β in developing and progressing breast cancers. c-Abl is a ubiquitously expressed nonreceptor protein tyrosine kinase that essentially oversees all aspects of cell physiology, including the regulation of cell proliferation, migration and adhesion, as well as that of cell survival. Thus, the biological functions of c-Abl are highly reminiscent of those attributed to TGF-β, including the ability to function as either a suppressor or promoter of tumorigenesis. Interestingly, while dysregulated Abl activity clearly promotes tumorigenesis in hematopoietic cells, an analogous role for c-Abl in regulating solid tumor development, including those of the breast, remains controversial. Here, we review the functions of c-Abl in regulating breast cancer development and progression, and in alleviating the oncogenic activities of TGF-β and its stimulation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition during mammary tumorigenesis.

  6. Apolipoprotein A1 Inhibits TGF-β1–Induced Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition of Alveolar Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Ae Rin; Lee, Ji Min; Seo, Hyun Jung; Park, Jong Sook; Lee, June Hyuk; Jang, An Soo; Kim, Do Jin; Koh, Eun Suk; Uh, Soo Taek; Kim, Yong Hoon; Park, Choon Sik

    2016-01-01

    Background Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive and lethal lung disease characterized by the accumulation of excessive fibroblasts and myofibroblasts in the extracellular matrix. The transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1)–induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is thought to be a possible source of fibroblasts/myofibroblasts in IPF lungs. We have previously reported that apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1) has anti-fibrotic activity in experimental lung fibrosis. In this study, we determine whether ApoA1 modulates TGF-β1–induced EMT in experimental lung fibrosis and clarify its mechanism of action. Methods The A549 alveolar epithelial cell line was treated with TGF-β1 with or without ApoA1. Morphological changes and expression of EMT-related markers, including E-cadherin, N-cadherin, and α-smooth muscle actin were evaluated. Expressions of Smad and non-Smad mediators and TGF-β1 receptor type 1 (TβRI) and type 2 (TβRII) were measured. The silica-induced lung fibrosis model was established using ApoA1 overexpressing transgenic mice. Results TGF-β1–treated A549 cells were changed to the mesenchymal morphology with less E-cadherin and more N-cadherin expression. The addition of ApoA1 inhibited the TGF-β1–induced change of the EMT phenotype. ApoA1 inhibited the TGF-β1–induced increase in the phosphorylation of Smad2 and 3 as well as that of ERK and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase mediators. In addition, ApoA1 reduced the TGF-β1–induced increase in TβRI and TβRII expression. In a mouse model of silica-induced lung fibrosis, ApoA1 overexpression reduced the silica-mediated effects, which were increased N-cadherin and decreased E-cadherin expression in the alveolar epithelium. Conclusion Our data demonstrate that ApoA1 inhibits TGF-β1–induced EMT in experimental lung fibrosis. PMID:27433174

  7. Cardiac Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition Is Blocked by Monomethylarsonous Acid (III)

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Tianfang; Barnett, Joey V.; Camenisch, Todd D.

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic exposure during embryonic development can cause ischemic heart pathologies later in adulthood which may originate from impairment in proper blood vessel formation. The arsenic-associated detrimental effects are mediated by arsenite (iAsIII) and its most toxic metabolite, monomethylarsonous acid [MMA (III)]. The impact of MMA (III) on coronary artery development has not yet been studied. The key cellular process that regulates coronary vessel development is the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). During cardiac EMT, activated epicardial progenitor cells transform to mesenchymal cells to form the cellular components of coronary vessels. Smad2/3 mediated TGFβ2 signaling, the key regulator of cardiac EMT, is disrupted by arsenite exposure. In this study, we compared the cardiac toxicity of MMA (III) with arsenite. Epicardial progenitor cells are 15 times more sensitive to MMA (III) cytotoxicity when compared with arsenite. MMA (III) caused a significant blockage in epicardial cellular transformation and invasion at doses 10 times lower than arsenite. Key EMT genes including TGFβ ligands, TβRIII, Has2, CD44, Snail1, TBX18, and MMP2 were down regulated by MMA (III) exposure. MMA (III) disrupted Smad2/3 activation at a dose 20 times lower than arsenite. Both arsenite and MMA (III) significantly inhibited Erk1/2 and Erk5 phosphorylation. Nuclear translocation of Smad2/3 and Erk5 was also blocked by arsenical exposure. However, p38 activation, as well as smooth muscle differentiation, was refractory to the inhibition by the arsenicals. Collectively, these findings revealed that MMA (III) is a selective disruptor of cardiac EMT and as such may predispose to arsenic-associated cardiovascular disorders. PMID:25145660

  8. GD3 Synthase regulates epithelial-mesenchymal transition and metastasis in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Tapasree Roy; Battula, Venkata L; Werden, Steven J; Vijay, Geraldine V; Ramirez-Peña, Esmeralda Q; Taube, Joseph H; Chang, Jeffrey T; Miura, Naoyuki; Porter, Weston; Sphyris, Nathalie; Andreeff, Michael; Mani, Sendurai A

    2014-01-01

    The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) bestows cancer cells with increased stem cell properties and metastatic potential. To date, multiple extracellular stimuli and transcription factors have been shown to regulate EMT. Many of them are not druggable and therefore it is necessary to identify targets, which can be inhibited using small molecules to prevent metastasis. Recently, we identified the ganglioside GD2 as a novel breast cancer stem cell marker. Moreover, we found that GD3 synthase (GD3S)—an enzyme involved in GD2 biosynthesis—is critical for GD2 production and could serve as a potential druggable target for inhibiting tumor initiation and metastasis. Indeed, there is a small-molecule known as triptolide that has been shown to inhibit GD3S function. Accordingly, in this manuscript, we demonstrate that the inhibition of GD3S using shRNA or triptolide compromises the initiation and maintenance of EMT instigated by various signaling pathways, including Snail, Twist and TGF-β1 as well as the mesenchymal characteristics of claudin-low breast cancer cell lines (SUM159 and MDA-MB-231). Moreover, GD3S is necessary for wound healing, migration, invasion and stem cell properties in vitro. Most importantly, inhibition of GD3S in vivo prevents metastasis in experimental as well as in spontaneous syngeneic wild-type mouse models. We also demonstrate that the transcription factor FOXC2, a central downstream mediator/effector of several EMT pathways, directly regulates GD3S expression by binding to its promoter. In clinical specimens, the expression of GD3S correlates with poor prognosis in triple negative human breast tumors. Moreover, GD3S expression correlates with activation of the c-Met signaling pathway leading to increased stem cell properties and metastatic competence. Collectively, these findings suggest that the GD3S-c-Met axis could serve as an effective target for the treatment of metastatic breast cancers. PMID:25109336

  9. Snail promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transition and invasiveness in human ovarian cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yu-Lou; Zhao, Xue-Min; Shuai, Zhi-Feng; Li, Chun-Yan; Bai, Qing-Yang; Yu, Xiu-Wen; Wen, Qiu-Ting

    2015-01-01

    There are limited reports with respect to the study on the epithelium-mesenchymal transformation (EMT) mediated by Snail in the ovarian cancer. This study detected the expression of Snail and related EMT markers in the ovarian cancer tissues, and explored the possible molecular mechanism of EMT mediated by Snail in the metastasis of ovarian cancer. The patients diagnosed with ovarian cancer according to the pathology were recruited in this study during 2010-2014. The carcinoma tissue and normal tissue adjacent to carcinoma were surgically obtained from patients. The genes of E-cadherin, β-catenin, Fibronectin and N-cadherin were detected using the RT-PCR. The 64 patients were recruited and diagnosed as ovarian cancer by pathological examination. The expression levels of Snail, Fibronectin and N-cadherin in the stage III and IV were higher than those in the stage I and II, respectively (all P < 0.05). However, the expression levels of E-cadherin and β-catenin decreased along with the stage developed (trend test, both P < 0.05), respectively. The expression of Snail was positively correlated with the expression of Fibronectin, N-cadherin, but negatively correlated with the expression of E-cadherin and β-catenin. The number of A2780 cells entering into the lower compartment in the group of carcinoma tissue were significantly higher than that in the group of normal tissue after transfected with Snail expression vector. While, the invasion ability of A2780 significantly reduced after RNAi-Snail. The correlation between Snail and invasion and metastasis of ovarian cancer and epithelial-mesenchymal transition based on tissue and cell levels, and to some extent explored the molecular mechanism of the EMT process mediated by Snail. PMID:26221280

  10. Regulatory Roles of Dclk1 in Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition and Cancer Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chandrakesan, P; Panneerselvam, J; Qu, D; Weygant, N; May, R; Bronze, MS; Houchen, CW

    2016-01-01

    The identification of functionally relevant subpopulations of therapy-resistant cancer cells is a challenge. These cells, intrinsically resistant to conventional therapy, can cause recurrence. Evidence has suggested that therapy-resistant cancer cells are likely epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) cells and/or stem-like cells called cancer stem cells (CSCs). EMT, a normal embryological process that converts epithelial cells into mesenchymal cells, is frequently activated during cancer development and progression. CSCs are a small subpopulation of cancer cells within a tumor mass that have the ability to self-renew and maintain tumor-initiating capacity by giving rise to heterogeneous lineages of cancer cells that comprise the whole tumor. Although the origin of CSCs and EMT cells remains to be fully explored, a growing body of evidence has indicated that the biology of EMT and CSCs is strongly linked. Doublecortin-like kinase 1 (DCLK1), a cancer stem cell marker, is functionally involved in maintaining cancer stemness and the process of EMT important for cancer initiation, cancer metastasis, and secondary tumor formation. Therefore, targeting these cells may provide new strategies to overcome tumor heterogeneity, therapeutic resistance, and cancer relapse. In this review, we will provide a potential mechanistic link between EMT induction and the emergence of CSCs for the origin and progression of cancer. We will highlight the functional activity of DCLK1 in supporting EMT and cancer cell self-renewal, which will lead us to a better understanding of DCLK1 expression in cancer development and progression, and help us to develop targeted therapies for effective cancer treatment. PMID:27335684

  11. Cdk3-promoted epithelial-mesenchymal transition through activating AP-1 is involved in colorectal cancer metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Na; Li, Yuejin; Peng, Zhengke; Lu, Chengrong; Dong, Zigang; Tang, Faqing

    2016-01-01

    Cyclin dependent kinase-3 (Cdk3) is a positive regulator of the G1 mammalian cell cycle phase. Cdk3 is involved in cancer progression, but very little is known about its mechanism in cancer development and progression. Herein, we found that Cdk3 increased colorectal cancer metastasis through promoting epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) shift. Cdk3 was found to highly express in metastatic cancer and induce cell motility and invasion. Cdk3 was shown to phosphorylate c-Jun at Ser 63 and Ser 73 in vitro and ex vivo. Cdk3-phosphorylated c-Jun at Ser 63 and Ser 73 resulted in an increased AP-1 activity. Ectopic expression of Cdk3 promoted colorectal cancer from epithelial to mesenchymal transition conjugating AP-1 activation, while AP-1 inhibition dramatically decreased Cdk3-increased EMT shift. These results showed that the Cdk3/c-Jun signaling axis mediating epithelial-mesenchymal transition plays an important role in colorectal cancer metastasis. PMID:26755651

  12. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of renal tubular cells in canine glomerulonephritis.

    PubMed

    Aresu, Luca; Rastaldi, Maria Pia; Scanziani, Eugenio; Baily, James; Radaelli, Enrico; Pregel, Paola; Valenza, Federico

    2007-11-01

    Tubulo-interstitial fibrosis in dogs may result from primary injury to the interstitium or develop secondary to other renal diseases. As in human renal pathology, tubular epithelial cells (TEC) are believed to actively participate in the mechanisms of renal fibrosis. In this study, we examined the changes in the tubular epithelial component in two specific canine diseases. Immunohistochemistry showed the expression of the epithelial marker cytokeratin, the smooth muscle marker alpha-SMA, the mesenchymal marker vimentin and PCNA in 20 dogs with membranous glomerulonephritis and membrano-proliferative glomerulonephritis. Results showed that the loss of the epithelial marker in TEC was directly correlated to the grade of tubulo-interstitial disease present and independent of the type of glomerulonephritis. Varying degrees of vimentin positivity were detected in tubular epithelium in areas of inflammation, and low numbers of scattered alpha-SMA-positive cells were also observed. Immunohistochemistry showed that epithelial tubular cells lose their cytokeratin staining characteristics and transdifferentiate into cells exhibiting key mesenchymal immunophenotypic feature of vimentin-positive staining in both diseases investigated. The integrity of the tubular basement membrane is likely to be fundamental in maintaining the epithelial phenotype of TEC. Animal models provide opportunities for investigating the pathogenesis of renal fibrosis in humans.

  13. SERPINI1 regulates epithelial-mesenchymal transition in an orthotopic implantation model of colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Yasufumi; Miura, Koh; Yamane, Junko; Shima, Hiroshi; Fujibuchi, Wataru; Ishida, Kazuyuki; Fujishima, Fumiyoshi; Ohnuma, Shinobu; Sasaki, Hiroyuki; Nagao, Munenori; Tanaka, Naoki; Satoh, Kennichi; Naitoh, Takeshi; Unno, Michiaki

    2016-05-01

    An increasingly accepted concept is that the progression of colorectal cancer is accompanied by epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). In our study, in order to characterize the properties of EMT in 16 colorectal cancer cell lines, the cells were first orthotopically implanted into nude mice, and the tumors in vivo, as well as cells cultured in vitro, were immunostained for EMT markers. The immunostaining revealed that seven of the cells had an epithelial phenotype with a high expression of E-cadherin, whereas other cells showed opposite patterns, such as a high expression of vimentin (CX-1, COLO205, CloneA, HCT116, and SW48). Among the cells expressing vimentin, some expressed vimentin in the orthotopic tumors but not in the cultured cells (SW480, SW620, and COLO320). We evaluated these findings in combination with microarray analyses, and selected five genes: CHST11, SERPINI1, AGR2, FBP1, and FOXA1. Next, we downregulated the expression of SERPINI1 with siRNA in the cells, the results of which showed reverse-EMT changes at the protein level and in the cellular morphology. Along with immunohistochemical analyses, we confirmed the effect of the intracellular and secreted SERPINI1 protein of SW620 cells, which supported the importance of SERPINI1 in EMT. The development of therapeutic strategies targeting EMT is ongoing, including methods targeting the transforming growth factor-β signaling pathway as well as the Wnt pathway. SERPINI1 is an important regulator of EMT. Our findings help to elucidate the signaling pathways of EMT, hopefully clarifying therapeutic pathways as well. PMID:26892864

  14. Thymosin β4 promotes hepatoblastoma metastasis via the induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition

    PubMed Central

    FU, XIAOJUN; CUI, PEIYUAN; CHEN, FANGFANG; XU, JIANZHONG; GONG, LI; JIANG, LEI; ZHANG, DAKUN; XIAO, YONGTAO

    2015-01-01

    Hepatoblastoma (HB) is the most common malignant hepatic tumor in children and complete surgical resection offers the highest possibility for cure in this disease. Tumor metastasis is the principle obstacle to the development of efficient treatments for patients with HB. The present study aimed to measure the expression levels of thymosin β4 (Tβ4) in liver samples from patients with HB and to investigate the involvement of Tβ4 in HB metastasis. The expression of Tβ4 was significantly higher in liver samples from patients with metastatic HB and in the HepG2 metastatic HB cell line, compared with that in adjacent healthy liver samples and in the L02 healthy hepatic cell line. By contrast, the expression levels of epithelial-cadherin (E-cadherin) and cytosolic accumulation of β-catenin, the two most prominent markers involved in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), were reduced in liver specimens from patients with metastatic HB compared with that of healthy adjacent control tissue. HepG2 cells were transfected with small interfering-RNA in order to downregulate Tβ4 gene expression. This resulted in a reduced cell migratory capacity compared with control cells. Tβ4 gene expression knockdown significantly inhibited transforming growth factor β1-mediated-EMT in vitro by upregulating the expression of E-cadherin. The results of the present study suggested that Tβ4 may promote HB metastasis via the induction of EMT, and that Tβ4 may therefore be a target for the development of novel treatments for patients with HB. PMID:25695679

  15. Ketamine Inhalation Ameliorates Ovalbumin-Induced Murine Asthma by Suppressing the Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition

    PubMed Central

    Song, Li; Sen, Shi; Sun, Yuhong; Zhou, Jun; Mo, Liqun; He, Yanzheng

    2016-01-01

    Background Asthma accounts for 0.4% of all deaths worldwide, a figure that increases annually. Ketamine induces bronchial smooth muscle relaxation, and increasing evidence suggests that its anti-inflammatory properties might protect against lung injury and ameliorate asthma. However, there is a lack of evidence of the usefulness and mechanism of ketamine in acute asthma exacerbation. This study aimed to analyze the therapeutic effects and mechanism of action of ketamine on acute ovalbumin (OVA)-induced murine asthma. Material/Methods In vivo, BALB/c mice with OVA-induced asthma were treated with or without ketamine (25 or 50 mg/mL). Serum, lung sections, and mononuclear cell suspensions from the lung were collected for histological, morphometric, immunofluorescence, microRNA, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, regulatory T cell identification, cytokine, and Western blotting analyses. In vitro, bronchial epithelial cells were cultured to analyze the effect and mechanism of ketamine on epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling. Results The inhalation of ketamine 25 or 50 mg/mL markedly suppressed OVA-induced airway hyper-responsiveness and airway inflammation, significantly increased the percentage of CD4+CD25+ T cells, and significantly decreased OVA-induced up-regulation of TGF-β1 and the EMT. MiR-106a was present at higher amounts in OVA-induced lung samples and was suppressed by ketamine treatment. The in vitro results showed that TGF-β1-induced EMT was suppressed by ketamine via miR-106a level regulation. Conclusions Ketamine ameliorates lung fibrosis in OVA-induced asthmatic mice by suppressing EMT and regulating miR-106a level, while ketamine inhalation might be a new therapeutic approach to the treatment of allergic asthma. PMID:27418244

  16. M2 macrophage polarization modulates epithelial-mesenchymal transition in cisplatin-induced tubulointerstitial fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chia-Cherng; Chien, Chiang-Ting; Chang, Tzu-Ching

    2016-03-01

    Cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity leaded to apoptosis of tubular epithelial cells (ECs) and tubulointerstitial fibrosis through ROS stress and inflammatory cytokines. Tubulointerstitial fibrosis caused by cisplatin might be via activation of resident fibroblasts and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of tubular ECs. Inflammatory niche was crucial for progression of fibroblast activation or EMT. It had been reported that M1/M2 macrophage polarization regulated pro-inflammation or pro-resolving phase in damage repairing. However, the role of macrophage polarization on cisplatin-induced EMT of tubular ECs had not been well elucidated. In this study, we used co-cultured cell model and condition medium to examine the interaction between tubular ECs, fibroblasts and M1/M2 macrophages. Our data showed that cisplatin alone induced incomplete EMT of tubular ECs, whereas fibroblasts co-cultured with cisplatin-treated ECs could lead to fibroblast activation by detection of α-SMA and collagen-1. Moreover, decrease of iNOS and increase of argenase-1 and CD206 expression indicated that macrophages co-cultured with cisplatin-treated ECs would turn to M2 phenotype. Finally, we found that condition medium of M2 macrophages could promote complete EMT of cisplatin-treated ECs. Taken together, cisplatin created an inflammatory niche via tubular ECs to activate fibroblasts and stimulated M2 macrophage polarization. M2 macrophages could turn back to promote EMT of cisplatin-treated ECs. These results revealed the cooperative roles of tubular ECs, fibroblast and M2 macrophages to facilitate the progression of renal fibroblasis.

  17. Cyclin G2 inhibits epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition by disrupting Wnt/β-catenin signaling

    PubMed Central

    Bernaudo, S; Salem, M; Qi, X; Zhou, W; Zhang, C; Yang, W; Rosman, D; Deng, Z; Ye, G; Yang, B; Vanderhyden, B; Wu, Z; Peng, C

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) has the highest mortality rate among gynecological malignancies owing to poor screening methods, non-specific symptoms and limited knowledge of the cellular targets that contribute to the disease. Cyclin G2 is an unconventional cyclin that acts to oppose cell cycle progression. Dysregulation of the cyclin G2 gene (CCNG2) in a variety of human cancers has been reported; however, the role of cyclin G2 in tumorigenesis remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the function of cyclin G2 in EOC. In vitro and in vivo studies using several EOC-derived tumor cell lines revealed that cyclin G2 inhibited cell proliferation, migration, invasion and spheroid formation, as well as tumor formation and invasion. By interrogating cDNA microarray data sets, we found that CCGN2 mRNA is reduced in several large cohorts of human ovarian carcinoma when compared with normal ovarian surface epithelium or borderline tumors of the ovary. Mechanistically, cyclin G2 was found to suppress epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), as demonstrated by the differential regulation of various EMT genes, such as Snail, Slug, vimentin and E-cadherin. Moreover, cyclin G2 potently suppressed the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway by downregulating key Wnt components, namely LRP6, DVL2 and β-catenin, which could be linked to inhibition of EMT. Taken together, our novel findings demonstrate that cyclin G2 has potent tumor-suppressive effects in EOCs by inhibiting EMT through attenuating Wnt/β-catenin signaling. PMID:26876206

  18. Regenerative potential of human schneiderian membrane: progenitor cells and epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Derjac-Aramă, A I; Sarafoleanu, C; Manea, C M; Nicolescu, M I; Vrapciu, A D; Rusu, M C

    2015-12-01

    An innate osteogenic potential of the Schneiderian membrane (SM) is progressively assessed in studies ranging from non-human species to human subjects. It has relevance for endosteal placement and osseointegration. Nestin-expressing osteogenic progenitor cells are allegedly involved in bone formation and remodelling. Nestin phenotype was not assessed previously in human SM. We therefore aimed to fill that particular gap in the literature. Bioptic samples of human adult SM were obtained during surgery from eight adult patients, operated for non-malignant pathologies. Immunohistochemistry on paraffin-embedded tissue samples used primary antibodies against nestin, CD45, CD146, cytokeratin 7 (CK7), and alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA). Nestin expression was consistently found in endothelial cells, and was scarcely encountered in pericytes, putative stromal stem/progenitor cells, as well as in glandular epithelial cells. Moreover, woven bone formation in the periosteal layer of the SM can also be regarded as evidence of the osteogenic potential of this membrane. Nestin and CD45 expression in cells of the primary bone supports the osteogenic potential of SM nestin-expressing cells and a possible involvement of hematopoietic stem cells in maxillary sinus floor remodeling. CD146, a known inducer of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), was expressed in epithelia, as was CK7. Isolated stromal cells were found expressing CD146, CK7 and α-SMA, suggesting that regenerative processes happening in the SM may also involve processes of EMT which generate stem/progenitor cells. This study provides additional evidence for the regenerative potential of the Schneiderian membrane and identifies potential roles for cells of its stem niche in osteogenesis. PMID:26414809

  19. SMC1 promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transition in triple-negative breast cancer through upregulating Brachyury.

    PubMed

    Li, Kaichun; Ying, Mingzhen; Feng, Dan; Chen, Yan; Wang, Jingwen; Wang, Yajie

    2016-04-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a special subtype of breast cancer, which is characterized by the negative form of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and human epithelial growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). TNBC accounts for ~15% of all breast cancer forms, and often leads to high mortality and poor prognosis. Structural maintenance of chromosome 1 (SMC1) is a subunit of the cohesion protein complex. Brachyury is a protein that is encoded by the T gene in humans, which is a transcription factor within the T-box complex of genes. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a ubiquitous process in the body, and in particular, induces metastasis and the proliferation of cancer cells. In the present study, we found that SMC1 expression in TNBC tissues exceeded its expression in adjacent non-tumor tissues. Similarly, the expression of SMC1 in TNBC cell lines (hs578T and HCC1937) was found to be higher than in MCF10a and MCF7 cells. Subsequently, SMC1 was overexpressed and silenced in hs578T and HCC1937 cells through plasmid and siRNA transfection, respectively. The results showed that the high expression of SMC1 often promoted EMT, accompanied by the enhanced expression of Brachyury. Besides, upregulated expression of Brachyury through plasmid transfection also significantly improved the level of EMT, which further indicated that SMC1 increased EMT in TNBC through the induction of Brachyury expression. Taken together, these results contributed to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of TNBC, which also provided an experimental basis for the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of TNBC.

  20. Chidamide alleviates TGF-β-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition in lung cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Lin, Sheng-Hao; Wang, Bing-Yen; Lin, Ching-Hsiung; Chien, Peng-Ju; Wu, Yueh-Feng; Ko, Jiunn-Liang; Chen, Jeremy J W

    2016-07-01

    Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition is a critical process in the initiation of metastasis of various types of cancer. Chidamide is a class I histone deacetylase inhibitor with anti-tumor activity. This study investigated the effects of chidamide on TGF-β-mediated suppression of E-cadherin expression in adenocarcinomic lung epithelial cells and the molecular mechanisms involved in these effects. Western blot analysis, confocal microscopy, Quantitative methyl-specific PCR and bisulfite sequencing were used to evaluate the effects of different treatments on chidamide ameliorating TGF-β induced-E-cadherin loss. H3 acetylation binding to the promoter of E-cadherin was detected by chromatin immunoprecipitations (CHIP). We found that chidamide reduced the level of lung cancer cell migration observed using a Boyden chamber assay (as an indicator of metastatic potential). Chidamide inhibited TGF-β-induced SMAD2 phosphorylation and attenuated TGF-β-induced loss of E-cadherin expression in lung cancer cells by Western blotting and confocal microscopy, respectively. Quantitative methyl-specific PCR and bisulfite sequencing revealed that TGF-β-enhanced E-cadherin promoter methylation was ameliorated in cells treated with chidamide. We demonstrated that histone H3 deacetylation within the E-cadherin promoter was required for TGF-β-induced E-cadherin loss; cell treatment with chidamide increased the H3 acetylation detected by CHIP. Taken together, our results demonstrate that TGF-β suppressed E-cadherin expression by regulating promoter methylation and histone H3 acetylation. Chidamide significantly enhanced E-cadherin expression in TGF-β-treated cells and inhibited lung cancer cell migration. These findings indicate that chidamide has a potential therapeutic use due to its capacity to prevent cancer cell metastasis.

  1. Expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition markers at the invasive front of oral squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    COSTA, Liana Cristina Melo Carneiro; LEITE, Camila Ferreira; CARDOSO, Sérgio Vitorino; LOYOLA, Adriano Mota; de FARIA, Paulo Rogério; SOUZA, Paulo Eduardo Alencar; HORTA, Martinho Campolina Rebello

    2015-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is one of the most common malignances. In epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), epithelial cells switch to mesenchymal-like cells exhibiting high mobility. This migratory phenotype is significant during tumor invasion and metastasis. Objective : The aim of this study is to evaluate the expression of the EMT markers E-cadherin, N-cadherin and vimentin in OSCC. Material and Methods : Immunohistochemical detection of E-cadherin, N-cadherin and vimentin was performed on 20 OSCC samples. Differences in the expression of each protein at the invasive front (IF) and in the central/superficial areas (CSA) of the tumor were assessed. Differences in the expression of each protein at the IF of both histologically high- and low-invasive OSCCs were evaluated. Associations among expression of proteins at the IF were assessed. Correlations between the expression levels of each protein at the IF and the tumor stage and clinical nodal status were also evaluated. Results : Reduced expression of E-cadherin was detected in 15 samples (75%). E-cadherin expression was reduced at the IF when compared to the CSA and in high-invasive tumors when compared to low-invasive tumors. All samples were negative for N-cadherin, even though one sample showed an inconspicuous expression. Positive expression of vimentin was observed in 6 samples (30%). Nevertheless, there was no difference in vimentin expression between the IF and the CSA regions or between the low- and high-invasive tumors. Furthermore, no association was observed among protein expression levels at the IF. Finally, no correlations were observed between each protein’s expression levels and tumor stage or clinical nodal status. Conclusions : Reduced E-cadherin expression at the IF and its association with histological invasiveness suggest that this protein is a noteworthy EMT marker in OSCC. Although vimentin was also detected as an EMT marker, its expression was neither limited to the IF nor was

  2. Bisphenol A regulates Snail-mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition in hemangioma cells.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Denggao; He, Jiantai; Li, Xiaoli; Gong, Liansheng; Ouyang, Yang

    2016-08-01

    Hemangioma (HA) can be exposed to bisphenol A (BPA) through direct skin absorption. Although numerous studies indicated that BPA can trigger the progression of cancers, there is no study concerning the effects of BPA on development of HA. Our present study revealed that nanomolar BPA can significantly increase the in vitro migration and invasion of HA cells via induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which was evidenced by the upregulation of vimentin and downregulation of E-cadherin. The BPA treatment also significantly increased the expression and nuclear localization of Snail and the key transcription factor of EMT, while it had no effect on the expression of other transcription factors such as Slug, Twist, or ZEB1. Silencing of Snail by small interfering RNAs attenuated BPA-induced downregulation of cadherin and upregulation of vimentin, suggesting that Snail is essential for BPA-induced EMT. Both estrogen receptor α (ERα) and G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) were expressed in HA cells; furthermore, BPA treatment can increase the expression of both ERα and GPER. However, only the inhibitor of ERα (ICI 182, 780), and not GPER (G15), can abolish BPA-induced upregulation of Snail. It suggested that ERα is involved in BPA-induced EMT of HA cells. Collectively, our data suggested that BPA can trigger the EMT of HA cells via ERα/Snail signals. It indicated that more attention should be paid to the skin exposure to BPA for HA patients. PMID:27480627

  3. Concise Review: Stem Cells and Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Cancer: Biological Implications and Therapeutic Targets.

    PubMed

    Sato, Ryo; Semba, Takashi; Saya, Hideyuki; Arima, Yoshimi

    2016-08-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) constitute a small subpopulation of cancer cells with stem-like properties that are able to self-renew, generate differentiated daughter cells, and give rise to heterogeneous tumor tissue. Tumor heterogeneity is a hallmark of cancer and underlies resistance to anticancer therapies and disease progression. The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a reversible phenomenon that is mediated by EMT-inducing transcription factors (EMT-TFs) and plays an important role in normal organ development, wound healing, and the invasiveness of cancer cells. Recent evidence showing that overexpression of several EMT-TFs is associated with stemness in cancer cells has suggested the existence of a link between EMT and CSCs. In this review, we focus on the roles of CSCs and EMT signaling in driving tumor heterogeneity. A better understanding of the dynamics of both CSCs and EMT-TFs in the generation of tumor heterogeneity may provide a basis for the development of new treatment options for cancer patients. Stem Cells 2016;34:1997-2007. PMID:27251010

  4. Concise Review: Stem Cells and Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Cancer: Biological Implications and Therapeutic Targets.

    PubMed

    Sato, Ryo; Semba, Takashi; Saya, Hideyuki; Arima, Yoshimi

    2016-08-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) constitute a small subpopulation of cancer cells with stem-like properties that are able to self-renew, generate differentiated daughter cells, and give rise to heterogeneous tumor tissue. Tumor heterogeneity is a hallmark of cancer and underlies resistance to anticancer therapies and disease progression. The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a reversible phenomenon that is mediated by EMT-inducing transcription factors (EMT-TFs) and plays an important role in normal organ development, wound healing, and the invasiveness of cancer cells. Recent evidence showing that overexpression of several EMT-TFs is associated with stemness in cancer cells has suggested the existence of a link between EMT and CSCs. In this review, we focus on the roles of CSCs and EMT signaling in driving tumor heterogeneity. A better understanding of the dynamics of both CSCs and EMT-TFs in the generation of tumor heterogeneity may provide a basis for the development of new treatment options for cancer patients. Stem Cells 2016;34:1997-2007.

  5. Genotypes of cancer stem cells characterized by epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and proliferation related functions.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chueh-Lin; Chung, Feng-Hsiang; Chen, Chih-Hao; Hsu, Tzu-Ting; Liu, Szu-Mam; Chung, Dao-Sheng; Hsu, Ya-Fen; Chen, Chien-Lung; Ma, Nianhan; Lee, Hoong-Chien

    2016-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs), or cancer cells with stem cell-like properties, generally exhibit drug resistance and have highly potent cancer inducing capabilities. Genome-wide expression data collected at public repositories over the last few years provide excellent material for studies that can lead to insights concerning the molecular and functional characteristics of CSCs. Here, we conducted functional genomic studies of CSC based on fourteen PCA-screened high quality public CSC whole genome gene expression datasets and, as control, four high quality non-stem-like cancer cell and non-cancerous stem cell datasets from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. A total of 6,002 molecular signatures were taken from the Molecular Signatures Database and used to characterize the datasets, which, under two-way hierarchical clustering, formed three genotypes. Type 1, consisting of mainly glia CSCs, had significantly enhanced proliferation, and significantly suppressed epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), related functions. Type 2, mainly breast CSCs, had significantly enhanced EMT, but not proliferation, related functions. Type 3, composed of ovarian, prostate, and colon CSCs, had significantly suppressed proliferation related functions and mixed expressions on EMT related functions. PMID:27597445

  6. CCL20 mediates RANK/RANKL-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition in endometrial cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Ting; Wang, Lihua; Wang, Yudong; Sun, Xiao

    2016-01-01

    RANK/RANKL facilitates migration/invasion via epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in certain malignant tumors. The relationship and mechanism between RANK/RANKL and EMT in endometrial cancer (EC) cells, however, remain unclear. In this study, we firstly showed that RANK/RANKL activation was correlated with EC staging and EMT markers in human EC tissue specimen. RANK/RANKL promoted migration/invasion and initiated EMT of EC cell lines. Then, protein chip analysis and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) revealed that the expression and secretion of chemokine ligand 20 (CCL20) was dramatically enhanced in RANKL-treated RANK over-expressed EC cells. Moreover, the higher level of CCL20 in both serum and tumor tissue was detected in orthotopic transplantation mouse models. Finally, we confirmed that CCL20 contributed to invasion and EMT of RANK over-expressed EC cells. In summary, all data supported the hypothesis that RANK/RANKL elevated the expression and secretion of CCL20 in EC cells, which promoted cancer progression through EMT. PMID:27015366

  7. FLASH protects ZEB1 from degradation and supports cancer cells' epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Abshire, C F; Carroll, J L; Dragoi, A-M

    2016-01-01

    Cancer metastasis remains a significant challenge and the leading cause of cancer-associated deaths. It is postulated that during metastasis cells undergo epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a process characterized by loss of cell-cell contacts and increased migratory and invasive potential. ZEB1 is one the most prominent transcriptional repressors of genes associated with EMT. We identified caspase-8-associated protein 2 (CASP8AP2 or FLASH) as a novel posttranscriptional regulator of ZEB1. Here we demonstrate that FLASH protects ZEB1 from proteasomal degradation brought by the action of the ubiquitin ligases SIAH1 and F-box protein FBXO45. As a result, loss of FLASH rapidly destabilized ZEB1 and reversed EMT cellular characteristics. Importantly, loss of FLASH blocked transforming growth factor-β-induced EMT and enhanced sensitivity to chemotherapy. Thus, we propose that FLASH-ZEB1 interplay may be a protective mechanism against ZEB1 degradation in cells undergoing EMT and may be an efficacious target for therapies aimed to block EMT progression. PMID:27526108

  8. Overexpression of TAZ promotes cell proliferation, migration and epithelial-mesenchymal transition in ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Guangyuan; Xie, Jiabin; Huang, Ping; Yang, Zhihong

    2016-01-01

    The Hippo pathway is dysregulated in multiple types of human cancer, including ovarian cancer. Nuclear expression of yes-associated protein 1 (YAP1), a downstream transcription coactivator of the Hippo pathway, has been demonstrated to promote tumorigenesis in ovarian cancer and may serve as a poor prognostic indicator. However, transcriptional coactivator with PDZ binding motif (TAZ), a downstream target of the Hippo pathway and paralog of YAP in mammalian cells, has not been fully investigated in ovarian cancer. The present study aimed to investigate the dysregulation and biological function of TAZ in ovarian cancer. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting revealed that TAZ mRNA and protein levels, respectively, were upregulated in ovarian cancer, and a meta-analysis of ovarian cancer microarray datasets identified that increased expression of TAZ mRNA is correlated with poor prognosis in patients with ovarian cancer. In addition, TAZ-knockdown in ovarian cancer cells demonstrated that TAZ regulates the migration, proliferation and epithelial-mesenchymal transition of ovarian cancer cells. Furthermore, pharmacological disruption of the YAP/TAZ/TEA domain protein complex resulted in a decrease in ovarian cancer cell migration, proliferation and vimentin expression. The results of the present study indicate that the overexpression of TAZ is important in the development and progression of ovarian cancer, and may function as a potential drug target for treatment of this disease entity. PMID:27588129

  9. TAZ regulates cell proliferation and epithelial-mesenchymal transition of human hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Heng; Jiang, Ning; Zhou, Baoyong; Liu, Qiang; Du, Chengyou

    2015-02-01

    The transcriptional coactivator with PDZ binding motif (TAZ) has been reported to be one of the nuclear effectors of Hippo-related pathways. TAZ is expressed in many primary tumors and could regulate many biological processes. However, little is known about the role of TAZ in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In the current study, we show that TAZ regulates cellular proliferation and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of HCC. TAZ is overexpressed in HCC tissues and cell lines and upregulation of TAZ correlates with a lower overall survival rate of HCC patients after hepatic resection. TAZ knockdown results in inhibition of cancer cell proliferation through decreases in expression of stem cell markers (OCT4, Nanog, and SOX2). Reduction in HCC cell migration and invasion is also evident through reversal of EMT by increases E-cadherin expression, decreases in N-cadherin, vimentin, Snail, and Slug expression, and suppression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression. In a xenograft tumorigenicity model, TAZ knockdown could effectively inhibit tumor growth and metastasis through reversal of the EMT pathway. In conclusion, TAZ is associated with the proliferation and invasiveness of HCC cells, and the TAZ gene may contribute to a novel therapeutic approach against HCC.

  10. Genotypes of cancer stem cells characterized by epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and proliferation related functions

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Chueh-Lin; Chung, Feng-Hsiang; Chen, Chih-Hao; Hsu, Tzu-Ting; Liu, Szu-Mam; Chung, Dao-Sheng; Hsu, Ya-Fen; Chen, Chien-Lung; Ma, Nianhan; Lee, Hoong-Chien

    2016-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs), or cancer cells with stem cell-like properties, generally exhibit drug resistance and have highly potent cancer inducing capabilities. Genome-wide expression data collected at public repositories over the last few years provide excellent material for studies that can lead to insights concerning the molecular and functional characteristics of CSCs. Here, we conducted functional genomic studies of CSC based on fourteen PCA-screened high quality public CSC whole genome gene expression datasets and, as control, four high quality non-stem-like cancer cell and non-cancerous stem cell datasets from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. A total of 6,002 molecular signatures were taken from the Molecular Signatures Database and used to characterize the datasets, which, under two-way hierarchical clustering, formed three genotypes. Type 1, consisting of mainly glia CSCs, had significantly enhanced proliferation, and significantly suppressed epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), related functions. Type 2, mainly breast CSCs, had significantly enhanced EMT, but not proliferation, related functions. Type 3, composed of ovarian, prostate, and colon CSCs, had significantly suppressed proliferation related functions and mixed expressions on EMT related functions. PMID:27597445

  11. KLF17 is a negative regulator of epithelial-mesenchymal transition and metastasis in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gumireddy, Kiranmai; Li, Anping; Gimotty, Phyllis A.; Klein-Szanto, Andres J.; Showe, Louise C.; Katsaros, Dionyssios; Coukos, George; Zhang, Lin; Huang, Qihong

    2009-01-01

    Metastasis is a complex multi-step process requiring the concerted action of many genes and is the primary cause of cancer deaths. Pathways that regulate metastasis enhancement and suppression both contribute to tumor dissemination process. In order to identify novel metastasis suppressors, we set up a forward genetic screen in a mouse model. We transduced a genome-wide RNAi library into the non-metastatic 168FARN breast cancer cell line, orthotopically transplanted the cells into mouse mammary fat pads, and then selected for cells that could metastasize to the lung and identified an RNAi for the KLF17 gene. Conversely, we demonstrate that ectopic expression of KLF17 in highly metastatic 4T1 breast cancer cell line inhibited their ability to metastasize from the mammary fat pad to the lung. We also show that suppression of KLF17 expression promotes breast cancer cell invasion and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and that KLF17 functions by directly binding to the promoter of Id-1, a key metastasis regulator in breast cancer, to inhibit its transcription. Finally, we demonstrate that KLF17 expression is significantly down-regulated in primary human breast cancer samples and that the combined expression patterns of KLF17 and Id-1 can serve as a potential biomarker for lymph node metastasis in breast cancer. PMID:19801974

  12. Simvastatin blocks TGF-β1-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition in human prostate cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    XIE, FENG; LIU, JIE; LI, CHENGWEN; ZHAO, YAORUI

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the use of statins has been reported to be associated with a reduced risk of prostate cancer (PCa), particularly metastatic PCa. The mechanisms underlying these epidemiological observations are poorly understood. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a critical initial step and a hallmark for cancer metastasis. In the present study, the relationship between simvastatin and EMT in PCa and the mechanism involved was investigated. It was demonstrated that simvastatin inhibited the EMT as assessed by reduced expression of N-cadherin and vimentin, and increased E-cadherin in TGF-β1 treated DU145 PCa cells. Furthermore, simvastatin inhibited TGF-β1-induced migration and invasion of DU145 cells. The TGF-β1/Smad pathway and non-Smad pathway were investigated in simvastatin-treated DU145 cells. Simvastatin had no effect on TGF-β1-induced phosphorylation of Smad2 and Smad3. In the non-Smad pathway, simvastatin reduced TGF-β1-induced p38 MAPK phosphorylation, but had no effect on TGF-β1-induced Erk1/2 phosphorylation. Simvastatin attenuated TGF-β1-induced EMT, cell migration and invasion in DU145 cells. These effects may have been mediated by the inhibition of p38 MAPK phosphorylation, not through the canonical Smad pathway. Therefore simvastatin may be a promising therapeutic agent for treating PCa. PMID:27123120

  13. Fascin Induces Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition of Cholangiocarcinoma Cells by Regulating Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Xianhai; Duan, Xiaohui; Jiang, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Background Our preliminary study suggested that the expression of Fascin was increased in cholangiocarcinoma, which indicating poor prognosis The present study aimed to explore the roles and mechanisms of Fascin during the progression of cholangiocarcinoma. Material/Methods We evaluated the knockdown effect of endogenous Fascin expression by Short hairpin RNA (shRNA) in QBC939 cells. Cell proliferation was confirmed by MTS assay. Migration and invasion assay was used to examine the cell invasive ability. Tumorigenesis abilities in vivo were analyzed with a xenograft tumor model. Western blot analysis was used to test epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) biomarkers and critical proteins in the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Results shRNA-mediated gene knockdown of Fascin significantly inhibited cell proliferation, invasion, and EMT, and shRNA-Fascin markedly inhibited the xenograft tumor volume. Silencing of Fascin up-regulated phosphorylation of β-catenin and decreased its nuclear localization. Additionally, knockdown of Fascin led to the upregulation of β-catenin and E-cadherin expression in plasma membrane fraction of QBC939 cells. Conclusions Our data indicate a key role of Fascin in cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in cholangiocarcinoma. Fascin promotes EMT of cholangiocarcinoma cells, in part through regulating Wnt/β-catenin signaling. PMID:27680563

  14. Thymoquinone inhibits cancer metastasis by downregulating TWIST1 expression to reduce epithelial to mesenchymal transition

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Md. Asaduzzaman; Tania, Mousumi; Wei, Chunli; Mei, Zhiqiang; Fu, Shelly; Cheng, Jingliang; Xu, Jianming; Fu, Junjiang

    2015-01-01

    Proteins that promote epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) are associated with cancer metastasis. Inhibition of EMT regulators may be a promising approach in cancer therapy. In this study, Thymoquinone (TQ) was used to treat cancer cell lines to investigate its effects on EMT-regulatory proteins and cancer metastasis. We show that TQ inhibited cancer cell growth, migration and invasion in a dose-dependent manner. At the molecular level, TQ treatment decreased the transcriptional activity of the TWIST1 promoter and the mRNA expression of TWIST1, an EMT-promoting transcription factor. Accordingly, TQ treatment also decreased the expression of TWIST1-upregulated genes such as N-Cadherin and increased the expression of TWIST1-repressed genes such as E-Cadherin, resulting in a reduction of cell migration and invasion. TQ treatment also inhibited the growth and metastasis of cancer cell-derived xenograft tumors in mice but partially attenuated the migration and invasion in TWIST1-overexpressed cell lines. Furthermore, we found that TQ treatment enhanced the promoter DNA methylation of the TWIST1 gene in BT 549 cells. Together, these results demonstrate that TQ treatment inhibits TWIST1 promoter activity and decreases its expression, leading to the inhibition of cancer cell migration, invasion and metastasis. These findings suggest TQ as a potential small molecular inhibitor of cancer growth and metastasis. PMID:26023736

  15. Epigenetic regulators governing cancer stem cells and epithelial-mesenchymal transition in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Patel, Shanaya; Shah, Kanisha; Mirza, Sheefa; Daga, Aditi; Rawal, Rakesh

    2015-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is amongst the most prevalent form of cancer worldwide with its predominance in the Indian subcontinent due to its etiological behavioral pattern of tobacco consumption. Late diagnosis, low therapeutic response and aggressive metastasis are the foremost confounders accountable for the poor 5 year survival rate of OSCC. These failures are attributed to the existence of "Cancer Stem cell (CSC)" subpopulation within the tumour environment. Quiescence, apoptotic evasion, resistance to DNA damage, abnormal expression of drug transporter pumps and in vivo tumorigenesis are the defining hallmarks of CSC phenotype. These CSCs have been distinguished from the tumor mass by determining the expression patterns of cell surface proteins, specific stemness markers and quantifying the cellular activities such as drug efflux & aldehyde dehydrogenase activity. Hence, it is necessary to understand the underlying mechanisms that regulate the CSC features in tumor development, metastasis and response to chemotherapy. Increasing evidence suggests that majority of malignant cells eventually undergoing Epithelial-Mesenchymal transition (EMT) share many biological characteristics with CSCs. Thus, this review encompasses the functional relevance of CSC and EMT markers in OSCC population with a hope to elucidate the fundamental mechanisms underlying cancer progression and to highlight the most relevant epigenetic mechanisms that contribute to the regulation of CSC features. We further aimed to explore the causal effects of nicotine, a major tobacco carcinogen, on epigenetic mechanisms regulating the OSCC CSCs and EMT markers which unravels the undisputable contribution of tobacco in oral carcinogenesis. PMID:25330402

  16. Low molecular weight fucoidan ameliorates diabetic nephropathy via inhibiting epithelial-mesenchymal transition and fibrotic processes

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jihui; Cui, Wentong; Zhang, Quanbin; Jia, Yingli; Sun, Yi; Weng, Lin; luo, Dali; Zhou, Hong; Yang, Baoxue

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is one of the most serious microvascular complications of diabetes and may lead to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and chronic renal failure. The aim of this study was to determine whether low-molecular-weight fucoidan (LMWF) can reduce harmful transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)-mediated renal fibrosis in DN using in vitro and in vivo experimental models. The experimental results showed that LMWF significantly reversed TGF-β1-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition and dose-dependently inhibited accumulation of extracellular matrix proteins, including connective tissue growth factor and fibronectin. It was found that LMWF significantly reduced blood urea nitrogen and blood creatinine in both type 1 and type 2 diabetic rat models. H&E, PAS and Masson’s trichrome staining of kidney tissue showed LMWF significantly reduced renal interstitial fibrosis. Treatment with LMWF significantly increased E-cadherin expression and reduced α-SMA, CTGF and fibronectin expression in both type 1 and type 2 diabetic models. LMWF also decreased the phosphorylation of Akt, ERK1/2, p38 and Smad3 in vitro and in vivo. These data suggest that LMWF may protect kidney from dysfunction and fibrogenesis by inhibiting TGF-β pathway and have the potential benefit to slow down the progression of DN. PMID:26550455

  17. WAVE3 promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transition of gastric cancer through upregulation of Snail.

    PubMed

    Yue, Z; Feng, W; Xiangke, L; Liuxing, W; Qingxia, F; Jianbo, G

    2014-12-01

    WAVE3, an actin cytoskeleton remodeling protein overexpressed in many kinds of cancers, has been associated with a lot of metastatic diseases. However, the role and mechanisms of the high expression of WAVE3 in human gastric cancer has not been fully elucidated. Here we demonstrated that WAVE3 was expressed in all six kinds of gastric-cancer cell lines: BGC-823, SGC-7901, AGS, MGC803, MKN28 and MKN45. Furthermore, a correlation was found between aggressiveness of these cell lines and expression of WAVE3. Next, we investigated the role of WAVE3 in SGC-7901 cells and found that upregulating WAVE3 could promote the migration, invasion and proliferation of SGC-7901 cells in vitro. It has been reported that WAVE3 could induce cancer invasion and metastasis by participating epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). However, the mechanisms are not entirely clear. In this study we showed that elevated WAVE3 levels could induce EMT in SGC-7901 cells by dampening the expression of E-cadherin while increasing the expression of vimentin. Elevated WAVE3 levels could also improve the expression of transcription factor Snail. In addition, downregulating Snail could particularly reduce EMT and the metastasis, invasion and proliferation activity in SGC-7901 cells elevated by overexpression of WAVE3. Taken together, we demonstrated that WAVE3 promoted gastric-cancer-cells migration and invasion by taking part in EMT via upregulation of Snail. WAVE3 could be a useful target for gastric-cancer prevention and therapy. PMID:25378074

  18. ZNF281/ZBP-99: a new player in epithelial-mesenchymal transition, stemness, and cancer.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Stefanie; Hermeking, Heiko

    2014-06-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) represents an important mechanism during development and wound healing, and its deregulation has been implicated in metastasis. Recently, the Krüppel-type zinc-finger transcription factor ZNF281 has been characterized as an EMT-inducing transcription factor (EMT-TF). Expression of ZNF281 is induced by the EMT-TF SNAIL and inhibited by the tumor suppressive microRNA miR-34a, which mediates repression of ZNF281 by the p53 tumor suppressor. Therefore, SNAIL, miR-34a and ZNF281 form a feed-forward regulatory loop, which controls EMT. Deregulation of this circuitry by mutational and epigenetic alterations in the p53/miR-34a axis promotes colorectal cancer (CRC) progression and metastasis formation. As ZNF281 physically interacts with the transcription factors NANOG, OCT4, SOX2, and c-MYC, it has been implicated in the regulation of pluripotency, stemness, and cancer. Accordingly, ectopic ZNF281 expression in CRC lines induces the stemness markers LGR5 and CD133 and promotes sphere formation, suggesting that the elevated expression of ZNF281 detected in cancer may enhance tumor stem cell formation and/or function. Here, we review the functional and organismal studies of ZNF281/ZBP-99 and its close relative ZBP-89/ZFP148 reported so far. Taken together, ZNF281 related biology has the potential to be translated into cancer diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic approaches.

  19. COUP-TFII suppresses colorectal carcinoma resistance to doxorubicin involving inhibition of epithelial-mesenchymal transition

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiang; Jiang, Rui; Cui, Enhai; Feng, Wenming; Guo, Huihui; Gu, Donghua; Tang, Chengwu; Xue, Tao; Bao, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter transcription factor II (COUP-TFII) promotes progression of a variety of tumors. The study was designed to explore the role of COUP-TFII in colorectal carcinoma (CRC) resistance to doxorubicin. The sensitivity of CRC cell lines to doxorubicin was calculated by different proliferation rate measured with cell count kit-8 and EdU (5-Ethynyl-2’-deoxyuridine) assay. The expression of COUP-TFII, Vimentin and E-cadherin were verified using western blot. After doxorubicin administration, CRC cell lines presented apparently down-regulated COUP-TFII, E-cadherin expression and increased Vimentin expression. Besides, COUP-TFII knock-down resulted in significantly increased sensitivity to doxorubicin in all of CRC cell lines, but Twist knock-down presented totally reversed results. Furthermore, COUP-TFII knock-down promoted epithelial-mesenchymal transition in (EMT) CRC cell lines. After doxorubicin treatment, immediately decreased COUP-TFII expression significantly promotes CRC cells survival outcomes by suppressing EMT. PMID:27725871

  20. STAT3 regulates hypoxia-induced epithelial mesenchymal transition in oesophageal squamous cell cancer

    PubMed Central

    CUI, YAO; LI, YUN-YUN; LI, JIAN; ZHANG, HONG-YAN; WANG, FENG; BAI, XUE; LI, SHAN-SHAN

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxia plays a key role in tumour initiation and metastasis; one of the mechanisms is to induce epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is involved in EMT by regulating the transcriptional regulators of E-cadherin, the biomarker of EMT. Until now, however, few studies have focused on the effects of STAT3 in hypoxia-induced EMT in tumour cells. The goal of this study was to investigate the roles of STAT3 in hypoxia-induced EMT in oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). The ESCC cells, TE-1 and EC-1, were incubated in normoxia, or in CoCl2, which was used to mimic hypoxia. With CoCl2, the ESCC cells showed increased migration and invasion abilities, accompanied with upregulation of HIF-1α, STAT3, and vimentin, and downregulation of E-cadherin. Knockdown of STAT3 inhibited EMT of ESCC cells and downregulated HIF-1α in vitro and in vivo. In ChIP assays, STAT3 bound to the promoter of HIF-1α, suggesting that STAT3 regulates transcription of HIF-1α. In conclusion, hypoxia induces EMT of ESCC, and STAT3 regulates this process by promoting HIF-1α expression. PMID:27220595

  1. Abelmoschus esculentus fractions potently inhibited the pathogenic targets associated with diabetic renal epithelial to mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Peng, Chiung-Huei; Chyau, Charng-Cherng; Wang, Chau-Jong; Lin, Huei-Ting; Huang, Chien-Ning; Ker, Yaw-Bee

    2016-02-01

    Although Abelmoschus esculentus (AE) is known for anti-hyperglycemia, few reports have addressed its target. Our recent studies have focused on diabetic renal epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), which plays a critical role in fibrosis that accompanies increasing vimentin and suggested signals DPP-4/AT-1/TGF-β1. This study aimed to investigate whether AE is useful for preventing diabetic renal EMT. We used a succession of extractions and obtained the corresponding fractions F1-F5, each with its own individual properties: F1 inhibits high glucose-stimulated vimentin, AT-1, TGF-β1, and DPP-4, and recovers E-cadherin in tubular cells; F2 decreases high glucose-induced vimentin, AT-1 and DPP-4; F3-F5 do not reduce the expression of vimentin. Chemical analysis revealed that F1 is rich of flavonoid glycosides especially quercetin glucosides, and pentacyclic triterpene ester. F2 contains a large amount of carbohydrates and polysaccharides composed of uronic acid, galactose, glucose, myo-inositol etc. In conclusion, AE has the potential to serve as an adjuvant for diabetic nephropathy, with F1 and F2 especially deserving further investigation and development. PMID:26787242

  2. Substrate stiffness modulates lung cancer cell migration but not epithelial to mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Shukla, V C; Higuita-Castro, N; Nana-Sinkam, P; Ghadiali, S N

    2016-05-01

    Biomechanical properties of the tumor microenvironment, including matrix/substrate stiffness, play a significant role in tumor evolution and metastasis. Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) is a fundamental biological process that is associated with increased cancer cell migration and invasion. The goal of this study was to investigate (1) how substrate stiffness modulates the migration behaviors of lung adenocarcinoma cells (A549) and (2) if stiffness-induced changes in cell migration correlate with biochemical markers of EMT. Collagen-coated polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrates and an Ibidi migration assay were used to investigate how substrate stiffness alters the migration patterns of A549 cells. RT-PCR, western blotting and immunofluorescence were used to investigate how substrate stiffness alters biochemical markers of EMT, that is, E-cadherin and N-cadherin, and the phosphorylation of focal adhesion proteins. Increases in substrate stiffness led to slower, more directional migration but did not alter the biochemical markers of EMT. Interestingly, growth factor (i.e., Transforming Growth Factor-β) stimulation resulted in similar levels of EMT regardless of substrate stiffness. We also observed decreased levels of phosphorylated focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and paxillin on stiffer substrates which correlated with slower cell migration. These results indicate that substrate stiffness modulates lung cancer cell migration via focal adhesion signaling as opposed to EMT signaling. PMID:26779779

  3. USP22 promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transition via the FAK pathway in pancreatic cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Ning, Zhen; Wang, Aman; Liang, Jinxiao; Xie, Yunpeng; Liu, Jiwei; Yan, Qiu; Wang, Zhongyu

    2014-10-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) contributes to the occurrence and development of tumors, particularly to the promotion of tumor invasion and metastasis. As a newly discovered ubiquitin hydrolase family member, USP22 plays a key role in the malignant transformation of tumors and the regulation of the cell cycle. However, recent studies on USP22 have primarily focused on its role in cell cycle regulation, and the potential mechanism underlying the promotion of tumor invasion and metastasis by abnormal USP22 expression has not been reported. Our studies revealed that the overexpression of USP22 in PANC-1 cells promoted Ezrin redistribution and phosphorylation and cytoskeletal remodeling, upregulated expression of the transcription factors Snail and ZEB1 to promote EMT, and increased cellular invasion and migration. In contrast, blockade of USP22 expression resulted in the opposite effects. In addition, the focal adhesion kinase (FAK) signaling pathway was shown to play a key role in the process of EMT induction in PANC-1 cells by USP22. Thus, the present study suggests that USP22 acts as a regulatory protein for EMT in pancreatic cancer, which may provide a new approach for the targeted therapy of pancreatic cancer. PMID:25070659

  4. The cytoplasmic extension of the integrin β6 subunit regulates epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Lee, Carlin; Lee, Casey; Lee, Stacey; Siu, Amanda; Ramos, Daniel M

    2014-02-01

    Prognosis for oral cancer patients has not improved in over 60 years due to invasion and recurrence. To understand the invasive behavior of this tumor, we evaluated the role of the αvβ6 integrin. Invasive oral SCC cells express the αvβ6 integrin, which contains an 11-amino-acid extension on its β-subunit unique to the integrin family. We determined that this β6 cytoplasmic extension regulates the composition of the intermediate filament network and the organization of signaling structures called focal contacts. The auto-phosphorylation of FAK, which is localized to focal contacts, was also regulated by the β6-cytoplasmic tail, as were the transcription factors Notch and STAT3. Lastly, we also determined that activation of MAPK required the full-length β6 integrin. Together these results indicate that the signaling critical to epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is regulated by the β6 integrin cytoplasmic domain. PMID:24510996

  5. CUL4A facilitates hepatocarcinogenesis by promoting cell cycle progression and epithelial-mesenchymal transition

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Yingfang; Wang, Bo; Yang, Xiaoyun; Bai, Fuxiang; Xu, Qun; Li, Xueen; Gao, Lifen; Ma, Chunhong; Liang, Xiaohong

    2015-01-01

    CUL4A, a member of the CULLIN family, functions as a scaffold protein for an E3 ubiquitin ligase. It was reported that the CUL4A gene showed amplification in some human primary hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC). However, the exact role of CUL4A in HCC remains unknown. Here, we aimed to investigate the expression and function of CUL4A in HCC development. Through immunohistochemistry study, we showed increased CUL4A expression in HCC tissues. Statistical analysis disclosed an inverse correlation between CUL4A expression and tumor differentiation grade, and patient survival, but a positive correlation with hepatocyte proliferation as well as lymphatic and venous invasion. CUL4A expression in HCC tissues was associated with HBeAg status in patients and upregulated by HBV in HCC cell lines. Further functional assay showed that CUL4A overexpression significantly promoted growth of H22 tumor homografts in BALB/c mice. Consistently, CUL4A knockdown inhibited the proliferation of established HCC cells, accompanied by S-phase reduction and Cyclin A and Cyclin B1 repression. Furthermore, CUL4A siRNA ameliorated the motility of HCC cell lines with altered expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-associated molecules. Taken together, our findings indicate that CUL4A plays a pivotal role in HCC progression and may serve as a potential marker for clinical diagnosis and target for therapy. PMID:26593394

  6. Targeted silencing of CXCR4 inhibits epithelial-mesenchymal transition in oral squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Yuansheng; Zhang, Shu; Wang, Longlong; Zhou, Xuan; He, Qinghua; Liu, Su; Yue, Kai; Wang, Xudong

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant overexpression of C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) is a critical event during tumor metastasis. It has been previously reported that the expression of CXCR4 is linked with epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) tissues derived from patients. The present study addresses the role of CXCR4 in EMT in tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCCA) cells in vitro and in xenograft models. Small interfering (si) RNA sequences targeting the CXCR4 gene were transfected into TSCCA cells. Cell migration, invasion, apoptosis and EMT markers were determined in TSCCA cells using wound healing and Transwell assays, Annexin V/propdidum iodide double staining and western blot analysis, respectively. In vivo, tumor growth was assessed by subcutaneous inoculation of cells into BALB/c nude mice. Phenotypic EMT markers and regulatory factors were detected in the tumor tissues derived from the mice. In vitro, silencing of CXCR4 expression suppressed cell migration and invasion, and induced apoptosis. The protein expression of the EMT-associated markers N-cadherin and matrix metalloproteinases 2/9 were attenuated, while E-cadherin was increased. In vivo, CXCR4 siRNA inhibited tumor growth, and EMT-associated proteins had similar expression patterns to the experimental results observed in vitro. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that CXCR4 silencing suppressed EMT in OSCC, thus affecting tumor metastasis. PMID:27602138

  7. Inactivation of RARβ inhibits Wnt1-induced mammary tumorigenesis by suppressing epithelial-mesenchymal transition

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xingxing; Giguère, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Retinoic acid receptor β (RARβ) has been proposed to act as a tumor suppressor in breast cancer. In contrast, recent data have shown that RARβ promotes ERBB2-induced mammary gland tumorigenesis through remodeling of the stromal compartment and activation of cancer-associated fibroblasts. However, it is currently unknown whether RARβ oncogenic activity is specific to ERBB2-induced tumors, or whether it influences the initiation and progression of other breast cancer subtypes. Accordingly, we set out to investigate the involvement of RARβ in basal-like breast cancer using mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV)-wingless-related integration site 1 (Wnt1)-induced mammary gland tumorigenesis as a model system. We found that compared with wild type mice, inactivation of Rarb resulted in a lengthy delay in Wnt1-induced mammary gland tumorigenesis and in a significantly slower tumor growth rate. Ablation of Rarb altered the composition of the stroma, repressed the activation of cancer-associated fibroblasts, and reduced the recruitment of inflammatory cells and angiogenesis. Reduced expression of IGF-1 and activity of its downstream signaling pathway contribute to attenuate EMT in the Rarb-null tumors. Our results show that, in the absence of retinoid signaling via RARβ, reduced IGF-1 signaling results in suppression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition and delays tumorigenesis induced by the Wnt1 oncogene. Accordingly, our work reinforces the concept that antagonizing RARβ-dependent retinoid signaling could provide a therapeutic avenue to treat poor outcome breast cancers. PMID:25422594

  8. Metformin: a rising star to fight the epithelial mesenchymal transition in oncology.

    PubMed

    Barrière, Guislaine; Tartary, Michel; Rigaud, Michel

    2013-02-01

    Metformin is a biguanide derivative which is widely prescribed as an oral drug for diabetes mellitus type 2. This old molecule has recently received a new attention because of its therapeutic properties in oncology, that seem to be independent of its action on glycemia homeostasis. The reappraisal of its pharmacological effects was supported by delineation of signaling pathways and more recently clinical trials. Numerous epidemiological studies showed that diabetics have an increased risk of several types of cancer and cancer mortality. Complex relationship between cancer and type 2 diabetes is going to be unraveled and recent observations revealed a significant action of metformin, but not other anti-diabetic agents, on cancer cells. As metformin may act as an anticancer drug through inhibition of mTOR, it might have greater benefice than suggested by insulin lowering alone. This review summarizes major publications on the link between cancer and metformin underscoring new implications of this chemical drug in oncology field. New perspectives about utilization of this molecule in clinical oncological routine, are described, particularly for patients without disturbance of glucose homeostasis. As the epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) seems implicated into invasive process and metastasis in cancer, and as metformin is able to inhibit EMT pathways, it is important to highlight cellular mechanisms of metformin. PMID:22721394

  9. Calcitriol inhibits bleomycin-induced early pulmonary inflammatory response and epithelial-mesenchymal transition in mice.

    PubMed

    Tan, Zhu-Xia; Chen, Yuan-Hua; Xu, Shen; Qin, Hou-Ying; Zhang, Cheng; Zhao, Hui; Xu, De-Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Early pulmonary inflammation and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) play important roles during lung fibrosis. Increasing evidence demonstrates that calcitriol, the active form of vitamin D3, has anti-inflammatory activities. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of calcitriol on bleomycin (BLM)-induced early pulmonary inflammation and subsequent EMT. Mice were intratracheally injected with BLM (3.0mg/kg). In three calcitriol+BLM groups, mice were intraperitoneal (i.p.) injected with different doses of calcitriol (0.2, 1.0 or 5.0 μg/kg) daily, beginning at 48 h before BLM injection. Twenty-four hours, seven and fourteen days after BLM injection, pulmonary inflammation and EMT were evaluated. As expected, BLM-induced infiltration of inflammatory cells in the lungs was attenuated by calcitriol. BLM-induced pulmonary inflammatory cytokines were repressed by calcitriol. Moreover, BLM-induced nuclear translocation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) p65 was blocked by calcitriol. In addition, BLM-induced phosphorylation of pulmonary p38 MAPK and protein kinase B (Akt) was inhibited by calcitriol. Further analysis showed that BLM-induced α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), a marker for EMT in the lungs, was significantly attenuated by calcitriol. BLM-induced transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1) up-regulation and Smad phosphorylation were attenuated by calcitriol. In conclusion, calcitriol inhibits BLM-induced early pulmonary inflammation and subsequent EMT. PMID:26520185

  10. Paeoniflorin prevents hypoxia-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition in human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhenyu; Wang, Shunchang; Song, Caijuan; Hu, Zhuang

    2016-01-01

    Paeoniflorin (PF) is a monoterpene glycoside extracted from the root of Paeonia lactiflora Pall. Previous studies have demonstrated that PF inhibits the growth, invasion, and metastasis of tumors in vivo and in vitro. However, the effect of PF on hypoxia-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in breast cancer cells remains unknown. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the effect of PF on hypoxia-induced EMT in breast cancer cells, as well as characterize the underlying mechanism. The results presented in this study demonstrate that PF blocks the migration and invasion of breast cancer cells by repressing EMT under hypoxic conditions. PF also significantly attenuated the hypoxia-induced increase in HIF-1α level. Furthermore, PF prevented hypoxia-induced expression of phosphorylated PI3K and Akt in MDA-MB-231 cells. In conclusion, PF prevented hypoxia-induced EMT in breast cancer cells by inhibiting HIF-1α expression via modulation of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. This finding provides evidence that PF can serve as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of breast cancer. PMID:27175085

  11. FLASH protects ZEB1 from degradation and supports cancer cells' epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition

    PubMed Central

    Abshire, C F; Carroll, J L; Dragoi, A-M

    2016-01-01

    Cancer metastasis remains a significant challenge and the leading cause of cancer-associated deaths. It is postulated that during metastasis cells undergo epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a process characterized by loss of cell–cell contacts and increased migratory and invasive potential. ZEB1 is one the most prominent transcriptional repressors of genes associated with EMT. We identified caspase-8-associated protein 2 (CASP8AP2 or FLASH) as a novel posttranscriptional regulator of ZEB1. Here we demonstrate that FLASH protects ZEB1 from proteasomal degradation brought by the action of the ubiquitin ligases SIAH1 and F-box protein FBXO45. As a result, loss of FLASH rapidly destabilized ZEB1 and reversed EMT cellular characteristics. Importantly, loss of FLASH blocked transforming growth factor-β-induced EMT and enhanced sensitivity to chemotherapy. Thus, we propose that FLASH–ZEB1 interplay may be a protective mechanism against ZEB1 degradation in cells undergoing EMT and may be an efficacious target for therapies aimed to block EMT progression. PMID:27526108

  12. Mesenchymal to epithelial transition during tissue homeostasis and regeneration: Patching up the Drosophila midgut epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Antonello, Zeus A.; Reiff, Tobias; Dominguez, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Stem cells are responsible for preserving morphology and function of adult tissues. Stem cells divide to self-renew and to generate progenitor cells to sustain cell demand from the tissue throughout the organism's life. Unlike stem cells, the progenitor cells have limited proliferation potential but have the capacity to terminally differentiate and thereby to substitute older or damaged mature cells. Recent findings indicate that adult stem cells can adapt their division kinetics dynamically to match changes in tissue demand during homeostasis and regeneration. However, cell turnover not only requires stem cell division but also needs timed differentiation of the progenitor cells, which has been much less explored. In this Extra View article, we discuss the ability of progenitor cells to actively postpone terminal differentiation in the absence of a local demand and how tissue demand activates terminal differentiation via a conserved mesenchymal-epithelial transition program revealed in our recent EMBO J paper and other published and unpublished data. The extent of the significance of these results is discussed for models of tissue dynamics during both homeostasis and regeneration. PMID:26760955

  13. The role of the miR-200 family in epithelial-mesenchymal transition

    PubMed Central

    Mongroo, Perry S

    2010-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are single-stranded, non-coding RNA molecules that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Genes encoding miRNAs are located in regions of the genome that are commonly amplified, deleted or rearranged. They are commonly dysregulated in human cancers and known to act as oncogenes or tumor suppressors. Members of the miR-200 miRNA family are downregulated in human cancer cells and tumors due to aberrant epigenetic gene silencing and play a critical role in the suppression of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), tumor cell adhesion, migration, invasion and metastasis, by targeting and repressing the expression of key mRNAs that are involved in EMT (ZEB1 and ZEB2), β-catenin/Wnt signaling (β-catenin), EGFR inhibitor resistance (ERRFI-1) and chemoresistance to therapeutic agents (TUBB3). Since the miR-200 family functions as putative tumor suppressors and represent biomarkers for poorly differentiated and aggressive cancers, restoration of miR-200 expression may have therapeutic implications for the treatment of metastatic and drug-resistant tumors. PMID:20592490

  14. The role of the miR-200 family in epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Mongroo, Perry S; Rustgi, Anil K

    2010-08-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are single-stranded, non-coding RNA molecules that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Genes encoding miRNAs are located in regions of the genome that are commonly amplified, deleted or rearranged. They are commonly dysregulated in human cancers and known to act as oncogenes or tumor suppressors. Members of the miR-200 miRNA family are downregulated in human cancer cells and tumors due to aberrant epigenetic gene silencing and play a critical role in the suppression of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), tumor cell adhesion, migration, invasion and metastasis, by targeting and repressing the expression of key mRNAs that are involved in EMT (ZEB1 and ZEB2), β-catenin/Wnt signaling (β-catenin), EGFR inhibitor resistance (ERRFI-1) and chemoresistance to therapeutic agents (TUBB3). Since the miR-200 family functions as putative tumor suppressors and represent biomarkers for poorly differentiated and aggressive cancers, restoration of miR-200 expression may have therapeutic implications for the treatment of metastatic and drug-resistant tumors. PMID:20592490

  15. The Genetics and Biophysics of the Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT): Can Theoretical Physics Help Cancer Biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levine, Herbert

    In order to spread from the primary tumor to distant sites, cancer cells must undergo a coordinated change in their phenotypic properties referred to as the ''epithelial-to-mesenchymal'' transition. We have studied the nonlinear genetic circuits that are responsible for this cellular decision-making progress and propose that the transition actually goes through a series of intermediate states. At the same time, we have formulated motility models which allow for the correlation of the state of this network and the cell's biophysical capabilities. Hopefully, these thereby efforts will help us better understand the transition to metastatic disease and possible treatments thereof.

  16. Human Chondrosarcoma Cells Acquire an Epithelial-Like Gene Expression Pattern via an Epigenetic Switch: Evidence for Mesenchymal-Epithelial Transition during Sarcomagenesis.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Matthew P; Gourronc, Francoise; Teoh, Melissa L T; Provenzano, Matthew J; Case, Adam J; Martin, James A; Domann, Frederick E

    2011-01-01

    Chondrocytes are mesenchymally derived cells that reportedly acquire some epithelial characteristics; however, whether this is a progression through a mesenchymal to epithelial transition (MET) during chondrosarcoma development is still a matter of investigation. We observed that chondrosarcoma cells acquired the expression of four epithelial markers, E-cadherin,desmocollin 3, maspin, and 14-3-3σ, all of which are governed epigenetically through cytosine methylation. Indeed, loss of cytosine methylation was tightly associated with acquired expression of both maspin and 14-3-3σ in chondrosarcomas. In contrast, chondrocyte cells were negative for maspin and 14-3-3σ and displayed nearly complete DNA methylation. Robust activation of these genes was also observed in chondrocyte cells following 5-aza-dC treatment. We also examined the transcription factor snail which has been reported to be an important mediator of epithelial to mesenchymal transitions (EMTs). In chondrosarcoma cells snail is downregulated suggesting a role for loss of snail expression in lineage maintenance. Taken together, these results document an epigenetic switch associated with an MET-like phenomenon that accompanies chondrosarcoma progression.

  17. [Inhibitory effect of Panax notoginseng saponins on alveolar epithelial to mesenchymal transition].

    PubMed

    Ren, Zhou-xin; Yu, Hai-bin; Li, Jian-sheng; Shen, Jun-ling; Li, Jun-kai; Luo, Shan

    2015-12-01

    In the study, the effects of Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS) on alveolar epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) and extracellular matrix degradation were observed in a type of human alveolar epithelial cell, A549 cells, stimulated by TGF-beta1. Firstly, MTT method was applied to evaluation of cellular proliferation and found that PNS from 12.5 mg x L(-1) to 200 mg x L(-1) dosage could not inhibit significantly cellular proliferation. Then, cells were divided into five groups, normal group, TGF-beta1 group, TGF-beta1 + 50 mg x L(-1) PNS group, TGF-beta1 + 100 mg x L(-1) PNS group and TGF-beta1 + 200 mg x L(-1) PNS group. Normal cells were not stimulatec by TGF-beta1; TGF-beta1 cells were only stimulated by TGF-beta1 and the other cells were stimulated by TGF-beta1 with different doses of PNS, respectively. After stimulation, cells and supernatants were collected for assays. Cellular roundness was applied to quantitative evaluation of morphological change. Immunocytochemistry was applied to examine E-cadherion, a-SMA and FN proteins expression in the cells. Enzyme linked-immunosorbent assay was applied to MMP-9 and TIMP-1 levels. The results showed that EMT of A549 cells was induced by TGF-beta1, showing significant change of roundness, E-cadherion, alpha-SMA and FN (P < 0.05, P < 0.01). Compared to TGF-beta1, PNS significantly inhibited the changes of roundness (P < 0.05), FN and alpha-SMA (P < 0.05, P < 0.01) and not significantly inhibited the change of E-cadherion. Furthermore, MMP-9 levels were significantly increased by TGFbeta1 stimulation (P < 0.05), without significant change of TIMP-1. Compared with TGF-beta1, PNS could significantly increase MMP-9 level (P < 0.05) and decrease TIMP-1 levels (P < 0.05, P < 0.01). In conclusion, PNS could inhibit alveolar epithelial cell EMT induced by TGF-beta1, with increase of extracellular matrix degradation ability, which showed anti-fibrosis of lung ability. PMID:27141681

  18. Trichostatin A Inhibits Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition Induced by TGF-β1 in Airway Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Jae-Min; Lee, Heung-Man

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Tissue remodeling is believed to cause recalcitrant chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a novel clinical therapeutic target in many chronic airway diseases related with tissue remodeling. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of trichostatin A (TSA) on transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1-induced EMT in airway epithelium and nasal tissue. Materials and Methods A549 cells, primary nasal epithelial cells (PNECs), or inferior nasal turbinate organ culture were exposed to TSA prior to stimulation with TGF-β1. Expression levels of E-cadherin, vimentin, fibronectin, α-smooth muscle actin (SMA), histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2), and HDAC4 were determined by western blotting and/or immunofluorescent staining. Hyperacetylation of histone H2 and H4 by TSA was measured by western blotting. After siHDAC transfection, the effects of HDAC2 and HDAC4 silencing on expression of E-cadherin, vimentin, fibronectin, α-SMA, HDAC2, and HDAC4 in TGF-β1-induced A549 were determined by RT-PCR and/or western blotting. We assessed the change in migration capacity of A549 cells by using cell migration assay and transwell invasion assay. Results TGF-β1 altered mRNA and protein expression levels of EMT markers including E-cadherin, vimentin, fibronectin, α-SMA, slug, and snail in A549 cells. Inhibition and silencing of HDAC2 and HDAC4 by TSA and siRNA enhanced TGF-β1-induced EMT in A549 cells. TSA blocked the effect of TGF-β1 on the migratory ability of A549 cells. In experiments using PNECs and inferior turbinate organ cultures, TSA suppressed expression of EMT markers induced by TGF-β1. Conclusions We showed that EMT is induced by TGF-β1 in airway epithelial cells and nasal tissue via activation of HDAC2 and HDAC4, and that inhibition of HDAC2 and HDAC4 by TSA reduces TGF-β1-induced EMT. This observation indicates that histone deacetylase inhibitors such as TSA could be potential candidates for treatment of

  19. Integrated Proteomics and Genomics Analysis Reveals a Novel Mesenchymal to Epithelial Reverting Transition in Leiomyosarcoma through Regulation of Slug*

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jilong; Eddy, James A.; Pan, Yuan; Hategan, Andrea; Tabus, Ioan; Wang, Yingmei; Cogdell, David; Price, Nathan D.; Pollock, Raphael E.; Lazar, Alexander J. F.; Hunt, Kelly K.; Trent, Jonathan C.; Zhang, Wei

    2010-01-01

    Leiomyosarcoma is one of the most common mesenchymal tumors. Proteomics profiling analysis by reverse-phase protein lysate array surprisingly revealed that expression of the epithelial marker E-cadherin (encoded by CDH1) was significantly elevated in a subset of leiomyosarcomas. In contrast, E-cadherin was rarely expressed in the gastrointestinal stromal tumors, another major mesenchymal tumor type. We further sought to 1) validate this finding, 2) determine whether there is a mesenchymal to epithelial reverting transition (MErT) in leiomyosarcoma, and if so 3) elucidate the regulatory mechanism responsible for this MErT. Our data showed that the epithelial cell markers E-cadherin, epithelial membrane antigen, cytokeratin AE1/AE3, and pan-cytokeratin were often detected immunohistochemically in leiomyosarcoma tumor cells on tissue microarray. Interestingly, the E-cadherin protein expression was correlated with better survival in leiomyosarcoma patients. Whole genome microarray was used for transcriptomics analysis, and the epithelial gene expression signature was also associated with better survival. Bioinformatics analysis of transcriptome data showed an inverse correlation between E-cadherin and E-cadherin repressor Slug (SNAI2) expression in leiomyosarcoma, and this inverse correlation was validated on tissue microarray by immunohistochemical staining of E-cadherin and Slug. Knockdown of Slug expression in SK-LMS-1 leiomyosarcoma cells by siRNA significantly increased E-cadherin; decreased the mesenchymal markers vimentin and N-cadherin (encoded by CDH2); and significantly decreased cell proliferation, invasion, and migration. An increase in Slug expression by pCMV6-XL5-Slug transfection decreased E-cadherin and increased vimentin and N-cadherin. Thus, MErT, which is mediated through regulation of Slug, is a clinically significant phenotype in leiomyosarcoma. PMID:20651304

  20. Everolimus-induced epithelial to mesenchymal transition in immortalized human renal proximal tubular epithelial cells: key role of heparanase

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Everolimus (EVE) is a drug widely used in several renal transplant protocols. Although characterized by a relatively low nephrotoxicity, it may induce several adverse effects including severe fibro-interstitial pneumonitis. The exact molecular/biological mechanism associated to these pro-fibrotic effects is unknown, but epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) may have a central role. Additionally, heparanase, an enzyme recently associated with the progression of chronic allograft nephropathy, could contribute to activate this machinery in renal cells. Methods Several biomolecular strategies (RT-PCR, immunofluorescence, zymography and migration assay) have been used to assess the capability of EVE (10, 100, 200 and 500 nM) to induce an in vitro heparanase-mediated EMT in wild-type (WT) and Heparanase (HPSE)-silenced immortalized human renal epithelial proximal tubular cells (HK-2). Additionally, microarray technology was used to find additional biological elements involved in EVE-induced EMT. Results Biomolecular experiments demonstrated a significant up-regulation (more than 1.5 fold increase) of several genes encoding for well known EMT markers [(alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), Vimentin (VIM), Fibronectin (FN) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP9)], enhancement of MMP9 protein level and increment of cells motility in WT HK2 cells treated with high concentrations of EVE (higher than 100 nM). Similarly, immunofluorescence analysis showed that 100 nM of EVE increased α-SMA, VIM and FN protein expression in WT HK2 cells. All these effects were absent in both HPSE- and AKT-silenced cell lines. AKT is a protein having a central role in EMT. Additionally, microarray analysis identified other 2 genes significantly up-regulated in 100 nM EVE-treated cells (p < 0.005 and FDR < 5%): transforming growth factor beta-2 (TGFβ2) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Real-time PCR analysis validated microarray. Conclusions Our in vitro study

  1. Expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition-related genes increases with copy number in multiple cancer types.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Min; Liu, Yining; Qu, Hong

    2016-04-26

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a cellular process through which epithelial cells transform into mesenchymal cells. EMT-implicated genes initiate and promote cancer metastasis because mesenchymal cells have greater invasive and migration capacities than epithelial cells. In this pan-cancer analysis, we explored the relationship between gene expression changes and copy number variations (CNVs) for EMT-implicated genes. Based on curated 377 EMT-implicated genes from the literature, we identified 212 EMT-implicated genes associated with more frequent copy number gains (CNGs) than copy number losses (CNLs) using data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Then by correlating these CNV data with TCGA gene expression data, we identified 71 EMT-implicated genes with concordant CNGs and gene up-regulation in 20 or more tumor samples. Of those, 14 exhibited such concordance in over 110 tumor samples. These 14 genes were predominantly apoptosis regulators, which may implies that apoptosis is critical during EMT. Moreover, the 71 genes with concordant CNG and up-regulation were largely involved in cellular functions such as phosphorylation cascade signaling. This is the first observation of concordance between CNG and up-regulation of specific genes in hundreds of samples, which may indicate that somatic CNGs activate gene expression by increasing the gene dosage.

  2. Expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition-related genes increases with copy number in multiple cancer types

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a cellular process through which epithelial cells transform into mesenchymal cells. EMT-implicated genes initiate and promote cancer metastasis because mesenchymal cells have greater invasive and migration capacities than epithelial cells. In this pan-cancer analysis, we explored the relationship between gene expression changes and copy number variations (CNVs) for EMT-implicated genes. Based on curated 377 EMT-implicated genes from the literature, we identified 212 EMT-implicated genes associated with more frequent copy number gains (CNGs) than copy number losses (CNLs) using data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Then by correlating these CNV data with TCGA gene expression data, we identified 71 EMT-implicated genes with concordant CNGs and gene up-regulation in 20 or more tumor samples. Of those, 14 exhibited such concordance in over 110 tumor samples. These 14 genes were predominantly apoptosis regulators, which may implies that apoptosis is critical during EMT. Moreover, the 71 genes with concordant CNG and up-regulation were largely involved in cellular functions such as phosphorylation cascade signaling. This is the first observation of concordance between CNG and up-regulation of specific genes in hundreds of samples, which may indicate that somatic CNGs activate gene expression by increasing the gene dosage. PMID:27029057

  3. Inflammation Mediated Metastasis: Immune Induced Epithelial-To-Mesenchymal Transition in Inflammatory Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Evan N.; Gao, Hui; Anfossi, Simone; Mego, Michal; Reddy, Neelima G.; Debeb, Bisrat; Giordano, Antonio; Tin, Sanda; Wu, Qiong; Garza, Raul J.; Cristofanilli, Massimo; Mani, Sendurai A.; Croix, Denise A.; Ueno, Naoto T.; Woodward, Wendy A.; Luthra, Raja; Krishnamurthy, Savitri; Reuben, James M.

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is the most insidious form of locally advanced breast cancer; about a third of patients have distant metastasis at initial staging. Emerging evidence suggests that host factors in the tumor microenvironment may interact with underlying IBC cells to make them aggressive. It is unknown whether immune cells associated to the IBC microenvironment play a role in this scenario to transiently promote epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) in these cells. We hypothesized that soluble factors secreted by activated immune cells can induce an EMT in IBC and thus promote metastasis. In a pilot study of 16 breast cancer patients, TNF-α production by peripheral blood T cells was correlated with the detection of circulating tumor cells expressing EMT markers. In a variety of IBC model cell lines, soluble factors from activated T cells induced expression of EMT-related genes, including FN1, VIM, TGM2, ZEB1. Interestingly, although IBC cells exhibited increased invasion and migration following exposure to immune factors, the expression of E-cadherin (CDH1), a cell adhesion molecule, increased uniquely in IBC cell lines but not in non-IBC cell lines. A combination of TNF-α, IL-6, and TGF-β was able to recapitulate EMT induction in IBC, and conditioned media preloaded with neutralizing antibodies against these factors exhibited decreased EMT. These data suggest that release of cytokines by activated immune cells may contribute to the aggressiveness of IBC and highlight these factors as potential target mediators of immune-IBC interaction. PMID:26207636

  4. Extracellular HSP70/HSP70-PCs Promote Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition of Hepatocarcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hangyu; Li, Yan; Liu, Dan; Sun, Hongzhi; Su, Dongming; Yang, Fuquan; Liu, Jingang

    2013-01-01

    Background Extracellular heat shock protein 70 and peptide complexes (eHSP70/HSP70-PCs) regulate a variety of biological behaviors in tumor cells. Whether eHSP70/HSP70-PCs are involved in the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of tumor cells remains unclear. Aims To determine the effects of eHSP70/HSP70-PCs on EMT of hepatocarcinoma cells. Methods The expressions of E-cadherin, HSP70, α-smooth muscle actin protein (α-SMA) and p-p38 were detected immunohistochemically in liver cancer samples. Immunofluorescence, western blotting and real-time RT-PCR methods were used to analyze the effects of eHSP70/HSP70-PCs on the expressions of E-cadherin, α-SMA and p38/MAPK in vivo. Results HSP70, E-cadherin, α-SMA and p-p38 were elevated in hepatocellular carcinoma tissues. The expression of HSP70 was positively correlated with malignant differentiated liver carcinoma. The expressions of HSP70, α-SMA and p-p38 correlated with recurrence-free survival after resection. eHSP70/HSP70-PCs significantly promoted the expressions of α-SMA and p-p38 and reduced the expressions of E-cadherin in vivo. The effect was inhibited by SB203580. Conclusion The expressions of HSP70, E-cadherin, α-SMA and p-p38 may represent indicators of malignant potential and could discriminate the malignant degree of liver cancer. eHSP70/HSP70-PCs play an important role in the EMT of hepatocellular carcinoma via the p38/MAPK pathway. PMID:24386414

  5. EphB2 promotes cervical cancer progression by inducing epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Gao, Qing; Liu, Wei; Cai, Jiangyi; Li, Mu; Gao, Yane; Lin, Wenjing; Li, Zongfang

    2014-02-01

    EphB2, a receptor tyrosine kinase for ephrin ligands, is overexpressed in various cancers and plays an important role in tumor progression. However, the expression and functions of EphB2 in cervical cancer remain unknown. In this study, we performed immunohistochemistry in clinical cervical specimens and found that EphB2 was overexpressed in the cervical cancer specimens, and its expression correlated with cancer progression. The percentage of EphB2-positive cells increased gradually from 28% in the normal cervix to 40% in high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions, and ultimately to 69.8% in squamous cell carcinomas (P < .05). We overexpressed EphB2 in HeLa cells and silenced EphB2 in cervical cancer (C33A) cells, which expressed low and high levels of EphB2, respectively. Exogenous EphB2 promoted cell migration, invasion, and an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) signature, which is a complex process that occurs during organogenesis and cancer metastasis, whereas EphB2 silencing had the opposite effect (P < .05). Furthermore, HeLa cells with exogenous EphB2 exhibited a stem cell-like state that promoted tumorsphere formation in vitro and exhibited tumorigenesis potential in vivo (P < .05), whereas EphB2 silencing in C33A cells inhibited these stem cell properties (P < .05). In addition, we investigated the intracellular signaling pathways in cervical cancer and found that R-Ras expression correlated positively with EphB2 in clinical samples, and its activity was regulated by EphB2 in cervical cancer. These findings demonstrate that EphB2 plays an important role in cervical cancer progression by orchestrating an EMT program through R-Ras activation.

  6. Alpha1-Antitrypsin Attenuates Renal Fibrosis by Inhibiting TGF-β1-Induced Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jang-Hee; Ryu, Hye-Myung; Oh, Eun-Joo; Yook, Ju-Min; Ahn, Ji-Sun; Jung, Hee-Yeon; Choi, Ji-Young; Park, Sun-Hee; Kim, Yong-Lim; Kwak, Ihm Soo; Kim, Chan-Duck

    2016-01-01

    Alpha1-antitrypsin (AAT) exerts its anti-inflammatory effect through regulating the activity of serine proteinases. This study evaluated the inhibitory effects of AAT against the transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in unilateral ureter obstruction (UUO) mice and Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. C57BL/6 mice with induced UUO were injected intraperitoneally with AAT (80 mg/Kg) or vehicle for 7 days. MDCK cells were treated with TGF-β1 (2 ng/mL) for 48 hours to induce EMT, and co-treated with AAT (10 mg/mL) to inhibit the EMT. Masson's trichrome and Sirius red staining was used to estimate the extent of renal fibrosis in UUO mice. The expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), vimentin, fibronectin, collagen I, and E-cadherin in MDCK cells and kidney tissue were evaluated. Masson's and Sirius red staining revealed that the area of renal fibrosis was significantly smaller in AAT treated UUO group compared with that of UUO and vehicle treated UUO groups. AAT treatment attenuated upregulation of Smad2/3 phosphorylation in UUO mouse model. Co-treatment of MDCK cells with TGF-β1 and AAT significantly attenuated the changes in the expression of α-SMA, vimentin, fibronectin, collagen I, and E-cadherin. AAT also decreased the phosphorylated Smad3 expression and the phosphorylated Smad3/Smad3 ratio in MDCK cells. AAT treatment inhibited EMT induced by TGF-β1 in MDCK cells and attenuated renal fibrosis in the UUO mouse model. The results of this work suggest that AAT could inhibit the process of EMT through the suppression of TGF-β/Smad3 signaling. PMID:27607429

  7. Tumor budding correlates with poor prognosis and epithelial-mesenchymal transition in tongue squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Cheng; Huang, Hongzhang; Huang, Zhiquan; Wang, Anxun; Chen, Xiaohua; Huang, Lei; Zhou, Xiaofeng; Liu, Xiqiang

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Tumor budding is a readily detectable histopathological feature and has been recognized as an adverse prognostic factor in several human cancers. However, the prognostic value of tumor budding in tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC) has not been reported. The purpose of this study is to assess the correlation of tumor budding with the clinicopathologic features, and the known molecular biomarkers (E-cadherin and Vimentin), as well as to evaluate its prognostic significance for TSCC. METHODS Archival clinical samples of 230 patients with TSCC were examined for tumor budding. Immunohistochemistry analyses were performed to examine the expression of E-cadherin and Vimentin. Statistical analyses were carried out to assess the correlation of tumor budding with clinicopathologic parameters and patient survival. The potential association between tumor budding and alterations of E-cadherin and Vimentin expression was also assessed. RESULTS Of the 230 TSCC cases examined, tumor budding was observed in 165 cases (71.7%), with a mean tumor bud count of 7.5 (range from 1 to 48 buds). High-intensity budding (≥ 5 tumor buds) was observed in 111 cases (48.3%). Statistical analysis revealed that tumor budding was associated with tumor size (P<0.05), differentiation (P<0.05), clinical stage (P<0.05), lymph node metastasis (P<0.01), and correlated with reduced overall survival. In addition, significant associations were observed among tumor budding and the deregulation of E-cadherin (P<0.001) and Vimentin (P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS Tumor budding, which associates with epithelial-mesenchymal transition, is a frequent event and appears to be an independent prognostic factor in TSCC. PMID:21481005

  8. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in paired human primary and recurrent glioblastomas.

    PubMed

    Kubelt, Carolin; Hattermann, Kirsten; Sebens, Susanne; Mehdorn, H Maximilian; Held-Feindt, Janka

    2015-01-01

    Patients with highly malignant glioblastomas have a short median survival time mainly due to aggressive relapses after therapeutic treatment. Beside others, they achieve their progressive character via epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). However, comprehensive investigations on EMT in paired primary-recurrent glioblastoma pairs are presently not available. Thus, in our present study we examined the expression profile of different EMT-markers in 17 matched primary and recurrent glioblastomas by qPCR and double-immunofluorescence stainings to identify EMT marker expressing cell types. Additionally, we analyzed the influence of temozolomide on EMT marker expression in vitro. In comparison to primary tumors, expression of β-catenin (p<0.05), Snail1 (p<0.05), Snail2/Slug (p<0.05), biglycan (p<0.05) and Twist1 (p<0.01) was downregulated in recurrence whereas L1CAM showed upregulation (p<0.05; qPCR). Expression of desmoplakin, vimentin, fibronectin and TGF-β1 with its receptors TGF-βR1 and TGF-βR2 was almost unchanged. Comparing each individual pair, five different 'EMT groups' within our glioblastoma collective were identified according to the regulation of mRNA expression of GFAP, desmoplakin, Snail1, Snail2, Twist1 and vimentin. Additionally, double-stainings of EMT markers in combination with cell specific markers (glial fibrillary acidic protein, CD11b, von Willebrand factor) revealed that EMT markers were expressed in a complex pattern with all three cellular types as possible sources. Temozolomide treatment significantly induced mRNA expression of nearly all investigated EMT markers in T98G glioma cells. Thus, EMT seems to be involved in glioma progression in a complex way requiring an individualized analysis, and is influenced by commonly used therapeutic options in glioma therapy. PMID:25845427

  9. Alpha1-Antitrypsin Attenuates Renal Fibrosis by Inhibiting TGF-β1-Induced Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Jang-Hee; Ryu, Hye-Myung; Oh, Eun-Joo; Yook, Ju-Min; Ahn, Ji-Sun; Jung, Hee-Yeon; Choi, Ji-Young; Park, Sun-Hee; Kim, Yong-Lim; Kwak, Ihm Soo; Kim, Chan-Duck

    2016-01-01

    Alpha1-antitrypsin (AAT) exerts its anti-inflammatory effect through regulating the activity of serine proteinases. This study evaluated the inhibitory effects of AAT against the transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in unilateral ureter obstruction (UUO) mice and Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. C57BL/6 mice with induced UUO were injected intraperitoneally with AAT (80 mg/Kg) or vehicle for 7 days. MDCK cells were treated with TGF-β1 (2 ng/mL) for 48 hours to induce EMT, and co-treated with AAT (10 mg/mL) to inhibit the EMT. Masson’s trichrome and Sirius red staining was used to estimate the extent of renal fibrosis in UUO mice. The expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), vimentin, fibronectin, collagen I, and E-cadherin in MDCK cells and kidney tissue were evaluated. Masson’s and Sirius red staining revealed that the area of renal fibrosis was significantly smaller in AAT treated UUO group compared with that of UUO and vehicle treated UUO groups. AAT treatment attenuated upregulation of Smad2/3 phosphorylation in UUO mouse model. Co-treatment of MDCK cells with TGF-β1 and AAT significantly attenuated the changes in the expression of α-SMA, vimentin, fibronectin, collagen I, and E-cadherin. AAT also decreased the phosphorylated Smad3 expression and the phosphorylated Smad3/Smad3 ratio in MDCK cells. AAT treatment inhibited EMT induced by TGF-β1 in MDCK cells and attenuated renal fibrosis in the UUO mouse model. The results of this work suggest that AAT could inhibit the process of EMT through the suppression of TGF-β/Smad3 signaling. PMID:27607429

  10. Pathologic features of aggressive vulvar carcinoma are associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Holthoff, Emily R; Spencer, Horace; Kelly, Thomas; Post, Steven R; Quick, Charles M

    2016-10-01

    Factors contributing to aggressive behavior in vulvar squamous cell carcinoma (vSCC) are poorly defined; however, a recent study has shown that vSCCs with an infiltrative pattern of invasion and fibromyxoid stroma are associated with worse outcomes than tumors with a pushing or nested pattern of invasion and lymphoplasmacytic stroma. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been associated with tumor progression in a number of malignancies, and this study proposes that EMT contributes to tumor aggressiveness in this subset of vSCC. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect nuclear localization of β-catenin, loss of E-cadherin, and presence of vimentin in 58 cases of vSCC. The association of these phenotypic changes with pathologic features and clinical outcomes was tested using Fisher's exact and χ(2) analyses (significance at P≤.05). EMT-associated features were identified in 45 of 58 cases (78%) with 28 cases exhibiting more than one feature. Nuclear β-catenin and presence of vimentin were significantly more likely to occur in tumors with an infiltrative pattern of invasion or a fibromyxoid stromal response. Loss of E-cadherin was significantly associated with an infiltrative pattern, but not a fibromyxoid stroma. Risk for tumor recurrence was significantly increased in tumors with nuclear localization of β-catenin alone or in tumors displaying multiple EMT-associated features. These results suggest that the development of EMT may be a mechanism by which infiltrative vulvar tumors with a fibromyxoid stromal response behave more aggressively and convey worse outcomes than tumors that do not exhibit these pathologic features.

  11. Nano-biomechanical Validation of Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Park, Soyeun; Jang, Won-Jun; Jeong, Chul-Ho

    2016-01-01

    The effective cure for oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) patients is challenging due late diagnosis and fatal metastasis. The standard diagnosis for OSCC often depends on the subjective interpretation of conventional histopathology. Additionally, there is no standard way for OSCC prognosis. Over the past decade, nano-mechanical stiffness has been considered as a quantitative measure for cancer diagnosis. Nevertheless, its application to OSCC diagnosis and prognosis is still in a primitive stage. In this study, we investigated whether the OSCC progression can be predicted by nano-mechanical properties in combination with biochemical properties, especially the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Atomic force microscopy-based nano-mechanical measurements of three different OSCC cell lines-SCC-4, SCC-9, and SCC-15-were conducted together with biochemical analyses. The gradual upregulation of Snail2, N-cadherin, and vimentin and the simultaneous downregulation of E-cadherin were observed, and the degree of upregulation and downregulation was stronger in the order of the cell lines mentioned above. The strength of enhancement in migration was in the same order as well. Consistently, nano-mechanical stiffness was gradually decreased as the EMT progresses. These results suggest that the nano-mechanical assay could serve as a quantitative tool to predict the OSCC progression in the context of the EMT. Furthermore, we found that the upregulated vimentin, a major filamentous component of the cytoskeleton, may contribute to mechanical softening, which can be discerned from the role of actin filaments in mechanical stiffness. In conclusion, our combinational study proposes a novel way to elucidate the mechanism of OSCC progression and its therapeutic targets. PMID:27582330

  12. Alpha lipoic acid inhibits proliferation and epithelial mesenchymal transition of thyroid cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Min Ji; Kim, Won Gu; Lim, Seonhee; Choi, Hyun-Jeung; Sim, Soyoung; Kim, Tae Yong; Shong, Young Kee; Kim, Won Bae

    2016-01-01

    The naturally occurring short-chain fatty acid, α-lipoic acid (ALA) is a powerful antioxidant which is clinically used for treatment of diabetic neuropathy. Recent studies suggested the possibility of ALA as a potential anti-cancer agent, because it could activate adenosine monophosphate activated protein kinase (AMPK) and inhibit transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) pathway. In this study, we evaluate the effects of ALA on thyroid cancer cell proliferation, migration and invasion. We performed in vitro cell proliferation analysis using BCPAP, HTH-83, CAL-62 and FTC-133 cells. ALA suppressed thyroid cancer cell proliferation through activation of AMPK and subsequent down-regulation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)-S6 signaling pathway. Low-dose ALA, which had minimal effects on cell proliferation, also decreased cell migration and invasion of BCPAP, CAL-62 and HTH-83 cells. ALA inhibited epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) evidently by increase of E-cadherin and decreases of activated β-catenin, vimentin, snail, and twist in these cells. ALA suppressed TGFβ production and inhibited induction of p-Smad2 and twist by TGFβ1 or TGFβ2. These findings indicate that ALA reduces cancer cell migration and invasion through suppression of TGFβ production and inhibition of TGFβ signaling pathways in thyroid cancer cells. ALA also significantly suppressed tumor growth in mouse xenograft model using BCPAP and FTC-133 cells. This is the first study to show anti-cancer effect of ALA on thyroid cancer cells. ALA could be a potential therapeutic agent for treatment of advanced thyroid cancer, possibly as an adjuvant therapy with other systemic therapeutic agents.

  13. Hedgehog/Gli promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transition in lung squamous cell carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) account for approximately 30% of non-small cell lung cancer. Investigation of the mechanism of invasion and metastasis of lung SCC will be of great help for the development of meaningful targeted therapeutics. This study is intended to understand whether the activation of Hedgehog (Hh) pathway is involved in lung SCC, and whether activated Hh signaling regulates metastasis through epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in lung SCC. Methods Two cohorts of patients with lung SCC were studied. Protein expression was examined by immunohistochemistry, Western blot, or immunofluorescence. Protein expression levels in tissue specimens were scored and correlations were analyzed. Vismodegib and a Gli inhibitor were used to inhibit Shh/Gli activity, and recombinant Shh proteins were used to stimulate the Hh pathway in lung SCC cell lines. Cell migration assay was performed in vitro. Results Shh/Gli pathway components were aberrantly expressed in lung SCC tissue samples. Gli1 expression was reversely associated with the expression of EMT markers E-Cadherin and β-Catenin in lung SCC specimens. Inhibition of the Shh/Gli pathway suppressed migration and up-regulated E-Cadherin expression in lung SCC cells. Stimulation of the pathway increased migration and down-regulated E-Cadherin expression in lung SCC cells. Conclusions Our results suggested that the Shh/Gli pathway may be critical for lung SCC recurrence, metastasis and resistance to chemotherapy. Inhibition of the Shh/Gli pathway activity/function is a potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of lung SCC patients. PMID:24758269

  14. SRPX2 Enhances the Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition and Temozolomide Resistance in Glioblastoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Tang, Haitao; Zhao, Jiaxin; Zhang, Liangyu; Zhao, Jiang; Zhuang, Yongzhi; Liang, Peng

    2016-10-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and most aggressive central nervous system tumor in adults. Due to GBM cell invasiveness and resistance to chemotherapy, current medical interventions are not satisfactory, and the prognosis for GBM is poor. It is necessary to investigate the underlying mechanism of GBM metastasis and drug resistance so that more effective treatments can be developed for GBM patients. sushi repeat-containing protein, X-linked 2 (SRPX2) is a prognostic biomarker in many different cancer cell lines and is associated with poor prognosis in cancer patients. SRPX2 overexpression promotes interactions between tumor and endothelial cells, leading to tumor progression and metastasis. We hypothesize that SRPX2 also contributes to GBM chemotherapy resistance and metastasis. Our results revealed that GBM tumor samples from 42 patients expressed higher levels of SRPX2 than the control normal brain tissue samples. High-SRPX2 expression levels are correlated with poor prognosis in those patients, as well as resistance to temozolomide in cultured GBM cells. Up-regulating SRPX2 expression in cultured GBM cell lines facilitated invasiveness and migration of GBM cells, while down-regulating SRPX2 through RNA interference was inhibitory. These results suggest that SRPX2 plays an important role in GBM metastasis. Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is one of the processes that facilitate GBM metastasis and resistance to chemotherapy. EMT marker expression was decreased in SRPX2 down-regulated GBM cells, and MAPK signaling pathway marker expression was also decreased when SRPX2 is knocked down in GBM-cultured cells. Blocking the MAPK signaling pathway inhibited GBM metastasis but did not inhibit cell invasion and migration in SRPX2 down-regulated cells. Our results indicate that SRPX2 facilitates GBM metastasis by enhancing the EMT process via the MAPK signaling pathway. PMID:26643178

  15. Inhibition of cancer cell epithelial mesenchymal transition by normal fibroblasts via production of 5-methoxytryptophan

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Li-Yi; Chen, Hua-Ling; Kuo, Cheng-Chin; Wu, Kenneth K.

    2016-01-01

    We reported previously that human fibroblasts release 5-methoxytryptophan (5-MTP) which inhibits cancer cell COX-2 overexpression and suppresses cancer cell migration and metastasis. To determine whether fibroblasts block cancer cell epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) via 5-MTP, we evaluated the effect of Hs68 fibroblasts (HsFb) on A549 cancer cell EMT in a two-chamber system. Co-incubation of A549 with HsFb prevented TGF-β1-induced reduction of E-cadherin and increase in Snail and N-cadherin. Transfection of HsFb with tryptophan hydroxylase-1 siRNA, which inhibited tryptophan hydroxylase-1 protein expression and 5-MTP release in HsFb abrogated the effect of HsFb on A549 EMT. Direct addition of pure 5-MTP to cultured A549 cells followed by TGF-β1 prevented TGF-β1-induced reduction of E-cadherin, and elevation of Snail, vimentin and matrix metalloproteinase 9. Administration of 5-MTP to a murine xenograft tumor model reduced vimentin protein expression in the tumor tissues compared to vehicle control which was correlated with reduction of metastasis in the 5-MTP treated mice. Our experimental data suggest that 5-MTP exerted its anti-EMT actions through inhibition of p38 MAPK activation, p65/p50 NF-κB nuclear translocation and transactivation without the involvement of COX-2 or p300 histone acetyltransferase. Our findings indicate that fibroblasts release a tryptophan metabolite, 5-MTP, to reduce cancer cell EMT, migration, invasion and metastasis. PMID:27145282

  16. SRPX2 Enhances the Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition and Temozolomide Resistance in Glioblastoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Tang, Haitao; Zhao, Jiaxin; Zhang, Liangyu; Zhao, Jiang; Zhuang, Yongzhi; Liang, Peng

    2016-10-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and most aggressive central nervous system tumor in adults. Due to GBM cell invasiveness and resistance to chemotherapy, current medical interventions are not satisfactory, and the prognosis for GBM is poor. It is necessary to investigate the underlying mechanism of GBM metastasis and drug resistance so that more effective treatments can be developed for GBM patients. sushi repeat-containing protein, X-linked 2 (SRPX2) is a prognostic biomarker in many different cancer cell lines and is associated with poor prognosis in cancer patients. SRPX2 overexpression promotes interactions between tumor and endothelial cells, leading to tumor progression and metastasis. We hypothesize that SRPX2 also contributes to GBM chemotherapy resistance and metastasis. Our results revealed that GBM tumor samples from 42 patients expressed higher levels of SRPX2 than the control normal brain tissue samples. High-SRPX2 expression levels are correlated with poor prognosis in those patients, as well as resistance to temozolomide in cultured GBM cells. Up-regulating SRPX2 expression in cultured GBM cell lines facilitated invasiveness and migration of GBM cells, while down-regulating SRPX2 through RNA interference was inhibitory. These results suggest that SRPX2 plays an important role in GBM metastasis. Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is one of the processes that facilitate GBM metastasis and resistance to chemotherapy. EMT marker expression was decreased in SRPX2 down-regulated GBM cells, and MAPK signaling pathway marker expression was also decreased when SRPX2 is knocked down in GBM-cultured cells. Blocking the MAPK signaling pathway inhibited GBM metastasis but did not inhibit cell invasion and migration in SRPX2 down-regulated cells. Our results indicate that SRPX2 facilitates GBM metastasis by enhancing the EMT process via the MAPK signaling pathway.

  17. DNMT1 Regulates Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition and Cancer Stem Cells, Which Promotes Prostate Cancer Metastasis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eunsohl; Wang, Jingcheng; Yumoto, Kenji; Jung, Younghun; Cackowski, Frank C; Decker, Ann M; Li, Yan; Franceschi, Renny T; Pienta, Kenneth J; Taichman, Russell S

    2016-09-01

    Cancer metastasis is a multistep process associated with the induction of an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cancer stem cells (CSCs). Although significant progress has been made in understanding the molecular mechanisms regulating EMT and the CSC phenotype, little is known of how these processes are regulated by epigenetics. Here we demonstrate that reduced expression of DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) plays an important role in the induction of EMT and the CSC phenotype by prostate cancer (PCa) cells, with enhanced tumorigenesis and metastasis. First, we observed that reduction of DNMT1 by 5-azacitidine (5-Aza) promotes EMT induction as well as CSCs and sphere formation in vitro. Reduced expression of DNMT1 significantly increased PCa migratory potential. We showed that the increase of EMT and CSC activities by reduction of DNMT1 is associated with the increase of protein kinase C. Furthermore, we confirmed that silencing DNMT1 is correlated with enhancement of the induction of EMT and the CSC phenotype in PCa cells. Additionally, chromatin immunoprecipitation assay reveals that reduction of DNMT1 promotes the suppression of H3K9me3 and H3K27me3 on the Zeb2 and KLF4 promoter region in PCa cells. Critically, we found in an animal model that significant tumor growth and more disseminated tumor cells in most osseous tissues were observed following injection of 5-Aza pretreated-PCa cells compared with vehicle-pretreated PCa cells. Our results suggest that epigenetic alteration of histone demethylation regulated by reduction of DNMT1 may control induction of EMT and the CSC phenotype, which facilitates tumorigenesis in PCa cells and has important therapeutic implications in targeting epigenetic regulation. PMID:27659015

  18. Grainyhead-like 2 downstream targets act to suppress epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition during neural tube closure

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Heather J.; Niswander, Lee A.

    2016-01-01

    The transcription factor grainyhead-like 2 (GRHL2) is expressed in non-neural ectoderm (NNE) and Grhl2 loss results in fully penetrant cranial neural tube defects (NTDs) in mice. GRHL2 activates expression of several epithelial genes; however, additional molecular targets and functional processes regulated by GRHL2 in the NNE remain to be determined, as well as the underlying cause of the NTDs in Grhl2 mutants. Here, we find that Grhl2 loss results in abnormal mesenchymal phenotypes in the NNE, including aberrant vimentin expression and increased cellular dynamics that affects the NNE and neural crest cells. The resulting loss of NNE integrity contributes to an inability of the cranial neural folds to move toward the midline and results in NTD. Further, we identified Esrp1, Sostdc1, Fermt1, Tmprss2 and Lamc2 as novel NNE-expressed genes that are downregulated in Grhl2 mutants. Our in vitro assays show that they act as suppressors of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Thus, GRHL2 promotes the epithelial nature of the NNE during the dynamic events of neural tube formation by both activating key epithelial genes and actively suppressing EMT through novel downstream EMT suppressors. PMID:26903501

  19. Complex changes in alternative pre-mRNA splicing play a central role in the Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT)

    PubMed Central

    Warzecha, Claude C.; Carstens, Russ P.

    2012-01-01

    The epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is an important developmental process that is also implicated in disease pathophysiology, such as cancer progression and metastasis. A wealth of literature in recent years has identified important transcriptional regulators and large-scale changes in gene expression programs that drive the phenotypic changes that occur during the EMT. However, in the past couple of years it has become apparent that extensive changes in alternative splicing also play a profound role in shaping the changes in cell behavior that characterize the EMT. While long known splicing switches in FGFR2 and p120-catenin provided hints of a larger program of EMT-associated alternative splicing, the recent identification of the epithelial splicing regulatory proteins 1 and 2 (ESRP1 and ESRP2) began to reveal this genome-wide post-transcriptional network. Several studies have now demonstrated the truly vast extent of this alternative splicing program. The global switches in splicing associated with the EMT add an important additional layer of post-transcriptional control that works in harmony with transcriptional and epigenetic regulation to effect complex changes in cell shape, polarity, and behavior that mediate transitions between epithelial and mesenchymal cell states. Future challenges include the need to investigate the functional consequences of these splicing switches at both the individual gene as well as systems level. PMID:22548723

  20. Cell Surface Glycan Changes in the Spontaneous Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition of Equine Amniotic Multipotent Progenitor Cells.

    PubMed

    Lange-Consiglio, Anna; Accogli, Gianluca; Cremonesi, Fausto; Desantis, Salvatore

    2014-01-01

    Amniotic epithelial cells (AECs) spontaneously transform into amniotic mesenchymal cells (AMCs) in vitro during cell culture. Glycocalyx was analyzed to identify the glycan pattern in AECs, AMCs and epithelial-mesenchymal transdifferentiated cells (EMTCs). Pure cell cultures were derived using cloned AEC and AMC cell lines obtained by the dilution technique from amniotic membranes. Mesenchymal cells generated by differentiation of clonal epithelial cells were considered transdifferentiated. Immunocytoscreen, in vitro multipotent differentiation and molecular characterization of EMTCs were performed. In combination with saponification and sialidase digestion, a panel of 12 lectins was used to analyze the glycan pattern of AEC, AMC and EMTC glycocalyx. Cytokeratin cell markers were lost in EMTCs and typical mesenchymal markers, such as vimentin, appeared. These cells retained their differentiation potential. Lectin histochemistry revealed a cell-specific glycan profile. Galactose (Gal)β1,4GlcNAc, Neu5Acα2,6Gal/GalNAc and N-acetyl neuraminic (sialic) acid (NeuNAc)α2,3Galβ1,3(±NeuNAcα2,6)GalNAc were highly expressed on the surface of all the amniotic cell cultures. AECs expressed asialoglycans with terminal GalNAc and GlcNAc. More highly mannosylated N-linked glycans and NeuNAcα2,3Galβ1,3GalNAc in O-linked glycans were expressed by EMTCs, but these cells had fewer glycans ending with fucose (Fuc), Gal, GlcNAc and GalNAc than AECs. GlcNAc- and GalNAc-terminating glycans were similarly expressed on the glycocalyx of the mesenchymal cell populations (EMTCs and AMCs). These results demonstrate for the first time that the spontaneous epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of equine amnion cells is characterized by cell surface glycan remodeling and that glycosylation changes result in a cell type-specific glycan profile. The glycopattern of equine amnion spontaneous EMTCs differs from EMT of tumoral cells.

  1. Cell Surface Glycan Changes in the Spontaneous Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition of Equine Amniotic Multipotent Progenitor Cells.

    PubMed

    Lange-Consiglio, Anna; Accogli, Gianluca; Cremonesi, Fausto; Desantis, Salvatore

    2014-01-01

    Amniotic epithelial cells (AECs) spontaneously transform into amniotic mesenchymal cells (AMCs) in vitro during cell culture. Glycocalyx was analyzed to identify the glycan pattern in AECs, AMCs and epithelial-mesenchymal transdifferentiated cells (EMTCs). Pure cell cultures were derived using cloned AEC and AMC cell lines obtained by the dilution technique from amniotic membranes. Mesenchymal cells generated by differentiation of clonal epithelial cells were considered transdifferentiated. Immunocytoscreen, in vitro multipotent differentiation and molecular characterization of EMTCs were performed. In combination with saponification and sialidase digestion, a panel of 12 lectins was used to analyze the glycan pattern of AEC, AMC and EMTC glycocalyx. Cytokeratin cell markers were lost in EMTCs and typical mesenchymal markers, such as vimentin, appeared. These cells retained their differentiation potential. Lectin histochemistry revealed a cell-specific glycan profile. Galactose (Gal)β1,4GlcNAc, Neu5Acα2,6Gal/GalNAc and N-acetyl neuraminic (sialic) acid (NeuNAc)α2,3Galβ1,3(±NeuNAcα2,6)GalNAc were highly expressed on the surface of all the amniotic cell cultures. AECs expressed asialoglycans with terminal GalNAc and GlcNAc. More highly mannosylated N-linked glycans and NeuNAcα2,3Galβ1,3GalNAc in O-linked glycans were expressed by EMTCs, but these cells had fewer glycans ending with fucose (Fuc), Gal, GlcNAc and GalNAc than AECs. GlcNAc- and GalNAc-terminating glycans were similarly expressed on the glycocalyx of the mesenchymal cell populations (EMTCs and AMCs). These results demonstrate for the first time that the spontaneous epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of equine amnion cells is characterized by cell surface glycan remodeling and that glycosylation changes result in a cell type-specific glycan profile. The glycopattern of equine amnion spontaneous EMTCs differs from EMT of tumoral cells. PMID:26337136

  2. CCAAT/enhancer binding protein beta (C/EBPβ) isoform balance as a regulator of epithelial-mesenchymal transition in mouse mammary epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Miura, Yuka; Hagiwara, Natsumi; Radisky, Derek C.; Hirai, Yohei

    2014-09-10

    Activation of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) program promotes cell invasion and metastasis, and is reversed through mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET) after formation of distant metastases. Here, we show that an imbalance of gene products encoded by the transcriptional factor C/EBPβ, LAP (liver-enriched activating protein) and LIP (liver-enriched inhibitory protein), can regulate both EMT- and MET-like phenotypic changes in mouse mammary epithelial cells. By using tetracycline repressive LIP expression constructs, we found that SCp2 cells, a clonal epithelial line of COMMA1-D cells, expressed EMT markers, lost the ability to undergo alveolar-like morphogenesis in 3D Matrigel, and acquired properties of benign adenoma cells. Conversely, we found that inducible expression of LAP in SCg6 cells, a clonal fibroblastic line of COMMA1-D cells, began to express epithelial keratins with suppression of proliferation. The overexpression of the C/EBPβ gene products in these COMMA1-D derivatives was suppressed by long-term cultivation on tissue culture plastic, but gene expression was maintained in cells grown on Matrigel or exposed to proteasome inhibitors. Thus, imbalances of C/EBPβ gene products in mouse mammary epithelial cells, which are affected by contact with basement membrane, are defined as a potential regulator of metastatic potential. - Highlights: • We created a temporal imbalance of C/EBPβ gene products in the mammary model cells. • The temporal up-regulation of LIP protein induced EMT-like cell behaviors. • The temporal up-regulation of LAP protein induced MET-like cell behaviors. • Excess amount of C/EBPβ gene products were eliminated by proteasomal-degradation. • Basement membrane components attenuated proteasome-triggered protein elimination.

  3. A link between lipid metabolism and epithelial-mesenchymal transition provides a target for colon cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Martínez, Ruth; Álvarez-Fernández, Mónica; Vargas, Teodoro; Molina, Susana; García, Belén; Herranz, Jesús; Moreno-Rubio, Juan; Reglero, Guillermo; Pérez-Moreno, Mirna; Feliu, Jaime; Malumbres, Marcos; de Molina, Ana Ramírez

    2015-01-01

    The alterations in carbohydrate metabolism that fuel tumor growth have been extensively studied. However, other metabolic pathways involved in malignant progression, demand further understanding. Here we describe a metabolic acyl-CoA synthetase/stearoyl-CoA desaturase ACSL/SCD network causing an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) program that promotes migration and invasion of colon cancer cells. The mesenchymal phenotype produced upon overexpression of these enzymes is reverted through reactivation of AMPK signaling. Furthermore, this network expression correlates with poorer clinical outcome of stage-II colon cancer patients. Finally, combined treatment with chemical inhibitors of ACSL/SCD selectively decreases cancer cell viability without reducing normal cells viability. Thus, ACSL/SCD network stimulates colon cancer progression through conferring increased energetic capacity and invasive and migratory properties to cancer cells, and might represent a new therapeutic opportunity for colon cancer treatment. PMID:26451612

  4. TGFβ-Id1 Signaling Opposes Twist1 and Promotes Metastatic Colonization Via a Mesenchymal-to-Epithelial Transition

    PubMed Central

    Stankic, Marko; Pavlovic, Svetlana; Chin, Yvette; Brogi, Edi; Padua, David; Norton, Larry; Massague, Joan; Benezra, Robert

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY ID genes are required for breast cancer colonization of the lungs, but the mechanism remains poorly understood. Here, we show that Id1 expression induces a stem-like phenotype in breast cancer cells, while retaining epithelial properties, contrary to the notion that cancer stem-like properties are inextricably linked to the mesenchymal state. During metastatic colonization, Id1 induces a mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition (MET), specifically in cells whose mesenchymal state is dependent on the Id1 target protein Twist1 but not at the primary site, where this state is controlled by the zinc-finger protein Snail1. Knockdown of Id expression in metastasizing cells prevents MET and dramatically reduces lung colonization. Furthermore, Id1 is induced by TGFβ only in cells that have first undergone EMT, demonstrating that EMT is a pre-requisite for subsequent Id1-induced MET during lung colonization. Collectively, these studies underscore the importance of Id-mediated phenotypic switching during distinct stages of breast cancer metastasis. PMID:24332369

  5. Ionizing Radiation Promotes Migration and Invasion of Cancer Cells Through Transforming Growth Factor-Beta-Mediated Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou Yongchun; Liu Junye; Li Jing; Zhang Jie; Xu Yuqiao; Zhang Huawei; Qiu Lianbo; Ding Guirong; Su Xiaoming; Mei Shi; Guo Guozhen

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: To examine whether ionizing radiation enhances the migratory and invasive abilities of cancer cells through transforming growth factor (TGF-{beta})-mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Methods and Materials: Six cancer cell lines originating from different human organs were irradiated by {sup 60}Co {gamma}-ray at a total dose of 2 Gy, and the changes associated with EMT, including morphology, EMT markers, migration and invasion, were observed by microscope, Western blot, immunofluorescence, scratch assay, and transwell chamber assay, respectively. Then the protein levels of TGF-{beta} in these cancer cells were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the role of TGF-{beta} signaling pathway in the effect of ionizing radiation on EMT was investigate by using the specific inhibitor SB431542. Results: After irradiation with {gamma}-ray at a total dose of 2 Gy, cancer cells presented the mesenchymal phenotype, and compared with the sham-irradiation group the expression of epithelial markers was decreased and of mesenchymal markers was increased, the migratory and invasive capabilities were strengthened, and the protein levels of TGF-{beta} were enhanced. Furthermore, events associated with EMT induced by IR in A549 could be reversed through inhibition of TGF-{beta} signaling. Conclusions: These results suggest that EMT mediated by TGF-{beta} plays a critical role in IR-induced enhancing of migratory and invasive capabilities in cancer cells.

  6. YB-1 expression promotes epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in prostate cancer that is inhibited by a small molecule fisetin.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohammad Imran; Adhami, Vaqar Mustafa; Lall, Rahul Kumar; Sechi, Mario; Joshi, Dinesh C; Haidar, Omar M; Syed, Deeba Nadeem; Siddiqui, Imtiaz Ahmad; Chiu, Shing-Yan; Mukhtar, Hasan

    2014-05-15

    Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays an important role in prostate cancer (PCa) metastasis. The transcription/translation regulatory Y-box binding protein-1 (YB-1) is known to be associated with cancer metastasis. We observed that YB-1 expression increased with tumor grade and showed an inverse relationship with E-cadherin in a human PCa tissue array. Forced YB-1 expression induced a mesenchymal morphology that was associated with down regulation of epithelial markers. Silencing of YB-1 reversed mesenchymal features and decreased cell proliferation, migration and invasion in PCa cells. YB-1 is activated directly via Akt mediated phosphorylation at Ser102 within the cold shock domain (CSD). We next identified fisetin as an inhibitor of YB-1 activation. Computational docking and molecular dynamics suggested that fisetin binds on the residues from β1 - β4 strands of CSD, hindering Akt's interaction with YB-1. Calculated free binding energy ranged from -11.9845 to -9.6273 kcal/mol. Plasmon Surface Resonance studies showed that fisetin binds to YB-1 with an affinity of approximately 35 µM, with both slow association and dissociation. Fisetin also inhibited EGF induced YB-1 phosphorylation and markers of EMT both in vitro and in vivo. Collectively our data suggest that YB-1 induces EMT in PCa and identify fisetin as an inhibitor of its activation.

  7. Twist1 and Slug mediate H2AX-regulated epithelial-mesenchymal transition in breast cells.

    PubMed

    Weyemi, Urbain; Redon, Christophe E; Sethi, Taresh K; Burrell, Allison S; Jailwala, Parthav; Kasoji, Manjula; Abrams, Natalie; Merchant, Anand; Bonner, William M

    2016-09-16

    The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is thought to be essential for cancer metastasis. While chromatin remodeling is involved in EMT, which processes contribute to this remodeling remain poorly investigated. Recently, we showed that silencing or removal of the histone variant H2A.X induced mesenchymal-like characteristics, including activation of the EMT transcription factors, Slug and Zeb1 in human colon cancer cells. Here, we provide the evidence that H2A.X loss in human non-tumorigenic breast cell line MCF10A results in a robust EMT activation, as substantiated by a genome-wide expression analysis. Cells deficient for H2A.X exhibit enhanced migration and invasion, along with an activation of a set of mesenchymal genes and a concomitant repression of epithelial genes. In the breast model, the EMT-related transcription factor Twist1 cooperates with Slug to regulate EMT upon H2A.X Loss. Of interest, H2A.X expression level tightly correlates with Twist1, and to a lesser extent with Slug in the panel of human breast cancer cell lines of the NCI-60 datasets. These new findings indicate that H2A.X is involved in the EMT processes in cells of different origins but pairing with transcription factors for EMT may be tissue specific. PMID:27315462

  8. Loss of α-Tubulin Acetylation Is Associated with TGF-β-induced Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition.

    PubMed

    Gu, Shuchen; Liu, Yanjing; Zhu, Bowen; Ding, Ke; Yao, Tso-Pang; Chen, Fenfang; Zhan, Lixing; Xu, Pinglong; Ehrlich, Marcelo; Liang, Tingbo; Lin, Xia; Feng, Xin-Hua

    2016-03-01

    The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a process by which differentiated epithelial cells reprogram gene expression, lose their junctions and polarity, reorganize their cytoskeleton, increase cell motility and assume a mesenchymal morphology. Despite the critical functions of the microtubule (MT) in cytoskeletal organization, how it participates in EMT induction and maintenance remains poorly understood. Here we report that acetylated α-tubulin, which plays an important role in microtubule (MT) stabilization and cell morphology, can serve as a novel regulator and marker of EMT. A high level of acetylated α-tubulin was correlated with epithelial morphology and it profoundly decreased during TGF-β-induced EMT. We found that TGF-β increased the activity of HDAC6, a major deacetylase of α-tubulin, without affecting its expression levels. Treatment with HDAC6 inhibitor tubacin or TGF-β type I receptor inhibitor SB431542 restored the level of acetylated α-tubulin and consequently blocked EMT. Our results demonstrate that acetylated α-tubulin can serve as a marker of EMT and that HDAC6 represents an important regulator during EMT process.

  9. Notch4 Signaling Induces a Mesenchymal-Epithelial-like Transition in Melanoma Cells to Suppress Malignant Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Bonyadi Rad, Ehsan; Hammerlindl, Heinz; Wels, Christian; Popper, Ulrich; Ravindran Menon, Dinoop; Breiteneder, Heimo; Kitzwoegerer, Melitta; Hafner, Christine; Herlyn, Meenhard; Bergler, Helmut; Schaider, Helmut

    2016-04-01

    The effects of Notch signaling are context-dependent and both oncogenic and tumor-suppressive functions have been described. Notch signaling in melanoma is considered oncogenic, but clinical trials testing Notch inhibition in this malignancy have not proved successful. Here, we report that expression of the constitutively active intracellular domain of Notch4 (N4ICD) in melanoma cells triggered a switch from a mesenchymal-like parental phenotype to an epithelial-like phenotype. The epithelial-like morphology was accompanied by strongly reduced invasive, migratory, and proliferative properties concomitant with the downregulation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition markers Snail2 (SNAI2), Twist1, vimentin (VIM), and MMP2 and the reexpression of E-cadherin (CDH1). The N4ICD-induced phenotypic switch also resulted in significantly reduced tumor growth in vivo Immunohistochemical analysis of primary human melanomas and cutaneous metastases revealed a significant correlation between Notch4 and E-cadherin expression. Mechanistically, we demonstrate that N4ICD induced the expression of the transcription factors Hey1 and Hey2, which bound directly to the promoter regions of Snail2 and Twist1 and repressed gene transcription, as determined by EMSA and luciferase assays. Taken together, our findings indicate a role for Notch4 as a tumor suppressor in melanoma, uncovering a potential explanation for the poor clinical efficacy of Notch inhibitors observed in this setting. Cancer Res; 76(7); 1690-7. ©2016 AACR. PMID:26801977

  10. Down-regulation of MALAT1 inhibits cervical cancer cell invasion and metastasis by inhibition of epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ruili; Qin, Changfei; Jiang, Binyuan; Fang, Shujuan; Pan, Xi; Peng, Li; Liu, Zhaoyang; Li, Wenling; Li, Yuehui; Li, Guancheng

    2016-03-01

    The metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1(MALAT1), a member of the long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) family, has been reported to be highly enriched in many kinds of cancers and to be a metastasis marker and a prognostic factor. In this study, we found that MALAT1 expression levels were significantly increased in cervical cancer (CC) cells and tissues. The down-regulation of MALAT1 by shRNA in CC cells inhibited the invasion and metastasis in vitro and in vivo. Microarray analysis showed that the knockdown of MALAT1 up-regulated the epithelial markers E-cadherin and ZO-1, and down-regulated the mesenchymal markers β-catenin and Vimentin. This regulation was further confirmed by subsequent observation from RT-PCR, western blot, and immunofluorescence results. Meanwhile, the transcription factor snail, which functions to modulate epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), was also down-regulated at both transcript and protein levels by MALAT1 down-regulation. In addition, we found that MALAT1 expression levels were positively related to HPV infection in cervical epithelial tissues by microarray analysis. Taken together, these results suggest that MALAT1 functions to promote cervical cancer invasion and metastasis via induction of EMT, and it may be a target for the prevention and therapy of cervical cancers.

  11. MicroRNA cluster 302-367 enhances somatic cell reprogramming by accelerating a mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition.

    PubMed

    Liao, Baojian; Bao, Xichen; Liu, Longqi; Feng, Shipeng; Zovoilis, Athanasios; Liu, Wenbo; Xue, Yanting; Cai, Jie; Guo, Xiangpeng; Qin, Baoming; Zhang, Ruosi; Wu, Jiayan; Lai, Liangxue; Teng, Maikun; Niu, Liwen; Zhang, Biliang; Esteban, Miguel A; Pei, Duanqing

    2011-05-13

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are emerging critical regulators of cell function that frequently reside in clusters throughout the genome. They influence a myriad of cell functions, including the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells, also termed reprogramming. Here, we have successfully delivered entire miRNA clusters into reprogramming fibroblasts using retroviral vectors. This strategy avoids caveats associated with transient transfection of chemically synthesized miRNA mimics. Overexpression of 2 miRNA clusters, 106a-363 and in particular 302-367, allowed potent increases in induced pluripotent stem cell generation efficiency in mouse fibroblasts using 3 exogenous factors (Sox2, Klf4, and Oct4). Pathway analysis highlighted potential relevant effectors, including mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition, cell cycle, and epigenetic regulators. Further study showed that miRNA cluster 302-367 targeted TGFβ receptor 2, promoted increased E-cadherin expression, and accelerated mesenchymal-to-epithelial changes necessary for colony formation. Our work thus provides an interesting alternative for improving reprogramming using miRNAs and adds new evidence for the emerging relationship between pluripotency and the epithelial phenotype. PMID:21454525

  12. Small cell lung cancer: Circulating tumor cells of extended stage patients express a mesenchymal-epithelial transition phenotype.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Gerhard; Hochmair, Maximilian; Rath, Barbara; Klameth, Lukas; Zeillinger, Robert

    2016-07-01

    Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is distinguished by aggressive growth, early dissemination and a poor prognosis at advanced stage. The remarkably high count of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) of SCLC allowed for the establishment of permanent CTC cultures at our institution for the first time. CTCs are assumed to have characteristics of cancer stem cells (CSCs) and an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) phenotype, but extravasation of tumors at distal sites is marked by epithelial features. Two SCLC CTC cell lines, namely BHGc7 and BHGc10, as well as SCLC cell lines derived from primary tumors and metastases were analyzed for the expression of pluripotent stem cell markers and growth factors. Expression of E-cadherin and β-Catenin were determined by flow cytometry. Stem cell-associated markers SOX17, α-fetoprotein, OCT-3/4, KDR, Otx2, GATA-4, Nanog, HCG, TP63 and Goosecoid were not expressed in the 2 CTC lines. In contrast, high expression was found for HNF-3β/FOXA2, SOX2, PDX-1/IPF1 and E-cadherin. E-cadherin expression was restricted to the 2 CTCs and 2 cell lines derived from pleural effusion (SCLC26A) and bone metastases (NCI-H526), respectively. Thus, these SCLC CTCs established from extended disease SCLC patients lack expression of stem cell markers which suppress the epithelial phenotype. Instead they express high levels of E-cadherin consistent with a mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET or EMrT) and form large tumorospheres possibly in response to the selection pressure of first-line chemotherapy. HNF-3β/FOXA2 and PDX-1/IPF1 expression seem to be related to growth factor dependence on insulin/IGF-1 receptors and IGF-binding proteins. PMID:26919626

  13. CYR61 and TAZ Upregulation and Focal Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition May Be Early Predictors of Barrett's Esophagus Malignant Progression.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Joana; Mesquita, Marta; Dias Pereira, António; Bettencourt-Dias, Mónica; Chaves, Paula; Pereira-Leal, José B

    2016-01-01

    Barrett's esophagus is the major risk factor for esophageal adenocarcinoma. It has a low but non-neglectable risk, high surveillance costs and no reliable risk stratification markers. We sought to identify early biomarkers, predictive of Barrett's malignant progression, using a meta-analysis approach on gene expression data. This in silico strategy was followed by experimental validation in a cohort of patients with extended follow up from the Instituto Português de Oncologia de Lisboa de Francisco Gentil EPE (Portugal). Bioinformatics and systems biology approaches singled out two candidate predictive markers for Barrett's progression, CYR61 and TAZ. Although previously implicated in other malignancies and in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition phenotypes, our experimental validation shows for the first time that CYR61 and TAZ have the potential to be predictive biomarkers for cancer progression. Experimental validation by reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry confirmed the up-regulation of both genes in Barrett's samples associated with high-grade dysplasia/adenocarcinoma. In our cohort CYR61 and TAZ up-regulation ranged from one to ten years prior to progression to adenocarcinoma in Barrett's esophagus index samples. Finally, we found that CYR61 and TAZ over-expression is correlated with early focal signs of epithelial to mesenchymal transition. Our results highlight both CYR61 and TAZ genes as potential predictive biomarkers for stratification of the risk for development of adenocarcinoma and suggest a potential mechanistic route for Barrett's esophagus neoplastic progression. PMID:27583562

  14. CYR61 and TAZ Upregulation and Focal Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition May Be Early Predictors of Barrett's Esophagus Malignant Progression.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Joana; Mesquita, Marta; Dias Pereira, António; Bettencourt-Dias, Mónica; Chaves, Paula; Pereira-Leal, José B

    2016-01-01

    Barrett's esophagus is the major risk factor for esophageal adenocarcinoma. It has a low but non-neglectable risk, high surveillance costs and no reliable risk stratification markers. We sought to identify early biomarkers, predictive of Barrett's malignant progression, using a meta-analysis approach on gene expression data. This in silico strategy was followed by experimental validation in a cohort of patients with extended follow up from the Instituto Português de Oncologia de Lisboa de Francisco Gentil EPE (Portugal). Bioinformatics and systems biology approaches singled out two candidate predictive markers for Barrett's progression, CYR61 and TAZ. Although previously implicated in other malignancies and in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition phenotypes, our experimental validation shows for the first time that CYR61 and TAZ have the potential to be predictive biomarkers for cancer progression. Experimental validation by reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry confirmed the up-regulation of both genes in Barrett's samples associated with high-grade dysplasia/adenocarcinoma. In our cohort CYR61 and TAZ up-regulation ranged from one to ten years prior to progression to adenocarcinoma in Barrett's esophagus index samples. Finally, we found that CYR61 and TAZ over-expression is correlated with early focal signs of epithelial to mesenchymal transition. Our results highlight both CYR61 and TAZ genes as potential predictive biomarkers for stratification of the risk for development of adenocarcinoma and suggest a potential mechanistic route for Barrett's esophagus neoplastic progression.

  15. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition markers in lymph node metastases and primary breast tumors - relation to dissemination and proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Markiewicz, Aleksandra; Wełnicka-Jaśkiewicz, Marzena; Seroczyńska, Barbara; Skokowski, Jarosław; Majewska, Hanna; Szade, Jolanta; Żaczek, Anna J

    2014-01-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) was shown to enhance metastatic abilities of cancer cells, but it remains elusive in clinical samples. Moreover, EMT is rarely studied in lymph node metastases (LNM), thus limiting our understanding of its role outside of the primary tumors (PT). We collected a set of samples including triplets - PT, circulating tumor cells (CTCs)-enriched blood samples and LNM from 108 early breast cancer patients. With immunohistochemistry we analyzed levels of EMT effectors – E-cadherin, vimentin and N-cadherin in LNM, central areas and margins of PT. Additionally, expression of EMT core regulators TWIST1, SNAI1, SNAI2 was measured with RT-qPCR. Patients with E-cadherin loss had CTCs in 45% of the cases in comparison to 23% with normal E-cadherin level (P = 0.05). Mesenchymal phenotype of CTCs-enriched blood fractions was five-times more frequent in patients with E-cadherin loss in PT compared to PT with normal E-cadherin levels (P = 0.01). Epithelial/mesenchymal status of matched samples at different stages of dissemination was frequently discordant, especially for pairs involving CTCs, indicating high plasticity of tumor cells. LNM showed increased expression of TWIST1, SNAI1, SNAI2 accompanied by decreased Ki67 labeling index, with median Ki67 of 15% in PT and 10% in LNM (P = 0.0002). Our findings demonstrate that E-cadherin loss, not only in PT margin, might lead to seeding of especially malignant CTCs with mesenchymal phenotype. In comparison to PT, cells in LNM re-express E-cadherin, upregulate EMT transcription factors and reduce cell division rate, which could be viewed as their long-term survival strategy. PMID:25628790

  16. Inflammasome-independent NLRP3 is required for epithelial-mesenchymal transition in colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong; Wang, Yajing; Du, Qianming; Lu, Ping; Fan, Huimin; Lu, Jinrong; Hu, Rong

    2016-03-15

    Inflammasome NLRP3 plays a crucial role in the process of colitis and colitis--associated colon cancer. Even though much is known regarding the NLRP3 inflammasome that regulates pro-inflammatory cytokine release in innate immune cells, the role of NLRP3 in non-immune cells is still unclear. In this study, we showed that NLRP3 was highly expressed in mesenchymal-like colon cancer cells (SW620), and was upregulated by tumor necrosis factors-α (TNF-α) and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) respectively, during EMT in colon cancer epithelial cells HCT116 and HT29. Knockdown of NLRP3 retained epithelial spindle-like morphology of HCT116 and HT29 cells and reversed the mesenchymal characteristic of SW620 cells, indicated by the decreased expression of vimentin and MMP9 and increased expression of E-cadherin. In addition, knockdown of NLRP3 in colorectal carcinoma cells displayed diminished cell migration and invasion. Interestingly, during the EMT process induced by TNF-α or TGF-β1, the cleaved caspase-1 and ASC speck were not detected, indicating that NLRP3 functions in an inflammasome-independent way. Further studies demonstrated that NLRP3 protein expression was regulated by NF-κB signaling in TNF-α or TGF-β1-induced EMT, as verified by the NF-κB inhibitor Bay 11-7082. Moreover, NLRP3 knockdown reduced the expression of Snail1, indicating that NLRP3 may promote EMT through regulating Snail1. In summary, our results showed that the NLRP3 expression, not the inflammasome activation, was required for EMT in colorectal cancer cells. PMID:26968633

  17. Targeting the Nuclear Export Protein XPO1/CRM1 Reverses Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition

    PubMed Central

    Azmi, Asfar S.; Muqbil, Irfana; Wu, Jack; Aboukameel, Amro; Senapedis, William; Baloglu, Erkan; Bollig-Fischer, Aliccia; Dyson, Gregory; Kauffman, Michael; Landesman, Yosef; Shacham, Sharon; Philip, Philip A.; Mohammad, Ramzi M.

    2015-01-01

    Here we demonstrate for the first time that targeted inhibition of nuclear exporter protein exportin 1 (XPO1) also known as chromosome maintenance region 1 (CRM1) by Selective Inhibitor of Nuclear Export (SINE) compounds results in reversal of EMT in snail-transduced primary human mammary epithelial cells (HMECs). SINE compounds selinexor (KPT-330) and KPT-185, leptomycin B (LMB as +ve control) but not KPT-301 (–ve control) reverse EMT, suppress mesenchymal markers and consequently induce growth inhibition, apoptosis and prevent spheroid formation. SINE treatment resulted in nuclear retention of snail regulator FBXL5 that was concurrent with suppression of snail and down-regulation of mesenchymal markers. FBXL5 siRNA or transfection with cys528 mut-Xpo1 (lacking SINE binding site) markedly abrogated SINE activity highlighting an XPO1 and FBXL5 mediated mechanism of action. Silencing XPO1 or snail caused re-expression of FBXL5 as well as EMT reversal. Pathway analysis on SINE treated HMECs further verified the involvement of additional F-Box family proteins and confirmed the suppression of snail network. Oral administration of selinexor (15 mg/kg p.o. QoDx3/week for 3weeks) resulted in complete cures (no tumor rebound at 120 days) of HMLER-Snail xenografts. These findings raise the unique possibility of blocking EMT at the nuclear pore. PMID:26536918

  18. Integration of TGF-β/Smad and Jagged1/Notch signalling in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition

    PubMed Central

    Zavadil, Jiri; Cermak, Lukas; Soto-Nieves, Noemi; Böttinger, Erwin P

    2004-01-01

    Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transitions (EMTs) underlie cell plasticity required in embryonic development and frequently observed in advanced carcinogenesis. Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) induces EMT phenotypes in epithelial cells in vitro and has been associated with EMT in vivo. Here we report that expression of the hairy/enhancer-of-split-related transcriptional repressor Hey1, and the Notch-ligand Jagged1 (Jag1), was induced by TGF-β at the onset of EMT in epithelial cells from mammary gland, kidney tubules, and epidermis. The HEY1 expression profile was biphasic, consisting of immediate-early Smad3-dependent, Jagged1/Notch-independent activation, followed by delayed, indirect Jagged1/Notch-dependent activation. TGF-β-induced EMT was blocked by RNA silencing of HEY1 or JAG1, and by chemical inactivation of Notch. The EMT phenotype, biphasic activation of Hey1, and delayed expression of Jag1 were induced by TGF-β in wild-type, but not in Smad3-deficient, primary mouse kidney tubular epithelial cells. Our findings identify a new mechanism for functional integration of Jagged1/Notch signalling and coordinated activation of the Hey1 transcriptional repressor controlled by TGF-β/Smad3, and demonstrate functional roles for Smad3, Hey1, and Jagged1/Notch in mediating TGF-β-induced EMT. PMID:14976548

  19. Contributions of epithelial-mesenchymal transition and cancer stem cells to the development of castration resistance of prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    An important clinical challenge in prostate cancer therapy is the inevitable transition from androgen-sensitive to castration-resistant and metastatic prostate cancer. Albeit the androgen receptor (AR) signaling axis has been targeted, the biological mechanism underlying the lethal event of androgen independence remains unclear. New emerging evidences indicate that epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cancer stem cells (CSCs) play crucial roles during the development of castration-resistance and metastasis of prostate cancer. Notably, EMT may be a dynamic process. Castration can induce EMT that may enhance the stemness of CSCs, which in turn results in castration-resistance and metastasis. Reverse of EMT may attenuate the stemness of CSCs and inhibit castration-resistance and metastasis. These prospective approaches suggest that therapies target EMT and CSCs may cast a new light on the treatment of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) in the future. Here we review recent progress of EMT and CSCs in CRPC. PMID:24618337

  20. MicroRNAs involved in regulating epithelial-mesenchymal transition and cancer stem cells as molecular targets for cancer therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Xia, H; Hui, K M

    2012-11-01

    One of the major challenges in cancer gene therapy is the identification of functionally relevant tumor-specific genes as the therapeutic targets. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small, 22-25 nucleotides, endogenously expressed noncoding RNA. miRNAs are important genetic regulators: one miRNA can possibly target multiple genes and they can function as tumor promoters (oncogenic miRNAs, oncomirs) or tumor suppressors (anti-oncomirs). Therefore, the identification of misregulated miRNAs in cellular signaling pathways related to oncogenesis can have profound implications for cancer therapy. The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) converts epithelial cells into mesenchymal cells, a normal embryological process that frequently get activated during cancer invasion and metastasis. Recent evidence also supports the presence of a small subset of self-renewing, stem-like cells within the tumor mass that possess the capacity to seed new tumors and they have been termed 'cancer stem cells (CSC)'. Conceivably, these CSCs could provide a resource for cells that cause therapy resistance. Although the cell origin of CSCs remains to be fully elucidated, a growing body of evidence has demonstrated that the biology of EMT and CSCs is tightly linked with the sequences and compositions of miRNA molecules. Therefore, targeting miRNAs involved in EMT and CSCs regulation can provide novel miRNA-based therapeutic strategies in oncology.

  1. miR-655 suppresses epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition by targeting Prrx1 in triple-negative breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Lv, Zhi-Dong; Kong, Bin; Liu, Xiang-Ping; Jin, Li-Ying; Dong, Qian; Li, Fu-Nian; Wang, Hai-Bo

    2016-05-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a highly aggressive breast cancer subtype that lacks effective targeted therapies. The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a key contributor in the metastatic process. In this study, we found that miR-655 was down-regulated in TNBC, and its expression levels were associated with molecular-based classification and lymph node metastasis in breast cancer. These findings led us to hypothesize that miR-655 overexpression may inhibit EMT and its associated traits of TNBC. Ectopic expression of miR-655 not only induced the up-regulation of cytokeratin and decreased vimentin expression but also suppressed migration and invasion of mesenchymal-like cancer cells accompanied by a morphological shift towards the epithelial phenotype. In addition, we found that miR-655 was negatively correlated with Prrx1 in cell lines and clinical samples. Overexpression of miR-655 significantly suppressed Prrx1, as demonstrated by Prrx1 3'-untranslated region luciferase report assay. Our study demonstrated that miR-655 inhibits the acquisition of the EMT phenotype in TNBC by down-regulating Prrx1, thereby inhibiting cell migration and invasion during cancer progression. PMID:26820102

  2. Vimentin contributes to epithelial-mesenchymal transition cancer cell mechanics by mediating cytoskeletal organization and focal adhesion maturation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ching-Yi; Lin, Hsi-Hui; Tang, Ming-Jer; Wang, Yang-Kao

    2015-01-01

    Modulations of cytoskeletal organization and focal adhesion turnover correlate to tumorigenesis and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), the latter process accompanied by the loss of epithelial markers and the gain of mesenchymal markers (e.g., vimentin). Clinical microarray results demonstrated that increased levels of vimentin mRNA after chemotherapy correlated to a poor prognosis of breast cancer patients. We hypothesized that vimentin mediated the reorganization of cytoskeletons to maintain the mechanical integrity in EMT cancer cells. By using knockdown strategy, the results showed reduced cell proliferation, impaired wound healing, loss of directional migration, and increased large membrane extension in MDA-MB 231 cells. Vimentin depletion also induced reorganization of cytoskeletons and reduced focal adhesions, which resulted in impaired mechanical strength because of reduced cell stiffness and contractile force. In addition, overexpressing vimentin in MCF7 cells increased cell stiffness, elevated cell motility and directional migration, reoriented microtubule polarity, and increased EMT phenotypes due to the increased β1-integrin and the loss of junction protein E-cadherin. The EMT-related transcription factor slug was also mediated by vimentin. The current study demonstrated that vimentin serves as a regulator to maintain intracellular mechanical homeostasis by mediating cytoskeleton architecture and the balance of cell force generation in EMT cancer cells. PMID:25965826

  3. Down-regulation of miR-223 reverses epithelial-mesenchymal transition in gemcitabine-resistant pancreatic cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jia; Fang, Binbin; Zeng, Fanpeng; Ma, Cong; Pang, Haijie; Cheng, Long; Shi, Ying; Wang, Hui; Yin, Bin; Xia, Jun; Wang, Zhiwei

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that acquisition of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is associated with drug resistance in pancreatic cancer cells; however, the underlying mechanisms are not fully elucidated. Emerging evidence suggests that microRNAs play a crucial role in controlling EMT. The aims of this study were to explore the potential role of miR-223 in governing EMT in gemcitabine-resistant (GR) pancreatic cancer cells. To achieve this goal, real-time reverse transcription-PCR and western blot analysis were used to validate whether GR cells acquired EMT in AsPC-1 and PANC-1 cells. Invasion, migration, and detachment assays were performed to further identify the EMT characteristics in GR cells. The miR-223 inhibitor was used to determine its role in GR-induced EMT. We found that GR cells acquired EMT features, which obtained elongated fibroblastoid morphology, decreased expression of epithelial marker E-cadherin, and up-regulation of mesenchymal markers. Furthermore, we observed that GR cells are associated with high expression of miR-223. Notably, inhibition of miR-223 led to the reversal of EMT phenotype. More importantly, miR-223 governs GR-induced EMT in part due to down-regulation of its target Fbw7 and subsequent upregulation of Notch-1 in pancreatic cancer. Our study implied that down-regulation of miR-223 could be a novel therapy for pancreatic cancer. PMID:25638153

  4. Chromatinized Protein Kinase C-θ Directly Regulates Inducible Genes in Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition and Breast Cancer Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zafar, Anjum; Wu, Fan; Hardy, Kristine; Li, Jasmine; Tu, Wen Juan; McCuaig, Robert; Harris, Janelle; Khanna, Kum Kum; Attema, Joanne; Gregory, Philip A.; Goodall, Gregory J.; Harrington, Kirsti; Dahlstrom, Jane E.; Boulding, Tara; Madden, Rebecca; Tan, Abel; Milburn, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is activated during cancer invasion and metastasis, enriches for cancer stem cells (CSCs), and contributes to therapeutic resistance and disease recurrence. Signal transduction kinases play a pivotal role as chromatin-anchored proteins in eukaryotes. Here we report for the first time that protein kinase C-theta (PKC-θ) promotes EMT by acting as a critical chromatin-anchored switch for inducible genes via transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) and the key inflammatory regulatory protein NF-κB. Chromatinized PKC-θ exists as an active transcription complex and is required to establish a permissive chromatin state at signature EMT genes. Genome-wide analysis identifies a unique cohort of inducible PKC-θ-sensitive genes that are directly tethered to PKC-θ in the mesenchymal state. Collectively, we show that cross talk between signaling kinases and chromatin is critical for eliciting inducible transcriptional programs that drive mesenchymal differentiation and CSC formation, providing novel mechanisms to target using epigenetic therapy in breast cancer. PMID:24891615

  5. Crosstalk between epithelial-mesenchymal transition and castration resistance mediated by Twist1/AR signaling in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Shiota, Masaki; Itsumi, Momoe; Takeuchi, Ario; Imada, Kenjiro; Yokomizo, Akira; Kuruma, Hidetoshi; Inokuchi, Junichi; Tatsugami, Katsunori; Uchiumi, Takeshi; Oda, Yoshinao; Naito, Seiji

    2015-12-01

    Although invasive and metastatic progression via the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and acquisition of resistance to castration are both critical steps in prostate cancer, the molecular mechanism of this interaction remains unclear. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the interaction of signaling between castration resistance and EMT, and to apply this information to the development of a novel therapeutic concept using transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) inhibitor SB525334 combined with androgen-deprivation therapy against prostate cancer using an in vivo model. This study revealed that an EMT inducer (TGF-β) induced full-length androgen receptor (AR) and AR variant expression. In addition, a highly invasive clone showed augmented full-length AR and AR variant expression as well as acquisition of castration resistance. Conversely, full-length AR and AR as well as Twist1 and mesenchymal molecules variant expression were up-regulated in castration-resistant LNCaP xenograft. Finally, TGF-β inhibitor suppressed Twist1 and AR expression as well as prostate cancer growth combined with castration. Taken together, these results demonstrate that Twist1/AR signaling was augmented in castration resistant as well as mesenchymal-phenotype prostate cancer, indicating the molecular mechanism of mutual and functional crosstalk between EMT and castration resistance, which may play a crucial role in prostate carcinogenesis and progression.

  6. β-Galactoside α2,6-Sialyltranferase 1 Promotes Transforming Growth Factor-β-mediated Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition*

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jishun; Isaji, Tomoya; Im, Sanghun; Fukuda, Tomohiko; Hashii, Noritaka; Takakura, Daisuke; Kawasaki, Nana; Gu, Jianguo

    2014-01-01

    β-Galactoside α2,6-sialyltranferase 1 (ST6GAL1) catalyzes the addition of terminal α2,6-sialylation to N-glycans. Increased expression of ST6GAL1 has been reported in diverse carcinomas and highly correlates with tumor progression. Here, we report that St6gal1 transcription and α2,6-sialylated N-glycans are up-regulated during TGF-β-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in GE11 cells, requiring the Sp1 element within the St6gal1 promoter. Knockdown of St6gal1 strongly suppressed TGF-β-induced EMT with a concomitant increase in E-cadherin expression, a major determinant of epithelial cell adherens junctions. Conversely, overexpression of ST6GAL1 increased the turnover of cell surface E-cadherin and promoted TGF-β-induced EMT. Overexpressing β-galactoside α2,3-sialyltranferase 4 had little influence on EMT, indicating specificity for α2,6-sialylation. The basal mesenchymal phenotype of MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells was partially reversed by ST6GAL1 silencing. Moreover, ST6GAL1 knockdown inhibited the phosphorylation of Akt, but not Smad2, suggesting that ST6GAL1 contributes to EMT through a non-Smad signaling pathway. Taken together, our data indicate that ST6GAL1 promotes TGF-β-dependent EMT as well as maintenance of the mesenchymal state by growth signaling, providing a plausible mechanism whereby up-regulated ST6GAL1 may promote malignant progression. PMID:25344606

  7. VEGF elicits epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in prostate intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN)-like cells via an autocrine loop.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Moreno, Oscar; Lecanda, Jon; Green, Jeffrey E; Segura, Victor; Catena, Raul; Serrano, Diego; Calvo, Alfonso

    2010-02-15

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is overexpressed during the transition from prostate intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) to invasive carcinoma. We have mimicked such a process in vitro using the PIN-like C3(1)/Tag-derived Pr-111 cell line, which expresses low levels of VEGF and exhibits very low tumorigenicity in vivo. Elevated expression of VEGF164 in Pr-111 cells led to a significant increase in tumorigenicity, invasiveness, proliferation rates and angiogenesis. Moreover, VEGF164 induced strong changes in cell morphology and cell transcriptome through an autocrine mechanism, with changes in TGF-beta1- and cytoskeleton-related pathways, among others. Further analysis of VEGF-overexpressing Pr-111 cells or following exogenous addition of recombinant VEGF shows acquisition of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) features, with an increased expression of mesenchymal markers, such as N-cadherin, Snail1, Snail2 (Slug) and vimentin, and a decrease in E-cadherin. Administration of VEGF led to changes in TGF-beta1 signaling, including reduction of Smad7 (TGF-beta inhibitory Smad), increase in TGF-betaR-II, and translocation of phospho-Smad3 to the nucleus. Our results suggest that increased expression of VEGF in malignant cells during the transition from PIN to invasive carcinoma leads to EMT through an autocrine loop, which would promote tumor cell invasion and motility. Therapeutic blockade of VEGF/TGF-beta1 in PIN lesions might impair not only tumor angiogenesis, but also the early dissemination of malignant cells outside the epithelial layer.

  8. Apobec-1 Complementation Factor (A1CF) Inhibits Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition and Migration of Normal Rat Kidney Proximal Tubular Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Liyuan; Wang, Honglian; Zhou, Yuru; Ni, Dongsheng; Hu, Yanxia; Long, Yaoshui; Liu, Jianing; Peng, Rui; Zhou, Li; Liu, Zhicheng; Lyu, Zhongshi; Mao, Zhaomin; Hao, Jin; Li, Yiman; Zhou, Qin

    2016-01-01

    Apobec-1 complementation factor (A1CF) is a member of the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNP) family, which participates in site-specific posttranscriptional RNA editing of apolipoprotein B (apoB) transcript. The posttranscriptional editing of apoB mRNA by A1CF in the small intestine is required for lipid absorption. Apart from the intestine, A1CF mRNA is also reported to be highly expressed in the kidneys. However, it is remained unknown about the functions of A1CF in the kidneys. The aim of this paper is to explore the potential functions of A1CF in the kidneys. Our results demonstrated that in C57BL/6 mice A1CF was weakly expressed in embryonic kidneys from E15.5dpc while strongly expressed in mature kidneys after birth, and it mainly existed in the tubules of inner cortex. More importantly, we identified A1CF negatively regulated the process of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in kidney tubular epithelial cells. Our results found ectopic expression of A1CF up-regulated the epithelial markers E-cadherin, and down-regulated the mesenchymal markers vimentin and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) in NRK52e cells. In addition, knockdown of A1CF enhanced EMT contrary to the overexpression effect. Notably, the two A1CF variants led to the similar trend in the EMT process. Taken together, these data suggest that A1CF may be an antagonistic factor to the EMT process of kidney tubular epithelial cells. PMID:26848653

  9. Gastric cancer cell growth and epithelial-mesenchymal transition are inhibited by γ-secretase inhibitor DAPT.

    PubMed

    Li, Lu-Chun; Peng, Yang; Liu, Yan-Mim; Wang, Lu-Lu; Wu, Xiao-Ling

    2014-06-01

    The Notch signaling pathway may be important in the development and progression of several malignancies. However, the functions of Notch signaling in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) remain largely unknown. The aim of the present study was to delineate Notch1 expression in gastric cancer (GC) and its function in GC EMT. Using quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis, the expression of Notch1 was found to increase in GC cell lines compared with the normal gastric mucosa cell line. In addition, Notch1 expression was found to be downregulated in the non-metastatic-derived GC cell line compared with the metastatic-derived cell line. Furthermore, Notch1 expression was significantly increased in the tumor tissues compared with the adjacent normal mucosa tissues, as well as in patients with metastases than in patients without metastases. To explore the role of the Notch1 signaling pathway in EMT, the GC cell lines, AGS and MKN45, were treated with γ-secretase inhibitor DAPT. Using MTT, Transwell and clonality assays, DAPT was found to inhibit the expression of the Notch1 downstream target, Hes1, and impair the ability of the GC cell lines to migrate, invade and proliferate. The protein levels of the mesenchymal markers, vimentin, neural cadherin and Snail, were decreased; however, the expression of the epithelial marker, epithelial cadherin, was increased in the GC cell lines treated with DAPT. These results indicated that the Notch1 signaling pathway may be important in the development and progression of GC. In conclusion, DAPT inhibits the Notch1 signaling pathway, as well as the growth, invasion, metastasis and EMT of GC cells. PMID:24932308

  10. Defining the E-cadherin repressor interactome in epithelial-mesenchymal transition: the PMC42 model as a case study.

    PubMed

    Hugo, Honor J; Kokkinos, Maria I; Blick, Tony; Ackland, M Leigh; Thompson, Erik W; Newgreen, Donald F

    2011-01-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a feature of migratory cellular processes in all stages of life, including embryonic development and wound healing. Importantly, EMT features cluster with disease states such as chronic fibrosis and cancer. The dissolution of the E-cadherin-mediated adherens junction (AJ) is a key preliminary step in EMT and may occur early or late in the growing epithelial tumour. This is a first step for tumour cells towards stromal invasion, intravasation, extravasation and distant metastasis. The AJ may be inactivated in EMT by directed E-cadherin cleavage; however, it is increasingly evident that the majority of AJ changes are transcriptional and mediated by an expanding group of transcription factors acting directly or indirectly to repress E-cadherin expression. A review of the current literature has revealed that these factors may regulate each other in a hierarchical pattern where Snail1 (formerly Snail) and Snail2 (formerly Slug) are initially induced, leading to the activation of Zeb family members, TCF3, TCF4, Twist, Goosecoid and FOXC2. Within this general pathway, many inter-regulatory relationships have been defined which may be important in maintaining the EMT phenotype. This may be important given the short half-life of Snail1 protein. We have investigated these inter-regulatory relationships in the mesenchymal breast carcinoma cell line PMC42 (also known as PMC42ET) and its epithelial derivative, PMC42LA. This review also discusses several newly described regulators of E-cadherin repressors including oestrogen receptor-α and new discoveries in hypoxia- and growth factor-induced EMT. Finally, we evaluated how these findings may influence approaches to current cancer treatment.

  11. Cancer development, chemoresistance, epithelial to mesenchymal transition and stem cells: A snapshot of IL-6 mediated involvement.

    PubMed

    Bharti, Rashmi; Dey, Goutam; Mandal, Mahitosh

    2016-05-28

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a cytokine present in tumor microenvironment. Elevated level of IL-6 is associated with cancer cell proliferation, angiogenesis and metastasis through fueling STAT3, MAPK and Akt signaling. It promotes epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) through altered expression of N-cadherin, vimentin, snail, twist and E-cadherin leading to cancer metastasis. IL-6 boosts mammosphere formation, self-renewal of stem cells, stemness properties of cancer cells and recruitment of mesenchymal stem cells. IL-6 is also a contributing factor for multidrug resistance in cancer due to gp130/MAPK/STAT3 mediated activation of transcription factors C/EBPβ/δ, overexpression of p-glycoprotein, EMT transition and expansion of stem cells. The in-depth investigation of IL-6 mediated cellular effects and its signaling pathway can provide the new window for future research and clinical development of IL-6 targeted therapy in cancer. Thus, an overview is delivered in this review deciphering the emerging aspect of the predominant influence of IL-6 in malignant transformation, EMT, cancer-associated stem cells and chemoresistance. PMID:26945971

  12. Direct repression of MYB by ZEB1 suppresses proliferation and epithelial gene expression during epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition of breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) promotes cell migration and is important in metastasis. Cellular proliferation is often downregulated during EMT, and the reverse transition (MET) in metastases appears to be required for restoration of proliferation in secondary tumors. We studied the interplay between EMT and proliferation control by MYB in breast cancer cells. Methods MYB, ZEB1, and CDH1 expression levels were manipulated by lentiviral small-hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated knockdown/overexpression, and verified with Western blotting, immunocytochemistry, and qRT-PCR. Proliferation was assessed with bromodeoxyuridine pulse labeling and flow cytometry, and sulforhodamine B assays. EMT was induced with epidermal growth factor for 9 days or by exposure to hypoxia (1% oxygen) for up to 5 days, and assessed with qRT-PCR, cell morphology, and colony morphology. Protein expression in human breast cancers was assessed with immunohistochemistry. ZEB1-MYB promoter binding and repression were determined with Chromatin Immunoprecipitation Assay and a luciferase reporter assay, respectively. Student paired t tests, Mann–Whitney, and repeated measures two-way ANOVA tests determined statistical significance (P < 0.05). Results Parental PMC42-ET cells displayed higher expression of ZEB1 and lower expression of MYB than did the PMC42-LA epithelial variant. Knockdown of ZEB1 in PMC42-ET and MDA-MB-231 cells caused increased expression of MYB and a transition to a more epithelial phenotype, which in PMC42-ET cells was coupled with increased proliferation. Indeed, we observed an inverse relation between MYB and ZEB1 expression in two in vitro EMT cell models, in matched human breast tumors and lymph node metastases, and in human breast cancer cell lines. Knockdown of MYB in PMC42-LA cells (MYBsh-LA) led to morphologic changes and protein expression consistent with an EMT. ZEB1 expression was raised in MYBsh-LA cells and significantly repressed in MYB

  13. Cytoplasmic NOTCH and membrane-derived β-catenin link cell fate choice to epithelial-mesenchymal transition during myogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Sieiro, Daniel; Rios, Anne C; Hirst, Claire E; Marcelle, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    How cells in the embryo coordinate epithelial plasticity with cell fate decision in a fast changing cellular environment is largely unknown. In chick embryos, skeletal muscle formation is initiated by migrating Delta1-expressing neural crest cells that trigger NOTCH signaling and myogenesis in selected epithelial somite progenitor cells, which rapidly translocate into the nascent muscle to differentiate. Here, we uncovered at the heart of this response a signaling module encompassing NOTCH, GSK-3β, SNAI1 and β-catenin. Independent of its transcriptional function, NOTCH profoundly inhibits GSK-3β activity. As a result SNAI1 is stabilized, triggering an epithelial to mesenchymal transition. This allows the recruitment of β-catenin from the membrane, which acts as a transcriptional co-factor to activate myogenesis, independently of WNT ligand. Our results intimately associate the initiation of myogenesis to a change in cell adhesion and may reveal a general principle for coupling cell fate changes to EMT in many developmental and pathological processes. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.14847.001 PMID:27218451

  14. Sprouty Is a Negative Regulator of Transforming Growth Factor β–Induced Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition and Cataract

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Eun Hye H; Basson, M Albert; Robinson, Michael L; McAvoy, John W; Lovicu, Frank J

    2012-01-01

    Fibrosis affects an extensive range of organs and is increasingly acknowledged as a major component of many chronic disorders. It is now well accepted that the elevated expression of certain inflammatory cell–derived cytokines, especially transforming growth factor β (TGFβ), is involved in the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) leading to the pathogenesis of a diverse range of fibrotic diseases. In lens, aberrant TGFβ signaling has been shown to induce EMT leading to cataract formation. Sproutys (Sprys) are negative feedback regulators of receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK)-signaling pathways in many vertebrate systems, and in this study we showed that they are important in the murine lens for promoting the lens epithelial cell phenotype. Conditional deletion of Spry1 and Spry2 specifically from the lens leads to an aberrant increase in RTK-mediated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 phosphorylation and, surprisingly, elevated TGFβ-related signaling in lens epithelial cells, leading to an EMT and subsequent cataract formation. Conversely, increased Spry overexpression in lens cells can suppress not only TGFβ-induced signaling, but also the accompanying EMT and cataract formation. On the basis of these findings, we propose that a better understanding of the relationship between Spry and TGFβ signaling will not only elucidate the etiology of lens pathology, but will also lead to the development of treatments for other fibrotic-related diseases associated with TGFβ-induced EMT. PMID:22517312

  15. Persistent activation of STAT3 by PIM2-driven positive feedback loop for epithelial-mesenchymal transition in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Uddin, Nizam; Kim, Rae-Kwon; Yoo, Ki-Chun; Kim, Young-Heon; Cui, Yan-Hong; Kim, In-Gyu; Suh, Yongjoon; Lee, Su-Jae

    2015-06-01

    Metastasis of breast cancer is promoted by epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Emerging evidence suggests that STAT3 is a critical signaling node in EMT and is constitutively activated in many carcinomas, including breast cancer. However, its signaling mechanisms underlying persistent activation of STAT3 associated with EMT remain obscure. Here, we report that PIM2 promotes activation of STAT3 through induction of cytokines. Activation of STAT3 caused an increase in PIM2 expression, implicating a positive feedback loop between PIM2 and STAT3. In agreement, targeting of either PIM2, STAT3 or PIM2-dependent cytokines suppressed EMT-associated migratory and invasive properties through inhibition of ZEB1. Taken together, our findings identify the signaling mechanisms underlying the persistent activation of STAT3 and the oncogenic role of PIM2 in EMT in breast cancer.

  16. Persistent activation of STAT3 by PIM2-driven positive feedback loop for epithelial-mesenchymal transition in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Uddin, Nizam; Kim, Rae-Kwon; Yoo, Ki-Chun; Kim, Young-Heon; Cui, Yan-Hong; Kim, In-Gyu; Suh, Yongjoon; Lee, Su-Jae

    2015-06-01

    Metastasis of breast cancer is promoted by epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Emerging evidence suggests that STAT3 is a critical signaling node in EMT and is constitutively activated in many carcinomas, including breast cancer. However, its signaling mechanisms underlying persistent activation of STAT3 associated with EMT remain obscure. Here, we report that PIM2 promotes activation of STAT3 through induction of cytokines. Activation of STAT3 caused an increase in PIM2 expression, implicating a positive feedback loop between PIM2 and STAT3. In agreement, targeting of either PIM2, STAT3 or PIM2-dependent cytokines suppressed EMT-associated migratory and invasive properties through inhibition of ZEB1. Taken together, our findings identify the signaling mechanisms underlying the persistent activation of STAT3 and the oncogenic role of PIM2 in EMT in breast cancer. PMID:25854938

  17. Reciprocal activation of prostate cancer cells and cancer-associated fibroblasts stimulates epithelial-mesenchymal transition and cancer stemness.

    PubMed

    Giannoni, Elisa; Bianchini, Francesca; Masieri, Lorenzo; Serni, Sergio; Torre, Eugenio; Calorini, Lido; Chiarugi, Paola

    2010-09-01

    Although cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF) are key determinants in the malignant progression of cancer, their functional contribution to this process is still unclear. Analysis of the mutual interplay between prostate carcinoma cells and CAFs revealed a mandatory role of carcinoma-derived interleukin-6 in fibroblast activation. In turn, activated fibroblasts through secretion of metalloproteinases elicit in cancer cells a clear epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), as well as enhancement of tumor growth and development of spontaneous metastases. CAF-induced EMT leads prostate carcinoma cells to enhance expression of stem cell markers, as well as the ability to form prostaspheres and to self-renew. Hence, the paracrine interplay between CAFs and cancer cells leads to an EMT-driven gain of cancer stem cell properties associated with aggressiveness and metastatic spread.

  18. Naringenin decreases invasiveness and metastasis by inhibiting TGF-β-induced epithelial to mesenchymal transition in pancreatic cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Lou, Changjie; Zhang, Fayun; Yang, Ming; Zhao, Juan; Zeng, Wenfeng; Fang, Xiaocui; Zhang, Yanqiao; Zhang, Chunling; Liang, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) promotes cellular motility, invasiveness and metastasis during embryonic development and tumorigenesis. Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling pathway is a key regulator of EMT. A lot of evidences suggest that this process is Smad3-dependent. Herein we showed that exposure of aspc-1 and panc-1 pancreatic cancer cells to TGF-β1 resulted in characteristic morphological alterations of EMT, and enhancement of cell motility and gemcitabine (Gem) resistance along with an up-regulation of EMT markers genes such as vimentin, N-cadherin, MMP2 and MMP9. Naringenin (Nar) down-regulated EMT markers expression in both mRNA and protein levels by inhibiting TGF-β1/Smad3 signal pathway in the pancreatic cancer cells. Consequently, Nar suppressed the cells migration and invasion and reversed their resistance to Gem. PMID:23300530

  19. Niclosamide inhibits epithelial-mesenchymal transition and tumor growth in lapatinib-resistant human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Junjun; Chen, Xiaosong; Ward, Toby; Mao, Yan; Bockhorn, Jessica; Liu, Xiaofei; Wang, Gen; Pegram, Mark; Shen, Kunwei

    2016-02-01

    Acquired resistance to lapatinib, a human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 kinase inhibitor, remains a clinical problem for women with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive advanced breast cancer, as metastasis is commonly observed in these patients. Niclosamide, an anti-helminthic agent, has recently been shown to exhibit cytotoxicity to tumor cells with stem-like characteristics. This study was designed to identify the mechanisms underlying lapatinib resistance and to determine whether niclosamide inhibits lapatinib resistance by reversing epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Here, two human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive breast cancer cell lines, SKBR3 and BT474, were exposed to increasing concentrations of lapatinib to establish lapatinib-resistant cultures. Lapatinib-resistant SKBR3 and BT474 cells exhibited up-regulation of the phenotypic epithelial-mesenchymal transition markers Snail, vimentin and α-smooth muscle actin, accompanied by activation of nuclear factor-кB and Src and a concomitant increase in stem cell marker expression (CD44(high)/CD24(low)), compared to naive lapatinib-sensitive SKBR3 and BT474 cells, respectively. Interestingly, niclosamide reversed epithelial-mesenchymal transition, induced apoptosis and inhibited cell growth by perturbing aberrant signaling pathway activation in lapatinib-resistant human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive cells. The ability of niclosamide to alleviate stem-like phenotype development and invasion was confirmed. Collectively, our results demonstrate that lapatinib resistance correlates with epithelial-mesenchymal transition and that niclosamide inhibits lapatinib-resistant cell viability and epithelial-mesenchymal transition. These findings suggest a role of niclosamide or derivatives optimized for more favorable bioavailability not only in reversing lapatinib resistance but also in reducing metastatic potential during the treatment of human epidermal growth factor receptor

  20. Down-regulation of TRPS1 stimulates epithelial-mesenchymal transition and metastasis through repression of FOXA1.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jin-Zhou; Chen, Min; Zeng, Ming; Xu, Song-Hui; Zou, Fei-Yan; Chen, De; Yan, Guang-Rong

    2016-06-01

    The tricho-rhino-phalangeal syndrome 1 gene (TRPS1), which was initially found to be associated with tricho-rhino-phalangeal syndrome, is critical for the development and differentiation of bone, hair follicles and kidney. However, its role in cancer progression is largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrated that down-regulation of TRPS1 correlated with distant metastasis, tumour recurrence and poor survival rate in cancer patients. TRPS1 was frequently down-regulated in high-metastatic cancer cell lines from the breast, colon and nasopharynx. Silencing of TRPS1 stimulated epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), migration and invasion in vitro and metastasis in vivo, while TRPS1 over-expression exhibited the opposite effects. Using quantitative proteomics, FOXA1, a negative regulator of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), was shown to be down-regulated by TRPS1 knockdown. Ectopic expression of FOXA1 blocked the enhancement of EMT, migration and invasion induced by TRPS1 silencing. Mechanistically, TRPS1, acting as a transcription activator, directly induced FOXA1 transcription by binding to the FOXA1 promoter. We further showed that down-regulation of TRPS1 was induced by miR-373 binding to the 3' UTR of TRPS1. Over-expression of TRPS1, but not TRPS1 3' UTR, blocked the enhancement of migration and invasion induced by miR-373. Taken together, we consider that down-regulation of TRPS1 by miR-373, acting as a transcriptional activator, promotes EMT and metastasis by repressing FOXA1 transcription, expanding upon its previously reported role as a transcription repressor. Copyright © 2016 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Discoidin domain receptor 1 is a novel transcriptional target of ZEB1 in breast epithelial cells undergoing H-Ras-induced epithelial to mesenchymal transition

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Minsoo; Woo, Yunjung; Valiathan, Rajeshwari R.; Jung, Hae Yoen; Park, So Yeon; Kim, Yong Nyun; Kim, Hyeong-Reh Choi; Fridman, Rafael; Moon, Aree

    2016-01-01

    The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process allows carcinoma cells to dissociate from the primary tumor thereby facilitating tumor cell invasion and metastasis. Ras-dependent hyperactive signaling is commonly associated with tumorigenesis, invasion, EMT, and metastasis. However, the downstream effectors by which Ras regulates EMT remain ill defined. In this study, we show that the H-Ras pathway leads to mesenchymal-like phenotypic changes in human breast epithelial cells by controlling the ZEB1/microRNA–200c axis. Moreover, H-Ras suppresses the expression of the discoidin domain receptor 1 (DDR1), a collagen receptor tyrosine kinase, via ZEB1, thus identifying ZEB1 as a novel transcriptional repressor of DDR1. Mutation studies on the putative promoter of the DDR1 gene revealed that bipartite Z- and E-box elements play a key role in transcriptional repression of DDR1 in Hs578T and MDA-MB-231 breast carcinoma cell lines by ZEB1. Furthermore, we found an inverse correlation between ZEB1 and DDR1 expression in various cancer cell lines and in human breast carcinoma tissues. Consistently, overexpression of DDR1 reduced the invasive phenotype of mesenchymal-like triple-negative breast cancer cells in 3D cultures and in vivo. Thus, ZEB1’s role in maintenance of EMT in breast carcinoma cells is mediated in part by its ability to suppress DDR1 expression and consequently contribute to the activation of the invasive phenotype. Taken together, our results unveil a novel H-Ras/ZEB1/DDR1 network that contributes to breast cancer progression in triple-negative breast cancers. PMID:25155634

  2. EPB41L5 functions to post-transcriptionally regulate cadherin and integrin during epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Mariko; Hashimoto, Shigeru; Yonemura, Shigenobu; Sabe, Hisataka; Aizawa, Shinichi

    2008-09-22

    EPB41L5 belongs to the band 4.1 superfamily. We investigate here the involvement of EPB41L5 in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) during mouse gastrulation. EPB41L5 expression is induced during TGFbeta-stimulated EMT, whereas silencing of EPB41L5 by siRNA inhibits this transition. In EPB41L5 mutants, cell-cell adhesion is enhanced, and EMT is greatly impaired during gastrulation. Moreover, cell attachment, spreading, and mobility are greatly reduced by EPB41L5 deficiency. Gene transcription regulation during EMT occurs normally at the mRNA level; EPB41L5 siRNA does not affect either the decrease in E-cadherin or the increase in integrin expression. However, at the protein level, the decrease in E-cadherin and increase in integrin are inhibited in both EPB41L5 siRNA-treated NMuMG cells and mutant mesoderm. We find that EPB41L5 binds p120ctn through its N-terminal FERM domain, inhibiting p120ctn-E-cadherin binding. EPB41L5 overexpression causes E-cadherin relocalization into Rab5-positive vesicles in epithelial cells. At the same time, EPB41L5 binds to paxillin through its C terminus, enhancing integrin/paxillin association, thereby stimulating focal adhesion formation. PMID:18794329

  3. Surprisal analysis characterizes the free energy time course of cancer cells undergoing epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition

    PubMed Central

    Zadran, Sohila; Arumugam, Rameshkumar; Herschman, Harvey; Phelps, Michael E.; Levine, R. D.

    2014-01-01

    The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) initiates the invasive and metastatic behavior of many epithelial cancers. Mechanisms underlying EMT are not fully known. Surprisal analysis of mRNA time course data from lung and pancreatic cancer cells stimulated to undergo TGF-β1–induced EMT identifies two phenotypes. Examination of the time course for these phenotypes reveals that EMT reprogramming is a multistep process characterized by initiation, maturation, and stabilization stages that correlate with changes in cell metabolism. Surprisal analysis characterizes the free energy time course of the expression levels throughout the transition in terms of two state variables. The landscape of the free energy changes during the EMT for the lung cancer cells shows a stable intermediate state. Existing data suggest this is the previously proposed maturation stage. Using a single-cell ATP assay, we demonstrate that the TGF-β1–induced EMT for lung cancer cells, particularly during the maturation stage, coincides with a metabolic shift resulting in increased cytosolic ATP levels. Surprisal analysis also characterizes the absolute expression levels of the mRNAs and thereby examines the homeostasis of the transcription system during EMT. PMID:25157127

  4. Surprisal analysis characterizes the free energy time course of cancer cells undergoing epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Zadran, Sohila; Arumugam, Rameshkumar; Herschman, Harvey; Phelps, Michael E; Levine, R D

    2014-09-01

    The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) initiates the invasive and metastatic behavior of many epithelial cancers. Mechanisms underlying EMT are not fully known. Surprisal analysis of mRNA time course data from lung and pancreatic cancer cells stimulated to undergo TGF-β1-induced EMT identifies two phenotypes. Examination of the time course for these phenotypes reveals that EMT reprogramming is a multistep process characterized by initiation, maturation, and stabilization stages that correlate with changes in cell metabolism. Surprisal analysis characterizes the free energy time course of the expression levels throughout the transition in terms of two state variables. The landscape of the free energy changes during the EMT for the lung cancer cells shows a stable intermediate state. Existing data suggest this is the previously proposed maturation stage. Using a single-cell ATP assay, we demonstrate that the TGF-β1-induced EMT for lung cancer cells, particularly during the maturation stage, coincides with a metabolic shift resulting in increased cytosolic ATP levels. Surprisal analysis also characterizes the absolute expression levels of the mRNAs and thereby examines the homeostasis of the transcription system during EMT. PMID:25157127

  5. Studies Using an in Vitro Model Show Evidence of Involvement of Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition of Human Endometrial Epithelial Cells in Human Embryo Implantation*

    PubMed Central

    Uchida, Hiroshi; Maruyama, Tetsuo; Nishikawa-Uchida, Sayaka; Oda, Hideyuki; Miyazaki, Kaoru; Yamasaki, Akiko; Yoshimura, Yasunori

    2012-01-01

    Human embryo implantation is a critical multistep process consisting of embryo apposition/adhesion, followed by penetration and invasion. Through embryo penetration, the endometrial epithelial cell barrier is disrupted and remodeled by an unknown mechanism. We have previously developed an in vitro model for human embryo implantation employing the human choriocarcinoma cell line JAR and the human endometrial adenocarcinoma cell line Ishikawa. Using this model we have shown that stimulation with ovarian steroid hormones (17β-estradiol and progesterone, E2P4) and suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor, enhances the attachment and adhesion of JAR spheroids to Ishikawa. In the present study we showed that the attachment and adhesion of JAR spheroids and treatment with E2P4 or SAHA individually induce the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in Ishikawa cells. This was evident by up-regulation of N-cadherin and vimentin, a mesenchymal cell marker, and concomitant down-regulation of E-cadherin in Ishikawa cells. Stimulation with E2P4 or SAHA accelerated Ishikawa cell motility, increased JAR spheroid outgrowth, and enhanced the unique redistribution of N-cadherin, which was most prominent in proximity to the adhered spheroids. Moreover, an N-cadherin functional blocking antibody attenuated all events but not JAR spheroid adhesion. These results collectively provide evidence suggesting that E2P4- and implanting embryo-induced EMT of endometrial epithelial cells may play a pivotal role in the subsequent processes of human embryo implantation with functional control of N-cadherin. PMID:22174415

  6. NF-kappaB represses E-cadherin expression and enhances epithelial to mesenchymal transition of mammary epithelial cells: potential involvement of ZEB-1 and ZEB-2.

    PubMed

    Chua, H L; Bhat-Nakshatri, P; Clare, S E; Morimiya, A; Badve, S; Nakshatri, H

    2007-02-01

    The transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) is constitutively active in both cancer cells and stromal cells of breast cancer; however, the precise role of activated NF-kappaB in cancer progression is not known. Using parental MCF10A cells and a variant that expresses the myoepithelial marker p63 stably overexpressing the constitutively active p65 subunit of NF-kappaB (MCF10A/p65), we show that NF-kappaB suppresses the expression of epithelial specific genes E-cadherin and desmoplakin and induces the expression of the mesenchymal specific gene vimentin. P65 also suppressed the expression of p63 and the putative breast epithelial progenitor marker cytokeratin 5/6. MCF10A/p65 cells were phenotypically similar to cells undergoing epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). MCF10A/p65 cells failed to form characteristic acini in three-dimensional Matrigel. Analysis of parental and MCF10A/p65 cells for genes previously shown to be involved in EMT revealed elevated expression of ZEB-1 and ZEB-2 in MCF10A/p65 cells compared to parental cells. In transient transfection assays, p65 increased ZEB-1 promoter activity. Furthermore, MCF10A cells overexpressing ZEB-1 showed reduced E-cadherin and p63 expression and displayed an EMT phenotype. The siRNA against ZEB-1 or ZEB-2 reduced the number of viable MCF10A/p65 but not parental cells, suggesting the dependence of MCF10A/p65 cells to ZEB-1 and ZEB-2 for cell cycle progression or survival. MCF10A cells chronically exposed to tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha), a potent NF-kappaB inducer, also exhibited the EMT-like phenotype and ZEB-1/ZEB-2 induction, both of which were reversed following TNFalpha withdrawal.

  7. The enforced expression of c-Myc in pig fibroblasts triggers mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET) via F-actin reorganization and RhoA/Rock pathway inactivation.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jun-Wen; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Ting-Ting; Wang, Sheng-Chun; Lin, Xiao-Lin; Li, Jing; Jia, Jun-Shuang; Sheng, Hong-Fen; Yao, Zhi-Fang; Zhao, Wen-Tao; Zhao, Zun-Lan; Xie, Rao-Ying; Yang, Sheng; Gao, Fei; Fan, Quan-Rong; Zhang, Meng-Ya; Yue, Min; Yuan, Jin; Gu, Wei-Wang; Yao, Kai-Tai; Xiao, Dong

    2013-04-01

    In previous studies from other labs it has been well demonstrated that the ectopic expression of c-Myc in mammary epithelial cells can induce epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), whereas in our pilot experiment, epithelial-like morphological changes were unexpectedly observed in c-Myc-expressing pig fibroblasts [i.e., porcine embryonic fibroblasts (PEFs) and porcine dermal fibroblasts (PDFs)] and pig mesenchymal stem cells, suggesting that the same c-Myc gene is entitled to trigger EMT in epithelial cells and mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET) in fibroblasts. This prompted us to characterize the existence of a MET in c-Myc-expressing PEFs and PDFs at the molecular level. qRT-PCR, immunofluorescence and western blot analysis illustrated that epithelial-like morphological changes were accompanied by the increased expression of epithelial markers [such as cell adhesion proteins (E-cadherin, α-catenin and Bves), tight junction protein occludin and cytokeratins (Krt8 and Krt18)], the reduced expression of mesenchymal markers [vimentin, fibronectin 1 (FN1), snail1, collagen family of proteins (COL1A1, COL5A2) and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family (MMP12 and MMP14)] and the decreased cell motility and increased cell adhesion in c-Myc-expressing PEFs and PDFs. Furthermore, the ectopic expression of c-Myc in pig fibroblasts disrupted the stress fiber network, suppressed the formation of filopodia and lamellipodia, and resulted in RhoA/Rock pathway inactivation, which finally participates in epithelial-like morphological conversion. Taken together, these findings demonstrate, for the first time, that the enforced expression of c-Myc in fibroblasts can trigger MET, to which cytoskeleton depolymerization and RhoA/Rock pathway inactivation contribute.

  8. Sprouty2 Suppresses Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition of Human Lens Epithelial Cells through Blockade of Smad2 and ERK1/2 Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chuan; Chen, Xiaoyun; Qin, Yingyan; Qu, Bo; Luo, Lixia; Lin, Haotian; Wu, Mingxing; Chen, Weirong; Liu, Yizhi

    2016-01-01

    Transforming growth factor β (TGFβ)-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of lens epithelial cells (LECs) plays a key role in the pathogenesis of anterior subcapsular cataract (ASC) and capsule opacification. In mouse lens, Sprouty2 (Spry2) has a negative regulatory role on TGFβ signaling. However, the regulation of Spry2 during ASC development and how Spry2 modulates TGFβ signaling pathway in human LECs have not been characterized. Here, we demonstrate that Spry2 expression level is decreased in anterior capsule LECs of ASC patients. Spry2 negatively regulates TGFβ2-induced EMT and migration of LECs through inhibition of Smad2 and ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Also, blockade of Smad2 or ERK1/2 activation suppresses EMT caused by Spry2 downregulation. Collectively, our results for the first time show in human LECs that Spry2 has an inhibitory role in TGFβ signaling pathway. Our findings in human lens tissue and epithelial cells suggest that Spry2 may become a novel therapeutic target for the prevention and treatment of ASC and capsule opacification. PMID:27415760

  9. Polo-like kinase 1 induces epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and promotes epithelial cell motility by activating CRAF/ERK signaling

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jianguo; Ivanov, Andrei I; Fisher, Paul B; Fu, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) is a key cell cycle regulator implicated in the development of various cancers, including prostate cancer. However, the functions of PLK1 beyond cell cycle regulation remain poorly characterized. Here, we report that PLK1 overexpression in prostate epithelial cells triggers oncogenic transformation. It also results in dramatic transcriptional reprogramming of the cells, leading to epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and stimulation of cell migration and invasion. Consistently, PLK1 downregulation in metastatic prostate cancer cells enhances epithelial characteristics and inhibits cell motility. The signaling mechanisms underlying the observed cellular effects of PLK1 involve direct PLK1-dependent phosphorylation of CRAF with subsequent stimulation of the MEK1/2-ERK1/2-Fra1-ZEB1/2 signaling pathway. Our findings highlight novel non-canonical functions of PLK1 as a key regulator of EMT and cell motility in normal prostate epithelium and prostate cancer. This study also uncovers a previously unanticipated role of PLK1 as a potent activator of MAPK signaling. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.10734.001 PMID:27003818

  10. The pan-deacetylase inhibitor panobinostat modulates the expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition markers in hepatocellular carcinoma models

    PubMed Central

    DI FAZIO, PIETRO; MONTALBANO, ROBERTA; QUINT, KARL; ALINGER, BEATE; KEMMERLING, RALF; KIESSLICH, TOBIAS; OCKER, MATTHIAS; NEUREITER, DANIEL

    2013-01-01

    Deacetylase inhibitors (DACis) represent a novel therapeutic option for human cancers by classically affecting proliferation or apoptosis. Since transdifferentiation and dedifferentiation play a key role in carcinogenesis, we investigated the epigenetic influence on the molecular differentiation status in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) models. Markers of differentiation, including cytokeratin (Ck) 7, Ck8, Ck18, Ck19, Ck20, vimentin, sonic hedgehog homolog (SHH), smoothened (Smo), patched (Ptc), glioma-associated oncogene homolog 1 (Gli1), CD133, octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (Oct4) and β-catenin, were examined in the human HCC cell lines HepG2 and Hep3B in vitro and in vivo (xenograft model) using quantitative real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry following treatment with the pan-DACi panobinostat (LBH589). Compared to untreated controls, treated HepG2 xenografts, and to a lesser extent cell lines, demonstrated a significant increase of differentiation markers Ck7 and Ck19 (classical cholangiocellular type) and Ck8 and Ck18 (classical HCC type), and a decreased level of dedifferentiation markers vimentin (mesenchymal) and SHH/Ptc (embryonic), paralleled with a more membranous expression of β-catenin. These findings were dose-dependently correlated with tumor size, necrosis rate, microvessel density and mitosis/Ki-67-associated proliferation rate. Our results demonstrate that the differentiation status of human HCC cells is influenced by the pan-DACi panobinostat, indicating that this treatment may influence the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) status related to metastasis and aggressiveness. PMID:23255907

  11. Concomitant Notch activation and p53 deletion trigger epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and metastasis in mouse gut

    PubMed Central

    Chanrion, Maia; Kuperstein, Inna; Barrière, Cédric; El Marjou, Fatima; Cohen, David; Vignjevic, Danijela; Stimmer, Lev; Paul-Gilloteaux, Perrine; Bièche, Ivan; Tavares, Silvina Dos Reis; Boccia, Giuseppe-Fulvio; Cacheux, Wulfran; Meseure, Didier; Fre, Silvia; Martignetti, Loredana; Legoix-Né, Patricia; Girard, Elodie; Fetler, Luc; Barillot, Emmanuel; Louvard, Daniel; Zinovyev, Andreï; Robine, Sylvie

    2014-01-01

    Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition-like (EMT-like) is a critical process allowing initiation of metastases during tumour progression. Here, to investigate its role in intestinal cancer, we combine computational network-based and experimental approaches to create a mouse model with high metastatic potential. Construction and analysis of this network map depicting molecular mechanisms of EMT regulation based on the literature suggests that Notch activation and p53 deletion have a synergistic effect in activating EMT-like processes. To confirm this prediction, we generate transgenic mice by conditionally activating the Notch1 receptor and deleting p53 in the digestive epithelium (NICD/p53−/−). These mice develop metastatic tumours with high penetrance. Using GFP lineage tracing, we identify single malignant cells with mesenchymal features in primary and metastatic tumours in vivo. The development of such a model that recapitulates the cellular features observed in invasive human colorectal tumours is appealing for innovative drug discovery. PMID:25295490

  12. CDK5 is essential for TGF-β1-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition and breast cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Liang, Qian; Li, Lili; Zhang, Jianchao; Lei, Yang; Wang, Liping; Liu, Dong-Xu; Feng, Jingxin; Hou, Pingfu; Yao, Ruosi; Zhang, Yu; Huang, Baiqu; Lu, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition is a change of cellular plasticity critical for embryonic development and tumor metastasis. CDK5 is a proline-directed serine/threonine kinase playing important roles in cancer progression. Here we show that CDK5 is commonly overexpressed and significantly correlated with several poor prognostic parameters of breast cancer. We found that CDK5 participated in TGF-β1-induced EMT. In MCF10A, TGF-β1 upregulated the CDK5 and p35 expression, and CDK5 knockdown inhibited TGF-β1-induced EMT. CDK5 overexpression also exhibited a potential synergy in promoting TGF-β1-induced EMT. In mesenchymal breast cancer cells MDA-MB-231 and BT549, CDK5 knockdown suppressed cell motility and tumorigenesis. We further demonstrated that CDK5 modulated cancer cell migration and tumor formation by regulating the phosphorylation of FAK at Ser-732. Therefore, CDK5-FAK pathway, as a downstream step of TGF-β1 signaling, is essential for EMT and motility in breast cancer cells. This study implicates the potential value of CDK5 as a molecular marker for breast cancer. PMID:24121667

  13. Transforming Growth Factor-β-Induced RBFOX3 Inhibition Promotes Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition of Lung Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yong-Eun; Kim, Jong Ok; Park, Ki-Sun; Won, Minho; Kim, Kyoon Eon; Kim, Kee K.

    2016-01-01

    The RNA-binding protein Rbfox3 is a well-known splicing regulator that is used as a marker for post-mitotic neurons in various vertebrate species. Although recent studies indicate a variable expression of Rbfox3 in non-neuronal tissues, including lung tissue, its cellular function in lung cancer remains largely unknown. Here, we report that the number of RBFOX3-positive cells in tumorous lung tissue is lower than that in normal lung tissue. As the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling pathway is important in cancer progression, we investigated its role in RBFOX3 expression in A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells. TGF-β1 treatment inhibited RBFOX3 expression at the transcriptional level. Further, RBFOX3 depletion led to a change in the expression levels of a subset of proteins related to epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), such as E-cadherin and Claudin-1, during TGF-β1-induced EMT. In immunofluorescence microscopic analysis, mesenchymal morphology was more prominent in RBFOX3-depleted cells than in control cells. These findings show that TGF-β-induced RBFOX3 inhibition plays an important role in EMT and propose a novel role for RBFOX3 in cancer progression. PMID:27432190

  14. Epidermal growth factor receptor kinase substrate 8 promotes the metastasis of cervical cancer via the epithelial-mesenchymal transition

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qian; Bao, Wei; Fan, Qiong; Shi, Wen-Jing; Li, Zhu-Nan; Xu, Ying; Wu, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor pathway substrate 8 (Eps8) has been identified as a novel substrate for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) kinase and is involved in EGFR-mediated signaling pathways correlated with tumorigenesis, proliferation and metastasis in various cancer types. However, the precise role of Eps8 in cervical cancer metastasis remains to be elucidated. Immunohistochemistry revealed that Eps8 was significantly increased in cervical cancer specimens compared with squamous intraepithelial lesion and normal cervical tissues. Additionally, it was revealed that Eps8 expression not only correlated with cervical cancer progression, but also exhibited a close correlation with the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers, E-cadherin and vimentin. Furthermore, the present study focused predominantly on the EMT-associated role of Eps8 in the EMT, migration and invasion of cervical cancer cells. Eps8-short hairpin (sh) RNA was transfected into HeLa and SiHa cells to deplete its expression, and reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analyses were performed to confirm Eps8-knockdown and to investigate the influence of Eps8 on EMT markers. The present findings have revealed that Eps8 silencing led to the upregulation of the epithelial marker E-cadherin, while expression of the mesenchymal marker vimentin and the transcription factor snail was decreased at both mRNA and protein expression levels. Transwell cell migration and Matrigel invasion assays showed that downregulation of Eps8 significantly inhibited cell migration and invasion of HeLa and SiHa cells. Taken together, these results suggested that Eps8 promotes cervical cancer metastasis by orchestrating the EMT. PMID:27573546

  15. Berberine reverses epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and inhibits metastasis and tumor-induced angiogenesis in human cervical cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Chu, Shu-Chen; Yu, Cheng-Chia; Hsu, Li-Sung; Chen, Kuo-Shuen; Su, Mei-Yu; Chen, Pei-Ni

    2014-12-01

    Metastasis is the most common cause of cancer-related death in patients, and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is essential for cancer metastasis, which is a multistep complicated process that includes local invasion, intravasation, extravasation, and proliferation at distant sites. When cancer cells metastasize, angiogenesis is also required for metastatic dissemination, given that an increase in vascular density will allow easier access of tumor cells to circulation, and represents a rational target for therapeutic intervention. Berberine has several anti-inflammation and anticancer biologic effects. In this study, we provided molecular evidence that is associated with the antimetastatic effect of berberine by showing a nearly complete inhibition on invasion (P < 0.001) of highly metastatic SiHa cells via reduced transcriptional activities of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and urokinase-type plasminogen activator. Berberine reversed transforming growth factor-β1-induced EMT and caused upregulation of epithelial markers such as E-cadherin and inhibited mesenchymal markers such as N-cadherin and snail-1. Selective snail-1 inhibition by snail-1-specific small interfering RNA also showed increased E-cadherin expression in SiHa cells. Berberine also reduced tumor-induced angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Importantly, an in vivo BALB/c nude mice xenograft model and tail vein injection model showed that berberine treatment reduced tumor growth and lung metastasis by oral gavage, respectively. Taken together, these findings suggested that berberine could reduce metastasis and angiogenesis of cervical cancer cells, thereby constituting an adjuvant treatment of metastasis control.

  16. Resveratrol inhibits the hedgehog signaling pathway and epithelial-mesenchymal transition and suppresses gastric cancer invasion and metastasis

    PubMed Central

    GAO, QIAN; YUAN, YUAN; GAN, HUI-ZHONG; PENG, QIONG

    2015-01-01

    The hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway is vital to vertebrate development, the homeostatic process and tumorigenesis. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a cellular process during which epithelial cells become mesenchymal-appearing cells, which in turn promotes cancer metastasis and invasion. Resveratrol is a natural polyphenolic compound found in grapes, a variety of berries, peanuts and other plants. Numerous studies have demonstrated that the Hh signaling pathway is able to regulate the EMT, and that resveratrol can suppress carcinoma invasion and metastasis. In addition, certain studies have indicated that resveratrol can inhibit the Hh signaling pathway and EMT in cancers other than gastric cancer. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the inhibitory effect of resveratrol on the Hh signaling pathway and EMT in gastric cancer in vitro. Gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells were treated with resveratrol or cyclopamine at different concentrations. The viability of the cells was assessed using an MTT assay. The expression of Gli-1, a key component of the Hh signaling pathway, and Snail, E-cadherin and N-cadherin, key components of EMT, was detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blotting. The invasion and metastasis of the cells were observed by performing a cell scratch test. The RT-PCR and western blotting showed a decrease in Gli-1, Snail and N-cadherin expression, and an increase in E-cadherin expression in the resveratrol and cyclopamine group compared with the control group, suggesting that resveratrol inhibited the Hh pathway and EMT, as did cyclopamine. The MTT assay indicated that the viability of the SGC-7901 cells was significantly decreased in a concentration-dependent manner following resveratrol and cyclopamine treatment. The cell scratch test showed slower cell invasion and metastasis in the resveratrol and cyclopamine groups. These findings indicated that resveratrol was able to inhibit the Hh

  17. Transketolase Serves a Poor Prognosticator in Esophageal Cancer by Promoting Cell Invasion via Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Yin-Kai; Peng, Ta-Lun; Chuang, Wen-Yu; Yeh, Chi-Ju; Li, Yan-Liang; Lu, Ya-Ching; Cheng, Ann-Joy

    2016-01-01

    Background: To characterize the potential function and clinical significance of Transketolase (TKT) in esophageal cancer. Methods: High invasive esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) cell line CE48T/VGH was used. Cellular functions in response to TKT modulation were examined, including cell growth, migration and invasion. The underlying molecules involved in the TKT regulatory mechanism were determined by western blot and confocal microscopic analysis. Clinically, TKT expressions in 76 ESCC patients were assessed by immunohistochemical (IHC) method, and the association with treatment outcome was determined. Results: TKT silencing inhibited cell migration and invasion but had a minimal effect on cell growth. This TKT silencing also induced the reversion of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), as evidenced by the spindle to cuboidal morphological change, increased the expression of epithelial markers (γ-catenin), and decreased the levels of mesenchymal markers (fibronectin and N-cadherin). Mechanically, TKT was shown to modulate the EMT through the pERK-Slug/Snail-associated signaling pathway. Clinically, a high level of TKT in the cancer tissues of patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma was associated with poor survival (P = 0.042). In the multivariate analysis, a high TKT level was also shown to be an independent unfavorable prognostic factor (Odds ratio: 1.827, 95% confidence interval: 1.045-3.196, P = 0.035). Conclusions: TKT contributes to esophageal cancer by promoting cell invasion via meditating EMT process. Clinically, the over-expression of TKT in ESCC patients predicts poorer survival. TKT inhibition may be a useful strategy to intervene in cancer cell invasion and metastasis, which may lead to better prognosis for ESCC patients. PMID:27698919

  18. Ursolic acid inhibits the proliferation of human ovarian cancer stem-like cells through epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Wang, Wenjing; Qian, Lin; Zhang, Qiuwan; Lai, Dongmei; Qi, Cong

    2015-11-01

    Ovarian cancer is the most frequent cause of cancer-related death among all gynecological cancers. Increasing evidence suggests that human ovarian cancer stem-like cells could be enriched under serum-free culture conditions. In the present study, SKOV3 ovarian epithelial cancer cells were cultured for sphere cells. Ursolic acid (UA) with triterpenoid compounds exist widely in food, medicinal herbs and other plants. Evidence shows that UA has anticancer activities in human ovarian cancer cells, but he role of UA in ovarian cancer stem cells (CSCs) remains unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the anticancer effects of UA in combination with cisplatin in ovarian CSCs (in vitro and in vivo), along with the molecular mechanism of action. Treatment with UA at various concentrations was examined in combination with cisplatin in human ovarian CSCs. MTT assay and flow cytometry were used for cell viability and apoptosis analysis, and qRT-PCR for stem cell markers and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers for mRNA expression. Transwell assay was employed to observe the migration and invasion of SKOV3 cells and SKOV3 sphere cells after treatment. Moreover, athymic BALB/c-nu nude mice were injected with SKOV3 sphere cells to obtain a xenograft model for in vivo studies. The results showed that CSCs possessed mesenchymal characteristics and EMT ability, and the growth of SKOV3 and sphere cells was significantly inhibited by UA. Transplanted tumors were significantly reduced after injection of UA and UA plus cisplatin. Furthermore, we found that UA could play a role in enhancing the sensitivity of CSCs to cisplatin resistance. Our findings suggested that UA is involved in EMT mechanism to affect the proliferation and apoptosis of human ovarian cancer stem-like cells and it is a potent anti-ovarian cancer agent. PMID:26323892

  19. Ursolic acid inhibits the proliferation of human ovarian cancer stem-like cells through epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Wang, Wenjing; Qian, Lin; Zhang, Qiuwan; Lai, Dongmei; Qi, Cong

    2015-11-01

    Ovarian cancer is the most frequent cause of cancer-related death among all gynecological cancers. Increasing evidence suggests that human ovarian cancer stem-like cells could be enriched under serum-free culture conditions. In the present study, SKOV3 ovarian epithelial cancer cells were cultured for sphere cells. Ursolic acid (UA) with triterpenoid compounds exist widely in food, medicinal herbs and other plants. Evidence shows that UA has anticancer activities in human ovarian cancer cells, but he role of UA in ovarian cancer stem cells (CSCs) remains unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the anticancer effects of UA in combination with cisplatin in ovarian CSCs (in vitro and in vivo), along with the molecular mechanism of action. Treatment with UA at various concentrations was examined in combination with cisplatin in human ovarian CSCs. MTT assay and flow cytometry were used for cell viability and apoptosis analysis, and qRT-PCR for stem cell markers and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers for mRNA expression. Transwell assay was employed to observe the migration and invasion of SKOV3 cells and SKOV3 sphere cells after treatment. Moreover, athymic BALB/c-nu nude mice were injected with SKOV3 sphere cells to obtain a xenograft model for in vivo studies. The results showed that CSCs possessed mesenchymal characteristics and EMT ability, and the growth of SKOV3 and sphere cells was significantly inhibited by UA. Transplanted tumors were significantly reduced after injection of UA and UA plus cisplatin. Furthermore, we found that UA could play a role in enhancing the sensitivity of CSCs to cisplatin resistance. Our findings suggested that UA is involved in EMT mechanism to affect the proliferation and apoptosis of human ovarian cancer stem-like cells and it is a potent anti-ovarian cancer agent.

  20. Systematic review of the old and new concepts in the epithelial-mesenchymal transition of colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gurzu, Simona; Silveanu, Camelia; Fetyko, Annamaria; Butiurca, Vlad; Kovacs, Zsolt; Jung, Ioan

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is defined as the transformation of an epithelial cell into a spindle cell with the loss of membrane E-cadherin expression and the gain of mesenchymal markers positivity. In the field of colorectal cancer (CRC), first data about EMT was published in 1995 and more than 400 papers had been written up to March 2016. Most of them are focused on the molecular pathways and experimentally-proved chemoresistance. In the present article, an update in the field of EMT in CRC based on the review of the literature and personal experience of the authors is presented. The information about the molecular and immunohistochemical (IHC) particularities of these processes and their possible role in the prognosis of CRC were also up-dated. This article focuses on the IHC quantification of the EMT, the immunoprofile of tumor buds and on the relation between EMT, angiogenesis, and stem cells activation. The EMT-induced chemoresistance vs chemotherapy- or radiotherapy-induced EMT and cellular senescence was also synthesized for both conventional and targeted therapy. As a future perspective, the EMT-angiogenesis-stemness link could be used as a possible valuable parameter for clinical follow-up and targeted therapeutic oncologic management of patients with CRC. Association of dexamethasone and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors combined with conventional chemotherapies could have clinical benefits in patients with CRC. The main conclusion is that, although many studies have been published, the EMT features are still incompletely elucidated and newly discovered EMT markers provide confusing data in understanding this complicated process, which might have significant clinical impact. PMID:27570416

  1. Transketolase Serves a Poor Prognosticator in Esophageal Cancer by Promoting Cell Invasion via Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Yin-Kai; Peng, Ta-Lun; Chuang, Wen-Yu; Yeh, Chi-Ju; Li, Yan-Liang; Lu, Ya-Ching; Cheng, Ann-Joy

    2016-01-01

    Background: To characterize the potential function and clinical significance of Transketolase (TKT) in esophageal cancer. Methods: High invasive esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) cell line CE48T/VGH was used. Cellular functions in response to TKT modulation were examined, including cell growth, migration and invasion. The underlying molecules involved in the TKT regulatory mechanism were determined by western blot and confocal microscopic analysis. Clinically, TKT expressions in 76 ESCC patients were assessed by immunohistochemical (IHC) method, and the association with treatment outcome was determined. Results: TKT silencing inhibited cell migration and invasion but had a minimal effect on cell growth. This TKT silencing also induced the reversion of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), as evidenced by the spindle to cuboidal morphological change, increased the expression of epithelial markers (γ-catenin), and decreased the levels of mesenchymal markers (fibronectin and N-cadherin). Mechanically, TKT was shown to modulate the EMT through the pERK-Slug/Snail-associated signaling pathway. Clinically, a high level of TKT in the cancer tissues of patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma was associated with poor survival (P = 0.042). In the multivariate analysis, a high TKT level was also shown to be an independent unfavorable prognostic factor (Odds ratio: 1.827, 95% confidence interval: 1.045-3.196, P = 0.035). Conclusions: TKT contributes to esophageal cancer by promoting cell invasion via meditating EMT process. Clinically, the over-expression of TKT in ESCC patients predicts poorer survival. TKT inhibition may be a useful strategy to intervene in cancer cell invasion and metastasis, which may lead to better prognosis for ESCC patients.

  2. Secreted Hsp90 Is a Novel Regulator of the Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) in Prostate Cancer*

    PubMed Central

    Hance, Michael W.; Dole, Krystal; Gopal, Udhayakumar; Bohonowych, Jessica E.; Jezierska-Drutel, Agnieszka; Neumann, Carola A.; Liu, Haibo; Garraway, Isla P.; Isaacs, Jennifer S.

    2012-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most frequently diagnosed malignancy in men, and the second highest contributor of male cancer related lethality. Disease mortality is due primarily to metastatic spread, highlighting the urgent need to identify factors involved in this progression. Activation of the genetic epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) program is implicated as a major contributor of PCa progression. Initiation of EMT confers invasive and metastatic behavior in preclinical models and is correlated with poor clinical prognosis. Extracellular Hsp90 (eHsp90) promotes cell motility and invasion in cancer cells and metastasis in preclinical models, however, the mechanistic basis for its widespread tumorigenic function remains unclear. We have identified a novel and pivotal role for eHsp90 in driving EMT events in PCa. In support of this notion, more metastatic PCa lines exhibited increased eHsp90 expression relative to their lineage-related nonmetastatic counterparts. We demonstrate that eHsp90 promoted cell motility in an ERK and matrix metalloproteinase-2/9-dependent manner, and shifted cellular morphology toward a mesenchymal phenotype. Conversely, inhibition of eHsp90 attenuated pro-motility signaling, blocked PCa migration, and shifted cell morphology toward an epithelial phenotype. Last, we report that surface eHsp90 was found in primary PCa tumor specimens, and elevated eHsp90 expression was associated with increased levels of matrix metalloproteinase-2/9 transcripts. We conclude that eHsp90 serves as a driver of EMT events, providing a mechanistic basis for its ability to promote cancer progression and metastasis in preclinical models. Furthermore, its newly identified expression in PCa specimens, and potential regulation of pro-metastatic genes, supports a putative clinical role for eHsp90 in PCa progression. PMID:22989880

  3. Ribosomal L22-like1 (RPL22L1) Promotes Ovarian Cancer Metastasis by Inducing Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Nan; Wei, Jia; Wang, Yuhui; Yan, Jinyan; Qin, Ying; Tong, Dandan; Pang, Bo; Sun, Donglin; Sun, Haiming; Yu, Yang; Sun, Wenjing; Meng, Xiangning; Zhang, Chunyu; Bai, Jing; Chen, Feng; Geng, Jingshu; Lee, Ki-Young; Fu, Songbin; Jin, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Double minute chromosomes (DMs) have important implications for cancer progression because oncogenes frequently amplified on them. We previously detected a functionally undefined gene amplified on DMs, Ribosomal L22-like1 (RPL22L1). The relationship between RPL22L1 and cancer progression is unknown. Here, RPL22L1 was characterized for its role in ovarian cancer (OC) metastasis and its underlying mechanism was examined. DNA copy number and mRNA expression of RPL22L1 in OC cells was analyzed using data obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas and the Gene Expression Omnibus database. An immunohistochemical analysis of clinical OC specimens was performed and the relationships between expression level and clinicopathological factors were evaluated. Additionally, in vivo and in vitro assays were performed to understand the role of RPL22L1 in OC. RPL22L1 expression was higher in OC specimens than in normal tissues, and its expression level was highly positively correlated with invasion and lymph node metastasis (P < 0.05). RPL22L1 over-expression significantly enhanced intraperitoneal xenograft tumor development in nude mice and promoted invasion and migration in vitro. Additionally, RPL22L1 knockdown remarkably inhibited UACC-1598 cells invasion and migration. Further, RPL22L1 over-expression up-regulated the mesenchymal markers vimentin, fibronectin, and α-SMA, reduced expression of the epithelial markers E-cadherin, α-catenin, and β-catenin. RPL22L1 inhibition reduced expression of vimentin and N-cadherin. These results suggest that RPL22L1 induces epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Our data showed that the DMs amplified gene RPL22L1 is critical in maintaining the aggressive phenotype of OC and in triggering cell metastasis by inducing EMT. It could be employed as a novel prognostic marker and/or effective therapeutic target for OC. PMID:26618703

  4. Role of hepatitis C virus induced osteopontin in epithelial to mesenchymal transition, migration and invasion of hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Jawed; McRae, Steven; Mai, Thi; Banaudha, Krishna; Sarkar-Dutta, Mehuli; Waris, Gulam

    2014-01-01

    Osteopontin (OPN) is a secreted phosphoprotein which has been linked to tumor progression and metastasis in a variety of cancers including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Previous studies have shown that OPN is upregulated during liver injury and inflammation. However, the role of OPN in hepatitis C virus (HCV)-induced liver disease pathogenesis is not known. In this study, we determined the induction of OPN, and then investigated the effect of secreted forms of OPN in epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), migration and invasion of hepatocytes. We show the induction of OPN mRNA and protein expression by HCV-infection. Our results also demonstrate the processing of precursor OPN (75 kDa) into 55 kDa, 42 kDa and 36 kDa forms of OPN in HCV-infected cells. Furthermore, we show the binding of secreted OPN to integrin αVβ3 and CD44 at the cell surface, leading to the activation of downstream cellular kinases such as focal adhesion kinase (FAK), Src, and Akt. Importantly, our results show the reduced expression of epithelial marker (E-cadherin) and induction of mesenchymal marker (N-cadherin) in HCV-infected cells. We also show the migration and invasion of HCV-infected cells using wound healing assay and matrigel coated Boyden chamber. In addition, we demonstrate the activation of above EMT markers, and the critical players involved in OPN-mediated cell signaling cascade using primary human hepatocytes infected with Japanese fulminant hepatitis (JFH)-1 HCV. Taken together, these studies suggest a potential role of OPN in inducing chronic liver disease and HCC associated with chronic HCV infection. PMID:24498111

  5. α-Solanine inhibits invasion of human prostate cancer cell by suppressing epithelial-mesenchymal transition and MMPs expression.

    PubMed

    Shen, Kun-Hung; Liao, Alex Chien-Hwa; Hung, Jui-Hsiang; Lee, Wei-Jiunn; Hu, Kai-Chieh; Lin, Pin-Tsen; Liao, Ruei-Fang; Chen, Pin-Shern

    2014-08-11

    α-Solanine, a naturally occurring steroidal glycoalkaloid found in nightshade (Solanum nigrum Linn.), was found to inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis of tumor cells. However, the mechanism involved in suppression of cancer cell metastasis by α-solanine remains unclear. This study investigates the suppression mechanism of α-solanine on motility of the human prostate cancer cell PC-3. Results show that α-solanine reduces the viability of PC-3 cells. When treated with non-toxic doses of α-solanine, cell invasion is markedly suppressed by α-solanine. α-Solanine also significantly elevates epithelial marker E-cadherin expression, while it concomitantly decreases mesenchymal marker vimentin expression, suggesting it suppresses epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). α-Solanine reduces the mRNA level of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), MMP-9 and extracellular inducer of matrix metalloproteinase (EMMPRIN), but increases the expression of reversion-inducing cysteine-rich protein with kazal motifs (RECK), and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) and TIMP-2. Immunoblotting assays indicate α-solanine is effective in suppressing the phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositide-3 kinase (PI3K), Akt and ERK. Moreover, α-solanine downregulates oncogenic microRNA-21 (miR-21) and upregulates tumor suppressor miR-138 expression. Taken together, the results suggest that inhibition of PC-3 cell invasion by α-solanine may be, at least in part, through blocking EMT and MMPs expression. α-Solanine also reduces ERK and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways and regulates expression of miR-21 and miR-138. These findings suggest an attractive therapeutic potential of α-solanine for suppressing invasion of prostate cancer cell.

  6. miR-200c Regulation of Metastases in Ovarian Cancer: Potential Role in Epithelial and Mesenchymal Transition

    PubMed Central

    Sulaiman, Siti A.; Ab Mutalib, Nurul-Syakima; Jamal, Rahman

    2016-01-01

    Among the gynecological malignancies, ovarian cancer is the most fatal due to its high mortality rate. Most of the identified cases are epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) with five distinct subtypes: high-grade serous carcinoma, low-grade serous carcinoma, mucinous carcinoma, endometrioid carcinoma, and clear-cell carcinoma. Lack of an early diagnostic approach, high incidence of tumor relapse and the heterogenous characteristics between each EOC subtypes contribute to the difficulties in developing precise intervention and therapy for the patients. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are single-stranded RNAs that have been shown to function as tumor suppressors or oncomiRs. The miR-200 family, especially miR-200c, has been shown to be implicated in the metastasis and invasion of ovarian carcinoma due to its functional regulation of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). This mini review is aimed to summarize the recent findings of the miR-200c functional role as well as its validated targets in the metastasis cascade of ovarian cancer, with a focus on EMT regulation. The potential of this miRNA in early diagnosis and its dual expression status are also discussed.

  7. miR-200c Regulation of Metastases in Ovarian Cancer: Potential Role in Epithelial and Mesenchymal Transition.

    PubMed

    Sulaiman, Siti A; Ab Mutalib, Nurul-Syakima; Jamal, Rahman

    2016-01-01

    Among the gynecological malignancies, ovarian cancer is the most fatal due to its high mortality rate. Most of the identified cases are epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) with five distinct subtypes: high-grade serous carcinoma, low-grade serous carcinoma, mucinous carcinoma, endometrioid carcinoma, and clear-cell carcinoma. Lack of an early diagnostic approach, high incidence of tumor relapse and the heterogenous characteristics between each EOC subtypes contribute to the difficulties in developing precise intervention and therapy for the patients. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are single-stranded RNAs that have been shown to function as tumor suppressors or oncomiRs. The miR-200 family, especially miR-200c, has been shown to be implicated in the metastasis and invasion of ovarian carcinoma due to its functional regulation of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). This mini review is aimed to summarize the recent findings of the miR-200c functional role as well as its validated targets in the metastasis cascade of ovarian cancer, with a focus on EMT regulation. The potential of this miRNA in early diagnosis and its dual expression status are also discussed.

  8. Emodin ameliorates bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats by suppressing epithelial-mesenchymal transition and fibroblast activation

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Ruijuan; Wang, Xia; Zhao, Xiaomei; Song, Nana; Zhu, Jimin; Wang, Jijiang; Wang, Jin; Xia, Chunmei; Chen, Yonghua; Zhu, Danian; Shen, Linlin

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant activation of TGF-β1 is frequently encountered and promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and fibroblast activation in pulmonary fibrosis. The present study investigated whether emodin mediates its effect via suppressing TGF-β1-induced EMT and fibroblast activation in bleomycin (BLM)-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats. Here, we found that emodin induced apoptosis and inhibited cellular proliferation, migration and differentiation in TGF-β1-stimulated human embryonic lung fibroblasts (HELFs). Emodin suppressed TGF-β1-induced EMT in a dose- and time-dependent manner in alveolar epithelial A549 cells. Emodin also inhibited TGF-β1-induced Smad2, Smad3 and Erk1/2 activation, suggesting that Smad2/3 and Erk1/2 inactivation mediated the emodin-induced effects on TGF-β1-induced EMT. Additionally, we provided in vivo evidence suggesting that emodin apparently alleviated BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis and improved pulmonary function by inhibiting TGF-β1 signaling and subsequently repressing EMT, fibroblast activation and extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition. Taken together, our data suggest that emodin mediates its effects mainly via inhibition of EMT and fibroblast activation and thus has a potential for the treatment of pulmonary fibrosis. PMID:27774992

  9. LincRNA-ROR induces epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and contributes to breast cancer tumorigenesis and metastasis.

    PubMed

    Hou, P; Zhao, Y; Li, Z; Yao, R; Ma, M; Gao, Y; Zhao, L; Zhang, Y; Huang, B; Lu, J

    2014-01-01

    LncRNAs have critical roles in various biological processes ranging from embryonic development to human diseases, including cancer progression, although their detailed mechanistic functions remain illusive. The lncRNA linc-ROR has been shown to contribute to the maintenance of induced pluripotent stem cells and embryonic stem cells. In this study, we discovered that linc-ROR was upregulated in breast tumor samples, and ectopic overexpression of linc-ROR in immortalized human mammary epithelial cells induced an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) program. Moreover, we showed that linc-ROR enhanced breast cancer cell migration and invasion, which was accompanied by generation of stem cell properties. Contrarily, silencing of linc-ROR repressed breast tumor growth and lung metastasis in vivo. Mechanistically, our data revealed that linc-ROR was associated with miRNPs and functioned as a competing endogenous RNA to mi-205. Specifically, linc-ROR prevented the degradation of mir-205 target genes, including the EMT inducer ZEB2. Thus our results indicate that linc-ROR functions as an important regulator of EMT and can promote breast cancer progression and metastasis through regulation of miRNAs. Potentially, the findings of this study implicate the relevance of linc-ROR as a possible therapeutic target for aggressive and metastatic breast cancers.

  10. IRF6 is the mediator of TGFβ3 during regulation of the epithelial mesenchymal transition and palatal fusion

    PubMed Central

    Ke, Chen-Yeh; Xiao, Wen-Lin; Chen, Chun-Ming; Lo, Lun-Jou; Wong, Fen-Hwa

    2015-01-01

    Mutation in interferon regulatory factor 6 (IRF6) is known to cause syndromic and non-syndromic cleft lip/palate in human. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms related to IRF6 during palatal fusion using palatal shelves organ culture. The results showed that ablation of Irf6 resulted in a delay in TGFβ3-regulated palatal fusion. Ectopic expression of IRF6 was able to promote palatal fusion and rescue shTgfβ3-induced fusion defect. These findings indicate that IRF6 is involved in TGFβ3-mediated palatal fusion. Molecular analysis revealed that ectopic expression of IRF6 increased the expression of SNAI2, an epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) regulator, and diminished the expression of various epithelial markers, such as E-cadherin, Plakophilin and ZO-1. In addition, knockdown of Irf6 expression decreased SNAI2 expression, and restored the expression of ZO-1 and Plakophilin that were diminished by TGFβ3. Blocking of Snai2 expression delayed palatal fusion and abolished the IRF6 rescuing effect associated with shTgfβ3-induced fusion defect. These findings indicate that TGFβ3 increases IRF6 expression and subsequently regulates SNAI2 expression, and IRF6 appears to regulate EMT during palatal fusion via SNAI2. Taken together, this study demonstrates that IRF6 is a mediator of TGFβ3, which regulates EMT and fusion process during the embryonic palate development. PMID:26240017

  11. miR-200c Regulation of Metastases in Ovarian Cancer: Potential Role in Epithelial and Mesenchymal Transition

    PubMed Central

    Sulaiman, Siti A.; Ab Mutalib, Nurul-Syakima; Jamal, Rahman

    2016-01-01

    Among the gynecological malignancies, ovarian cancer is the most fatal due to its high mortality rate. Most of the identified cases are epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) with five distinct subtypes: high-grade serous carcinoma, low-grade serous carcinoma, mucinous carcinoma, endometrioid carcinoma, and clear-cell carcinoma. Lack of an early diagnostic approach, high incidence of tumor relapse and the heterogenous characteristics between each EOC subtypes contribute to the difficulties in developing precise intervention and therapy for the patients. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are single-stranded RNAs that have been shown to function as tumor suppressors or oncomiRs. The miR-200 family, especially miR-200c, has been shown to be implicated in the metastasis and invasion of ovarian carcinoma due to its functional regulation of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). This mini review is aimed to summarize the recent findings of the miR-200c functional role as well as its validated targets in the metastasis cascade of ovarian cancer, with a focus on EMT regulation. The potential of this miRNA in early diagnosis and its dual expression status are also discussed. PMID:27601996

  12. Oct4 Mediates Tumor Initiating Properties in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinomas through the Regulation of Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Lo-Lin; Hu, Fang-Wei; Lee, Shiuan-Shinn; Yu, Chuan-Hang; Yu, Cheng-Chia; Chang, Yu-Chao

    2014-01-01

    Background Overexpression of Oct4, an important transcription factor of embryonic stem cells (ESC), has been reported in several cancers. The aim of this study was to determine the emerging role of Oct4 in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) both in vitro and in vivo. Methodology/Principal Finding Tumourigenic activity and molecular mechanisms of Oct4 overexpression or knockdown by lentiviral infection in OSCC was investigated in vitro and in vivo. Initially, we demonstrated that Oct4 expression was increased in OSCC cell lines as compared to a normal oral epithelial cell line SG. Overexpression of Oct4 was demonstrated to enhance cell proliferation, invasiveness, anchorage-independent growth and xenotransplantation tumourigenicity. These findings were coupled with epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) transformation in OSCCs. In contrast, the silence of Oct4 significantly blocked the xenograft tumorigenesis of OSCC-derived cancer stem cells (OSCC-CSCs) and significantly improved the recipient survival. Clinically, the level of Oct4 expression was higher in recurrent and metastatic OSCC specimens but lower in primary OSCC specimens. Conclusion/Significance Our results suggest that Oct4-mediated tumorigenecity is associated with the regulation of EMT. Oct4 might be a therapeutic target for OSCC. PMID:24475251

  13. miR-200c Regulation of Metastases in Ovarian Cancer: Potential Role in Epithelial and Mesenchymal Transition.

    PubMed

    Sulaiman, Siti A; Ab Mutalib, Nurul-Syakima; Jamal, Rahman

    2016-01-01

    Among the gynecological malignancies, ovarian cancer is the most fatal due to its high mortality rate. Most of the identified cases are epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) with five distinct subtypes: high-grade serous carcinoma, low-grade serous carcinoma, mucinous carcinoma, endometrioid carcinoma, and clear-cell carcinoma. Lack of an early diagnostic approach, high incidence of tumor relapse and the heterogenous characteristics between each EOC subtypes contribute to the difficulties in developing precise intervention and therapy for the patients. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are single-stranded RNAs that have been shown to function as tumor suppressors or oncomiRs. The miR-200 family, especially miR-200c, has been shown to be implicated in the metastasis and invasion of ovarian carcinoma due to its functional regulation of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). This mini review is aimed to summarize the recent findings of the miR-200c functional role as well as its validated targets in the metastasis cascade of ovarian cancer, with a focus on EMT regulation. The potential of this miRNA in early diagnosis and its dual expression status are also discussed. PMID:27601996

  14. NEDD9 Is a Positive Regulator of Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition and Promotes Invasion in Aggressive Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Chenfei; Wang, Changqing; Wang, Liping; Ma, Musong; Niu, Chunbo; Sun, Xiaoqian; Du, Juan; Dong, Zhixiong; Zhu, Shan; Lu, Jun; Huang, Baiqu

    2011-01-01

    Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays an important role in many biological processes. The latest studies revealed that aggressive breast cancer, especially the triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) subtype was frequently associated with apparent EMT, but the mechanisms are still unclear. NEDD9/HEF1/Cas-L is a member of the Cas protein family and was identified as a metastasis marker in multiple cancer types. In this study, we wished to discern the role of NEDD9 in breast cancer progression and to investigate the molecular mechanism by which NEDD9 regulates EMT and promotes invasion in triple-negative breast cancer. We showed that expression of NEDD9 was frequently upregulated in TNBC cell lines, and in aggressive breast tumors, especially in TNBC subtype. Knockdown of endogenous NEDD9 reduced the migration, invasion and proliferation of TNBC cells. Moreover, ectopic overexpression of NEDD9 in mammary epithelial cells led to a string of events including the trigger of EMT, activation of ERK signaling, increase of several EMT-inducing transcription factors and promotion of their interactions with the E-cadherin promoter. Data presented in this report contribute to the understanding of the mechanisms by which NEDD9 promotes EMT, and provide useful clues to the evaluation of the potential of NEDD9 as a responsive molecular target for TNBC chemotherapy. PMID:21829474

  15. A SNAIL1-SMAD3/4 transcriptional repressor complex promotes TGF-β mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, Theresa; Neve, Etienne P. A.; Johnson, Jill R.; Kukalev, Alexander; Rojo, Federico; Albanell, Joan; Pietras, Kristian; Virtanen, Ismo; Philipson, Lennart; Leopold, Philip L.; Crystal, Ronald G.; de Herreros, Antonio Garcia; Moustakas, Aristidis; Pettersson, Ralf F.; Fuxe, Jonas

    2013-01-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transitions (EMT) are essential for organogenesis and triggered in carcinoma progression into an invasive state1. Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) cooperates with signalling pathways, such as Ras and Wnt, to induce EMT2-5, but the molecular mechanisms are not clear. Here, we report that SMAD3 and SMAD4 interact and form a complex with SNAIL1, a transcriptional repressor and promoter of EMT6, 7. The SNAIL1-SMAD3/4 complex was targeted to the gene promoters of CAR, a tight junction protein, and E-cadherin during TGF-β-driven EMT in breast epithelial cells. SNAIL1 and SMAD3/4 acted as co-repressors of CAR, occludin, claudin-3 and E-cadherin promoters in transfected cells. Conversely, co-silencing of SNAIL1 and SMAD4 by siRNA inhibited the repression of CAR and occludin during EMT. Moreover, loss of CAR and E-cadherin correlated with nuclear co-expression of SNAIL1 and SMAD3/4 in a mouse model of breast carcinoma and at the invasive fronts of human breast cancer. We propose that activation of a SNAIL1-SMAD3/4 transcriptional complex represents a novel mechanism of gene repression during EMT. PMID:19597490

  16. Autocrine TGF-β/ZEB/microRNA-200 signal transduction drives epithelial-mesenchymal transition: Kinetic models predict minimal drug dose to inhibit metastasis.

    PubMed

    Rateitschak, Katja; Kaderali, Lars; Wolkenhauer, Olaf; Jaster, Robert

    2016-08-01

    The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is the crucial step that cancer cells must pass before they can undergo metastasis. The transition requires the activity of complex functional networks that downregulate properties of the epithelial phenotype and upregulate characteristics of the mesenchymal phenotype. The networks frequently include reciprocal repressions between transcription factors (TFs) driving the EMT and microRNAs (miRs) inducing the reverse process, termed mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET). In this work we develop four kinetic models that are based on experimental data and hypotheses describing how autocrine transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signal transduction induces and maintains an EMT by upregulating the TFs ZEB1 and ZEB2 which repress the expression of the miR-200b/c family members. After successful model calibration we validate our models by predicting requirements for the maintenance of the mesenchymal steady state which agree with experimental data. Finally, we apply our validated kinetic models for the design of experiments in cancer therapy. We demonstrate how steady state properties of the kinetic models, combined with data from tumor-derived cell lines of individual patients, can predict the minimal amount of an inhibitor to induce a MET.

  17. WNT2 Promotes Cervical Carcinoma Metastasis and Induction of Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jing; Zhang, Lan; Wang, Jianhua; Huang, Long; Huang, Shuting; Yuan, Linjing; Jia, Weihua; Yu, Xingjuan; Luo, Rongzhen; Zheng, Min

    2016-01-01

    Background Previously, we found an 11-gene signature could predict pelvic lymph node metastasis (PLNM), and WNT2 is one of the key genes in the signature. This study explored the expression and underlying mechanism of WNT2 in PLNM of cervical cancer. Methods WNT2 expression level in cervical cancer was detected using western blotting, quantitative PCR, and immunohistochemistry. Two WNT2-specific small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) were used to explore the effects of WNT2 on invasive and metastatic ability of cancer cells, and to reveal the possible mechanism of WNT2 affecting epithelial—mesenchymal transition (EMT). The correlation between WNT2 expression and PLNM was further investigated in clinical cervical specimens. Results Both WNT2 mRNA and protein expression was upregulated in cervical cancer. High WNT2 expression was significantly associated with tumor size, lymphovascular space involvement, positive parametrium, and most importantly, PLNM. PLNM and WNT2 expression were independent prognostic factors for overall survival and disease-free survival. WNT2 knockdown inhibited SiHa cell motility and invasion and reversed EMT by inhibiting the WNT2/β-catenin pathway. WNT2 overexpression in cervical cancer was associated with β-catenin activation and induction of EMT, which further contributed to metastasis in cervical cancer. Conclusion WNT2 might be a novel predictor of PLNM and a promising prognostic indicator in cervical cancer. PMID:27513465

  18. Macrophages programmed by apoptotic cells inhibit epithelial-mesenchymal transition in lung alveolar epithelial cells via PGE2, PGD2, and HGF

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Young-So; Lee, Ye-Ji; Choi, Youn-Hee; Park, Young Mi; Kang, Jihee Lee

    2016-01-01

    Apoptotic cell clearance results in the release of growth factors and the action of signaling molecules involved in tissue homeostasis maintenance. Here, we investigated whether and how macrophages programmed by apoptotic cells inhibit the TGF-β1-induced Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process in lung alveolar epithelial cells. Treatment with conditioned medium derived from macrophages exposed to apoptotic cells, but not viable or necrotic cells, inhibited TGF-β1-induced EMT, including loss of E-cadherin, synthesis of N-cadherin and α-smooth muscle actin, and induction of EMT-activating transcription factors, such as Snail1/2, Zeb1/2, and Twist1. Exposure of macrophages to cyclooxygenase (COX-2) inhibitors (NS-398 and COX-2 siRNA) or RhoA/Rho kinase inhibitors (Y-27632 and RhoA siRNA) and LA-4 cells to antagonists of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) receptor (EP4 [AH-23848]), PGD2 receptors (DP1 [BW-A868C] and DP2 [BAY-u3405]), or the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) receptor c-Met (PHA-665752), reversed EMT inhibition by the conditioned medium. Additionally, we found that apoptotic cell instillation inhibited bleomycin-mediated EMT in primary mouse alveolar type II epithelial cells in vivo. Our data suggest a new model for epithelial cell homeostasis, by which the anti-EMT programming of macrophages by apoptotic cells may control the progressive fibrotic reaction via the production of potent paracrine EMT inhibitors. PMID:26875548

  19. Macrophages programmed by apoptotic cells inhibit epithelial-mesenchymal transition in lung alveolar epithelial cells via PGE2, PGD2, and HGF.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Young-So; Lee, Ye-Ji; Choi, Youn-Hee; Park, Young Mi; Kang, Jihee Lee

    2016-01-01

    Apoptotic cell clearance results in the release of growth factors and the action of signaling molecules involved in tissue homeostasis maintenance. Here, we investigated whether and how macrophages programmed by apoptotic cells inhibit the TGF-β1-induced Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process in lung alveolar epithelial cells. Treatment with conditioned medium derived from macrophages exposed to apoptotic cells, but not viable or necrotic cells, inhibited TGF-β1-induced EMT, including loss of E-cadherin, synthesis of N-cadherin and α-smooth muscle actin, and induction of EMT-activating transcription factors, such as Snail1/2, Zeb1/2, and Twist1. Exposure of macrophages to cyclooxygenase (COX-2) inhibitors (NS-398 and COX-2 siRNA) or RhoA/Rho kinase inhibitors (Y-27632 and RhoA siRNA) and LA-4 cells to antagonists of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) receptor (EP4 [AH-23848]), PGD2 receptors (DP1 [BW-A868C] and DP2 [BAY-u3405]), or the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) receptor c-Met (PHA-665752), reversed EMT inhibition by the conditioned medium. Additionally, we found that apoptotic cell instillation inhibited bleomycin-mediated EMT in primary mouse alveolar type II epithelial cells in vivo. Our data suggest a new model for epithelial cell homeostasis, by which the anti-EMT programming of macrophages by apoptotic cells may control the progressive fibrotic reaction via the production of potent paracrine EMT inhibitors. PMID:26875548

  20. Nox4 involvement in TGF-beta and SMAD3-driven induction of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and migration of breast epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Boudreau, Howard E.; Casterline, Benjamin W.; Rada, Balazs; Korzeniowska, Agnieszka; Leto, Thomas L.

    2012-01-01

    The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is the development of increased cell plasticity that occurs normally during wound healing and embryonic development and can be coopted for cancer invasion and metastasis. TGF-beta induces EMT but the mechanism is unclear. Our studies suggest Nox4, a member of the NADPH oxidase (Nox) family, is a source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) affecting cell migration and fibronectin expression, an EMT marker, in normal and metastatic breast epithelial cells. We found TGF-beta induces Nox4 expression (mRNA and protein) and ROS generation in normal (MCF10A) and metastatic (MDA-MB-231) human breast epithelial cells. Conversely, cells expressing a dominant-negative form of Nox4 or Nox4-targeted shRNA showed significantly lower ROS production upon TGF-beta treatment. Expression of a constitutively active TGF-beta receptor type I significantly increased Nox4 promoter activity, mRNA and protein expression, and ROS generation. Nox4 transcriptional regulation by TGF-beta was SMAD3-dependent based on the effect of constitutively active SMAD3 increasing Nox4 promoter activity, whereas dominant-negative SMAD3 or SIS3, a SMAD3-specific inhibitor, had the opposite effect. Furthermore, Nox4 knockdown, dominant-negative Nox4 or SMAD3, or SIS3 blunted TGF-beta induced wound healing and cell migration, whereas cell proliferation was not effected. Our experiments further indicate Nox4 plays a role in TGF-beta regulation of fibronectin mRNA expression, based on the effects of dominant-negative Nox4 in reducing fibronectin mRNA in TGF-beta treated MDA-MB-231and MCF10A cells. Collectively, these data indicate Nox4 contributes to NADPH oxidase-dependent ROS production that may be critical for progression of the EMT in breast epithelial cells, and thereby has therapeutic implications. PMID:22728268

  1. OCT4 mediates FSH-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition and invasion through the ERK1/2 signaling pathway in epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lei; Zhang, Jing; Fang, Chi; Zhang, Zhenbo; Feng, Youji; Xi, Xiaowei

    2015-06-01

    Our previous study showed that Octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (OCT4) expression was upregulated and significantly associated with histological grade through the analysis of OCT4 expression in 159 ovarian cancer tissue samples, and OCT4 mediated follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)-induced anti-apoptosis in epithelial ovarian cancer. Nevertheless, whether OCT4 participates in FSH-induced invasion in ovarian cancer is still unknown. Therefore, the present study aimed to define whether FSH-induced ovarian cancer invasion is mediated by OCT4. In present study, we showed that FSH induced not only the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and invasive phenotype but also the upregulation of OCT4 expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner in epithelial ovarian cancer cells. In addition, the expression of FSH receptor (FSHR) was upregulated by FSH induction, and knockdown of FSHR inhibited FSH-stimulated OCT4 expression. ERK1/2 signaling pathway participated in the enhanced expression of OCT4 and Snail induced by FSH. We further showed that the activated expression of Snail and N-cadherin, the suppressed expression of E-cadherin and the morphological change of the cells stimulated by FSH were blocked by OCT4-specific small interfering RNA. Moreover, our results showed that OCT4 mediated the increase in invasive capacity induced by FSH in ovarian cancer cells. Taken together, our work reveals that OCT4 is an essential mediator in FSH-induced EMT and invasion in epithelial ovarian cancer and may act as a potential therapeutic target.

  2. Role of Dlg5/lp-dlg, a Membrane-Associated Guanylate Kinase Family Protein, in Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in LLc-PK1 Renal Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sogabe, Takayuki; Kakuda, Kumiyo; Tomiyama, Lucia; Matsuno, Yohsuke; Ichikawa, Takafumi; Matsuo, Michinori; Ueda, Kazumitsu; Kioka, Noriyuki

    2012-01-01

    Discs large homolog 5 (Dlg5) is a member of the membrane-associated guanylate kinase adaptor family of proteins, some of which are involved in the regulation of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Dlg5 has been described as a susceptibility gene for Crohn's disease; however, the physiological function of Dlg5 is unknown. We show here that transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)-induced EMT suppresses Dlg5 expression in LLc-PK1 cells. Depletion of Dlg5 expression by knockdown promoted the expression of the mesenchymal marker proteins, fibronectin and α-smooth muscle actin, and suppressed the expression of E-cadherin. In addition, activation of JNK and p38, which are stimulated by TGF-β, was enhanced by Dlg5 depletion. Furthermore, inhibition of the TGF-β receptor suppressed the effects of Dlg5 depletion. These observations suggest that Dlg5 is involved in the regulation of TGF-βreceptor-dependent signals and EMT. PMID:22539977

  3. Regulation of Na,K-ATPase β1-subunit in TGF-β2-mediated epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in human retinal pigmented epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Mony, Sridevi; Lee, Seung Joon; Harper, Jeffrey F; Barwe, Sonali P; Langhans, Sigrid A

    2013-10-01

    Proliferative vitreo retinopathy (PVR) is associated with extracellular matrix membrane (ECM) formation on the neural retina and disruption of the multilayered retinal architecture leading to distorted vision and blindness. During disease progression in PVR, retinal pigmented epithelial cells (RPE) lose cell-cell adhesion, undergo epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and deposit ECM leading to tissue fibrosis. The EMT process is mediated via exposure to vitreous cytokines and growth factors such as TGF-β2. Previous studies have shown that Na,K-ATPase is required for maintaining a normal polarized epithelial phenotype and that decreased Na,K-ATPase function and subunit levels are associated with TGF-β1-mediated EMT in kidney cells. In contrast to the basolateral localization of Na,K-ATPase in most epithelia, including kidney, Na,K-ATPase is found on the apical membrane in RPE cells. We now show that EMT is also associated with altered Na,K-ATPase expression in RPE cells. TGF-β2 treatment of ARPE-19 cells resulted in a time-dependent decrease in Na,K-ATPase β1 mRNA and protein levels while Na,K-ATPase α1 levels, Na,K-ATPase activity, and intracellular sodium levels remained largely unchanged. In TGF-β2-treated cells reduced Na,K-ATPase β1 mRNA inversely correlated with HIF-1α levels and analysis of the Na,K-ATPase β1 promoter revealed a putative hypoxia response element (HRE). HIF-1α bound to the Na,K-ATPase β1 promoter and inhibiting the activity of HIF-1α blocked the TGF-β2 mediated Na,K-ATPase β1 decrease suggesting that HIF-1α plays a potential role in Na,K-ATPase β1 regulation during EMT in RPE cells. Furthermore, knockdown of Na,K-ATPase β1 in ARPE-19 cells was associated with a change in cell morphology from epithelial to mesenchymal and induction of EMT markers such as α-smooth muscle actin and fibronectin, suggesting that loss of Na,K-ATPase β1 is a potential contributor to TGF-β2-mediated EMT in RPE cells.

  4. Foxp3 downregulation in NSCLC mediates epithelial-mesenchymal transition via NF-κB signaling.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xi; Liu, Ying; Dai, Lingling; Liu, Qi; Jia, Liuqun; Wang, Huan; An, Lin; Jing, Xiaogang; Liu, Meng; Li, Pengfei; Cheng, Zhe

    2016-10-01

    Forkhead box P3 (Foxp3) is a member of forkhead box transcription factor family and it was identified as a tumor suppressor in various solid tumors. This study evaluated the expression of Foxp3 in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and investigated its role in epithelial‑mesenchymal transition (EMT) of cancer cells. qRT-PCR and western blot analysis were used for examining the expression of Foxp3 in NSCLC tissues and the non-tumor tissues. A tissue microarray was constructed and scored for evaluating the clinical significance of Foxp3 expression in NSCLC tissues. RNAi was employed for downregulating Foxp3 expression and cell proliferation was done with MTT assay. Transwell with or without basement membrane matrix was used for cell migration and invasion assay respectively. Foxp3 was found downregulated in NSCLC tissues compared with non-tumoral tissues; downregulation of Foxp3 predicted adverse tumor stage and overall survival; silencing of FOXP3 promoted the proliferation, migration and invasion ability of NSCLC cells and influenced the expression level of EMT-associated proteins. However, forced expression of Foxp3 could reverse this effect. Moreover, Foxp3 could interact with LMO2 and affect the expression level of TAL1, which was in accordance with the findings in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. By screening the signalling pathways, we observed an obvious upregulation of phosphorylated NF-κB in A549 and H520 cells after silencing of FOXP3. Our results suggest that Foxp3 suppressed NSCLC cell metastasis, at least partially, via NF-κB signaling. PMID:27574108

  5. Hepatitis B virus X protein promotes renal epithelial-mesenchymal transition in human renal proximal tubule epithelial cells through the activation of NF-κB.

    PubMed

    Li, Mei; Hu, Liping; Zhu, Fengxin; Zhou, Zhangmei; Tian, Jianwei; Ai, Jun

    2016-08-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV)-associated glomerulo-nephritis is the most common extra-hepatic disorder occurring with hepatitis B virus infection. In the present study, we hypothesized that HBV X protein (HBx) may play a critical role in renal interstitial fibrosis, as HBx has been shown to induce epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in renal cells. For this purpose, we successfully transfected HBx plasmid into human renal proximal tubule epithelial cells (HK-2 cells). We found that transfection with HBx plasmid significantly downregulated E-cadherin expression and upregulated α-smooth muscle actin, collagen I and fibronectin expression in a time- and concentration-dependent manner (at the lower concentrations and earlier time points). HBx also increased nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) phosphorylation in a time- and concentration-dependent manner (again at the lower concentrations and earlier time points); however, it did not alter the phosphorylation of Smad2, Smad3, p38, phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) or extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). Thus, the findings of this study demonstrate that HBx promotes EMT in renal HK-2 cells, and the potential underlying mechanisms may involve the activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway.

  6. Long Non-Coding RNA MALAT1 Mediates Transforming Growth Factor Beta1-Induced Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition of Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shuai; Yao, Haipei; Li, Min; Li, Hui; Wang, Fang

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To study the role of long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) MALAT1 in transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1)-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells. Methods ARPE-19 cells were cultured and exposed to TGF-β1. The EMT of APRE-19 cells is confirmed by morphological change, as well as the increased expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin (αSMA) and fibronectin, and the down-regulation of E-cadherin and Zona occludin-1(ZO-1) at both mRNA and protein levels. The expression of lncRNA MALAT1 in RPE cells were detected by quantitative real-time PCR. Knockdown of MALAT1 was achieved by transfecting a small interfering RNA (SiRNA). The effect of inhibition of MALAT1 on EMT, migration, proliferation, and TGFβ signalings were observed. MALAT1 expression was also detected in primary RPE cells incubated with proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) vitreous samples. Results The expression of MALAT1 is significantly increased in RPE cells incubated with TGFβ1. MALAT1 silencing attenuates TGFβ1-induced EMT, migration, and proliferation of RPE cells, at least partially through activating Smad2/3 signaling. MALAT1 is also significantly increased in primary RPE cells incubated with PVR vitreous samples. Conclusion LncRNA MALAT1 is involved in TGFβ1-induced EMT of human RPE cells and provides new understandings for the pathogenesis of PVR. PMID:27019196

  7. Quantitative analysis of injury-induced anterior subcapsular cataract in the mouse: a model of lens epithelial cells proliferation and epithelial-mesenchymal transition

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Wei; Chen, Xiaoyun; Li, Weihua; Ye, Shaobi; Wang, Wencong; Luo, Lixia; Liu, Yizhi

    2015-01-01

    The mouse lens capsular injury model has been widely used in investigating the mechanisms of anterior subcapsular cataract (ASC) and posterior capsule opacification (PCO), and evaluating the efficacy of antifibrotic compounds. Nevertheless, there is no available protocol to quantitatively assess the treatment outcomes. Our aim is to describe a new method that can successfully quantify the wound and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers expression in vivo. In this model, lens anterior capsule was punctured with a hypodermic needle, which triggered lens epithelial cells (LECs) proliferation and EMT rapidly. Immunofluorescent staining of injured lens anterior capsule whole-mounts revealed the formation of ASC and high expression of EMT markers in the subcapsular plaques. A series of sectional images of lens capsule were acquired from laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) three-dimensional (3D) scanning. Using LSCM Image Browser software, we can not only obtain high resolution stereo images to present the spatial structures of ASC, but also quantify the subcapsular plaques and EMT markers distribution sucessfully. Moreover, we also demonstrated that histone deacetylases (HDACs) inhibitor TSA significantly prevented injury-induced ASC using this method. Therefore, the present research provides a useful tool to study ASC and PCO biology as well as the efficacy of new therapies. PMID:25666271

  8. The polycomb group protein Bmi-1 represses the tumor suppressor PTEN and induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition in human nasopharyngeal epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Song, Li-Bing; Li, Jun; Liao, Wen-Ting; Feng, Yan; Yu, Chun-Ping; Hu, Li-Juan; Kong, Qing-Li; Xu, Li-Hua; Zhang, Xing; Liu, Wan-Li; Li, Man-Zhi; Zhang, Ling; Kang, Tie-Bang; Fu, Li-Wu; Huang, Wen-Lin; Xia, Yun-Fei; Tsao, Sai Wah; Li, Mengfeng; Band, Vimla; Band, Hamid; Shi, Qing-Hua; Zeng, Yi-Xin; Zeng, Mu-Sheng

    2009-01-01

    The polycomb group protein B lymphoma Mo-MLV insertion region 1 homolog (Bmi-1) is dysregulated in various cancers, and its upregulation strongly correlates with an invasive phenotype and poor prognosis in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinomas. However, the underlying mechanism of Bmi-1–mediated invasiveness remains unknown. In the current study, we found that upregulation of Bmi-1 induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and enhanced the motility and invasiveness of human nasopharyngeal epithelial cells, whereas silencing endogenous Bmi-1 expression reversed EMT and reduced motility. Furthermore, upregulation of Bmi-1 led to the stabilization of Snail, a transcriptional repressor associated with EMT, via modulation of PI3K/Akt/GSK-3β signaling. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays revealed that Bmi-1 transcriptionally downregulated expression of the tumor suppressor PTEN in tumor cells through direct association with the PTEN locus. This in vitro analysis was consistent with the statistical inverse correlation detected between Bmi-1 and PTEN expression in a cohort of human nasopharyngeal carcinoma biopsies. Moreover, ablation of PTEN expression partially rescued the migratory/invasive phenotype of Bmi-1–silenced cells, indicating that PTEN might be a major mediator of Bmi-1–induced EMT. Our results provide functional and mechanistic links between the oncoprotein Bmi-1 and the tumor suppressor PTEN in the development and progression of cancer. PMID:19884659

  9. Exosome cargo reflects TGF-β1-mediated epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) status in A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jiyeon; Kim, Tae Yeon; Lee, Myung Shin; Mun, Ji Young; Ihm, Chunhwa; Kim, Soon Ae

    2016-09-16

    It has been suggested that tumor cells secrete exosomes to modify the local microenvironment, which then promotes intercellular communication and metastasis. Although exosomes derived from cancer cells may contribute to the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in untransformed cells, few studies have defined exosome cargo upon induction of EMT. In this study, we investigated the changes in exosomal cargo from the epithelial to mesenchymal cell phenotype by inducing EMT with transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 in A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells. The protein content of the exosomes reflects the change in the cell phenotype. In addition, miR-23a was significantly enriched in the exosomes after mesenchymal transition. Following treatment of exosomes from mesenchymal cells via EMT induction with TGF-β1 to the epithelial cell type, phenotypic changes in protein expression level and cell morphology were observed. Autologous treatment of exosomes enhanced the transcriptional activity and abundance of β-catenin. Our results suggest that the exosomal protein and miRNA content reflects the physiological condition of its source and that exosomes induce phenotypic changes via autocrine signaling. PMID:27492069

  10. Overexpression of RACK1 Promotes Metastasis by Enhancing Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition and Predicts Poor Prognosis in Human Glioma

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Qiao-Li; Huang, Yuan-Tao; Wang, Gui-Hua; Liu, Yan-Ling; Huang, Jin; Qu, Qiang; Sun, Bao; Hu, Lei; Cheng, Lin; Chen, Shu-Hui; Zhou, Hong-Hao

    2016-01-01

    Emerging studies show that dysregulation of the receptor of activated protein kinase C1 (RACK1) plays a crucial role in tumorigenesis and progression of various cancers. However, the biological function and underlying mechanism of RACK1 in glioma remains poorly defined. Here, we found that RACK1 was significantly up-regulated in glioma tissues compared with normal brain tissues, being closely related to clinical stage of glioma both in mRNA and protein levels. Moreover, Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated that patients with high RACK1 expression had a poor prognosis (p = 0.0062, HR = 1.898, 95% CI: 1.225–3.203). In vitro functional assays indicated that silencing of RACK1 could dramatically promote apoptosis and inhibit cell proliferation, migration, and invasion of glioma cells. More importantly, knockdown of RACK1 led to a vast accumulation of cells in G0/G1 phase and their reduced proportions at the S phase by suppressing the expression of G1/S transition key regulators Cyclin D1 and CDK6. Additionally, this forced down-regulation of RACK1 significantly suppressed migration and invasion via inhibiting the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers, such as MMP2, MMP9, ZEB1, N-Cadherin, and Integrin-β1. Collectively, our study revealed that RACK1 might act as a valuable prognostic biomarker and potential therapeutic target for glioma. PMID:27763568

  11. Notch1 induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition and the cancer stem cell phenotype in breast cancer cells and STAT3 plays a key role.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaojin; Zhao, Xiaoai; Shao, Shan; Zuo, Xiaoxiao; Ning, Qian; Luo, Minna; Gu, Shanzhi; Zhao, Xinhan

    2015-03-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women. The Notch signaling pathway has been shown to be associated with the development and progression of many human cancers, including breast cancer, but the precise mechanism remains unknown. Here, the influence of Notch1 signaling in mammary epithelial cells was studied. We showed that Notch1 promotes proliferation in MCF7 and MCF10A cells. Transwell assay indicated that Notch1 overexpression promotes cell migration and the invasion of breast cancer cells. We showed that MCF7 and MCF10A cells overexpressing Notch1 acquired features of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and displayed a cancer stem cell (CSC) phenotype. The expression levels of the epithelial markers E-cadherin and occludin were decreased, while the expression levels of the mesenchymal markers N-cadherin, vimentin and fibronectin were increased in cells overexpressing Notch1. We demonstrated that Notch1 induced phosphorylation of the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) in breast cancer cells and increased the expression of p65 and interleukin (IL)-1β. Inhibition of STAT3 activity by JSI124 reduced the expression of p65 and IL-1. Treatment of MCF7-notch1 and MCF10A-notch1 cells with JSI124 also reduced the expression of N-cadherin, markers of epithelial mesenchymal transition and increased the expression of E-cadherin. Our results suggest that Notch1 promotes EMT and the CSC phenotype through induction of STAT3.

  12. Long-term exposure of MCF-12A normal human breast epithelial cells to ethanol induces epithelial mesenchymal transition and oncogenic features

    PubMed Central

    GELFAND, ROBERT; VERNET, DOLORES; BRUHN, KEVIN; VADGAMA, JAYDUTT; GONZALEZ-CADAVID, NESTOR F.

    2016-01-01

    Alcoholism is associated with breast cancer incidence and progression, and moderate chronic consumption of ethanol is a risk factor. The mechanisms involved in alcohol's oncogenic effects are unknown, but it has been speculated that they may be mediated by acetaldehyde. We used the immortalized normal human epithelial breast cell line MCF-12A to determine whether short- or long-term exposure to ethanol or to acetaldehyde, using in vivo compatible ethanol concentrations, induces their oncogenic transformation and/or the acquisition of epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT). Cultures of MCF-12A cells were incubated with 25 mM ethanol or 2.5 mM acetaldehyde for 1 week, or with lower concentrations (1.0–2.5 mM for ethanol, 1.0 mM for acetaldehyde) for 4 weeks. In the 4-week incubation, cells were also tested for anchorage-independence, including isolation of soft agar selected cells (SASC) from the 2.5 mM ethanol incubations. Cells were analyzed by immunocytofluorescence, flow cytometry, western blotting, DNA microarrays, RT/PCR, and assays for miRs. We found that short-term exposure to ethanol, but not, in general, to acetaldehyde, was associated with transcriptional upregulation of the metallothionein family genes, alcohol metabolism genes, and genes suggesting the initiation of EMT, but without related phenotypic changes. Long-term exposure to the lower concentrations of ethanol or acetaldehyde induced frank EMT changes in the monolayer cultures and in SASC as demonstrated by changes in cellular phenotype, mRNA expression, and microRNA expression. This suggests that low concentrations of ethanol, with little or no mediation by acetaldehyde, induce EMT and some traits of oncogenic transformation such as anchorage-independence in normal breast epithelial cells. PMID:27035792

  13. Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor-γ Activation Inhibits Tumor Metastasis by Antagonizing Smad3 Mediated Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition

    PubMed Central

    Reka, Ajaya Kumar; Kurapati, Himabindu; Narala, Venkata R; Bommer, Guido; Chen, Jun; Standiford, Theodore J.; Keshamouni, Venkateshwar G.

    2011-01-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) was shown to confer tumor cells with abilities essential for metastasis, including migratory phenotype, invasiveness, and resistance to apoptosis, evading immune surveillance and tumor stem cell traits. Therefore, inhibition of EMT can be an important therapeutic strategy to inhibit tumor metastasis. Here we demonstrate that activation of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) -γ inhibits TGF-β-induced EMT in lung cancer cells and prevents metastasis by antagonizing Smad3 function. Activation of PPAR-γ by synthetic ligands (Troglitazone and Rosiglitazone) or by a constitutively-active form of PPAR-γ prevents TGF-β-induced loss of E-cadherin expression and inhibited the induction of mesenchymal markers (vimentin, N-cadherin, fibronectin) and MMPs. Consistently, activation of PPAR-γ also inhibited EMT-induced migration and invasion of lung cancer cells. Furthermore, effects of PPAR-γ ligands were attenuated by siRNA mediated knockdown of PPAR-γ, indicating that the ligand induced responses are PPAR-γ dependent. Selective knockdown of Smad2 and Smad3 by siRNA demonstrated that TGF-β-induced EMT is Smad3 dependent in lung cancer cells. Activation of PPAR-γ inhibits TGF-β-induced Smad transcriptional activity but had no effect on the phosphorylation or nuclear translocation of Smads. Consistently PPAR-γ activation prevented TGF-ß-induced transcriptional repression of E-cadherin promoter and inhibited transcriptional activation of N-cadherin promoter. Finally, treatment of mice with troglitazone or knockdown of Smad3 in tumor cells both significantly inhibited TGF-β-induced experimental metastasis in Scid-Beige mice. Together, with the low toxicity profile of PPAR-γ ligands, our data demonstrates that these ligands may serve as potential therapeutic agents to inhibit metastasis. PMID:21159608

  14. Thrombomodulin Influences the Survival of Patients with Non-Metastatic Colorectal Cancer through Epithelial-To-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT)

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Ya-Wen; Huang, Chi-Chou; Chen, William Tzu-Liang; Ke, Tao-Wei; Wei, Po-Li

    2016-01-01

    Background Treatment resistance and metastasis are the major causes of death among patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). Approximately 20% of surgically treated patients ultimately develop metastases during the follow-up period. Currently, the TNM system is the only available prognostic test. Therefore, the identification of new markers for CRC remains important. Thrombomodulin (TM), a glycoprotein, is involved in angiogenesis and has been linked to many malignant diseases. However, the function of TM in CRC remains unclear. Methods A total of 170 patients with CRC participated in this study. TM expression was analyzed via immunohistochemistry. Univariate (Kaplan-Meier) analysis was used to analyze patient outcomes, including overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS). TM expression was manipulated using shRNA or an overexpression system. Transwell migration assays, wound healing migration assays, and the xCELLigence biosensor system were used to detect cell proliferative and migratory capacities. Results TM expression in the tumor tissues significantly and positively correlated with the DFS and OS of non-metastatic patients with CRC (ps = 0.036 and 0.0218, respectively). Suppression of TM expression increased the proliferation and migration of DLD-1 cells. TM overexpression reduced the cells’ proliferative and migratory capacities. Cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expression was up-regulated following TM silencing. Furthermore, the association between the migration of colon cancer cells and the levels of TM and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers (fibronectin, vimentin and ezrin) was confirmed in HT29 and DLD-1 cells. Conclusions Our study demonstrates that patients with non-metastatic CRC display low TM expression in their tumors and exhibit reduced DFS and OS. The enhanced expression of mesenchymal markers and COX-2 may be involved in the mechanisms that underlie recurrence in patients with cancer displaying low TM expression. PMID:27512995

  15. Gene Expression in Wilms’ Tumor Mimics the Earliest Committed Stage in the Metanephric Mesenchymal-Epithelial Transition

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chi-Ming; Guo, Meirong; Borczuk, Alain; Powell, Charles A.; Wei, Michelle; Thaker, Harshwardhan M.; Friedman, Richard; Klein, Ulf; Tycko, Benjamin

    2002-01-01

    Wilms’ tumor (WT) has been considered a prototype for arrested cellular differentiation in cancer, but previous studies have relied on selected markers. We have now performed an unbiased survey of gene expression in WTs using oligonucleotide microarrays. Statistical criteria identified 357 genes as differentially expressed between WTs and fetal kidneys. This set contained 124 matches to genes on a microarray used by Stuart and colleagues (Stuart RO, Bush KT, Nigam SK: Changes in global gene expression patterns during development and maturation of the rat kidney. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2001, 98:5649–5654) to establish genes with stage-specific expression in the developing rat kidney. Mapping between the two data sets showed that WTs systematically overexpressed genes corresponding to the earliest stage of metanephric development, and underexpressed genes corresponding to later stages. Automated clustering identified a smaller group of 27 genes that were highly expressed in WTs compared to fetal kidney and heterologous tumor and normal tissues. This signature set was enriched in genes encoding transcription factors. Four of these, PAX2, EYA1, HBF2, and HOXA11, are essential for cell survival and proliferation in early metanephric development, whereas others, including SIX1, MOX1, and SALL2, are predicted to act at this stage. SIX1 and SALL2 proteins were expressed in the condensing mesenchyme in normal human fetal kidneys, but were absent (SIX1) or reduced (SALL2) in cells at other developmental stages. These data imply that the blastema in WTs has progressed to the committed stage in the mesenchymal-epithelial transition, where it is partially arrested in differentiation. The WT-signature set also contained the Wnt receptor FZD7, the tumor antigen PRAME, the imprinted gene NNAT and the metastasis-associated transcription factor E1AF. PMID:12057921

  16. A Core Invasiveness Gene Signature Reflects Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition but Not Metastatic Potential in Breast Cancer Cell Lines and Tissue Samples

    PubMed Central

    Marsan, Melike; Van den Eynden, Gert; Limame, Ridha; Neven, Patrick; Hauspy, Jan; Van Dam, Peter A.; Vergote, Ignace; Dirix, Luc Y.; Vermeulen, Peter B.; Van Laere, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Metastases remain the primary cause of cancer-related death. The acquisition of invasive tumour cell behaviour is thought to be a cornerstone of the metastatic cascade. Therefore, gene signatures related to invasiveness could aid in stratifying patients according to their prognostic profile. In the present study we aimed at identifying an invasiveness gene signature and investigated its biological relevance in breast cancer. Methods & Results We collected a set of published gene signatures related to cell motility and invasion. Using this collection, we identified 16 genes that were represented at a higher frequency than observed by coincidence, hereafter named the core invasiveness gene signature. Principal component analysis showed that these overrepresented genes were able to segregate invasive and non-invasive breast cancer cell lines, outperforming sets of 16 randomly selected genes (all P<0.001). When applied onto additional data sets, the expression of the core invasiveness gene signature was significantly elevated in cell lines forced to undergo epithelial-mesenchymal transition. The link between core invasiveness gene expression and epithelial-mesenchymal transition was also confirmed in a dataset consisting of 2420 human breast cancer samples. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analysis demonstrated that CIG expression is not associated with a shorter distant metastasis free survival interval (HR = 0.956, 95%C.I. = 0.896–1.019, P = 0.186). Discussion These data demonstrate that we have identified a set of core invasiveness genes, the expression of which is associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition in breast cancer cell lines and in human tissue samples. Despite the connection between epithelial-mesenchymal transition and invasive tumour cell behaviour, we were unable to demonstrate a link between the core invasiveness gene signature and enhanced metastatic potential. PMID:24586640

  17. Netrins and Frazzled/DCC promote the migration and mesenchymal to epithelial transition of Drosophila midgut cells

    PubMed Central

    Pert, Melissa; Gan, Miao; Saint, Robert; Murray, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mesenchymal-epithelial transitions (METs) are important in both development and the growth of secondary tumours. Although the molecular basis for epithelial polarity is well studied, less is known about the cues that induce MET. Here we show that Netrins, well known as chemotropic guidance factors, provide a basal polarising cue during the Drosophila midgut MET. Both netrinA and netrinB are expressed in the visceral mesoderm, the substrate upon which midgut cells migrate, while their receptor frazzled (fra) is expressed in midgut cells. Netrins are required to polarise Fra to the basal surface, and Netrins and Fra undergo mutually-dependent endocytosis, with Fra subsequently trafficking to late endosomes. Mutations to fra and netrins affect both migration and MET but to different degrees. Loss of fra strongly delays migration, midgut cells fail to extend protrusions, and apico-basal polarisation of proteins and epithelium formation is inhibited. In netrin mutants, the migration phenotype is weaker and cells still extend protrusions. However, apico-basal polarisation of proteins, including Fra, and FActin is greatly disrupted and a monolayer fails to form. Delocalised accumulations of FActin are prevalent in netrin mutants but not fra mutants suggesting delocalised Fra may disrupt the MET. βPS localisation is also affected in netrin mutants in that a basal gradient is reduced while localisation to the midgut/VM interface is increased. Since a similar effect is seen when endocytosis is inhibited, Netrin and Fra may regulate Integrin turnover. The results suggest Netrin-dependent basal polarisation of Fra is critical for the formation of an epithelium. PMID:25617422

  18. Netrins and Frazzled/DCC promote the migration and mesenchymal to epithelial transition of Drosophila midgut cells.

    PubMed

    Pert, Melissa; Gan, Miao; Saint, Robert; Murray, Michael J

    2015-01-23

    Mesenchymal-epithelial transitions (METs) are important in both development and the growth of secondary tumours. Although the molecular basis for epithelial polarity is well studied, less is known about the cues that induce MET. Here we show that Netrins, well known as chemotropic guidance factors, provide a basal polarising cue during the Drosophila midgut MET. Both netrinA and netrinB are expressed in the visceral mesoderm, the substrate upon which midgut cells migrate, while their receptor frazzled (fra) is expressed in midgut cells. Netrins are required to polarise Fra to the basal surface, and Netrins and Fra undergo mutually-dependent endocytosis, with Fra subsequently trafficking to late endosomes. Mutations to fra and netrins affect both migration and MET but to different degrees. Loss of fra strongly delays migration, midgut cells fail to extend protrusions, and apico-basal polarisation of proteins and epithelium formation is inhibited. In netrin mutants, the migration phenotype is weaker and cells still extend protrusions. However, apico-basal polarisation of proteins, including Fra, and FActin is greatly disrupted and a monolayer fails to form. Delocalised accumulations of FActin are prevalent in netrin mutants but not fra mutants suggesting delocalised Fra may disrupt the MET. βPS localisation is also affected in netrin mutants in that a basal gradient is reduced while localisation to the midgut/VM interface is increased. Since a similar effect is seen when endocytosis is inhibited, Netrin and Fra may regulate Integrin turnover. The results suggest Netrin-dependent basal polarisation of Fra is critical for the formation of an epithelium.

  19. Exploring the role of sphingolipid machinery during the epithelial to mesenchymal transition program using an integrative approach

    PubMed Central

    Meshcheryakova, Anastasia; Köfeler, Harald C.; Triebl, Alexander; Mungenast, Felicitas; Heinze, Georg; Gerner, Christopher; Zimmermann, Philip; Jaritz, Markus; Mechtcheriakova, Diana

    2016-01-01

    The epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) program is activated in epithelial cancer cells and facilitates their ability to metastasize based on enhanced migratory, proliferative, anti-apoptotic, and pluripotent capacities. Given the fundamental impact of sphingolipid machinery to each individual process, the sphingolipid-related mechanisms might be considered among the most prominent drivers/players of EMT; yet, there is still limited knowledge. Given the complexity of the interconnected sphingolipid system, which includes distinct sphingolipid mediators, their synthesizing enzymes, receptors and transporters, we herein apply an integrative approach for assessment of the sphingolipid-associated mechanisms underlying EMT program. We created the sphingolipid-/EMT-relevant 41-gene/23-gene signatures which were applied to denote transcriptional events in a lung cancer cell-based EMT model. Based on defined 35-gene sphingolipid/EMT-attributed signature of regulated genes, we show close associations between EMT markers, genes comprising the sphingolipid network at multiple levels and encoding sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P)-/ceramide-metabolizing enzymes, S1P and lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) receptors and S1P transporters, pluripotency genes and inflammation-related molecules, and demonstrate the underlying biological pathways and regulators. Mass spectrometry-based sphingolipid analysis revealed an EMT-attributed shift towards increased S1P and LPA accompanied by reduced ceramide levels. Notably, using transcriptomics data across various cell-based perturbations and neoplastic tissues (24193 arrays), we identified the sphingolipid/EMT signature primarily in lung adenocarcinoma tissues; besides, bladder, colorectal and prostate cancers were among the top-ranked. The findings also highlight novel regulatory associations between influenza virus and the sphingolipid/EMT-associated mechanisms. In sum, data propose the multidimensional contribution of sphingolipid machinery

  20. Honokiol confers immunogenicity by dictating calreticulin exposure, activating ER stress and inhibiting epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shing-Hwa; Lee, Wen-Jane; Lai, De-Wei; Wu, Sheng-Mao; Liu, Chia-Yu; Tien, Hsing-Ru; Chiu, Chien-Shan; Peng, Yen-Chun; Jan, Yee-Jee; Chao, Te-Hsin; Pan, Hung-Chuan; Sheu, Meei-Ling

    2015-04-01

    Peritoneal dissemination is a major clinical obstacle in gastrointestinal cancer therapy, and it accounts for the majority of cancer-related mortality. Calreticulin (CRT) is over-expressed in gastric tumors and has been linked to poor prognosis. In this study, immunohistochemistry studies revealed that the up-regulation of CRT was associated with lymph node and distant metastasis in patients with gastric cancer specimens. CRT was significantly down-regulated in highly metastatic gastric cancer cell lines and metastatic animal by Honokiol-treated. Small RNA interference blocking CRT by siRNA-CRT was translocated to the cells in the early immunogenic response to Honokiol. Honokiol activated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and down-regulated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) activity resulting in PPARγ and CRT degradation through calpain-II activity, which could be reversed by siRNA-calpain-II. The Calpain-II/PPARγ/CRT axis and interaction evoked by Honokiol could be blocked by gene silencing or pharmacological agents. Both transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 and N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) induced cell migration, invasion and reciprocal down-regulation of epithelial marker E-cadherin, which could be abrogated by siRNA-CRT. Moreover, Honokiol significantly suppressed MNNG-induced gastrointestinal tumor growth and over-expression of CRT in mice. Knockdown CRT in gastric cancer cells was found to effectively reduce growth ability and metastasis in vivo. The present study provides insight into the specific biological behavior of CRT in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and metastasis. Taken together, our results suggest that the therapeutic inhibition of CRT by Honokiol suppresses both gastric tumor growth and peritoneal dissemination by dictating early translocation of CRT in immunogenic cell death, activating ER stress, and blocking EMT. PMID:25619450

  1. Prognostic significance of epithelial-mesenchymal transition proteins Twist and Foxc2 in phyllodes tumours of the breast.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jeffrey Chun Tatt; Koh, Valerie Cui Yun; Tan, Jane Sie Yong; Tan, Wai Jin; Thike, Aye Aye; Tan, Puay Hoon

    2015-02-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), an important process during embryonic development, is reportedly exploited during tumour progression. Deregulation of EMT-related molecules has been shown in many malignancies, including breast carcinoma. We aim to investigate the clinical relevance and prognostic significance of EMT proteins, Twist and Foxc2, in breast phyllodes tumours (PTs). The study cohort comprised 271 PTs diagnosed from 2003 to 2010. Of these, 188 (69.4 %) were benign, 60 (22.1 %) borderline, and 23 (8.5 %) malignant. Immunohistochemistry for Twist and Foxc2 was performed on tissue microarray sections. Percentage of tumour cells stained was evaluated and correlated with clinicopathological parameters and clinical outcome. Twist and Foxc2 stromal nuclear expression was associated with tumour grade (P = 0.038 and 0.012). Foxc2 stromal nuclear expression was positively correlated with epithelial expression (P < 0.001), tumour relapse, and metastasis (P = 0.037). Furthermore, stromal nuclear immunoreactivity of Twist and Foxc2 was interrelated (P < 0.001). Tumours expressing Foxc2 and those co-expressing both Twist and Foxc2 revealed a shorter time to recurrence (P < 0.001 and 0.001) and death (P = 0.044 and 0.015). Twist and Foxc2 stromal expression in PTs was significantly correlated with tumour grade and worse histological features. In addition, expression of Foxc2 and co-expression of Twist and Foxc2 in the stroma of PTs contributed to poorer prognosis. Clinical relevance of EMT-related molecules may be worthy of further investigation in PTs.

  2. SHP2 positively regulates TGFβ1-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition modulated by its novel interacting protein Hook1.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuomin; Wang, Linrun; Zhao, Qingwei; Liu, Yu; He, Lingjuan; Xu, Qinqin; Sun, Xu; Teng, Li; Cheng, Hongqiang; Ke, Yuehai

    2014-12-01

    The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is an essential process for embryogenesis. It also plays a critical role in the initiation of tumor metastasis. Src homology 2 (SH2)-domain containing protein-tyrosine phosphatase-2 (SHP2) is a ubiquitously expressed protein-tyrosine phosphatase and is mutated in many tumors. However, its functional role in tumor metastasis remains largely unknown. We found that TGFβ1-induced EMT in lung epithelial A549 cells was partially blocked when SHP2 was decreased by transfected siRNA. The constitutively active form (E76V) promoted EMT while the phosphatase-dead mutation (C459S) and the SHP2 inhibitor PHPS1 blocked EMT, which further demonstrated that the phosphatase activity of SHP2 was required for promoting TGFβ1-induced EMT. Using the protein-tyrosine phosphatase domain of SHP2 as bait, we identified a novel SHP2-interacting protein Hook1. Hook1 was down-regulated during EMT in A549 cells. Overexpression of Hook1 inhibited EMT while knockdown of Hook1 promoted EMT. Moreover, both the protein-tyrosine phosphatase domain and N-terminal SH2 domain of SHP2 directly interacted with Hook1. Down-regulation of Hook1 increased SHP2 activity. These results suggested that Hook1 was an endogenous negative regulator of SHP2 phosphatase activity. Our data showed that the protein-tyrosine phosphatase SHP2 was involved in the process of EMT and Hook1 repressed EMT by regulating the activation of SHP2. SHP2-Hook1 complex may play important roles in tumor metastases by regulating EMT in cancer cells.

  3. EGFR and mutant p53 expand esophageal cellular subpopulation capable of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition through ZEB transcription factors

    PubMed Central

    Ohashi, Shinya; Natsuizaka, Mitsuteru; Wong, Gabrielle S.; Michaylira, Carmen Z.; Grugan, Katharine D.; Stairs, Douglas B.; Kalabis, Jiri; Vega, Maria E.; Kalman, Ross A.; Nakagawa, Momo; Klein-Szanto, Andres J; Herlyn, Meenhard; Diehl, J. Alan; Rustgi, Anil K.; Nakagawa, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β is a potent inducer of epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). However, it remains elusive as to which molecular mechanisms determine the cellular capacity to undergo EMT in response to TGF-β. We have found that both epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) overexpression and mutant p53 tumor suppressor genes contribute to enrichment of an EMT-competent cellular subpopulation amongst telomerase-immortalized human esophageal epithelial cells during malignant transformation. EGFR overexpression triggers oncogene-induced senescence, accompanied by induction of cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors p15INK4B, p16INK4A and p21. Interestingly, a subpopulation of cells emerges by negating senescence without loss of EGFR overexpression. Such cell populations express increased levels of zinc finger E-box binding (ZEB) transcription factors ZEB1 and ZEB2, and undergo EMT upon TGF-β stimulation. Enrichment of EMT-competent cells was more evident in the presence of p53 mutation, which diminished EGFR-induced senescence. RNA interference directed against ZEB resulted in induction of p15INK4B and p16INK4A, reactivating the EGFR-dependent senescence program. Importantly, TGF-β-mediated EMT did not take place when cellular senescence programs were activated by either ZEB knockdown or activation of wild-type p53 function. Thus, senescence checkpoint functions activated by EGFR and p53 may be evaded through the induction of ZEB, thereby allowing expansion of an EMT-competent unique cellular subpopulation, providing novel mechanistic insights into the role of ZEB in esophageal carcinogenesis. PMID:20424117

  4. Prognostic significance of epithelial-mesenchymal transition proteins Twist and Foxc2 in phyllodes tumours of the breast.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jeffrey Chun Tatt; Koh, Valerie Cui Yun; Tan, Jane Sie Yong; Tan, Wai Jin; Thike, Aye Aye; Tan, Puay Hoon

    2015-02-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), an important process during embryonic development, is reportedly exploited during tumour progression. Deregulation of EMT-related molecules has been shown in many malignancies, including breast carcinoma. We aim to investigate the clinical relevance and prognostic significance of EMT proteins, Twist and Foxc2, in breast phyllodes tumours (PTs). The study cohort comprised 271 PTs diagnosed from 2003 to 2010. Of these, 188 (69.4 %) were benign, 60 (22.1 %) borderline, and 23 (8.5 %) malignant. Immunohistochemistry for Twist and Foxc2 was performed on tissue microarray sections. Percentage of tumour cells stained was evaluated and correlated with clinicopathological parameters and clinical outcome. Twist and Foxc2 stromal nuclear expression was associated with tumour grade (P = 0.038 and 0.012). Foxc2 stromal nuclear expression was positively correlated with epithelial expression (P < 0.001), tumour relapse, and metastasis (P = 0.037). Furthermore, stromal nuclear immunoreactivity of Twist and Foxc2 was interrelated (P < 0.001). Tumours expressing Foxc2 and those co-expressing both Twist and Foxc2 revealed a shorter time to recurrence (P < 0.001 and 0.001) and death (P = 0.044 and 0.015). Twist and Foxc2 stromal expression in PTs was significantly correlated with tumour grade and worse histological features. In addition, expression of Foxc2 and co-expression of Twist and Foxc2 in the stroma of PTs contributed to poorer prognosis. Clinical relevance of EMT-related molecules may be worthy of further investigation in PTs. PMID:25677742

  5. Curcumin and epithelial-mesenchymal transition in breast cancer cells transformed by low doses of radiation and estrogen.

    PubMed

    Gallardo, Marcela; Calaf, Gloria M

    2016-06-01

    Breast cancer is a major cause of global mortality in women. Curcumin exerts anti-proliferative, anti-migratory and apoptotic effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate gene expression involved in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). An in vitro model was developed with the MCF-10F immortalized breast epithelial cell line exposed to low radiation doses of high LET (linear energy transfer) α-particles (150 keV/µm) and cultured in the presence of 17β-estradiol (estrogen). The following cell lines were used: i) MCF-10F, normal; ii) Alpha5, pre-tumorigenic, and iii) Tumor2 derived from Alpha5 injected into the nude mice. Our previous results have shown that Alpha5 and Tumor2 increased cell proliferation, anchorage independency, invasive capabilities and tumor formation in nude mice in comparison to control. Results indicated that curcumin decreased expression of EMT-related genes in Tumor2 cell line when compared to its counterpart as E-cadherin, N-cadherin, ZEB2, Twist1, Slug, Axl, vimentin, STAT-3, fibronectin; and genes p53 and caveolin-1, as well as apoptotic genes caspase-3, caspase-8, and others such as cyclin D1 and NFκB. All these changes induced a decrease in migratory and invasive capabilities of such a cell line. Thus, it seems that curcumin may impinge upon apoptosis and metastatic properties of the malignant cells exerting antitumor activity in breast cancer cells transformed by low doses of α-particles and estrogen in vitro. PMID:27082017

  6. 6-OH-BDE-47 promotes human lung cancer cells epithelial mesenchymal transition via the AKT/Snail signal pathway.

    PubMed

    Qu, Bao-Lin; Yu, Wei; Huang, Yu-Rong; Cai, Bo-Ning; Du, Le-Hui; Liu, Fang

    2015-01-01

    Hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs) have been detected in the various human tissues. The OH-PBDEs are suggested to be stronger endocrine-disrupting compounds than PBDEs, therefore the toxicological effects of OH-PBDEs had received lots of attention. However, there is no study about the carcinogenic effect of OH-PBDEs and their estrogen potencies on the tumorigenesis and development of cancer. In the present study, we found that 6-hydroxy-2,2',4',4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (6-OH-BDE-47), the most abundant OH-PBDE congeners in human serum, promoted the in vitro migration of lung cancer A549 and H358 cells by induction of epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). This was confirmed by that 6-OH-BDE-47 significantly down regulated the expression of epithelial markers E-cadherin (E-Cad) and zona occludin-1 (ZO-1) while up regulated the mesenchymal markers vimentin (Vim) and N-cadherin (N-Cad). 6-OH-BDE-47 up regulated the protein while not mRNA levels of Snail, which was the key transcription factor of EMT. Silencing of Snail by use of siRNA attenuated the 6-OH-BDE-47 induced EMT. This suggested that the stabilization of Snail was essential for 6-OH-BDE-47 induced EMT. Further, the treatment of 6-OH-BDE-47 increased the phosphorylation of AKT and ERK in A549 cells. Only PI3K/AKT inhibitor (LY294002), but not ERK inhibitor (PD98059), completely blocked the 6-OH-BDE-47 induced up regulation of Snail and down regulation of E-Cad, suggesting that PI3K/AKT pathway is important for 6-OH-BDE-47-mediated Snail stabilization and EMT in A549 cells. Generally, our results revealed for the first time that 6-OH-BDE-47 promoted the EMT of lung cancer cells via AKT/Snail signals. This suggested that more attention should be paid to the effects of OH-PBDEs on tumorigenesis and development of lung cancer. PMID:25531265

  7. Lack of Radiation Dose or Quality Dependence of Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) Mediated by Transforming Growth Factor {beta}

    SciTech Connect

    Andarawewa, Kumari L.; Costes, Sylvain V.; Fernandez-Garcia, Ignacio; Chou, William S.; Ravani, Shraddha A.; Park, Howard; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen

    2011-04-01

    Purpose: Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a phenotype that alters cell morphology, disrupts morphogenesis, and increases motility. Our prior studies have shown that the progeny of human mammary epithelial cells (HMECs) irradiated with 2 Gy undergoes transforming growth factor {beta} (TGF-{beta})-mediated EMT. In this study we determined whether radiation dose or quality affected TGF-{beta}-mediated EMT. Methods and Materials: HMECs were cultured on tissue culture plastic or in Matrigel (BD Biosciences, San Jose, CA) and exposed to low or high linear energy transfer (LET) and TGF-{beta} (400 pg/mL). Image analysis was used to measure membrane-associated E-cadherin, a marker of functional epithelia, or fibronectin, a product of mesenchymal cells, as a function of radiation dose and quality. Results: E-cadherin was reduced in TGF-{beta}-treated cells irradiated with low-LET radiation doses between 0.03 and 2 Gy compared with untreated, unirradiated cells or TGF-{beta} treatment alone. The radiation quality dependence of TGF-{beta}-mediated EMT was determined by use of 1 GeV/amu (gigaelectron volt / atomic mass unit) {sup 56}Fe ion particles at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Space Radiation Laboratory. On the basis of the relative biological effectiveness of 2 for {sup 56}Fe ion particles' clonogenic survival, TGF-{beta}-treated HMECs were irradiated with equitoxic 1-Gy {sup 56}Fe ion or 2-Gy {sup 137}Cs radiation in monolayer. Furthermore, TGF-{beta}-treated HMECs irradiated with either high- or low-LET radiation exhibited similar loss of E-cadherin and gain of fibronectin and resulted in similar large, poorly organized colonies when embedded in Matrigel. Moreover, the progeny of HMECs exposed to different fluences of {sup 56}Fe ion underwent TGF-{beta}-mediated EMT even when only one-third of the cells were directly traversed by the particle. Conclusions: Thus TGF-{beta}-mediated EMT, like other non-targeted radiation effects, is

  8. Epithelial to mesenchymal transition and the cancer stem cell phenotype: Insights from cancer biology with therapeutic implications for colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Findlay, Victoria J.; Wang, Cindy; Watson, Dennis K.; Camp, E. Ramsay

    2014-01-01

    Although mortality from colorectal cancer (CRC) is decreasing, colorectal cancer is still the second highest cause of cancer related deaths in America. Chemotherapy and radiation therapy now play central roles in our strategies to fight cancer, although we continue to lack novel strategies overcoming therapeutic resistance. Molecular mechanisms of therapeutic resistance in CRC continue to be under intense investigation. In this review, we highlight the recent evidence linking epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) with aggressive tumor biology as well as with the cancer stem cells (CSC) across multiple organ systems including colon cancer. Furthermore, in the era of neo-adjuvant treatment, the clinical implications are concerning that our treatments may have the potential to induce more aggressive cancer cells through EMT, perhaps even generating CSCs more capable of metastasis and further resistant to treatment. This concern and potential reality highlights the critical need for further understanding the impact of clinical therapy on the pathobiology of cancer and further supports the need to therapeutically target the CSC. Besides serving as potential biomarkers for aggressive tumor biology and therapeutic resistance, EMT and CSC molecular pathways may highlight novel therapeutic targets as strategies for improving the response to conventional anti-neoplastic agents translating into improved oncologic outcomes. PMID:24787239

  9. Loss of WISP-2/CCN5 signaling in human pancreatic cancer: a potential mechanism for epithelial-mesenchymal-transition.

    PubMed

    Dhar, Gopal; Mehta, Smita; Banerjee, Snigdha; Gardner, Ashleigh; McCarty, Bryan M; Mathur, Sharad C; Campbell, Donald R; Kambhampati, Suman; Banerjee, Sushanta K

    2007-08-28

    The objective of this study was to explore the pathophysiological relevance of WISP-2/CCN5 in progression of human pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PAC). We found WISP-2/CCN5 mRNA and protein expression was faint and sporadic in PAC and detected in only 8.7-20% of the samples with varying grades as compared to adjacent normal and chronic pancreatitis samples where expression was very high in the ducts and acini. Colocalization studies in tissue-microarray slides revealed WISP-2/CCN5 mRNA loss was associated with p53 overexpression in PAC. Like tissue samples, p53 mutant-PAC cell lines show loss of WISP-2/CCN5. Moreover, functional analysis studies demonstrate exposure of pancreatic cancer cells to WISP-2/CCN5 recombinant protein enhances mesenchymal-epithelial-transition (MET). Collectively, we suggest WISP-2/CCN5 silencing may be a critical event during differentiation and progression of PAC and mutant p53 is possibly an important player in pursuing this episode.

  10. High expression of lncRNA PVT1 promotes invasion by inducing epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in esophageal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Xiangxiang; Hu, Haibo; Li, Shiting

    2016-01-01

    The long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) plasmacytoma variant translocation 1 (PVT1) has been identified as an oncogene in numerous diseases, and aberrant lncRNA PVT1 expression has been associated with the development of cancer. However, the underlying mechanism by which lncRNA PVT1 affects cell invasion in esophageal cancer has been not demonstrated. In the current study, the expression of lncRNA PVT1 was found to be increased in esophageal cancer specimens (n=77) by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and was correlated with tumor stage (P=0.009) and metastasis (P<0.001). In vitro, by using transwell assay, upregulation of lncRNA PVT1 promoted the invasion of TE-1 esophageal cancer cells; while downregulation of lncRNA PVT1 inhibited Eca-109 cell invasion. In addition, western blot analysis indicated that upregulation of lncRNA PVT1 may induce epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) by regulating the expression levels of EMT markers (E-cadherin, N-cadherin and vimentin). In conclusion, lncRNA PVT1 is able to regulate the invasion of esophageal cancer cells by inducing EMT.

  11. RSPO2 enriches LGR5+ spheroid colon cancer stem cells and promotes its metastasis by epithelial-mesenchymal transition

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shi; Han, Xiaoyan; Wei, Bo; Fang, Jiafeng; Wei, Hongbo

    2016-01-01

    Colon cancer stem cells (CCSCs) account for the tumorigenicity of colon cancer and promote its progression and metastasis. RSPO2, the agonist of canonical Wnt/beta-catenin pathway and serves as the growth factor of intestinal stem cells (ISCs), is considered playing an important role in CCSCs. However, the specific function of RSPO2 in CCSCs remains unclear. In this study, we demonstrated that RSPO2 was highly expressed in CCSCs-enriched HCT116 spheroid cells. Elevates the concentration of RSPO2 in medium in favor of enriching the LGR5+ cells and increasing the LGR5 expression in HCT116 spheroid cells, meanwhile silencing of RSPO2 by small interfering RNA inhibits LGR5 expression in HCT116 spheroid cells. In addition, RSPO2 promotes spheres formation but has little effect on the proliferation of HCT116 spheroid cells in vitro. Moreover, RSPO2 also promotes the invasion of HCT116 spheroid cells through enhancing Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). These findings suggests that RSPO2 is a potential growth factor for CCSCs, helps enriching the CCSCs by serum-free DMEM/F12 medium (SFM) culture and plays a vital role in the metastasis of colon cancer. PMID:27158331

  12. MDA-9/Syntenin-Slug transcriptional complex promote epithelial-mesenchymal transition and invasion/metastasis in lung adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lu-Kai; Pan, Szu-Hua; Chang, Yih-Leong; Hung, Pei-Fang; Kao, Shih-Han; Wang, Wen-Lung; Lin, Ching-Wen; Yang, Shuenn-Chen; Liang, Chen-Hsien; Wu, Chen-Tu; Hsiao, Tzu-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Melanoma differentiation-associated gene-9 (MDA-9)/Syntenin is a novel therapeutic target because it plays critical roles in cancer progression and exosome biogenesis. Here we show that Slug, a key epithelial-mesenchymal-transition (EMT) regulator, is a MDA-9/Syntenin downstream target. Mitogen EGF stimulation increases Slug expression and MDA-9/Syntenin nuclear translocation. MDA-9/Syntenin uses its PDZ1 domain to bind with Slug, and this interaction further leads to HDAC1 recruitment, up-regulation of Slug transcriptional repressor activity, enhanced Slug-mediated EMT, and promotion of cancer invasion and metastasis. The PDZ domains and nuclear localization of MDA-9/Syntenin are both required for promoting Slug-mediated cancer invasion. Clinically, patients with high MDA-9/Syntenin and high Slug expressions were associated with poor overall survival compared to those with low expression in lung adenocarcinomas. Our findings provide evidence that MDA-9/Syntenin acts as a pivotal adaptor of Slug and it transcriptionally enhances Slug-mediated EMT to promote cancer invasion and metastasis. PMID:26561205

  13. Doxycycline reverses epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and suppresses the proliferation and metastasis of lung cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yan-rong; Liu, Hui-juan; Zhao, Dong; Chen, Shuang; Xiao, Ting; Meng, Jing; Jing, Xue-shuang; Wang, Jing; Sun, Bo; Dai, Ting-ting; Yang, Cheng; Sun, Tao; Zhou, Hong-gang

    2015-01-01

    The gelatinase inhibitor doxycycline is the prototypical antitumor antibiotic. We investigated the effects of doxycycline on the migration, invasion, and metastasis of human lung cancer cell lines and in a mouse model. We also measured the effect of doxycycline on the transcription of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers, and used immunohistochemistry to determine whether EMT reversal was associated with doxycycline inhibition. Doxycycline dose-dependently inhibited proliferation, migration, and invasion of NCI-H446 human small cell lung cancer cells. It also suppressed tumor growth from NCI-H446 and A549 lung cancer cell xenografts without altering body weight, inhibited Lewis lung carcinoma cell migration, and prolonged survival. The activities of the transcription factors Twist1/2, SNAI1/2, AP1, NF-κB, and Stat3 were suppressed by doxycycline, which reversed EMT and inhibited signal transduction, thereby suppressing tumor growth and metastasis. Our data demonstrate functional targeting of transcription factors by doxycycline to reverse EMT and suppress tumor proliferation and metastasis. Thus, doxycycline selectively targets malignant tumors and reduces its metastatic potential with less cytotoxicity in lung cancer patients. PMID:26512779

  14. Upregulation of PTEN suppresses invasion in Tca8113 tongue cancer cells through repression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT).

    PubMed

    Xie, Siming; Lu, Zhiyuan; Lin, Yanzhu; Shen, Lijia; Yin, Cao

    2016-05-01

    We previously discovered that the expression of the tumor suppressor phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) was downregulated in the majority patients with tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC). The aim of this study was to investigate the role of PTEN overexpression in the regulation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of the tongue squamous carcinoma cell line Tca8113 as well as explore the underlying mechanism. GV230 (containing the PTEN gene) and empty vectors were transfected into Tca8113 cells. After stable transfection, the messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels of PTEN were validated using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) and Western blot analysis. The growth and cell cycle were analyzed using Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) and flow cytometry, respectively. The invasion ability was measured with a transwell assay. The effects of PTEN overexpression on EMT and Hedgehog signaling were assessed by comparing Tca8113-PTEN cells with control and negative control cell groups. We found that PTEN expression was significantly upregulated after transfection. Meanwhile, upregulated PTEN inhibited the proliferation and invasion of Tca8113 cells. In addition, we observed changes in the EMT- and Hedgehog-associated proteins. These data demonstrated that PTEN upregulation could reduce invasion by inhibiting the process of EMT in Tca8113 cells, which might be related to the Hedgehog signaling pathway.

  15. Reactive oxygen species mediate oxaliplatin-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition and invasive potential in colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Lin; Li, Dan-Dan; Yang, Chen-Lu; Peng, Rui-Qing; Guo, Yi-Qun; Zhang, Xiao-Shi; Zhu, Xiao-Feng

    2016-06-01

    Therapeutic benefits offered by common chemotherapy drugs, such as oxaliplatin, are limited due to the development of resistance, which contributes to treatment failure and metastasis. The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a key event contributing to the development of resistance to chemotherapeutics. Although the relationship between oxaliplatin and chemotherapy resistance has been described for decades, the molecular mechanisms have remained elusive. The aim of the present study was to investigate the underlying mechanisms of oxaliplatin-mediated metastasis. Here, we identify reactive oxygen species (ROS) as mediators that promote the oxaliplatin-induced EMT. Following oxaliplatin treatment, the messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of most peroxiredoxin family genes, except for peroxiredoxin 1 (prdx1) gene, were constant or even decreased, resulting in ROS abundance. And the antioxidant guardian Nrf2 was unconspicuously raised both transcriptionally and translationally with oxaliplatin treatment as compared to those induced by topotecan treatment, which has been proved with no induced metastasis. In addition, the study evaluated high levels of ROS leading to EMT via activation of the known oncogenes Akt and Snail. Using the Akt inhibitor LY294002 or knocking down Snail expression via RNA interference (RNAi) reversed the effects of oxaliplatin on the EMT and metastasis. Our studies establish a role for the ROS-Akt-Snail axis as a mechanism by which chemotherapeutics induce EMT and cancer metastasis.

  16. Loss of GFAT1 promotes epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and predicts unfavorable prognosis in gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Duan, Fangfang; Jia, Dongwei; Zhao, Junjie; Wu, Weicheng; Min, Lingqiang; Song, Shushu; Wu, Hao; Wang, Lan; Wang, Hongshan; Ruan, Yuanyuan; Gu, Jianxin

    2016-06-21

    Gastric cancer remains the third leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide, and invasion and metastasis of gastric cancer represent the major reason for its poor prognosis. Glutamine: fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase 1 (GFAT1) is the first and rate-limiting enzyme of hexosamine biosynthesis pathway (HBP). Nevertheless, the role of GFAT1 in gastric cancer is little investigated. In this study, we found that the expression of GFAT1 was decreased in gastric cancer. Low expression of GFAT1 was positively associated with vessel invasion, late T stage, lymph node metastasis, distant metastasis, advanced TNM stage and poor prognosis in patients with gastric cancer. Furthermore, in vitro and in vivo studies revealed that down-regulation of GFAT1 promoted epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and invasive activities in gastric cancer cells through inducing the expression of TGF-β1. The GFAT1 expression also significantly correlated with EMT-related factors in gastric cancer patients. Together, these findings indicate that GFAT1 functions as a novel suppressor of EMT and tumor metastasis in gastric cancer. PMID:27509259

  17. Blocking the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition pathway abrogates resistance to anti-folate chemotherapy in lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Liang, S-Q; Marti, T M; Dorn, P; Froment, L; Hall, S R R; Berezowska, S; Kocher, G; Schmid, R A; Peng, R-W

    2015-01-01

    Anticancer therapies currently used in the clinic often can neither eradicate the tumor nor prevent disease recurrence due to tumor resistance. In this study, we showed that chemoresistance to pemetrexed, a multi-target anti-folate (MTA) chemotherapeutic agent for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), is associated with a stem cell-like phenotype characterized by an enriched stem cell gene signature, augmented aldehyde dehydrogenase activity and greater clonogenic potential. Mechanistically, chemoresistance to MTA requires activation of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) pathway in that an experimentally induced EMT per se promotes chemoresistance in NSCLC and inhibition of EMT signaling by kaempferol renders the otherwise chemoresistant cancer cells susceptible to MTA. Relevant to the clinical setting, human primary NSCLC cells with an elevated EMT signaling feature a significantly enhanced potential to resist MTA, whereas concomitant administration of kaempferol abrogates MTA chemoresistance, regardless of whether it is due to an intrinsic or induced activation of the EMT pathway. Collectively, our findings reveal that a bona fide activation of EMT pathway is required and sufficient for chemoresistance to MTA and that kaempferol potently regresses this chemotherapy refractory phenotype, highlighting the potential of EMT pathway inhibition to enhance chemotherapeutic response of lung cancer. PMID:26181204

  18. Radiation Exposure Promotes Hepatocarcinoma Cell Invasion through Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition Mediated by H2S/CSE Pathway.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yan; Zhou, Cuiping; Yuan, Dexiao; Zhang, Jianghong; Shao, Chunlin

    2016-01-01

    There is growing evidence to suggest that radiotherapy can paradoxically promote tumor invasion and metastatic processes, however, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain obscure. In this study, we found that exposure to X rays promoted cell invasion by triggering the epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) in two hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines, HepG2 and PLC/PRF/5. This was made evident by a reduced expression of E-cadherin and enhanced expressions of N-cadherin, Vimentin and Snail. Moreover, exposure to radiation stimulated the signaling of hydrogen sulfide (H2S), a newly found gas transmitter, by upregulating the expressions of H2S-producing proteins of cysthionine-γ-lyase (CSE), cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS). Inhibition of CSE by siRNA or inhibitor not only increased the radiosensitivity but also strongly suppressed radiation-enhanced invasive properties of HCC cells. Interestingly, we found that H2S/CSE inhibition attenuated radiation-enhanced EMT, and the above effect was an end result of blockage of the radiation-activated pathway of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK). Collectively, our findings indicate that radiation could promote HCC cell invasion through EMT mediated by endogenous H2S/CSE signaling via the p38MAPK pathway.

  19. Matrix stiffness drives Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition and tumour metastasis through a TWIST1-G3BP2 mechanotransduction pathway

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Spencer C.; Fattet, Laurent; Tsai, Jeff H.; Guo, Yurong; Pai, Vincent H.; Majeski, Hannah E.; Chen, Albert C.; Sah, Robert L.; Taylor, Susan S.; Engler, Adam J.; Yang, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Matrix stiffness potently regulates cellular behavior in various biological contexts. In breast tumours, the presence of dense clusters of collagen fibrils indicates increased matrix stiffness and correlates with poor survival. It is unclear how mechanical inputs are transduced into transcriptional outputs to drive tumour progression. Here we report that TWIST1 is an essential mechano-mediator that promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in response to increasing matrix stiffness. High matrix stiffness promotes nuclear translocation of TWIST1 by releasing TWIST1 from its cytoplasmic binding partner G3BP2. Loss of G3BP2 leads to constitutive TWIST1 nuclear localization and synergizes with increasing matrix stiffness to induce EMT and promote tumour invasion and metastasis. In human breast tumours, collagen fiber alignment, a marker of increasing matrix stiffness, and reduced expression of G3BP2 together predict poor survival. Our findings reveal a TWIST1-G3BP2 mechanotransduction pathway that responds to biomechanical signals from the tumour microenvironment to drive EMT, invasion, and metastasis. PMID:25893917

  20. Matrix stiffness drives epithelial-mesenchymal transition and tumour metastasis through a TWIST1-G3BP2 mechanotransduction pathway.

    PubMed

    Wei, Spencer C; Fattet, Laurent; Tsai, Jeff H; Guo, Yurong; Pai, Vincent H; Majeski, Hannah E; Chen, Albert C; Sah, Robert L; Taylor, Susan S; Engler, Adam J; Yang, Jing

    2015-05-01

    Matrix stiffness potently regulates cellular behaviour in various biological contexts. In breast tumours, the presence of dense clusters of collagen fibrils indicates increased matrix stiffness and correlates with poor survival. It is unclear how mechanical inputs are transduced into transcriptional outputs to drive tumour progression. Here we report that TWIST1 is an essential mechanomediator that promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in response to increasing matrix stiffness. High matrix stiffness promotes nuclear translocation of TWIST1 by releasing TWIST1 from its cytoplasmic binding partner G3BP2. Loss of G3BP2 leads to constitutive TWIST1 nuclear localization and synergizes with increasing matrix stiffness to induce EMT and promote tumour invasion and metastasis. In human breast tumours, collagen fibre alignment, a marker of increasing matrix stiffness, and reduced expression of G3BP2 together predict poor survival. Our findings reveal a TWIST1-G3BP2 mechanotransduction pathway that responds to biomechanical signals from the tumour microenvironment to drive EMT, invasion and metastasis.

  1. Cells susceptible to epithelial-mesenchymal transition are enriched in stem-like side population cells from prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yong; Cui, Xinhao; Zhao, Jiahui; Han, Yili; Li, Mingchuan; Lin, Yunhua; Jiang, Yongguang; Lan, Ling

    2014-02-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) acts as an important factor for the promotion of tumor progression. Strategies for suppressing EMT remain the subject of ongoing research. In the present study, fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) was used to isolate side population (SP) cells from human prostate cancer (PCa) cell lines and xenograft tissues. After identifying their molecular and functional stem-like characteristics, stem-like SP cells from a cell line and from xenograft tissue were transfected with hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α). The potential of the prostate stem-like SP cells to undergo EMT was compared with that in their bulk counterparts after HIF-1α introduction. Stem-like SP cells acquired more complete EMT molecular features and exhibited stronger aggressive capability than the homologous bulk population cells both in vitro (proliferation and invasion) and in vivo (tumorigenesis and metastasis formation). We, therefore, concluded that EMT is closely associated with tumor heterogeneity, and that PCa cells susceptible to EMT are enriched in stem-like SP cells. These findings disclose a new approach, targeting the cellular basis of the EMT process that may help to identify effective and accurate methods for suppressing tumor growth and preventing distant dissemination.

  2. Identification of novel pathways linking epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition with resistance to HER2-targeted therapy

    PubMed Central

    Creedon, Helen; Gómez-Cuadrado, Laura; Tarnauskaitė, Žygimantė; Balla, Jozef; Canel, Marta; MacLeod, Kenneth G.; Serrels, Bryan; Fraser, Craig; Unciti-Broceta, Asier; Tracey, Natasha; Le Bihan, Thierry; Klinowska, Teresa; Sims, Andrew H.; Byron, Adam; Brunton, Valerie G.

    2016-01-01

    Resistance to human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-targeted therapies in the treatment of HER2-positive breast cancer is a major clinical problem. To identify pathways linked to resistance, we generated HER2-positive breast cancer cell lines which are resistant to either lapatinib or AZD8931, two pan-HER family kinase inhibitors. Resistance was HER2 independent and was associated with epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), resulting in increased proliferation and migration of the resistant cells. Using a global proteomics approach, we identified a novel set of EMT-associated proteins linked to HER2-independent resistance. We demonstrate that a subset of these EMT-associated genes is predictive of prognosis within the ERBB2 subtype of human breast cancers. Furthermore, targeting the EMT-associated kinases Src and Axl potently inhibited proliferation of the resistant cells, and inhibitors to these kinases may provide additional options for the treatment of HER2-independent resistance in tumors. PMID:26883193

  3. Effect of CD133 overexpression on the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in oral cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Moon, YeonHee; Kim, Donghwi; Sohn, HongMoon; Lim, Wonbong

    2016-06-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is one of the most common cancers in the world. In OSCC, CD133 promotes tumor invasion and metastasis by inducing the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). A small subset of cancer cells known as cancer stem cells (CSCs) are thought to give rise to differentiated tumor cells and to predict tumor recurrence and metastases, i.e., CSCs may be metastatic precursors. In this study, we show that ectopic overexpression of CD133 in OSCC cell lines KB, YD9, and YD10B cells significantly promotes the EMT and acquisition of stemness properties. CSC properties were analyzed by colony-formation assay and measurement of OCT4, SOX2, and NANOG expression, and the EMT was monitored by cell migration, a cell invasion assay, and analysis of E-cadherin, N-cadherin, and vimentin expression. CD133 overexpression led to formation of irregular spheroid colonies consistent with a stem cell phenotype and increased the expression of OCT4, SOX2, NANOG, N-cadherin, and vimentin. Taken together, these findings show that elevated levels of CD133 lead to OSCC invasiveness and metastasis, associated with the upregulation of EMT and stemness markers.

  4. Suppression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition in hepatocellular carcinoma cells by Krüppel-like factor 4

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Shanshan; Tian, Chuan; Cai, Xun; Wang, Liwei

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most malignant and lethal human cancers. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) enhances the carcinogenesis of HCC, and therapies targeting EMT appear to be promising treatments. We have previously shown that Krüppel-like Factor 4 (KLF4) suppressed EMT of HCC cells through downregulating EMT-associated proteins. Here, we examined the roles of microRNAs (miRNAs) in KLF4-regulated EMT in HCC cells. KLF4 induced expression of 3 miRNAs (miR-153, miR-506 and miR-200b) that targeted 3′-UTR of Snail1, Slug and ZEB1 mRNAs, respectively, to inhibit protein translation in HCC cells, which was confirmed by promoter luciferase assay. Expression of either miRNA significantly inhibited HCC cell growth and invasiveness, while the effect of combined expression of all 3 miRNAs was more pronounced. Furthermore, overexpression of antisense of all 3 miRNAs abolished the inhibitory effect of KLF4 on HCC cell growth and invasiveness. Together, our data suggest that KLF4 inhibits EMT-enhanced HCC growth and invasion, possibly through reducing EMT-related proteins Snail1, Slug and ZEB1 via increasing miR-153, miR-506 and miR-200b. PMID:27102441

  5. Long noncoding RNA SPRY4-IT1 promotes malignant development of colorectal cancer by targeting epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Cao, Dong; Ding, Qiong; Yu, Wubin; Gao, Ming; Wang, Yilian

    2016-01-01

    The clinical significance and biological functions of long noncoding RNA SPRY4 intronic transcript 1 (SPRY4-IT1) in colorectal cancer (CRC) remain largely unclear. Herein, we are the first to report that the SPRY4-IT1 was significantly upregulated in CRC tissues, serum, and cells. Higher SPRY4-IT1 expression was markedly associated with advanced Tumor Node Metastasis (TNM) stage in a cohort of 84 CRC patients. Multivariate analyses indicated that SPRY4-IT1 expression could be useful as an independent predictor for overall survival. Further in vitro experiments revealed that knockdown of SPRY4-IT1 inhibited the proliferation, migration, and invasion of CRC cells and induced cell cycle arrestment. Moreover, we confirmed that the expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition-related genes was modulated through alteration of SPRY4-IT1 expression. These results suggest that SPRY4-IT1, as an oncogenic regulator, may serve as a candidate prognostic marker and potential target for CRC therapies. PMID:27621655

  6. Enhanced myeloid differentiation factor 88 promotes tumor metastasis via induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition in human hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Jia, R-J; Cao, L; Zhang, L; Jing, W; Chen, R; Zhu, M-H; Guo, S-W; Wu, G-B; Fan, X-Y; Wang, H; Zhang, Y-Y; Zhou, X-Y; Zhao, J; Guo, Y-J

    2014-01-01

    Metastasis is the leading cause of death in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after curative resection. Therefore, it is critical to understand the mechanisms underlying tumor metastasis in HCC. We have previously shown that elevated expression of myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) may promote tumor growth and metastasis in HCC. In this study, we reported that enhanced expression of MyD88 promoted epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) properties and tumor-initiating capabilities in HCC cells. MyD88 was found to be able to interact with p85, a regulatory subunit of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3-K), independent of TLR/IL-1R-mediated response and caused PI3-K/v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog (Akt) activation, which resulted in subsequent phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase-3β and stabilization of Snail, a critical EMT mediator. Consistently, we observed a significant correlation between MyD88 expression and p-Akt levels in a cohort of HCC patients, and found that the combination of these two parameters have better prognostic value for HCC patients. Taken together, these results suggest that elevated MyD88 may facilitate HCC metastasis by promoting EMT properties and tumor-initiating capabilities via PI3-K/Akt pathway.

  7. 3,6-dihydroxyflavone suppresses the epithelial-mesenchymal transition in breast cancer cells by inhibiting the Notch signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Junli; Chang, Hui; Peng, Xiaoli; Gu, Yeyun; Yi, Long; Zhang, Qianyong; Zhu, Jundong; Mi, Mantian

    2016-01-01

    The epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a critical developmental program in cancer stem cell (CSC) maintenance and in cancer metastasis. Here, our study found that 3,6-DHF could effectively inhibit EMT in BC cells in vitro and in vivo. 3,6-DHF effectively inhibits the formation and proliferation of BCSCs, and consequently reduces the tumor-initiating capacity of tumor cells in NOD/SCID mice. Optical in vivo imaging of cancer metastasis showed that 3,6-DHF administration suppresses the lung metastasis of BC cells in vivo. Further studies indicated that 3,6-DHF down-regulates Notch1, NICD, Hes-1 and c-Myc, consequently decreasing the formation of the functional transcriptional unit of NICD-CSL-MAML, causing Notch signaling inactivation in BC cells. Over-expression of Notch1 or inhibition of miR-34a significantly reduced the inhibitory effects of 3,6-DHF on EMT, CSCs, as well as cells migration and invasion in BC cells. These data indicated that 3,6-DHF effectively inhibits EMT and CSCs, as well as cells migration and invasion in BC cells, in which miR-34a-mediated Notch1 down-regulation plays a crucial role. PMID:27345219

  8. IL-8 induces the epithelial-mesenchymal transition of renal cell carcinoma cells through the activation of AKT signaling

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Nan; Lu, Fuding; Liu, Cheng; Xu, Kewei; Huang, Jian; Yu, Dexin; Bi, Liangkuan

    2016-01-01

    The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process has increasingly been examined due to its role in the progression of human tumors. Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is one of the most common urological tumors that results in patient mortality. Previous studies have demonstrated that the EMT process is closely associated with the metastasis of RCC; however, the underlying molecular mechanism has not been determined yet. The present study revealed that interleukin (IL)-8 was highly expressed in metastatic RCC. IL-8 could induce the EMT of an RCC cell line by enhancing N-cadherin expression and decreasing E-cadherin expression. Furthermore, IL-8 could induce AKT phosphorylation, and the phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase inhibitor LY294002 could inhibit the EMT of RCC cells that was induced by IL-8. Therefore, these results suggest that IL-8 is able to promote the EMT of RCC through the activation of the AKT signal transduction pathway, and this may provide a possible molecular mechanism for RCC metastasis. PMID:27588140

  9. Polychlorinated biphenyls impair endometrial receptivity in vitro via regulating mir-30d expression and epithelial mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Cai, Jia-Li; Liu, Lan-Lan; Hu, Yuqin; Jiang, Xiao-Ming; Qiu, Hui-Ling; Sha, Ai-Guo; Wang, Chong-Gang; Zuo, Zheng-Hong; Ren, Jian-Zhi

    2016-07-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ubiquitous legacy persistent pollutants and epidemiological data showed that PCB burdens were associated with failed implantation in human. However, the mechanism how PCB exposure affects the embryo implantation is not clear. Using an in vitro model for human embryo implantation employing the human choriocarcinoma cell line JAR and the human endometrial cell line Ishikawa, we have shown that PCB mixture Aroclor 1254 at environmental-relevant concentrations (2.5, 12.5, and 62.5μM) dose-dependently impaired the endometrial receptivity by reducing the adhesion of JAR spheroid attachment and increasing the spheroid outgrowth. The receptive-up-regulated micro-RNA, mir-30d was also down-regulated in endometrial cells by the exposure. Following transient transfection of mir-30d mimic, the disrupted attachment and outgrowth of JAR spheroids was partially restored in the model. By measurement of cadherin switch and vimentin expression, the PCB exposure also activated epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) in endometrial cells. In accordance, mir-30d mimic suppressed the EMT markers induced by PCBs. Luciferase reporter assay confirmed that the EMT regulator Snai1 was targeted by mir-30d, and the expression of Snai1 was dose-dependently up-regulated by PCB exposure. Taken together, our study revealed that PCBs may affect the receptivity of endometrial cells by impairing the interaction between receptivity-up-regulated microRNA and EMT process. PMID:27481218

  10. Transcriptional silencing of ETS-1 abrogates epithelial-mesenchymal transition resulting in reduced motility of pancreatic cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Chunyan; Wang, Zhonghan; Chen, Yan; Zhou, Min; Zhang, Haijun; Chen, Rong; Shi, Fangfang; Wang, Cailian; Rui, Zongdao

    2015-02-01

    v-ets erythroblastosis virus E26 oncogene homolog 1 (ETS-1) plays crucial roles in a spectrum of malignancies. ETS-1 has gained attention in cancer research for its importance in cell migration, invasion and proliferation. In the present study, we focused on the effect of ETS-1 on epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which is characterized by reduced E-cadherin expression and increased N-cadherin expression. We found that ETS-1 mRNA expression was positively correlated with N-cadherin and negatively correlated with E-cadherin mRNA expression in five pancreatic cancer cell lines. To elucidate the functionality of ETS-1 on EMT in pancreatic cancer cells, we constructed a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing plasmid carrying ETS-1 short hairpin RNA (shRNA), and transfected Panc-1 cells with the plasmid. We detected reduced N-cadherin and vascular endothelial growth factor yet higher E-cadherin expression in the ETS-1-silenced cells compared with the control group. In addition, we observed reduced cell migration and increased adhesion in these cells. Our data showed that ETS-1 actively functioned as a regulator of EMT in Panc-1 cells, and provide additional evidence supporting a fundamental role for ETS-1 in metastatic pancreatic cancer cells. These results suggest that analysis of ETS-1 expression levels may provide an avenue for evaluating prognosis in pancreatic cancer.

  11. B7H1 Expression and Epithelial-To-Mesenchymal Transition Phenotypes on Colorectal Cancer Stem-Like Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhi, Yidan; Mou, Zhirong; Chen, Jun; He, Yujun; Dong, Hui; Fu, Xiaolan; Wu, Yuzhang

    2015-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) can invade and metastasize by epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). However, how they escape immune surveillance is unclear. B7H1 is crucial negative co-stimulatory molecule but little information about whether it works in CSCs. Therefore, we determined the expression of B7H1 and EMT-associated markers in colorectal cancer stem-like cells to investigate a possible immunoevasion way of CSCs. We enriched CD133+ colorectal cancer cells which manifested the CSCs-like properties such as higher levels of other stem cell markers Oct-4 and Sox-2, tumor sphere forming ability and more tumorigenic in NOD/SCID mice. These CD133+ cells possess EMT gene expression profile including higher level of Snail, Twist, vimentin, fibronectin and lower level of E-cadherin. Moreover, CD133+ cells in both cell line and colorectal cancer tissues expressed high level of negative co-stimulate molecule B7H1. Furthermore, some B7H1+ cancer cells also showed the characteristic of EMT, indicating EMT cells could escape immune attack during metastasis. B7H1 expression and EMT phenotypes on CSCs indicates a possible immunoevasion way. PMID:26284927

  12. Decreased TIP30 promotes Snail-mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition and tumor-initiating properties in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zhu, M; Yin, F; Fan, X; Jing, W; Chen, R; Liu, L; Zhang, L; Liu, Y; Liang, Y; Bu, F; Tong, X; Zheng, H; Zhao, J; Guo, Y

    2015-03-12

    The poor prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is mainly due to tumor recurrence and metastases. Recently, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been implicated in tumor invasion and metastasis. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are yet to be elucidated. Here, we show that 30-kDa Tat-interacting protein (TIP30), also called CC3, is significantly downregulated during transforming growth factor-β-induced EMT. In our in vitro and in vivo studies, we show that decreased TIP30 expression leads to EMT, as well as enhanced motility and invasion of HCC cells. Also, increased self-renewal ability and chemotherapeutic resistance are observed with TIP30 depletion. Moreover, Snail is one of the key transcription factors promoting EMT, and overexpression of TIP30 greatly decreased nucleic accumulation in Snail through the regulation of intracellular localization. Small interfering RNAs targeting Snail attenuated EMT and tumor-initiating properties induced by TIP30 deficiency. We further confirmed that TIP30 competitively interrupted the interaction of Snail with importin-β2 to block the nuclear import of Snail. Consistently, TIP30 expression significantly correlates with E-cadherin expression in HCC patients. TIP30 or combination of E-cadherin is a powerful marker in predicting the prognosis of HCC. Taken together, our results suggest a novel and critical role of TIP30 involved in HCC progression and aggressiveness.

  13. Upregulation of PTEN suppresses invasion in Tca8113 tongue cancer cells through repression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT).

    PubMed

    Xie, Siming; Lu, Zhiyuan; Lin, Yanzhu; Shen, Lijia; Yin, Cao

    2016-05-01

    We previously discovered that the expression of the tumor suppressor phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) was downregulated in the majority patients with tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC). The aim of this study was to investigate the role of PTEN overexpression in the regulation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of the tongue squamous carcinoma cell line Tca8113 as well as explore the underlying mechanism. GV230 (containing the PTEN gene) and empty vectors were transfected into Tca8113 cells. After stable transfection, the messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels of PTEN were validated using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) and Western blot analysis. The growth and cell cycle were analyzed using Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) and flow cytometry, respectively. The invasion ability was measured with a transwell assay. The effects of PTEN overexpression on EMT and Hedgehog signaling were assessed by comparing Tca8113-PTEN cells with control and negative control cell groups. We found that PTEN expression was significantly upregulated after transfection. Meanwhile, upregulated PTEN inhibited the proliferation and invasion of Tca8113 cells. In addition, we observed changes in the EMT- and Hedgehog-associated proteins. These data demonstrated that PTEN upregulation could reduce invasion by inhibiting the process of EMT in Tca8113 cells, which might be related to the Hedgehog signaling pathway. PMID:26649861

  14. Cancer associated fibroblasts exploit reactive oxygen species through a proinflammatory signature leading to epithelial mesenchymal transition and stemness.

    PubMed

    Giannoni, Elisa; Bianchini, Francesca; Calorini, Lido; Chiarugi, Paola

    2011-06-15

    Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are key determinants in the malignant progression of cancer, supporting tumorigenesis and metastasis. CAFs also mediate epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) of tumor cells and their achievement of stem cell traits. We demonstrate that CAFs induce EMT and stemness through a proinflammatory signature, which exploits reactive oxygen species to drive a migratory and aggressive phenotype of prostate carcinoma cells. CAFs exert their propelling role for EMT in strict dependence on cycloxygenase-2 (COX-2), nuclear factor-κB, and hypoxia-inducible factor-1. CAF-secreted metalloproteases elicit in carcinoma cells a Rac1b/COX-2-mediated release of reactive oxygen species, which is mandatory for EMT, stemness, and dissemination of metastatic cells. Tumor growth is abolished, and metastasis formation is severely impaired by RNA interfering-mediated targeting of the proinflammatory signature, thereby supporting the therapeutic targeting of the circuitry COX-2/nuclear factor-κB /hypoxia-inducible factor-1 as a valuable antimetastatic tool affecting cancer cell malignancy.

  15. Tissue Factor Induced by Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition Triggers a Procoagulant State That Drives Metastasis of Circulating Tumor Cells.

    PubMed

    Bourcy, Morgane; Suarez-Carmona, Meggy; Lambert, Justine; Francart, Marie-Emilie; Schroeder, Hélène; Delierneux, Céline; Skrypek, Nicolas; Thompson, Erik W; Jérusalem, Guy; Berx, Geert; Thiry, Marc; Blacher, Silvia; Hollier, Brett G; Noël, Agnès; Oury, Cécile; Polette, Myriam; Gilles, Christine

    2016-07-15

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is prominent in circulating tumor cells (CTC), but how it influences metastatic spread in this setting is obscure. Insofar as blood provides a specific microenvironment for tumor cells, we explored a potential link between EMT and coagulation that may provide EMT-positive CTCs with enhanced colonizing properties. Here we report that EMT induces tissue factor (TF), a major cell-associated initiator of coagulation and related procoagulant properties in the blood. TF blockade by antibody or shRNA diminished the procoagulant activity of EMT-positive cells, confirming a functional role for TF in these processes. Silencing the EMT transcription factor ZEB1 inhibited both EMT-associated TF expression and coagulant activity, further strengthening the link between EMT and coagulation. Accordingly, EMT-positive cells exhibited a higher persistance/survival in the lungs of mice colonized after intravenous injection, a feature diminished by TF or ZEB1 silencing. In tumor cells with limited metastatic capability, enforcing expression of the EMT transcription factor Snail increased TF, coagulant properties, and early metastasis. Clinically, we identified a subpopulation of CTC expressing vimentin and TF in the blood of metastatic breast cancer patients consistent with our observations. Overall, our findings define a novel EMT-TF regulatory axis that triggers local activation of coagulation pathways to support metastatic colonization of EMT-positive CTCs. Cancer Res; 76(14); 4270-82. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27221703

  16. A PHD12–Snail2 repressive complex epigenetically mediates neural crest epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition

    PubMed Central

    Strobl-Mazzulla, Pablo H.

    2012-01-01

    Neural crest cells form within the neural tube and then undergo an epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) to initiate migration to distant locations. The transcriptional repressor Snail2 has been implicated in neural crest EMT via an as of yet unknown mechanism. We report that the adaptor protein PHD12 is highly expressed before neural crest EMT. At cranial levels, loss of PHD12 phenocopies Snail2 knockdown, preventing transcriptional shutdown of the adhesion molecule Cad6b (Cadherin6b), thereby inhibiting neural crest emigration. Although not directly binding to each other, PHD12 and Snail2 both directly interact with Sin3A in vivo, which in turn complexes with histone deacetylase (HDAC). Chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed that PHD12 is recruited to the Cad6b promoter during neural crest EMT. Consistent with this, lysines on histone 3 at the Cad6b promoter are hyperacetylated before neural crest emigration, correlating with active transcription, but deacetylated during EMT, reflecting the repressive state. Knockdown of either PHD12 or Snail2 prevents Cad6b promoter deacetylation. Collectively, the results show that PHD12 interacts directly with Sin3A/HDAC, which in turn interacts with Snail2, forming a complex at the Cad6b promoter and thus revealing the nature of the in vivo Snail repressive complex that regulates neural crest EMT. PMID:22986495

  17. Astragalus membranaceus ameliorates renal interstitial fibrosis by inhibiting tubular epithelial-mesenchymal transition in vivo and in vitro

    PubMed Central

    SHAN, GUANG; ZHOU, XIANG-JUN; XIA, YUE; QIAN, HUI-JUN

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) induces the progression of renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis. Astragalus membranaceus (AM) is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine that has been demonstrated to exert anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer effects, in addition to protecting and supporting the immune system. The present study investigated the effects of AM on renal fibrosis. A mouse model of unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) was established and treated with various concentrations of AM (100, 200 or 400 mg/kg/day). Interstitial fibrosis markedly increased in the UUO mice. AM significantly reduced the obstruction-induced upregulation of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and downregulation of E-cadherin in the kidneys of the UUO mice (P<0.05). Furthermore, AM treatment significantly inhibited the induction of EMT and the deposition of extracellular matrix. In addition, a transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1-stimulated murine renal proximal tubule cell line (NRK-52E) was treated with various concentrations of AM (10, 20, and 40 µg/ml). E-cadherin expression levels significantly decreased and those of α-SMA significantly increased in NRK-52E cells stimulated with TGF-β1 in vitro (P<0.05). Co-treatment with AM reversed these effects (P<0.05), and AM treatment reduced TGF-β1-induced expression and Smad2/3 phosphorylation (P<0.05). These results suggested that AM antagonizes tubular EMT by inhibiting the Smad signaling pathway. PMID:27168780

  18. Galangin inhibits cell invasion by suppressing the epithelial-mesenchymal transition and inducing apoptosis in renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    CAO, JINGYI; WANG, HAINAN; CHEN, FEIFEI; FANG, JIANZHENG; XU, AIMING; XI, WEI; ZHANG, SHENGLI; WU, GANG; WANG, ZENGJUN

    2016-01-01

    Galangin, a flavonoid extracted from the root of the Alpinia officinarum Hence, has been shown to have anticancer properties against several types of cancer cells. However, the influence of galangin on human renal cancer cells remains to be elucidated. In the present study, proliferation of 786-0 and Caki-1 cells was suppressed following exposure to various doses of galangin. Cell invasion and wound healing assays were used to observe the effect of galangin on invasion and migration. The results demonstrated that Galangin inhibited cell invasion by suppressing the epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT), with an increase in the expression of E-cadherin and decreased expression levels of N-cadherin and vimentin. The apoptosis induced by galangin was analyzed by flow cytometry. The results revealed that galangin induced apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. The accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is an important contributing factor for the apoptosis of various types of cancer cell. The dichlorofluorescein-diacetate method was used to determine the level of ROS. Galangin induced the accumulation of intracellular ROS and malondialdehyde, and decreased the activities of total antioxidant and superoxide dismutase in renal cell carcinoma cells. Galangin exerted an antiproliferative effect and inhibited renal cell carcinoma invasion by suppressing the EMT. This treatment also induced apoptosis, accompanied by the production of ROS. Therefore, the present data suggested that galangin may have beneficial effects by preventing renal cell carcinoma growth, inhibiting cell invasion via the EMT and inducing cell apoptosis. PMID:27035542

  19. Emerging Transcriptional Mechanisms in the Regulation of Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition and Cellular Plasticity in the Kidney

    PubMed Central

    De Chiara, Letizia; Crean, John

    2016-01-01

    Notwithstanding controversies over the role of epithelial to mesenchymal transition in the pathogenesis of renal disease, the last decade has witnessed a revolution in our understanding of the regulation of renal cell plasticity. Significant parallels undoubtedly exist between ontogenic processes and the initiation and propagation of damage in the diseased kidney as evidenced by the reactivation of developmental programmes of gene expression, in particular with respect to TGFβ superfamily signaling. Indeed, multiple signaling pathways converge on a complex transcriptional regulatory nexus that additionally involves epigenetic activator and repressor mechanisms and microRNA regulatory networks that control renal cell plasticity. It is becoming increasingly apparent that differentiated cells can acquire an undifferentiated state akin to “stemness” which is leading us towards new models of complex cell behaviors and interactions. Here we discuss the latest findings that delineate new and novel interactions between this transcriptional regulatory network and highlight a hitherto poorly recognized role for the Polycomb Repressive Complex (PRC2) in the regulation of renal cell plasticity. A comprehensive understanding of how external stimuli interact with the epigenetic control of gene expression, in normal and diseased contexts, establishes a new therapeutic paradigm to promote the resolution of renal injury and regression of fibrosis. PMID:26771648

  20. MDA-9/Syntenin-Slug transcriptional complex promote epithelial-mesenchymal transition and invasion/metastasis in lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lu-Kai; Pan, Szu-Hua; Chang, Yih-Leong; Hung, Pei-Fang; Kao, Shih-Han; Wang, Wen-Lung; Lin, Ching-Wen; Yang, Shuenn-Chen; Liang, Chen-Hsien; Wu, Chen-Tu; Hsiao, Tzu-Hung; Hong, Tse-Ming; Yang, Pan-Chyr

    2016-01-01

    Melanoma differentiation-associated gene-9 (MDA-9)/Syntenin is a novel therapeutic target because it plays critical roles in cancer progression and exosome biogenesis. Here we show that Slug, a key epithelial-mesenchymal-transition (EMT) regulator, is a MDA-9/Syntenin downstream target. Mitogen EGF stimulation increases Slug expression and MDA-9/Syntenin nuclear translocation. MDA-9/Syntenin uses its PDZ1 domain to bind with Slug, and this interaction further leads to HDAC1 recruitment, up-regulation of Slug transcriptional repressor activity, enhanced Slug-mediated EMT, and promotion of cancer invasion and metastasis. The PDZ domains and nuclear localization of MDA-9/Syntenin are both required for promoting Slug-mediated cancer invasion. Clinically, patients with high MDA-9/Syntenin and high Slug expressions were associated with poor overall survival compared to those with low expression in lung adenocarcinomas. Our findings provide evidence that MDA-9/Syntenin acts as a pivotal adaptor of Slug and it transcriptionally enhances Slug-mediated EMT to promote cancer invasion and metastasis. PMID:26561205

  1. Epithelial–mesenchymal transition during oncogenic transformation induced by hexavalent chromium involves reactive oxygen species-dependent mechanism in lung epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Song-Ze; Yang, Yu-Xiu; Li, Xiu-Ling; Michelli-Rivera, Audrey; Han, Shuang-Yin; Wang, Lei; Pratheeshkumar, Poyil; Wang, Xin; Lu, Jian; Yin, Yuan-Qin; Budhraja, Amit; Hitron, Andrew J.

    2013-05-15

    Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is an important human carcinogen associated with pulmonary diseases and lung cancer. Exposure to Cr(VI) induces DNA damage, cell morphological change and malignant transformation in human lung epithelial cells. Despite extensive studies, the molecular mechanisms remain elusive, it is also not known if Cr(VI)-induced transformation might accompany with invasive properties to facilitate metastasis. We aimed to study Cr(VI)-induced epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) and invasion during oncogenic transformation in lung epithelial cells. The results showed that Cr(VI) at low doses represses E-cadherin mRNA and protein expression, enhances mesenchymal marker vimentin expression and transforms the epithelial cell into fibroblastoid morphology. Cr(VI) also increases cell invasion and promotes colony formation. Further studies indicated that Cr(VI) uses multiple mechanisms to repress E-cadherin expression, including activation of E-cadherin repressors such as Slug, ZEB1, KLF8 and enhancement the binding of HDAC1 in E-cadherin gene promoter, but DNA methylation is not responsible for the loss of E-cadherin. Catalase reduces Cr(VI)-induced E-cadherin and vimentin protein expression, attenuates cell invasion in matrigel and colony formation on soft agar. These results demonstrate that exposure to a common human carcinogen, Cr(VI), induces EMT and invasion during oncogenic transformation in lung epithelial cells and implicate in cancer metastasis and prevention. - Graphical abstract: Epithelial–mesenchymal transition during oncogenic transformation induced by hexavalent chromium involves reactive oxygen species-dependent mechanisms in lung epithelial cells. - Highlights: • We study if Cr(VI) might induce EMT and invasion in epithelial cells. • Cr(VI) induces EMT by altering E-cadherin and vimentin expression. • It also increases cell invasion and promotes oncogenic transformation. • Catalase reduces Cr(VI)-induced EMT, invasion and

  2. Mesenchymal-Epithelial Transition in Sarcomas Is Controlled by the Combinatorial Expression of MicroRNA 200s and GRHL2.

    PubMed

    Somarelli, Jason A; Shetler, Samantha; Jolly, Mohit K; Wang, Xueyang; Bartholf Dewitt, Suzanne; Hish, Alexander J; Gilja, Shivee; Eward, William C; Ware, Kathryn E; Levine, Herbert; Armstrong, Andrew J; Garcia-Blanco, Mariano A

    2016-10-01

    Phenotypic plasticity involves a process in which cells transiently acquire phenotypic traits of another lineage. Two commonly studied types of phenotypic plasticity are epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET). In carcinomas, EMT drives invasion and metastatic dissemination, while MET is proposed to play a role in metastatic colonization. Phenotypic plasticity in sarcomas is not well studied; however, there is evidence that a subset of sarcomas undergo an MET-like phenomenon. While the exact mechanisms by which these transitions occur remain largely unknown, it is likely that some of the same master regulators that drive EMT and MET in carcinomas also act in sarcomas. In this study, we combined mathematical models with bench experiments to identify a core regulatory circuit that controls MET in sarcomas. This circuit comprises the microRNA 200 (miR-200) family, ZEB1, and GRHL2. Interestingly, combined expression of miR-200s and GRHL2 further upregulates epithelial genes to induce MET. This effect is phenocopied by downregulation of either ZEB1 or the ZEB1 cofactor, BRG1. In addition, an MET gene expression signature is prognostic for improved overall survival in sarcoma patients. Together, our results suggest that a miR-200, ZEB1, GRHL2 gene regulatory network may drive sarcoma cells to a more epithelial-like state and that this likely has prognostic relevance. PMID:27402864

  3. Real-time imaging of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition using microRNA-200a sequence-based molecular beacon-conjugated magnetic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Choi, YoonSeok; Kim, Hoe Suk; Woo, Jisu; Hwang, Eun Hye; Cho, Kyoung-Won; Kim, Soonhag; Moon, Woo Kyung

    2014-01-01

    The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays important roles in tumor progression to metastasis. Thus, the development of an imaging probe that can monitor transient periods of the EMT process in live cells is required for a better understanding of metastatic process. Inspired by the fact that the mRNA expression levels of zinc finger E-box-binding homeobox 1 (ZEB1) increase when cells adopt mesenchyme characteristics and that microRNA-200a (miR-200a) can bind to ZEB1 mRNA, we conjugated molecular beacon (MB) mimicking mature miR-200a to magnetic nanoparticles (miR-200a-MB-MNPs) and devised an imaging method to observe transitional changes in the cells during EMT. Transforming growth factor-β1 treated epithelial cells and breast cancer cell lines representing both epithelial and mesenchymal phenotypes were used for the validation of miR-200a-MB-MNPs as an EMT imaging probe. The real-time imaging of live cells acquired with the induction of EMT revealed an increase in fluorescence signals by miR-200a-MB-MNPs, cell morphology alterations, and the loss of cell-cell adhesion. Our results suggest that miR-200a-MB-MNPs can be used as an imaging probe for the real-time monitoring of the EMT process in live cells.

  4. αB-crystallin is essential for the TGF-β2-mediated epithelial to mesenchymal transition of lens epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Nahomi, Rooban B; Pantcheva, Mina B; Nagaraj, Ram H

    2016-05-15

    Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β2-mediated pathways play a major role in the epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) of lens epithelial cells (LECs) during secondary cataract formation, which is also known as posterior capsule opacification (PCO). Although αB-crystallin is a major protein in LEC, its role in the EMT remains unknown. In a human LEC line (FHL124), TGF-β2 treatment resulted in changes in the EMT-associated proteins at the mRNA and protein levels. This was associated with nuclear localization of αB-crystallin, phosphorylated Smad2 (pSmad2) (S245/250/255), pSmad3 (S423/425), Smad4 and Snail and the binding of αB-crystallin to these transcription factors, all of which were reduced by the down-regulation of αB-crystallin. Expression of the functionally defective R120G mutant of αB-crystallin reduced TGF-β2-induced EMT in LECs of αB-crystallin knockout (KO) mice. Treatment of bovine lens epithelial explants and mouse LEC with TGF-β2 resulted in changes in the EMT-associated proteins at the mRNA and protein levels. This was accompanied by increase in phosphorylation of p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) (T202/Y204), p38 MAPK (T180/Y182), protein kinase B (Akt) (S473) and Smad2 when compared with untreated cells. These changes were significantly reduced in αB-crystallin depleted or knocked out LEC. The removal of the fibre cell mass from the lens of wild-type (WT) mice resulted in the up-regulation of EMT-associated genes in the capsule-adherent epithelial cells, which was reduced in the αB-crystallin KO mice. Together, our data show that αB-crystallin plays a central role in the TGF-β2-induced EMT of LEC. αB-Crystallin could be targeted to prevent PCO and pathological fibrosis in other tissues. PMID:26987815

  5. αB-crystallin is essential for the TGF-β2-mediated epithelial to mesenchymal transition of lens epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Nahomi, Rooban B.; Pantcheva, Mina B.; Nagaraj, Ram H.

    2016-01-01

    Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β2-mediated pathways play a major role in the epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) of lens epithelial cells (LECs) during secondary cataract formation, which is also known as posterior capsule opacification (PCO). Although αB-crystallin is a major protein in LEC, its role in the EMT remains unknown. In a human LEC line (FHL124), TGF-β2 treatment resulted in changes in the EMT-associated proteins at the mRNA and protein levels. This was associated with nuclear localization of αB-crystallin, phosphorylated Smad2 (pSmad2) (S245/250/255), pSmad3 (S423/425), Smad4 and Snail and the binding of αB-crystallin to these transcription factors, all of which were reduced by the down-regulation of αB-crystallin. Expression of the functionally defective R120G mutant of αB-crystallin reduced TGF-β2-induced EMT in LECs of αB-crystallin knockout (KO) mice. Treatment of bovine lens epithelial explants and mouse LEC with TGF-β2 resulted in changes in the EMT-associated proteins at the mRNA and protein levels. This was accompanied by increase in phosphorylation of p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) (T202/Y204), p38 MAPK (T180/Y182), protein kinase B (Akt) (S473) and Smad2 when compared with untreated cells. These changes were significantly reduced in αB-crystallin depleted or knocked out LEC. The removal of the fibre cell mass from the lens of wild-type (WT) mice resulted in the up-regulation of EMT-associated genes in the capsule-adherent epithelial cells, which was reduced in the αB-crystallin KO mice. Together, our data show that αB-crystallin plays a central role in the TGF-β2-induced EMT of LEC. αB-Crystallin could be targeted to prevent PCO and pathological fibrosis in other tissues. PMID:26987815

  6. Paeoniflorin suppresses TGF-β mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition in pulmonary fibrosis through a Smad-dependent pathway

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Yu; Dou, Yan-nong; Zhao, Qian-wen; Zhang, Ji-zhou; Yang, Yan; Wang, Ting; Xia, Yu-feng; Dai, Yue; Wei, Zhi-feng

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Paeoniflorin has shown to attenuate bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis (PF) in mice. Because the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in type 2 lung endothelial cells contributes to excessive fibroblasts and myofibroblasts during multiple fibrosis of tissues, we investigated the effects of paeoniflorin on TGF-β mediated pulmonary EMT in bleomycin-induced PF mice. Methods: PF was induced in mice by intratracheal instillation of bleomycin (5 mg/kg). The mice were orally treated with paeoniflorin or prednisone for 21 d. After the mice were sacrificed, lung tissues were collected for analysis. An in vitro EMT model was established in alveolar epithelial cells (A549 cells) incubated with TGF-β1 (2 ng/mL). EMT identification and the expression of related proteins were performed using immunohistochemistry, transwell assay, ELISA, Western blot and RT-qPCR. Results: In PF mice, paeoniflorin (50, 100 mg·kg−1·d−1) or prednisone (6 mg·kg−1·d−1) significantly decreased the expression of FSP-1 and α-SMA, and increased the expression of E-cadherin in lung tissues. In A549 cells, TGF-β1 stimulation induced EMT, as shown by the changes in cell morphology, the increased cell migration, and the increased vimentin and α-SMA expression as well as type I and type III collagen levels, and by the decreased E-cadherin expression. In contrast, effects of paeoniflorin on EMT disappeared when the A549 cells were pretreated with TGF-β1 for 24 h. TGF-β1 stimulation markedly increased the expression of Snail and activated Smad2/3, Akt, ERK, JNK and p38 MAPK in A549 cells. Co-incubation with paeoniflorin (1–30 μmol/L) dose-dependently attenuated TGF-β1-induced expression of Snail and activation of Smad2/3, but slightly affected TGF-β1-induced activation of Akt, ERK, JNK and p38 MAPK. Moreover, paeoniflorin markedly increased Smad7 level, and decreased ALK5 level in A549 cells. Conclusion: Paeoniflorin suppresses the early stages of TGF-β mediated EMT in alveolar

  7. Prostate-derived ets factor represses tumorigenesis and modulates epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in bladder carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Tsui, Ke-Hung; Lin, Yu-Hsiang; Chung, Li-Chuan; Chuang, Sung-Ting; Feng, Tsui-Hsia; Chiang, Kun-Chun; Chang, Phei-Lang; Yeh, Chi-Ju; Juang, Horng-Heng

    2016-05-28

    Prostate-derived Ets (E-twenty six) factor (PDEF), an epithelium-specific member of the Ets family of transcription factors, has been shown to play a role in suppressing the development of many epithelium-derived cancers such as prostate and breast cancer. It is not clear, however, whether PDEF is involved in the development or progression of bladder cancer. In a comparison between normal urothelium and bladder tumor tissue, we identified significant decreases of PDEF in the tumor tissue. Further, the immunohistochemistry assays indicated a significantly higher immunostaining of PDEF in low-grade bladder tumors. Additionally, the highly differentiated transitional-cell bladder carcinoma RT-4 cells expressed significantly more PDEF levels than the bladder carcinoma HT1376 and the T24 cells. Ectopic overexpression of PDEF attenuated proliferation, invasion, and tumorigenesis of bladder carcinoma cells in vitro and in vivo. PDEF enhanced the expression levels of mammary serine protease inhibitor (MASPIN), N-myc downstream regulated gene 1 (NDRG1), KAI1, and B-cell translocation gene 2 (BTG2). PDEF modulated epithelial-mesenchymal-transition (EMT) by upregulating E-cadherin expression and downregulating the expression of N-cadherin, SNAIL, SLUG, and vimentin, leading to lower migration and invasion abilities of bladder carcinoma cells. Filamentous actin (F-actin) polarization and remodeling were observed in PDEF-knockdown RT-4 cells. Our results suggest that PDEF gene expression is associated with the extent of bladder neoplasia and PDEF modulated the expressions of EMT-related genes. The induction of BTG2, NDRG1, MASPIN, and KAI1 gene expressions by PDEF may explain the inhibitory functions of PDEF on the proliferation, invasion, and tumorigenesis in bladder carcinoma cells.

  8. Effects of transforming growth factor β2 and connective tissue growth factor on induction of epithelial mesenchymal transition and extracellular matrix synthesis in human lens epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Pei, Cheng; Ma, Bo; Kang, Qian-Yan; Qin, Li; Cui, Li-Jun

    2013-01-01

    AIM To investigate the effects of transforming growth factor β2 (TGF-β2) and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) on transdifferentiation of human lens epithelial cells (HLECs) cultured in vitro and synthesis of extracellular matrix (ECM). METHODS HLECs were treated with TGF-β2 (0, 0.5, 1.0, 5, 10µg/L) and CTGF (0, 15, 30, 60, 100µg/L) for different times (0, 24, 48, 72h) in vitro and the expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), the main component of the extracellular matrix type I collagen (Col-1) and fibronectin (Fn) were measured by using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and western-blot. RESULTS TGF-β2 and CTGF significantly increased expression of α-SMA mRNA and protein (P<0.05, P<0.001), Fn mRNA and protein (P<0.001), Col-1 mRNA and protein (P<0.001). TGF-β2 could induce HLECs expression of CTGF mRNA and protein in dose-dependent manner (P<0.05, P<0.001). TGF-β2 and CTGF could induce HLECs to express α-SMA, Fn and Col-1 in time-dependent manner. Each time of TGF-β2 and CTGF induced HELCs expression of α-SMA, Fn, Col-1 mRNA and protein was significant increase compared with control (P<0.05, P<0.001). CONCLUSION TGF-β2 and CTGF could induce HLECs epithelial mesenchymal transition and ECM synthesis. PMID:24392320

  9. The role of CD29-ILK-Akt signaling-mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition of liver epithelial cells and chemoresistance and radioresistance in hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xiaorong; Wang, Jingxia; Zhang, Kaili; Tang, Siyuan; Ren, Caiping; Chen, Yuxiang

    2015-05-01

    Hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC) are aggressive cancers, and the prognosis of HCC patients is poor. This study investigated the roles of CD29 in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and chemoresistance and radioresistance in HCC tumors. CD29 expression in HCC and peritumoral tissues was measured by immunohistochemistry. CD29 overexpression was established by an adenovirus-carrying CD29 gene expression cassette, while silencing of CD29 expression was established by an adenovirus-carrying shRNA. Western blot was used to measure protein expression, and MTT was used to analyze cell viability. Xenograft HCC mouse model was established by inoculating isolated CD29(+) and CD29(-) HCC tumor cells. Significantly higher percentage of positive CD29 expression was observed in HCC tissues compared to peritumoral tissues. Xenograft CD29(+) tumors grew more quickly than CD29(-) tumors. CD29(+) tumors were more resistant to radiotherapy and cisplatin therapy than CD29(-) tumors. Overexpression of CD29 significantly increased the resistance of CD29(-) tumors to radiation and cisplatin treatment. In contrast, silencing of CD29 expression significantly sensitized CD29(+) tumors to irradiation and cisplatin treatment. Overexpression of CD29 decreased E-cadherin, but increased fibronectin, vimentin, ILK activity, Akt Ser(473) phosphorylation, and mTORC1 protein expression in Hep G2 and THLE-3 cells. Moreover, overexpression of CD29 significantly increased the resistance of Hep G2 and THLE-3 cells to starvation, radiation, and cisplatin treatments. This study suggests that CD29 plays a crucial role in the resistance of HCC to chemo/radiotherapy and EMT of liver epithelial cells.

  10. Inhibition of hypoxia inducible factor-1α downregulates the expression of epithelial to mesenchymal transition early marker proteins without undermining cell survival in hypoxic lens epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Neelam, Sudha; Brooks, Morgan M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to identify potential therapeutic strategies to slow down or prevent the expression of early-onset epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) marker proteins (fibronectin and alpha smooth muscle actin, α-SMA) without sacrificing the synthesis and accumulation of the prosurvival protein vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in cultured virally transformed human lens epithelial (HLE) cells. Methods HLE-B3 cells, maintained in a continuous hypoxic environment (1% oxygen), were treated with SB216763, a specific inhibitor of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) catalytic activity. Western blot analysis was employed to detect the cytoplasmic and nuclear levels of β-catenin, as well as the total lysate content of fibronectin and α-SMA. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to measure the levels of VEGF in cell culture medium. A hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) translation inhibitor and an HIF-2α translation inhibitor were independently employed to evaluate the effect of hypoxia inducible factor inhibition on EMT marker protein and VEGF expression. XAV932 was used to assess the suppression of nuclear β-catenin and its downstream effect on EMT marker proteins and VEGF expression. Results SB216763-treated HLE-B3 cells caused marked inhibition of GSK-3β activity prompting a significant increase in the translocation of cytoplasmic β-catenin to the nucleus. The enhancement of nuclear β-catenin looked as if it positively correlated with a significant increase in the basal expression of VEGF as well as increased expression of fibronectin and α-SMA. In conjunction with SB216763, coadministration of an HIF-1α translation inhibitor, but not an HIF-2α translation inhibitor, markedly suppressed the expression of fibronectin and α-SMA without affecting VEGF levels. Treatment with XAV932 significantly reduced the level of nuclear β-catenin, but the levels of neither the EMT marker proteins nor VEGF were changed

  11. Helicobacter pylori CagA and IL-1β Promote the Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition in a Nontransformed Epithelial Cell Model

    PubMed Central

    Arévalo-Romero, Haruki; Meza, Isaura; Vallejo-Flores, Gabriela

    2016-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the third cause of cancer death worldwide and infection by Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is considered the most important risk factor, mainly by the activity of its virulence factor CagA. H. pylori/CagA-induced chronic inflammation triggers a series of gastric lesions of increased severity, starting with gastritis and ending with cancer. IL-1β has been associated with tumor development and invasiveness in different types of cancer, including gastric cancer. Currently, it is not clear if there is an association between CagA and IL-1β at a cellular level. In this study, we analyzed the effects of IL-1β and CagA on MCF-10A nontransformed cells. We found evidence that both CagA and IL-1β trigger the initiation of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition characterized by β-catenin nuclear translocation, increased expression of Snail1 and ZEB1, downregulation of CDH1, and morphological changes during MCF-10A acini formation. However, only CagA induced MMP9 activity and cell invasion. Our data support that IL-1β and CagA target the β-catenin pathway, with CagA leading to acquisition of a stage related to aggressive tumors. PMID:27525003

  12. Helicobacter pylori CagA and IL-1β Promote the Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition in a Nontransformed Epithelial Cell Model.

    PubMed

    Arévalo-Romero, Haruki; Meza, Isaura; Vallejo-Flores, Gabriela; Fuentes-Pananá, Ezequiel M

    2016-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the third cause of cancer death worldwide and infection by Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is considered the most important risk factor, mainly by the activity of its virulence factor CagA. H. pylori/CagA-induced chronic inflammation triggers a series of gastric lesions of increased severity, starting with gastritis and ending with cancer. IL-1β has been associated with tumor development and invasiveness in different types of cancer, including gastric cancer. Currently, it is not clear if there is an association between CagA and IL-1β at a cellular level. In this study, we analyzed the effects of IL-1β and CagA on MCF-10A nontransformed cells. We found evidence that both CagA and IL-1β trigger the initiation of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition characterized by β-catenin nuclear translocation, increased expression of Snail1 and ZEB1, downregulation of CDH1, and morphological changes during MCF-10A acini formation. However, only CagA induced MMP9 activity and cell invasion. Our data support that IL-1β and CagA target the β-catenin pathway, with CagA leading to acquisition of a stage related to aggressive tumors. PMID:27525003

  13. Phloroglucinol suppresses metastatic ability of breast cancer cells by inhibition of epithelial-mesenchymal cell transition.

    PubMed

    Kim, Rae-Kwon; Suh, Yongjoon; Yoo, Ki-Chun; Cui, Yan-Hong; Hwang, Eunji; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Kang, Ju-Seop; Kim, Min-Jung; Lee, Young Yiul; Lee, Su-Jae

    2015-01-01

    Metastasis is a challenging clinical problem and the primary cause of death in breast cancer patients. However, there is no therapeutic agent against metastasis of breast cancer cells. Here we report that phloroglucinol, a natural phlorotannin component of brown algae suppresses metastatic ability of breast cancer cells. Treatment with phloroglucinol effectively inhibited mesenchymal phenotypes of basal type breast cancer cells through downregulation of SLUG without causing a cytotoxic effect. Importantly, phloroglucinol decreased SLUG through inhibition of PI3K/AKT and RAS/RAF-1/ERK signaling. In agreement with in vitro data, phloroglucinol was also effective against in vivo metastasis of breast cancer cells, drastically suppressing their metastatic ability to lungs, and extending the survival time of mice. Collectively, our findings demonstrate a novel anticancer activity of phloroglucinol against metastasis of breast cancer cells, implicating its clinical relevance. PMID:25456733

  14. Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition and Migration of Prostate Cancer Stem Cells Is Driven by Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts in an HIF-1α/β-Catenin-Dependent Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yong; Lan, Ling; Jiang, Yong-Guang; Zhao, Jia-Hui; Li, Ming-Chuan; Wei, Neng-Bao; Lin, Yun-Hua

    2013-01-01

    Although cancer stem cells (CSCs) play a crucial role in seeding the initiation of tumor progression, they do not always possess the same potent ability as tumor metastasis. Thus, precisely how migrating CSCs occur, still remains unclear. In the present study, we first comparatively analyzed a series of prostate CSCs, which exhibited a dynamically increasing and disseminating ability in nude mice. We observed that the transcriptional activity of HIF-1α and β-catenin became gradually elevated in these stem cells and their epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) characteristic altered from an epithelial type to a mesenchymal type. Next, we further used cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), which were cultured from surgically resected tissues of prostate cancer (PCa) to stimulate prostate CSCs. Similar results were reconfirmed and showed that the protein levels of both HIF-1α and β-catenin were markedly improved. In addition, the EMT phenotype displayed a homogenous mesenchymal type, accompanied with increased aggressive potency in vitro. Most importantly, the aforementioned promoting effect of CAFs on prostate CSCs was completely repressed after “silencing” the activity of β-catenin by transfection of stem cells with ShRNA. Taken together, our observations suggest that prostate migrating CSCs, with a mesenchymal phenotype, could be triggered by CAFs in a HIF-1α/β-catenin-dependent signaling pathway. PMID:23839513

  15. miR-141 regulates TGF-β1-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition through repression of HIPK2 expression in renal tubular epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    HUANG, YUANHANG; TONG, JUNRONG; HE, FENG; YU, XINPEI; FAN, LIMING; HU, JING; TAN, JIANGPING; CHEN, ZHENGLIANG

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays a critical role in embryonic development, wound healing, tissue regeneration, cancer progression and organ fibrosis. The proximal tubular epithelial cells undergo EMT, resulting in matrix-producing fibroblasts and thereby contribute to the pathogenesis of renal fibrosis. The profibrotic cytokine, TGF-β, is now recognized as the main pathogenic driver that has been shown to induce EMT in tubular epithelial cells. Increasing evidence indicate that HIPK2 dysfunction may play a role in fibroblasts behavior, and therefore, HIPK2 may be considered as a novel potential target for anti-fibrosis therapy. Recently, members of the miR-200 family (miR-200a, b and c and miR-141) have been shown to inhibit EMT. However, the steps of the multifactorial renal fibrosis progression that these miRNAs regulate, particularly miR-141, are unclear. To study the functional importance of miR-141 in EMT, a well-established in vitro EMT assay was used to demonstrate renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis; transforming growth factor-β1-induced EMT in HK-2 cells. Overexpression of miR-141 in HK-2 cells, either with or without TGF-β1 treatment, hindered EMT by enhancing E-cadherin and decreasing vimentin and fibroblast-specific protein 1 expression. miR-141 expression was repressed during EMT in a dose- and time-dependent manner through upregulation of HIPK2 expression. Ectopic expression of HIPK2 promoted EMT by decreasing E-cadherin. Furthermore, co-transfection of miR-141 with the HIPK2 ORF clone partially inhibited EMT by restoring E-cadherin expression. miR-141 downregulated the expression of HIPK2 via direct interaction with the 3′-untranslated region of HIPK2. Taken together, these findings aid in the understanding of the role and mechanism of miR-141 in regulating renal fibrosis via the TGF-β1/miR-141/HIPK2/EMT axis, and miR-141 may represent novel biomarkers and therapeutic targets in the treatment of renal fibrosis. PMID:25421593

  16. Geraniin inhibits TGF-β1-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition and suppresses A549 lung cancer migration, invasion and anoikis resistance.

    PubMed

    Ko, Hyeonseok

    2015-09-01

    The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is an important cellular process during which epithelial polarized cells become motile mesenchymal-appeared cells, which, in turn, induces the metastatic of cancer. Geraniin is a polyphenolic component isolated from Phyllanthus amarus, which exhibits a wide range of pharmacological and physiological activities, such as antitumor, anti-hyperglycemic, anti-hypertensive, antimicrobial, and antiviral activities. However, the possible role of geraniin in the EMT is unclear. We investigated the effect of geraniin on the EMT. Transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1) induces the EMT to promote lung adenocarcinoma migration, invasion, and anoikis resistance. To understand the suppressive role of geraniin in lung cancer migration, invasion, and anoikis resistance, we investigated the use of geraniin as inhibitors of TGF-β1-induced EMT in A549 lung cancer cells in vitro. Here, we show that geraniin remarkably increased expression of the epithelial marker E-cadherin and repressed Snail upregulation and expression of the mesenchymal marker N-cadherin and vimentin during the TGF-β1-induced EMT. Geraniin also inhibited the TGF-β1-induced increase in cell migration, invasion, and anoikis resistance of A549 lung cancer cells. Additionally, geraniin markedly inhibited TGF-β1-regulated activation of Smad2. Taken together, our findings provide new evidence that geraniin suppresses lung cancer migration, invasion, and anoikis resistance in vitro by inhibiting the TGF-β1-induced EMT.

  17. FGF1-FGFR1 axis promotes tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC) metastasis through epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT).

    PubMed

    Jiao, Jiuyang; Zhao, Xiaopeng; Liang, Yancan; Tang, Dongxiao; Pan, Chaobin

    2015-10-23

    Increasing evidences suggest a close association between tumor metastasis and the inflammatory factors secreted by tumor microenvironment. It has been reported that epithelial mesenchymal-transition (EMT) plays a significant role during multiple types of tumor metastasis and progression induced by inflammatory factor from tumor microenvironment. Previous researches implied that fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF1) can promote tumor progression and cause poor prognosis in several types of malignant tumors via interacting with its receptor fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1). However, the effects of FGF1-FGFR1 on tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC) are not yet completely understood. In the present study, we evaluated the effects and function of FGF1-FGFR1 axis on TSCC metastasis. In addition, we investigated whether the EMT pathway is involved in these effects, thus modulating the TSCC progression. The expression of FGFR1 was measured both in tongue cancer cell lines and tissues by qRT-PCR and western blot. We found that FGFR1 was up-regulated in TSCC tissues compared to non-neoplastic tongue tissues. Additionally, overexpression of FGFR1 is positively associated with poor differentiation and metastasis potential. Furthermore, the function of FGF1-FGFR1 was examined in TSCC cell line. The results implied that FGF1 can obviously promote Cal27 cells migration and invasion abilities through FGFR1, while the motile and invasive capabilities can be severely attenuated when knockdown the expression of FGFR1 by specific siRNAs. Further investigation results show that FGF1-FGFR1 axis promotes TSCC metastasis by modulating EMT pathway. However, this effect can be inhibited by blocking the FGF1-FGFR1 axis using FGFR1 specific siRNAs. In conclusion, our findings of the present study provide the evidences that FGF1-FGFR1 axis promotes the TSCC metastasis through the EMT pathway. PMID:26362179

  18. GSTA3 Attenuates Renal Interstitial Fibrosis by Inhibiting TGF-Beta-Induced Tubular Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition and Fibronectin Expression

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Yun; Liu, Jishi; Peng, Yu; Xiong, Xuan; Huang, Ling; Yang, Huixiang; Zhang, Jian; Tao, Lijian

    2016-01-01

    Tubular epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been widely accepted as the underlying mechanisms of renal interstitial fibrosis (RIF). The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) plays a vital role in tubular EMT process. The purpose of this study was to investigate the involved molecular mechanisms in TGF-beta-induced EMT and identify the potential role of glutathione S-transferase alpha 3 (GSTA3) in this process. The iTRAQ screening was performed to identify protein alterations of the rats underwent unilateral-ureteral obstruction (UUO). Protein expression of GSTA3 in patients with obstructive nephropathy and UUO rats was detected by immunohistochemistry. Protein and mRNA expression of GSTA3 in UUO rats and NRK-52E cells were determined by Western blot and RT-PCR. siRNA and overexpression plasmid were transfected specifically to assess the role of GSTA3 in RIF. The generation of ROS was measured by dichlorofluorescein fluorescence analysis. GSTA3 protein and mRNA expression was significantly reduced in UUO rats. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that GSTA3 expression was reduced in renal cortex in UUO rats and patients with obstructive nephropathy. Treating with TGF-β1 down-regulated GSTA3 expression in NRK-52E cells, which have been found to be correlated with the decreased expression in E-cadherin and megalin and increased expression in α-smooth muscle actin. Furthermore, knocking down GSTA3 in NRK-52 cells led to increased production of ROS and tubular EMT, whereas overexpressing GSTA3 ameliorated ROS production and prevented the occurrence of tubular EMT. GSTA3 plays a